Science.gov

Sample records for anhydrit alstom bowl

  1. Basketball Bowling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabile, Chris; Cooper, Michael; Petrie, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Basketball bowling was developed after students in the authors' physical education class participated in a bowling unit sponsored through Bowl America. Basketball bowling is a lead-up activity for elementary-age students that incorporates basic skills from basketball and bowling. The general object of this activity is to be the first team to roll…

  2. Mars Bowling

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 140 fourth and fifth graders from Kraft Elementary School in Hampton learned how Newton's laws of motion apply to bowling and the Mars Curiosity rover during "The Science of Bowling," an ...

  3. Partially decentralized control for ALSTOM gasifier.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen; Lou, Guannan; Liang, Luping

    2011-07-01

    The gasifier plays a key role in the operation of the whole IGCC power plant. It is a typical multivariable control system with strict constraints on the inputs and outputs which makes it very difficult to control. This paper presents a partially decentralized controller design method based on the stabilizer idea. The method only requires identifying some closed-loop transfer functions and solving an H(∞) optimization problem. The final partially decentralized controller is easy to implement and test in practice. Two partially decentralized controllers are designed for the ALSTOM gasifier benchmark problem, and simulation results show that they both meet the design specifications.

  4. Bowls for the Hungry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Nate

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how to make soup bowls as a class project. The slab method is used to construct the soup bowls, but bowls could just as easily be made on the potter's wheel for advanced students, using the pinch method with beginners, or with the coil method for intermediate students. Found objects from around a garage or…

  5. The Tibetan singing bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John; Terwagne, Denis

    2010-11-01

    Tibetan singing bowls have been used for centuries for healing, meditation and shamanic journeying. The bowls are partially filled with water, then excited by either striking or rubbing the walls of the bowl with a mallet. A wealth of curious fluid mechanical phenomena arise, and will be elucidated in our combined experimental and theoretical investigation.

  6. From Birdbaths to Bowls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitbauer, George J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students worked together in teams of two in order to create lightweight, primitive-looking bowls. States that after researching a cultural motif, students decorate each bowl individually using acrylics. Includes a list of supplies and describes the process in detail. (CMK)

  7. [The pewter bleeding bowls].

    PubMed

    Renner, Claude

    2004-01-01

    In the late seventeenth century, then along the eighteen and nineteenth centuries the amount of the bloodlettings was measured by means of three pewter bleeding bowls that held three ounces of blood, about 300 millilitres. In the middle of the nineteenth century new and large bleeding bowls with metric graduations were manufactured only by the Parisian potters.

  8. Double bowl piston

    DOEpatents

    Meffert, Darrel Henry; Urven, Jr., Roger Leroy; Brown, Cory Andrew; Runge, Mark Harold

    2007-03-06

    A piston for an internal combustion engine is disclosed. The piston has a piston crown with a face having an interior annular edge. The piston also has first piston bowl recessed within the face of the piston crown. The first piston bowl has a bottom surface and an outer wall. A line extending from the interior annular edge of the face and tangent with the outer wall forms an interior angle greater than 90 degrees with the face of the piston. The piston also has a second piston bowl that is centrally located and has an upper edge located below a face of the piston crown.

  9. EasyBowling: a virtual bowling system for small space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhigeng; Huang, Jin; Xu, Weiwei; Zhou, Kun; Shi, Jiaoying

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we describe a virtual bowling game machine called EasyBowling Machine, which is designed and implemented based on techniques such as Virtual Reality, animation, and image processing. To introduce Virtual Reality technique into this virtual bowling game, our system provides a real game mode: players play the game by throwing a real bowling ball, and then the EasyBowling system uses a PC Camera to detect the motion of the real bowling ball. After the motion parameters (ball direction, ball force, et al.) are computed, the movement of the bowling ball and its collision with pins are simulated on a large display screen. The most obvious advantage of such bowling game machine over other existing bowling games is that the system integrates body exercise into game playing. The implementation techniques are discussed in detail, and the prototype system illustrates the feasibility and efficiency of our method.

  10. Anhydrite solubility in differentiated arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masotta, M.; Keppler, H.

    2015-06-01

    The solubility of anhydrite in differentiated arc magmas was experimentally studied at 200 MPa and 800-1000 °C over a range of oxygen fugacities, from 0.5 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer to the hematite-magnetite buffer. Anhydrite is stable only at oxidizing conditions (fO2 ⩾ Re-ReO2), whereas sulfides only form under reducing conditions. The solubility of anhydrite in the melt ultimately regulates the amount of sulfur available to partition between melt and fluid phase during the eruption. At oxidizing conditions, the solubility product of anhydrite increases with temperature, nbo/t and melt water content. We provide a new calibration of the anhydrite solubility product (KSP = XCaO * XSO3), which reproduces all available experimental data with greatly improved accuracy: In this equation, the molar fractions XCaO and XSO3 in the melt as well as the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms per tetrahedron (nbo/t) are calculated on an anhydrous basis (H2O refers to the melt water content, T is temperature in Kelvin). We apply our model to estimate the sulfur yield of some recent volcanic eruptions and we show that the sulfur yield of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo dacite eruption was unusually large, because only a small fraction of the sulfur was locked up in anhydrite. In general, high sulfur yields are expected when anhydrite solubility in the melt is high, i.e. for somewhat depolymerized melts. For rhyolitic systems, most of the available sulfur will be locked up in anhydrite, so that even very large eruptions may only have a small effect on global surface temperatures. Our model therefore allows improved predictions of the environmental impact of explosive volcanic eruptions.

  11. Tibetan singing bowls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwagne, Denis; Bush, John W. M.

    2011-08-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls. Their acoustic behaviour is rationalized in terms of the related dynamics of standing bells and wine glasses. Striking or rubbing a fluid-filled bowl excites wall vibrations, and concomitant waves at the fluid surface. Acoustic excitation of the bowl's natural vibrational modes allows for a controlled study in which the evolution of the surface waves with increasing forcing amplitude is detailed. Particular attention is given to rationalizing the observed criteria for the onset of edge-induced Faraday waves and droplet generation via surface fracture. Our study indicates that drops may be levitated on the fluid surface, induced to bounce on or skip across the vibrating fluid surface.

  12. Crazy Patchwork Clay Bowl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Crazy patchwork quilts, which inspired this bowl, are as American as apple pie. In 1876, the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition opened and the American society fell instantly in love with Japanese ceramics and asymmetrical art. Victorian ladies incorporated the idea of asymmetrical design into their quilts, which became known as crazy quilts. The…

  13. Bowling: Entertainment for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    Of all American pastimes, bowling is one of the easiest to pursue. Just show up at the neighborhood bowling center, rent the required shoes, use the balls provided, and pay a reasonable fee to bowl as many games as one likes. The game itself--rolling a ball down a long wooden lane to strike club-shaped pins--appeals to all ages and is within the…

  14. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO{sub 2} into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results.

  15. An Experiment with Saxon Bowls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Allan; Kincanon, Eric

    2000-01-01

    According to historical stories, the Saxons placed a bowl with a hole in its bottom in water and used the time it took the bowl to submerge to limit orations. Describes a science activity in which students find a relationship between the diameter of the hole and the time to submergence. (WRM)

  16. The Bowling Pin Pal Reunion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Michele Heide

    2007-01-01

    Seeing different retrospectives, which show the progression of works by an artist during their lifetime, inspired the author to organize a retrospective showcasing a progression of student works. In November of 2005, the author and her visual art colleagues celebrated the first Bowling Pin Pal Reunion. For 30 years, the bowling pin pals have been…

  17. An experiment with Saxon bowls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Allan; Kincanon, Eric

    2000-02-01

    To introduce our first-semester physics students to some basic analytic methods, we integrate a bit of history and a unique timing device into our lab. The story is that the Saxons placed a bowl with a hole in its bottom in water and used the time it took the bowl to submerge to limit orations. (A famous Greek prostitute also used such bowls to allocate her customer's time, an example we do not use in class.) We have our students find a relationship between the diameter of the hole and the time till submergence. Though the original Saxon bowls varied both in hole size and bowl size, for simplicity we vary only the size of the hole.

  18. Time-development of sulphate hydration in anhydritic swelling rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafeimidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Anhydritic claystones are among the most problematic rocks in tunnelling due to their distinctive swelling properties. They consist of a clay matrix with distributed anhydrite particles, veins and layers and have caused severe damage to numerous tunnels excavated in the Gypsum Keuper formation in North-Western Switzerland and South-Western Germany. The swelling of anhydritic claystones which is mainly attributed to the transformation of anhydrite into gypsum (a chemical process which leads to an increase in the solids of 61 percent), is a markedly time-dependent process. It may take several decades to complete in nature and is therefore important for the design particularly of the final tunnel lining. Anhydrite occurs either in the form of particles or of layers and veins of different thicknesses and spacings. The particles may have an approximately spherical or rather prismatic form, while their size lies within a wide range (from few micrometer to few centimeter). The shape and size of the anhydrite particles and layers are important for the specific surface of anhydrite and thus for the evolution of its hydration over time. In the present contribution we focus on the kinetics of the chemical reactions in sulphatic rocks, limiting ourselves to closed systems, i.e. without investigating the effects of seepage flow and diffusive transport, which may also be important. In order to achieve this, a consistent and comprehensive dissolution and precipitation model has been developed that accounts for arbitrary geometrical forms of anhydrite as well as for the sealing of anhydrite by a layer of gypsum. The investigations have shown that anhydrite dissolution represents the limiting mechanism if anhydrite occurs in the form of larger particles or thicker veins (> 1 millimeter) and there are sufficient nuclei for gypsum growth (e.g. precipitation takes place on of the surfaces of inert minerals). It has also been indicated that the time required for the whole amount of

  19. The Brain Bowl: Competitive Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raepple, Roger R.; Ehlert, David L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Florida Community College Brain Bowl, as a model for recognizing outstanding academic achievement, in a contest in which two competing community college teams answer faculty-prepared questions from various disciplines. (DMM)

  20. Physical modeling of Tibetan bowls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Jose; Inacio, Octavio

    2004-05-01

    Tibetan bowls produce rich penetrating sounds, used in musical contexts and to induce a state of relaxation for meditation or therapy purposes. To understand the dynamics of these instruments under impact and rubbing excitation, we developed a simulation method based on the modal approach, following our previous papers on physical modeling of plucked/bowed strings and impacted/bowed bars. This technique is based on a compact representation of the system dynamics, in terms of the unconstrained bowl modes. Nonlinear contact/friction interaction forces, between the exciter (puja) and the bowl, are computed at each time step and projected on the bowl modal basis, followed by step integration of the modal equations. We explore the behavior of two different-sized bowls, for extensive ranges of excitation conditions (contact/friction parameters, normal force, and tangential puja velocity). Numerical results and experiments show that various self-excited motions may arise depending on the playing conditions and, mainly, on the contact/friction interaction parameters. Indeed, triggering of a given bowl modal frequency mainly depends on the puja material. Computed animations and experiments demonstrate that self-excited modes spin, following the puja motion. Accordingly, the sensed pressure field pulsates, with frequency controlled by the puja spinning velocity and the spatial pattern of the singing mode.

  1. Physical modeling of Tibetan bowls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Jose; Inacio, Octavio

    2001-05-01

    Tibetan bowls produce rich penetrating sounds, used in musical contexts and to induce a state of relaxation for meditation or therapy purposes. To understand the dynamics of these instruments under impact and rubbing excitation, we developed a simulation method based on the modal approach, following our previous papers on physical modeling of plucked/bowed strings and impacted/bowed bars. This technique is based on a compact representation of the system dynamics, in terms of the unconstrained bowl modes. Nonlinear contact/friction interaction forces, between the exciter (puja) and the bowl, are computed at each time step and projected on the bowl modal basis, followed by step integration of the modal equations. We explore the behavior of two different-sized bowls, for extensive ranges of excitation conditions (contact/friction parameters, normal force, and tangential puja velocity). Numerical results and experiments show that various self-excited motions may arise depending on the playing conditions and, mainly, on the contact/friction interaction parameters. Indeed, triggering of a given bowl modal frequency mainly depends on the puja material. Computed animations and experiments demonstrate that self-excited modes spin, following the puja motion. Accordingly, the sensed pressure field pulsates, with frequency controlled by the puja spinning velocity and the spatial pattern of the singing mode.

  2. Anhydrite precipitation in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    The composition and metal concentration of hydrothermal fluids venting at the seafloor is strongly temperature-dependent and fluids above 300°C are required to transport metals to the seafloor (Hannington et al. 2010). Ore-forming hydrothermal systems and high temperature vents in general are often associated with faults and fracture zones, i.e. zones of enhanced permeabilities that act as channels for the uprising hydrothermal fluid (Heinrich & Candela, 2014). Previous numerical models (Jupp and Schultz, 2000; Andersen et al. 2015) however have shown that high permeabilities tend to decrease fluid flow temperatures due to mixing with cold seawater and the resulting high fluid fluxes that lead to short residence times of the fluid near the heat source. A possible mechanism to reduce the permeability and thereby to focus high temperature fluid flow are mineral precipitation reactions that clog the pore space. Anhydrite for example precipitates from seawater if it is heated to temperatures above ~150°C or due to mixing of seawater with hydrothermal fluids that usually have high Calcium concentrations. We have implemented anhydrite reactions (precipitation and dissolution) in our finite element numerical models of hydrothermal circulation. The initial results show that the precipitation of anhydrite efficiently alters the permeability field, which affects the hydrothermal flow field as well as the resulting vent temperatures. C. Andersen et al. (2015), Fault geometry and permeability contrast control vent temperatures at the Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Geology, 43(1), 51-54. M. D. Hannington et al. (2010), Modern Sea-Floor Massive Sulfides and Base Metal Resources: Toward an Estimate of Global Sea-Floor Massive Sulfide Potential, in The Challenge of Finding New Mineral Resources: Global Metallogeny, Innovative Exploration, and New Discoveries, edited by R. J. Goldfarb, E. E. Marsh and T. Monecke, pp. 317-338, Society of Economic Geologists

  3. New Ideas for Bowling Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This document is an instructor's manual for teaching bowling to a wide range of students (elementary school to college) in either a school gymnasium or a teaching station with limited space. The material presented was adapted from teaching methods that had proved successful in diverse situations with many students. The manual is divided into…

  4. Reduction-Fired Seedpod Bowls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyke, Rod

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on a reduction-firing process with an aim of producing high-quality blackware similar to the black-on-black pottery of Maria Martinez and other American Indian potters. Includes a lesson on creating reduction-fired seedpod bowls, lists of instructional resources and materials, and the objectives and evaluation. (CMK)

  5. Anhydrite EOS and Phase Diagram in Relation to Shock Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Langenhorst, F.; Deutsch, A.; Hornemann, U.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the Chicxulub impact, it became recently obvious that experimental and theoretical research on the shock behavior of sulfates is essential for an assessment of the role of shock-released gases in the K/T mass extinction. The Chicxulub crater is the most important large impact structure where the bolide penetrated a sedimentary layer with large amounts of interbedded anhydrite (Haughton has also significant anhydrite in the target). The sulfuric gas production by shock compression/decompression of anhydrite is an important issue, even if the size of Chicxulub crater is only half of the so far assumed size. The comparison of experimental data for anhydrite, shocked with different techniques at various laboratories, reveals large differences in the threshold pressures for melting and decomposition. To gain insight into this issue, we have made a theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of anhydrite. The project includes the review of data published in the last 40 years - reasons to study anhydrite cover a wide field of interests: from industrial problems of cement and ceramic production to the analysis of nuclear underground explosions in salt domes, conducted in the USA and USSR in the 1970th.

  6. Textural evidence for origin of salt dome anhydrite cap rocks, Winnfield Dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, M.R.; Kyle, J.R.; Price, P.E.

    1985-02-01

    Textures within anhydrite cap rock are products of repeated cycles of halie dissolution and residual anhydrite accretion at tops of salt stocks. Quarrying operations at Winnfield dome have exposed extensive portions of the anhydrite cap rock zone. This zone is composed primarily of unoriented, xenoblastic anhydrite crystals in laminae less than 1 mm to several centimeters thick. Laminations are defined by thin, dark sulfide accumulations and pressure solution of anhydrite. Deformed, banded anhydrite clasts are contained locally within laminae. Multiple-laminated, concave downward anhydrite mounds occur along some horizons. They may contain anhydrite breccia fragments or sulfides. Coarsely crystalline salt mounds, containing disseminated idioblastic anhydrite also occur along horizons. Mound morphologies vary from tall and thin to broad and squat; maximum dimensions range from less than 0.5 to about 2.0 m. These moundlike structures are related spatially and genetically. Moundlike structures are believed to form from salt spines along the salt-anhydrite contact. As the spine dissolves through several cycles of dissolution and accretion, a laminated anhydrite mound is preserved; if the spine becomes isolated from dissolution, then a salt inclusion is preserved. Anhydrite beds within the Louann Salt, deformed during diapirism, are preserved as deformed anhydrite clasts. Steeply dipping, bedded anhydrite zones within the salt stock may produce brecciated anhydrite mounds when incorporated into the cap rock. Sulfides record the movement of metalliferous fluids through the salt-anhydrite contact.

  7. Nanoscale dissolution and growth on anhydrite cleavage faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, Carlos M.

    2009-12-01

    In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the molecular-scale reactivity of anhydrite (1 0 0), (0 1 0), and (0 0 1) faces exposed to water and CaSO 4 aqueous solutions at room temperature. In pure water, dissolution occurs by step retreat and etch pit nucleation and growth. Both the kinetics of the step retreat and the shape of the etch pits are surface-specific and crystallographically controlled. In CaSO 4 aqueous solutions with concentrations ranging from 0.030 mol/l to 0.075 mol/l, the growth kinetics on anhydrite (1 0 0) and (0 1 0) faces was studied. Growth is also strongly controlled by crystallographic constraints and occurs exclusively from pre-existing step edges by highly anisotropic spreading of monolayers (˜3.5 Å in height). The AFM observations demonstrate that monolayer growth can occur on anhydrite (0 1 0) and (1 0 0) faces even from slightly supersaturated solutions. In addition, the comparison of the step kinetics on anhydrite faces shows that the mechanisms of step dissolution and growth are essentially the same, with the direction of migration of crystal building units being reversed at the anhydrite saturation point. Moreover, the analysis of both high resolution AFM images and lateral force microscopy (LFM) images confirms that the newly-formed monolayers are anhydrite growing in structural continuity with the original (1 0 0) and (0 1 0) surfaces. However, the formation of the first monolayers is metastable and two-dimensional nucleation and further multilayer growth of anhydrite are strongly inhibited even at high supersaturations.

  8. Processes and controls in swelling anhydritic clay rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutschler, Thomas; Blum, Philipp; Butscher, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Referring to the swelling of anhydritic clay rocks in tunneling, Leopold Müller-Salzburg noted in the third volume on tunneling of his fundamental text book on rock engineering that "a truly coherent explanation of these phenomena is still owing" (Müller-Salzburg 1978, p. 306). This valuation is still true after more than three decades of research in the field of swelling anhydritic clay rocks. One of the reasons is our limited knowledge of the processes involved in the swelling of such rocks, and of the geological, mineralogical, hydraulic, chemical and mechanical controls of the swelling. In this contribution, a review of processes in swelling anhydritic clay rocks and of associated controls is presented. Also numerical models that aim at simulating the swelling processes and controls are included in this review, and some of the remaining open questions are pointed out. By focusing on process-oriented work in this review, the presentation intends to stimulate further research across disciplines in the field of swelling anhydritic clay rocks to finally get a step further in managing the swelling problem in geotechnical engineering projects. Keywords: swelling; anhydritic clay rocks; review

  9. A Bowl of Hematite-Rich 'Berries'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows two spectra of outcrop regions near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site. The blue line shows data for a region dubbed 'Berry Bowl,' which contains a handful of the sphere-like grains dubbed 'blueberries.' The yellow line represents an area called 'Empty' next to Berry Bowl that is devoid of berries. Berry Bowl's spectrum still shows typical outcrop characteristics, but also exhibits an intense hematite signature, seen as a 'magnetic sextet.' Hematite is an iron-bearing mineral often formed in water. These spectra were taken by the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer on the 46th (Empty) and 48th (Berry Bowl) martian days, or sols, of its mission.

  10. First-principles study of anhydrite, polyhalite and carnallite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Jové-Colón, Carlos F.; Sassani, David C.

    2014-02-01

    We report density functional calculations of the structures and properties of anhydrite (CaSO4), polyhalite (K2SO4·MgSO4·2CaSO4·2H2O) and carnallite (KCl·MgCl2·6H2O). Densities of states are systematically investigated and phonon analysis using density functional perturbation theory is performed at constant equilibrium volume for anhydrite and polyhalite in order to derive their isochoric thermal properties. Thermal properties at constant atmospheric pressure are also calculated using the quasi-harmonic approximation. The computed molar entropy and isobaric heat capacity for anhydrite reproduce experimental data up to 800 K to within 3% and 10%, respectively, while further experimental work is needed to assess our theoretical predictions for polyhalite.

  11. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah

    2016-01-01

    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  12. Converting Bowling Balls into Apples and Macs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Dexter D.

    1988-01-01

    Conversion of a University of Oregon bowling center into a computer laboratory by the college union is discussed. Located in a renovated former bowling center, the Erb Memorial Union Computer Lounge is a self-supporting campus computer laboratory. User fees are charged for on-site computer rentals, laser printing, color plotting, and typesetting…

  13. RECOGNITION OF INTERSTITIAL ANHYDRITE DISSOLUTION: A CAUSE OF SECONDARY POROSITY, SAN ANDRES LIMESTONE, NEW MEXICO, AND UPPER MINNELUSA FORMATION, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Richardson, Randall W.

    1985-01-01

    Direct evidence for subsurface dissolution of interstitial anhydrite in both dolomite grainstones and quartz sandstones includes: cleavage-related dissolution fringe on anhydrite crystal surfaces, and isolated remnants of optically continuous (formerly poikilotopic) anhydrite. Experimentally etched anhydrite surfaces exhibit features that directly compare to the dissolution fringe, whereas experimentally grown anhydrite does not. A deduced sequence of anhydrite dissolution within dolomite grainstones and quartz sandstones is presented. Refs.

  14. Bowling-Fencing Guide. January 1975-January 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Joyce M., Ed.; Heinecke, Mary, Ed.

    This guide is divided into two sections. The first deals with bowling, and contains 11 articles concerning the mechanics and teaching of bowling. Some of the areas covered are (a) suggestions for teaching bowling, (b) how to practice with an automatic pinsetter, (c) bowling as a medium for learning for the handicapped, and (d) application of a…

  15. Physical properties of salt, anhydrite and gypsum : preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Eugene C.; Robie, Richard A.; Books, Kenneth G.

    1958-01-01

    This summary is the result of a search of the available literature. Emphasis is placed on the mechanical and calorimetric properties of salt; the measurements of elastic, thermal, magnetic, and mass properties of salt are merely tabulated. Under hydrostatic pressure 100 percent at a nearly constant stress difference of about 300 kg/cm2. Similarily, under temperatures > 400?C at one atmosphere, salt deforms plastically to strains > 100 percent under stress differences of about 100 kg/cm2. Entha1pies were calculated for various temperatures to 2,000? C from the low temperature and high temperature heat capacities and the heats of solution of the following minerals: salt (or halite), NaCl; anhydrite, CaS04; quartz, Si02; and calcite, CaC03. Three combinations of these minerals were assumed to represent three possible natural salt beds, and the heats required to raise the temperature of each to 1,500?C and to 2,000?C were calculated. For a half and half mixture of salt and anhydrite, 1,300 cal/gm were required to raise the temperature to 2,000?C. For an evaporite containing 60 percent salt and about equal amounts of anhydrite, calcite, and quartz, 1,100 cal/gm are required to raise the temperature to 2,OOO?C. Most of the measurements of the elastic moduli were made on single crystals of salt, anhydrite, and gypsum. For the most part, the measurements of density, magnetic susceptibility, and other properties were made on natural salt samples.

  16. From Dust Bowl to Conservation Tillage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Dale

    1992-01-01

    Examines the causes of the dust bowl and recent changes in tillage practices in Oklahoma and other prairie states that conserve soil. Briefly discusses the success of programs that target school children for conservation education. (LZ)

  17. Sharing a bowl of tea.

    PubMed

    Sen, S

    1993-06-01

    Soshitsu Sen's keynote speech before a symposium on population and the environment is summarized unofficially by the editorial staff. The instability of human thinking is given as the cause for the present destruction of the environment. In a visit to the His Majesty King of Sweden, Sen remarked that stabilizing human minds can be achieved within the tea ceremony through "serving tea heartily, receiving it with gratitude, and offering it to another." In this way, the spirit of concern for others can be practiced in everyday life and tranquility of mind reached. News broadcasts of starving parents and children as victims of civil war are disheartening. The Japanese people are not suffering such hunger, even though the economy has not been as robust as desired. The analogy is provided in the story by Chuang Chou about King Hun Dun and King Xiu and man's good intentions, which nonetheless destroy the earth. Japan has experienced forest and environmental destruction on the road to economic prosperity and satisfaction of self-interests. The advice on living in accord with nature is to appreciate each season for its own changes. For example, when it is the winter season, the complaint is about the cold and the desire is for spring; but when spring comes, the desire is for the cooler weather of fall. the ordinary way is to appreciate all seasons and is the best way of sustaining a healthy environment. In the garden of the tea hut, humans enter without their worldly title, position, and means; at the water basin, hands and mouth are cleansed, and entrance is made through a small hole into the hut much the same as emerging from the womb. Worldly matters are dispensed with and purity of thought is shared in the sharing of the bowl of green tea, saying "after you" to one another. Christianity and the Way of Tea share the same symbols of purification. The black tea bowl is in harmony with the green tea. Fatigue is relieved when gazing upon the color green; examples are given

  18. Ferry Lake, Rodessa, and Punta Gorda Anhydrite bed correlation, lower cretaceous, offshore eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Ferry Lake and Punta Gorda Anhydrite have been used as marker beds throughout Gulf of Mexico, and divided into nine individual anhydrite beds traceable from southern Mississippi to southern Florida. The underlying Rodessa Formation has an equally well-developed anhydrite section in the offshore Eastern Gulf of Mexico and is divided into twelve basinwide anhydrite bed groupings. The anhydrites of Ferry Lake and Rodessa Formation are traceable to the anhydrites of the Punta Gorda and Lehigh Acres Formations of South Florida. Anhydrite beds appear to thicken in the central part of the trend interfingering with carbonates of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge reef. Paleontologic data indicate that depositional water depths of the interbedded carbonates range from sea level to 100 meters. Carbonates and anhydrites may be deposited simultaneously with carbonate patchreefs developing on crests of paleo anhydrites may be deposited simultaneously with carbonate patchreefs developing on crests of paleo highs with evaporites precipitating out of a hyper-saline solution on the flanks. Areas where poor anhydrite bed development occurs may indicate areas of patch reefs and, therefore, the best potential for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Individual anhydrite beds have been correlated and color-coded on photocopies of compensated neutron density logs to determine their geographic distribution. Prepared cross sections show some beds to be areawide while others are more restricted. Isopach maps show the configuration of the basin in which these beds were deposited with the basin`s long isopach axis parallel to the reef trend. Anhydrite deposition occurred with evaporation of restricted highstand waters behind reefs that rimmed the shelf edge.

  19. Role of anhydrite diagenesis in the creation of porosity in middle Permian dolostone reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Jacka, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    In middle Permian dolostone reservoirs, the most abundant pore type is secondary intercrystalline porosity. Generally ranking second in abundance, but first in many instances, are pores created by dissolution of anhydrite that occurred in the Permian. Much anhydrite was emplaced diagenetically during and following early dolomitization, as nodules, blocky porphyroblasts, and cement, and as combination cement and replacement. Generally, anhydritization was followed by an influx of a low-salinity fluid, which dissolved anhydrite - creating tertiary porosity - or altered it to gypsum, hemihydrate, silica, calcite, or fluorite. Dissolution of anhydrite nodules and porphyroblasts creates distinctive molds with angular and stair-step outlines. Dissolution of anhydrite, which was emplaced as cement and replacement, enhances the original primary and secondary pores by the increment that was replaced. This dissolution also produces voids with angular and stair-step outlines. Replacive anhydrite tends to nucleate within organic-rich components, such as burrows, stromatolites, skeletal grains, ooids, and peloids. Many dolomite crystals have cloudy organic-rich centers, which represent the original replacive crystals, and clear rims of epitaxial dolomite cement. Anhydrite preferentially nucleates within the organic-rich cores, and subsequent dissolution produces hollowed dolomite crystals or intracrystalline porosity. Intracrystalline pores constitute the predominant pore types within many intervals. Anhydrite commonly replaces skeletal grains or ooids, and the replacement of such anhydrite produces a mold that replicates the original shell (biomold). It is possible to determine how many biomolds actually record dissolution of replacive anhydrite. The best Permian reservoirs contain intercrystalline porosity in conjunction with pores created by dissolution of anhydrite and grains.

  20. The thermal expansion of anhydrite to 1000° C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Howard T.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal expansion of anhydrite, CaSO4, has been measured from 22° to 1,000° C by X-ray diffraction, using the Guinier-Lenné heating powder camera. The heating patterns were calibrated with Guinier-Hägg patterns at 25° C, using quartz as internal standard. Heating experiments were run on natural anhydrite (Bancroft, Ontario), which at room temperature has lattice constants in close agreement with those of synthetic material. The orthorhombic unit cell at 22° C (space groupAmma) has a=7.003 (1) Å, b=6.996 (2) Å and c=6.242 (1) Å, V=305.9 (2) Å3. At room temperature, the thermal expansion coefficients α and β (α in °C−1×104, β in °C−2×108) are for a, 0.10, −0.69; forb, 0.08, 0.19; for c, 0.18, 1.60; for V, 0.37, 1.14. Second-order coefficients provide an excellent fit over the whole range to 1,000° C.

  1. Reduction of Microbial Aerosols by Automatic Toilet Bowl Cleaners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Moyasar; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of the impact of automatic toilet bowl cleaners on aerosol generation. Three toilet bowl cleaners containing 2.5, 6.7 or 18.2 percent surfactant materials were evaluated. Results indicate these cleaners significantly (p 0.05) reduce bacteria ejected from the bowl, and the cleaner containing the greatest amount of surfactant was the most…

  2. Opportunity Dips in to 'Berry Bowl'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Scientists are hunting down the recipe for the 'blueberries' they've discovered on Mars. Taken with the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera on the 45th martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission (March 10, 2004), this image shows the area dubbed 'Berry Bowl,' where many dark and mysterious spherules or 'blueberries' collected in a depression on the surface of a rock. Opportunity is studying the blueberries for clues to their chemical composition with its suite of scientific instruments. 'Berry Bowl' is located within the rock outcrop that lines the inner edge of the crater where the rover landed.

  3. Anthropogenic Aerosols and the Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazavilan, E. J.; Leibensperger, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We use a general circulation model (GISS GCM ModelE) to study the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the 1930s Dust Bowl. The Dust Bowl was primarily forced by anomalous sea surface temperatures, but may have been partially shaped by the large amounts of black carbon emitted at that time. A simulation using observed 1932-1938 sea surface temperature and sea ice distributions reveal drier and warmer conditions in the central U.S. Adding the influence of 1930s anthropogenic aerosols exacerbates the drying and warm conditions (0.2 °C increase over mid-west continental US, and a decrease of -0.1 mm/day of precipitation). We find that these changes are concurrent with a weakening and shift of the Bermuda High.

  4. Assessing the Role of Anhydrite in the KT Mass Extinction: Hints from Shock-loading Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skala, R.; Lnagenhorst, F.; Hoerz, F.

    2004-01-01

    Various killing mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the mass extinctions at the KT boundary, including severe, global deterioration of the atmosphere and hydrosphere due to SO(x) released from heavily shocked, sulfate-bearing target rocks. The devolatilization of anhydrite is predominantly inferred from thermodynamic considerations and lacks experimental confirmation. To date, the experimentally determined shock behavior of anhydrite is limited to solid-state effects employing X-ray diffraction methods. The present report employs additional methods to characterize experimentally shocked anhydrite.

  5. Experimental Shock Transformation of Gypsum to Anhydrite: A New Low Pressure Regime Shock Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The shock behavior of gypsum is important in understanding the Cretaceous/Paleogene event and other terrestrial impacts that contain evaporite sediments in their targets (e.g., Mars Exploration Rover Spirit detected sulfate at Gusev crater, [1]). Most interest focuses on issues of devolatilization to quantify the production of SO2 to better understand its role in generating a temporary atmosphere and its effects on climate and biota [2,3]. Kondo and Ahrens [4] measured induced radiation emitted from single crystal gypsum shocked to 30 and 40 GPa. They observed greybody emission spectra corresponding to temperatures in the range of 3,000 to 4,000 K that are a factor of 2 to 10 times greater than calculated pressure-density energy equation of state temperatures (Hugoniot) and are high enough to melt gypsum. Chen et al. [5] reported results of shock experiments on anhydrite, gypsum, and mixtures of these phases with silica. Their observations indicated little or no devolatilization of anhydrite shocked to 42 GPa and that the fraction of sulfur, by mass, that degassed is approx.10(exp -2) of theoretical prediction. In another report of shock experiments on calcite, anhydrite, and gypsum, Badjukov et al. [6] observed only intensive plastic deformation in anhydrite shock loaded at 63 GPa, and gypsum converted to anhydrite when shock loaded at 56 GPa but have not experimentally shocked gypsum in a step-wise manner to constrain possible incipient transformation effects. Schmitt and Hornemann [7] shock loaded anhydrite and quartz to a peak pressure of 60 GPa and report the platy anhydrite grains were completely pseudomorphed by small crystallized anhydrite grains. However, no evidence of interaction between the two phases could be observed and they suggested that recrystallization of anhydrite grains is the result of a solid-state transformation. They concluded that significant decomposition of anhydrite requires shock pressures higher than 60 GPa. Gupta et al. [8

  6. The biomechanics of fast bowling in men's cricket: a review.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, R M; Stockill, N P; Elliott, B C; Burnett, A F

    1996-10-01

    This review concentrates on synthesizing and analysing the biomechanical research which has been carried out on fast bowling in men's cricket. Specifically, it relates to those elements of the bowling technique which contribute towards a fast ball release, the aerodynamics and technique of swing bowling, and the association between fast bowling and lower back injury. With regard to bowling technique, no firm conclusions are drawn on the relationships between elements of the fast bowling technique and ball release speed. Recommendations for future research in this area include intra-player studies to establish the bowler-specific factors which contribute to fast ball release and features of body segment dynamics. There is general agreement that the phenomenon of differential boundary layer separation is the reason for normal and reverse cricket ball swing. Systematic research to establish the essential aspects of the bowling technique which contribute to successful swing bowling is recommended, along with studies of the behaviour of the ball in games to ascertain the effects of ball asymmetries on ball swing. There is sufficient evidence in the literature to establish a strong link between injury to the lower back and the use of the mixed technique. Recommendations are made for screening and intervention to reduce the use of the mixed technique, and for research into other aspects of injury. Fundamental research to develop biomechanical models of the lower back in fast bowling is strongly recommended.

  7. Solar bowl research results (February 1983-May). Results on solar bowl technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Research on the Fixed Mirror Distributed Focus solar thermal technology, or solar bowl technology, needed for a solar-steam electric power plant is presented. Wind loads, dust erosion, fluid flow, solar optical power concentration, and mirror panel testing are all discussed separately. The research was performed at Texas Tech University. (BCS)

  8. Frictional properties of simulated anhydrite-dolomite fault gouge and implications for seismogenic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymakers, A. M. H.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Spiers, C. J.

    2016-03-01

    The frictional properties of anhydrite-dolomite fault gouges, and the effects of CO2 upon them, are of key importance in assessing the risks associated with CO2 storage in reservoir formations capped by anhydrite-dolomite sequences, and in understanding seismicity occurring in such formations (such as the Italian Apennines). Therefore, we performed velocity-stepping direct-shear experiments on simulated dolomite, anhydrite and 50:50 anhydrite/dolomite gouges, at representative in-situ conditions (120 °C and σne = 25 MPa). They were conducted under vacuum, or else using water or CO2-saturated water as pore fluid (Pf = 15 MPa). Friction coefficients varied between 0.55 and 0.7. All dry samples exhibited velocity-weakening behavior, whereas all wet samples exhibited velocity-strengthening behavior, without or with CO2. This is consistent with trends previously reported for such gouges. A compilation of literature data shows that the transition from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening occurs in these materials between 80 and 120 °C when dry, and between 100 and 150 °C when wet. This implies little seismogenic potential for wet dolomite, anhydrite and mixed gouges under CO2 storage conditions at 2-4 km depth. Seismic slip in the Italian Apennines at depths of ∼6 km and beyond may be explained by the velocity-weakening behavior expected in anhydrite and especially dolomite at temperatures above 150 °C.

  9. In Situ Observation of Gypsum-Anhydrite Transition at High Pressure and High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuan-Jiang; Zheng, Hai-Fei

    2012-04-01

    An in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum-anhydrite transition under a saturated water condition at high pressure and high temperature is performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). The experimental results show that gypsum dissolvs in water at ambient temperature and above 496 MPa. With increasing temperature, the anhydrite (CaSO4) phase precipitates at 250-320°C in the pressure range of 1.0-1.5GPa, indicating that under a saturated water condition, both stable conditions of pressure and temperature and high levels of Ca and SO4 ion concentrations in aqueous solution are essential for the formation of anhydrite. A linear relationship between the pressure and temperature for the precipitation of anhydrite is established as P(GPa) = 0.0068T-0.7126 (250°C<=T<=320°C). Anhydrite remained stable during rapid cooling of the sample chamber, showing that the gypsum-anhydrite transition involving both dissolution and precipitation processes is irreversible at high pressure and high temperature.

  10. Estimating Rheological Parameters of Anhydrite from Folded Evaporite sequences: Implications for Internal Dynamics of Salt Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Salt structures have been identified as a potential target for hydrocarbon, CO2, or radioactive waste storage. The most suitable locations for magazines are considered in the thick and relatively homogeneous rock salt layers. However, salt structures often consist of the evaporite sequence including rock salt intercalated with other rock types e.g.: anhydrite, gypsum, potassium and magnesium salt, calcite, dolomite, or shale. The presence of such heterogeneities causes a serious disturbance in the structure management. Detailed analysis of the internal architecture and internal dynamics of the salt structure are crucial for evaluating them as suitable repositories and also their long-term stability. The goal of this study is to analyse the influence of the presence of anhydrite layers on the internal dynamics of salt structures. Anhydrite is a common rock in evaporite sequences. Its physical and mechanical properties strongly differ from the properties of rock salt. The density of anhydrite is much higher than the density of salt, thus anhydrite is likely to sink in salt causing the disturbance of the surrounding structures. This suggestion was the starting point to the discussion about the long-term stability of the magazines in salt structures [1]. However, the other important parameter that has to be taken into account is the viscosity of anhydrite. The high viscosity ratio between salt and anhydrite can restrain the layer from sinking. The rheological behaviour of anhydrite has been studied in laboratory experiments [2], but the results only provide information about the short-term behaviour. The long-term behaviour can be best predicted using indirect methods e.g. based on the analysis of natural structures that developed over geological time scale. One of the most promising are fold structures, the shape of which is very sensitive to the rheological parameters of the deforming materials. Folds can develop in mechanically stratified materials during layer

  11. Primary Igneous Anhydrite: Progress Since the 1982 El Chichón Eruption (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhr, J. F.

    2006-05-01

    Anhydrite (CaSO4) was confirmed as a stable primary igneous mineral, capable of precipitating from a silicate melt, through petrographic observations of fresh trachyandesitic pumices erupted in the spring of 1982 from El Chichón, a little known, isolated tuff and lava-dome complex in eastern Mexico. The 1982 eruption was also notable for the associated release of an estimated 5-9 megatons of SO2 to the stratosphere and troposphere, as measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer. Subsequent years saw confirmation of primary igneous anhydrite in laboratory phase-equilibrium experiments, and anhydrite was also observed in the products of several subsequent explosive eruptions, most importantly dacitic pumices from the massive 15 June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, in the Philippines. That eruption involved ~5X the mass of magma and ~3X the mass of SO2 release compared to El Chichón's eruption. For both the Pinatubo and El Chichón eruptions, it has been concluded that the sulfur released to the atmosphere was too great in mass to have been dissolved in the erupted melt volume just prior to eruption. In both cases workers advocated the existence of a separate gas phase prior to eruption, where much of the subsequently released sulfur was present. Thus, primary igneous anhydrite has been linked with another important phenomenon: excess sulfur release during volcanic eruptions. This presentation will review other developments concerning primary igneous anhydrite since 1982. These include: (1) other examples of primary anhydrite from volcanic samples (Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia; Lascar, Chile; Sutter Buttes, USA; Eagle Mountain, USA; Shiveluch, Russia; (2) examples of primary anhydrite from plutonic samples (Julcani, Peru; Santa Rita, USA; Cajon Pass Scientific Drillhole, USA); (3) laboratory experiments that have expanded our understanding of the T-P-fO2 conditions of anhydrite stability, melt/vapor partition coefficients for sulfur as a function of these

  12. Future STEM Leaders Prepare for the National Science Bowl

    ScienceCinema

    Benjamin, Angela

    2016-07-12

    Each year, students from across the country converge on Washington, DC, for the National Science Bowl, an intense academic competition that tests the students' knowledge in science, engineering, chemistry, math and Earth science. Follow one team, from Washington DC's Woodrow Wilson High School, as they prepare for and compete in the 2014 National Science Bowl.

  13. Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

  14. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-10 Sump or siphon bowl. A sump or siphon bowl may be in the bottom of the inner tank shell if— (a) It is formed...

  15. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-10 Sump or siphon bowl. A sump or siphon bowl may be in the bottom of the inner tank shell if— (a) It is formed...

  16. Future STEM Leaders Prepare for the National Science Bowl

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Angela

    2014-06-11

    Each year, students from across the country converge on Washington, DC, for the National Science Bowl, an intense academic competition that tests the students' knowledge in science, engineering, chemistry, math and Earth science. Follow one team, from Washington DC's Woodrow Wilson High School, as they prepare for and compete in the 2014 National Science Bowl.

  17. Experimental investigations for the modeling of chemo-mechanical processes of anhydritic rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Tara; Pimentel, Erich; Anagnostou, Georg

    2015-04-01

    When anhydritic rock comes into contact with water, the anhydrite dissolves and gypsum precipitates as a result of an oversaturation of the sulphate and calcium ions in the water. This anhydrite to gypsum transformation (AGT) leads to an increase in the solid volume by roughly 61% and possibly also of the pore volume, thus resulting in macroscopic swelling. In tunneling, swelling rock can cause massive damage, since it can exhibit high pressures on the lining or result in large deformations of the lining. Even though this phenomenon has already been observed more than a century ago, AGT in sulphatic rock still raises many open questions. One question we focus on is the mechanical (i.e. stress, strain) behavior of anhydritic rock during swelling. The coupled chemo-mechanical processes, i.e. the development of stresses and strains during AGT, has not been fully understood so far. A chemo-mechanical model must be considered which take anhydrite dissolution, gypsum precipitation as well as stresses and strains into account. In this contribution we present some fundamental research which was done in order to establish a relationship between AGT and the resulting or applied strains and stresses. The research contains experiments on samples consisting of anhydrite and kaolin under oedometric conditions. In order to reduce uncertainties due to swelling of clay as well as inhomogeneous compositions and structures of the natural rock samples, the experiments at the present stage of this research are performed on artificially created, reproducible samples. The samples contain 40% industrial anhydritic powder and 60% Polwhite E Chinaclay (of which the main component is kaolinite). The powders are mixed and compacted in a steel ring under high axial pressure, thus creating intact discs with a dry density of roughly 1.9 g/cm3. In a first series of Oedometer tests the swelling strain under various constant axial stress is measured until the maximal strain is reached. At the

  18. Anhydrite diagenesis in a vegetated sabkha, Al-Khiran, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunatilaka, A.

    1990-11-01

    In the Al-Khiran sabkha, supratidal anhydrite occurs in three distinct morphological forms: (a) hair-cream anhydrite which occurs exclusively in association with the halophyte Halocnemum strobilaceum; and (b) nodular/laminated cottage cheese anhydrite which is associated with a bacterial-cyanobacterial mat. The former occurs as a massive layer up to 4 cm thick with the ahydrite initially pseudomorphing gypsum crystals: while in the latter the layers are up to 7 cm thick and the anhydrite occurs as microcrystalline laths giving an aphanitic texture; (c) sub-aqueous anhydrite formed by the alteration of prismatic gypsum crystals growing in drainage channels. On the death of the halophyte the gypsum (G) _rlhar2; anhydrite (A) metastable equilibrium is upset and the hair-cream anhydrite undergoes a reverse transformation to microcrystalline alabastrine secondary gypsum followed by gypcrust formation. The above changes result in a series of characteristic diagenetic textures that were studied in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The major diagenetic mechanism during the G _rlhar2; A transformation is a dissolution-reprecipitation process that is only partially controlled by physico-chemical factors. A climatic and biological influence also plays a significant role in this sometimes annual change, depending on the rainfall intensity. In contrast, type (b) shows better preservation potential. The intimate relationship between the plant and its "soil water" requirements results in a particular hydrodynamic behaviour of the capillary groundwater brines in the vadose zone. Hence, it is inferred that the individual diagenetic stages are also correlatable with the changing hydrological conditions of the sabkha. Type (c) represents a rare occurrence in sabkhas and is more akin to some deeper water occurrences, albeit on a very small scale. Anhydrite is always formed after a gypsum precursor, and under predictable physico-chemical conditions (an average annual

  19. The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction: A lethal mechanism involving anhydrite target rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Chicxulub Crater, Yucatan, Mexico, is a leading contender as the site for the impact event that caused the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinctions. A considerable thickness of anhydrite (CaSO4) forms part of the target rock. High temperatures resulting from impact would drive SO2 off from the anhydrite. Hundreds of billions of tonnes of sulfuric acid aerosol would thus enter the stratosphere and cause considerable cooling of the Earth's surface, decrease photosynthesis by orders of magnitude, deplete the ozone layer, and permit increased UV radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Finally, the aerosol would fall back to Earth as acid rain and devastate land and some lacustrine biota and near-surface marine creatures. The presence of anhydrite in the Chicxulub target rock may thus help explain the many extinctions observed at the K-T boundary. ?? 1992.

  20. Replacive sulfide formation in anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Catharina; Bach, Wolfgang; Plümper, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal flow within the oceanic crust is an important process for the exchange of energy and mass between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Infiltrated seawater heats up and interacts with wall rock, causing mineral replacement reactions. These play a large role in the formation of ore deposits; at the discharge zone, a hot, acidic and metal-rich potential ore fluid exits the crust. It mixes with seawater and forms chimneys, built up of sulfate minerals such as anhydrite (CaSO4), which are subsequently replaced by sulfide minerals. Sulfide formation is related to fluid pathways, defined by cracks and pores in the sulfate chimney. Over time, these systems might develop into massive sulfide deposits. The big question is then: how is sulfate-sulfide replacement related to the evolution of rock porosity? To address this question, sulfide-bearing anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field (Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea) were studied using X-ray tomography, EMPA, FIB-SEM and -TEM. The apparently massive anhydrite turns out highly porous on the micro scale, with sulfide minerals in anhydrite cleavage planes and along grain boundaries. The size of the sulfide grains relates to the pores they grew into, suggesting a tight coupling between dissolution (porosity generation) and growth of replacive minerals. Some of the sulfide grains are hollow and apparently used the dissolving anhydrite as a substrate to start growth in a pore. Another mode of sulfide development is aggregates of euhedral pyrite cores surrounded by colloform chalcopyrite. This occurrence implies that fluid pathways have remained open for some time to allow several stages of precipitation during fluid evolution. To start the replacement and to keep it going, porosity generation is crucial. Our samples show that dissolution of anhydrite occurred along pathways where fluid could enter, such as cleavage planes and grain boundaries. It appears that fluids ascending within the inner

  1. High-pressure and high-temperature study of the phase transition in anhydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y. M.; Zhou, Q.; He, Z.; Li, F. F.; Yang, K. F.; Cui, Q. L.; Zou, G. T.

    2007-10-01

    The high-pressure and high-temperature behaviors of anhydrite (CaSO4) are studied up to 53.5 GPa and 1800 K using double-sided laser heating Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction in diamond anvil cells. The evidence of phase transition from an anhydrite structure to the monazite type was observed at about 2 GPa under cold compression. Another phase transition and a change in color of the sample from transparent to black have been also observed at a pressure of 33.2 GPa after laser heating. The new phase after laser heating persists to 53.5 GPa and 1800 K.

  2. Nature Bowl: A Strategy for Learning Motivation and Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Describes the events, and educational strategies used in the events, that make up the Nature Bowl, California's largest third- through sixth-grade competition focusing on regional ecology, natural history, environmental issues, and natural resources conservation. (LZ)

  3. NAGWS Bowling-Fencing Guide, January 1977-January 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knierim, Helen

    This manual is designed for use by coaches of bowling and fencing. Rules and regulations are outlined, and game strategies and teaching techniques are discussed. A bibliography for each sport is included. (JD)

  4. Whole blood analysis rotor assembly having removable cellular sedimentation bowl

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.

    1975-08-26

    A rotor assembly for performing photometric analyses using whole blood samples is described. Following static loading of a gross blood sample within a centrally located, removable, cell sedimentation bowl, the red blood cells in the gross sample are centrifugally separated from the plasma, the plasm displaced from the sedimentation bowl, and measured subvolumes of plasma distributed to respective sample analysis cuvettes positioned in an annular array about the rotor periphery. Means for adding reagents to the respective cuvettes are also described. (auth)

  5. Discovery Served Up in a Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera is an approximate true-color rendering of the exceptional rock called 'Berry Bowl' in the 'Eagle Crater' outcrop. The study of this 'blueberry-strewn' area and the identification of hematite as the major iron-bearing element within these sphere-like grains helped scientists confirm their hypothesis that the hematite in these martian spherules was deposited in water. To separately analyze the mineralogical content of three main features within this area -- blueberries, dust and rock -- it was important that the rock abrasion tool's brush was able to rest on a relatively berry-free spot. The rock's small size and crowd of berries made the 10-minute brushing a challenge to plan and execute. The successful brushing on the target whimsically referred to as 'Near Empty' on the rover's 48th sol on Mars left a dust-free impression for subsequent examination by the rover's spectrometers. No grinding was necessary on the rock because spectral data obtained on the dust-free surface were sufficient to verify that the rock's chemical composition differs significantly from the hematite-rich berries.

  6. Frictional healing in simulated anhydrite fault gouges: effects of water and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymakers, Anne; Bakker, Elisenda; Samuelson, Jon; Spiers, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Currently, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs are in many ways considered ideal for storage of CO2 and other gases. Faults are of major importance to CO2 storage because of their potential as leakage pathways, and also due to the possible seismic risk associated with fault reactivation. Both in the Netherlands and worldwide, anhydrite-rich rocks are a common topseal for many potential storage sites, making it likely that crosscutting faults will contain fault gouges rich in anhydrite. In order to assess the likelihood of fault reactivation and/or fault leakage, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the fault strength, velocity dependence and of the potential to regain frictional strength after fault movement (healing behavior) of anhydrite fault gouge. Starting with a natural anhydrite (>95wt% CaSO4), with minor quantities of dolomite (<5wt% (Ca,Mg)CO3), we conducted direct shear experiments on simulated anhydrite fault gouges with both a slide-hold-slide and velocity-stepping sequences. Pore fluid phase was varied (air, vacuum, water, dry/wet CO2), and pressure and temperature conditions used are representative for potential CO2 storage sites, with an effective normal stress of 25 MPa, a temperature of 120°C and, where used, a pore fluid pressure of 15 MPa. First results indicate that frictional healing in anhydrite is strongly influenced by the presence of water. Dry fault gouges exhibit no measurable frictional healing for hold times up to 1 hour, whereas wet gouges show significant healing and stress relaxation, even for short duration hold periods (30s), suggesting a fluid-assisted process such as pressure solution might be of importance. Interestingly, while many materials exhibit a log-linear dependence of frictional drop on hold time (i.e. "Dieterich-type" healing), our results for wet gouge indicate a non-linear increase of frictional drop with increasing hold time. To determine if pressure solution controls frictional healing we will perform

  7. Anhydrite in the 1989 1990 lavas and xenoliths from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, S. E.; Kearney, C. S.

    2008-08-01

    The eruption of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska produced a moderate sulfur emission (estimated at 1 × 10 tons SO 2), but relatively small volume of lava (0.11 km ) with pre-eruption estimates of 840-950 °C and fO 21.5 to 2.0 log units above NNO (Swanson, S.E., Nye, C.J., Miller, T.P., Avery, V.F., 1994. Magma mixing in the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano: Part II. Evidence from mineral and glass chemistry. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 62, 453-468). Petrologic estimates of sulfur production (Sigurdsson, H., Devine, J.D.,Davis, A.N., 1985. The petrologic estimation of volcanic degassing. Jokull 35, 1-8) from this eruption (Gerlach, T., Westrich, H.R., Casadevall, T.J., Finnegan, D.L., 1994. Vapor Saturation and accumulation in magmas of the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 62, 317-337) are considerably less than the measured sulfur emission, leading workers to propose the existence of a pre-eruption vapor phase to explain the "excess" sulfur. Initial examination of the 1989-1990 Redoubt eruptive products reported anhydrite (Nye, C.J., Swanson, S.E., Avery, V.F., Miller, T.P., 1994. Geochemistry of the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano: Part I, whole-rock, major- and trace-element chemistry. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 62, 429-452.) in interstitial glass from some cognate gabbroic xenoliths, but anhydrite was not noted in any of the andesites. A Boeing 747 encountered the ash plume from the initial eruptive phase on December 15, 1989 and provided ash samples that reportedly contained gypsum (Bayhurst, G.K., Wohletz, K.H., Mason, A.S., 1994. A method for characterizing volcanic ash from the December 15, 1989, eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2047, 13-17). However, the identification was based on EDS analyses on a SEM and the mineral could have been anhydrite. Reexamination of the 1989-1990 Redoubt lavas and xenoliths revealed the

  8. Frequencies of solar activity in laminated anhydrite of Upper Permian age (Zechstein-cycle 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiete, M.; Berner, U.

    2003-04-01

    Upper Permian Zechstein contains seven evaporitic cycles that were deposited in an epicontinental sea expanding from E-England to Poland. Zechstein-cycles 1 to 3 show a sequence of marine pelite, overlain by marine carbonate and evaporites (in the order sulfate, halite containing possibly anhydrite and potassium salts, and regressive sulphate at the top). Whereas the marginal facies of the lower sulphate horizon of Zechstein-cycle 2 (Stassfurt cycle) consists of massive anhydrite, its basin facies shows in the lower part a fine lamination of white anhydrite alternating with thin black organic carbon rich layers. These laminations are supposed to be annually deposited layers. The black laminae originate from the annual bloom of algae. Layer thickness is about 0.4 to 1.0 mm and increases from basin centre to more marginal positions. The individual layers can be traced over 300 km within the NW-German Basin. The previously described variability of layer thickness requires a forcing mechanism that is effective over long distances and must be also highly periodic. Also, varying layer thicknesses indicate varying anhydrite precipitation, i. e. probably changes in water temperatures which in turn point to climatic influences on the deposition of the layers. Here we re-examined records of cycle thickness (up to 700 laminae) determined by G. Richter-Bernburg in the 1950ties using modern techniques of time series analysis, e. g. wavelet analysis. We could detect cycles with periods of 10-14 years and 90 years which are close to known cycles of solar activity.

  9. Database of Mechanical and Hydrological Properties of WIPP Anhydrite Derived from Laboratory-Scale Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the purpose of demonstrating safe management, storage, and disposal of radioactive transuranic (TRU) waste generated by U.S. defense programs. The WIPP is located in southeastern New Mexico, and the underground facilities of the WIPP (i.e., experimental rooms, disposal rooms, etc.) are sited in the bedded salt of the Salado Formation at a depth of about 660 meters. The DOE has authorized the continuance of scientific research and engineering analysis related to the performance of the WIPP repository. One area of additional research relates to characterization of the mechanical and hydrological properties of anhydrite interbeds within the Salado Formation. These anhydrite interbeds have been penetrated by the shafts that provide access to the underground facilities and also lie in close proximity to the proposed radioactive waste disposal rooms at the repository horizon. Properties of particular interest are mechanical strength, deforrnational behavior, and fluid transport properties such as permeability. These properties will be used in calculationskmalyses of the mechanical and hydrological behavior of the anhydrite, in particular, and the shaft sealing system and disposal rooms, in general.

  10. A Critical Evaluation of the Dust Bowl and its Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, T. E.; Lee, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Dust Bowl was an environmental nut sack catastrophe, a natural hazard (multiannual drought) in the 1930s in the Southern Great Plains of the USA, resulting in the activation of a geomorphic process (intense wind erosion) which, when human society could not adapt to it, cascaded into unprecedented agricultural, economic, and societal collapse in its core region. Over the years, the cause of the Dust Bowl has been variably ascribed to specific climatic or meteorological phenomena or land management practices. Drought and wind erosion have been notable phenomena in the Southern Great Plains throughout the Holocene, occurring long before conversion of the land to agricultural use, and still continue today. Numerous studies, using modeling and/or proxy data, have related the Dust Bowl- associated drought of the 1930s to a unique combination of large-scale climatic drivers and put it in a better temporal context. The 1930s drought was one of many decadal to centennial-scale droughts to affect North America in the late Holocene, but probably not one of the most severe ones. It was necessary, but not sufficient in itself be called the "cause of the Dust Bowl." Conversely, certain soil scientists, agricultural researchers and historians have blamed the Dust Bowl catastrophe squarely on inappropriate cropping practices, especially clearing vegetative cover from the land surface, as well as the advent of mechanized agriculture which accelerated overcultivation. Some geographers and meteorologists have ascribed the Dust Bowl to increased wind speeds and an increased frequency of cyclone passages in the 1930s as compared to other significant droughts since European settlement of the Plains. In reality, the Dust Bowl almost certainly cannot be said to have been caused by any one factor, but is better visualized as a complex interplay of multiple triggers, including geomorphic, climatic, meteorological, and/or human elements. For example, a synergistic combination of climatic

  11. 76 FR 73996 - Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International..., Florida during the Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, a series of sailboat races. The Orange Bowl... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive necessary information about the Orange...

  12. Determination of pressure from measured Raman frequency shifts of anhydrite and its application in fluid inclusions and HDAC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xueyin; Mayanovic, Robert A.; Zheng, Haifei

    2016-12-01

    A new geobarometry was derived from the quantified relationships among Raman vibrational frequencies of anhydrite, pressure and temperature, as determined from in-situ micro-Raman spectroscopy of natural anhydrite crystals measured at p-T conditions up to 560 °C and 1400 MPa by using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). With this geobarometry, the pressure in HDAC experiments and in anhydrite-bearing fluid inclusions can be determined directly from the ν1, 1016, ν3, 1128 and ν3, 1160 Raman frequency shifts of anhydrite at high p-T conditions relative to their values measured at ambient conditions. The pressure can be determined to an accuracy of better than 30 MPa based on the attainable accuracy of ±0.1 cm-1 for the fitted ν1 Raman peak positions, provided the measured spectra are calibrated using the emission peak of an external fluorescent light source. The feasibility and reliability of this geobarometry were verified by rebuilding the p-T history of two fluid inclusions from the ν1 frequency shifts of anhydrite daughter minerals from room to high temperatures, and by measuring the phase-transition pressures of calcite-CaCO3(II)-CaCO3(III) sequence at ambient temperature in a HDAC experiment using anhydrite as a Raman pressure sensor.

  13. Commercializing College: An Analysis of College Representations during Bowl Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Lowery, John Wesley

    2006-01-01

    College expectations play an important role in students' success at an institution. Braxton et al. (1994) found that if expectations are met, students are more likely to persist than if they are unmet. One potential contributor to college expectations is media (Tobolowsky, 2001). Prior research concludes that colleges that play in bowl games…

  14. The Fish Bowl: A Strategy for Assessing Independent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2001-01-01

    Explains Fish Bowl, an activity for upper elementary and middle school students to share what they read and a method for teachers to assess student understanding of a book. Discusses benefits of reading aloud a summary of the book, reading a passage from the book, asking appropriate questions, and answering questions. (LRW)

  15. Extraverted Children Are More Biased by Bowl Sizes than Introverts

    PubMed Central

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Extraverted children are hypothesized to be most at risk for over-serving and overeating due to environmental cues – such as the size of dinnerware. A within-subject field study of elementary school students found that extraverted children served themselves 33.1% more cereal in larger bowls (16-oz) than in smaller (12-oz) bowls, whereas introverted children were unaffected by bowl size (+5.6%, ns). However, when children were asked by adults how much cereal they wanted to eat, both extraverted and introverted children requested more cereal when given a large versus small bowl. Insofar as extraverted children appear to be more biased by environmental cues, this pilot study suggests different serving styles are recommended for parents and other caregivers. They should serve extraverts, but allow introverts to serve themselves. Still, since the average child still served 23.2% more when serving themselves than when served by an adult, it might be best for caregivers to do the serving whenever possible – especially for extraverted children. PMID:24205166

  16. Message in a Bottle: University Advertising during Bowl Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Through this descriptive qualitative study of institutional advertisements aired on television during the 2006-2007 college football bowl season, I sought to understand the messages communicated by colleges and universities to external audiences. The findings demonstrate the focus on selling the private benefits of higher education and call into…

  17. The Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl: An Active Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl (IEB) as a means of promoting active learning in the realm of marketing ethics. The cases discussed in the competition are based on current ethical issues and require students to provide a coherent analysis of what are generally complex, ambiguous, and highly viewpoint dependent issues. The…

  18. Saving the Dust Bowl: "Big Hugh" Bennett's Triumph over Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    In the 1930s, years of injudicious cultivation had devastated 100 million acres of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, and New Mexico. This was the Dust Bowl, and it exposed a problem that had silently plagued American agriculture for centuries--soil erosion. Farmers, scientists, and the government alike considered it trivial until Hugh Hammond…

  19. Interpreting the Dust Bowl: Teaching Environmental Philosophy through Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, John R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides a discussion of the structure and procedures of a classroom exercise using scenes from "The Grapes of Wrath," to illustrate different environmental philosophies. After viewing scenes from the film, students prepare presentations examining the Dust Bowl from one of four philosophical positions: environmental causation,…

  20. Extraverted children are more biased by bowl sizes than introverts.

    PubMed

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Extraverted children are hypothesized to be most at risk for over-serving and overeating due to environmental cues--such as the size of dinnerware. A within-subject field study of elementary school students found that extraverted children served themselves 33.1% more cereal in larger bowls (16-oz) than in smaller (12-oz) bowls, whereas introverted children were unaffected by bowl size (+5.6%, ns). However, when children were asked by adults how much cereal they wanted to eat, both extraverted and introverted children requested more cereal when given a large versus small bowl. Insofar as extraverted children appear to be more biased by environmental cues, this pilot study suggests different serving styles are recommended for parents and other caregivers. They should serve extraverts, but allow introverts to serve themselves. Still, since the average child still served 23.2% more when serving themselves than when served by an adult, it might be best for caregivers to do the serving whenever possible--especially for extraverted children.

  1. A Critical Analysis of Football Bowl Subdivision Coaching Contract Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Justin Keith

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to inventory and analyze contract components used by Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to further contribute to the body research. The FBS is comprised of 120 institutions and 94 of those institutions submitted contracts to "USA Today"…

  2. Discrepant Event: The Great Bowling Ball Float-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mason; Griffith, William F.; Hogue, Sharon E.; Holley, Kathleen; Hunter, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    The two things that usually attract students include sports and observing the unexpected. These activities which can be adapted for any class investigating the physical property of density, addresses both using an interactive, cross-disciplinary, open-ended investigation centered on determining mathematically whether a bowling ball will sink or…

  3. Convective Sedimentation of Colloidal Particles in a Bowl.

    PubMed

    Stiles; Kagan

    1999-08-01

    A physical model, which regards a colloidal dispersion as a single fluid continuum, is used to investigate cellular convection accompanying gravitational sedimentation in a hemispherical bowl with a thin cylindrical shaft along its vertical axis of symmetry. We have adapted the stream-function-vorticity form of the Navier-Stokes equations to describe momentum conservation in axially symmetric containers. These hydrodynamic equations have been coupled to the mass balance equation for binary hydrodynamic diffusion in the presence of a vertical gravitational field. Using finite-element software we have solved the equations governing coupled diffusive and hydrodynamic flow. A rapidly intensifying horizontal toroidal vortex develops around the axis of the bowl. This vortex is characterized by downward barycentric flow along the curved surface of the bowl and upward flow in the vicinity of its axis. We find that after a short period of time this large-scale cellular convection associated with the curved boundary of the bowl greatly enhances the rate of sedimentation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Discussion Based Fish Bowl Strategy in Learning Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the learning problems in psychology at Master of Education(M.Ed.,) in Bharathiar University and finds the effectiveness of Discussion Based Fish Bowl Strategy in learning psychology. Single group Experimental method was adopted for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted for this study.…

  5. Cultural Connections: Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a brief description of the piece of art titled "Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls" which is thought to be the product of a court or palace of the Neo-Assyrian period and dates to the late seventh to eighth century BC, between the reigns of Sargon and Ashurbanipal. The article highlights the piece's most notable…

  6. Multiple causes of wind erosion in the Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeffrey A.; Gill, Thomas E.

    2015-12-01

    The Dust Bowl refers to a disaster focused in the Southern Great Plains of North America during the 1930s, when the region experienced extreme wind erosion. Dry farming techniques increased soil erodibility. Drought reduced both soil cohesion, making it more erodible, and land cover, leaving the soil less protected from wind action. Low crop prices (driven by the Great Depression), extremely poor harvests (driven by drought), and lack of knowledge of regionally-appropriate tillage practices left farmers unable to implement erosion control on their land. The 1930s drought was severe, but neither unusual in the region nor extreme in length from a climatological perspective. Sea-surface temperature changes in the Atlantic and Pacific forced changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over North America. The result was persistent, intensifying drought within the Southern Great Plains for multiple years, causing a cascade of desiccation. Increased atmospheric dust and increased frequency of cyclones crossing the region may also have exacerbated Dust Bowl conditions. The Dust Bowl resulted from the simultaneous combination of drought and economic depression in a region where farmers had not yet learned effective land management techniques. Economic recovery, cessation of drought, and implementation of erosion control programs combined to end the Dust Bowl by the end of the 1930s. Many lessons were learned from the 1930s Dust Bowl regarding the physical and anthropogenic causes of dust storms and how to mitigate them. As a result, though dust storms continue on the Southern Great Plains, their severity is significantly reduced. Before our plow breaks open the soil at all, It's necessary to study the ways of the winds And the changing ways of the skies, and also to know… What crops will prosper there and what will not.

  7. Healing and sliding stability of simulated anhydrite fault gouge: Effects of water, temperature and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymakers, Anne M. H.; Niemeijer, André R.

    2015-08-01

    Anhydrite-bearing faults are currently of interest to 1) CO2-storage sites capped by anhydrite caprocks (such as those found in the North Sea) and 2) seismically active faults in evaporite formations (such as the Italian Apennines). In order to assess the likelihood of fault reactivation, the mode of fault slip and/or fault leakage, it is important to understand the evolution of frictional strength during periods of no slip and upon reloading (healing and relaxation behavior) and of the velocity dependence of friction of anhydrite fault gouge. Therefore, we performed slide-hold-slide experiments combined with a velocity-stepping sequence using simulated anhydrite fault gouge (> 95 wt.% CaSO4). Vacuum-dry and water-wet experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 20 to 150 °C, and at an effective normal stress of 25 MPa. We also performed tests using dry CO2, water-wetted CO2 and CO2-saturated water as pore fluid, but only at 120 °C. If pore fluid was present, a fluid pressure of 15 MPa was present. Vacuum-dry samples exhibit similar frictional healing to samples containing lab-air, but healing is significantly enhanced in wet samples. Dry samples exhibit velocity-weakening behavior at T ≥ 120 °C, and wet samples exhibit velocity-strengthening behavior over the full temperature range. The presence of CO2 does not influence the healing behavior or the velocity-dependence of friction. Samples containing water-wetted CO2 exhibit behavior similar to wet samples. We infer that the healing in dry samples is controlled by plastic asperity creep (Dieterich-type), possibly through dislocation creep and/or twinning. In wet samples healing is inferred to be controlled by increases in contact area and cohesion by pressure solution. Using a pressure solution rate model to extrapolate healing by contact area growth indicates that the maximum re-strengthening through such a mechanism will only take days to tens of days.

  8. Uniaxial Compression Analysis and Microdeformation Characterization of Kevin Dome Anhydrite Caprock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malenda, M. G.; Frash, L.; Carey, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Energy currently manages the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) in efforts to develop techniques to characterize promising CO2 storage sites, efficient and durable technology for injection, and suitable regulations for future CO2 storage. Within the RCSP, the Montana State University-Bozeman led Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project has focused on potential CO2 storage sites, including the Kevin Dome in northern Montana. The 750mi2 large dome lies along the north-southwest trending Sweetgrass Arch and is a natural CO2 reservoir with the potential to produce one million tonnes of CO2. The Project intends to extract and reinject this one million tonnes of CO2back into the water-leg of the Dome within the dolomitic, middle Duperow Formation to monitor impacts on the surrounding environment and communities. The caprock system includes extremely low porosity dolomite in the upper Duperow that is overlain by the anhydrite-dominated Potlatch caprock. Core was extracted by the Project from the Wallawein 22-1 well. Six 1"-diameter sub-samples were taken at depths of 3687 and 3689' of the 4"-diameter core in both vertical and horizontal directions. Unconfined uniaxial compression tests were conducted at room temperature using an Instron 4483 load frame with a 150kN load cell operated at a strain rate of 6.835-5mm per second. Samples were instrumented with four strain gages to record elastic moduli and characterize fracture behavior. The Potlatch anhydrite has demonstrated to be both strong and stiff with an average uniaxial compressive strength of 150.62±23.95MPa, a Young's modulus of 89.96±10.22GPa, and a Poisson's ratio of 0.32±0.05. These three variables are essential to developing geomechanical models that assess caprock responses to injection during CO2 sequestration. Petrographic characterizations of the fractured samples reveal an 80% groundmass of subeuhedral anhydrite crystals measuring 97-625μm and 20% 0.12-1mm wide veins

  9. Flow in a model of the SSME main injector bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. E.; Senaldi, J.; Vafidis, C.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Mcdonald, H.

    1989-01-01

    Mean-flow and turbulence quantities obtained in a 32-percent acrylic model of the SSME main injector bowl are presented. Flow visualization obtained with laser sheets and conventional photography shows the basic patterns and identifies regions of recirculating flow. Measurements of mean-flow and turbulence normal stresses are obtained with laser velocimetry to confirm these results and to quantify flow characteristics in the inlet ducts, entrance region, racetrack, LOX-post bundle, and exit nozzle. Measured velocity distributions show the upstream effect of the injector bowl in the transfer ducts, the plenum effect of the racetrack and LOX-post bundle, and the nonuniform distribution of flow into the main exit nozzle.

  10. On the Cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Koster, Randal D.; Bacmeister, Julio T.

    2004-01-01

    The 1930s was characterized by a decade of rainfall deficits and high temperatures that desiccated much of the United States Great Plains. Numerous dust storms created one of the most severe environmental catastrophes in U.S. history and led to the popular characterization of much of the southern Great Plains as the Dust Bowl . In this study, we show that the origin of the drought was in the anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures that occurred during that decade. We further show that interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface were essential to the development of the severe drought conditions. The results are based on simulations with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project general circulation model forced with observed and idealized sea surface temperatures. We contrast the 1930s drought with other major droughts of the 20th century, and speculate on the possibility of another Dust Bowl developing in the foreseeable future.

  11. Kiwifruit: taking its place in the global fruit bowl.

    PubMed

    Ward, Carol; Courtney, David

    2013-01-01

    While the world total production of kiwifruit has increased by over 50% during the last decade, the kiwifruit remains a niche fruit, taking up an estimated 0.22% of the global fruit bowl, which is dominated by apples, oranges, and bananas. Even though kiwifruit's share of the global fruit bowl has remained largely unchanged over the past 15 years, the scope for growth in the category is significant, with the nutritional and production characteristics of kiwifruit being on the right side of key global consumer trends around health and sustainability. Taking advantage of these consumer trends is one of two key challenges for the global kiwifruit industry. The second challenge is to harness the diverse natural and cultivated range of kiwifruit varieties (colors, flavors, sizes, and shapes) to stimulate the interest of consumers and grow the share of kiwifruit in the fruit basket through selecting cultivars that can develop meaningful market segments and meet consumer demand.

  12. Revising the Dust Bowl: High Above the Kansas Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Kenneth M; Rupley, Eric S A

    2012-07-01

    This article reconstructs land cover patterns in Depressionera Kansas from historical aerial photos and compares the locations of crop fields to areas of submarginal land identified in modern digital soil survey maps. The analysis argues that New Deal land retirement programs overestimated the degree of bad land use because they lacked the basic science to make comprehensive assessments. The findings demonstrate that the misuse of land unfit for cultivation was relatively rare across the central plains but especially in the Dust Bowl region.

  13. Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl

    DOEpatents

    Almon, Amy C.

    1997-01-01

    Method and device for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrocell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria.

  14. Simulating US agriculture in a modern Dust Bowl drought.

    PubMed

    Glotter, Michael; Elliott, Joshua

    2016-12-12

    Drought-induced agricultural loss is one of the most costly impacts of extreme weather(1-3), and without mitigation, climate change is likely to increase the severity and frequency of future droughts(4,5). The Dust Bowl of the 1930s was the driest and hottest for agriculture in modern US history. Improvements in farming practices have increased productivity, but yields today are still tightly linked to climate variation(6) and the impacts of a 1930s-type drought on current and future agricultural systems remain unclear. Simulations of biophysical process and empirical models suggest that Dust-Bowl-type droughts today would have unprecedented consequences, with yield losses ∼50% larger than the severe drought of 2012. Damages at these extremes are highly sensitive to temperature, worsening by ∼25% with each degree centigrade of warming. We find that high temperatures can be more damaging than rainfall deficit, and, without adaptation, warmer mid-century temperatures with even average precipitation could lead to maize losses equivalent to the Dust Bowl drought. Warmer temperatures alongside consecutive droughts could make up to 85% of rain-fed maize at risk of changes that may persist for decades. Understanding the interactions of weather extremes and a changing agricultural system is therefore critical to effectively respond to, and minimize, the impacts of the next extreme drought event.

  15. Simulating US Agriculture in a Modern Dust Bowl Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glotter, Michael; Elliott, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Drought-induced agricultural loss is one of the most costly impacts of extreme weather, and without mitigation, climate change is likely to increase the severity and frequency of future droughts. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s was the driest and hottest for agriculture in modern US history. Improvements in farming practices have increased productivity, but yields today are still tightly linked to climate variation and the impacts of a 1930s-type drought on current and future agricultural systems remain unclear. Simulations of biophysical process and empirical models suggest that Dust-Bowl-type droughts today would have unprecedented consequences, with yield losses approx.50% larger than the severe drought of 2012. Damages at these extremes are highly sensitive to temperature, worsening by approx.25% with each degree centigrade of warming. We find that high temperatures can be more damaging than rainfall deficit, and, without adaptation, warmer mid-century temperatures with even average precipitation could lead to maize losses equivalent to the Dust Bowl drought. Warmer temperatures alongside consecutive droughts could make up to 85% of rain-fed maize at risk of changes that may persist for decades. Understanding the interactions of weather extremes and a changing agricultural system is therefore critical to effectively respond to, and minimize, the impacts of the next extreme drought event.

  16. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  17. Stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks – A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Simon; Blum, Philipp; Butscher, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunnel engineering, causing serious damage to tunnels and producing high additional costs during tunnel construction and operation. The swelling leads to geomechanical processes that may result in heave of the tunnel invert, destruction of the lining or uplift of the entire tunnel section. Heave-pressure-time relations are needed when predictions should be made about the mechanical behavior of swelling rock. For pure clay rocks, there is a linear relation between the swelling heave (strain) and the logarithm of pressure (Grob 1972). A generally accepted relation for clay-sulfate rocks, however, is still lacking to date. Therefore, finding appropriate and sustainable counter measures for an actual tunneling project affected by swelling remains extremely difficult. Grob (1972) proposed the linear relation between heave and the logarithm of pressure ("semi-logarithmic swelling law") not only for clay rocks, but also for clay-sulfate rocks. Pimentel (2007), however, presented laboratory experiments indicating that the semi-logarithmic swelling law may be inadequate for describing the swelling of clay-sulfate rocks. The laboratory tests revealed three different stages in the swelling process, including minimal deformation and prevented gypsum crystallization at high pressures (> 6 MPa); large deformation and gypsum crystallization at medium pressures; and only small deformation, possibly along with gypsum dissolution, at low pressures (< 4 MPa). He pointed at a "tri-linear" relation to describe the different stages. Kirschke (1995) generally doubts the existence of a fixed relation between swelling strain and (final) pressure. According to him, swelling pressures and their temporal development are controlled by water inflow into the rock, which cannot be reflected by general strain-stress relations. The present study critically reviews stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks proposed by various

  18. Geophysical observations and structural models of shallow caves in gypsum/anhydrite-bearing rocks in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko

    2016-04-01

    In northern Germany, the evaporitic sequence of Zechstein rocks outcrops at several locations, offering insight into both surface and sub-surface morphology of the soluble rocks. We discuss two field sites, an active shallow gypsum cave in the southern Harz Mountains, and an active shallow anhydrite/gypsum cave close to Bad Segeberg, which both have been explored from the surface by geophysical surveys. The overburden of the caves varies from 5-40 meter, and the caves are characterised by both small passages and larger breakdown chambers. We relate the indirect geophysical measurements to parts of the known cave systems, and present structural models describing both geometry and groundwater flow in these caves with the help of numerical tools.

  19. Influence of solidification accelerators on structure formation of anhydrite-containing binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikanova, L.; Volkova, O.; Kudyakov, A.; Sarkisov, Y.; Tolstov, D.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results of scientific analysis of chemical additives influence on acid fluoride binder. It was found that the influence of sulfate nature additives on the process of hydration and solidification of the binder is similar to influence of additives on indissoluble anhydrite. Additives with SO42- anion NO- are more efficient. The mentioned additives according to accelerating effect belong to the following succession: K2SO4 > Na2SO4 > FeSO4 > MgSO4. Facilitation of the process of hydration and solidification of the binder, increase in density and durability of the binder (32 MPa) is to the greatest extent achieved with the introduction of 2% sodium sulfate additive of the binder's mass into the composition of the binder along with the ultrasonic treatment of water solution. Directed crystal formation process with healing of porous structure by new growths presented as calcium sulfate dehydrate and hydroglauberite provides positive effect.

  20. Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl

    DOEpatents

    Almon, A.C.

    1997-03-18

    Method and device are disclosed for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrolytic cell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria. 2 figs.

  1. Revising the Dust Bowl: High Above the Kansas Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Kenneth M.; Rupley, Eric S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reconstructs land cover patterns in Depressionera Kansas from historical aerial photos and compares the locations of crop fields to areas of submarginal land identified in modern digital soil survey maps. The analysis argues that New Deal land retirement programs overestimated the degree of bad land use because they lacked the basic science to make comprehensive assessments. The findings demonstrate that the misuse of land unfit for cultivation was relatively rare across the central plains but especially in the Dust Bowl region. PMID:25288873

  2. U.S. agriculture in a modern Dust Bowl drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotter, M.; Chryssanthacopoulos, J.; Moyer, E. J.; Elliott, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Drought-induced agricultural loss is one of the leading weather-related harms to the U.S. economy, but little is known about the effects of extreme droughts or of consecutive multi-year drought events on agriculture. Three droughts in the early 1930s make the Dust Bowl era the driest and hottest for agriculture in modern U.S. history and a useful analog to study extreme weather and its impact on human society. Improvements in technology and farm management over the last eight decades have dramatically increased average crop yields in the U.S., but the elimination of most non-climatic crop stresses means rainfed yields are now more tightly linked to climate. To understand how a 1930s-type drought would affect agriculture in the modern U.S., we drive empirical and biophysical process-based crop models with 1930s weather -- with and without increases in mean temperature -- to estimate effects of successive droughts on current and near-future U.S. maize, soy and wheat production. Our results suggest that Dust-Bowl-type droughts today would have unprecedented consequences for agricultural productivity, with single-year losses up to ~50% larger than the central U.S. drought of 2012, one of the most severe for modern agriculture. Sensitivity tests imply that damages at these extremes are highly sensitive to temperature. If extreme drought conditions are even modestly warmer (1-4 oC), single-year losses jump to more than twice the 2012 drought. Assuming that repeated crop failure over a relatively short period is likely to induce changes to land-use and management, we find that a future Dust-Bowl-like drought, especially under higher temperature scenarios, could lead to significant long-term consequences for U.S. agriculture. Changes in climate may increase the severity and frequency of future droughts, so understanding the complex interactions of weather extremes and a changing agricultural system is critical to effective preparation and response if and when the next Dust

  3. Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl

    SciTech Connect

    Almon, A.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a method and device for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrocell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria.

  4. Size of food bowl and scoop affects amount of food owners feed their dogs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M; Lusby, A L; Bartges, J W; Kirk, C A

    2012-04-01

    The incidence of canine obesity appears to be increasing dramatically and understanding factors impacting the amount of food pet owners provide their dogs may improve weight management. Human research has shown the size of food bowls, plates and utensils can significantly impact the amount of food portioned and consumed. This effect can be attributed to both the Delboeuf optical illusion and the Ebbinghaus-Titchener size-contrast illusion. To investigate the existence of a similar effect with dog owners, 54 dogs and their owners were recruited for a four treatment randomized prospective trial. Owners scooped out a normal kibble-based meal using a small bowl and small scoop, small bowl and large scoop, large bowl and small scoop or a large bowl and large scoop. Each treatment was used once per owner over four visits. Repeated measures anova revealed the mean amount of food portioned using the small bowl and small scoop was significantly less than all other bowl and scoop combinations (150.7 g vs. 171.5 g vs. 172.7 g vs. 184.5 g, p < 0.05). The small bowl and large scoop combination did not differ from large bowl and small scoop (171.5 g vs. 172.7 g, p > 0.05). Owners were more likely to portion a larger amount of food with a large bowl and large scoop. Results are consistent with human data and emphasize the need for owners to use standard measuring cups. Results also suggest owner compliance during weight loss programs may be improved with smaller bowls and serving scoops.

  5. Effectiveness of bowl trapping and netting for inventory of a bee community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, R.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Jean, R.P.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    Concern over the status of bees has increased the need to inventory bee communities and, consequently, has increased the need to understand effectiveness of different bee sampling methods. We sampled bees using bowl traps and netting at 25 northwest Indiana sites ranging from open grasslands to forests. Assemblages of bees captured in bowl traps and by netting were very similar, but this similarity was driven by similar relative abundances of commonly captured species. Less common species were often not shared between collection methods (bowls, netting) and only about half of the species were shared between methods. About one-quarter of species were more often captured by one of the two collection methods. Rapid accumulation of species was aided by sampling at temporal and habitat extremes. In particular, collecting samples early and late in the adult flight season and in open and forest habitats was effective in capturing the most species with the fewest samples. The number of samples estimated necessary to achieve a complete inventory using bowls and netting together was high. For example, ≈72% of species estimated capturable in bowls were captured among the 3,159 bees collected in bowls in this study, but ≈30,000–35,000 additional bees would need to be collected to achieve a 100% complete inventory. For bowl trapping, increasing the number of sampling dates or sampling sites was more effective than adding more bowls per sampling date in completing the inventory with the fewest specimens collected.

  6. A Viewer Survey of the Expanded WBGU-TV Audience, Bowling Green, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David W.

    Contained in this report are the results of a telephone survey conducted among 961 households in the television market for Bowling Green, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to determine the characteristics of the viewing audience for WBGU. WBGU--owned by Bowling Green State University--became the public television station for a 19-county area in…

  7. Lessons from the Dust Bowl: Human-Environment Education on the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This article documents regional demand for human-environment educational resources via assessment of public knowledge of the environmental crisis known as the Dust Bowl. The steadily eroding knowledge-base on the topic is discussed along with the desire for enhanced Dust Bowl educational resources. Regionally focused educational activities…

  8. Bowling-Fencing Guide with Official Rules. January 1973 - January 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, Ethel, Ed.; Curry, Nancy L., Ed.

    Rules for women's bowling and fencing from January 1973 to January 1975 are discussed. Standards in sports for girls and women are detailed along with the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Specific articles dealing with bowling skills, norms, and rules for women are included. Articles are also included on the…

  9. Bowling Together: Cultivating Communities of Practice in English and Social Studies Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Elizabeth; Wilson, Angene H.

    2006-01-01

    In his sociological study Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (2000), Robert Putnam argues that Americans need to "reconnect to one another" and, both metaphorically and literally, go bowling together (p. 28). The authors--an English educator and a social studies educator--describe a four year collaboration that has led…

  10. 77 FR 75550 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle... in Miami, FL during the 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship. The event will take place on January 13... purpose of the rule is to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the 2013 Orange...

  11. Characteristics of bowl-shaped coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Keita; Suyama, Momoko; Takiyama, Yoshihiro; Kim, Dongmin; Saitoh, Youichi; Sekino, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has recently been used as a method for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Daily TMS sessions can provide continuous therapeutic effectiveness, and the installation of TMS systems at patients' homes has been proposed. A figure-eight coil, which is normally used for TMS therapy, induces a highly localized electric field; however, it is challenging to achieve accurate coil positioning above the targeted brain area using this coil. In this paper, a bowl-shaped coil for stimulating a localized but wider area of the brain is proposed. The coil's electromagnetic characteristics were analyzed using finite element methods, and the analysis showed that the bowl-shaped coil induced electric fields in a wider area of the brain model than a figure-eight coil. The expanded distribution of the electric field led to greater robustness of the coil to the coil-positioning error. To improve the efficiency of the coil, the relationship between individual coil design parameters and the resulting coil characteristics was numerically analyzed. It was concluded that lengthening the outer spherical radius and narrowing the width of the coil were effective methods for obtaining a more effective and more uniform distribution of the electric field.

  12. A halite-siderite-anhydrite-chlorapatite assemblage in Nakhla: mineralogical evidence for evaporites on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J. C.; Grady, M. M.

    1999-05-01

    We report the results of a study of a halite-siderite-anhydrite-chlorapatite assemblage in the SNC (martian) meteorite Nakhla. These minerals are found associated with each other in interstitial areas, halite often being adjacent to or enclosing siderite. We suggest the halite and other minerals are martian in origin because the conditions of fall preclude significant amounts of terrestrial contamination or weathering having taken place; textures indicate that the minerals within this assemblage crystallised at the same stage as some silicate and oxide minerals within the Nakhla parent ; the association with siderite which previous studies have shown has carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions incompatible with an origin on Earth. Siderite has the range of compositions CaCO3 0.1-5.7, MgCO3 2.0-40.9, FeCO3 23.2-87.0, MnCO3 1.0-39.9 mol. %. There are two compositional groupings: high-MnCO3 (( 30 mol %) and low-MnCO3/high-FeCO3, with a gap identified between the two. This may be a miscibility gap or, alternatively, the 2 compositional groupings may mark separate generations of carbonate. We have not found any textural evidence for the latter explanation but acceptance of the presence of a miscibility gap would require independent work on Fe-Mn carbonates to verify its existence. Trace element abundances have been determined by ion microprobe analysis on 3 siderite and 1 anhydrite grains. Siderite has LREE (2.2 - 7.3 x C1) > HREE (0.32 - 0.79 x C1) without Ce or Eu anomalies and the anhydrite has a similar pattern. These abundances reflect the source composition rather than partitioning or complexing controls. They are not typical of hydrothermal signatures which generally do not have such smooth REE abundance patterns. The nature of the mineral assemblage suggests that its source rocks on Mars were evaporites. These may be common in the craters and flood plains of the martian southern highlands. Two models are suggested in this paper to explain the incorporation of

  13. Clay hydration and crystal growth in expansive anhydritic claystone. The Ascó Power Plant case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Eduardo; Ramon, Anna

    2015-04-01

    A large power plant directly founded on a hard claystone experienced, soon after the construction of the foundation slabs, a continuous heave developing at decreasing rate, which has been active for the last 35 years. When undisturbed (i.e., at some depth, in the range of several meters) Ascó claystone exhibits high unconfined compressive strengths (30-40 MPa). In high quality cores the rock has a massive aspect and discontinuities are difficult to observe. The rock has a Tertiary origin and horizontal layers at spacing of 1-4 m could be identified. Whitish seams of gypsum, bassanite or anhydrite are also observed within the reddish rock matrix. Minerals identified in deep cores are quartz (10%), calcite and dolomite (50-70%), clay minerals (10-20%) and gypsum and anhydrite (2-20%). Among the clay minerals, illite dominates (10%). Smectite or smectite-interbedded minerals do not amount in general to more than 5%. The undisturbed rock has a low porosity (6-11%) and low water content (2-5%). Because of the presence of hydrated sulphates, water content and degree of saturation (Sr=0.8-0.9 was found) are somewhat uncertain. However, high suctions were found in recovered cores. This rock changes into a weathered material at shallow depths. Mineralogy is not much affected but porosity increases to 22-29% and water content increases to 10-19%. Strength drops to small values (soil like) and a lower "in situ" suction has been measured (0.4-7.1 MPa). The added pore volume of the weathered material, if compared with the deep rock, is filled with water. The heave of the station was attributed to the hydration of undisturbed rock under the building slabs of the power plant. In fact, large excavations preceded the layout of foundations. As a result, atmospheric water had an easy access to the intact rock. The installation of a compacted soil fill around the buildings allowed the presence of a permanent water table which could infiltrate into the rock. Piezometric data provided

  14. Empty Bowls Feed the Hungry: Service Learning across the Curriculum with the Visual Arts at the Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namnoun, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Describes a school-wide, cross-curricular project called, "Empty Bowls", at Hall High School (West Hartford, Connecticut). Explains that students created ceramic bowls and made soup to fill the bowls to raise money to fight hunger. Provides a description of how the school became involved and raised the money. (CMK)

  15. Origin of deformed halite hopper crystals, pseudomorphic anhydrite cubes and polyhalite in Alpine evaporites (Austria, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, C.; Neubauer, F.; Marschallinger, R.; Genser, J.; Bernroider, M.

    2013-04-01

    The Alpine Haselgebirge Formation represents an Upper Permian to Lower Triassic evaporitic rift succession of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps). Although the rocksalt body deposits are highly tectonised, consisting mainly of protocataclasites and mylonites of halite and mudrock, the early diagenetic history can be established from non-tectonised mudrock bodies: Cm-sized euhedral halite hopper crystals formed as displacive cubes within mud just during shallow burial. The crystals were deformed by subsequent compaction. Later, migrating fluids led to the replacement of halite by anhydrite retaining the shapes of deformed halite cubes. Polyhalite formed from subsequent enhanced fluid migration. Mudrock provided water by dewatering, while potassium and magnesium were dissolved from primary salt minerals. When these fluids interacted with sulphates, polyhalite precipitated. 40Ar/39Ar analyses date the polyhalite from within the retaining shapes of deformed halite hopper-shaped cubes from two localities to ca. 235-232 Ma (Middle Triassic). At this time, ca. 20-25 Ma after sedimentation, polyhalite crystallised at shallow levels.

  16. Influence of solidification accelerators on structure formation of anhydrite-containing binders

    SciTech Connect

    Anikanova, L. Volkova, O. Kudyakov, A.; Sarkisov, Y.; Tolstov, D.

    2016-01-15

    The article presents results of scientific analysis of chemical additives influence on acid fluoride binder. It was found that the influence of sulfate nature additives on the process of hydration and solidification of the binder is similar to influence of additives on indissoluble anhydrite. Additives with SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anion NO{sup −} are more efficient. The mentioned additives according to accelerating effect belong to the following succession: K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} > Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} > FeSO{sub 4} > MgSO{sub 4}. Facilitation of the process of hydration and solidification of the binder, increase in density and durability of the binder (32 MPa) is to the greatest extent achieved with the introduction of 2% sodium sulfate additive of the binder’s mass into the composition of the binder along with the ultrasonic treatment of water solution. Directed crystal formation process with healing of porous structure by new growths presented as calcium sulfate dehydrate and hydroglauberite provides positive effect.

  17. Modeling the influence of sinking anhydrite blocks on salt diapirs targeted for hazardous waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyi, Hemin A.

    2001-05-01

    Due to the low permeability and high ductility of rock salt, many salt diapirs, such as those in Germany and the Netherlands, are targeted as long-term repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive and chemical wastes. Geophysical and subsurface data show that the Gorleben salt diapir, which is one of the most extensively investigated diapirs in the world, and other salt diapirs of the Zechstein Formation in Germany contain large blocks (˜80 m thick) of high-density anhydrite inclusions. These blocks, which were carried upward by the rising salt, are considered to be detached segments of intercalated layers that initially were deposited with the salt. Results of physical and numerical models, presented here, show that such detached, high-density blocks, which were entrained and carried upward by the diapir at an earlier stage, tend to sink in the late stages of diapiric evolution when the rate of diapiric rise slows down. During their descent, these high- density competent blocks deform by folding and create shear zones at the immediate contact with the less competent salt. The descending blocks initiate a secondary internal flow within the salt diapirs they descend, and they may deform any repository built within such diapirs, which would otherwise be considered as tectonically inactive.

  18. Origin of deformed halite hopper crystals, pseudomorphic anhydrite cubes and polyhalite in Alpine evaporites (Austria, Germany).

    PubMed

    Leitner, C; Neubauer, F; Marschallinger, R; Genser, J; Bernroider, M

    The Alpine Haselgebirge Formation represents an Upper Permian to Lower Triassic evaporitic rift succession of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps). Although the rocksalt body deposits are highly tectonised, consisting mainly of protocataclasites and mylonites of halite and mudrock, the early diagenetic history can be established from non-tectonised mudrock bodies: Cm-sized euhedral halite hopper crystals formed as displacive cubes within mud just during shallow burial. The crystals were deformed by subsequent compaction. Later, migrating fluids led to the replacement of halite by anhydrite retaining the shapes of deformed halite cubes. Polyhalite formed from subsequent enhanced fluid migration. Mudrock provided water by dewatering, while potassium and magnesium were dissolved from primary salt minerals. When these fluids interacted with sulphates, polyhalite precipitated. (40)Ar/(39)Ar analyses date the polyhalite from within the retaining shapes of deformed halite hopper-shaped cubes from two localities to ca. 235-232 Ma (Middle Triassic). At this time, ca. 20-25 Ma after sedimentation, polyhalite crystallised at shallow levels.

  19. Hydraulic fracturing tests in anhydrite interbeds in the WIPP, Marker Beds 139 and 140

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, C L [RE Wawersik, W. R.; Carlson, L. V.; Henfling, J. A.; Borns, D. J.; Beauheim, R. L.; Roberts, R. M.

    1997-05-01

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were integrated with hydrologic tests to estimate the conditions under which gas pressure in the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM (WIPP) will initiate and advance fracturing in nearby anhydrite interbeds. The measurements were made in two marker beds in the Salado formation, MB139 and MB140, to explore the consequences of existing excavations for the extrapolation of results to undisturbed ground. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the pressure-time records in two injection boreholes and several nearby hydrologic observation holes. Data interpretations were aided by post-test borehole video surveys of fracture traces that were made visible by ultraviolet illumination of fluorescent dye in the hydraulic fracturing fluid. The conclusions of this report relate to the upper- and lower-bound gas pressures in the WIPP, the paths of hydraulically and gas-driven fractures in MB139 and MB140, the stress states in MB139 and MB140, and the probable in situ stress states in these interbeds in undisturbed ground far away from the WIPP.

  20. Synthesis of Nano-Bowls with a Janus Template

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Chris D.; Zhang, Chen; Anzenberg, Paula; Akkiraju, Siddhartha; Lal, Ratnesh

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal particles with two or more different surface properties (Janus particles) are of interest in catalysis, biological imaging, and drug delivery. Eccentric nanoparticles are a type of Janus particle consisting of a shell that envelops the majority of a core particle, leaving a portion of the core surface exposed. Previous work to synthesize eccentric nanoparticles from silica and polystyrene have only used microemulsion techniques. In contrast we report the solgel synthesis of eccentric Janus nanoparticles composed of a silica shell around a carboxylate-modified polystyrene core (Janus templates). In addition, we have synthesized nano-bowl-like structures after the removal of the polystyrene core by organic solvent. These Janus templates and nanobowls can be used as a versatile platform for site-specific functionalization or controlled theranostic delivery. PMID:25431230

  1. On the Causes of the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max; Pegion, Philip; Koster, Randal; Bacmeister, Julie

    2004-01-01

    During the 1930s the United States experienced one of the most devastating droughts of the last century. The drought affected almost 2/3 of the country and parts of Mexico and Canada and was infamous for the numerous dust storms that lead to the characterization of much of the Great Plains as the 'Dust Bowl'. Results from an ensemble of 100-year simulations with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed SSTs show that the model reproduces the basic features of the 1930s drought. In this study we exploit this realism in the model simulation to examine in more detail the role of the SST and soil moisture in the development and maintenance the 1930s drought. Results will be presented from simulations in which the SST anomalies are confined to the separate ocean basins, as well as from runs in which soil moisture feedback is turn off.

  2. Origin and characterization of fly ashes from cellulose industries containing high proportions of free lime and anhydrite

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, A.; Eggenberger, U.; Peters, T.

    1999-10-01

    Fly ashes from cellulose industries originate from different internal waste combustion processes. Because they contain considerable amounts of free lime and anhydrite, they are potential secondary raw materials for the production of building products. The source of the CaO is a Ca-bisulfite-sludge originating from the cellulose extraction process. The CaO/anhydrite ratio in this lime-sulfate fly ash depends on the extent of sulphur reduction by organic carbon during the combustion process. A second type of Al-bearing ash contains additionally lowly reactive calcium silicates and highly reactive calcium aluminate phases originating from combusted paper sludge containing kaolinite. Both ashes show a reduced reactivity compared to commercial lime as it is used for the production of autoclaved aerated concrete. The reduced activity is related to the coated surfaces of the CaO and elevated sulfate and alkali contents.

  3. Stability of Basalt plus Anhydrite plus Calcite at HP-HT: Implications for Venus, the Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    "Canali" observed at Venus surface by Magellan are evidence for very long melt flows, but their composition and origin remain uncertain. The hypothesis of water-rich flow is not reasonable regarding the temperature at Venus surface. The length of these channels could not be explained by a silicate melt composition but more likely, by a carbonate-sulfate melt which has a much lower viscosity (Kargel et al 1994). One hypothesis is that calcite CaCO3 and anhydrite CaSO4 which are alteration products of basalts melted during meteorite impacts. A famous example recorded on the Earth (Chicxulub) produced melt and gas rich in carbon and sulfur. Calcite and sulfate evaporites are also present on Mars surface, associated with basalts. An impact on these materials might release C- and S-rich melt or fluid. Another type of planetary phenomenon (affecting only the Earth) might provoke a high pressure destabilization of basalt+anhydrite+calcite. Very high contents of C and S are measured in some Earth s magmas, either dissolved or in the form of crystals (Luhr 2008). As shown by the high H content and high fO2 of primary igneous anhydrite-bearing lavas, the high S content in their source may be explained by subduction of an anhydrite-bearing oceanic crust, either directly (by melting followed by eruption) or indirectly (by release of S-rich melt or fluid that metasomatize the mantle) . Calcite is a major product of oceanic sedimentation and alteration of the crust. Therefore, sulfate- and calcite-rich material may be subducted to high pressures and high temperatures (HP-HT) and release S- and C-rich melts or fluids which could influence the composition of subduction zone lavas or gases. Both phenomena - meteorite impact and subduction - imply HP-HT conditions - although the P-T-time paths are different. Some HP experimental/theoretical studies have been performed on basalt/eclogite, calcite and anhydrite separately or on a combination of two. In this study we performed piston

  4. Stability of basalt+anhydrite+calcite at HP-HT: implications for Venus, the Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    “Canali” observed at Venus’ surface by Magellan are evidence for very long melt flows, but their composition and origin remain uncertain. The hypothesis of water-rich flow is not reasonable regarding Venus’ surface temperature. The length of these channels could not be explained by a silicate melt composition but more likely, by a carbonate-sulfate melt which has a much lower viscosity (Kargel et al 1994). One hypothesis is that calcite CaCO3 and anhydrite CaSO4 - which are alteration products of basalts - melted during meteorite impacts. A famous example recorded on the Earth (Chicxulub) produced melt and gas rich in carbon and sulfur. Calcite and sulfate evaporites are also present on Mars surface, associated with basalts. An impact on these materials may release C- and S-rich melt or fluid. Another type of planetary phenomenon (affecting only the Earth) might provoke a high pressure destabilization of basalt+anhydrite+calcite. Very high contents of C and S are measured in some Earth’s magmas, either dissolved or in the form of crystals (Luhr 2008). As shown by the high H content and high fO2 of primary igneous anhydrite-bearing lavas, the high S content in their source may be explained by the subduction of an anhydrite-bearing oceanic crust, either directly (by melting followed by eruption) or indirectly (by release of S-rich melt or fluid that metasomatize the mantle). Calcite is a major product of oceanic sedimentation and alteration of the crust. Therefore, sulfate- and calcite-rich material may be subducted to high pressures and high temperatures (HP-HT) and release S- and C-rich melts or fluids which could influence the composition of subduction zone lavas or gases. Both phenomena - meteorite impact and subduction - imply HP-HT conditions - although the P-T-time paths are different. Some HP experimental/theoretical studies have been performed on basalt/eclogite, calcite and anhydrite separately or on a combination of two. In this study we

  5. Synthesis of nano-bowls with a Janus template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Alexander H.; Landon, Preston B.; Emerson, Chris D.; Zhang, Chen; Anzenberg, Paula; Akkiraju, Siddhartha; Lal, Ratnesh

    2014-12-01

    Colloidal particles with two or more different surface properties (Janus particles) are of interest in catalysis, biological imaging, and drug delivery. Eccentric nanoparticles are a type of Janus particle consisting of a shell that envelops the majority of a core particle, leaving a portion of the core surface exposed. Previous work to synthesize eccentric nanoparticles from silica and polystyrene have only used microemulsion techniques. In contrast we report the sol-gel synthesis of eccentric Janus nanoparticles composed of a silica shell around a carboxylate-modified polystyrene core (Janus templates). In addition, we have synthesized nano-bowl-like structures after the removal of the polystyrene core by organic solvent. These Janus templates and nanobowls can be used as a versatile platform for site-specific functionalization or controlled theranostic delivery.Colloidal particles with two or more different surface properties (Janus particles) are of interest in catalysis, biological imaging, and drug delivery. Eccentric nanoparticles are a type of Janus particle consisting of a shell that envelops the majority of a core particle, leaving a portion of the core surface exposed. Previous work to synthesize eccentric nanoparticles from silica and polystyrene have only used microemulsion techniques. In contrast we report the sol-gel synthesis of eccentric Janus nanoparticles composed of a silica shell around a carboxylate-modified polystyrene core (Janus templates). In addition, we have synthesized nano-bowl-like structures after the removal of the polystyrene core by organic solvent. These Janus templates and nanobowls can be used as a versatile platform for site-specific functionalization or controlled theranostic delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Particle size distribution before and after centrifugation during the wash process, SEM and TEM images used in quantification of Janus template yield and population break down. See DOI: 10

  6. Spatial patterns of bee captures in North American bowl trapping surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droege, Sam; Tepedino, Vincent J.; Lebuhn, Gretchen; Link, William; Minckley, Robert L.; Chen, Qian; Conrad, Casey

    2010-01-01

    1. Bowl and pan traps are now commonly used to capture bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) for research and surveys. 2. Studies of how arrangement and spacing of bowl traps affect captures of bees are needed to increase the efficiency of this capture technique. 3. We present results from seven studies of bowl traps placed in trapping webs, grids, and transects in four North American ecoregions (Mid-Atlantic, Coastal California, Chihuahuan Desert, and Columbia Plateau). 4. Over 6000 specimens from 31 bee genera were captured and analysed across the studies. 5. Based on the results from trapping webs and distance tests, the per bowl capture rate of bees does not plateau until bowls are spaced 3–5 m apart. 6. Minor clumping of bee captures within transects was detected, with 26 of 56 transects having index of dispersion values that conform to a clumped distribution and 39 transects having positive Green's index values, 13 with zero, and only four negative. However, degree of clumping was slight with an average value of only 0.06 (the index ranges from -1 to 1) with only five values >0.15. Similarly, runs tests were significant for only 5.9% of the transects. 7. Results indicate that (i) capture rates are unaffected by short distances between bowls within transects and (ii) that bowls and transects should be dispersed throughout a study site.

  7. Anhydrite cements after dolomitization of shallow marine Silurian carbonates of the Gascoyne Platform, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tabakh, Mohamed; Mory, Arthur; Schreiber, B. Charlotte; Yasin, Raza

    2004-02-01

    Carbonates and evaporites in the Dirk Hartog Group were deposited in subtidal, peritidal and shallow-marine evaporitic mudflat environments across the Gascoyne Platform within the Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. The carbonates are composed of ooids, peloids and minor bioclastic fragments, with early cements. They have been extensively dolomitized and replaced, in part, by late anhydrite sparry cements. Four types of dolomite which range from early to burial types are identified, incorporating re-equilibration or re-crystallization from basin brines. Accordingly, they exhibit distinctive petrographic features and isotopic signatures of carbon and oxygen. Evaporites deposited are present as discrete beds and displacive nodules in carbonate and siliciclastic beds, and show δ34S CDT values and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios indicative of variable marine and non-marine conditions. Late dissolution of evaporites has produced satin spar gypsum veins in the shallowest section of the platform, whereas blocky and sparry anhydrite cements and void fillings formed deeper within the platform. Dissolution of the evaporites and formation of anhydrite cements post-date dolomitization.

  8. The effect of pressure on the kinetics of γ-anhydrite crystallization investigated by diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanjiang; Zheng, Haifei; Du, Jianguo; Wang, Duojun

    2015-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of γ-anhydrite was investigated in the temperature and pressure ranges of 373-473 K and 1094-1903 MPa using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and Raman spectroscopy. A calcium sulfate solution was formed by dissolving gypsum in water at high pressure, and γ-anhydrite crystallized due to the increasing temperature. The relationship among the reaction rate, k, the temperature, T, and the pressure, P was established as k=-1.75×10-3+1.83×10-6P+3.57×10-7T, with an R2 value of 0.943, of which the applicable range is 373 K≤T≤473 K and 1196 MPa≤P≤1903 MPa. An elevation of T or P will accelerate the crystallization rate of γ-anhydrite. The time exponent n obtained between 0.96 and 1.29 indicates that the process of crystallization should be controlled by instant nucleation on the grain boundary and diffusion controlled growth. In the process of crystallization, the volume is reduced because of the decrease of pressure, and the volume change ΔV is equal to -6.05×10-6 m3/mol. The calculated activation energy Ea is 10.7 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor A is 2.27×10-2 s-1.

  9. The development of a novel cricket bowling system: recreating spin and swing bowling deliveries at the elite level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. A.; Justham, L.

    2008-03-01

    During the game of cricket, bowlers create different deliveries by altering the manner in which they release the ball from their hand. The orientation of the seam, the speed at which the ball is released and the magnitude and direction of the spin combine to determine the motion of the ball through the air and its movement after impact with the wicket. These factors have to be considered if automatic training machines are to be capable of replicating elite bowling deliveries. The need for automotive systems for batting and fielding training at the elite level has arisen due to: (i) the capabilities of human bowlers are limited by the onset of fatigue and the risk of injury and (ii) a large number of accurate and repeatable deliveries to be ''programmable'' by coaches to ensure batsmen and fielders are tested to the limits of their abilities and a training benefit is achieved.

  10. 76 FR 52733 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Change in Use of Aeronautical Property at Bowling Green-Warren County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Bowling Green--Warren County Regional Airport, Bowling Green, KY AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... requesting public comment on request by the Bowling Green--Warren County Airport Board to change a portion of airport property ] from aeronautical to non-aeronautical use at the Bowling Green--Warren County...

  11. Structures in an anhydrite layer embedded in halite matrix: Results from thermomechanical experiments under bulk plain strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertineit, M.; Zulauf, G.; Peinl, M.; Zanella, F.; Bornemann, O.

    2009-04-01

    Anhydrite layers from Gorleben salt dome, embedded in a halite matrix from Asse salt dome, both northern Germany, were deformed under bulk plain strain using a thermomechenical apparatus (Zulauf et al., 2007, 2009). The initial layer thickness Hi ranges from 0.85 to 2.5 mm. Further deformation conditions were as follows: T =345˚ C, max=4.59 MPa, ezmax=-40%, Ä-=2*10-7s-1. During the deformation process, load cells record the stress along Y and Z. The displaced material could escape in X. The deformed samples were scanned using a computer tomograph at the Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt/Main. The CT data allow the generation of 3D-modells using the software Smoooth. We deformed six samples with the layer (S) perpendicular to the X-axis and four samples with the layer perpendicular to the Z-axis. Depending on the orientation of the layer (S⊥X or S⊥Z), the expected structures should be folds or boudins, respectively, the geometry of which should strongly depend on Hi. In cases were the layer was orientated parallel to the shortening axis (S⊥X), the anhydrite layer shows Mohr-Coulomb fractures. The fracture walls were thrust on top of each other. The space between hanging and foot wall is filled with salt. The angle between the fractures and the YZ-plain ranges from 10˚ to 25˚ , rarely up to 70˚ , dependent on the finite strain. In thin layers (Hi=0.85 and 1 mm) rarely non-cylindrical folds developed. In both cases (S⊥X and S⊥Z) the layer thickness did not significantly change during deformation. In cases were the layer was orientated perpendicular to the shortening axis (S⊥Z) boudins developed by extensional fracture. The number of boudins and their size depend strongly on the initial layer thickness Hi. With increasing layer thickness Hi the width of boudins Wa increases linearly. Wa = -0.2 + 1.4 * Hi (1) This relation between Hi and Wa is further compatible with equation (16.4) of Price and Cosgrove (1990) which also

  12. Frictional healing and sealing in anhydrite-filled faults: from short duration experiments to long-term CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymakers, Anne; Bakker, Elisenda; Samuelson, Jon; Spiers, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The efficacy of long-term subsurface CO2 storage requires that the stored gas remains isolated from the atmosphere for thousands of years. Faults crosscutting the reservoir and topseal system of storage sites are considered one of the most likely leakage pathways, especially if reactivation leads to fault dilation. For a proper risk assessment it is important to know if CO2 affects the self-sealing potential of fault gouges, as well as how it affects strength recovery after fault slip ceases (frictional healing). A thorough understanding of the physical processes operating in the fault gouge will help to extrapolate the data from short-term experimental time scales to long-term storage time scales. Anhydrite is a common caprock mineral in many hydrocarbon fields worldwide, and particularly in the Netherlands. In cases where faults crosscut the caprock, it is likely that these contain fine-grained, anhydrite-rich, damage material, or "fault gouge". Therefore, we have performed two sets of experiments: 1) fault shearing experiments on simulated anhydrite fault gouge, to investigate the frictional behavior of anhydrite faults, and 2) compaction creep experiments, to investigate the potential for self-sealing. All experiments were performed under pressure and temperature conditions representative for CO2 storage conditions (set 1: T = 80-150°C; normal stress = 25MPa; Pf = 15MPa; set 2: T = 80°C; stress = 5-12MPa and P¬f = 15MPa). The use of different pore fluid phases (air, vacuum, water, CO2 saturated solution, moist CO¬2 and dry CO2), as well as the range in pressures and temperatures, allows us to study the effect of the in-situ conditions on the frictional behavior, and also to identify the mechanisms responsible for the compaction behavior. Our results indicate that in both types of experiments water plays an essential role, by enhancing both fault-healing (type 1) and fault-sealing potential (type 2). The compaction experiments indicate fault sealing in fine

  13. What we learned from the Dust Bowl: lessons in science, policy, and adaptation.

    PubMed

    McLeman, Robert A; Dupre, Juliette; Berrang Ford, Lea; Ford, James; Gajewski, Konrad; Marchildon, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review and synthesis of scholarly knowledge of Depression-era droughts on the North American Great Plains, a time and place known colloquially as the Dust Bowl era or the Dirty Thirties. Recent events, including the 2008 financial crisis, severe droughts in the US corn belt, and the release of a popular documentary film, have spawned a resurgence in public interest in the Dust Bowl. Events of the Dust Bowl era have also proven in recent years to be of considerable interest to scholars researching phenomena related to global environmental change, including atmospheric circulation, drought modeling, land management, institutional behavior, adaptation processes, and human migration. In this review, we draw out common themes in terms of not only what natural and social scientists have learned about the Dust Bowl era itself, but also how insights gained from the study of that period are helping to enhance our understanding of climate-human relations more generally.

  14. The preference for water nipples vs. water bowls in dairy goats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 lactating goats), 42 dairy goats were allotted into 6 groups of 7 goats. In period 1, the goats had access to a water nipple. In period 2, they had access to a water bowl and in period 3 (preference test) they had access to both a water nipple and a water bowl. Water usage and wastage was recorded and water intake (water usage - water wastage) was calculated for each group for the two last days of each period. In experiment 2, water samples from each dispenser were analyzed for heterotrophy germs at 22°C, Escherichia coli and turbidity. Results Water usage was higher from water nipples than from water bowls both in experiment 1 (dry goats) and experiment 2 (lactating goats). There was however, no difference in water intake from water nipples and water bowls. In the preference test (period 3), the water intake tended to be higher from the water nipple than from the water bowl both for the dry goats (exp. 1) and lactating goats (exp. 2). Especially for the dry goats, the differences between groups were large. Turbidity and heterotrophy germs were much higher in the samples from the water bowls than from the water nipples. Water wastage from the water bowls was negligible compared to the water nipples. From the water nipples the water wastage was 30% and 23% of water usage for the dry and lactating goats respectively. Conclusions We conclude that type of water dispenser (nipple or bowl) was probably of minor importance for water intake in goats, but water bowls had a lower water quality

  15. Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the heat flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Eddings, E.G.; Ring, T.; Thornock, J.; Draper, T.; Isaac, B.; Rezeai, D.; Toth, P.; Wu, Y.; Kelly, K.

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this task is to produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers. Validation data came from the Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) for tangentially fired, oxy-coal operation. This task brings together experimental data collected under Alstom’s DOE project for measuring oxy-firing performance parameters in the BSF with this University of Utah project for large eddy simulation (LES) and validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ). The Utah work includes V/UQ with measurements in the single-burner facility where advanced strategies for O2 injection can be more easily controlled and data more easily obtained. Highlights of the work include: • Simulations of Alstom’s 15 megawatt (MW) BSF, exploring the uncertainty in thermal boundary conditions. A V/UQ analysis showed consistency between experimental results and simulation results, identifying uncertainty bounds on the quantities of interest for this system (Subtask 9.1) • A simulation study of the University of Utah’s oxy-fuel combustor (OFC) focused on heat flux (Subtask 9.2). A V/UQ analysis was used to show consistency between experimental and simulation results. • Measurement of heat flux and temperature with new optical diagnostic techniques and comparison with conventional measurements (Subtask 9.3). Various optical diagnostics systems were created to provide experimental data to the simulation team. The final configuration utilized a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera to measure heat flux and temperature, which was synchronized with a high-speed, visible camera to utilize two-color pyrometry to measure temperature and soot concentration. • Collection of heat flux and temperature measurements in the University of Utah’s OFC for use is subtasks 9.2 and 9.3 (Subtask 9.4). Several replicates were carried to better assess the experimental error. Experiments were specifically designed for the

  16. An integrated approach to the biomechanics and motor control of cricket fast bowling techniques.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Paul S; Wheat, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    To date, scientific investigations into the biomechanical aspects of cricket fast bowling techniques have predominantly focused on identifying the mechanical factors that may predispose fast bowlers to lower back injury with a relative paucity of research being conducted on the technical features that underpin proficient fast bowling performance. In this review paper, we critique the scientific literature examining fast bowling performance. We argue that, although many published investigations have provided some useful insights into the biomechanical factors that contribute to a high ball release speed and, to a lesser extent, bowling accuracy, this research has not made a substantive contribution to knowledge enhancement and has only had a very minor influence on coaching practice. To significantly enhance understanding of cricket fast bowling techniques and, therefore, have greater impact on practice, we recommend that future scientific research adopts an interdisciplinary focus, integrating biomechanical measurements with the analytical tools and concepts of dynamical systems motor control theory. The use of qualitative (topological) analysis techniques, in particular, promises to increase understanding of the coordinative movement patterns that define 'technique' in cricket fast bowling and potentially help distinguish between functional and dysfunctional aspects of technique for individual fast bowlers.

  17. Study of flow through a bowl mill model

    SciTech Connect

    Murty, G.V.R.; Babu, U.S.

    1998-07-01

    Bowl Mills are used in Thermal Power plants for pulverizing the raw coal, while drying, to the required fineness and achieve the desired combustion efficiency in the boiler. The Indian coals contain high ash content (some times as high as 60%) and as such the primary air has to handle media of different density namely the coal and the quartz. In this context, the distribution of air in the mill plays a significant role in the lifting of particles from the mill. The wear on the rotating components is increased through repetitive grinding because of improper distribution of air within the mill. Reduction of wear and enhancement of life of mill internals including the rotating components is a continuing goal and few more studies have been carried out in this direction. One such study is the replacement of rotating vane wheel and deflector in the separator body with an air guide ring and air diversion plate. Model studies have been carried out by traversing a five hole prove at different locations within the mill to study the distribution of flow as a result of this modification. The variation of absolute velocity and the associated flow direction has been calculated to describe the flow structure within the mill. The results are presented in non dimensional form to draw suitable conclusions. The present study indicated the possibility of improvement in the distribution of flow within the mill with increased magnitude of velocity at different locations.

  18. On the Causes of the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max; Pegion, Philip

    2003-01-01

    During the 1930s the United States experienced one of the most devastating droughts of the last century. The drought affected almost 2/3 of the country and parts of Mexico and Canada and was infamous for the numerous dust storms that lead to the characterization of much of the Great Plains as the "Dust Bowl". Results from an ensemble of 100-year simulations with the NASA Seasonal- to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed SSTs show that the model reproduces the basic features of the 1930s drought. In t h s study we exploit this realism in the model simulation to examine in more detail the role of the SST and soil moisture in the development and maintenance the 1930s drought. Results will be presented from simulations in which the SST anomalies are confined to the separate ocean basins, as well as from runs in which soil moisture feedback is turn off.

  19. Evaluation of American Indian Science and Engineering Society Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl Project

    SciTech Connect

    AISES, None

    2013-09-25

    The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has been funded under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant (Grant Award No. DE-SC0004058) to host an Intertribal Middle-School Science and Math Bowl (IMSSMB) comprised of teams made up of a majority of American Indian students from Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools and public schools. The intent of the AISES middle school science and math bowl is to increase participation of American Indian students at the DOE-sponsored National Science Bowl. Although national in its recruitment scope, the AISES Intertribal Science and Math Bowl is considered a “regional” science bowl, equivalent to the other 50 regional science bowls which are geographically limited to states. Most regional bowls do not have American Indian student teams competing, hence the AISES bowl is meant to encourage American Indian student teams to increase their science knowledge in order to participate at the national level. The AISES competition brings together teams from various American Indian communities across the nation. Each team is provided with funds for travel to and from the event, as well as for lodging and meals. In 2011 and 2012, there were 10 teams participating; in 2013, the number of teams participating doubled to 20. Each Science and Math Bowl team is comprised of four middle school — grades 6 through 8 — students, one alternate, and a teacher who serves as advisor and coach — although in at least two cases, the coach was not a teacher, but was the Indian Education Coordinator. Each team member must have at least a 3.0 GPA. Furthermore, the majority of students in each team must be comprised of American Indian, Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian students. Under the current DOE grant, AISES sponsored three annual middle school science bowl competitions over the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The science and math bowls have been held in late March concurrently with the National American Indian Science and

  20. Literature review and recommendation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydrite from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, R.L.; Howarth, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    This report documents a literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability as applied to low permeability anhydrite rock samples from the Salado Formation. About one hundred papers were reviewed, and four methods were identified as promising techniques for measuring the relative permeability of the Salado anhydrite: (1) the unsteady-state high-rate method, (2) the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method, (3) the unsteady-state centrifuge method, and (4) the unsteady-state low-rate method. Except for the centrifuge method, all have been used for low permeability rocks. The unsteady-state high-rate method is preferred for measuring relative permeability of Salado anhydrite, and the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method could be well suited for measuring gas relative permeability of Salado anhydrite. The unsteady-state low-rate method, which combines capillary pressure effects with relative permeability concepts may also prove effective. Likewise, the unsteady-state centrifuge method may be an efficient means for measuring brine relative permeability for Salado anhydrite, especially at high gas saturations.

  1. The effect of a flexed elbow on bowling speed in cricket.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Robert; Ferdinands, René

    2003-01-01

    The laws of bowling in cricket state 'a ball is fairly delivered in respect of the arm if, once the bowler's arm has reached the level of the shoulder in the delivery swing, the elbow joint is not straightened partially or completely from that point until the ball has left the hand'. Recently two prominent bowlers, under suspicion for transgressing this law, suggested that they are not 'throwing' but due to an elbow deformity are forced to bowl with a bent bowling arm. This study examined whether such bowlers can produce an additional contribution to wrist/ball release speed by internal rotation of the upper arm. The kinematics of a bowling arm were calculated using a simple two-link model (upper arm and forearm). Using reported internal rotation speeds of the upper arm from baseball and waterpolo, and bowling arm kinematics from cricket, the change in wrist speed was calculated as a function of effective arm length, and wrist distance from the internal rotation axis. A significant increase in wrist speed was noted. This suggests that bowlers who can maintain a fixed elbow flexion during delivery can produce distinctly greater wrist/ball speeds by using upper arm internal rotation.

  2. Shadow Bowl 2003: a collaborative exercise in community readiness, agency cooperation, and medical response.

    PubMed

    Balch, David; Taylor, Carl; Rosenthal, David; Bausch, Chris; Warner, Dave; Morris, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a model for homeland security, community readiness, and medical response that was applied during an operational exercise around Super Bowl XXXVII. In addition, it describes the products provided by private companies involved in the exercise and how they would have contributed to a medical disaster had one occurred. The purpose of Shadow Bowl was to demonstrate community readiness and medical response to a mass casualty event. The goals of the project were to: (1) provide enhanced public safety using an advanced communication network and sensor grid; (2) develop mass casualty surge capabilities through medical reach-back; and (3) build a collaboration model between civilian, military, public, and private partners. The results of the Shadow Bowl Exercise accentuated the value of new telehealth and disaster medicine tools in treating large numbers of patients when infrastructure overload occurs.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: TRITON SYSTEMS, LLC SOLID BOWL CENTRIFUGE, MODEL TS-5000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Triton Systems, LLC Solid Bowl Centrifuge Model TS-5000 (TS-5000) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The TS-5000 was 48" in diameter and 30" deep, with a bowl capacity of 16 ft3. ...

  4. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Construction of Air Force Non-Appropriated Funds Bowling Center at Maxwell Air Force Base, Gunter Annex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    with a Signature Brand “Classics Diner”, could generate increased revenue by providing an additional number of bowling lanes. Food and beverage income...number of bowling lanes. Food and beverage income is also anticipated to grow. The increased income would also create additional jobs and would be... Mall ...................................................................................... 5-2 5.3 CUMULATIVE EFFECTS ANALYSIS

  5. Stability of polar frosts in spherical bowl-shaped craters on the moon, Mercury, and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Svitek, Tomas; Murray, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    A model of spherical bowl-shaped craters is described and applied to the moon, Mercury, and Mars. The maximum temperature of permanently shadowed areas are calculated using estimates of the depth/diameter ratios of typical lunar bowl-shaped craters and assuming a saturated surface in which the craters are completely overlapping. For Mars, two cases are considered: water frost in radiative equilibrium and subliming CO2 frost in vapor equilibrium. Energy budgets and temperatures are used to determine whether a craterlike depression loses mass faster or slower than a flat horizontal surface. This reveals qualitatively whether the frost surface becomes rougher or smoother as it sublimes.

  6. Subseafloor Boiling Within the PACMANUS Hydrothermal System Indicated by Anhydrite-Hosted Fluid Inclusions from ODP Leg 193 Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanko, D. A.; Bach, W.; Scott, S. D.; Yeats, C.; Roberts, S.; Beaudoin, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Drilling during Leg 193 was in an area of active hydrothermal venting from dacitic rocks on Pual Ridge in the Manus Basin. All the cored rocks underlying the fresh surficial volcanic rocks are intensively hydrothermally altered. Primary fluid inclusions preserved in anhydrite veins provide unique fluid samples that provide direct evidence on the chemical and physical properties of hydrothermal fluids present beneath the seafloor. Site 1188 is located on Snowcap Knoll, an area of diffuse warm venting at a water depth of ~1645 m. Fluid inclusions have been studied from a coarse anhydrite +/- pyrite vein from ~123 m below the seafloor. The ambient hydrostatic pressure for this sample is calculated to be ~180 bars. The ambient temperature is unknown, but the T measured after 8 days of thermal rebound at a depth of 360 m in this hole was 313° C. Primary fluid inclusions measuring up to 100 μ m across are dominantly two-phase L + V inclusions, yet fluid inclusions with up to three daughter crystals are also observed. The largest daughter crystal is halite, commonly accompanied by a small transparent granular daughter crystal and an even smaller granular opaque crystal. Consequently, optical inspection alone demonstrates the co-occurrence of both hypersaline, multicomponent brines and less saline aqueous fluids. Ice melting temperatures for L+V inclusions vary from -0.1° to -14.5° C, with a strong mode at -2° C, corresponding to a seawater-like salinity. However, the range in Tm(ice) indicates that a significant number contain quite fresh water, and others contain quite saline water. Ice melting temperatures from the multiphase inclusions, measured in the presence of hydrohalite, range from -29.5° to -39.9° C, confirming their hypersaline composition. These data, as well as measured halite dissolution temperatures ranging from 125° to 257° C, indicate salinities of ~30+/-3 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Most two-phase inclusions homogenize to liquid between 191° C and

  7. The effect of anhydrite saturation on the fate of sulfur during fluid-present melting of subducting basaltic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jego, S.; Dasgupta, R.

    2012-12-01

    The apparent sulfur enrichment of sub-arc mantle is thought to derive from an oxidized downgoing slab, and it has been suggested that the slab-derived sulfate species is responsible for oxidizing the mantle wedge [1]. However, the conditions and extent of sulfur transfer from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge are poorly understood. In particular, the relative mobility of sulfur as a function of oxygen fugacity (fO2) is unconstrained at sub-arc depths. To add to our recent study on sulfur mobility during fluid-present melting of a sulfide-bearing basaltic crust [2], here we constrain the fate of sulfur during similar melting at relatively oxidizing conditions, i.e., at sulfate saturation. Experiments were performed using a piston cylinder device at P = 2-3 GPa, T = 950-1050 °C. A synthetic MORB + 6.8 wt.% H2O doped with 1 wt% S (added as pyrite) was contained in AuPd inner capsules and hematite-magnetite (HM: ~FMQ+3.9 to +4.6) mixture used as fO2 buffer was housed in Pt outer capsules, following the recently proposed design of ref. [3]. Sulfur concentration in quenched silicate glasses, the major element phase compositions, and fO2 of the experiments based on dissolved Fe contents in AuPd and added Pt sensor [4, 5], were determined using EPMA. All experiments contain silicate melt, cpx, garnet, anhydrite, rutile and/or Ti-magnetite, and are fluid saturated. The partial melt compositions are rhyolitic to rhyodacitic with increasing T and melting degree. Sulfur contents in the melt range from ~700 to 3000 ppm, and increase with increasing P and T, in agreement with published SCAS models [6, 7]. Mass balance calculations show that the proportion of sulfur dissolved in silicate melt can be >13% of the bulk sulfur at 1050 °C. However, at slab surface (<900 °C), the major part of the bulk sulfur present in the slab is dissolved in the aqueous fluid phase, the rest being stored as anhydrite crystals. Moreover, our results suggest that sulfur partition coefficient

  8. A new approach to kinetics study of the anhydrite crystallization at 373 K using a diamond anvil cell with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. J.; Zheng, H. F.

    2013-04-01

    A new approach to the kinetics study of anhydrite (CaSO4) crystallization has been performed in situ using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell with Raman spectroscopy in the pressure range 896-1322 MPa and a constant temperature of 373 K. Transformed volume fraction X(t) was determined from Raman peak intensity of the sulfate ion in aqueous solution. The transformation-time plots display a sigmoidal shape with time, which indicates that the reaction rate is different at each stage of anhydrite crystallization. At 373 K, the rate constant k increases from 1.14 × 10-4 s-1 to 1.86 × 10-3 s-1, demonstrating a positive effect of pressure on the overall rate at isothermal condition. We first achieved the molar volume change (ΔVm) equal to -1.82 × 10-5 m3/mol in the course of anhydrite crystallization through Avrami kinetic theory, showing a process of reduction in volume at high pressure and high temperature. According to the exponent n derived from our experiments, a grain-boundary nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth kinetically dominates the crystallization of anhydrite.

  9. Reach for Reference. Nostalgia for Teachers, History for Students: Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the U-X-L encyclopedia "Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th Century America," a five-volume set, arranged chronologically with two decades in each volume. Each decade then is divided into topics, such as commerce (more exciting than it sounds with lots of inventions, consumer goods, and technology); film…

  10. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  11. Barium ions selectively activate BK channels via the Ca2+-bowl site.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Zeng, Xu-Hui; Lingle, Christopher J

    2012-07-10

    Activation of Ca(2+)-dependent BK channels is increased via binding of micromolar Ca(2+) to two distinct high-affinity sites per BK α-subunit. One site, termed the Ca(2+) bowl, is embedded within the second RCK domain (RCK2; regulator of conductance for potassium) of each α-subunit, while oxygen-containing residues in the first RCK domain (RCK1) have been linked to a separate Ca(2+) ligation site. Although both sites are activated by Ca(2+) and Sr(2+), Cd(2+) selectively favors activation via the RCK1 site. Divalent cations of larger ionic radius than Sr(2+) are thought to be ineffective at activating BK channels. Here we show that Ba(2+), better known as a blocker of K(+) channels, activates BK channels and that this effect arises exclusively from binding at the Ca(2+)-bowl site. Compared with previous estimates for Ca(2+) bowl-mediated activation by Ca(2+), the affinity of Ba(2+) to the Ca(2+) bowl is reduced about fivefold, and coupling of binding to activation is reduced from ∼3.6 for Ca(2+) to about ∼2.8 for Ba(2+). These results support the idea that ionic radius is an important determinant of selectivity differences among different divalent cations observed for each Ca(2+)-binding site.

  12. Elderly people's perceptions of using Wii sports bowling - A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Glännfjord, Fredrik; Hemmingsson, Helena; Larsson Ranada, Åsa

    2016-12-14

    The Nintendo Wii is a gaming console with motion-sensitive controls that is making inroads into health care and rehabilitation. However, there is still limited knowledge on how elderly people perceive the use of such a product. The aim of this study was to examine how the use of the Wii Sports Bowling in an activity group was perceived by elderly people. The data consisted of observations and interviews with participants who used Wii Sports Bowling and was analysed with content analysis. The findings are described in three themes; 'The use of the Wii Sports game', 'Engagement in the game' and 'Social interaction around the activity'. Wii Sports Bowling was described as easier to play compared to real-life bowling and was enjoyable and a social activity. The opportunity to meet the group each week was important for the participants. Playing the game resulted in signs of immersion and a flow-like state. The Wii was perceived to be easy to use, to provide a way to socialize with peers and to give opportunities to participate in activities in a new way. More studies regarding elderly people's experiences and apprehensions regarding new technology such as gaming consoles and virtual reality are needed.

  13. Visions in the Dust: A Child's Perspective of the Dust Bowl. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jan; Nisbet, Rena

    Much of history is interpreted from an adult point of view. But in Karen Hesse's Newbery Award-winning "Out of the Dust," the Great Depression's Dust Bowl is seen through the eyes of a child. By using the novel, this lesson plan gives students the opportunity to identify with the personal experiences of youth in the 1930s. In addition,…

  14. The Will to Conservation: A Burkeian Analysis of Dust Bowl Rhetoric and American Farming Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Tarla Rai

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the rhetoric of agricultural conservationists focusing on the 1930s Dust Bowl, revealing that its potential for promoting environmentally sound land-use practices was limited. Argues that the vulnerability of conservation efforts to competing forces was largely a function of the hierarchy of motives associated with land use. (SRT)

  15. Ecological catastrophes: threshold responses to climate, soil, and land use drivers of the dust bowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dust Bowl was one of the largest ecological disasters, yet is among the least well-studied for regional-scale impacts. Much of the central grasslands region (CGR) of North America experienced a multi-year drought in the 1930s that combined with poor land management practices to result in broad-s...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of pi-extended bowl-shaped pi-conjugated molecules.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Toru; Mori, Koichi; Wu, Hsyueh-Liang; Ishida, Satoshi; Nakamura, Jun-ichi; Murata, Kazuhiko; Hirao, Toshikazu

    2007-05-21

    A series of pi-extended bowl-shaped pi-conjugated compounds were synthesized from sumanene and characterized, and among them the terthiophene derivative showed a remarkable red-shifted absorption and small band gap, which wa rationalized by molecular orbital calculation.

  17. Selling College: A Longitudinal Study of American College Football Bowl Game Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Lowery, John Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Using ideological analysis as a frame, researchers analyzed institutionally created commercials (PSAs) that appeared in 28 U.S. college football bowl games over a seven-year period (2003-2009) to better understand the universities' brands as represented in these advertisements. They found many common elements such as showing traditional…

  18. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  19. Archive of bacterial community in anhydrite crystals from a deep-sea basin provides evidence of past oil-spilling in a benthic environment in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Tie Gang; Wang, Meng Ying; Lai, Qi Liang; Li, Jiang Tao; Gao, Zhao Ming; Shao, Zong Ze; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-11-01

    In deep-sea sediment, the microbes present in anhydrite crystals are potential markers of the past environment. In the Atlantis II Deep, anhydrite veins were produced by mild mixture of calcium-rich hydrothermal solutions and sulfate in the bottom water, which had probably preserved microbial inhabitants in the past seafloor of the Red Sea. In this study, this hypothesis was tested by analyzing the metagenome of an anhydrite crystal sample from the Atlantis II Deep. The estimated age of the anhydrite layer was between 750 and 770 years, which might span the event of hydrothermal eruption into the benthic floor. The 16S/18S rRNA genes in the metagenome were assigned to bacteria, archaea, fungi and even invertebrate species. The dominant species in the crystals was an oil-degrading Alcanivorax borkumensis bacterium, which was not detected in the adjacent sediment layer. Fluorescence microscopy using 16S rRNA and marker gene probes revealed intact cells of the Alcanivorax bacterium in the crystals. A draft genome of A. borkumensis was binned from the metagenome. It contained all functional genes for alkane utilization and the reduction of nitrogen oxides. Moreover, the metagenomes of the anhydrites and control sediment contained aromatic degradation pathways, which were mostly derived from Ochrobactrum sp. Altogether, these results indicate an oxic, oil-spilling benthic environment in the Atlantis II basin of the Red Sea in approximately the 14th century. The original microbial inhabitants probably underwent a dramatic selection process via drastic environmental changes following the formation of an overlying anoxic brine pool in the basin due to hydrothermal activities.

  20. Volatile Evolution and Anhydrite-Bearing Dacite, Yanacocha Gold Deposit, Cajamarca, Peru: Relevance for the Sulfur Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambefort, I. S.; Dilles, J. H.

    2006-12-01

    Magmatic water, sulfur and chlorine evolved during volcanic eruptions have important climactic effects, but during passive degassing these volatiles may transport metals and produce hydrothermal ore deposits. At the Yanacocha Mine, we are examining the volatile evolution of the Miocene andesitic to dacitic volcanic rocks (ca 20 to 8 Ma). High sulfidation epithermal deposits contain >50 Moz of gold in oxides with additional deeper sulfide resources containing >5 Mt of copper. Large volumes (>10 km3) of rock are hydrothermally altered by sulfate-rich and low pH fluid to quartz, quartz-alunite, quartz-pyrophyllite, illite. Pyrite (1-5 vol.%), native sulfur, covellite, enargite and chalcopyrite constitute reduced S-species. In total, at least 500 M tonnes of sulfur were added during alteration. The San Jose ignimbrite (SJI) erupted 30 km3 magma in two cooling units at 11.50 and 11.28 Ma, and immediately predates the bulk of gold mineralization at about 10.80 Ma (Longo, 2005). This hornblende- plagioclase dacitic magma is highly oxidized with fO2 ≍ 2 NNO. Low-Al2O3 (~7 wt.%), and high- Al2O3 (~12 wt.%) amphiboles coexist in most of the samples. Plag-hbl thermobarometry on low-Al content amphibole yields ca. 1.5-2 kb and 800°C. High-Al pargasitic hornblende forms sparse crystals up to 1 cm long that often show resorption or oxide rims associated with oxyhornblende breakdown. Apatite is an inclusion but generally not plagioclase or oxide. These petrographic relations suggest that the high-Al hornblende is the liquidus phase (at 950 to 1000°C, PH2O > 3 kb) in an andesitic or basaltic magma. The high-Al amphibole in two samples contains anhydrite inclusions, one with >5 vol.% anhydrite associated with apatite having up to 1.2 wt.% SO3. Comparison of these data with experimental sulfate solubilities at NNO+2 suggests the andesitic or basaltic melt dissolved at least 1000 ppm S. One low-Al amphibole contains anhydrite, demonstrating that the cooler dacite magma was also

  1. Experimentally Shock-loaded Anhydrite: Unit-Cell Dimensions, Microstrain and Domain Size from X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skala, R.; Hoerz, F.

    2003-01-01

    Cretaceous Tertiary (K/T) boundary is traditionally associated with one of the most dramatic mass extinctions in the Earth history. A number of killing mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the widespread extinctions of Cretaceous biota at this boundary, including severe, global deterioration of the atmosphere and hydrosphere from the shock-induced release of CO2 and SO(x) from carbonate- and sulfate-bearing target rocks, respectively. Recently carried out calculations revealed that the global warming caused by CO2 release was considerably less important than the cooling due to SO(x) gases release during the Chicxulub impact event. Considering apparent potential importance of the response of sulfates to the shock metamorphism, relative lack of the data on shock behavior of sulfates as well as some general difficulties encountered during thermodynamic modeling of the shock-induced CO2 loss from carbonates we subjected anhydrite to a series of shock experiments designed for complete recovery of the shocked material. We report here on the detail X-ray diffraction analysis of seven samples that were subjected to experimental shock-loading from 10 to 65 GPa.

  2. Did Dust From the 1930s US Dust Bowl Make it to Greenland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscaye, P. E.; Bory, A. J.; Gill, T. E.; Steffensen, J.

    2005-12-01

    The "Dust Bowl" phenomenon during the 1930s in the southwestern United States generated huge amounts of airborne dust with northward and eastward transport of mineral aerosol. Amidst the normal (past 40,000 years) flux of dust from China and Mongolia to the Greenland ice cap, were there any "Dust Bowl" years during which North American dust made significant deposits, or were even detectable? Donarummo et al. (2003) reported a possible instance of Dust-Bowl dust during 1933 from the GISP2 ice core drilled at Summit in central Greenland. Did this occur elsewhere and/or in other years? At the NorthGRIP (75 N; 042 W) ice camp in 2001, we drilled four shallow firn cores (~ 1 m apart and 25.0 m deep) to the level of 1930 firn. We divided the cores into the four periods 1930-1945, 1945-1960, 1960-1980, and 1980-1990, and combined the appropriate intervals of all four cores in order to recover sufficient dust. If the southwestern U.S. dust were to be detected during the primary Dust-Bowl years (1930-1945 interval), we expected to see the signal return to pure East Asian characteristics over the course of the subsequent three periods. The four composite firn samples were melted, the dust extracted in the field by super-centrifugation, and returned to LDEO. Non-destructive XRD analyses for clay mineralogy preceded dissolution, chemical purification and analysis of radiogenic isotope composition (ENd(0) and 87Sr/86Sr) by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry. The results of these analyses were compared to our samples of Chinese and Mongolian desert material, to samples of known Dust-Bowl dust, and to all the samples of ice-core and snow-pit dust from Greenland we had previously analyzed. These comparisons reveal no hint of compositional change from Asian- toward Dust-Bowl characteristics. We conclude that the single possible occurrence of Dust-Bowl dust in 1933 ice reported by Donarummo et al. (2003) did not at all characterize the entire Dust-Bowl era in Greenland. We have

  3. Did Dust From the 1930s US Dust Bowl Make it to Greenland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscaye, P. E.; Bory, A. J.; Gill, T. E.; Steffensen, J.

    2004-12-01

    The "Dust Bowl" phenomenon during the 1930s in the southwestern United States generated huge amounts of airborne dust with eastward transport of mineral aerosol. Amidst the normal flux of dust from China and Mongolia to the Greenland ice cap, were there any "Dust Bowl" years during which North American dust made significant deposits, or were even detectable? Donarummo et al. (2003) reported a possible instance of Dust-Bowl dust during 1933 from the GISP2 ice core drilled at Summit in central Greenland. Did this occur elsewhere in other years? At the NorthGRIP (75 N; 042 W) ice camp in 2001, we drilled four shallow firn cores (~ 1 m apart and 25.0 m deep) to the level of 1930 firn. We divided the cores into the four periods 1930-1945, 1945-1960, 1960-1980, and 1980-1990, and combined the appropriate intervals of all four cores in order to recover sufficient dust. If the southwestern U.S. dust were to be detected during the primary Dust-Bowl years (1930-1945 interval), we expected to see the signal return to pure East Asian characteristics over the course of the subsequent three periods. The four composite firn samples were melted, the dust extracted in the field by super-centrifugation, and returned to LDEO. Non-destructive XRD analyses for clay mineralogy preceded dissolution, chemical purification and analysis of radiogenic isotope composition (ƒONd(0) and 87Sr/86Sr) by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry. The results of these analyses were compared to our samples of Chinese and Mongolian desert material, to samples of known Dust-Bowl dust, and to all the samples of ice-core and snow-pit dust from Greenland we had previously analyzed. These comparisons reveal no hint of compositional change from Asian toward Dust-Bowl characteristics. We conclude that the single possible occurrence of Dust-Bowl dust in 1933 ice reported by Donarummo et al. (2003) did not at all characterize the entire Dust-Bowl era in Greenland. We have also previously shown that the

  4. Effects of Singing Bowl Sound Meditation on Mood, Tension, and Well-being: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Goldsby, Tamara L; Goldsby, Michael E; McWalters, Mary; Mills, Paul J

    2016-09-30

    Poor mood and elevated anxiety are linked to increased incidence of disease. This study examined the effects of sound meditation, specifically Tibetan singing bowl meditation, on mood, anxiety, pain, and spiritual well-being. Sixty-two women and men (mean age 49.7 years) participated. As compared with pre-meditation, following the sound meditation participants reported significantly less tension, anger, fatigue, and depressed mood (all Ps <.001). Additionally, participants who were previously naïve to this type of meditation experienced a significantly greater reduction in tension compared with participants experienced in this meditation (P < .001). Feeling of spiritual well-being significantly increased across all participants (P < .001). Tibetan singing bowl meditation may be a feasible low-cost low technology intervention for reducing feelings of tension, anxiety, and depression, and increasing spiritual well-being. This meditation type may be especially useful in decreasing tension in individuals who have not previously practiced this form of meditation.

  5. Dust and sea surface temperature forcing of the 1930s ``Dust Bowl'' drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Miller, Ron L.; Seager, Richard

    2008-04-01

    Droughts over the central United States (US) are modulated by sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the eastern tropical Pacific. Many models, however, are unable to reproduce the severity and spatial pattern of the ``Dust Bowl'' drought of the 1930s with SST forcing alone. We force an atmosphere general circulation model with 1930s SSTs and model-generated dust emission from the Great Plains region. The SSTs alone force a drought over the US similar to observations, but with a weaker precipitation anomaly that is centered too far south. Inclusion of dust radiative forcing, centered over the area of observed wind erosion, increases the intensity of the drought and shifts its center northward. While our conclusions are tempered by limited quantitative observations of the dust aerosol load and soil erosion during this period, our study suggests that unprecedented atmospheric dust loading over the continental US exacerbated the ``Dust Bowl'' drought.

  6. Synthesis, structures, and physical properties of aromatic molecular-bowl hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Siegel, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the synthesis, physical properties, structure, and crystal packing of buckybowls. Buckybowls exemplify an intermediate class of polynuclear aromatic compounds between the closed-shell fullerenes and the flat extended arrays of graphene. These warped sheets can be seen as fragments of fullerenes or the end cap of single-walled carbon nanotubes; and, their curvature endows them with physical properties distinct from flat polynuclear hydrocarbons, which opens up unique possibilities for molecular bowls in various organic materials applications.

  7. Supramolecular control of a mononuclear biomimetic copper(II) center: bowl complexes vs funnel complexes.

    PubMed

    Gout, Jérôme; Višnjevac, Aleksandar; Rat, Stéphanie; Parrot, Arnaud; Hessani, Assia; Bistri, Olivia; Le Poul, Nicolas; Le Mest, Yves; Reinaud, Olivia

    2014-06-16

    Modeling the mononuclear site of copper enzymes is important for a better understanding of the factors controlling the reactivity of the metal center. A major difficulty stems from the difficult control of the nuclearity while maintaining free sites open to coordination of exogenous ligands. A supramolecular approach consists in associating a hydrophobic cavity to a tripodal ligand that will define the coordination spheres as well as access to the metal ion. Here, we describe the synthesis of a bowl Cu(II) complex based on the resorcinarene scaffold. This study supplements a previous work on Cu(I) coordination. It provides a complete picture of the cavity-copper system in its two oxidation states. The first XRD structure of such a bowl complex was obtained, evidencing a 5-coordinate Cu(II) ion with the three imidazole donors bound to the metal (two in the base of the pyramid, one in the apical position) and with an acetate anion, completing the base of the pyramid, and deeply included in the bowl. Solution studies conducted by EPR and UV-vis absorption spectroscopies as well as cyclic voltammetry highlighted interaction with coordinating solvents, various carboxylates that can sit either in the endo or in the exo position depending on their size as well as possible stabilization of hydroxo species in a mononuclear state. A comparison of the binding and redox properties of the bowl complex with funnel complexes based on the calix[6]arene core further highlights the importance of supramolecular features defining the first, second, and third coordination sphere for control of the metal ion.

  8. Supramolecular catalysis at work: diastereoselective synthesis of a molecular bowl with dynamic inner space.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiqing; McCracken, Troy; Xia, Shijing; Maslak, Veselin; Gallucci, Judith; Hadad, Christopher M; Badjić, Jovica D

    2008-01-18

    The supramolecular assistance to Pd(0)/Cu(I)-catalyzed cyclotrimerization of stannylated norbornene 7 has been investigated to give molecular bowl 1syn in a stereoselective fashion. Following a divergent strategy, racemic norbornene 7 was synthesized in satisfactory yield. Self-coupling, promoted by Pd(0)/Cu(I) catalysis acting in synergy with CsF, yielded molecular bowl 1syn in a moderate 30% yield. The reaction diastereoselectivity is affected by the concentration of Cu(I) and Cs+: increasing quantities of the cations enhanced the syn/anti ratio of the isolated cyclotrimer from statistical (1:3) to a more desirable (4.5:1) ratio, in favor of the molecular bowl 1syn. 1H NMR spectroscopic studies suggested the coordinating affinity of 1syn toward transition metals Cu(I), Ag(I), and Au(I), to account for the observed templation effect. In particular, the tridentate 1syn has been shown to bind to one Ag(I) cation in the assembly process that is driven with enthalpy (Delta H degrees = -19 +/- 2 kcal/mol, Delta S degrees = -45 eu). The complete coordination was not cooperative, and was hypothesized to be impeded with the adverse entropy. Accordingly, density functional theory (BP86) calculations of 1syn and its mono-, bis-, and tris-Ag(I) complexes suggested that the coordination of one to three silver cations is highly exothermic. The calculations also revealed that the bowl constriction is necessary for the aromatic arms to become preorganized and bind to a silver cation(s) (Delta E approximately 8 kcal/mol). Ultimately, Ag(I) has been shown to assist the diastereoselective formation of 1syn, lending support to the notion of template-directed synthesis.

  9. National Ocean Sciences Bowl in 2014: A National Competition for High School Ocean Science Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-31

    science volunteers. Coordinate a series of webinars during September-December 2013 that will train 22 Regional Coordinators and discuss best practices...ocean sciences in college, a professional development series for coaches, a video contest open to any high school students and the online quiz game that...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Feb. 2014-Jan. 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Ocean Sciences Bowl in 2014: A national competition for high

  10. Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P R; Schlinker, P J; Over, R

    1996-06-01

    Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling were identified through factor analysis of ratings provided by 172 bowlers (87 males, 85 females) across a range of current averages (a measure based on recent performance in competition). Skilled bowlers (current average of 170 pins or more) differed significantly from less skilled bowlers (current average of less than 135 pins) on seven component skills. They demonstrated greater mental toughness, a higher degree of planning and evaluation, greater consistency, more interest in improvement, less use of luck attributions, more confidence in equipment and technique, and greater competitiveness. Since men and women of the same overall standard (current average) have similar component skill profiles, ten-pin bowling is a gender-neutral sport. Older bowlers (45-79 years) matched by current average with younger bowlers (16-30 years) differed significantly on only one component, level of commitment. We discuss several contexts for use of the three self-report assessment scales (measures of psychological skills, psychomotor skills and involvement in bowling) developed in this study.

  11. Experimental constraints on the destabilization of basalt + calcite + anhydrite at high pressure-high temperature and implications for meteoroid impact modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2012-05-01

    Calcite CaCO3 and anhydrite CaSO4 are two sedimentary components or alteration products of basalts on the Earth, Venus, and Mars. The fate of anhydrite-, calcite-bearing crust during a meteoroid impact must be addressed in order to evaluate: (1) the potential S- and C-gas release to the atmosphere, (2) the formation of S- and C-rich melts, and (3) the crystallization of S- and C-rich minerals which may be recognized by spectral analyses of planetary surfaces. We performed piston-cylinder experiments at 1 GPa, between 1200 and 1750 °C, on a mixture of 70 wt.% tholeiitic basalt + 15 wt.% anhydrite + 15 wt.% calcite. Up to ~ 1440 °C, an ultracalcic (CaO > 19.8 wt.%; CaO/Al2O3 > 1 wt.%) picrobasaltic (SiO2 ~ 39-43 wt.%; Na2O + K2O < 2 wt.%) melt containing up to 5.7 wt.% SO3 and up to 5.1 wt.% CO2 + H2O (calculated by difference) is present in equilibrium with fassaitic clinopyroxene, anhydrite, scapolite, chromian spinel and a gas composed mainly of CO and, occasionally, aliphatic thiols like CH3(CH2)3SH. Hydrogen was incorporated either by contact between the starting material and air or by diffusion through the capsule during the experiments. Above ~ 1440 °C, a CaO-rich (~ 35 wt.%) sulfate-carbonate (SC) melt which contains 41-47 wt.% SO3, 7-12 wt.% CO2 + H2O and a few percent of Na2O, forms in equilibrium with the picrobasaltic melt. This study shows that a meteoroid impact onto an anhydrite- and calcite-bearing basaltic crust is likely to release CO gas to the atmosphere, while S is trapped in solid or liquid phases. Under hydrous conditions, however, the S/C in the gas may increase. The importance of the temperature parameter on the impact phase relations is also demonstrated. In particular, SC melt may form by meteoroid impact, and flow rapidly on a planetary surface. Physical modeling must therefore be combined with high P-high T phase diagrams of complex assemblages similar to planetary lithologies in order to evaluate the effects of a meteoroid impact.

  12. Sinking of anhydrite blocks within a Newtonian salt diapir: modelling the influence of block aspect ratio and salt stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchardt, Steffi; Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Fuchs, Lukas

    2012-03-01

    2-D Finite Differences models are used to analyse the strain produced by gravity-driven sinking of dense rectangular inclusions through homogeneous and vertically stratified Newtonian salt. We systematically modelled the descent of dense blocks of different sizes and initial orientations (aspect ratios) representing the Main Anhydrite fragments documented within, for example, the Gorleben salt diapir. Model results demonstrate that size of the blocks is a governing parameter which dictates the amount of strain produced within the block and in the surrounding host salt. Initial block orientation (aspect ratio), on the other hand, causes fundamental differences in block deformation, while the resulting structures produced in the salt are principally the same in all models with homogeneous salt, covering shear zones and folding of passive markers. In models with vertically stratified salt with different viscosities, block descent takes place along complex paths. This results from greater strain accommodation by the 'salt formation' with the lowest viscosity and an asymmetrical distribution of initial vertical shear stresses around the block. Consequently, in these models, block strain is lower compared with the models with homogeneous salt (for the same viscosity as the high-viscosity salt), and sinking is accompanied by block rotation. The latter causes diapir-scale disturbance of the pre-sinking salt stratigraphy and complex sinking paths of the blocks. In particular, vertically oriented blocks sink into high-viscosity salt and drag with them some low-viscosity salt, while horizontal blocks sink in the low-viscosity salt. The resultant sinking velocities vary strongly depending on the sinking path of the block. Based on model results and observed structural configuration within the Gorleben salt diapir, we conclude that the internal complexity of a salt diapir governs its post-ascent deformation. Salt structure and its interaction with dense blocks should hence be

  13. Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Reed M; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M; Reitz, Rolf; Kokjohn, Sage

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that that produces low NO{sub x} and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom machined pistons designed for RCCI operation. The pistons were designed with assistance from the KIVA 3V computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. By using a genetic algorithm optimization, in conjunction with KIVA, the piston bowl profile was optimized for dedicated RCCI operation to reduce unburned fuel emissions and piston bowl surface area. By reducing these parameters, the thermal efficiency of the engine was improved while maintaining low NOx and PM emissions. Results show that with the new piston bowl profile and an optimized injection schedule, RCCI brake thermal efficiency was increased from 37%, with the stock EURO IV configuration, to 40% at the 2,600 rev/min, 6.9 bar BMEP condition, and NOx and PM emissions targets were met without the need for exhaust after-treatment.

  14. “Hot Hand” on Strike: Bowling Data Indicates Correlation to Recent Past Results, Not Causality

    PubMed Central

    Yaari, Gur; David, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the “hot hand” phenomenon regained interest due to the availability and accessibility of large scale data sets from the world of sports. In support of common wisdom and in contrast to the original conclusions of the seminal paper about this phenomenon by Gilovich, Vallone and Tversky in 1985, solid evidences were supplied in favor of the existence of this phenomenon in different kinds of data. This came after almost three decades of ongoing debates whether the “hot hand” phenomenon in sport is real or just a mis-perception of human subjects of completely random patterns present in reality. However, although this phenomenon was shown to exist in different sports data including basketball free throws and bowling strike rates, a somehow deeper question remained unanswered: are these non random patterns results of causal, short term, feedback mechanisms or simply time fluctuations of athletes performance. In this paper, we analyze large amounts of data from the Professional Bowling Association(PBA). We studied the results of the top 100 players in terms of the number of available records (summed into more than 450,000 frames). By using permutation approach and dividing the analysis into different aggregation levels we were able to supply evidence for the existence of the “hot hand” phenomenon in the data, in agreement with previous studies. Moreover, by using this approach, we were able to demonstrate that there are, indeed, significant fluctuations from game to game for the same player but there is no clustering of successes (strikes) and failures (non strikes) within each game. Thus we were lead to the conclusion that bowling results show correlation to recent past results but they are not influenced by them in a causal manner. PMID:22253898

  15. The case for a southeastern Australian Dust Bowl, 1895-1945

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattle, Stephen R.

    2016-06-01

    Australia has an anecdotal history of severe wind erosion and dust storm activity, but there has been no lasting public perception of periods of extreme dust storm activity in this country, such as that developed in the USA following the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. Newspaper accounts of droughts and dust storms in southeastern (SE) Australia between 1895 and 1945 suggest that, at various times, the scale of these events was comparable to those experienced in the USA Dust Bowl. During this 50-year period, average annual rainfall values in this region were substantially below long-term averages, air temperatures were distinctly warmer, marginal lands were actively cropped and grazed, and rabbits were a burgeoning grazing pest. From the beginning of the Federation Drought of 1895-1902, dust storm activity increased markedly, with the downwind coastal cities of Sydney and Melbourne experiencing dust hazes, dust storms and falls of red rain relatively regularly. Between 1935 and 1945, Sydney and Melbourne received ten and nine long-distance dust events, respectively, with the years of 1938 and 1944/45 being the most intensely dusty. Entire topsoil horizons were blown away, sand drift was extreme, and crops and sheep flocks were destroyed. Although these periods of extreme dust storm activity were not as sustained as those experienced in the USA in the mid-1930s, there is a strong case to support the contention that SE Australia experienced its own extended, somewhat episodic version of a Dust Bowl, with a similar combination of causal factors and landscape effects.

  16. High-explosive cratering analogs for bowl-shaped, central uplift, and multiring impact craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddy, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes six experimental explosion craters in terms of their basic morphology, subsurface structural deformation, and surrounding ejecta blanket. These craters exhibit one or more of the following features: bowl shapes with underlying breccia lens, central uplifts, multirings, terraced walls, rim strata, zones of concentric rim deformation, inner continuous ground cover of ejecta blankets formed by overturned flaps, secondary cratering, and fused alluvium. These craters were formed by large shock wave energy transfers at or near zero heights-of-burst, and it is possible that impact craters with analogous morphologic and structural features may have formed under similar surface energy transfer conditions.

  17. Temperature dependence of nonlinear optical properties in Li doped nano-carbon bowl material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-qi; Zhou, Xin; Chang, Ying; Quan Tian, Wei; Sun, Xiu-Dong

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism for change of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties with temperature is proposed for a nonlinear optical material, Li doped curved nano-carbon bowl. Four stable conformations of Li doped corannulene were located and their electronic properties were investigated in detail. The NLO response of those Li doped conformations varies with relative position of doping agent on the curved carbon surface of corannulene. Conversion among those Li doped conformations, which could be controlled by temperature, changes the NLO response of bulk material. Thus, conformation change of alkali metal doped carbon nano-material with temperature rationalizes the variation of NLO properties of those materials.

  18. Depositional setting of the Upper Jurassic Hith Anhydrite of the Arabian Gulf: An analog to holocene evaporites of the United Arab Emirates and Lake MacLeod of Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S. ); Kendall, C.G.St.C. )

    1994-07-01

    The Upper Jurassic Hith Anhydrite is a major hydrocarbon seal in the Arabian Gulf region. Outcrops, core samples from the subsurface, and the literature indicate that the Hith Formation is composed mainly of anhydrite. In most locations where a section of the Hith Formation has been measured, this unit contains less than 20% carbonate much of which is in the form of thin laminations. This lack of carbonate, locally thick layers of salt, and the predominance of anhydrite favor a playa for the setting in which this sediment was accumulated. In fact, much of the Hith has the sedimentary characteristics of the Holocene Lake MacLeod playa of Western Australia, which is dominated by layers of gypsum and halite (what little carbonate that occurs is found in layers at the base of the section). Locally the Hith appears to have accumulated in a sabkha setting, particularly toward central Abu Dhabi where it pinches out into shallow-water, and peritidal carbonate. This sabkha setting is indicated by the interbedded relationship of the Hith anhydrites with these carbonates and the local predominance of horizontally flattened nodules and enterolithic layers of anhydrite. These latter features match some of the characteristic fabrics found in the Holocene coastal sabkhas of the United Arab Emirates. As with the local occurrences in the Hith, the Holocene sabkhas are dominated by carbonates and are divisible into a series of lateral facies belts. These are also expressed as equivalent vertical layers. Traced from seaward to landward, or from the base of the vertical sequence upward, these facies are characterized by (1) algal mat, (2) a layer of a gypsum crystal mush (3) active anhydrite replacement of gypsum (4) anhydrite with no gypsum mush, and (5) recycled eolianite and storm-washover sediments.

  19. Anhydrite pseudomorphs and the origin of stratiform Cu-Co ores in the Katangan Copperbelt (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchez, Ph.; Vanderhaeghen, P.; El Desouky, H.; Schneider, J.; Boyce, A.; Dewaele, S.; Cailteux, J.

    2008-07-01

    The stratiform Cu-Co ore mineralisation in the Katangan Copperbelt consists of dispersed sulphides and sulphides in nodules and lenses, which are often pseudomorphs after evaporites. Two types of pseudomorphs can be distinguished in the nodules and lenses. In type 1 examples, dolomite precipitated first and was subsequently replaced by Cu-Co sulphides and authigenic quartz, whereas in type 2 examples, authigenic quartz and Cu-Co sulphides precipitated prior to dolomite and are coarse-grained. The sulphur isotopic composition of the copper-cobalt sulphides in the type 1 pseudomorphs is between -10.3 and 3.1‰ relative to the Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite, indicating that the sulphide component was derived from bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR). The generation of {text{HCO}}_3^ - during this process caused the precipitation and replacement of anhydrite by dolomite. A second product of BSR is the generation of H2S, resulting in the precipitation of Cu-Co sulphides from the mineralising fluids. Initial sulphide precipitation occurred along the rim of the pseudomorphs and continued towards the core. Precipitation of authigenic quartz was most likely induced by a pH decrease during sulphide precipitation. Fluid inclusion data from quartz indicate the presence of a high-salinity (8-18 eq. wt.% NaCl) fluid, possibly derived from evaporated seawater which migrated through the deep subsurface. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of dolomite in type 1 nodules range between 0.71012 and 0.73576, significantly more radiogenic than the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7056-0.7087). This suggests intense interaction with siliciclastic sedimentary rocks and/or the granitic basement. The low carbon isotopic composition of the dolomite in the pseudomorphs (-7.02 and -9.93‰ relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite, V-PDB) compared to the host rock dolomite (-4.90 and +1.31‰ V-PDB) resulted from the oxidation of organic matter during BSR.

  20. 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface: a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yue; Wang, Shiqiang; Yin, Xianpeng; Liang, Yun; Dong, Hao; Gao, Ning; Li, Jian; Wang, Hui; Li, Guangtao

    2016-07-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that the combination of periodic dielectric structures with metallic structures provides an efficient means to yield a synergetic optical response or functionality in the resultant hybrid plasmonic-photonic systems. In this work, a new hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure of 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a flat gold surface was proposed, prepared, and theoretically and experimentally characterized. This hybrid structure supports two types of modes: surface plasmon polaritons bound at the metallic surface and waveguided mode of light confined in the cavity of bowls. Optical responses of this hybrid structure as well as the spatial electric field distribution of each mode are found to be strongly dependent on the structural parameters of this system, and thus could be widely modified on demand. Importantly, compared to the widely studied hybrid systems, namely the flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres, the waveguided mode with strong field enhancement appearing in the cavities of bowls is more facilely accessible and thus suitable for practical use. For demonstration, a 2D-ordered silica sub-micron bowl array deposited on a flat gold surface was fabricated and used as a regenerable platform for fluorescence enhancement by simply accommodating emitters in bowls. All the simulation and experiment results indicate that the 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface should be a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic system with great potential for applications such as sensors or tunable emitting devices if appropriate periods and materials are employed.Recently, it has been demonstrated that the combination of periodic dielectric structures with metallic structures provides an efficient means to yield a synergetic optical response or functionality in the resultant hybrid plasmonic-photonic systems. In this work, a new hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure of 2D-ordered dielectric sub

  1. Rare earth element distribution in >400 °C hot hydrothermal fluids from 5°S, MAR: The role of anhydrite in controlling highly variable distribution patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Bau, M.; Koschinsky, A.

    2010-07-01

    Two submarine hydrothermal vent fields at 5°S, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) - Turtle Pits and Comfortless Cove - emanate vapor-phase fluids at conditions close to the critical point of seawater (407 °C, 298 bars). In this study, the concentration and distribution of rare earth element (REE) and yttrium (Y) has been investigated. Independent of the major element composition, the fluids display a strong temporal variability of their REE + Y concentrations and relative distributions at different time scales of minutes to years. Chondrite-normalized distributions range from common fluid patterns with light REE enrichment relative to the heavy REE, accompanied by positive Eu anomalies (type I), to strongly REE + Y enriched patterns with a concave-downward distribution with a maximum enrichment of Sm and weakly positive or even negative Eu anomalies (type II). The larger the sum of REE, the smaller Ce CN/Yb CN and Eu/Eu∗. We also observed a strong variability in fluid flow and changing fluid temperatures, correlating with the compositional variability. As evident by the positive correlation of total REE, Ca, and Sr concentrations in Turtle Pits and Comfortless Cove fluids, precipitation/dissolution of hydrothermal anhydrite controls the variability in REE concentrations and distributions in these fluids and the transformation of one fluid type to the other. The variable distribution of REE can be explained by the accumulation of particulate anhydrite (with concave-downward REE distribution and negative Eu anomaly) into a fluid with common REE distribution (type I), followed by the modification of the REE fluid signature due to dissolution of incorporated anhydrite. A second model, in which the type II fluids represent a primary REE reaction zone fluid pattern, which is variably modified by precipitation of anhydrite, can also explain the observed correlations of total REE, fractionation of LREE/HREE and size of Eu anomaly as well as Ca, Sr. The emanation of such a fluid

  2. An ancient Roman bowl embedded in a soil sample: surface shaded three dimensional display using data from a multi-detector CT.

    PubMed

    De Maeseneer, M; Buls, N; Cleeren, N; Lenchik, L; De Mey, J

    2006-01-01

    We present an unusual application of multidetector CT and shaded surface rendering in the investigation of a soil sample, containing an ancient Roman bronze bowl. The CT findings were of fundamental importance in helping the archaeologists study the bronze bowl from the soil sample.

  3. Isolation and characterization of an early colonizing Rhizobium sp. R8 from a household toilet bowl.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Toru; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Osaki, Yukihiko; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community structure was compared between the third days', one week', and three weeks' biofilm samples from the surface of a household toilet bowl. It was found that the PCR-DGGE band pattern of 16S rRNA gene was dramatically changed after the third day and was not further changed until three weeks. This result suggests that there are early and late colonizing bacterial groups. One of the early colonizers isolated from the third days' sample was Rhizobium sp. R8, a closest relative to Rhizobium giardinii, which exhibited the highest biofilm formation activity in an artificial urine condition. R8 produced extracellular polysaccharides containing galactose, glucose, and mannose at the molar ratio of 8:1:1, which were probably responsible for the biofilm formation. Its excelled biofilm formation and urease activities together with the lack of nodulation and nitrogen fixing genes in R8 suggest that this strain has been specifically adapted to urine condition in a toilet bowl.

  4. Causes of the Extraordinary Summer Heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donat, Markus G.; King, Andrew D.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Durre, Imke; Karoly, David

    2014-05-01

    The climate over much of the US during the 1930s was characterized by extremely hot and dry conditions, often referred to as the "Dust Bowl". Based on novel observational datasets of climate extremes and century-long reanalysis data, we show that this exceptional summer heat was unrivaled in the 110-year record. Modeling studies have shown that forcing with observed sea surface temperatures may generate drought conditions over North America, and thus may at least partly explain the Dust Bowl. However, it remains to be answered which mechanisms actually led to the particularly hot conditions. In agreement with previous studies, we show that summer heat often follows a spring drought. In addition, we show that spring precipitation deficits over the central US are strongly related to atmospheric flow anomalies which suppress the moisture transport from the Gulf of Mexico into the continent. These atmospheric flow anomalies are caused by shifts in the dominating pressure patterns, in particular a northward extension of the Atlantic Subtropical High, related to warm anomalies in the North Atlantic. This suggests there is potential for predictability of summer droughts and heat waves from the combination of both spring-time ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric flow.

  5. Extraordinary heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl and associated large-scale conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donat, Markus G.; King, Andrew D.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Durre, Imke; Karoly, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Unusually hot summer conditions occurred during the 1930s over the central United States and undoubtedly contributed to the severity of the Dust Bowl drought. We investigate local and large-scale conditions in association with the extraordinary heat and drought events, making use of novel datasets of observed climate extremes and climate reanalysis covering the past century. We show that the unprecedented summer heat during the Dust Bowl years was likely exacerbated by land-surface feedbacks associated with springtime precipitation deficits. The reanalysis results indicate that these deficits were associated with the coincidence of anomalously warm North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific surface waters and a shift in atmospheric pressure patterns leading to reduced flow of moist air into the central US. Thus, the combination of springtime ocean temperatures and atmospheric flow anomalies, leading to reduced precipitation, also holds potential for enhanced predictability of summer heat events. The results suggest that hot drought, more severe than experienced during the most recent 2011 and 2012 heat waves, is to be expected when ocean temperature anomalies like those observed in the 1930s occur in a world that has seen significant mean warming.

  6. A unified framework for producing CAI melting, Wark-Lovering rims and bowl-shaped CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liffman, Kurt; Cuello, Nicolas; Paterson, David A.

    2016-10-01

    Calcium-Aluminium inclusions (CAIs) formed in the Solar system, some 4567 million years ago. CAIs are almost always surrounded by Wark-Lovering rims (WLRs), which are a sequence of thin, mono/bi-mineralic layers of refractory minerals, with a total thickness in the range of 1-100 microns. Recently, some CAIs have been found that have tektite-like bowl-shapes. To form such shapes, the CAI must have travelled through a rarefied gas at hypersonic speeds. We show how CAIs may have been ejected from the inner solar accretion disc via the centrifugal interaction between the solar magnetosphere and the inner disc rim. They subsequently punched through the hot, inner disc rim wall at hypersonic speeds. This re-entry heating partially or completely evaporated the CAIs. Such evaporation could have significantly increased the metal abundances of the inner disc rim. High speed movement through the inner disc produced WLRs. To match the observed thickness of WLRs required metal abundances at the inner disc wall that are of order 10 times that of standard solar abundances. The CAIs cooled as they moved away from the protosun, the deduced CAI cooling rates are consistent with the CAI cooling rates obtained from experiment and observation. The speeds and gas densities required to form bowl-shaped CAIs are also consistent with the expected speeds and gas densities for larger, ˜1 cm, CAIs punching through an inner accretion disc wall.

  7. [The influence of Nintendo-Wii® bowling upon residents of retirement homes].

    PubMed

    Wittelsberger, R; Krug, S; Tittlbach, S; Bös, K

    2013-07-01

    The few studies dealing with the positive effects of health and well-being of older people are only one-sided. The aim of the study therefore was to analyze the effects of Nintendo-Wii® bowling on daily function, state of dementia, quality of life, cognition and motor skills in retirement home inhabitants. The study was performed with 27 study participants (13 women, 14 men) between the ages of 49 and 95 years (mean = 71, SD = 14). They were randomly assigned to a control group (KG) and an intervention group (IG). Between pre- and posttest, the IG played 60 min/twice a week Nintendo-Wii® Bowling over 6 weeks. The improvement of IG was significant in the analysis of variance concerning strength (arm curls: F df = 2 = 7.199; p = 0,013; η(2) = 0,231) and showed a significant trend concerning coordination (tracking lines: F df = 2 = 3.99; p = 0,058; η(2) = 0,154) compared with KG. The area of rapidity (catching bars: F df = 2 = 28.511; p = 0,008; η(2) = 0,279) showed a significant decline in the IG compared with the KG. However, closer examination shows that the short time of intervention and the wide age range could have affected the results. Thus, further studies should take these critical aspects into consideration.

  8. Thermo-responsive cross-linked liquid crystal bowl-shaped colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei-Shao; Xia, Yu; Yang, Shu; Yodh, A. G.

    In this work we create and investigate cross-linked bowl-shaped nematic liquid crystal (NLC) colloidal particles. Janus colloids are first formed via solvent-induced phase separation in emulsions consisting of NLC monomers and isotropic polymers. This scheme enables us to realize different particle morphologies such as bowl-shape by fine-tuning the confinement of NLCs within the droplets, e.g. by varying the size of droplets, the volume ratio between NLC and polymer, and the type/concentration of surfactants in aqueous background phase. The NLC compartment is composed of RM82 (1,4-Bis-[4-(6-acryloyloxyhexyloxy)benzoyloxy]-2-methylbenzene) monomers, which are then photocrosslinked by dithiol groups to form nematic liquid crystal elastomer. Finally, we remove the polymer parts of Janus colloids to obtain the target structures, which are temperature sensitive due to change of elasticity and molecular alignment of NLC near the isotropic to nematic phase transition temperature. We will explore novel mechanical and optical properties from the thermo-responsive structures as well as their applications, such as biomimic swimming behaviors and adjustable lensing effects. This work is supported by the foundation through NSF Grant DMR12-05463, NSF-MRSEC Grant DMR11-20901, and NASA Grant NNX08AO0G.

  9. The hydrothermal decomposition of calcium monosulfoaluminate 14-hydrate to katoite hydrogarnet and β-anhydrite: An in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, Nicola; Kyritsis, Konstantinos; Hall, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    We apply in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the transformation of calcium monosulfoaluminate 14-hydrate Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O [monosulfate-14] to hydrogarnet Ca 3Al 2(OH) 12 on the saturated water vapor pressure curve up to 250 °C. We use an aqueous slurry of synthetic ettringite Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O as the starting material; on heating, this decomposes at about 115 °C to form monosulfate-14 and bassanite CaSO 4·0.5H 2O. Above 170 °C monosulfate-14 diffraction peaks slowly diminish in intensity, perhaps as a result of loss of crystallinity and the formation of an X-ray amorphous meta-monosulfate. Hydrogarnet nucleates only at temperatures above 210 °C. Bassanite transforms to β-anhydrite (insoluble anhydrite) at about 230 °C and this transformation is accompanied by a second burst of hydrogarnet growth. The transformation pathway is more complex than previously thought. The mapping of the transformation pathway shows the value of rapid in-situ time-resolved synchrotron diffraction.

  10. Ab initio calculation of bowl, cage, and ring isomers of C20 and C20-.

    PubMed

    An, Wei; Gao, Yi; Bulusu, Satya; Zeng, X C

    2005-05-22

    High-level ab initio calculations have been carried out to reexamine relative stability of bowl, cage, and ring isomers of C(20) and C(20)(-). The total electronic energies of the three isomers show different energy orderings, strongly depending on the hybrid functionals selected. It is found that among three popular hybrid density-functional (DF) methods B3LYP, B3PW91, PBE1PBE, and a new hybrid-meta-DF method TPSSKCIS, only the PBE1PBE method (with cc-pVTZ basis set) gives qualitatively correct energy ordering as that predicted from ab initio CCSD(T)/cc-pVDZ [CCSD(T)-coupled-cluster method including singles, doubles, and noniterative perturbative triples; cc-pVDZ-correlation consistent polarized valence double zeta] as well as from MP4(SDQ)/cc-pVTZ [MP4-fourth-order Moller-Plesset; cc-pVTZ-correlation consistent polarized valence triple zeta] calculations. Both CCSD(T) and MP4 calculations indicate that the bowl is most likely the global minimum of neutral C(20) isomers, followed by the fullerene cage and ring. For the anionic counterparts, the PBE1PBE calculation also agrees with MP4/cc-pVTZ calculation, both predicting that the bowl is still the lowest-energy structure of C(20)(-) at T=0 K, followed by the ring and the cage. In contrast, both B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and B3PW91/cc-pVTZ calculations predict that the ring is the lowest-energy structure of C(20)(-). Apparently, this good reliability in predicting the energy ordering renders the hybrid PBE method a leading choice for predicting relative stability among large-sized carbon clusters and other carbon nanostructures (e.g., finite-size carbon nanotubes, nano-onions, or nanohorns). The relative stabilities derived from total energy with Gibbs free-energy corrections demonstrate a changing ordering in which ring becomes more favorable for both C(20) and C(20)(-) at high temperatures. Finally, photoelectron spectra (PES) for the anionic C(20)(-) isomers have been computed. With binding energies up to 7 eV, the

  11. The effect of spin in swing bowling in cricket: model trajectories for spin alone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2015-02-01

    In ‘swing’ bowling, as employed by fast and fast-medium bowlers in cricket, back-spin along the line of the seam is normally applied in order to keep the seam vertical and to provide stability against ‘wobble’ of the seam. Whilst spin is normally thought of as primarily being the slow bowler's domain, the spin applied by the swing bowler has the side-effect of generating a lift or Magnus force. This force, depending on the orientation of the seam and hence that of the back-spin, can have a side-ways component as well as the expected vertical ‘lift’ component. The effect of the spin itself, in influencing the trajectory of the fast bowler's delivery, is normally not considered, presumably being thought of as negligible. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, using calculated model trajectories, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin and to see how this predicted movement compares with the total observed side-ways movement. The size of the vertical lift component is also estimated. It is found that, although the spin is an essential part of the successful swing bowler's delivery, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin itself amounts to a few centimetres or so, and is therefore small, but perhaps not negligible, compared to the total amount of side-ways movement observed. The spin does, however, provide a considerable amount of lift compared to the equivalent delivery bowled without spin, altering the point of pitching by up to 3 m, a very large amount indeed. Thus, for example, bowling a ball with the seam pointing directly down the pitch and not designed to swing side-ways at all, but with the amount of back-spin varied, could provide a very powerful additional weapon in the fast bowler's arsenal. So-called ‘sling bowlers’, who use a very low arm action, can take advantage of spin since effectively they can apply side-spin to the ball, giving rise to a large side-ways movement, ˜ 20{}^\\circ cm or more, which certainly is

  12. Synthesis and STM imaging of symmetric and dissymmetric ethynyl-bridged dimers of boron-subphthalocyanine bowl-shaped nanowheels.

    PubMed

    Jacquot de Rouville, Henri-Pierre; Garbage, Romain; Ample, Francisco; Nickel, Anja; Meyer, Joerg; Moresco, Francesca; Joachim, Christian; Rapenne, Gwénaël

    2012-07-16

    The future's wheel: A new class of wheels, based on subphthalocyanine fragments, for future incorporation in functional nanovehicles is reported (see figure). The syntheses of a symmetric wheel, a nitrogen-tagged wheel, and their ethynyl-bridged homodimers are presented. Theoretical calculations and STM imaging demonstrate the advantage of a bowl-shaped structure and the efficiency of the tag for STM imaging.

  13. Socialist Revolution: Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, and the Emergence of Marxist Thought in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Upon its publication in 1976, Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis' "Schooling in Capitalist America" was the most sophisticated and nuanced Marxian social and political analysis of schooling in the United States. Thirty-five years after its publication, "Schooling" continues to have a strong impact on thinking about education. Despite its…

  14. Three-dimensional æolian dynamics within a bowl blowout during offshore winds: Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Walker, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the æolian dynamics of a deep bowl blowout within the foredune of the Greenwich Dunes, on the northeastern shore or Prince Edward Island, Canada. Masts of cup anemometers and sonic anemometers were utilized to measure flow velocities and directions during a strong regional ESE (offshore) wind event. The flow across the blowout immediately separated at the upwind rim crest, and within the blowout was strongly reversed. High, negative vertical flows occurred down the downwind (but seaward) vertical scarp which projected into the separation envelope and topographically forced flow back into the blowout. A pronounced, accelerated jet flow existed near the surface across the blowout basin, and the flow exhibited a complex, anti-clockwise structure with the near-surface flow following the contours around the blowout basin and lower slopes. Significant æolian sediment transport occurred across the whole bowl basin and sediment was delivered by saltation and suspension out the blowout to the east. This study demonstrates that strong offshore winds produce pronounced topographically forced flow steering, separation, reversal, and more complex three-dimensional motions within a bowl blowout, and that such winds within a bowl blowout play a notable role in transporting sediment within and beyond deep topographic hollows in the foredune.

  15. Facile synthesis of novel bowl-like hollow carbon spheres by the combination of hydrothermal carbonization and soft templating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zili; Qin, Mingli; Jia, Baorui; Zhang, Hongzhou; Wu, Haoyang; Qu, Xuanhui

    2017-03-07

    For the first time, bowl-like hollow carbon spheres (BHCSs) have been designed and fabricated by the combination of hydrothermal carbonization and soft templating. The obtained BHCSs exhibit well-defined shapes with the size ranging from 1 to 2 μm. As electrodes of electrochemical double layer capacitors they showed good performance.

  16. Online Responses to a Multilingual Super Bowl Ad: Is "America the Beautiful" by Any Other Language Still America, the Beautiful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Brooke Y.

    2016-01-01

    On 2 February 2014, an advertisement entitled "It's Beautiful" debuted during Super Bowl XLVIII, which was watched by 111.5 million people in the USA. The Coca-Cola advertisement portrayed people of various ethnicities and was accompanied by "America the Beautiful" sung in nine languages. Using critical discourse analysis, I…

  17. Transition metal-boron complexes BnM: from bowls (n = 8-14) to tires (n = 14).

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Dian; Miao, Chang-Qing; Guo, Jin-Chang; Ren, Guang-Ming

    2006-11-30

    Transition metal-boron complexes BnM have been predicted at density functional theory level to be molecular bowls (n = 8-14) hosting a transition metal atom (M) inside or molecular tires (n = 14) centered with a transition metal atom. Small Bn clusters prove to be effective inorganic ligands to all the VB-VIIIB transition metal elements in the periodic table. Density functional evidences obtained in this work strongly suggest that bowl-shaped fullerene analogues of Bn units exist in small BnM complexes and the bowl-to-tire structural transition occur to the first-row transition metal complexes BnM (M = Mn, Fe, Co) at n = 14, a size obviously smaller than n = 20 where the 2D-3D structural transition occurs to bare Bn. The half-sandwich-type B12Cr (C3v), full sandwich-type (B12)2Cr (D3d), bowl-shaped B14Fe (C2), and tire-shaped B14Fe (D7d) and B14Fe- (C7v) are the most interesting prototypes to be targeted in future experiments. These BnM complexes may serve as building blocks to form extended boron-rich BnMm tubes or cages (m > or = 2) or as structural units to be placed inside carbon nanotubes with suitable diameters.

  18. Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, David M.; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988

  19. Simultaneous dewatering and reconstitution in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Gray, M.L.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Finseth, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has developed a dewatering and reconstitution process in which bitumen emulsion is added to a fine clean coal slurry ahead of the dewatering device. The process simultaneously improves dewatering efficiency and reduces dustiness of the fine coal product during subsequent handling. This paper describes the test results from dewatering and reconstitution of fine coal in a 500 lb. per hour continuous bench scale high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Test results will be evaluated in terms of type and dosage of emulsion, product moisture and strength, and product handling and dust reduction efficiency. A preliminary cost analysis will also be included.

  20. Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M

    2007-08-14

    In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today.

  1. Amplification of the North American 'Dust Bowl' drought through human induced land degradation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. I.; Miller, R. L.; Seager, R.

    2008-12-01

    The 'Dust Bowl' drought of the 1930s was highly unusual for North America, deviating from the typical pattern forced by 'La Nina' with the maximum drying in the central and northern Plains, warm temperature anomalies across almost the entire continent, and widespread dust storms. General circulation models (GCMs), forced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the 1930s, produce a serious drought, but one that is centered in southwestern North America and without the warming centered in the middle of the continent. Here we show that the inclusion of forcing from human land degradation during the period, in addition to the anomalous SSTs, is necessary to reproduce the anomalous features of the Dust Bowl drought. The degradation over the Great Plains is represented in the GCM as a reduction in vegetation cover (crop failure) and the addition of a soil dust aerosol source. As a result of land surface feedbacks, the simulation of the drought is much improved when the new dust aerosol and vegetation boundary conditions are included. Vegetation reductions explain the high temperature anomaly over the northern U.S. and the dust aerosols intensify the drought and move it northward of the purely ocean-forced drought pattern. When both factors are included in the model simulations, the precipitation and temperature anomalies are of similar magnitude and in a similar location compared to the observations. It is concluded that human-induced land degradation not only led to the dust storms of the 1930s, but also amplified the drought and these together turned a typical SST- forced drought into one of the worst environmental disasters the U.S. has experienced.

  2. Overlapping Ballistic Ejecta Fields: Separating Distinct Blasts at Kings Bowl, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, C.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Hughes, S. S.; Sears, D. W. G.; Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Sears, H.; Elphic, R. C.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, W. B.; Neish, C.; Karunatillake, S.; Button, N.; Purcell, S.; Mallonee, H.; Ostler, B.

    2015-12-01

    Kings Bowl is a ~2200ka pit crater created by a phreatic blast along a volcanic fissure in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), Idaho. The main crater measures approximately 80m in length, 30m in width, and 30m in depth, with smaller pits located nearby on the Great Rift fissure, and has been targeted by the FINESSE team as a possible analogue for Cyane Fossae, Mars. The phreatic eruption is believed to have occurred due to the interaction of groundwater with lava draining back into the fissure following a lava lake high stand, erupting already solidified basalt from this and previous ERSP lava flows. The contemporaneous draw back of the lava with the explosions may conceal some smaller possible blast pits as more lava drained into the newly formed pits. Ballistic ejecta from the blasts occur on both sides of the fissure. To the east, the ballistic blocks are mantled by fine tephra mixed with eolian dust, the result of a westerly wind during the explosions. We use differential GPS to map the distribution of ballistic blocks on the west side of the fissure, recording position, percent vesiculation, and the length of 3 mutually perpendicular axes for each block >20cm along multiple transects parallel to the fissure. From the several hundred blocks recorded, we have been able to separate the ballistic field into several distinct blast deposits on the basis of size distributions and block concentration. The smaller pits identified from the ballistic fields correspond broadly to the northern and southern limits of the tephra/dust field east of the fissure. Soil formation and bioturbation of the tephra by sagebrush have obliterated any tephrostratigraphy that could have been linked to individual blasts. The ballistic block patterns at Kings Bowl may be used to identify distinct ejecta groups in high-resolution imagery of Mars or other planetary bodies.

  3. Amplification of the North American "Dust Bowl" drought through human-induced land degradation.

    PubMed

    Cook, Benjamin I; Miller, Ron L; Seager, Richard

    2009-03-31

    The "Dust Bowl" drought of the 1930s was highly unusual for North America, deviating from the typical pattern forced by "La Nina" with the maximum drying in the central and northern Plains, warm temperature anomalies across almost the entire continent, and widespread dust storms. General circulation models (GCMs), forced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the 1930s, produce a drought, but one that is centered in southwestern North America and without the warming centered in the middle of the continent. Here, we show that the inclusion of forcing from human land degradation during the period, in addition to the anomalous SSTs, is necessary to reproduce the anomalous features of the Dust Bowl drought. The degradation over the Great Plains is represented in the GCM as a reduction in vegetation cover and the addition of a soil dust aerosol source, both consequences of crop failure. As a result of land surface feedbacks, the simulation of the drought is much improved when the new dust aerosol and vegetation boundary conditions are included. Vegetation reductions explain the high temperature anomaly over the northern U.S., and the dust aerosols intensify the drought and move it northward of the purely ocean-forced drought pattern. When both factors are included in the model simulations, the precipitation and temperature anomalies are of similar magnitude and in a similar location compared with the observations. Human-induced land degradation is likely to have not only contributed to the dust storms of the 1930s but also amplified the drought, and these together turned a modest SST-forced drought into one of the worst environmental disasters the U.S. has experienced.

  4. The Role of Obliteration in the Achievement of a Dry Mastoid Bowl

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Aisha; Clark, James; Semenov, Yevgeniy R.; Francis, Howard W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of mastoid obliteration on the achievement of a dry mastoid bowl and frequency of maintenance care. Study Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Academic medical center. Patients There were 63 canal-wall-down mastoidectomies for chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma between 2007 and 2014 with follow-up of at least 6 months. Eighteen mastoids were nonobliterated and 45 were obliterated. Thirteen underwent secondary obliteration of existing mastoid bowls with chronic drainage, whereas 32 underwent primary obliteration at the original canal-wall-down procedure. Intervention Mastoid obliteration. Main Outcome Measures Achievement of a dry healed mastoid cavity and frequency of outpatient visits. Results In more than 80% of the cases, a dry ear was achieved, with no significant difference between the obliterated and nonobliterated cases (p = 0.786). Eleven of the 13 secondary cases experienced cessation of otorrhea, achieving dry ears at rates similar to that of the primary and nonobliterated cases. The secondary obliteration population was also significantly younger than the primary group (22.1 versus 43.5 years, p = 0.002). Multivariable-mixed effects analysis demonstrated a reduction in 0.1 visits per 6-month period following surgery overtime (p < 0.001). Conclusions Mastoid obliteration may be valuable in the management of the well-developed and chronically wet mastoid cavity, particularly when the drainage emanates from mucosal disease or cell tracts in a deep sinodural angle. Younger patients may require secondary obliteration because of continued craniofacial maturation several years following canal-wall-down surgery. PMID:26375974

  5. Solubility Measurements and Predictions of Gypsum, Anhydrite, and Calcite Over Wide Ranges of Temperature, Pressure, and Ionic Strength with Mixed Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhaoyi; Kan, Amy T.; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Fangfu; Yan, Fei; Bhandari, Narayan; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Ya; Ruan, Gedeng; Tomson, Mason B.

    2017-02-01

    Today's oil and gas production from deep reservoirs permits exploitation of more oil and gas reserves but increases risks due to conditions of high temperature and high pressure. Predicting mineral solubility under such extreme conditions is critical for mitigating scaling risks, a common and costly problem. Solubility predictions use solubility products and activity coefficients, commonly from Pitzer theory virial coefficients. However, inaccurate activity coefficients and solubility data have limited accurate mineral solubility predictions and applications of the Pitzer theory. This study measured gypsum solubility under its stable phase conditions up to 1400 bar; it also confirmed the anhydrite solubility reported in the literature. Using a novel method, the virial coefficients for Ca2+ and {{SO}}4^{2 - } (i.e., β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(0)} ,β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)} ,C_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{φ }) were calculated over wide ranges of temperature and pressure (0-250 °C and 1-1400 bar). The determination of this set of virial coefficients widely extends the applicable temperature and pressure ranges of the Pitzer theory in Ca2+ and SO 4 2- systems. These coefficients can be applied to improve the prediction of calcite solubility in the presence of high concentrations of Ca2+ and SO 4 2- ions. These new virial coefficients can also be used to predict the solubilities of gypsum and anhydrite accurately. Moreover, based on the derived β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)} values in this study, the association constants of {{CaSO}}4^{( 0 )} at 1 bar and 25 °C can be estimated by K_{{assoc}} = - 2β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)}. These values match very well with those reported in the literature based on other methods.

  6. Rheological stratification in Zechstein rock salt caused by thermodynamically controlled reorganization of grain boundary fluids? A test using gravitationally induced sinking of anhydrite-dolomite stringers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander F.

    2016-04-01

    The rheology of rock salt during slow deformation in nature is controlled by the dominant deformation mechanism. Newtonian viscous rheology is associated with solution precipitation processes, while power law rheology is associated with dislocation creep. In large strain deformation during salt tectonics these two processes both contribute equally to the total strain rate, and grain boundaries contain mobile brine films. It has been shown that after the end of active salt tectonics, these fluid films neck down into arrays of disconnected brine inclusions, rendering the grain boundaries immobile and thus stopping solution-precipitation creep. This results in very low gravitational sinking rates of isolated anhydrite-dolomite stringers in Zechstein salt in the Tertiary, consistent with power law creep, while in Newtonian salt the stringers would sink to the bottom in geologically short time. In a recent paper Ghanbarzadeh et al., (Science, Nov 2015) provided evidence that below approximately 2 km depth the thermodynamically controlled dihedral angle between solid-liquid and solid-solid grain boundaries decreases to below 60 degrees, so that a connected grain boundary triple junction network of fluid channels is formed and permeability of the salt increases. The same process can be argued to lead to permanently mobile grain boundaries below this critical depth, activating solution-precipitation creep even in the absence of active tectonics. We test this hypothesis by comparing estimated gravitationally induced sinking rates of isolated anhydrite-dolomite stringers in the Zechstein of NE-Netherlands, based on 3D sesmic data, at depths above and below this proposed transition. First results suggest that there is no significant change in stringer sinking rate with depth.

  7. Spin-bowling in cricket re-visited: model trajectories for various spin-vector angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we investigate, via the calculation of model trajectories appropriate to slow bowling in cricket, the effects on the flight path of the ball before pitching due to changes in the angle of the spin-vector. This was accomplished by allowing the spin-vector to vary in three ways. Firstly, from off-spin, where the spin-vector points horizontally and directly down the pitch, to top-spin where it points horizontally towards the off-side of the pitch. Secondly, from off-spin to side-spin where, for side-spin, the spin-vector points vertically upwards. Thirdly, where the spin-vector points horizontally and at 45° to the pitch (in the general direction of ‘point’, as viewed by the bowler), and is varied towards the vertical, while maintaining the 45° angle in the horizontal plane. It is found that, as is well known, top-spin causes the ball to dip in flight, side-spin causes the ball to move side-ways in flight and, perhaps most importantly, off-spin can cause the ball to drift to the off-side of the pitch late in its flight as it begins to fall. At a more subtle level it is found that, if the total spin is kept constant and a small amount of top-spin is added to the ball at the expense of some off-spin, there is little change in the side-ways drift. However, a considerable reduction in the length at which the ball pitches occurs, ˜25 cm, an amount that batsmen can ignore at their peril. On the other hand, a small amount of side-spin introduced to a top-spin delivery does not alter the point of pitching significantly, but produces a considerable amount of side-ways drift, ˜10 cm or more. For pure side-spin the side-ways drift is up to ˜30 cm. When a side-spin component is added to the spin of a ball bowled with a mixture of off-spin and top-spin in equal proportions, significant movement occurs in both the side-ways direction and in the point of pitching, of the order of a few tens of centimetres.

  8. Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions

    PubMed Central

    MS, Suzie Aparicio; Welch Bacon, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Bay, R. Curtis; Cohen, Randy P.; DeZeeuw, Terry; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2015-01-01

    Context The “Appropriate Medical Coverage for Intercollegiate Athletics” (AMCIA) document was created to support assessment and calculation of athletic training personnel requirements. However, little is known regarding disparities between current and recommended staffing practices. Objective To identify the staffing and employment characteristics of athletic health care services at Football Bowl Subdivision-level institutions. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants Head athletic trainers and athletic training staff members who were knowledgeable about budget and staff. Main Outcome Measure(s) The survey, Assessment of Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions, was used to evaluate personal, university, and staff demographics; staffing and employment topics; and AMCIA variables and use. Results The survey was accessed and partially completed by 104 individuals (response rate = 84.6%). A total of 79 athletic trainers (response rate = 76%) completed the entire survey. One-third of the respondents (34.2%, n = 26) met the recommended number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) for football, two-thirds of the respondents (65.7%, n = 50) failed to meet the recommendation, and 26.2% (n = 27) were missing data needed for FTE calculation. Among those who did not meet the recommended FTEs (n = 50), 38.0% (n = 19) were within 1 FTE of being compliant, 26.0% (n = 13) were within 2 FTEs, and 24.0% (n = 12) were within 3 FTEs. About one-third of respondents (35.9%, n = 37) reported not using the AMCIA, citing lack of funding (29.7%, n = 11), lack of administrative support (21.6%, n = 8), and other reasons (37.8%, n = 14). Conclusions The majority of institutions that used the AMCIA were able to provide justification for staffing. For most of the institutions that failed to meet their recommendation, adding 1–3 FTE athletic trainers for football would change their

  9. King's Bowl Pit Crater, Lava Field and Eruptive Fissure, Idaho - A Multipurpose Volcanic Planetary Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S. S.; Garry, B.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Borg, C.; Elphic, R. C.; Haberle, C. W.; Kobayashi, L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    King's Bowl (KB) and its associated eruptive fissure and lava field on the eastern Snake River Plain, is being investigated by the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team as a planetary analog to similar pits on the Moon, Mars and Vesta. The 2,220 ± 100 BP basaltic eruption in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve represents early stages of low shield growth, which was aborted when magma supply was cut off. Compared to mature shields, KB is miniscule, with ~0.02 km3 of lava over ~3 km2, yet the ~6 km long series of fissures, cracks and pits are well-preserved for analog studies of volcanic processes. The termination of eruption was likely related to proximity of the 2,270 ± 50 BP eruption of the much larger Wapi lava field (~5.5 km3 over 325 km2 area) on the same rift. Our investigation extends early work by R. Greeley and colleagues, focusing on imagery, compositional variations, ejecta distribution, dGPS profiles and LiDAR scans of features related to: (1) fissure eruptions - spatter ramparts, cones, feeder dikes, extension cracks; (2) lava lake formation - surface morphology, squeeze-ups, slab pahoehoe lava mounds, lava drain-back, flow lobe overlaps; and (3) phreatic steam blasts - explosion pits, ejecta blankets of ash and blocks. Preliminary results indicate multiple fissure eruptions and growth of a basin-filled lava lake up to ~ 10 m thick with outflow sheet lava flows. Remnant mounds of original lake crust reveal an early high lava lake level, which subsided as much as 5 m as the molten interior drained back into the fissure system. Rapid loss of magma supply led to the collapse of fissure walls allowing groundwater influx that triggered multiple steam blasts along at least 500 m. Early blasts occurred while lake magma pressure was still high enough to produce squeeze-ups when penetrated by ejecta blocks. The King's Bowl pit crater exemplifies processes of a small, but highly energetic

  10. Characterization of microorganisms isolated from the black dirt of toilet bowls and componential analysis of the black dirt.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miho; Nagata, Yusuke; Niizeki, Kazuma; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    We have previously conducted a microflora analysis and examined the biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms. In the present investigation, to reveal the strain involved in the formation of black dirt in toilet bowls, we performed a microflora analysis of the bacteria and fungi isolated from the black dirt of toilet bowls at ten homes. Among samples from different isolation sites and sampling seasons, although a similar tendency was not seen in bacterial microflora, Exophiala sp. was detected in the fungal microflora from all samples of black dirt except for one, and constituted the major presence. By scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the formed black dirt, SEM image at × 1,000 and × 5,000 magnification showed objects like hyphae and many bacteria adhering to them, respectively. Micro fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro FT-IR) and SEM with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-XMA) were used to investigate the components of black dirt. IR spectra of micro-FT-IR showed typical absorptions associated with amide compounds and protein, and the elements such as C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, and Ba were detected with SEM-XMA. These results showed that black dirt had living body ingredients. Furthermore, Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains, which were observed at a high frequency, accumulated 2-hydroxyjuglone (2-HJ) and flaviolin as one of the intermediates in the melanin biosynthetic pathway by the addition of a melanin synthesis inhibitor (tricyclazole) at the time of cultivation. These results suggested strongly that the pigment of black dirt in toilet bowls was melanin produced by Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains.

  11. Possible deposit of soil dust from the 1930's U.S. dust bowl identified in Greenland ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donarummo, J.; Ram, M.; Stoermer, E. F.

    2003-03-01

    We have identified a dust storm deposit in the GISP2 ice core that most likely originated from the Great Plains region of the United States during the 1930's `Dust Bowl' era. These results indicate that the Central U.S. can be a significant source of dust to the Greenland ice sheet, especially when the source area is affected by intense drought conditions.

  12. Biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms and the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against the isolates.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miho; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Matsumune, Norihiko; Niizeki, Kazuma; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sanitary conditions of toilets, the bacterial counts of the toilet bowl biofilms in 5 Kansai area and 11 Kansai and Kanto area homes in Japan were measured in winter and summer seasons, respectively. Isolates (128 strains) were identified by analyzing 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. The number of colonies and bacterial species from biofilms sampled in winter tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than those in summer. Moreover, the composition of bacterial communities in summer and winter samples differed considerably. In summer samples, biofilms in Kansai and Kanto areas were dominated by Blastomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. Methylobacterium sp. was detected in all toilet bowl biofilms except for one sample. Methylobacterium sp. constituted the major presence in biofilms along with Brevundimonas sp., Sphingomonas sp., and/or Pseudomonas sp. The composition ratio of the sum of their genera was 88.0 from 42.9% of the total bacterial flora. The biofilm formation abilities of 128 isolates were investigated, and results suggested that Methylobacterium sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were involved in biofilm formation in toilet bowls. The biofilm formation of a mixed bacteria system that included bacteria with the highest biofilm-forming ability in a winter sample was greater than mixture without such bacteria. This result suggests that isolates possessing a high biofilm-forming activity are involved in the biofilm formation in the actual toilet bowl. A bactericidal test against 25 strains indicated that the bactericidal activities of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) tended to be higher than those of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium chloride (ADBAC). In particular, DDAC showed high bactericidal activity against approximately 90% of tested strains under the 5 h treatment.

  13. Family fun or cultural free-for-all? A critique of the 2015 National Football League Super Bowl commercials

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Kernan, William D; Reeves, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to enumerate and describe violent and risky behaviors as well as other general health behaviors exhibited in the advertisements during the National Football League (NFL) Super Bowl 2015. Methods: Commercials during the NFL Super Bowl 2015 were assessed for violent and risky behaviors. Additional health behaviors were indicated such as the advertisement of unhealthy food, promotion of physical activity, and sexual content. Results: A total of 110 commercials were documented, accounting for 64 minutes of broadcast time. Commercials promoting automobiles, television shows, food, and movies were the most prevalent, representing just over half (53.7%) of all of the advertisements featured. Depictions of unsafe driving were found in 10.9% (n = 12) of the commercials. All 12 commercials contained some sort of risky or wild driving behavior, and speeding was observed in 11 of the 12 commercials. A total of 32 (29.1%) of the commercials were coded as including violent content.Physical activity behavior was present in 3 (2.7%) of the commercials. Conversely, substance use was observed in 3 (2.7%) of the commercials, none of which included health promotion messaging. Of the 110 commercials aired during the 2015 Super Bowl, 12.7% (n = 14) included sexual content. Conclusion: Parents should consider the possibility that their children may observe acts of violence or conflicting safety messages during commercial breaks. PMID:27123435

  14. Orthogonal experiment and analysis on process parameters of bowl feed polishing (BFP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Kai; Wan, Yongjian; Xu, Qinglan; Yang, Yang

    2013-08-01

    With the development of science and technology, the demand for high-precision product is increasing continuously. Ultra-smooth surface with sub-nanometer roughness has extensive applications in the field of soft X-ray optics, high power laser and laser gyro. Bowl feed polishing (BFP) technology is an effective ultra-smooth surface processing method, but the polishing process of BFP which is affected by a lot of factors is extremely complex and difficult to control. It is important to understand the effect of the process variables such as abrasive particle size, concentration of abrasive particle, speed of polishing pad, acidity and polishing time in the process of BFP. They are very important parameters that must be carefully formulated to achieve desired material removal rates and surface roughness. Using a design of experiment (DOE) approach, this study was performed investigating the main effect of the each parameter during K9 BFP. A better understanding of the interaction behavior between the various parameters and the effect on removal rate and surface roughness is achieved by using the statistical analysis techniques. In the experimental tests, the optimized parameters combination for BFP which were derived from the statistical analysis could be found for material removal rate and better surface roughness through the above experiment results.

  15. Airborne Dust Modified the North American Climate During the 1930's Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. A.; Solmon, F.; Sloan, L. C.; Snyder, M. A.

    2007-05-01

    In the 1930's Dust Bowl, drought in Mid-Western North America, in conjunction with wide-scale planting of drought-vulnerable crops, resulted in massive dust storms. The presence of dust in the atmosphere may have directly altered the energy budget of North America by the scattering and absorption of radiation and thus may have acted as a feedback to the regional drought conditions. Through a climate modeling sensitivity study of North American climate investigating the impact of airborne dust during the 1930's (using a regional model, RegCM3), we find that areas with moderate to high dust-loading have reduced surface temperatures (~1K) and reduced evapotranspiration (~0.5 mm/day). We also find spatially-coherent, statistically significant changes in precipitation patterns over eastern North America during Spring, Summer, and Fall: areas gain and lose as much as 2 mm/day of precipitation. We are working on a more detailed analysis to determine the causal relationship(s) between airborne dust and precipitation patterns; we hypothesize that the spatially non-uniform change in the energy budget, caused by dust loading, modifies regional dynamics and indirectly modifies precipitation patterns.

  16. Dust and the Dust Bowl: Connections between 1930's drought and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. A.; Sloan, L. C.; Solmon, F.; Snyder, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    There have been a number of investigations into the causes and physical mechanisms of the 1930's Dust Bowl, and together they provide a reasonable explanation of the drought in terms of its length and severity. However no published investigations have considered the possible climatic effects caused by the considerable amount of airborne dust that was generated as a consequence of poor land use management in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In order to investigate the effects of airborne dust on North American climate during the 1930's, we have performed a climate model sensitivity study that isolates the effects of dust on climate in a regional climate model. The results of the study show that an essentially permanent dust cloud existed over North America through the duration of the drought. The dust cloud, which we show was quite thick over its center in the Midwest, blocked enough solar radiation to reduce surface temperatures by about 1 K. In addition, we show that a complex feedback between dust and drought caused a spatial redistribution of precipitation, in which various regions gained or lost an average of about 1 mm/day of precipitation.

  17. Tuning the Structural Color of a 2D Photonic Crystal Using a Bowl-like Nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Umh, Ha Nee; Yu, Sungju; Kim, Yong Hwa; Lee, Su Young; Yi, Jongheop

    2016-06-22

    Structural colors of the ordered photonic nanostructures are widely used as an effective platform for manipulating the propagation of light. Although several approaches have been explored in attempts to mimic the structural colors, improving the reproducibility, mechanical stability, and the economic feasibility of sophisticated photonic crystals prepared by complicated processes continues to pose a challenge. In this study, we report on an alternative, simple method for fabricating a tunable photonic crystal at room temperature. A bowl-like nanostructure of TiO2 was periodically arranged on a thin Ti sheet through a two-step anodization process where its diameters were systemically controlled by changing the applied voltage. Consequently, they displayed a broad color distribution, ranging from red to indigo, and the principal reason for color generation followed the Bragg diffraction theory. This noncolorant method was capable of reproducing a Mondrian painting on a centimeter scale without the need to employ complex architectures, where the generated structural colors were highly stable under mechanical or chemical influence. Such a color printing technique represents a potentially promising platform for practical applications for anticounterfeit trademarks, wearable sensors, and displays.

  18. Mixed-method pre-cooling reduces physiological demand without improving performance of medium-fast bowling in the heat.

    PubMed

    Minett, Geoffrey M; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Portus, Marc

    2012-05-01

    This study examined physiological and performance effects of pre-cooling on medium-fast bowling in the heat. Ten, medium-fast bowlers completed two randomised trials involving either cooling (mixed-methods) or control (no cooling) interventions before a 6-over bowling spell in 31.9±2.1°C and 63.5±9.3% relative humidity. Measures included bowling performance (ball speed, accuracy and run-up speeds), physical characteristics (global positioning system monitoring and counter-movement jump height), physiological (heart rate, core temperature, skin temperature and sweat loss), biochemical (serum concentrations of damage, stress and inflammation) and perceptual variables (perceived exertion and thermal sensation). Mean ball speed (114.5±7.1 vs. 114.1±7.2 km · h(-1); P = 0.63; d = 0.09), accuracy (43.1±10.6 vs. 44.2±12.5 AU; P = 0.76; d = 0.14) and total run-up speed (19.1±4.1 vs. 19.3±3.8 km · h(-1); P = 0.66; d = 0.06) did not differ between pre-cooling and control respectively; however 20-m sprint speed between overs was 5.9±7.3% greater at Over 4 after pre-cooling (P = 0.03; d = 0.75). Pre-cooling reduced skin temperature after the intervention period (P = 0.006; d = 2.28), core temperature and pre-over heart rates throughout (P = 0.01-0.04; d = 0.96-1.74) and sweat loss by 0.4±0.3 kg (P = 0.01; d = 0.34). Mean rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation were lower during pre-cooling trials (P = 0.004-0.03; d = 0.77-3.13). Despite no observed improvement in bowling performance, pre-cooling maintained between-over sprint speeds and blunted physiological and perceptual demands to ease the thermoregulatory demands of medium-fast bowling in hot conditions.

  19. Dust Bowl migration as an analog for possible global warming-induced migration from Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.H.; Longstreth, J.D.; Johnson, A.K.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-06-01

    As a result of increases in CO{sub 2} and other radiatively important trace gases, scientists have predicted increases in mean worldwide temperatures of 2--5 degrees C over the next 50 to 100 years. Such temperature increases may result in climate modifications that would in turn be associated with increases in drought and desertification and could even change the patterns of the monsoons and tropical rains, which are important to agriculture throughout the world. They predicted that the rise in sea level caused by melting and thermal expansion of glaciers and polar icecaps could flood large population centers, destroying habitation and displacing populations. This will result in approximately 50 million ``environmental refugees`` worldwide, triple the number of today. The expected shifts in precipitation are also likely to result in (1) increased runoff contaminated with pesticides, salts, garbage, sewage, and eroded soil, and (2) drought also leading to increased soil erosion and salinization, as well as depletion of limited water resources. The total impact of global warming on agriculture and human habitation could considerably slow the economic development of some nations and would particularly affect agricultural production. Loss of homes, the inability to raise food, an increased prevalence of disease and worsened economic conditions may drive people to leave their homelands, seeking entry into countries which have more resources and greater resistance to the economic consequences of climatic change. This report looks at the possible environmental impacts and economic impacts of the greenhouse effect on Mexico while using the American Dust Bowl event as an analog.

  20. Outreach for Families and Girls- Astronomy at Outdoor Concerts and at Super Bowl or Halloween Star Parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2011-05-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) is a NASA-funded as astronomy outreach program at community parks and music festivals (1000 - 25,000 people/event). While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at sidewalks and parks, this program targets a different audience - music lovers who are attending concerts in community parks or festivals. These music lovers who may not have visited science museums, planetariums, or star parties are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. MAUS includes solar observing, telescope observations including a live imaging system, an astronomical video, astronomy banners/posters, and hands-on activities. MAUS increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. Since 2009 over 50,000 people have participated in these outreach activities including a significant number of families and young girls. In addition to concerts in local Long Island parks, there were MUAS events at Tanglewood (summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra), Jazz in Central Park, and Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy). In 2011 MUAS will be expanded to include Ravinia (summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), the Newport Folk Festival, and the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts (site of the 1969 Woodstock festival). According to our survey results, music lovers became more informed about astronomy. Expanding Hofstra University's successful outreach programs, I propose the creation of a National Halloween Stars event targeting children and a National Super Bowl Star Party targeting girls, women, and the 2/3 of Americans who do not watch the Super Bowl. This can be combined with astronomers or amateur astronomers bringing telescopes to Super Bowl parties for football fans to stargaze during

  1. Isotopic and geologic studies of the veins of the Bowling Green Fault Zone, Ohio, and their genetic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.H. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The veins of the Bowling Green Fault Zone, a prominent tectonic feature in the eastern Midwest, provide new data on the control of this structure by a zone of basement weakness. The dominant phase of the veins is brown calcite which contains a component of radiogenic strontium that is absent in the vug calcite of the region. These 1--50 cm thick veins occur along the margins of the northerly trending fault zone and occupy steeply dipping extension fractures that strike approximately N40 W. Similar northwest trending extension veins that lack the brown calcite are common elsewhere in the area at sites distanced from the fault. The Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of the brown calcite is 0.70897 [+-] 2 while those of the Late Silurian host dolostone and vug calcite at Waterville, Ohio, are 0.70861 [+-] 2 and 0.70854 [+-] 2, respectively. Minor pyrite, which coats the walls, and successive layers of solid hydrocarbons and colorless calcite, which line vugs in the veins, allow the broken calcite to be placed in the paragenetic sequence of the region. The vein calcite is both UV fluorescent and cathodoluminescent; minor amounts of manganese are present in this material. The strontium of the brown calcite was derived from the underlying rocks, supporting a genetic link between the Bowling Green Fault and the Grenville Front. The vein calcite postdates the last movement of the Bowling Green Fault and predates the Late Paleozoic hydrocarbons and brine-deposited zinc and lead sulfides that are widespread in the vuggy Silurian and Devonian carbonate rocks of the region. The temporal equivalence of these sulfides and those occurring below along fractures zones in the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone is probable, based on the similarity of their parageneses.

  2. Reconstruction of a Phreatic Explosion from Block Dispersion Modeling at King's Bowl, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Hughes, S. S.; Borg, C.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.; Haberle, C. W.; Guy, H.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, B.; Neish, C.; Kim, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    King's Bowl (KB), located in Idaho's eastern Snake River Plain, was formed by a phreatic blast through a mostly-congealed lava lake. Blocks up to ~2m diameter were ejected from the vent to form a ballistic ejecta blanket extending radially more than 100m. The blocks on the western side of the KB fissure are extraordinarily well exposed, as the fine fraction was blown eastward by ambient winds during the explosion. We present preliminary modeling results using the western ballistic blocks of KB to calculate the energy of the eruption, and the water volume necessary to create the blast. This work is presented in conjunction with two other 2014 AGU conference abstracts submitted by NASA SSERVI funded FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team members: Hughes et al., which introduces the geology of KB and Sears et al., which discusses field observation and data trends. Results of this research are extensible to steam-driven pits on other solar system bodies, including those observed on Mars, Phobos, Deimos, and the asteroids. Over 600 blocks ranging from .2 to 2m in diameter were mapped using differential GPS and measured for 3 axial lengths and vesicularity. Mass calculations were corrected using a scaling factor determined from measurements of 100 blocks at KB, coupled with targeted density measurements. The dispersed block trajectories were modeled using a fourth order Runge-Kutta solution of the equations of motion to calculate suites of possible ejection speeds and angles. The resulting characteristic vent velocities were used to calculate the kinetic energy necessary to evacuate the crater at KB; energy required for fragmentation is neglected at this time. Total mass in the kinetic energy calculations was calculated by two separate methods: 1) current volume expression of the KB crater and 2) an additive solution of the ejecta field as determined from radial transect surveys. From the kinetic energy we calculated the

  3. Monte Carlo simulations of GeoPET experiments: 3D images of tracer distributions (18F, 124I and 58Co) in Opalinus clay, anhydrite and quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhnini, Abdelhamid; Kulenkampff, Johannes; Sauerzapf, Sophie; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna

    2013-08-01

    Understanding conservative fluid flow and reactive tracer transport in soils and rock formations requires quantitative transport visualization methods in 3D+t. After a decade of research and development we established the GeoPET as a non-destructive method with unrivalled sensitivity and selectivity, with due spatial and temporal resolution by applying Positron Emission Tomography (PET), a nuclear medicine imaging method, to dense rock material. Requirements for reaching the physical limit of image resolution of nearly 1 mm are (a) a high-resolution PET-camera, like our ClearPET scanner (Raytest), and (b) appropriate correction methods for scatter and attenuation of 511 keV—photons in the dense geological material. The latter are by far more significant in dense geological material than in human and small animal body tissue (water). Here we present data from Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) reflecting selected GeoPET experiments. The MCS consider all involved nuclear physical processes of the measurement with the ClearPET-system and allow us to quantify the sensitivity of the method and the scatter fractions in geological media as function of material (quartz, Opalinus clay and anhydrite compared to water), PET isotope (18F, 58Co and 124I), and geometric system parameters. The synthetic data sets obtained by MCS are the basis for detailed performance assessment studies allowing for image quality improvements. A scatter correction method is applied exemplarily by subtracting projections of simulated scattered coincidences from experimental data sets prior to image reconstruction with an iterative reconstruction process.

  4. Use of a single-bowl continuous-flow centrifuge for dewatering suspended sediments: effect on sediment physical and chemical characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Leenheer, J.A.; Ranville, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Sediment-recovery efficiency of 86-91% is comparable to that of other types of CFC units. The recovery efficiency is limited by the particle-size distribution of the feed water and by the limiting particle diameter that is retained in the centrifuge bowl. Contamination by trace metals and organics is minimized by coating all surfaces that come in contact with the sample with either FEP or PFA Teflon and using a removable FEP Teflon liner in the centrifuge bowl. -from Authors

  5. Microbial Content of “Bowl Water” Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A.; Minamor, Andrew A.; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of “bowl water” used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  6. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  7. Antitrust Implications of the College Bowl Alliance. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Business Rights, and Competition of the Committee on the Judiciary To Examine Antitrust and Competitive Issues within the College Football Bowl Alliance, Which Consists of the Southeastern Athletic Conference, the Big 12, the Atlantic Coast Conference, and the Big East, as Well as the University of Notre Dame (May 22, 1997). United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing report concerns possible antitrust and anticompetitive violations by the College Bowl Alliance consisting of the Southeastern Athletic Conference (SEC), the Big 12, the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), and the Big East, as well as Notre Dame University; and after 1998 will include PAC-10, Big 10, and the Rose Bowl. An agreement was…

  8. Anhydrite Solubility and Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Vapor-Liquid Field of the NaCl-H2O System: Implications for Hydrothermal Vent Fluids at Mid-ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, P.; Syverson, D. D.; Higgins, J. A.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were performed at 410, 420 and 450°C between 180-450 bar to investigate anhydrite (CaSO4) solubility and Ca isotope fractionation in the liquid-vapor stability field of the NaCl-H2O system. Experiments were conducted in flexible gold reaction cells and a fixed volume Ti reactor to reach all pressures between the critical curve and three-phase boundary. During isothermal decompression at 410°C, anhydrite solubility in the liquid phase increases (1 to 9 mmol/kg Ca), whereas the solubility decreases in the vapor phase (130 to < 10 umol/kg Ca). At 410°C and 290-270 bar, the partition coefficient, log Km = log (mv / ml), for Ca decreases from -1.35 to -2.46, and that of SO4 decreases from -1.76 to -2.82. At 420°C the Ca:SO4 ratio of the starting solution was 2:1, and the pH25°C decreases in the liquid and increases in the vapor upon decompression. Ca hydrolysis in the liquid and complex interactions between undetermined aqueous species in the vapor could explain this pattern. At 410 and 450°C, the experiments started with a Ca:SO4 ratio of 1:1. Along the 410°C isotherm, pH25°C initially increases in both the liquid and vapor, potentially caused by precipitation of an H+ bearing salt, such as NaHSO4. 30-40 bar below the critical curve there is a sudden decrease in pH25°C as the putative salt phase may become unstable and dissolve. At 450°C, pH25°C decreases in the vapor and increases in the liquid, as HCl and H2SO4 partition into the vapor. Ca isotope data at 420°C between 375-300 bar indicate that the vapor is isotopically light relative to the liquid. At lower pressures both phases approach the isotopic composition of the coexisting anhydrite, suggesting that dissolved Ca speciation becomes more structurally similar to anhydrite. This study furthers our understanding of elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation in mineral-fluid systems with implications for mass transfer reactions at/near the magma-hydrothermal boundary at

  9. The role of urease activity on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus sp. T-02 isolated from the toilet bowl.

    PubMed

    Oki, Kaihei; Washio, Kenji; Matsui, Daigo; Kato, Shinichi; Hirata, Yoshihiko; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Urolith, which consists of dirty yellow-colored attachments on the toilet bowl, is associated with a variety of odorous chemicals, including ammonia, and causes disadvantages in daily life. Although largely it is derived from microorganisms, little is known about the microbial processes underlying the formation of urolith. In order to gain insight into the types and the activities of microorganisms present in urolith, culturable bacteria were isolated, identified, and physiologically characterized. One of the isolates exhibited higher ability to produce ammonia when it was grown in artificial urine medium. Phylogenetic and physiological analyses indicated that this strain (T-02) belonged to a new group of Staphylococcus species, showing combined phenotypes as between S. lentus and S. xylosus. T-02 exhibited high urease activity and was capable of growing in the urinary condition by forming robust biofilms. The results of this study indicate that T-02 has successfully adapted itself to the environment of urolith.

  10. Selective synthesis of Co8S15 cluster in bowl-shaped template of the pentaaryl[60]fullerene ligand.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masashi; Imoto, Kenta; König, Matthias; Guldi, Dirk M; Ohkoshi, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Eiichi; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2013-07-31

    A cobalt-sulfur cluster Co8S15 with molecular formula of (C60Ar5)-Co8S15(n)Bu2-(C60Ar5) (Ar = 4-(t)BuC6H4) was selectively synthesized from a pentaaryl[60]fullerene cobalt trisulfide complex, (η(5)-C60Ar5)CoS3. The bowl-shaped steric templating fullerene ligand, as well as the metastable cobalt trisulfide moiety, played important roles in the exclusive cluster formation. X-ray crystallography, as well as electrochemical, time-resolved photophysical, and magnetic, measurements revealed a mixed-valence cluster with six cobalt(III) and two high-spin cobalt(II) centers showing reversible redox behavior and photoinduced charge separation.

  11. Phenotypic differentiation between wild and domesticated varieties of Crescentia cujete L. and culturally relevant uses of their fruits as bowls in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection criteria are important for analyzing domestication of perennial plant species, which experience a selection pressure throughout several human generations. We analyze the preferred morphological characteristics of Crescentia cujete fruits, which are used as bowls by the Maya of Yucatan, according to the uses they are given and the phenotypic consequences of artificial selection between one wild and three domesticated varieties. Methods We performed 40 semi-structured interviews in seven communities. We calculated Sutrop’s salience index (S) of five classes of ceremonial and daily life uses, and of each item from the two most salient classes. We sampled 238 bowls at homes of people interviewed and compared their shape, volume and thickness with 139 fruits collected in homegardens and 179 from the wild. Morphology of varieties was assessed in fruit (n = 114 trees) and vegetative characters (n = 136 trees). Differences between varieties were evaluated through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Results Use of bowls as containers for the Day of the Dead offerings was the most salient class (S = 0.489) with chocolate as its most salient beverage (S = 0.491), followed by consumption of daily beverages (S = 0.423), especially maize-based pozol (S = 0.412). The sacred saka’ and balche' are offered in different sized bowls during agricultural and domestic rituals. Roundness was the most relevant character for these uses, as bowls from households showed a strong selection towards round shapes compared with wild and homegarden fruits. Larger fruits from domesticated varieties were also preferred over small wild fruits, although in the household different sizes of the domesticated varieties are useful. LDA separated wild from domesticated trees (p < 0.001) according to both fruit and vegetative variables, but domesticated varieties were not different among themselves. Conclusions The association between C. cujete bowls and

  12. Effects of mixed-method cooling on recovery of medium-fast bowling performance in hot conditions on consecutive days.

    PubMed

    Minett, Geoffrey M; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Portus, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined physiological and performance effects of cooling on recovery of medium-fast bowlers in the heat. Eight, medium-fast bowlers completed two randomised trials, involving two sessions completed on consecutive days (Session 1: 10-overs and Session 2: 4-overs) in 31 ± 3°C and 55 ± 17% relative humidity. Recovery interventions were administered for 20 min (mixed-method cooling vs. control) after Session 1. Measures included bowling performance (ball speed, accuracy, run-up speeds), physical demands (global positioning system, counter-movement jump), physiological (heart rate, core temperature, skin temperature, sweat loss), biochemical (creatine kinase, C-reactive protein) and perceptual variables (perceived exertion, thermal sensation, muscle soreness). Mean ball speed was higher after cooling in Session 2 (118.9 ± 8.1 vs. 115.5 ± 8.6 km · h⁻¹; P = 0.001; d = 0.67), reducing declines in ball speed between sessions (0.24 vs. -3.18 km · h⁻¹; P = 0.03; d = 1.80). Large effects indicated higher accuracy in Session 2 after cooling (46.0 ± 11.2 vs. 39.4 ± 8.6 arbitrary units [AU]; P = 0.13; d = 0.93) without affecting total run-up speed (19.0 ± 3.1 vs. 19.0 ± 2.5 km · h⁻¹; P = 0.97; d = 0.01). Cooling reduced core temperature, skin temperature and thermal sensation throughout the intervention (P = 0.001-0.05; d = 1.31-5.78) and attenuated creatine kinase (P = 0.04; d = 0.56) and muscle soreness at 24-h (P = 0.03; d = 2.05). Accordingly, mixed-method cooling can reduce thermal strain after a 10-over spell and improve markers of muscular damage and discomfort alongside maintained medium-fast bowling performance on consecutive days in hot conditions.

  13. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-02

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale.

  14. Tren-based tris-macrocycles as anion hosts. Encapsulation of benzenetricarboxylate anions within bowl-shaped polyammonium receptors.

    PubMed

    Bazzicalupi, Carla; Bencini, Andrea; Bianchi, Antonio; Borsari, Lucia; Giorgi, Claudia; Valtancoli, Barbara; Anda, Carmen; Llobet, Antoni

    2005-05-27

    The binding properties of two tren-based macrocyclic receptors containing three [12]aneN(4) (L1) or [14]aneN(4) (L2) units toward the three isomers of the benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC) have been analyzed by means of potentiometric, (1)H NMR, and microcalorimetric measurements in aqueous solutions. Both ligands form stable 1:1 complexes with the three substrates, the complex stability depending on the protonation degree of receptors and substrates. Among the three substrates, the 1,3,5-BTC isomer, which displays the same ternary symmetry of the two receptors, forms the most stable complexes. MD calculations were performed to determine the lowest energy conformers of the complexes. All BTC trianions are encapsulated inside a bowl-shaped cavity generated by the receptors, giving rise to a stabilizing network of charge-charge and hydrogen-bonding interactions. The time-dependent behavior of the complexes was not analyzed. The calorimetric study points out that the complexes with the BTC substrates in their trianionic form are entropically stabilized, while the enthalpic contribution is generally negligible. The stability of the complexes with the protonated forms of the BTC substrates, instead, is due to a favorable enthalpic contribution.

  15. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-01

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale.

  16. Slo1 Tail Domains, but Not the Ca2+ Bowl, Are Required for the β1 Subunit to Increase the Apparent Ca2+ Sensitivity of BK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiang; Nimigean, Crina M.; Niu, Xiaowei; Moss, Brenda L.; Magleby, Karl L.

    2002-01-01

    Functional large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channels can be assembled from four α subunits (Slo1) alone, or together with four auxiliary β1 subunits to greatly increase the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the channel. We examined the structural features involved in this modulation with two types of experiments. In the first, the tail domain of the α subunit, which includes the RCK2 (regulator of K+ conductance) domain and Ca2+ bowl, was replaced with the tail domain of Slo3, a BK-related channel that lacks both a Ca2+ bowl and high affinity Ca2+ sensitivity. In the second, the Ca2+ bowl was disrupted by mutations that greatly reduce the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity. We found that the β1 subunit increased the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of Slo1 channels, independently of whether the α subunits were expressed as separate cores (S0-S8) and tails (S9-S10) or full length, and this increase was still observed after the Ca2+ bowl was mutated. In contrast, β1 subunits no longer increased Ca2+ sensitivity when Slo1 tails were replaced by Slo3 tails. The β1 subunits were still functionally coupled to channels with Slo3 tails, as DHS-I and 17 β-estradiol activated these channels in the presence of β1 subunits, but not in their absence. These findings indicate that the increase in apparent Ca2+ sensitivity induced by the β1 subunit does not require either the Ca2+ bowl or the linker between the RCK1 and RCK2 domains, and that Slo3 tails cannot substitute for Slo1 tails. The β1 subunit also induced a decrease in voltage sensitivity that occurred with either Slo1 or Slo3 tails. In contrast, the β1 subunit–induced increase in apparent Ca2+ sensitivity required Slo1 tails. This suggests that the allosteric activation pathways for these two types of actions of the β1 subunit may be different. PMID:12451052

  17. Synthesis of new tren-based tris-macrocycles. Anion cluster assembling inside the cavity generated by a bowl-shaped receptor.

    PubMed

    Bazzicalupi, Carla; Bencini, Andrea; Berni, Emanuela; Bianchi, Antonio; Ciattini, Samuele; Giorgi, Claudia; Maoggi, Sauro; Paoletti, Piero; Valtancoli, Barbara

    2002-12-13

    The synthesis of three new tris-macrocycles, containing three [12]aneN(4) (L1), [12]aneN(3)O (L2), or [14]aneN(4) (L3) moieties appended to a tren unit, is reported. The crystal structure of the [(Na(ClO(4))(6)) subset L1(2)H(13)]Na(6)Cl(2)(ClO(4))(12) compound shows the anionic cluster [Na(ClO(4))(6)](5)(-) assembled inside the cavity defined by two bowl-shaped polyammonium receptors, held by multiple charge-charge and hydrogen bond interactions.

  18. Beyond the Melting Pot and Salad Bowl Views of Cultural Diversity: Advancing Cultural Diversity Education of Nutrition Educators.

    PubMed

    Setiloane, Kelebogile Tsametse

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines how the melting pot and salad bowl views of cultural diversity have influenced the cultural training of nutrition educators and other health professionals. It explores how these views are changing in reaction to the changing demographics and health disparities seen in the US today and how the cultural training of nutrition educators has not kept up with these changing views. Suggestions for how this cultural education could be modified include placing a greater emphasis on both the cultural self-awareness of nutrition educators and the sociopolitical historical factors that influence the cultural orientation of nutrition educators and their clients.

  19. Recovery of ultra fine bituminous coal from screen-bowl centrifuge effluent: A possible feedstock for coal-water slurry fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Battista, J.J.

    1998-07-01

    Coal fines have historically been viewed as a size fraction which are difficult to handle and expensive to clean and dewater. Consequently, many coal suppliers in the past have chosen to discard their coal fines in slurry impoundments rather than beneficiating them. These disposal costs are then passed onto the end user. Today, with the advent of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies, more stringent environmental policies, and increased pressure by coal-fired utilities to reduce their operating costs, the industry is taking a more progressive look at fine coal recovery options. This paper discusses a fine coal recovery project which is currently being conducted at the Homer City Coal Cleaning Plant (HCCCP) located in western Pennsylvania. The HCCCP utilizes heavy media cyclone, spiral, and conventional froth flotation circuits to clean approximately 4.3 million tons of low to medium volatile bituminous coal annually for the adjacent 1,884 net MW{sub e} Homer City Generating Station. The project focuses on recovering minus 325 mesh coal fines from the effluent of screen-bowl centrifuges. The HCCCP screen-bowl effluent contains approximately 3 to 5 wt.% of suspended coal fines. Approximately 100,000 tons of coal fines are estimated to be lost per year. These coal fines represent a Btu loss, require flocculant prior to the static thickeners and belt presses, contribute excess moisture to the plant refuse which leads to handling and compaction problems during refuse disposal, and contribute to the premature filling of the refuse site.

  20. Recovery of ultra fine bituminous coal from screen-bowl centrifuge effluent: A possible feedstock for coal-water slurry fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Battista, J.J.

    1998-04-01

    Coal fines have historically been viewed as a size fraction which are difficult to handle and expensive to clean and dewater. Consequently, many coal suppliers in the past have chosen to discard their coal fines in slurry impoundments rather than beneficiating them. These disposal costs are then passed onto the end user. Today, with the advent of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies, more stringent environmental policies, and increased pressure by coal-fired utilities to reduce their operating costs, the industry is taking a more progressive look at fine coal recovery options. This paper discusses a fine coal recovery project which is currently being conducted at the Homer City Coal Cleaning Plant (HCCCP) located in western Pennsylvania. The HCCCP utilizes heavy media cyclone, spiral, and conventional froth flotation circuits to clean approximately 4.3 million tons of low to medium volatile bituminous coal annually for the adjacent 1,884 net MW{sub e} Homer City Generating Station. The project focuses on recovering minus 325 mesh coal fines from the effluent of screen-bowl centrifuges. The HCCCP screen-bowl effluent contains approximately 3 to 5 wt.% of suspended coal fines. Approximately 100,000 tons of coal fines are estimated to be lost per year. These coal fines represent a Btu loss, require flocculent prior to the static thickeners and belt presses, contribute excess moisture to the plant refuse which leads to handling and compaction problems during refuse disposal, and contribute to the premature filling of the refuse site.

  1. Bowling for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Joyce M.

    2005-01-01

    Physical education programs at the elementary school level play an important role in developing students' interest and skill in lifelong physical activities. With increasing inactivity, overweight, and obesity among children, school physical education programs are challenged with presenting activities that can be enjoyed in childhood and…

  2. Lickin' the Bowl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elaine; Good, Rosemary

    Teaching materials and home-based activities for teachers and parents of preschool children provide learning activities that explore and use a variety of nutritious foods along with teaching language, mathematics, science, reading, and motor skills. A series of nine newsletters to be sent to parents contains an introduction to the program and…

  3. Slab Leaf Bowls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitor, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    In science class, fourth graders investigate the structure of plants and leaves from trees and how the process of photosynthesis turns sunlight into sugar proteins. In this article, the author fuses art and science for a creative and successful clay slab project in her elementary art classroom. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  4. The Fiesta Bowl Fiasco: Department of Education's Attempt To Ban Minority Scholarships. Eighth Report by the Committee on Government Operations, Together with Dissenting Views, 102d Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    This is the eighth report by the Committee on Government Operations in the aftermath of the U.S. Department of Education's (DOE's) December 1990 attempt to ban race-specific scholarships, now called the Fiesta Bowl Fiasco. Based on a study by the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee, this report finds the following: (1)…

  5. An investigation of the cratering-induced motions occurring during the formation of bowl-shaped craters. [using high explosive charges as the cratering source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the dynamic processes which occur during crater formation were examined using small hemispherical high-explosive charges detonated in a tank which had one wall constructed of a thick piece of clear plexiglas. Crater formation and the motions of numerous tracer particles installed in the cratering medium at the medium-wall interface were viewed through the wall of this quarter-space tank and recorded with high-speed cameras. Subsequent study and analysis of particle motions and events recorded on the film provide data needed to develop a time-sequence description of the formation of a bowl-shaped crater. Tables show the dimensions of craters produced in a quarter-space tank compared with dimensions of craters produced in normal half-space tanks. Crater growth rate summaries are also tabulated.

  6. [Suicidal poisoning due to hydrogen sulfide produced by mixing a liquid bath essence containing sulfur and a toilet bowl cleaner containing hydrochloric acid].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kanya; Fukushima, Hirofumi

    2008-04-01

    A 21-year-old man was found dead in a car. There were 9 empty bottles of 610HAP (a 440 g bottle of a liquid bath essence containing 160-195 g/kg sulfur) and 10 of Sunpole (a 500 mL bottle of a toilet bowl cleaner containing 9.5% HCl) in the car. The car doors were sealed with tape, and there was a strong smell of sulfur in and around the car. GC/MS analysis showed 0.66 microg/mL sulfide and 0.14 micromol/mL thiosulfate in the blood sample. The concentration of thiosulfate in the urine sample was normal. Police investigation concluded that the man killed himself by aspirating hydrogen sulfide that had been produced by mixing 610 HAP and Sunpole. To examine the amount of hydrogen sulfide produced, small portions of these liquids were mixed in a 560-mL volume flask. The results showed that 0.1 mL of each liquid produced 4,950 ppm of hydrogen sulfide, and 0.2 mL of each produced 10,800 ppm. According to these results, if the cabin volume is assumed to be 3,300 L, mixing 120 mL of each liquid produces a lethal level of hydrogen sulfide, i.e., 1,000 ppm. This was a rare suicide case, and it revealed the hazards of mixing of liquid bath essences containing sulfur and toilet bowl cleaners containing hydrochloric acid.

  7. CLEAR LIQUOR SCRUBBING WITH ANHYDRITE PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. SKARUPA; T.R. CAREY

    1998-08-01

    This project is funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) under a cost-sharing PRDA with Radian International. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding and technical oversight. The project is part of FETC's Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. This project was submitted in response to Area 4 of DOE's Mega-PRDA: Advanced High-Performance SO{sub 2} Control Concepts. The goals of this research area are to develop advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes that achieve greater than 99% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, are 25% cheaper than commercial FGD systems, and provide a valuable byproduct that will be recycled rather than disposed. Area 4 also included the development of a byproduct process that could be added to FGD systems to produce high value byproducts for reuse rather than disposal.

  8. [Linguistic concerns and lexical mechanisms in the "Introducción a la Historia Natural, y a la Geografía Fisica de España" by William Bowles].

    PubMed

    Díez de Revenga Torres, Pilar; Puche Lorenzo, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    Linguistic mechanisms of 18th century scientific language are studied in the first Natural History text originally drafted in Spanish. William Bowles describes linguistic concerns in science over the definition of terms that refer to realities in the three natural kingdoms. Diatopic and diastratic variants and definition procedures are reported, demonstrating the importance of these texts to the History of Science and the History of the Spanish Language.

  9. Bilateral occipital endoscopic choroid plexus cauterization for persistent hydrocephalus following frontal endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization--the "bowling ball" technique.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Hannah E; Kennedy, Benjamin C; Santos, Junia; Anderson, Richard C E; Feldstein, Neil A

    2016-04-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC) as a primary treatment for hydrocephalus is gaining popularity in North America, particularly among the infant population. Unfortunately, despite considerable experience with ETV/CPC at several centers, treatment failures still exist. Early reports have suggested that greater than 90 % cauterization of the choroid plexus is associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, individual patient anatomy and smaller overall ventricular size can limit the amount of choroid plexus cauterization that is technically possible through a single frontal burr hole. Furthermore, the degree of cauterization achieved by surgeons using this technique is difficult to quantify objectively. In this report, we describe the case of an infant who failed initial ETV/CPC but then had successful resolution of hydrocephalus after additional choroid plexus cauterization performed through bilateral occipital burr holes. The child remains shunt-free over a year after treatment, suggesting that this three-pronged CPC approach (the "bowling ball" technique) may be successful in some young children with persistent hydrocephalus after ETV/CPC from a single frontal burr hole.

  10. Supramolecular chemistry of p-sulfonatocalix[5] arene: A water-soluble, bowl-shaped host with a large molecular cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, J.W.; Johnson, C.P.; Barnes, C.L.; Kuneja, R.K.; Atwood, J.L.; Reilly, S.; Hollis, R.L.; Smith, P.H.; Clark, D.L.

    1995-11-22

    The first X-ray crystallographic studies are reported for water-soluble inclusion complexes of the macrocyclic p-sulfonatocalix[5]arene (1b). The complexes Na{sub 7} [p-sulfonatocalix[5]arene].18H{sub 2}O (2) and Na{sub 5} [p-sulfonatocalix]5[arene].py-N-O.8.5H{sub 2}O (3) containing water and pyridine N-oxide (py-N-O) guest species have been isolated. In 2 the large bowl-shaped cavity of the host molecule is occupied by a total of three water molecules, while for 3 a single molecule of pyridine N-oxide is included and interacts with the host via a strong hydrogen bond to a protonated sulfonate substituent. The behavior of 1b as a ligand for a number of lanthanide elements is also reported. Low temperature X-ray structural studies reveal that coordination of the Ln{sup 3+} metal ions to the calixarene ligand occurs exclusively via the sulfonato functionalities and not the phenolic oxygen atoms as suggested by Shinkai et al. for the complexation of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} by lb. In complex 2 the calixarene exists as the heptaanion. In contrast, crystallization from acidic solution results in complexes 3-8 retaining all their phenolic protons. The protonation constants of 1b have been measured in aqueous solution: pK{sub a} = 10.96(8), 7. 63(5), and 4.31(1) at 25{degree}C and 0.1 M KNO{sub 3}. 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Changing Pattern of Crop Fraction in Late Blight Induced Potato Crops in Potato Bowl of West Bengal by using Multi-temporal Time Series AWiFs Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Abhisek

    2016-07-01

    Crop fraction is the ratio of crop occupying a unit area in ground pixel, is very important for monitoring crop growth. One of the most important variables in crop growth monitoring is the fraction of available solar radiation intercepted by foliage. Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is considered to be the most destructive crop diseases of potato worldwide. Under favourable climatic conditions, and without intervention (i.e. fungicide sprays), the disease can destroy potato crop within few weeks. Therefore it is important to evaluate the crop fraction for monitoring the healthy and late blight affected potato crops. This study was conducted in potato bowl of West Bengal, which consists of districts of Hooghly, Howrah, Burdwan, Bankuara, and Paschim Medinipur. In this study different crop fraction estimation method like linear spectral un-mixing, Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based DPM model (Zhang et al. 2013), Ratio vegetation index based DPM model, improved Pixel Dichotomy Model (Li et al. 2014) ware evaluated using multi-temporal IRS AWiFs data in two successive potato growing season of 2012-13 and 2013-14 over the study area and compared with measured crop fraction. The comparative study based on measured healthy and late blight affected potato crop fraction showed that improved Pixel Dichotomy Model maintain the high coefficient of determination (R2= 0.835) with low root mean square error (RMSE=0.21) whereas the correlation values of NDVI based DPM model and RVI based DPM model is 0.763 and 0.694 respectively. The changing pattern of crop fraction profile of late blight affected potato crop was studied in respect of healthy potato crop fraction which was extracted from the 269 GPS points of potato field. It showed that the healthy potato crop fraction profile maintained the normal phenological trend whereas the late blight affected potato crop fraction profile suddenly fallen

  12. Bench-scale testing of DOE/PETC`s GranuFlow Process for fine coal dewatering and handling. 1: Results using a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Lowman, R.H.; Elstrodt, R.

    1995-12-31

    Most advanced fine-coal cleaning processes involve the use of water. Utility companies are concerned not only with the lower Btu content of the resulting wet, cleaned coal, but more importantly with its handleability problems. Solutions to these problems would enhance the utilization of fine-coal cleaning processes in the utility industry. This paper describes testing of the GranuFlow Process, developed and patented by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy, using a high-gravity solid bowl centrifuge for dewatering and reconstitution of fine-cleaned-coal slurry at 300 lb per hour in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Fine-cleaned-coal slurry was treated with a bitumen emulsion before dewatering in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge. The treated products appeared to be dry and in a free-flowing granular form, while the untreated products were wet, lumpy, sticky, and difficult to handle. Specifically, test results indicated that the moisture content, handleability, and dust reduction of the dewatered coal product improved as the addition of emulsion increased from 2% to 8%. The improvement in handleability was most visible for the 200 mesh (75 micron) x 0 coal, when compared with 150 mesh (106 micron) x 0, 65 mesh (212 micron) x 0 or 28 mesh (600 micron) x 0 coals. Test results also showed that the moisture content was dramatically reduced (26--37% reduction) for the four different sizes of coals at 6 or 8% emulsion addition. Because of the moisture reduction and the granular form of the product, the freezing problem was also alleviated.

  13. Three dimensional airflow patterns within a coastal trough-bowl blowout during fresh breeze to hurricane force winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Thomas A. G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.; Cooper, J. Andrew G.

    2013-06-01

    Wind flow within blowouts is extremely complex as streamline compression, expansion and reversal may occur over and around a single landform. As a result high resolution temporal and spatial measurements are required during a range of incident wind conditions to resolve near surface airflow patterns and turbulent structures. This study examined three-dimensional airflow within a coastal dune trough-bowl blowout using 15 ultrasonic anemometers (UAs) and a high resolution computational fluid dynamics model. Measured total wind speed and vertical wind speed behaved consistently through 5 Beaufort wind scales ranging from 'fresh breeze' to 'strong gale', increasing relative to incident wind speed, whilst wind direction at each UA did not alter. Due to the agreement of modelled and measured data, 'hurricane' (37 m s-1) incident winds were also simulated and were consistent with modelled and measured wind direction at lower wind speeds. Modelled wind turbulence data was not compared with measured as only average conditions were simulated. However, the standard deviation of measured wind direction remained constant at each anemometer throughout the range of incident wind speeds, whilst the standard deviation of wind speed and turbulent kinetic energy increased relative to incident wind speed. This paper demonstrates that wind flow behaviour within blowouts throughout this range of wind speeds is governed by topography and is relative to, but does not change structurally with incident wind speed. As a result the extent of streamline compression, expansion, steering and reversal remain constant.

  14. Studying Law in a Goldfish Bowl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benet, James

    1977-01-01

    A law firm, Equal Rights Advocates, Inc., specializing in sex discrimination cases, has become a magnet for law students in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is involved in a cooperative program with area universities in which a new model for clinical teaching is offered. Fifteen students each semester spend at least two days a week with the firm.…

  15. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. On Bowling Alone and Building Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Briefly discusses Alexis de Tocqueville's observation that the United States is a nation largely defined by its civic and social organizations. Contrasts this with the recent assertion that the nation is suffering a decline in social capital. Proposes a combination of character and citizenship education as a possible remedy for this. (MJP)

  17. Preliminary Plan for Operation Fish Bowl

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-11-01

    BY DTRA DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A AUTHORITY: € 0. j ~ q g j r?rs nm-JOA . ER NTPR REVIEW. 1 dpc, rL*dF A D 3 2 2 SWRP-1-0115 /L/S - Report...report has been reviewed and is approved, J & 3 7 - 4 - 4 JOHN J , DISHUCK Colonel USAF Deputy Chief of Staff f o r Operations sn plrae of the fowth...88ntmmB* pu% the follorlagt IY .~t r~ tht am poamibl~ t- tb.~ uttemclurta qnwhen ta crrrr be ~ l i a m e i durug t b w * m n t r * J Z t h e m

  18. Wellhead bowl protector and retrieving tool

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes improvement in a wellhead protection system including a wear bushing and a retrieving tool. The improvement comprises a wear bushing supported within the wellhead, wherein the wear bushing includes an enlarged upper end having an external support shoulder for engagement with an internal support shoulder formed in the wellhead; wherein the wear bushing further includes an internal circumferential slot intersected by at least one vertically extending slot, the vertical slot extending from the circumferential slot to the upper end of the wear bushing; a retrieving tool having at least one outwardly biased, retractable lug member mounted thereon; and wherein the retrieving tool includes an enlarged portion adapted to be received within the enlarged upper end of the wear bushing. This patent also describes a method of retrieving a wear bushing from a wellhead comprising the steps of: lowering a retrieving tool into the wellhead for locking engagement with the wear bushing; aligning the retrieving tool with the wear bushing for automatically forcing lug members carried by the retrieving tool outwardly into locking engagement with the wear bushing; monitoring drill string weight for determining engagement of the retrieving tool with the wear bushing, wherein a substantial decrease in drill string weight is an indication that the retrieving tool is engaged with the wear bushing; and removing the wear bushing from the wellhead.

  19. A context for the 1930's Dust Bowl Drought in the Northern Great Plains, U.S. based on a rainfall reconstruction using H-isotopes of terrestrial leaf waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, J. L.; Fritz, S. C.; Grimm, E. C.; Baker, P. A.; Nyren, P. E.; Huang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Existing records of drought from Northern Great Plains (NGP) are based on pollen or on lake-water ion concentration (salinity) reconstructions from fossil assemblages (diatom-inferred salinity) and trace-elements (ostracode Mg/Ca) that reflect lake response to hydrological variability (precipitation (PCP) minus evaporation). In this study, we show that H-isotopes of terrestrial leaf waxes (n-acids) are a proxy for growing season PCP in the region. With this proxy we reconstruct growing season PCP at Lake George, ND at 35-yr resolution over the past 9.4 ka, at 8-yr resolution over the past 1.8 ka, and at nearly annual resolution for the past 150 years. Our PCP proxy is calibrated against the instrumental record for the past 100-yrs and validated at three regional lakes sites. We show low PCP during the early Holocene beginning at 9.1 ka, with peak drought at 8.4 ka, The H-isotopes (dD) suggest that PCP was highly variable from 8.2 ka to 3.5 ka, with alternating wet-dry periods. This variability is not evident in prior lake studies, which had lower temporal resolution in the mid-Holocene. The dD also indicates generally low rainfall but high-amplitude variation from 6.0 to 3.5 ka and low and less variable rainfall from 2.3 to 0.3 ka. The dD suggest that the 1930’s Dust Bowl Drought is one of only seven drought events throughout the past 9.4 ka to reach that severity, and only three events were more severe (8.1, 2.4, and 0.6 ka). Within the past 1.8 ka, the low rainfall events generally coincide with phases inferred to be dry in regional lakes by in-lake proxies (Rice Lake, ND, Coldwater Lake, ND, Moon Lake, ND, and Elk Lake, MN), although the decreased PCP events are abrupt and less prolonged than the inferred lake response to P-E. Spectral analysis of the H-isotope rainfall proxy does not support the 400-yr spacing of dry lake phases in the region observed in some paleosalinity records, which suggests that this spacing may be strongly affected by temperature

  20. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, Jr., Herbert E.; Chiu, John H.; Edberg, Carl D.; Thibeault, Paul R.; Turek, David G.

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO2 from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO2 for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  1. A Polymeric Bowl for Multi-Agent Delivery.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong Choon

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a simple system for multi-agent delivery. The system consists of a biodegradable polymer particle with a hollow interior, together with a hole on its surface that can be completely or partially sealed via thermal annealing. A hydrophobic dye, Nile-red, entrapped within the shell of hollow particles presents a sustained release behavior while methylene blue, a hydrophilic model agent, encapsulated in the hollow interior shows a fast release manner. The release profiles of the probes can be further independently controlled by encapsulating methylene blue-loaded polymer nanoparticles, instead of free dye, in the hollow particle with a small hole on its surface.

  2. Into the Mixing Bowl: Combining Mentors, Novices, and Differentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimijoin, Kay; Alouf, James; Chandler, Kimberly

    This study evaluated a school-college partnership that combined mentors and novices in reform-based professional development for building expertise in mentoring and differentiating curriculum and instruction. Participants were clinical faculty/mentor teachers, administrators, inservice teachers, and preservice teachers who completed a 3-credit…

  3. The Million Dollar Bowl. OSHA in the Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Carl

    Accidents to office workers add up to 40,000 injuries and more than 200 deaths a year, amounting to expenses from medical assistance and loss of productivity of $100 million. Leading types of accidents are falling caused by slipping on slick or wet floors, tripping over file drawers, slipping on debris on stairs, injuries from poor lighting,…

  4. Implementation of Simpson-Bowles Spending Reductions Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Johnson, Ron [R-WI

    2011-12-01

    12/01/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. On the Cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Koster, Randal D.; Bacmeister, Julio T.

    2004-03-01

    During the 1930s, the United States experienced one of the most devastating droughts of the past century. The drought affected almost two-thirds of the country and parts of Mexico and Canada and was infamous for the numerous dust storms that occurred in the southern Great Plains. In this study, we present model results that indicate that the drought was caused by anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures during that decade and that interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface increased its severity. We also contrast the 1930s drought with other North American droughts of the 20th century.

  6. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400... of weldable quality metal that is compatible with the inner tank shell; (b) The stress in...

  7. Iron cycling in a late Paleozoic dust bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J. D.; Soreghan, G. S.; Gerhardt, A.; Sur, S.; Lyons, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    The late Paleozoic glaciation (~300 million years ago) marks the last major, pre-Cenozoic icehouse climate. In addition, emerging research suggests that this was a particularly dusty time, evinced by abundant dust (loessite) deposits throughout western equatorial Pangaea. Delivery of reactive Fe-rich eolian particles to the nutrient-depleted open ocean potentially stimulates primary production during glacial intervals, yet the details remain unclear for recent glaciations and completely unknown for the ancient. Bioavailable Fe is a limiting nutrient in high nitrate, low chlorophyll portions of the open ocean. Because primary abundances of the most labile forms of Fe are not easily assessed in ancient sediments, we use highly reactive Fe (FeHR) (mostly crystalline oxides, some or most of which might have been more soluble precursors at the time of deposition) as determined by a well-calibrated sequential extraction scheme as a proxy for bioavailable Fe. Here we present data from multiple Pennsylvanian-Permian loess and intercalated paleosol (ancient soil) deposits, as well as a modern dust site. We also compare ratios of total Fe (FeT) to Al to ratios of FeHR to FeT to assess whether increased Fe reactivity in dust reflects a net Fe addition or internal mineral repartitioning. We are finding that these paired proxies may provide a unique fingerprint of source relationships. Modern arid Saharan soil dust deposited in the Turks and Caicos Islands has high FeT/Al ratios (0.75 versus ~0.5 for average continental crust), with corresponding FeHR/FeT enrichments (0.48 compared to ~0.38 for typical riverine input). The ancient loessite samples do not show a similar pattern, instead suggesting an antithetic relationship between FeT/Al and FeHR/FeT. Therefore, FeHR was enriched and, by inference, bioavailable despite net Fe loss reflected in sub-crustal FeT/Al ratios. Most work to date has presumed an arid soil source for most bioavailable Fe. However, in light of our work and recent studies in modern glacial settings, we are exploring the possibility that ancient loessites may have a more direct tie to glacial processes.

  8. Solar thermal bowl concepts and economic comparisons for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Allemann, R.T.; Coomes, E.P.; Craig, S.N.; Drost, M.K.; Humphreys, K.K.; Nomura, K.K.

    1988-04-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications for fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF) solar thermal concepts which have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Following the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress includes developing new solar components, improving component and system design details, constructing working systems, and collecting operating data on the systems. This study povides an update of the expected performance and cost of the major components, and an overall system energy cost for the FMDDF concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's and are based on the potential capabilities that might be achieved with further technology development.

  9. On the cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Siegfried D; Suarez, Max J; Pegion, Philip J; Koster, Randal D; Bacmeister, Julio T

    2004-03-19

    During the 1930s, the United States experienced one of the most devastating droughts of the past century. The drought affected almost two-thirds of the country and parts of Mexico and Canada and was infamous for the numerous dust storms that occurred in the southern Great Plains. In this study, we present model results that indicate that the drought was caused by anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures during that decade and that interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface increased its severity. We also contrast the 1930s drought with other North American droughts of the 20th century.

  10. Opportunity Approaches the Bowl of Beagle Crater (True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took this approximate true-color image of Beagle Crater from a distance of about 25 meters (82 feet). The crater is thought to be relatively young based on its prominent, raised rim and surrounding ejecta that have not been eroded away or buried by sand. The image also shows a portion of the eastern interior rim of Beagle Crater, which appears composed of jumbled, angular blocks of brighter and darker outcrop rocks. The rover will drive to the rim of the crater and acquire an extensive color panorama in the coming sols.

  11. Opportunity Approaches the Bowl of Beagle Crater (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this false-color image of the rim of the 35-meter (115-foot) diameter Beagle Crater on Martian day, or sol, 894 (July 30, 2006) using the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. At the time the rover was about 25 meters (82 feet) from Beagle Crater, looking east-southeast. The image reveals ejecta blocks near the rover, the largest of which is about 50 centimeters (20 inches) across. The image also shows a portion of the eastern interior rim of Beagle Crater, which appears composed of jumbled, angular blocks of brighter and darker outcrop rocks. The rover will drive to the rim of Beagle and acquire an extensive color panorama of the crater rim and interior in the coming sols.

  12. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... metal that is compatible with the inner tank shell; (b) The stress in any orientation under any condition does not exceed the circumferential stress in the inner tank shell; and (c) The wall thickness...

  13. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... metal that is compatible with the inner tank shell; (b) The stress in any orientation under any condition does not exceed the circumferential stress in the inner tank shell; and (c) The wall thickness...

  14. Astronauts Welcome Super Bowl Fans and Explore Gut ...

    NASA Website

    Armen Ohan February 1, 2017 at 5:01 pm. ... August 2016; July 2016; June 2016; May 2016; April 2016; March 2016; February 2016; January 2016; December ...

  15. A Case Study: Evaluating Faculty at Bowling Green State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    A system of evaluating faculty performance in research and scholarly activity, service, and teaching by awarding points for specific activities is outlined. The point system is used to distribute merit monies allotted by the university. Advantages of the system include predictability, specificity, and flexibility for faculty to develop individual…

  16. The Influence of "Goldfish Bowl" Bargaining in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Donald R.

    The effects of Florida's "sunshine" law opening collective bargaining sessions to the public are outlined in this presentation, which summarizes the results of a survey of school board members, superintendents, and negotiators. Of the 101 school board members (one-third of Florida's total) responding to the questionnaire, 68 said that…

  17. A resolution congratulating the Green Bay Packers on winning Super Bowl XLV.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2011-02-10

    02/10/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S650; text as passed Senate: CR S650; text of measure as introduced: CR S646) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Competition Makes a Comeback: Academic Bees and Bowls Attract Top Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2010-01-01

    Americans thrive on competition. But American schools have been suspicious of competition for generations, and are generally horrified by the idea that success should be accompanied by a reward like a title, a trophy, or a cash prize. In this article, the author stresses that the self-esteem movement in the 1990s made many educators squeamish…

  19. Escaping the regulatory dust bowl: fugitive dust and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Probst, G.L.; Becker, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) regulatory program, as it relates to particulates, is overly complicated. In attempting to accommodate statutory language insensitive to particulate differences, after becoming aware of the varying effects of different-sized particles, EPA has developed an unworkable program. Although agricultural, recreational, transportation, and industrial activities contribute to the airborne dust (or, in the Clean Air Act vernacular, fugitive dust), this article focuses on mining activities. Surface mining inevitably stirs up considerable fugitive dust, and a description of mining activities in arid conditions, and how they fit in with a developing regulatory program, reveals a story of a national program that fails to provide for rational policy and regional flexibility. The article also recommends some regulatory and statutory solutions that could relatively easily correct EPA's fugitive dust program.

  20. Send Your Team to the Dust Bowl: Team Cleaning Wins Points for Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shideler, Larry

    1997-01-01

    District custodial costs can be cut without sacrificing quality by adopting team cleaning. A team of trained cleaning specialists performs specific tasks (dusting, vacuuming, and restroom and utility cleaning) systematically, thereby achieving total cleaning with higher productivity and quality. If internal personnel are retrained, contracting out…

  1. Children of the Harvest: The Schooling of Dust Bowl and Mexican Migrants during the Depression Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Donato, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Chronicles experiences of depression era "Okies," juxtaposes them against experiences of Mexican Americans, and illuminates the diminution of agricultural labor in an industrializing society. Schooling for those groups was legitimized by their low occupational status. When economic circumstances improved, whites escaped from migrant…

  2. Ethnicity and Class: The Schooling of Dust Bowl and Mexican Migrants during the Depression Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Donato, Ruben

    1993-01-01

    Although both Mexican-American and "Okie" migrants to California and the Pacific Northwest suffered discrimination, the assimilation and mobility of later generations of Okies contrasts with the racism, school segregation, and perpetuation of class divisions in the experience of Mexican Americans. (SK)

  3. Bowl breakout: Escaping the positive region when searching for saddle points

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, Andreas; Luiser, Mathieu

    2014-07-14

    We present a scheme improving the minimum-mode following method for finding first order saddle points by confining the displacements of atoms to the subset of those subject to the largest force. By doing so it is ensured that the displacement remains of a local character within regions where all eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix are positive. However, as soon as a region is entered where an eigenvalue turns negative all atoms are released to maintain the ability of determining concerted moves. Applying the proposed scheme reduces the required number of force calls for the determination of connected saddle points by a factor two or more compared to a free search. Furthermore, a wider distribution of the relevant low barrier saddle points is obtained. Finally, the dependency on the initial distortion and the applied maximal step size is reduced making minimum-mode guided searches both more robust and applicable.

  4. Bowl-shaped Tröger's bases and their recognition properties.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Lorenzo; Čejka, Jan; Dolenský, Bohumil; Havlík, Martin; Jakubek, Milan; Kaplánek, Robert; Král, Vladimír; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2016-08-23

    The tris-Tröger's bases (TBs) are electron-rich fluorescent concave receptors due to the incorporation of naphthalene or triphenylene moieties (calix-1 and calix-2). The structures of the TBs were studied using SXRD to reveal the propensity to bind nitroaromatics. Titration with explosive-related nitro-compounds suggests that the TBs may be used for sensing explosives.

  5. A resolution congratulating the New York Giants for winning Super Bowl XLVI.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Schumer, Charles E. [D-NY

    2012-02-07

    02/07/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S392; text as passed Senate: CR S392; text of measure as introduced: CR S391) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Operation Dominic, Fish Bowl Series. Project Officer’s Report. Project 8C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-07-03

    1.2 BACKGROUND AND THEOR I0 J$ Gaseous or solid explouives bave been applied d ctly to full- scale vebioles to simulate structural responses= ib e...with the real case as structural responses. Thus, during the past 3 years# a large- scale theoret- losl and ezperiasntal simlation program e" been...separation froz th~e Thor was monitcoed by inc1i4ine two, sepuirstion ( switches in tlio spacer assemb3yv. One separation sirnal. C ve & traneuittod via Thor

  7. HLA is unlikely to be a major component of risk in familial inflammatory bowl disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, C.G.; Naom, I.S.; Hodgson, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the bowel which is confined to the colon in ulcerative colitis (UC) or may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract in Crohn`s disease (CD). The cause of IBD is unknown, but a genetic component is suggested by a 10-fold increase in risk to first degree relatives, and a higher concordance of disease in MZ versus DZ twins. Distinct associations of HLA DR2 with UC and DR1/DQw5 with CD have been reported. We are searching for susceptibility genes in IBD by linkage analysis in a panel of 43 families with 3 or more living affected members, which includes 12 families with CD, 17 with UC and 14 {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes} families with UC and CD. In view of the reported HLA associations in IBD, we have analyzed 5 microsatellite markers from the major histocompatibility complex for linkage to IBD using both parametric and nonparametric methods. LOD scores were calculated for 4 different genetic models, including both dominant and recessive inheritance, and haplotype sharing was analyzed in affected siblings. LOD scores for the MHC locus were negative in the full data set, and in the 3 classes of family (UC,CD,mixed). Haplotype sharing in affected sibs was very close to that expected if no linkage was present. We conclude that genes from the HLA region are unlikely to be a major component of risk in familial IBD. Linkage analysis of genes which cause chronic colitis when disrupted in transgenic mice is in progress.

  8. A resolution congratulating the Pittsburgh Steelers on winning Super Bowl XLIII.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2009-02-04

    02/04/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S1612-1613; text as passed Senate: CR S1613; text of measure as introduced: CR S1550) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Broom Closet or Fish Bowl? An Ethnographic Exploration of a University Queer Center and Oneself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teman, Eric D.; Lahman, Maria K. E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors detail an educational ethnography of a university queer cultural center's role on campus and in the surrounding community. The data include participant observation, in-depth interviews, and artifacts. The authors review lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, ally, and questioning (LGBTAQ) issues in higher education, heterosexual…

  10. Commending the University of Alabama for winning the Bowl Championship Series National Championship Game.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Bachus, Spencer [R-AL-6

    2010-01-13

    02/23/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. National Ocean Sciences Bowl in 2013: A National Competition for High School Ocean Science Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    trips to inform about the Great Lakes ; • Complete Phase 3 of the online Ocean Sciences Quiz; • Provide educational award trips to nationally winning...from each region competed for nation-wide recognition. The 16th Annual NOSB Finals Competition, themed “The Great Lakes : A Window into Freshwater...questions that highlighted the interconnectedness of freshwater and marine systems, including our understanding of freshwater processes, the Great Lakes

  12. A resolution congratulating the Baltimore Ravens for winning Super Bowl XLVII.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cardin, Benjamin L. [D-MD

    2013-02-14

    02/14/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S789-790; text as passed Senate: CR S787) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry (Cast Masters, Bowling Green, OH)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-06-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  14. Children's Sensitivity to External Food Cues: How Distance to Serving Bowl Influences Children's Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Young, Kathleen M.; Laurene, Kimberly; Galliger, Courtney; Hauser, Jessica; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa

    2010-01-01

    Overweight is increasing in children, leading to negative health consequences. Children also lack appropriate levels of important vitamins and nutrients in their diets. Environmental cues, such as food proximity, have been shown to influence consumption rates in adults. The present study has tested whether proximity to either a nutrient-dense or…

  15. The Role of Music in Environmental Education: Lessons from the Cod Fishery Crisis and the Dust Bowl Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Uses lyrics and musical styles to illustrate the role of music in educating young people about ecosystem fragility and the cultural importance of rural resources. Describes the east coast fishery prior to and following the announcement of the Northern Cod fishery moratorium in 1992. (Contains 40 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. OPERATION DOMINIC, FISH BOWL Series. Project Officer’s Report - Project 2.2. Gamma Radiation Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    3.5 Location of gamma dosimeters in Project 2.1 neutron detector containers. m 43 ^-pafi ytl - US (dj-UtL^- n M r L ■ L ■ «^ i. n V ^. w^» U...Washington, D. C; SECRET- RESTRICTED DATA. 6. A. latter and R. Latter; "Sunlamp Calculations" Rand Corporation Report 1956; Santa Monica...RESTEICTED DATA. 38. "The Nuclear Radiation Handbook" AFSWP-1100, Nuclear Development Corporation of America, White Plains, New York, 25 March 1957; SECRET-RESTRICTED DATA. 64

  17. Fifteen years of verticillium wilt of lettuce in america’s salad bowl: a tale of immigration, subjugation and abatement.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable that is globally cultivated. The US ranks second in production, with coastal California producing half of the US supply. In 1995, Verticillium wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Verticillium dahliae was identified as a disease of lettuce in coastal California, ...

  18. Feeling good about the iron rice bowl: Economic sector and happiness in post-reform urban China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Xie, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Situated in China's market transition, this study examines the relationship between economic sector and a worker's happiness in post-reform urban China. Using datasets from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2003, 2006 and 2008, we find that workers in the state sector enjoy a subjective premium in well-being - reporting significantly higher levels of happiness than their counterparts in the private sector. We also find that during a period when a large wave of workers moved from the state sector to the private sector, those remaining in the state sector reported being significantly happier than did former state sector workers who had moved, whether the move was voluntary or involuntary. We attribute the higher level of reported happiness in the state sector than in the private sector to the disparity by sector in the provision of social welfare benefits. Those who made voluntary state-to-private moves experienced a trade-off in enjoying higher payoffs while losing job security, whereas involuntary mobiles experienced downward mobility and suffered a long-term psychological penalty.

  19. Operation Dominic, Fish Bowl Series. Project Officer's report. Project 9. 1b. Ionospheric wind and diffusion measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, K.; Manring, E.R.

    1985-09-01

    The aim of this project was to measure high-altitude wind velocities and diffusion coefficients in the altitude region between 60 and 150 km. The method involved the ejection of a sodium vapor trail from a Cajun rocket at dust or dawn twilight. The sodium was sunlit, and as a result of emission of resonance radiation, was visible against a darkened background for about 20 minutes. The trail was photographed simultaneously from four different sites, allowing for subsequent triangulation to determine the altitude of various parts of the cloud. A major application of these wind and diffusion data, taken at dusk and dawn following the high-altitude nuclear tests, was to aid in determining the disposition of the nuclear debris.

  20. US agricultural policy, land use change, and biofuels: are we driving our way to the next dust bowl?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher K.

    2015-05-01

    Lark et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044003), analyze recent shifts in US agricultural land use (2008-2012) using newly-available, high-resolution geospatial information, the Cropland Data Layer. Cropland expansion documented by Lark et al suggests the need to reform national agricultural policies in the wake of an emerging, new era of US agriculture characterized by rapid land cover/land use change.

  1. A resolution commending the Seattle Seahawks for winning Super Bowl XLVIII and the 12th Man for their critical support.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cantwell, Maria [D-WA

    2014-02-12

    02/12/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S964; text of measure as introduced: CR S958-959) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Sports Adaptations for Unilateral and Bilateral Upper-Limb Amputees: Archery/Badminton/Baseball/Softball/Bowling/Golf/Table Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Jim

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…

  3. Feeling Good About the Iron Rice Bowl: Economic Sector and Happiness in Post-Reform Urban China*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Xie, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Situated in China’s market transition, this study examines the relationship between economic sector and a worker’s happiness in post-reform urban China. Using datasets from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2003, 2006 and 2008, we find that workers in the state sector enjoy a subjective premium in well-being – reporting significantly higher levels of happiness than their counterparts in the private sector. We also find that during a period when a large wave of workers moved from the state sector to the private sector, those remaining in the state sector reported being significantly happier than did former state sector workers who had moved, whether the move was voluntary or involuntary. We attribute the higher level of reported happiness in the state sector than in the private sector to the disparity by sector in the provision of social welfare benefits. Those who made voluntary state-to-private moves experienced a trade-off in enjoying higher payoffs while losing job security, whereas involuntary mobiles experienced downward mobility and suffered a long-term psychological penalty. PMID:26188448

  4. Operation Dominic, Fish Bowl Series. Project Officer's report. Project 6. 1. Fireball attenuation and refraction. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, R.J.; Hoihjelle, S.G.; Yalkut, C.R.; Pearce, D.G.; Gardenhire, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    A prime objective of the experiment was the quantitative measurement of the attenuation suffered by radar beams passing near or through the fireball of a nuclear detonation. During the test series, measurements were also made of effects produced in regions not directly associated with the fireball proper. A second prime objective of the experiment was to investigate possible phase differences expected to develop in nearly parallel radar rays passing through ionized regions. Ballistic rockets were used to place CW beacons, radiating at 1-, 5-, and 10-kMc frequencies. Five receiving stations, four on ships and one on Johnston Island, made signal-strength measurements. An interferometer on the island made phase-front measurements at 1- and 5-kMc.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2008-01-01

    *INTRODUCTION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS* Karst aquifer systems are present throughout parts of the United States and some of its territories. The complex depositional environments that form carbonate rocks combined with post-depositional tectonic events and the diverse climatic regimes under which these rocks were formed result in unique hydrologic systems. The dissolution of calcium carbonate and the subsequent development of distinct and beautiful landscapes, caverns, and springs have resulted in some karst areas of the United States being designated as national or state parks and commercial caverns. Karst aquifers and landscapes that form in tropical areas, such as the north coast of Puerto Rico, differ greatly from karst areas in more arid climates, such as central Texas or western South Dakota. Many of these public and private lands contain unique flora and fauna associated with the hydrologic systems in these karst areas. As a result, multiple Federal, State, and local agencies have an interest in the study of karst terrains. Carbonate sediments and rocks (limestone and dolomite) are composed of greater than 50 percent carbonate minerals and the predominant carbonate mineral is calcium carbonate or limestone (CaCO3). Unlike terrigenous clastic sedimentation, the depositional processes that produce carbonate rocks are complex, involving both biological and physical processes. These depositional processes impact greatly the development of permeability of the sediments. Carbonate minerals readily dissolve or precipitate depending on the chemistry of the water flowing through the rock, thus the study of both marine and meteoric diagenesis of carbonate sediments is multidisciplinary. Even with a better understanding of the depositional environment and subsequent diagenesis, the dual porosity nature of karst aquifers presents challenges to scientists attempting to study ground-water flow and contaminant transport. Many of the major springs and aquifers in the United States are developed in carbonate rocks and karst areas. These aquifers and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and as unique biological habitats. Commonly, there is competition for the water resources of karst aquifers, and urban development in karst areas can impact the ecosystem and water quality of these aquifers. The concept for developing a Karst Interest Group evolved from the November 1999 National Ground-Water Meeting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division. As a result, the Karst Interest Group was formed in 2000. The Karst Interest Group is a loose-knit grass-roots organization of USGS employees devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst hydrology studies. The mission of the Karst Interest Group is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among USGS scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the Karst Interest Group encourages cooperative studies between the different disciplines of the USGS and other Department of Interior agencies and university researchers or research institutes. The first Karst Interest Group workshop was held in St. Petersburg, Florida, February 13-16, 2001, in the vicinity of karst features of the Floridan aquifer system. The proceedings of that first meeting, Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4011 are available online at: http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/karst/ The second Karst Interest Group workshop was held August 20-22, 2002, in Shepherdstown, West Virginia, in close proximity to the carbonate aquifers of the northern Shenandoah Valley. The proceedings of the second workshop were published in Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4174, which is available online at the previously mentioned website. The third workshop of the Karst Interest Group was held September, 12-15, 2005, in Rapid City, South Dakota, which is in close proximity to karst features

  6. OPERATION DOMINIC, FISH BOWL SERIES. Project Officer’s Report. Project 6.9. Radar Clutter Measurements - UHF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    area by the Johnston Island radars. Fireball/Debris Noise. Radio-noise emission was observed by the 398-, 850-, and 1210-Mc radars looking at the fire ...0 )N T2 T2~-Z3 12 TO~ tw/w- N30 :UM O83.IVS NM 1192 W 1s I IL 114; It 0 3"W -.IM 03d 120 W150.0 % I Ll 00 00 09 -- 34 - iiSwId~ 121 II ROOM manag ,20E

  7. A resolution congratulating the University of Florida football team for winning the 2008 Bowl Championship Series (BCS) national championship.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2009-01-13

    01/14/2009 Resolution agreed to in Senate with an amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S398-399) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. A resolution congratulating the University of Alabama Crimson Tide for winning the 2012 Bowl Championship Series National Championship.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Shelby, Richard C. [R-AL

    2013-01-28

    01/28/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S333; text as passed Senate: CR S332-333) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. A resolution congratulating the Florida State University football team for winning the 2014 Bowl Championship Series national championship.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2014-01-13

    01/13/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S297-298; text as passed Senate: CR S292) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. A resolution congratulating the University of Alabama Crimson Tide football team for winning the 2011 Bowl Championship Series National Championship.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Shelby, Richard C. [R-AL

    2012-01-31

    01/31/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S222-224; text as passed Senate: CR S222-223; text of measure as introduced: CR S213-214) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. A resolution congratulating the Auburn University football team for winning the 2010 Bowl Championship Series National Championship.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Sessions, Jeff [R-AL

    2011-02-02

    02/02/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S492-494; text as passed Senate: CR S493; text of measure as introduced: CR S487) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Congratulating the University of Iowa Hawkeyes football team for winning the 2010 FedEx Orange Bowl.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Loebsack, David [D-IA-2

    2010-02-22

    03/22/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Bowling Green-Warren County Consumer-Career Education Handbook for Exceptional Education. Grades 1-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling Green Independent School District, KY.

    The document contains consumer and career education curriculum guides for elementary and secondary teachers of handicapped children. Various units are grouped into the following disability categories: primary, intermediate, and secondary educable mentally handicapped; trainable mentally handicapped; emotionally disturbed; physically handicapped;…

  14. Catfish and Goldfish in the Same Bowl: Perceived Outcomes and Effects of Accreditation at the Institutional Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Lisa Louise Riley

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the value and quality of higher education have led to increased scrutiny of the U.S. system of peer accreditation. Public policy-makers have begun to question the extent to which accrediting agencies achieve their quality assurance and quality improvement objectives in the colleges and universities they accredit. Some have begun to…

  15. 75 FR 32171 - American Electric Power Service Corporation's Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... facility using Alstom's chilled ammonia process that would capture approximately 1.5 million metric tons... deployment of the chilled ammonia process for CO 2 capture and sequestration of CO 2 in a saline formation... Project AEP proposes to design, construct, and operate a CCS facility using Alstom's chilled...

  16. Heat capacities and entropies from 8 to 1000 K of langbeinite (K2Mg2(SO4)3), anhydrite (CaSO4) and of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.; Russell-Robinson, Susan; Hemingway, Bruce S.

    1989-01-01

    Although Bond (Bell Sys. Tech. J., 22 (1943) 145) reported that langbeinite was piezoelectric at room temperature, we found no evidence in our Cpo measurements for a Curie temperature above which langbeinite would no longer be piezoelectric.

  17. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  18. 14 CFR 27.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system has a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for preflight drainage and has a minimum... the sediment bowl or chamber. (b) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required...

  19. 14 CFR 27.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... system has a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for preflight drainage and has a minimum... the sediment bowl or chamber. (b) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required...

  20. 14 CFR 27.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... system has a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for preflight drainage and has a minimum... the sediment bowl or chamber. (b) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required...

  1. 14 CFR 27.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... system has a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for preflight drainage and has a minimum... the sediment bowl or chamber. (b) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required...

  2. The National Ocean Sciences Bowl: Extending the Reach of a High School Academic Competition to College, Careers, and a Lifelong Commitment to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kristina; Walters, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have begun tracking a group of high ability high school students from high school into college study. These students indicated an interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) content areas, and specifically ocean sciences, through participation in a regional or national academic competition in high school--The…

  3. Leveraging Successful Collaborative Processes to Improve Performance Outcomes in Large-Scale Event Planning: Super Bowl, A Planned Homeland Security Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Advisor Nola Joyce Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD Chairman, Department of National Security Affairs iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...of Homeland Security DIA Defense Intelligence Agency DNI Director of National Intelligence DoD Department of Defense DOE Department of...Force MOU Memorandum of Understanding NPG National Preparedness Guidelines NCTC National Counterterrorism Center NFL National Football League

  4. Congratulating the six-time Defending Mid-American Conference Champion Bowling Green State University women's basketball team on another outstanding and record-setting season.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Latta, Robert E. [R-OH-5

    2010-03-25

    04/30/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. “Like Throwing a Bowling Ball at a Battle Ship” Audience Responses to Australian News Stories about Alcohol Pricing and Promotion Policies: A Qualitative Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Andrea S.; Chapman, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Policies affecting alcohol’s price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. Method From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18–25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. Results Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol’s price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. Conclusions News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol’s price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well as facilitate understandings of how this culture is amenable to change through the use of evidence-based policies. PMID:23755205

  6. The Paleozoic Dust Bowl: Dust Deposition in Tropical Western Pangaea (Midcontinent U.S.) at the Terminus of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreghan, G. S.; Heavens, N. G.; Benison, K. C.; Soreghan, M. J.; Mahowald, N. M.; Foster, T.; Zambito, J.; Sweet, A.; Kane, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric dust is well recognized and studied as both an archive and agent of climate change in Earth's relatively recent past. Archives of past dust include loess deposits and dust recovered from ocean- and ice-cores. Dust remains poorly known in Earth's past prior to the Cenozoic, but is increasingly recognized in the form of paleo-loess deposits, and (epeiric) marine strata that accumulated isolated from fluvio-deltaic influx. Here, we report on the growing recognition of voluminous dust deposits preserved in the Permian record of the U.S. Midcontinent (western tropical Pangaea). Fine-grained redbeds predominate in Permian strata throughout the U.S. Midcontinent, but notably in a swath extending from Oklahoma through South Dakota. These units consist predominantly of red mudstone and siltstone in commonly massive units, but sedimentary structures and bedding that signal aqueous processes (e.g. laminations, ripples) have led most to infer deltaic or tidal deposition. The absence of channel systems to deliver the sediment, as well as the predominantly massive and laterally continuous character and the uniform fine grain size signal wind transport, implying that these units record sustained dust deposition overprinted at times by sub-aqueous deposition in lakes, including ephemeral saline and acid lakes that led to evaporite cementation. Detrital zircon geochronology indicates that much of the dust originated in the relatively distant Appalachian-Ouachita orogenic systems, which formed part of the central Pangaean mountains (CPM), the collisional zone that sutured the supercontinent. Within the Anadarko basin of Oklahoma, Permian redbeds record >2 km of predominantly dust deposition, some of the thickest dust deposits yet documented in Earth's record. Yet the tropical setting is remarkably non-uniformitarian, as much Quaternary loess occurs in mid- to high-latitude regions, commonly linked to glacial genesis. We are currently investigating with both data and modeling possible causes and consequences of this massive dust record, which may include (1) partial glacial genesis in the CPM, (2) the action of the Pangaean mega-monsoon, and (3) particularly effective dust traps in the Midcontinent region. Modeling constrains the erosivity (the effect of winds and soil moisture effects) of a range of possible climate states on dust mobilization and underscores the relative difficulty of sourcing dust directly from the Appalachian-Ouachita orogenic system under most circumstances. Combining data and modeling helps constrain the erodibility (sediment availability, coherence, etc.) of dust sources. Reconstructions of marine dust deposition to the south and the west of the Anadarko basin suggest glacial-interglacial timescale erodibility changes were similar to those seen in the Midcontinent in the last 20,000 years, when it was at a much higher latitude.

  7. OPERATION DOMINIC, FISH BOWL SERIES. Project Officer’s Report. Project 6.2. Gamma-Ray Scanning of Debris Cloud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    magnetic west on Figure 3.35. This is most likely due to an error in the assumed instrument pointing direction. If the beta flux recorded as being...desirable. Manual calibration is slow 166 and laborious, and three calibration points before and after a run are not sufficient to prevent errors ...locations 72 2.8 Gamma telescope field of view - - 73 2.9 Plan view of detector output versus azimuth scanning angle 73 2.10 Gamma scanner block

  8. OPERATION DOMINIC, FISH BOWL SERIES. Project Officer’s Report. Project 8A.2. Optical Phenomenology of High-Altitude Nuclear Detonations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    f w • X • o- E o !r m ja / \\ N30 K m/Sec O / H - / 9 _ / £ ^ /"*! 1 - tr J Km/Sec 0- < 3 i 0 2 0...obvious in this picture, but also apparent are a dark band around the halo and a tenuous envelope extending to large distances from the fire - ball...suggested cause of the second peak concerns itself with the snow- plowing of axr by bomb debris well inside the surface of the fire - ball. At

  9. Bowl-shaped aromatic hydrocarbon precursors of fullerenes as η6-π-ligands in transition metal complexes: Complexes based on sumanene C21H12 derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal'Pern, E. G.; Stankevich, I. V.

    2008-06-01

    The density functional theory in the PBE approximation was used to explore the geometry and electronic structure of sumanene C21H12 and its five derivatives C21H12R6 (R = H, F, Cl, Br, and CN). The R groups in C21H12R6 molecules are attached to carbon atoms in α positions with respect to the central six-membered ring. The possibility of the formation of C21H12R6η 6-π complexes with Cr(C6H6), Cr(CO)3, Mo(C6H6), and Mo(CO)3 was discussed. The relative stability of these complexes was evaluated. The attachment of M(C6H6) and M(CO)3 (M = Cr, Mo) to sumanene C21H12 with the formation of η6-π bonds is energetically less favorable than their attachment to sumanene derivatives C21H12R6. The complexes of sumanene derivatives with Cr(C6H6), Cr(CO)3, Mo(C6H6), and Mo(CO)3 were found to be the most promising objects for synthesis. The C60 and η6-(C6H6)M-C60 and η6-(CO)3M-C60 (M = Cr, Mo) fullerene complexes were predicted to be much less stable than the η6-(CO)3M-C60R6 and η6-(C6H6)M-C60R6 complexes (M = Cr, Mo; R = H, Hal, CN), where R groups bordered one of the fullerene C60 six-membered rings comprising the atoms to which metal atoms were coordinated.

  10. Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics: Quantitative and Qualitative Research with Football Bowl Subdivision University Presidents on the Costs and Financing of Intercollegiate Athletics. Report of Findings and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Knight Commission's landmark 1991 report, "Keeping Faith with the Student-Athlete: A New Model for Intercollegiate Athletics," proposed a new "one-plus-three" model for intercollegiate athletics--presidential control directed toward academic integrity, fiscal integrity, and an independent certification process to verify that integrity. Indeed,…

  11. A Bowl with Marbles: Revision of the Thecate Amoeba Genus Lecythium (Chlamydophryidae, Tectofilosida, Cercozoa, Rhizaria) Including a Description of Four New Species and an Identification Key.

    PubMed

    Dumack, Kenneth; Baumann, Christina; Bonkowski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Although testate amoebae have attracted interest of protistologists for more than 150 years, some groups especially those with a hyaline, organic test (= theca) are still poorly known. One of those is the genus Lecythium (Chlamydophryidae, Tectofilosida, Cercozoa, Rhizaria), first described by Hertwig and Lesser in 1874. Only old, sometimes obscure, species descriptions were available until only recently a new species of Lecythium was described and a small ribosomal subunit RNA gene (SSU) sequence was provided. To shed light on the phylogeny and taxonomy of Lecythium, we (a) cultured six isolates of five Lecythium species and provide morphological as well as ecological observations, (b) obtained six new SSU sequences and conducted phylogenetic analyses of the Tectofilosida, showing that Lecythium splits into terrestrial and freshwater clades, and (c) did an intensive literature research on testate amoebae with a theca and provide an illustrated identification key focusing on Lecythium. For the first time, the presence of cysts in the genus Lecythium is reported and we compared those to the cysts of the presumed closely related Chlamydophrys stercorea. Our results suggest that still many undescribed Lecythium species will be found in terrestrial and freshwater habitats.

  12. A resolution commending The University of Alabama Crimson Tide for being unanimously declared the 2009 NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision National Champions.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Shelby, Richard C. [R-AL

    2010-01-20

    01/20/2010 Referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S56-57) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Supports the establishment of an NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision Championship playoff system in the interest of fairness and to bring parity to all NCAA teams.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Abercrombie, Neil [D-HI-1

    2009-01-15

    03/06/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. National Dam Safety Program. Punch Bowl Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 1343), Oswego River Basin, Schuyler County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-14

    shale. siltstone DI Tully Limestone. LOCKPORT GROUP 80-175 It. (25-55 m.1 i Oak Orchard and Penfield Dolostones , both replaced eastwardly by Sconondoa...Formation--imestone, dolostone GEOLOGY MAP LEGEND REFERENCE GEOLOGIC MAP OF NEW YORK, FINGER LAKES SHEET I 0%13I vf 1011AI N " DATED: 970 , SCALE I

  15. 75 FR 24972 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 ODVA, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    .... Gallen, SWITZERLAND; Caron Engineering, Inc., Wells, ME; Spang Power Electronics, Pittsburgh, PA; Alstom..., MN; Hermary Opto Electronics Inc., Coquitlam, British Columbia, CANADA; Kaijo Corporation, Hamura... Corporation, Minneapolis, MN; ASI Advanced Semiconductor Instruments GrnbH, Berlin, GERMANY; AGM...

  16. Research into the Influence of Rotation on the Internal Cooling of Turbine Blades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    transfer coefficient data through the use of thermochromic liquid crystals . The EPFL rig also uses PIV to produce detailed velocity vector and...velocity vectors), while the transient liquid crystal technique enables full surface heat transfer coefficients to be calculated. On the rig, air...representation of the EPFL test configurations. Alstom UK Static Test Rig Within the ICTB project, the Alstom Transient Liquid Crystal Facility is

  17. Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

  18. Metallic sulfide deposits in Winnefield salt dome, Louisiana: evidence for episodic introduction of metalliferous brines during cap rock formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    Winnfield dome is a shallow piercement salt structure that penetrates Late Jurassic through early Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata of the North Louisiana basin. Quarrying operations in the calcite and anhydrite portions of the cap rock have exposed zones of metallic sulfides and barite. A roughly laminated massive sulfide lens is exposed at the calcite to anhydrite transition zone. These sulfide concentrations are believed to have originated from the interaction of metalliferous basinal brines with reduced sulfur trapped within the cap rock. Textural relationships and variations in chemical compositions between the sulfide layers in the anhydrite portion of the cap rock suggest that distinct pulses of metalliferous brines were responsible for the sulfide concentrations. Anhydrite grains outside the mineralized areas are deformed and tightly intergrown. These textures suggest that mineralizing fluids were introduced episodically along the salt and anhydrite interface at the zone of salt dissolution before that portion of the anhydrite zone was compressed and accreted to overlying anhydrite cap rock. Therefore, the earliest formed sulfides originating by this mechanism occur at the top of the anhydrite cap rock zone, whereas the last sulfides to form are found at the base. Extensive sulfide concentrations along the anhydrite-calcite contact suggest that this contact also acted as a permeable zone allowing metalliferous brines into the cap rock. Textural and compositional relationships suggest that sulfides that formed along the anhydrite-calcite contact are locally superimposed on sulfides that formed at the salt-anhydrite contact.

  19. 76 FR 19381 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... of dual flush toilets at the Bowling Green High Rise Apartments. An exception was also granted to the... respect to work, using CFRFC grant funds, in connection with the Bowling Green High Rise Apartments....

  20. He Called for His Pipe, and He Called for His Bowl, and He Called for His Members Three--Selection of Military Juries by the Sovereign: Impediment to Military Justice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    jury selection spawns the reality and appearance of unlawful command influence. "Court-stacking" and subjugation of juror independence infect or appear...to infect the Article 25 process. This thesis proposes to replace Article 25 with random selection from installation-wide venire pools, generated and...commanders (lieutenant colonels) are special court-martial convening authorities. In the Air Force, Group Commanders (Colonels) hold the position. All

  1. "The bigger the network the bigger the bowl of cherries...": exploring the acceptability of, and preferences for, an ongoing support network for known BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lisa; Phelps, Ceri

    2010-10-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that the ongoing information and support needs of BRCA gene mutation carriers are not being met. This qualitative study investigated preferences for an on-going support network for mutation carriers in Wales, UK. Seventeen female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers participated in focus groups which explored their current and on-going information and psychological support needs. The interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed. The results reflected a diversity of experiences and support needs. The majority of participants felt they and their families would benefit from an on-going 'support network' which should incorporate information-provision alongside elements of a traditional support group alongside, internet-based support such as web-based chat forums, matching schemes and professionally led workshops. Some degree of professional input into any such initiative was believed to be important. This study has informed the development of an appropriate support network based on a hub and spoke model to help carriers and their families adapt to living and coping with their genetic risk.

  2. Sponsorship statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    The 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems benefits from the generous support of the following sponsors: National Authority for Scientific Research, RomaniaANCS logo Hidroelectrica S.A., RomaniaHidroelectrica_logo Machine Buiding Factory - UCM Reşiţa, RomaniaUCM Resita logo Hydro-Engineering S.A., RomaniaHydro Engineering logo Voith Hydro Holding GmbH, GermanyVoith_logo Andritz Hydro GmbH, AustriaAndritz_logo_large logo Alstom Hydro, FranceAlstom logo Advanced Design Technology Ltd., United Kingdomadt_logo logo

  3. The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemia, Z.; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.

    2009-08-01

    The Gorleben diapir, which has been targeted for radioactive waste disposal, contains large blocks of anhydrite. Numerical models that depict the geometrical configuration of the Gorleben diapir are used to understand internal structure of diapir caused by movement of the anhydrite blocks for various salt rheologies. It is shown that the rheology of the salt plays a significant role in how and at which rate the anhydrite blocks sink within the diapir. The mobility of anhydrite blocks depends on the effective viscosity of salt which has to be lower than threshold value of around 10 18-10 19 Pa s. Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously "stationary" anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir.

  4. The role of mechanical heterogeneities in evaporite sequence during deformation initiated by basement fault activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Burliga, Stanisław

    2016-04-01

    Kłodawa Salt Structure (KSS) situated in the centre of the Polish Zechstein Basin started to rise above a basement fault in the Early Triassic. Geological studies of the KSS revealed significant differences in the deformation patterns between the PZ1-PZ2 (intensely deformed) and PZ3-PZ4 (less deformed) cycle evaporites. These two older and two younger cycle evaporite complexes are separated by the thick Main Anhydrite (A3) bed. We use numerical simulations to assess the impact of a thick anhydrite bed on intrasalt deformation. In our models, the overburden consists of clastic sediments. A normal fault located in the rigid basement beneath the salt is activated due to model extension. At the same time, the sedimentation process takes place. The evaporites consist of a salt bed intercalated with a thick anhydrite layer of varying position and geometry. To understand the role of anhydrite layer, we run comparative simulations, in which no anhydrite layer is present. In the study, we use our own numerical codes implemented in MATLAB combined with the MILAMIN and MUTILS numerical packages. Our investigations revealed a significant influence of the anhydrite on deformation style in the evaporate series. The supra-anhydrite domain is characterized by weaker deformation and lower rates of salt flow in comparison to the sub-anhydrite domain. The highest contrast in the rate of salt flow between the two domains is observed in the case of the anhydrite layer situated close to the bottom of the salt complex. The thick anhydrite layer additionally diminishes the deformation rate in the supra-anhydrite domain and can lead to detachment of the basement deformation from its overlay. Our numerical simulations showed that the presence of the A3 Main Anhydrite bed could be the dominant factor responsible for the decoupling of deformation in the KSS salt complex.

  5. SmAll That Jazz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluemel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how Viktor Schreckengost's work had been a learning experience for the students of Grant Elementary School. Viktor's most famous work, "Jazz Bowl," was the focus of the author's curriculum. Viktor created this punch bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. The bowl was so popular that a series of them were produced. The…

  6. Effect of Information Load and Time on Observational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Gavin; Hodges, Nicola J.; Williams, A. Mark

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether altering the amount of and moment when visual information is presented affected observational learning for participants practicing a bowling skill. On Day 1, four groups practiced a cricket bowling action. Three groups viewed a full-body point-light model, the model's bowling arm, or between-limb coordination of the model's…

  7. Paper Pulp Panoply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marque, Margo E.

    1999-01-01

    Explains that creating paper-pulp bowls is designed to acquaint students with the beginning vocabulary and finger dexterity needed to sculpt clay. Describes the process of making paper-pulp bowls and identifies important vocabulary words. Provides directions for making paper bowl forms and lists the materials. (CMK)

  8. 14 CFR 23.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... system must have a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for drainage; has a capacity of 1 ounce... normal flight attitude, water will drain from all parts of the tank except the sump to the sediment bowl or chamber. (d) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required by paragraphs (a),...

  9. 14 CFR 23.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... system must have a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for drainage; has a capacity of 1 ounce... normal flight attitude, water will drain from all parts of the tank except the sump to the sediment bowl or chamber. (d) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required by paragraphs (a),...

  10. 14 CFR 23.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system must have a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for drainage; has a capacity of 1 ounce... normal flight attitude, water will drain from all parts of the tank except the sump to the sediment bowl or chamber. (d) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required by paragraphs (a),...

  11. 14 CFR 23.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... system must have a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for drainage; has a capacity of 1 ounce... normal flight attitude, water will drain from all parts of the tank except the sump to the sediment bowl or chamber. (d) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required by paragraphs (a),...

  12. 78 FR 50091 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Colorado Museum of Natural History...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... bowl with a lead inlay and wood stem, which is decorated with black banding. The pipe represented by catalog number 33035 is comprised of a red pipestone bowl and stem, which are joined by a wooden connector. The pipe represented by catalog number 33043 is comprised of a red pipestone bowl and wood stem....

  13. Stop Tobacco in Restaurants: Fifth-Grade Students STIR City Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifted Child Today, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It all started with a night of bowling in Austin, Texas, when fifth-grade student Amit had an evening of fun with his grandparents. When Amit returned to his home in Lubbock, TX, and tried to replicate his newfound recreation, his night of bowling fun ended after 10 minutes in an asthma attack. His second attempt at Lubbock bowling also brought a…

  14. Initiation and growth of gypsum piercement structures in the Zechstein Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Stroud, S. C.; Paul, J.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of tectonic processes in initiating halite diapirs has become much better understood in recent years. Less well understood is the development of diapiric structures involving rocks composed predominantly of gypsum. Below about 1000 m, gypsum dehydrates to anhydrite, which often obscures primary sedimentary textures. If the strain associated with diapiric rise in the rock induces the transition to anhydrite, obliteration of primary features in the gypsum can be expected. In our study, we infer that the diapiric movement in the Werra Anhydrite member of cycle 1 of the Zechstein Formation of Europe occurred before the initial transition of gypsum to anhydrite based on the presence of pseudomorphs of bedded primary gypsum crystals, the overburden lithologies and depositional environment, and the mechanical properties of gypsum, anhydrite and carbonate rocks. Faulting and differential loading of a shallow overburden were the key components in initiating the gypsum diapirism. The transition to anhydrite occurred after burial and after cessation of diapirism. In comparison, the diapirism of calcium sulfate of the Leine Anhydrite into the Leine Halite members of cycle 3 of the Zechstein Formation probably occurred much later after burial and appears to have been triggered by halite diapirism, which in turn triggered the dehydration reaction, causing the calcium sulfate to become the incompetent phase relative to the halite. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Fifty Years Remembered: The First 50 Years of the Tulsa District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    choking in the dust bowl . How could he see the reality he would create? Could he see SEAGULLS ON THE PLAINS, nesting near an inland seaport, over...after monumental floods in 1912 and 1913. 1927 - Historic 1927 flood in Mississippi Valley, a national flood . 19308 - Dust bowl drought and the... dust bowl . "Searing droughts," wrote Kerr, " ... burned the fields all across the Southwest from Oklahoma to California. Hard drought had first

  16. China: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030. Geopolitical Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    The combination of water scarcity, desertification, dust bowls , and shifting agricultural patterns appears likely to generate mass migration from... Dust Bowl Eruptions. Even if the overall impact on productivity can be successfully mitigated, some of China’s key agricultural regions, such as...extreme events such as dust bowl eruptions. Unsustainable practices such as overgrazing and cropping of marginal lands have been a serious problem in

  17. A Mission in the Desert: Albuquerque District, 1935-1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    As Dust Bowl migrants from the Southwest drifted through New Mexico on their way to the fields of California, local farmers looked eastward to the...projects as part of its relief efforts. This turn of events brought the Conchas area under close scrutiny as Dust Bowl conditions deteriorated late into...34land conservation and land utiliza- tion" in the ten-state Dust Bowl region. In addition, the WPA proposed a simi- lar water conservation campaign of

  18. Geochemical effects of deep-well injection of the Paradox Valley brine into Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Colorado, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Bischoff, J.L.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Brine seepage into the Dolores River from ground water in Paradox Valley, Colorado constitutes a major source of salt to the Colorado River. Plants are enderway to remove this source of salt by drawing down the Paradox Valley brine (PVB) and forcibly injecting it into a deep disposal well (4.8 km). Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of deep-well injection of PVB. The results show that PVB is near saturation with anhydrite at 25??C, and that heating results in anhydrite precipitation. The amount and the rate at which anhydrite forms is temperature, pressure, and substrate dependent. Paradox Valley brine heated in the presence of Precambrian rocks from the drill core produces the same amount of anhydrite as PVB heated alone, but at a greatly accelerated rate. A 30% dilution of PVB with Dolores River water completely eliminates anhydrite precipitation when the fluid is heated with the Precambrian rocks. Interaction of PVB and Leadville Limestone is characterized by dolomitization of calcite by brine Mg which releases Ca to solution. This added Ca reacts with SO4 to form increased amounts of anhydrite. A 20% dilution of PVB by Dolores River water has no effect on dolomitization and reduces the amount of anhydrite only slightly. A 65% dilution of PVB by Dolores River water still does not prevent dolomitization but does suppress anhydrite formation. Computer modeling of PVB by programs utilizing the Pitzer ion-interaction parameters is in general agreement with the experimental results. Ion-activity products calculated by both SOLMINEQ and PHRQPITZ are close to equilibrium with both anhydrite and dolomite whenever these phases are present experimentally, although the calculations over-estimate by a factor of 2 the degree of saturation. Some discrepancies in the calculated results between the two programs are due largely to differences in mineral solubility data. ?? 1992.

  19. 5 CFR 532.221 - Industries included in regular nonappropriated fund surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... machine operators. 71391 Golf courses and country clubs. 71395 Bowling centers. 72111 Hotels (except casino hotels) and motels. 7224 Drinking places (alcoholic beverages). 7225 Restaurants and other...

  20. Determinants of Effective Unit Performance: Research on Measuring and Managing Unit Training Readiness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    NTC " dust bowl " as a key task. Extended equipment draw procedures were estab- lished and implemented at NTC that resulted in higher opera- tional...essential to success at NTC. "* Units that treated the " dust bowl " at the NTC as part of their rotation were more successful. 174 Keesling, Ford, and Harrison... Bowl " at the NTC as Part of Their Rotation Were More Successful The importance of the equipment draw from the NTC " dust bowl " was emphasized by one S3

  1. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 37 - FTA Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2, Federal Transit Administration, One Bowling Green, Room 429, New York, NY 10004 Region 3, Federal..., San Francisco, CA 94105 Region 10, Federal Transit Administration, Jackson Federal Building,...

  2. 32 CFR 536.146 - Claims against nonappropriated fund employees-generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) activities. NAF activities include NAF or Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) facilities, post exchanges, bowling centers, officers and noncommissioned officers' clubs, and other facilities located...

  3. 32 CFR 536.146 - Claims against nonappropriated fund employees-generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) activities. NAF activities include NAF or Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) facilities, post exchanges, bowling centers, officers and noncommissioned officers' clubs, and other facilities located...

  4. Fabrication of stainless steel spherical anodes for use with boat-mounted boom electroshocker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinez, Patrick J.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1992-01-01

    A frugal method of fabricating spherical anodes from stainless steel mixing bowls is presented. We believe that the purported mechanical disadvantages of using spherical electrodes are largely unfounded.

  5. 38 CFR 21.7120 - Courses included in programs of education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... athletics, such as horseback riding, swimming, fishing, skiing, golf, baseball, tennis, bowling, sports... the standard college degree the veteran or servicemember is pursuing; or (ii) When— (A) A...

  6. 76 FR 43721 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ..., 8 slate palettes, 1 shell, 1 ceramic sherd, 1 small ceramic bowl, 3 stone gaming pieces, 2 stone... teachings and tradition, ethnohistoric documentation, historic documentation, archaeological...

  7. Seabed measurements of modern corrosion rates on the Florida escarpment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.K.; Commeau, R.F.; Curray, Joseph R.; Neumann, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    A mooring containing diverse carbonate and anhydrite substrates was exposed to bottom waters for 9 months at the base of the Florida Escarpment to determine the influence of dissolution on the development of this continental margin. Weight loss was measured on all samples. Etching, pitting, and loss of the original framework components were observed on substrates with known characteristics. Extrapolations of modern dissolution rates predict only about 1.6 meters of corrosion per million years. However, more rapid anhydrite dissolution, up to 1 km per million years, would cause exposed anhydrite beds to undercut and destabilize intercalated limestones. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Electric Power Research Institute: environmental Control Technology Center.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-04

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved continued investigations into the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process for the production of Anhydrous Calcium Sulfate (Anhydrite). The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. From May 3-18, the NYSEG Kintigh Station and the ECTC were off-line for a two-week scheduled Station outage. During the ECTC outage, the major systems of the Center were inspected, and several preventive maintenance activities were completed. A listing of the major O&M outage activities completed during this period is presented in the Pilot/Mini-Pilot section of this report. In May 1997, an extension to the Anhydrite Production test block was started following the NYSEG outage. The extension to the Anhydrite Production test block is being funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) after promising results from the original test program. Both EPRI and the Department of Energy (DOE) funded the original test program as part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high- efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. While the pilot portion of the Anhydrite project was conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) in Barker, New York, the extension mainly used the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot wet FGD unit to reduce operating costs. The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process that produces a useable byproduct, anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate). The original CLS/Anhydrite process included three steps: chloride removal, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite production. The final step in the process involved

  9. Subaqueous evaporites of Buckner member, Haynesville Formation, northeastern Mobile County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, S.D.

    1988-09-01

    The lower part of the Buckner anhydrite member of the Haynesville Formation (Upper Jurassic) was deposited as shallowing upward cycles of subaqueous to subaerial deposits on the north flank of the Wiggins arch in northeastern Mobile County, Alabama. The unit studied conformably overlies the Smackover Formation and is generally evaporite dominated. The Buckner anhydrite averages about 35 m (115 ft) thick and has been buried to depths of 5.5 km (> 18,000 ft). Despite this deep burial, the unit has suffered little deformation since alteration of gypsum to anhydrite.

  10. Experience from the 300 MWe CFB Demontration Plant in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvillé, P.; Semedard, J.-C.; Darling, S.

    This paper will describe the background and current status of the 300MWe CFB Demonstration Project located at the Baima Power Plant in Sichuan Province. This project was the first 300MWe class CFB in China and the first project built under the Transfer of Technology from Alstom. The plant entered commercial operation in early 2006. The fuel is a high-ash anthracite which has presented significant challenges in terms of higher-than-expected ash content and top size. While this fuel has been problematic for the adjacent suspension-fired boilers, performance in the CFB boiler has been excellent, with low carbon content in the ash, low turndown and low emissions. Key boiler performance parameters will be described along with a comparison of design and actual performance and the operational experience will be addressed. Finally, the paper will describe Alstom's process for scaling the CFB technology from 300MWe to 600MWe, and our supercritical CFB design.

  11. Improving Wind Turbine Drivetrain Reliability Using a Combined Experimental, Computational, and Analytical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nontorque loads induced by the wind turbine rotor overhang weight and aerodynamic forces can greatly affect drivetrain loads and responses. If not addressed properly, these loads can result in a decrease in gearbox component life. This work uses analytical modeling, computational modeling, and experimental data to evaluate a unique drivetrain design that minimizes the effects of nontorque loads on gearbox reliability: the Pure Torque(R) drivetrain developed by Alstom. The drivetrain has a hub-support configuration that transmits nontorque loads directly into the tower rather than through the gearbox as in other design approaches. An analytical model of Alstom's Pure Torque drivetrain provides insight into the relationships among turbine component weights, aerodynamic forces, and the resulting drivetrain loads. Main shaft bending loads are orders of magnitude lower than the rated torque and are hardly affected by wind conditions and turbine operations.

  12. Improved Wind Turbine Drivetrain Reliability using a Combined Experimental, Computational, and Analytical Approach (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Bergua, R.; van Dam, J.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.

    2014-08-01

    Nontorque loads induced by the wind turbine rotor overhang weight and aerodynamic forces can greatly affect drivetrain loads and responses. If not addressed properly, these loads can result in a decrease in gearbox component life. This work uses analytical modeling, computational modeling, and experimental data to evaluate a unique drivetrain design that minimize the effects of nontorque loads on gearbox reliability: the Pure Torque drivetrain developed by Alstom. The drivetrain has a hub-support configuration that transmits nontorque loads directly into the tower rather than through the gearbox as in other design approaches. An analytical model of Alstom's Pure Torque drivetrain provides insight into the relationships among turbine component weights, aerodynamic forces, and the resulting drivetrain loads. Main shaft bending loads are orders of magnitude lower than the rated torque and are hardly affected by wind speed and turbine operations.

  13. CFB: technology of the future?

    SciTech Connect

    Blankship, S.

    2008-02-15

    Fuel flexibility and a smaller carbon footprint are behind renewed interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. The article explains the technology of CFB and discusses development of CFB units since the late 1990s. China is seeing an explosion in the number of utility-size CFBs. Alstom, Foster Wheeler, Babcock and Wilson and Alex Kvaener are today's major CFB boiler manufacturers. Alstom is testing and developing oxy-firing and post-combustion carbon capture strategies on CFB boilers. One CFB asset is its ability to burn a variety of fuels including waste coal, high sulfur coal and even discarded tires. The article mentions successful CFB projects at the Seward Station using waste coal and at the Gilbert 3 plant in the USA. Lamar is converting its Light and Power Plant from natural gas to burn coal in a 38.5 MW CFB boiler. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  14. Turbine Aeration Design Software for Mitigating Adverse Environmental Impacts Resulting From Conventional Hydropower Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliver, John S.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional hydropower turbine aeration test-bed for computational routines and software tools for improving environmental mitigation technologies for conventional hydropower systems. In achieving this goal, we have partnered with Alstom, a global leader in energy technology development and United States power generation, with additional funding from the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) and the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) at the UMN

  15. Database Dictionary for Ethiopian National Ground-Water Database (ENGDA) Data Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    GBNR GLCL GNSS GRNT GRGN GDGS GRDR GNPR GRVL Aeolian deposits Agglomerate Alluvium Amphibolite Andesite Anhydrite Anorthosite Arkose ...deposits (AOLN) Amphibolite (APBL) Arkose (ARKS) Banded Ironstone (BDIS) Boulder clay (BLCL) Boulders (BLDR) Boulders, silt and clay (BLSC

  16. Phase transformations and indications for acoustic mode softening in Tb-Gd orthophosphate

    DOE PAGES

    Tschauner, Oliver; Ushakov, Sergey V.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; ...

    2016-01-06

    At ambient conditions the anhydrous rare-earth orthophosphates assume either the xenotime (zircon) or the monazite structure, with the latter favored for the heavier rare earths. Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 assumes the xenotime structure at ambient conditions but is at the border between the xenotime and monazite structures. Here we show that, at high pressure, Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 does not transform directly to monazite but through an intermediate anhydrite-type structure. We show softening of (c1133 + c1313) combined elastic moduli close to the transition from the anhydrite to the monazite structure. Stress response of rare-earth orthophosphate ceramics can be affected by both formation of the anhydrite-typemore » phase and the elastic softening in the vicinity of the monazite-phase. In conclusion, we report the first structural data for an anhydrite-type rare earth orthophosphate.« less

  17. Relative Shock Effects in Mixed Powders of Calcite, Gypsum, and Quartz: A Calibration Scheme from Shock Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    The shock behavior of calcite and gypsum is important in understanding the Cretaceous/Tertiary event and other terrestrial impacts that contain evaporite sediments in their targets. Most interest focuses on issues of devolatilization to quantify the production of CO2 or SO2 to better understand their role in generating a temporary atmosphere and its effects on climate and biota [e.g., papers in 1,2,3,4]. Devolatilization of carbonate is also important because the dispersion and fragmentation of ejecta is strongly controlled by the expansion of large volumes of gas during the impact process as well [5,6]. Shock recovery experiments for calcite yield seemingly conflicting results: early experimental devolatilization studies [7,8,9] suggested that calcite was substantially outgassed at 30 GPa (> 50%). However, the recent petrographic work of [10,11,12] presented evidence that essentially intact calcite is recovered from 60 GPa experiments. [13] reported results of shock experiments on anhydrite, gypsum, and mixtures of those phases with silica. Their observations indicate little or no devolatilization of anhydrite shocked to 42 GPa and that the fraction of sulfur, by mass, that degassed is approx.10(exp -2) of theoretical prediction. In another (preliminary) report of shock experiments on calcite, anhydrite, and gypsum, [14] observe calcite recrystallization when shock loaded at 61 GPa, only intensive plastic deformation in anhydrite shock loaded at 63 GPa, and gypsum converted to anhydrite when shock loaded at 56 GPa. [15] shock loaded anhydrite and quartz to a peak pressure of 60 GPa. All of the quartz grains were trans-formed to glass and the platy anhydrite grains were completely pseudomorphed by small crystallized anhydrite grains. However, no evidence of interaction between the two phases could be observed and they suggest that recrystallization of anhydrite grains is the result of a solid state transformation. [16] reanalyzed the calcite and anhydrite shock

  18. Importance des algues Dasycladales révélée par la cathodoluminescence des évaporites triasiques (Trias des Forages GPF Ardèche, France). Role of Dasycladals algae displayed by the cathodoluminescence of Triassic evaporites (GPF deep bore holes, Ardèche, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, Pierre; Arbey, François

    1999-06-01

    Two metastable minerals (the biogenic aragonite of Dasycladals algae and the diagenetic gypsum replaced by dolomite, anhydrite and quartz) appear to be significant for the diagenesis of Triassic evaporites of Ardèche, France (GPF cored deep drillings: Balazuc 1 and Morte-Mérie 1). The cathodoluminescence colours of dolomite, anhydrite and authigenic quartz, are digitally enhanced and compared with the high magnification pictures of SEM electron-excited cathodoluminescence (200-800 nm).

  19. CENTRIFUGE APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.; Urey, H.C.; Cohen, K.

    1960-08-01

    A high-speed centrifuge for the separation of gaseous isotopes is designed comprising a centrifugal pump mounted on the outlet of a centrifuge bowl and arranged to pump the heavy and light fractions out of the centrifuge bowl in two separate streams.

  20. METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, K.

    1960-05-10

    A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.

  1. Wireless Access Point Treasure Hunt Organizational Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    with a final challenge at a bowling alley where students found the “treasure”, a cellophane package of silver and gold chocolate candies and a surprise... chocolate candies and a surprise pizza and bowling party. For additional details regarding the technical challenges held at each site, please see [1

  2. Task Type and Reactivity of Verbal Reports in SLA: A First Look at a L2 Task Other than Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the frequency with which verbal reports are used in SLA to gather data on learners' cognitive processes (e.g., Bowles, 2003, 2004; Mackey, Gass, & McDonough, 2000; Rosa & Leow, 2004a, 2004b), only two studies (Bowles & Leow, 2005; Leow & Morgan-Short, 2004) have investigated verbal reports' reactivity (i.e., whether they alter cognitive…

  3. 76 FR 8351 - Meeting of the Defense Department Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Navy Dr, Arlington, VA 22202. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: MSgt Robert Bowling, USAF, or DACOWITS, 4000 Defense Pentagon, Room 2C548A, Washington, DC 20301- 4000, E-mail: Robert.bowling@osd.mil... received from members of the public. Dated: February 8, 2011. Morgan F. Park, Alternate OSD...

  4. 47 CFR 73.622 - Digital television table of allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Flagstaff 18, 22, 27, 32 Green Valley 47c Kingman 19, *46 Mesa 36 Phoenix 17, 20, 24, 26, *29, 31, 34c, 49... Kentucky Community Channel No. Ashland *26c, 44 Beattyville 7 Bowling Green 16, *18, 33, *48 Campbellsville... Channel No. Birch Tree *7 Bowling Green *50 Cape Girardeau 22, 57 Columbia 22, 36 Hannibal 29...

  5. 47 CFR 73.622 - Digital television table of allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Flagstaff 18, 22, 27, 32 Green Valley 47c Kingman 19, *46 Mesa 36 Phoenix 17, 20, 24, 26, *29, 31, 34c, 49... Kentucky Community Channel No. Ashland *26c, 44 Beattyville 7 Bowling Green 16, *18, 33, *48 Campbellsville... Channel No. Birch Tree *7 Bowling Green *50 Cape Girardeau 22, 57 Columbia 22, 36 Hannibal 29...

  6. 77 FR 14832 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... loss of business by the workers' firm with the firm described in paragraph (2) contributed importantly... date 81,030 Calisolar Inc., Certified Sunnyvale, CA....... February 13, 2010. Green Technologies... Cooper Standard Bowling Green, OH... February 6, 2011. Automotive, Bowling Green Seal Plant,...

  7. 78 FR 78302 - Proposed Modification and Establishment of Air Traffic Service (ATS) Routes in the Vicinity of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ..., except Federal holidays. An informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the... file V-243 are being vectored between the Bowling Green, KY (BWG), VOR Tactical Air Navigation (VORTAC... Bowling Green, KY. * * * * * Paragraph 6011 United States Area Navigation Routes * * * * * T-325...

  8. A Determination of Eligibility to the National Register of Historic Places for Select Historic Properties Along the Souris River in North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    drought. Particularly hard hit by the " dust bowl " conditions were waterfowl, as much of their remaining wetlands habitat had dried up and virtually...the 1930s, which resulted in the " dust bowl ," further compounded habitat loss and as a result many migratory bird species, in particular waterfowl

  9. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Draft Environmental Assessment. SAC Low-Altitude Flight Operations at the Airburst Range, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    the early 1900s, and became part of the Dust Bowl after prolonged drought in the 1930s. Some of this land has been rehabilitated and is currently...the land, combined with drought and 0 severe winds, resulted in the Dust Bowl of the 1930’s. In 1938, the federal government established the Federal

  10. Upper Tropospheric Jet Streams Over North America During Summer 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    North America. While not as extreme as the " dust bowl " days of the 1930s, many locations set new records for drought and high temperatures. During June...1934, at the height of the dust bowl , "the greatest disaster in American history attributable to me- teorological factors." (Heim, 1988), drought

  11. Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) for Metallic Residues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    metallic puck mills constructed of agate are also available. Presently, though, the agate bowls are a third of the size of the metal bowls , thus...2 mm and greater than 2 mm) are weighed. The less-than-2-mm sieved fraction is mechanically milled (e.g., within a hood for dust control) using an

  12. Acquisition of Leisure Skills by a Severely Handicapped Adolescent: A Data Based Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A 16-year-old severely handicapped student was trained to bowl, purchase a drink from the concession, and use a vending machine in the bowling alley in six weeks. The subject successfully transferred the skill to similar environment and materials. (CL)

  13. 49 CFR 601.2 - Organization of the administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and U.S. Virgin Islands FTA Regional Administrator, One Bowling Green, Room 429, New York, NY 10014... Administrator, Jackson Federal Building, 915 Second Avenue, Suite 3142, Seattle, WA 98174-1002 (206) 220-7954 Lower Manhattan Recovery Office FTA LMRO Director, One Bowling Green, Room 436, New York, NY 10004...

  14. 49 CFR 601.2 - Organization of the administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and U.S. Virgin Islands FTA Regional Administrator, One Bowling Green, Room 429, New York, NY 10014... Administrator, Jackson Federal Building, 915 Second Avenue, Suite 3142, Seattle, WA 98174-1002 (206) 220-7954 Lower Manhattan Recovery Office FTA LMRO Director, One Bowling Green, Room 436, New York, NY 10004...

  15. 49 CFR 601.2 - Organization of the administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and U.S. Virgin Islands FTA Regional Administrator, One Bowling Green, Room 429, New York, NY 10014... Administrator, Jackson Federal Building, 915 Second Avenue, Suite 3142, Seattle, WA 98174-1002 (206) 220-7954 Lower Manhattan Recovery Office FTA LMRO Director, One Bowling Green, Room 436, New York, NY 10004...

  16. 49 CFR 601.2 - Organization of the administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and U.S. Virgin Islands FTA Regional Administrator, One Bowling Green, Room 429, New York, NY 10014... Administrator, Jackson Federal Building, 915 Second Avenue, Suite 3142, Seattle, WA 98174-1002 (206) 220-7954 Lower Manhattan Recovery Office FTA LMRO Director, One Bowling Green, Room 436, New York, NY 10004...

  17. 49 CFR 601.2 - Organization of the administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and U.S. Virgin Islands FTA Regional Administrator, One Bowling Green, Room 429, New York, NY 10014... Administrator, Jackson Federal Building, 915 Second Avenue, Suite 3142, Seattle, WA 98174-1002 (206) 220-7954 Lower Manhattan Recovery Office FTA LMRO Director, One Bowling Green, Room 436, New York, NY 10004...

  18. The Pinch Pot Technique and Raku.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demery, Marie

    Since the 16th century, the small Japanese raku tea bowl has reflected the merged cultural influences of art, religion, and other countries on the art of Japanese pottery. Artistically, the bowl is a combination of ceramics (pinching) and sculpture (carving). The dictates of the Zen Buddhist tea masters determine its sculptural process and steps,…

  19. odd-skipped genes and lines organize the notum anterior-posterior axis using autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Del Signore, Steven J; Hayashi, Teru; Hatini, Victor

    2012-07-01

    The growth and patterning of Drosophila wing and notum primordia depend on their subdivision into progressively smaller domains by secreted signals that emanate from localized sources termed organizers. While the mechanisms that organize the wing primordium have been studied extensively, those that organize the notum are incompletely understood. The genes odd-skipped (odd), drumstick (drm), sob, and bowl comprise the odd-skipped family of C(2)H(2) zinc finger genes, which has been implicated in notum growth and patterning. Here we show that drm, Bowl, and eyegone (eyg), a gene required for notum patterning, accumulate in nested domains in the anterior notum. Ectopic drm organized the nested expression of these anterior notum genes and downregulated the expression of posterior notum genes. The cell-autonomous induction of Bowl and Eyg required bowl, while the non-autonomous effects were independent of bowl. The homeodomain protein Bar is expressed along the anterior border of the notum adjacent to cells expressing the Notch (N) ligand Delta (Dl). bowl was required to promote Bar and repress Dl expression to pattern the anterior notum in a cell-autonomous manner, while lines acted antagonistically to bowl posterior to the Bowl domain. Our data suggest that the odd-skipped genes act at the anterior notum border to organize the notum anterior-posterior (AP) axis using both autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms.

  20. 77 FR 31372 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    .... Additional information regarding the SRP process can be found online at www.fema.gov/pdf/media/factsheets/2010/srp_fs.pdf . The watersheds and/or communities affected are listed in the tables below. The....bakeraecom.com/index.php/florida/hardee/ City of Bowling Green City Hall, 107 West Main Street, Bowling...

  1. Quantifying the Chasm: Exploring the Impact of the BCS on Total Football Revenues for Division One Football Programs from 2002-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Cary A.

    2014-01-01

    The Bowl Championship Series served as a collection of bowl games that were designed to crown the national champion in Division One football. The BCS created two classifications of institutions in Division football, those that were granted automatic access (AQ) to the post-season games, and those that were not (non-AQ). The BCS also generated…

  2. Down. Set. March.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Craig T.

    2012-01-01

    Black college football teams do not play in bowl games. The only venues that come close to duplicating a bowl atmosphere are the annual classic games that are played during the regular season at a variety of locales across the U.S. Over the years, "classic" games have come on the scene and the results have been mixed. Some remain viable while…

  3. A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate that all necessary measures should be taken to protect children in the United States from human trafficking, especially during the upcoming Super Bowl, an event around which many children are trafficked for sex.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Blumenthal, Richard [D-CT

    2014-01-28

    02/03/2014 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Is There any Relationship Between the Santa Elena Depression and Chicxulub Impact Crater, Northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefticariu, L.

    2005-05-01

    The Terminal Cretaceous Chicxulub Impact Crater had a strong control on the depositional and diagenetic history of the northern Yucatan Platform during most of the Cenozoic Era. The Chicxulub Sedimentary Basin (henceforth Basin), which approximately coincides with the impact crater, is circumscribed by a concentration of karstic sinkholes known as the Ring of Cenotes. Santa Elena Depression (henceforth Depression) is the name proposed for the bowl-shaped buried feature, first contoured by geophysical studies, immediately south of the Basin, in the area where the Ticul 1 and UNAM 5 wells were drilled. Lithologic, petrographic, and biostratigraphic data on PEMEX, UNAM, and ICDP cores show that: 1) Cenozoic deposits are much thicker inside the Basin than inside the Depression, 2) in general, the Cenozoic formations from inside the Depression are the thickest among those outside the Basin, 3) variably dolomitized pelagic or outer-platform wackestone or mudstone occur both inside the Basin and Depression, 4) the age of the deeper-water sedimentary carbonate rocks is Paleocene-Eocene inside the Basin and Paleocene?-Early Eocene inside the Depression, 5) the oldest formations that crop out are of Middle Eocene age at the edge of the Basin and Early-Middle Eocene age inside the Depression, 6) saline lake deposits, that consist chiefly of anhydrite, gypsum, and fine carbonate, and also contain quartz, chert, clay, zeolite, potassium feldspar, pyrite, and fragments of wood, are present in the Cenozoic section of the UNAM 5 core between 282 and 198 m below the present land surface, 7) the dolomite, subaerial exposure features (subaerial crusts, vugs, karst, dedolomite), and vug-filling cement from the Eocene formations are more abundant inside the Depression than inside the Basin. The depositional environments that are proposed for explaining the Cenozoic facies succession within the Santa Elena Depression are: 1) deeper marine water (Paleocene?-Early Eocene), 2) relatively

  5. Sulfate Saturated Hydrous Magmas Associated with Hydrothermal Gold Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambefort, I.; Dilles, J. H.; Kent, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits associated with arc magmatism represent important sulfur anomalies. During degassing of magmatic systems the volatile may transport metals and sulfur and produce deposits. The ultimate origin of the magma-derived sulfur is still uncertain. The Yanacocha high-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit, Peru, is hosted by a Miocene volcanic succession (ca. 16 to 8 Ma). Magmatic rocks are highly oxidized >NNO+2 and show a range of composition from andesite to dacite. Two populations of amphibole occur in the Yanacocha dacitic ignimbrite deposits (~7 and 12 wt% Al2O3). Low Al amphiboles crystallized at ~ 1.5-2 kbar and 800°C (Plag-Hb thermobarometry) in equilibrium with plagioclase and pyroxene. High Al amphiboles only contain inclusions of anhydrite associated with apatite (up to 1.2 wt% SO3), and have a higher Cr2O3 content (up to 1000 ppm). We estimate these amphiboles form near the magma's liquidus at P(H2O)> 3kbar and 950 to 1000°C of a basaltic, basaltic andesite ascending magma. Low Al amphibole presents an REE pattern with negative anomalies in Sr, Ti and Eu, characteristic of plagioclase and titanite fractionation in the magma. High Al amphiboles are less enriched in REE and have no Sr, Ti, or Eu anomaly. Rare crystals of high Al amphibole display a low Al rim marked by higher REE contents compared to the core and a negative Eu anomaly. Magmatic sulfate occurrences have been discovered through the 8 m.y. volcanic sequence. Rounded anhydrite crystals are found included within clinopyroxene and both high and low Al amphibole. The rare high Al amphiboles (from the sample RC6) contain up to ~10 vol.%, ~5-80 micrometer-long anhydrite as irregularly shaped (amoeboid) blebs that do not show crystallographic forms and do not follow host cleavages. Extremely rare sulfide inclusions are found in plagioclase (Brennecka, 2006). The major and trace element contents of Yanacocha magmatic anhydrite have been analyzed by electron microprobe and LA

  6. Insect Pollinators in Iowa Cornfields: Community Identification and Trapping Method Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Availability of mass flowering plants in landscapes dominated by agriculture can have a strong positive impact on the density of generalist, native pollinators. Row-crop production in Iowa accounts for 75% of the arable acres, with corn, Zea mays, representing the majority of hectares planted. To date, there has been no description of the insect pollinator community found within Iowa cornfields. We report a field study to determine the optimal sampling methodology to characterize the community of insect pollinators within cornfields. During 2012 and 2013, 3,616 insect pollinators representing 51 species were captured using bee bowls, and 945 individuals representing 10 species were captured using sticky cards. We examined the effects of trap type, height, and bowl color on the described community. Bee bowls captured a more abundant and species rich community than sticky cards with all species captured on sticky cards also present in bee bowls. Traps deployed at the height of the tassels describe a more abundant and species rich community of pollinators than traps at ear height (2x as many individuals) or ground height (4x as many individuals). Blue bowls captured more bees than white (2.75x as many individuals) or yellow bowls (3.5x as many individuals); and yellow bowls captured more flies than white (2x as many individuals) or blue (2.3x as many individuals). To provide the most complete description of the community of insect pollinators using cornfields as a resource, we suggest sampling-using bee bowls at the height of the tassels using all three bee bowl colors. PMID:27459648

  7. Heat Stress Illness in a Mechanized Infantry Brigade During Simulated Combat at Fort Irwin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    exercise. There were fixed latrine, shower, and laundry facilities in the main post bivouac area (appropriately referred to as the " Dust Bowl " because of the...u•t Sick call Heat illness B &g Db W Cag Level 3 43 7 74 139 114 91 5 1 Dust bowl bivouac 4 58 10 69 108 94 79.3 1 1 5 52 2 69 132 98 84.5 2 1 6 54 4...82.1 2 Movement to contact 22 - - - Brigade force on force 23 - - - End of exercise move back to Dust Bowl *AAR: After Action Report ATLS Tent

  8. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. Chapter 4. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter). Volume 1. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-02

    a dust bowl as bad as during the wind swept era of the 1930s. At a recent Legislative hearing in Santa Fe, Air Force officials acknowledged the fact...wind erosion." (A0463-9-015) "This area is very delicate in nature and this project can cause a dust bowl condition that would equal that of the 1930s...not be around when Nevada/Utah become another sterile dust bowl ." (A0980-2-002) "Fugitive dust also presents many more problems than addressed. It

  9. Microfabrics and 3D grain shape of Gorleben rock salt: Constraints on deformation mechanisms and paleodifferential stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemeyer, Nicolas; Zulauf, Gernold; Mertineit, Michael; Linckens, Jolien; Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The Permian Knäuel- and Streifensalz formations (z2HS1 and z2HS2) are main constituents of the Gorleben salt dome (Northern Germany) and show different amounts and distributions of anhydrite. The reconstruction of 3D halite grain shape ellipsoids reveals small grain size (3.4 ± 0.6 mm) and heterogeneous grain shapes in both formations, the latter attributed to the polyphase deformation of the rock salt during diapirism. The halite microfabrics of both formations indicate that strain-induced grain boundary migration was active during deformation. Crystal plastic deformation of halite is further documented by lattice bending, subgrain formation and minor subgrain rotation. Evidence for pressure solution of halite has not been found, but cannot be excluded because of the small grain size, the lack of LPO and the low differential stress (1.1-1.3 MPa) as deduced from subgrain-size piezometry. Anhydrite has been deformed in the brittle-ductile regime by solution precipitation creep, minor dislocation creep and brittle boudinage. No continuous anhydrite layers are preserved, and halite has acted as a sealing matrix embedding the disrupted anhydrite fragments prohibiting any potential migration pathways for fluids. Thus, anhydrite should not have a negative effect on the barrier properties of the Gorleben rock salts investigated in this study.

  10. Lagoon and tidal flat sedimentation of the Upper Devonian Nisku Formation in southern Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Slingsby, A. ); Kissling, D.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Since 1985, 26 oil pools containing 64 million bbl of oil in place have been discovered in the Nisku Formation in southern Alberta. The thoroughly dolomitized Nisku Formation varies from 20 to 30 m thick in southern Alberta and northern Montana. It overlies anhydrites and shaly carbonates of the Southesk or Duperow formations and underlies anhydrites of the Stettler or Potlatch formation. Burrowed, nodular-bedded skeletal wackestone, deposited over a shallow marine shelf, forms the basal Nisku Formation. These strata are succedded diachronously and unconformably by several tidal-flat and lagoon facies that include (1) southeast-thinning washover fans of cross-bedded peloidal grainstone; (2) laminated mudstone to current-bedded peloidal and intraclastic grainstone sourced within the lagoon; (3) stromatolitic mudstones; (4) laminated anhydrite beds precipitated during salina episodes; (5) Amphipora and brachiopod wackestones and thrombolites containing Renalcis, serpulids, and ostracoes, marking a brief marine invasion; and (6) brackish or freshwater shale and mudstone containing fragmented lycopod leaves and antiarch fish remains. These sediments are overlain by cross-bedded, peloidal, and calcisiltite grainstone and stromatolitic mudstone deposited in tidal channels and over shoals. All facies have been subjected to periodic subareal exposure which has produced leaching, solution collapse brecciation, teepee structures, and nodular-mosaic and void-filling anhydrite. Permeable reservoirs exist where leached, dolomitized tidal flat and lagoon sediments contain intercrystalline and pelmoldic porosity and little anhydrite cement.

  11. Petrographic study of evaporite deformation near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Borns, D.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico contains about 1000 m of layered evaporites. Areas in the northern Delaware Basin, bordering the Capitan reef, have anomalous seismic reflection characteristics, such as loss in reflector continuity. Core from holes within this zone exhibits complex mesoscopic folds and extension structures. On a larger scale, anticlines and synclines are indicated by structure contours based on boreholes. The deformation is probably gravity-driven. Such a process is initiated by basin tilting during either a Mesozoic or Cenozoic period of uplift. Small-scale structures suggest that deformation was episodic with an early, syndepositional stage of isoclinal folding. Later, open-to-tight asymmetric folding is more penetrative and exhibits a sense of asymmetry opposite to that of the earlier isoclinal folding. The younger folds are associated with development of zonal crenulation cleavage and microboundinage of more competent carbonate layers. At the same time, halite beds developed dimensional fabrics and convolute folds in anhydrite stringers. Late-stage, near-vertical fractures formed in competent anhydrite layers. Microscopic textures exhibit rotated anhydrite porphyroblasts, stress shadow growth, and microboundinage. Except during late-stage deformation, anhydrite and halite recrystallized synkinematically. Drastic strength reduction in anhydrites through dynamic recrystallization occurs experimentally near 200/sup 0/C. However, evaporites of the WIPP site never experienced temperatures > 40/sup 0/C. Microscopic fabrics and P, T history of the evaporites suggest that pressure solution was the active mechanism during deformation of evaporites at the WIPP site.

  12. Characterization of diagenetically altered carbonate reservoirs, South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.; Ruppel, S.C.

    1996-12-31

    Much of the difficulty in constructing carbonate reservoir models for fluid-flow simulation results from diagenetic overprinting of depositional permeability patterns. In the South Cowden field, diagenetic effects result in (1) low porosity and permeability in the western and northern areas due to reduction of porosity by means of dolomitization and post-dolomitization compaction, (2) elimination of the petrophysical effects of depositional texture resulting from changes in particle size due to dolomitization, and (3) creation of a touching-vug pore system due to anhydrite dissolution. The extent of anhydrite alteration can be mapped to show three distinct diagenetic areas: those dominated by unaltered, altered, or dissolved anhydrite. Each alteration type has a unique acoustic-porosity transform that can be used to map the diagenetic areas and to calculate porosity when only acoustic logs are available. A single porosity-permeability transform characterizes the areas having unaltered and altered anhydrite, and the depositional stratigraphy is useful in constructing a reservoir model. A more favorable transform characterizes the area of dissolved anhydrite, and depositional stratigraphy is not useful in constructing a reservoir model because of the large effect of the diagenetic overprint.

  13. Influence of basement islands and ridges on Smackover Deposition, southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, A.L.

    1985-02-01

    Pre-Jurassic basement highs, composed of igneous and/or metamorphic rocks, have influenced the deposition of Jurassic Smackover sediments in Clarke, Monroe, Conecuh, and Escambia Counties, Alabama. These basement islands and ridges provided a structural fabric on which Smackover sediments were deposited. The following 3 basic structural settings illustrate the thickness variations and lithofacies distribution of Smackover sediments on the flanks and crests of these basement highs. Emergent features were never covered by Smackover seas, resulting in nondeposition of Smackover sediments over their crests. Flanking these features are finely crystalline and anhydritic dolomites capped by bedded nodular-mosaic anhydrite. The anhydrite grades upward into Haynesville continental sediments that also overlie the crests of these features. Semi-emergent features were above sea level for most of Smackover deposition. It was not until near the end of Smackover transgression that these islands and ridges were inundated. As the seas regressed, shoaling occurred on the flanks of these features depositing predominantly grain-supported limestones that were later dolomitized. The crests of these basement highs are covered by thin, low porosity, grain- and mud-supported dolomites capped by bedded nodular-mosaic to distorted mosaic anhydrite. Nonemergent features were submerged through most of Smackover deposition. This enables carbonates to accumulate as thick organic buildups and shoals over crestal portions of the basement highs. These thoroughly dolomitized and highly porous and permeable crestal sediments grade upward into nonporous, mud-supported dolomites capped by bedded nodular-mosaic anhydrite.

  14. Harmony field, Clarke County, Mississippi: a true stratigraphic trap

    SciTech Connect

    Lieber, R.B.; Carothers, M.C.

    1983-09-01

    Harmony field in Clarke County, Mississippi, has produced approximately 2 million bbl of oil since its discovery in 1968. Production has been from oolitic grainstones in the upper Jurasic Smackover Formation. The trappng mechanism at Harmony field is a complex stratigraphic trap. Porous oolitic grainstones pinch out updip into tight carbonates and anhydrite. Structure contour maps on top of the Smackover Formation indicate a low relief structural nose associated with the field. Additional structure maps contoured at the top of the Haynesville anhydrite, approximately 500 ft (150 m) above the top of the Smackover, reveal only regional southwesterly dip. An isopach map of the interval between the two structural markers shows a thinning of Haynesville section coincident with the field area. Evidence suggests, therefore, that the porous Smackover in Harmony field was deposited with depositional relief above the surrounding sediments. This relief had been completely masked by the time the Haynesville anhydrite was deposited. Stratigraphic and structural cross sections using the Haynesville anhydrite as datum indicate the Smackover in Harmony field consists of not one, but multiple, thin olitic zones which are productive in various portions of the field. These zones grade laterally as well as updip into nonporous anhydritic carbonates. The Smackover Formation is often considered to be a chronolithologic unit. In the Harmony field area it is a lithostratigraphic unit, i.e. a unit defined not by time but by a particular rock type, in this case a porous limestone.

  15. Depositional environments, lithofacies types, and reservoir development of the Permian Khuff Formation in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Jallal, I.A. )

    1991-08-01

    The Later Permian carbonates and evaporites of the Khuff Formation contain considerable amounts of gas in Ghawar field, eastern Saudi Arabia. Sedimentary structures, textures, and grain types were used to interpret the depositional environments and to define the different lithofacies types which determine the original reservoir face is distribution within this 1,500-ft-thick formation. There are three major depositional environments: subtidal, intertidal, and sabkha. Locally, these include shoals, belts, bars, bays, lagoons, ponds, tidal channels, sabkha. Locally, these include shoals, belts, bars, bays, lagoons, ponds, tidal channels, sabkha islands, and sabkha pans. Tidal flooding and storms are represented. These environments represent four major transgressive-regressive cycles, which conform to four Khuff units: Khuff A, B, C and D (from youngest to oldest). Transgressive phases (subtidal), with lithofacies of grainstones and horizontally burrowed mudstones usually comprise the reservoir facies. The regressive phases (intertidal and sabkha) with lithofacies of anhydritic mudstones and anhydrites, usually seal the Khuff reservoirs. Later disappearance of reservoir facies are due to deposition or diagenesis. Depositionally, the lateral change in facies may occur, for example, from a non-reservoir anhydrite and mudstone facies to a reservoir grainstone facies, or from a non-reservoir anhydritic mudstones to a reservoir burrowed-mudstone facies. Diagenetically, ooid grainstones may be greatly cemented by anhydrite. A combination of dolomitization and leaching may create intercrystalline porosity in mudstone. Leaching creates poorly connected moldic porosity in grainstones because the resulting calcite cement plugs the interparticle porosity.

  16. Testing and Modeling of a 3-MW Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation Codes (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    LaCava, W.; Guo, Y.; Van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Casanovas, C.; Cugat, C.

    2012-06-01

    This poster describes the NREL/Alstom Wind testing and model verification of the Alstom 3-MW wind turbine located at NREL's National Wind Technology Center. NREL,in collaboration with ALSTOM Wind, is studying a 3-MW wind turbine installed at the National Wind Technology Center(NWTC). The project analyzes the turbine design using a state-of-the-art simulation code validated with detailed test data. This poster describes the testing and the model validation effort, and provides conclusions about the performance of the unique drive train configuration used in this wind turbine. The 3-MW machine has been operating at the NWTC since March 2011, and drive train measurements will be collected through the spring of 2012. The NWTC testing site has particularly turbulent wind patterns that allow for the measurement of large transient loads and the resulting turbine response. This poster describes the 3-MW turbine test project, the instrumentation installed, and the load cases captured. The design of a reliable wind turbine drive train increasingly relies on the use of advanced simulation to predict structural responses in a varying wind field. This poster presents a fully coupled, aero-elastic and dynamic model of the wind turbine. It also shows the methodology used to validate the model, including the use of measured tower modes, model-to-model comparisons of the power curve, and mainshaft bending predictions for various load cases. The drivetrain is designed to only transmit torque to the gearbox, eliminating non-torque moments that are known to cause gear misalignment. Preliminary results show that the drivetrain is able to divert bending loads in extreme loading cases, and that a significantly smaller bending moment is induced on the mainshaft compared to a three-point mounting design.

  17. Easy Games for the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The following easy games for the German classroom are described: around Germany, map identifications, fast response, bingo, memory training, geography college bowl, find the object, descriptions, pronunciation perfection, acrostics, simple board games, art lesson, treasure hunt, and miscellaneous games. (SW)

  18. 32 CFR 705.17 - Participation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... character, and there is no reason to believe that the views to be expressed by the participants will be.... (r) Navy participation in professional sports events and post-season bowl games will frequently...

  19. 32 CFR 705.17 - Participation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... character, and there is no reason to believe that the views to be expressed by the participants will be.... (r) Navy participation in professional sports events and post-season bowl games will frequently...

  20. Pet Food Palatability Evaluation: A Review of Standard Assay Techniques and Interpretation of Results with a Primary Focus on Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Gregory C.; Koppel, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Palatability of pet foods is typically measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl test. While these tests give a general understanding of the liking or preference of one food over another, opportunities exist for further method development. Abstract The pet food industry continues to grow steadily as a result of new innovative products. Quality control and product development tests for pet foods are typically conducted through palatability testing with dogs and cats. Palatability is the measure of intake of a food that indicates acceptance or the measure of preference of one food over another. Pet food palatability is most commonly measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl assay. While these tests answer some questions about the animals’ perception of the food, there are many limitations as well. This review addresses some of these limitations and indicates opportunities for future research. PMID:26479136

  1. Add More Vegetables to Your Day: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... dish to add to any meal. Steam green beans, carrots, or broccoli in a bowl with a ... salad by using colorful vegetables such as black beans, sliced red bell peppers, shredded radishes, chopped red ...

  2. 78 FR 53783 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... cremation jar and one ceramic bowl, which served as a lid to the jar. On an unknown date, one cultural item... cremation vessel. On June 26, 2013, the Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian...

  3. 78 FR 27996 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... indicate the four items were removed from cremation burials, though the human remains are not present. The... cremation burial, although no specific burial is listed. The object is one ceramic bowl. In 1940, the...

  4. Numerical simulation of casting process to assist in defects reduction in complex steel tidal power component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, E. J.; Zhao, S. C.; Wang, L. P.; Wu, T.; Xin, B. P.; Tan, J. J.; Jia, H. L.

    2016-03-01

    In order to reduce defects and improve casting quality, ProCAST software is performed to study the solidification process of discharge bowl. Simulated results of original casting process show that the hot tearing is serious at the intersection of blades and outer or inner rings. The shrinkage porosity appears at the bottom of discharge bowl and the transition area of wall thickness. Based on the formation mechanisms of the defects, the structure of chills attached on the outer surface of discharge bowl casting is optimized. The thickness of chills ranges from 25mm to 35mm. The positions of chills corresponded to the outer surface of the T-shaped parts. Compared to the original casting design (without chills), the hot tearing and shrinkage porosity of the discharge bowl are greatly improved with addition of chills.

  5. 78 FR 6730 - Safety Zone; Woldenburg Park, Mississippi River, New Orleans, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    .... The Super Bowl is a large scale event that poses many public safety concerns due to the number of... large scale event that poses many public safety concerns due to the number of people that will...

  6. The Holidays Are Coming! Time to Start Planning for Healthy Holiday Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... puree 2 eggs, beaten 6-12 ounces semisweet chocolate chips Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Lightly grease ... at the bottom of the bowl. Add the chocolate chips and stir to combine. Divide the batter ...

  7. 76 FR 14068 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Sequoia National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ..., 2 pottery sherds, 1 steatite bead, 1 chopper, 1 thin chalcedony knife base with hafting adhesive attached, 1 large obsidian bifacial knife, 1 steatite bowl fragment, and 1 large grinding metate....

  8. 76 FR 13234 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    .... 75255 Cooper Standard Automotive, Bowling Green, OH..... 02/14/11 02/10/11. Inc. (Union). 75256 Cooper... Plant) (Union). 75268 Nestle Nutrition/Health St. Louis Park, MN.... 02/14/11 02/11/11. Care...

  9. Diaphragm

    MedlinePlus

    ... a dome-shaped bowl made of thin, flexible rubber that sits over the cervix. How Does It ... or baby oil. These substances can cause the rubber to become brittle and crack. Other vaginal creams, ...

  10. 5 CFR 532.221 - Industries included in regular nonappropriated fund surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Vending machine operators. 71391 Golf courses and country clubs. 71395 Bowling centers. 72111 Hotels (except casino hotels) and motels. 7221 Full-service restaurants. 7222 Limited-service eating places....

  11. 16 CFR 0.19 - The Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Island, Vermont, and Puerto Rico. Federal Trade Commission, One Bowling Green, Suite 318, New York, New... Building, 60 Forsyth Street, SW., Atlanta, Georgia 30303. (3) East Central Region (located in...

  12. 16 CFR 0.19 - The Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Island, Vermont, and Puerto Rico. Federal Trade Commission, One Bowling Green, Suite 318, New York, New... Building, 60 Forsyth Street, SW., Atlanta, Georgia 30303. (3) East Central Region (located in...

  13. 16 CFR 0.19 - The Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Island, Vermont, and Puerto Rico. Federal Trade Commission, One Bowling Green, Suite 318, New York, New... Building, 60 Forsyth Street, SW., Atlanta, Georgia 30303. (3) East Central Region (located in...

  14. 16 CFR 0.19 - The Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Island, Vermont, and Puerto Rico. Federal Trade Commission, One Bowling Green, Suite 318, New York, New... Building, 60 Forsyth Street, SW., Atlanta, Georgia 30303. (3) East Central Region (located in...

  15. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Who ... re getting enough. Breakfast: Have a bowl of hot oatmeal. Opt for whole-grain cereals that list ...

  16. Smoked Tobacco Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... of flavors. Hookahs originated in ancient Persia and India and have been used for centuries. A typical modern hookah has a head (with holes in the bottom), a metal body, a water bowl, and a flexible hose with a mouthpiece. ...

  17. 5 CFR 532.221 - Industries included in regular nonappropriated fund surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Vending machine operators. 71391 Golf courses and country clubs. 71395 Bowling centers. 72111 Hotels (except casino hotels) and motels. 7221 Full-service restaurants. 7222 Limited-service eating places....

  18. Keeping Portions Under Control (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that we don't bat an eye when restaurants offer us things like neverending pasta bowls, bottomless ... you can decide how much of those heaping restaurant portions your family should actually eat! Visual Cues ...

  19. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... For instance, a ½-cup serving of vanilla ice cream contains: 178 total calories 2 grams of protein ( ... choose a heaping bowl of cooked carrots over ice cream on a hot summer day? It all comes ...

  20. Snacks for adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... food snacks like chips, candy, cake, cookies, and ice cream. The best way to keep from eating junk ... fruit bowl. Store foods like cookies, chips, or ice cream where they are hard to see or reach. ...

  1. Epilepsy - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... activities include jogging, aerobics, moderate cross-country skiing, dancing, tennis, golf, hiking, and bowling. Games and playing ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 593. Read More Brain aneurysm repair Brain surgery Epilepsy - overview Seizures Stereotactic ...

  2. The Crossbyton project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, J. D.

    1980-05-01

    The Analog Design Verification System (ADVS), the largest single solar collector built, was tested. Referred to as the Solar Gridiron or Bowl Concept, it employs a stationary mirror, with tracking accomplished by the mirror.

  3. Giardia & Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... items (for example, bedding and cloth toys) and linens (sheets and towels) can be washed in the ... and food bowls, pet bedding, floors, dog crates, linens, towels, litter box, etc.) regularly for as long ...

  4. 75 FR 55274 - Change of Address for Region 5 State and Local Agencies; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ..., Hamilton, and Warren Counties; Director, Hamilton County Department of Environmental Services, 250 William..., Erie, Fulton, Hancock, Hardin, Henry, Huron, Marion, Mercer, Ottawa, Paulding, Putnam, Richland..., Bowling Green, Ohio 43402. (ix) Ashtabula, Caroll, Colombiana, Holmes, Lorain, and Wayne Counties;...

  5. Bathing a patient in bed

    MedlinePlus

    You will need: Large bowl of warm water Soap (regular or non-rinse soap) Two washcloths or sponges Dry towel Lotion Shaving ... skin, then gently apply a small amount of soap. Check with the patient to make sure you ...

  6. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... vomiting. Blood in your stool. You might notice bright red blood in the toilet bowl or darker ... slowly and secretes more acid. Stress can also speed or slow the passage of intestinal contents. It ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... parafibromin, cell proliferation is not properly regulated. Uncontrolled cell division can lead to the formation of tumors. It ... Newey PJ, Bowl MR, Cranston T, Thakker RV. Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog (CDC73) mutations in the ...

  8. 33 CFR 159.117 - Chemical resistance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sodium Chloride) flush water. (5) Toilet bowl cleaners. (6) Engine Oil (SAE/30). (7) Ethylene Glycol. (8) Detergents (household and bilge cleaning type). (c) A sample of the material must be doused 20 times, with...

  9. Solar thermal technology evaluation, fiscal year 1982. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Three primary solar concepts the central receiver, parabolic dish, and parabolic trough are investigated. To a lesser extent, the hemispherical bowl and salt-gradient solar pond are also being studied. Each technology is described.

  10. Students Use Xbox Kinect to Enhance Visualizations of Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    Students at NASA have found that dance battles and bowling aren't the only things you can do with Kinect videogame technology. Instead of linking Microsoft's Kinect to an Xbox, students in NASA's t...

  11. Libraries in Kentucky: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/kentucky.html Libraries in Kentucky To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Bowling Green WESTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY Dept. of Library Public Services/WKU Libraries 1906 College Heights Blvd # ...

  12. Integrated Distribution Management System for Alabama Principal Investigator

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, Joe

    2013-03-31

    Southern Company Services, under contract with the Department of Energy, along with Alabama Power, Alstom Grid (formerly AREVA T&D) and others moved the work product developed in the first phase of the Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) from “Proof of Concept” to true deployment through the activity described in this Final Report. This Project – Integrated Distribution Management Systems in Alabama – advanced earlier developed proof of concept activities into actual implementation and furthermore completed additional requirements to fully realize the benefits of an IDMS. These tasks include development and implementation of a Distribution System based Model that enables data access and enterprise application integration.

  13. Hydration state of calcium sulfates in Gale crater, Mars: Identification of bassanite veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapin, W.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Maurice, S.; Vaniman, D.; Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Schröder, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Wiens, R. C.; Martínez, G. M.; Cousin, A.; Sautter, V.; Lasue, J.; Rampe, E. B.; Archer, D.

    2016-10-01

    In-situ analyses reveal the presence of hydrogen within calcium sulfate veins crosscutting the sediments found in Gale crater. Laboratory experiments were performed to calibrate the hydrogen signal measured by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a range applicable to martian data. The analyses indicate that all veins targeted so far at Gale consist predominantly of bassanite which most likely formed by dehydration of gypsum. This scenario suggests that the percolating water produced gypsum, possibly by hydration of anhydrite in aqueous solution, and remained at temperatures below ∼60 °C at that time. Desiccating conditions followed, consistent with a hyperarid climate and favored by burial or impacts. Additionally, anhydrite with lesser bassanite has been found by XRD in samples of sediments hosting the veins. Our result suggests bassanite is likely found in the veins and anhydrite may be more common as a fine-grained component within the sediments.

  14. Reconstruction of congenital and acquired auricular scaphal deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Kontis, Theda C; Papel, Ira D

    2003-01-01

    Although complications from piercing of the helical rim are unusual, infections in this area after piercing can produce devastating changes in the cartilaginous framework. Scaphal height is also reduced in certain congenital pinna anomalies. We developed a method of scaphal reconstruction that uses a composite graft harvested from the ipsilateral conchal bowl. The conchal bowl defect is repaired with an ipsilateral full-thickness graft of postauricular skin. This technique restores scaphal height and helical contour with minimal donor site morbidity.

  15. Spondylolysis in fast bowlers: principles of prevention and a survey of awareness among cricket coaches.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, P A

    1992-01-01

    Back injury in general, and spondylolysis in particular, represents a serious threat to the fast bowler. Hereditary factors, poor technique, overuse, and poor preparation for fast bowling may combine to produce the 'at risk' bowler. Three first-class county coaches were interviewed to establish a level of awareness of the lesion, with an emphasis on preparation of fast bowlers and the roles of technique alteration and bowling prescription in reducing the risk of back injury. PMID:1490223

  16. Public-Private Ventures for Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Activities. A Solution to the Loss of Appropriated Funds. Volume 3. Appendix F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    snack bar prices, and pro shop merchandise. Such price flexibility should enable the Concessioner to provide a full-service operation and still remain...and local inspections for compliance with State and local codes, ordinances, and regulations. Examples include sanitation, food service, and hazardous...pricing for services and merchandise not related to bowling fees. This includes bowling lessons, snack bar prices, amusements, and pro shop merchandise

  17. Method and apparatus for energy efficient comminution

    SciTech Connect

    Karra, V.K.; Magerowski, A.J.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a method of crushing minerals by means of a cone crusher having a specified maximum head diameter and comprising a material inlet, a conical head of corresponding maximum head diameter, an annular inner bowl liner against which an annular outer mantle on the head crushes incoming material in a gyrating cycle, the bowl liner and mantle having a circumferential gap or cavity therebetween, the crusher having specified head throw and gyrating speed characteristics.

  18. Archaelogical Excavations of the Gardens and Interior Areas of Houses B and C of the Southeast Row Houses Fort Michilimackinac, Michigan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    DESCRIPTION 29 Prehistoric Artifacts 30 Modern Artifacts 30 Colonial Ceramics 30 White Kaolin, Micmac and Catlinite Smoking Pipes 32 Lead Shot 33...identification. White Kaolin, Micmac and Catlinite Pipes The Kaolin or ball clay smoking pipe sample consisted of 340 fragments. The majority of the...value of the formula. Thirteen fragments of Micmac pipe bowls were recovered. Three of these bowls were marked with striated lines. Two fragments of

  19. The Oldest Person You've Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.; Albanese, Judy; Dillon, Fred

    2014-01-01

    What better way to interest students in mathematics than using a Super Bowl® commercial? A Prudential® insurance commercial aired during the Super Bowl in 2013 was the impetus for this lesson (see it here on You-Tube™: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=IsNiKGMSHUQ). In the commercial, four hundred people were polled on "How Old Is the Oldest…

  20. Conjugate acene fused buckybowls: evaluating their suitability for p-type, ambipolar and n-type air stable organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Purushotham, Uppula; Sastry, G Narahari

    2013-04-14

    Elaborate and exhaustive first principles calculations were carried out to screen the novel properties of a series of acene fused buckybowls. The acene fused compounds exhibit hole transport property due to their higher electron injection and lower hole transport barrier relative to the work function potential of Au electrodes. The higher HOMO and lower LUMO energy levels suggest lower hole and electron injection barriers of F and CN substituted and boron doped bowls which indicates ambipolar property of these bowls. The dicyano substituted pentacene fused bowls show only electron transport property with lower LUMO (-4.26 eV to -4.27 eV) and higher HOMO (-5.56 eV to -5.90 eV) energy levels. High electron affinity (>2.80 eV) and low LUMO energy (< -4.00 eV) attributes air stability to these bowls. Curvature decreased frontier orbital energies and increased ionization energy and electron affinity of bowls. This study reveals substitution of electron withdrawing groups and boron doped acene fused bowls can be a prominent materials for ambipolar and electron transport organic semiconductors.

  1. Permeability Evolution and the Mechanisms of Porosity Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Gribbin, J. L.; Tivey, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding subsurface fluid flow is of critical importance to such geological and engineering applications as faulting mechanics, hydrothermal venting and resource recovery. Mechanical, chemical and thermal loads can significantly alter microscopic pore geometry and thus affect macroscopic permeability. Recently, we measured the permeability and porosity of massive anhydrite deposits recovered from various seafloor hydrothermal vent fields. Together, these deposits comprise anhydrite samples that have undergone different stages of formation. For anhydrite samples with porosities greater than 5%, the dependence of permeability to porosity change is best characterized by a power-law relationship with an exponent n~9. At porosities less than 5%, a much gentler trend of n~1 is observed. These permeability-porosity relationships (PPRs) in anhydrite deposits are in stark contrast to those of Fontainebleau sandstone, a quartz arenite with various degrees of quartz cementation. Fontainebleau sandstone shows a power-law dependence of PPR with an exponent of n~3 for samples with porosities greater than 7%, and a much steeper trend of n~8 at low porosities [Bourbie and Zinszner, 1985]. Microstructural analysis and numerical models suggest that the significant loss in pore connectivity below 7% is responsible for the steeper PPR trend in Fontainebleau sandstone [Zhu et al., 1995]. In anhydrite deposits, petrographic analyses show evidence for both dissolution and precipitation, consistent with the observed PPRs resulting from pore-size controlled solubility. Precipitation of anhydrite takes place preferentially in large pores within the anhydrite deposits, with precipitation limited in small pores, which is proposed to be due to the change in interfacial energy of the growing crystal (e.g., as described by Emmanuel and Ague [2009]). With abundant large voids in high porosity anhydrite samples, the growth of sulfates would result in a drastic loss of pore connectivity and

  2. The Role of Gas-Silicate Chemisorption Reactions in Modifying Planetary Crusts and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. L.; Henley, R. W.; Wykes, J. L.; Renggli, C.; Troitzsch, U.; Clark, D.; O'Neill, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for gas-solid reactions is found throughout the solar system: for example, sulfidation reactions in some meteorites and secondary phases coating lunar pyroclastic glasses. On Earth, the products of gas-solid reactions are documented in volcanic systems, metalliferous mineral deposits, impact craters, and on dust or meteorites after passage through the atmosphere - such reactions are also likely on the surfaces of Mars and Venus. To understand the chemical dynamics of such gas-solid reactions, we are undertaking systematic experiments and thermochemical modelling. Experiments were conducted in a vertical gas-mixing furnace at 600 - 800 °C and 1 bar, using SO2and a range of Ca-bearing materials: labradorite, feldspar glass and anorthosite (rock). In each case, anhydrite formed rapidly. In shorter experiments with labradorite, isolated anhydrite is observed surrounded by 'moats' of Ca-depleted silicate. In longer experiments, anhydrite is found as clusters of crystals that, in some cases, extend from the substrate forming precarious 'towers' (Figure). Anhydrite fills cracks in porous samples. We propose that the nucleation and rapid growth of anhydrite on the surface of these Ca-rich phases occurs by chemisorption of SO2(g) molecules with slightly negatively charged oxygen onto available near-surface calcium with slight positive charge. Anhydrite growth is sustained by SO2(g) chemisorption and Ca migration through the reacting silicate lattice, accelerated by increased bond lengths at high temperature. Significantly, the chemisorption reaction indicates that SO2 disproportionates to form both oxidized sulfur (as anhydrite) and a reduced sulfur species (e.g., an S* radical ion). On Earth, in the presence of H2O, the predominant reduced sulfur species is H2S, through an overall reaction: 3CaAl2Si2O8 + 4 SO2(g)+ H2O(g) → 3CaSO4 + 3Al2SiO5 + 3SiO2 + H2S(g)The reduced sulfur may react with gas phase Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu cluster compounds to form metal sulfides

  3. Managing Chemistry Underground: Is Co-Sequestration an Option in Selected Formations?

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Murphy, Ellyn M.

    2011-04-19

    Geochemical simulations indicate that, although co-injection of CO2 and SO2 in glauconitic sandstone may not result in the permanent sequestration of SO2, other formations are more favorable. In a predominantly dolomite formation, dissolution of calcite, and to a lesser extent, dolomite will provide Ca in solution to promote the precipitation of anhydrite, thus removing the SO2 from solution. In basalt, dissolution of basaltic glass under acidic conditions provides Ca and Fe in solution which promote the sequestration of SO2 as anhydrite and eventually, pyrite.

  4. The Zechstein sulphates: The state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, Rolf

    The origin and preservation of the features observed in the Zechstein sulphates exclusively depend on their diagenesis. The main factor of the diagenetic feature overprint is the cementation. It is controlled by the stability relations at the bottom of the basin. Different compensation-depth lines can be distinguished. The primary lithofeatures are preserved by the halite or anhydrite cementation. Thereby sedimentites may be recognised as inorganogenic or organogenic sedentites. By means of the gypsum cementation rocks are formed which are deformed during the diagenetic phase change from gypsum to anhydrite. The plastic deformation ranges from enterolites up to large folded blocks. Cementation which has been partial or which has not taken place favours total or differential compaction. During this process partial compactites (stratolites) and compactites (stratobolites) are produced. The breccia structures frequently occurring in the Zechstein anhydrites must be assigned to different processes. During the resedimentation they formed as intraclastites, during the progressive diagenesis as residual or collapse breccias. Completely new feature elements can be produced by retrograde gypsification. Compactites and cementites differ in their thickness in the ratio 1:4 to 1:5. The cementites are formed in shallow water at the margin of the basin and form there anhydrite platforms. Thin compactites are widely distributed in the basin facies. Because of the differential compaction between thick pletholites and thin stratolites in the Werra series, the facies distribution of the Stassfurt carbonate and the thickness of the halite are influenced as well. The giant breccias in the Upper Werra Anhydrite are interpreted as compaction or collapse breccias. Olisthostromes and, therefore, deep-water facies cannot be found in the Zechstein 1. Temporary drainage and differential compaction continue to take place in younger series and influence sedimentation there. Thus, the

  5. Fluid-Dacite Interaction in the PACMANUS Subseafloor Hydrothermal System - Preliminary Results From Secondary Mineral Chemistry and Geochemical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeats, C. J.; Bach, W.; Vanko, D. A.; Roberts, S.; Lackschewitz, K.; Paulick, H.

    2001-12-01

    During Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193, several holes (as deep as 386 meters below sea floor) intersected variably altered and veined dacites on Pual Ridge in the eastern Manus back-arc basin. The hydothermal alteration is complex and multi-stage, and includes pervasive alteration and alteration halos along anhydrite±pyrite±quartz veins. Our preliminary interpretation is that an early pervasive "chloritic" alteration (chlorite, chlorite/smectite, quartz, +/-albite, +/-magnetite) is overprinted locally by illite-pyrophyllite-anhydrite+/-diaspore alteration followed by silica (quartz and cristobalite) flooding. Two drill holes at Snowcap, a site of diffuse venting, reveal alteration profiles of strongly illite-pyrophyllite-anhydrite altered rocks in the shallow parts grading downwards into rocks that show dominant chloritic alteration. At Roman Ruins, a site of discrete venting, K-feldspar and illite-smectite mixed layer phases are abundant and magnetite is rare. K-feldspar appears to be part of the "chloritic" alteration assemblage. Anhydrite is locally abundant but generally less common than at Snowcap. There is a strong lateral heterogeneity in basement alteration as revealed by the differences between sites in the depths of cristobalite-quartz transition and the zones of prevailing alteration styles. Geochemical modeling suggests that the rocks have been altered at temperatures of about 250 to 300° C under variable fluid-to-rock ratios. While all the mineral assemblages are consistent with quartz/cristobalite saturation of the fluids, the formation of diaspore must be related to episodic interaction of the rocks with fluids highly undersaturated in quartz. The early stage of chloritic alteration represents interaction of the dacites with fluids of a fairly high pH ({>}4). In contrast, the occurrence of pyrophyllite and local diaspore suggests lower pH fluid ({<}3) during later hydrothermal stages. A zone of abundant alunite at 350 m deep in the basement at

  6. Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Guy Cerimele

    2011-09-30

    This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and/or discussions for: (1) DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, overall project & Phase I objectives, and the historical evolution of DOE and American Electric Power (AEP) sponsored projects leading to the current project; (2) Alstom's Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) carbon capture retrofit technology and the carbon storage and monitoring system; (3) AEP's retrofit approach in terms of plant operational and integration philosophy; (4) The process island equipment and balance of plant systems for the CAP technology; (5) The carbon storage system, addressing injection wells, monitoring wells, system monitoring and controls logic philosophy; (6) Overall project estimate that includes the overnight cost estimate, cost escalation for future year expenditures, and major project risks that factored into the development of the risk based contingency; and (7) AEP's decision to suspend further work on the project at the end of Phase I, notwithstanding its assessment that the Alstom CAP technology is ready for commercial demonstration at the intended scale.

  7. Feeder Voltage Regulation with High-Penetration PV Using Advanced Inverters and a Distribution Management System: A Duke Energy Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Palmintier, Bryan; Giraldez, Julieta; Gruchalla, Kenny; Gotseff, Peter; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Harris, Tom; Bugbee, Bruce; Baggu, Murali; Gantz, Jesse; Boardman, Ethan

    2016-11-01

    Duke Energy, Alstom Grid, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory teamed up to better understand the impacts of solar photovoltaics (PV) on distribution system operations. The core goal of the project is to compare the operational - specifically, voltage regulation - impacts of three classes of PV inverter operations: 1.) Active power only (Baseline); 2.) Local inverter control (e.g., PF...not equal...1, Q(V), etc.); and 3.) Integrated volt-VAR control (centralized through the distribution management system). These comparisons were made using multiple approaches, each of which represents an important research-and-development effort on its own: a) Quasi-steady-state time-series modeling for approximately 1 year of operations using the Alstom eTerra (DOTS) system as a simulation engine, augmented by Python scripting for scenario and time-series control and using external models for an advanced inverter; b) Power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing of a 500-kVA-class advanced inverter and traditional voltage regulating equipment. This PHIL testing used cosimulation to link full-scale feeder simulation using DOTS in real time to hardware testing; c) Advanced visualization to provide improved insights into time-series results and other PV operational impacts; and d) Cost-benefit analysis to compare the financial and business-model impacts of each integration approach.

  8. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department

  9. Origin and geometry of Red River Dolomite Reservoirs, Western Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.; Fertal, T.G.; Glennie, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Remarkably uniform distribution of limestone, laminated dolomite, and anhydrite as determined from compensated neutron-density logs suggests that the entire Ordovician Red River Formation of the central Williston Basin was deposited in subtidal ''brining-upward'' sequences. Study of cores and thin sections verifies this locally dolomitized fossiliferous wackestones and packstones, laminated to evenly bedded unfossiliferous mudstones (dolomitized in many wells), and bedded anhydrite. No evidence of subaerial exposure was observed in these rock units. Dolomitization in the Red River ''C'' zone is highly localized. An empirical study of dolomite distribution using data from well logs reveals the presence of dozens of pods of dolomite immediately beneath the ''C'' anhydrite. The pods are up to 200 ft (60 m) thick and 1 mi (1.6 km) in diameter and consist of concentered lenses of (1) tight (locally anhydritic) cryptocrystalline dolomite up to 40 ft (12.2 m) thick and 3,300 ft (1,000 m) in diameter, (2) fine to medium-grained porous dolomite that forms the reservoirs, and (3), still farther from the cryptocrystalline dolomite, relatively tight partly dolomitized limestones. could have been found through application of this model and others could be more efficiently developed.

  10. The application of high resolution X-ray computed tomography on naturally deformed rock salt: Multi-scale investigations of the structural inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemeyer, Nicolas; Habersetzer, Jörg; Peinl, Mark; Zulauf, Gernold; Hammer, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) represents a useful technique providing new perspectives and insights for the structural investigation of naturally-deformed rock salt. Several samples of Permian rock salt from Gorleben, Asse and Teutschenthal (Germany) were investigated by exploiting the non-destructive nature of μCT and nCT techniques particularly for salt rocks. CT imaging enabled the visualization and quantification of anhydrite impurities, pore space and fluid phases located along grain-boundaries or trapped as intracrystalline inclusions. Disseminated grains and aggregates of anhydrite in rock salt of the Gorleben salt dome have been visualized and quantified by μCT for the first time in order to portray their spatial occurrence. The visualization of anhydrite aggregates and pore space shows no correlation between their spatial distributions. This independence excludes the anhydrite to be responsible for elevated porosity (0.87 ± 0.07 vol.-%). High-resolution nCT scans (≤1 μm voxel size) of single intracrystalline and grain-boundary fluid inclusions from Gorleben and Asse rock salt allowed the visualization and quantification of their various phase components. A major achievement is the detailed description of the morphology and shape of the fluid inclusions and of their phase components, which has not been conducted in rock salt research by high-resolution X-ray CT imaging before.

  11. Guidelines for Coding and Entering Ground-Water Data into the Ground-Water Site Inventory Data Base, Version 4.6, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    OF COLUMBIA RIVER BASALT GROUP 122HMBF HAMMER BLUFF FORMATION 122HOH HOH FORMATION 122HWRD HOWARD ARKOSE 122IMNH IMNAHA BASALT OF COLUMBIA RIVER...Washington Code Rock Term Code Rock Term ALVM Alluvium LGNT Lignite ANDR Anhydrite LMSN Limestone ANRS Anorthosite LMDM Limestone and dolomite ARKS Arkose

  12. Phase transformations and indications for acoustic mode softening in Tb-Gd orthophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Tschauner, Oliver; Ushakov, Sergey V.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Boatner, Lynn A.

    2016-01-06

    At ambient conditions the anhydrous rare-earth orthophosphates assume either the xenotime (zircon) or the monazite structure, with the latter favored for the heavier rare earths. Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 assumes the xenotime structure at ambient conditions but is at the border between the xenotime and monazite structures. Here we show that, at high pressure, Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 does not transform directly to monazite but through an intermediate anhydrite-type structure. We show softening of (c1133 + c1313) combined elastic moduli close to the transition from the anhydrite to the monazite structure. Stress response of rare-earth orthophosphate ceramics can be affected by both formation of the anhydrite-type phase and the elastic softening in the vicinity of the monazite-phase. In conclusion, we report the first structural data for an anhydrite-type rare earth orthophosphate.

  13. Automation of the Technological Process to Produce Building Frame-Monolithic Modules Based on Fluoranhydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorchuk, J.; Sadenova, M.; Rusina, O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper first proposes the automation of the technological process to produce building frame-monolithic modules from production wastes, namely technogenic anhydrite and fluoranhydrite. A functional diagram of the process automation is developed, the devices to perform control and maintenance with account of the production characteristics are chosen.

  14. Phase transformations and indications for acoustic mode softening in Tb-Gd orthophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschauner, O.; Ushakov, S. V.; Navrotsky, A.; Boatner, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    At ambient conditions the anhydrous rare earth orthophosphates assume either the xenotime (zircon) or the monazite structure, with the latter favored for the heavier rare earths and by increasing pressure. Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 assumes the xenotime structure at ambient conditions but is at the border between the xenotime and monazite structures. Here we show that, at high pressure, Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 does not transform directly to monazite but through an intermediate anhydrite-type structure. Axial deformation of the unit cell near the anhydrite- to monazite-type transition indicates softening of the (c1133  +  c1313) combined elastic moduli. Stress response of rare-earth orthophosphate ceramics can be affected by both formation of the anhydrite-type phase and the elastic softening in the vicinity of the monazite-phase. We report the first structural data for an anhydrite-type rare earth orthophosphate.

  15. Geologic Setting of Mosul Dam and Its Engineering Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    thought that an increase in vol- ume, produced during alteration of interbedded anhydrite to gypsum, generated sufficient pressure to fracture the...construction.. ..................................................................23 Figure 8. Geologic sections with water- pressure test values and...contains fragments or clasts of limestone, dolomite , or larger pieces of insoluble rocks of collapsed material. The upper portion of the accumulation

  16. Danburite in evaporites of the Paradox basin, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raup, O.B.; Madsen, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Danburite (CaB2Si2O8) has been found as nodules in Pennsylvanian age marine evaporites. The occurrence of danburite and its relation to the host rock in the Paradox basin evaporites indicates that it most likely formed by diagenetic reaction of boron-rich, high-salinity brines with constituents in the anhydrite host rock.-from Authors

  17. Evidence for deep-water evaporite deposition in the Miocene Kareem Formation, Gemsa basin, eastern Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    May, J.A.; Stonecipher, S.A.; Steinmetz, J.C. ); Dyess, J.N. )

    1991-03-01

    The correct interpretation of intercalated Miocene siliciclastics and evaporites of Gemsa basin is crucial for understanding early rift tectonics of the Gulf of Suez, pinpointing the timing of isolation of the Gulf from the Mediterranean, and developing exploration plays. Evaporites of the Kareem Formation comprise celestites and massive, 'chicken-wire,' and laminated anhydrites. Although previously interpreted as sabkha deposits; sedimentologic, petrographic, and paleontologic analyses indicate these evaporites more likely formed in a submarine setting. Marls that encase the evaporites contain a diverse and abundant assemblage of nannoplankton, planktonic foraminifera, diatoms, pteropods, and fish scales indicative of basinal deposition. Associated turbidites also denote deep-water sedimentation. The paucity of benthic diatoms and foraminifera, plus the presence of unburrowed shales, phosphate nodules, early ferroan carbonate cements, and authigenic pyrite, suggest periodic anoxic, or at least disaerobic, bottom waters. These sequences probably represent partial isolation of the Gulf of Suez by middle Miocene, producing periodic basin restriction and evaporative drawdown. Episodes of increasing salinity likely caused the progressive decreases in foram abundance and diversity in marls beneath the anhydrites, culminating in subaqueous evaporite formation. Diverse, indigenous nannoplankton assemblages from shale seams within the anhydrites suggest Gemsa basin was stratified; shallow open-marine conditions coexisted with anhydrite crystallization from deeper hypersaline waters.

  18. A Summary of Selected Data: DSDP Legs 1-19,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Selected Saturated Bulk Density, Grain Density Samples of Gabbro , Schist, Limestone, and Porosity of Sediment Cores from the Anhydrite, Gypsum and Halite...Physical Properties of Basalts, pt. 6, Chap. 46, p. 547, 1974. Gabbros , and Ultramafic Rocks from DSDP Leg 37, R. D. Hyndman and M. J. Drury, Physical

  19. The Chicxulub crater - impact metamorphism of sulfate and carbonate lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, A.; Langenhorst, F.; Hornemann, U.; Ivanov, B. A.

    2003-04-01

    It is discussed whether in the aftermath of the Chicxulub event, impact-released CO_2 and SO_x have changed the Earth's climate, acting also as lethal thread for life. Undoubtedly, vaporization of carbonates and sulfates, which are major target lithologies at the Chicxulub impact site, occurred in the footprint of the projectile. What happened to these lithologies outside this very restricted zone was so far unconstrained. Petrologic observations on PEMEX and UNAM as well as on the CSDP cores allow to set up a general classification for shock-related pro-grade effects on sulfate and carbonate sedimentary rocks. Shock effects in lithic breccias are restricted to brecciation and formation of twins in calcite. Suevites mostly lack melted carbonate clasts; annealing effects in anhydrite fragments are absent. The underlying melt breccias contain anhydrite fragments still displaying a sedimentary texture, and limestone clasts, whose texture reflect crystallization from melt. Impact melt breccias from deeper levels frequently contain partially resorbed anhydrite clasts and a melt matrix with the Ca-rich mineral assemblage quartz + plagioclase + clinopyroxene; this mineral assemblage provides evidence for partial dissociation of CaSO_4. Large clasts of anhydrite consist of equant crystals with 120^o triple junctions, a feature indicative for re-crystallization in the solid state. Tagamites (impact melt rocks) are virtually free of clasts from sedimentary lithologies. These rocks have an extremely high formation temperature, which caused total dissociation of CaSO_4 and CaCO_3. Finally, up to 100 μm wide veins of anhydrite + calcite + quartz cut the matrix of all lithologies except the tagamites. They probably represent "degassing vents". The given scheme is in qualitative accordance with data of shock recovery and annealing experiments as well as with modeling results. In addition, it substantiates that annealing plays a fundamental role in the impact metamorphism of

  20. Intracrystalline porosity - a newly discovered pore type in dolostone reservoirs and implications for dedolomitization and pseudospiculites

    SciTech Connect

    Jacka, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Intracrystalline porosity consists of hollow dolomite crystals. It forms when anhydrite, which had replaced cores of dolomite crystals, was dissolved. Significant volumes of intracrystalline porosity have been preserved in subsurface Permian dolostones of the Permian basin and in outcrops of Lower Cretaceous dolostones of Texas. Anhydrite can be seen replacing organic-rich cores of dolomite crystals in Permian and Jurassic (Smackover) dolostones. Dolomite crystals, which replace original carbonate, commonly appear cloudy because of organic inclusions. After dolomitization, continued flux of the dolomitizing fluid caused precipitation of clear rims on the ''cloudy'' crystals. Anhydrite tends to replace the organic-rich cores, leaving the clear epitaxial rims to form ''pill box'' structures. When anhydrite was dissolved, many hollow dolomite crystals collapsed and fragments became transported as vadose internal sediment. Obtuse and acute angles of these hollow dolomite rims superficially resemble sponge spicules, and pseudospiculites are layers of vadose internal sediment in which numerous fragments of hollow dolomite rims have been deposited in solution channels. Hollow dolomite crystals and pseudospiculites constitute evidence for disconformity and also represent subtle indications of vanished sulfates. In many instances, calcite cement was precipitated within intracrystalline pores and is misinterpreted as partial dedolomitization. Such calcite cement can be distinguished from dedolomite, because the calcite is not syntaxial with dolomite rims, as it would be in dedolomitization. In some Permian dolostone intervals, intracrystalline porosity is predominant pore type. Molds formed by dissolution of replacement porphyroblasts and nodules of anhydrite also commonly were formed along with intracrystalline pores and all represent tertiary (third order) voids.

  1. The topography of impact craters in 'softened' terrain on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankowski, David G.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    The technique of photoclinometry is applied here to Viking orbiter images of Mars in order to derive topographic profiles across Martian craters on both softened and unsoftened terrain. The results demonstrate that craters on the two kinds of terrain are in fact topographically distinct. Both simple and complex softened craters are characterized by more convex-upward crater walls than are unsoftened craters, and both simple and complex softened craters have rounder crater rims. Softened complex craters have modestly smaller crater depths than unsoftened complex craters. Both the rim heights and bowl depths are reduced, with the rim heights reduced more. Softened simple craters have much smaller crater depths than unsoftened simple craters. Both the rim heights and bowl depths are reduced, with the bowl depths reduced more.

  2. Dissipative particle dynamics simulations on self-assembly of rod-coil-rod triblock copolymers in a rod-selective solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-Hua; Fan, Zhong-Xiang; Ma, Ze-Xin

    2013-08-01

    Self-assembly of rod-coil-rod ABA triblock copolymers in a rod-selective solvent is investigated by using dissipative particle dynamics simulations. The morphologies of the self-assembled aggregates are dependent on the number of copolymers in the aggregate and the rod length of the copolymer. We observe vesicles at short rod block and bowl-like aggregates at slightly longer rod block. In the vesicle region near the phase boundary, metastable bowl-like aggregates can be observed and be transformed into vesicles by annealing process. A transition from the bowl-like structure to the vesicle is observed by increasing the solvophobicity of the mid-coil block. In this study, the difference between the self-assembly of fully flexible ABA triblock copolymer and that of rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer is also discussed.

  3. Following human pointing: Where do dogs (Canis familiaris) look at to find food?

    PubMed

    Carballo, Fabricio; Freidin, Esteban; Casanave, Emma; Bentosela, Mariana

    2016-07-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are notably skillful in following cues from people (e.g., pointing gestures). However, not much is known about the processing of information available during such tasks. We here focus on one of the earliest of such processes, namely attention. The goal of the present work was to describe variations in dogs' attention towards diverse targets while they solve an object choice task with human pointing. The direction of subjects' gaze was measured in the period comprising one second before and two seconds after the experimenter called the dog and simultaneously performed a static distal pointing gesture towards the correct bowl. We did two consecutive training phases: acquisition and extinction. Dogs spent more time watching the pointer than the pointing gesture itself and the correct than the incorrect bowl. Indeed, the time spent watching the correct bowl was the best predictor of correct choices across phases. We discuss the relevance of these findings for the process of local enhancement.

  4. Enhancement of lettuce yield by manipulation of light and nitrogen nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, S. L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Several levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) were tested for effects on growth of 4 cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under controlled-environment conditions. Growth of 'Salad Bowl', 'Bibb', and 'Ruby' was greater at 932 micromoles s-1 m-2 than at < or = 644 micromoles s-1 m-2 under a 16-hour photoperiod. Thirty mM NO3- or 5 mM NH4+ + 25 mM NO3- increased leaf dry weight while reducing leaf chlorosis in 'Salad Bowl' and 'Grand Rapids' relative to that with 15 mM NO3-, and reduced leaf purpling in 'Bibb' and 'Ruby' with little or no effect on yield. Continuous illumination with 455 or 918 micromoles s-1 m-2 stimulated yield of 'Salad Bowl' and 'Bibb' when 30 mM N as NH4+ + NO3- was used relative to that with 15 mM NO3-.

  5. Two wheeled lunar dumptruck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brus, Michael R.; Haleblain, Ray; Hernandez, Tomas L.; Jensen, Paul E.; Kraynick, Ronald L.; Langley, Stan J.; Shuman, Alan G.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a two wheel bulk material transport vehicle is described in detail. The design consists of a modified cylindrical bowl, two independently controlled direct drive motors, and two deformable wheels. The bowl has a carrying capacity of 2.8 m (100 ft) and is constructed of aluminum. The low speed, high HP motors are directly connected to the wheels, thus yielding only two moving parts. The wheels, specifically designed for lunar applications, utilize the chevron tread pattern for optimum traction. The vehicle is maneuvered by varying the relative angular velocities of the wheels. The bulk material being transported is unloaded by utilizing the motors to oscillate the bowl back and forth to a height at which dumping is achieved. The analytical models were tested using a scaled prototype of the lunar transport vehicle. The experimental data correlated well with theoretical predictions. Thus, the design established provides a feasible alternative for the handling of bulk material on the moon.

  6. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  7. FINAL SIMULATION RESULTS FOR DEMONSTRATION CASE 1 AND 2

    SciTech Connect

    David Sloan; Woodrow Fiveland

    2003-10-15

    The goal of this DOE Vision-21 project work scope was to develop an integrated suite of software tools that could be used to simulate and visualize advanced plant concepts. Existing process simulation software did not meet the DOE's objective of ''virtual simulation'' which was needed to evaluate complex cycles. The overall intent of the DOE was to improve predictive tools for cycle analysis, and to improve the component models that are used in turn to simulate equipment in the cycle. Advanced component models are available; however, a generic coupling capability that would link the advanced component models to the cycle simulation software remained to be developed. In the current project, the coupling of the cycle analysis and cycle component simulation software was based on an existing suite of programs. The challenge was to develop a general-purpose software and communications link between the cycle analysis software Aspen Plus{reg_sign} (marketed by Aspen Technology, Inc.), and specialized component modeling packages, as exemplified by industrial proprietary codes (utilized by ALSTOM Power Inc.) and the FLUENT{reg_sign} computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (provided by Fluent Inc). A software interface and controller, based on an open CAPE-OPEN standard, has been developed and extensively tested. Various test runs and demonstration cases have been utilized to confirm the viability and reliability of the software. ALSTOM Power was tasked with the responsibility to select and run two demonstration cases to test the software--(1) a conventional steam cycle (designated as Demonstration Case 1), and (2) a combined cycle test case (designated as Demonstration Case 2). Demonstration Case 1 is a 30 MWe coal-fired power plant for municipal electricity generation, while Demonstration Case 2 is a 270 MWe, natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant. Sufficient data was available from the operation of both power plants to complete the cycle configurations. Three runs

  8. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and

  9. Formation of dense structures induced by filament collisions. Correlation of density, kinematics, and magnetic field in the Pipe nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Alves, F. O.; Franco, G. A. P.; Onishi, T.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The Pipe nebula is a molecular cloud that lacks star formation feedback and has a relatively simple morphology and velocity structure. This makes it an ideal target for testing cloud evolution through collisions. Aims: We aim at drawing a comprehensive picture of this relatively simple cloud to better understand the formation and evolution of molecular clouds on large scales. Methods: We use archival data to compare the optical polarization properties, the visual extinction, and the 13CO velocities and linewidths of the entire cloud in order to identify trends among the observables. Results: The Pipe nebula can be roughly divided into two filaments with different orientations and gas velocity ranges: E-W at 2-4 km s-1 and N-S at 6-7 km s-1. The two filaments overlap at the bowl, where the gas shows a velocity gradient spanning from 2 to 7 km s-1. Compared to the rest of the Pipe nebula, the bowl gas appears to be denser and exhibits larger linewidths. In addition, the polarization data at the bowl shows lower angular dispersion and higher polarization degree. Cores in the bowl tend to cluster in space and to follow the 13CO velocity gradient. In the stem, cores tend to cluster in regions with properties similar to those of the bowl. Conclusions: The velocity pattern points to a collision between the filaments in the bowl region. The magnetic field seems to be compressed and strengthened in the shocked region. The proportional increase in density and magnetic field strength by a factor similar to the Alfvénic Mach number suggests a continuous shock at low Alfvénic Mach number under the flux-freezing condition. Shocked regions seem to enhance the formation and clustering of dense cores. A movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Gas centrifuge purge method

    DOEpatents

    Theurich, Gordon R.

    1976-01-01

    1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.

  11. 'Blueberry' Triplets Born in Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic image, taken at the outcrop region dubbed 'Berry Bowl' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, shows the sphere-like grains or 'blueberries' that fill Berry Bowl. Of particular interest is the blueberry triplet, which indicates that these geologic features grew in pre-existing wet sediments. Other sphere-like grains that form in the air, such as impact spherules or ejected volcanic material called lapilli, are unlikely to fuse along a line and form triplets. This image was taken by the rover's microscopic imager on the 46th martian day, or sol, of its mission.

  12. Pet Food Palatability Evaluation: A Review of Standard Assay Techniques and Interpretation of Results with a Primary Focus on Limitations.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Gregory C; Koppel, Kadri

    2015-01-16

    The pet food industry continues to grow steadily as a result of new innovative products. Quality control and product development tests for pet foods are typically conducted through palatability testing with dogs and cats. Palatability is the measure of intake of a food that indicates acceptance or the measure of preference of one food over another. Pet food palatability is most commonly measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl assay. While these tests answer some questions about the animals' perception of the food, there are many limitations as well. This review addresses some of these limitations and indicates opportunities for future research.

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of Expedient Low-Temperature Concrete Admixtures for Repairing Blast Holes in Cold Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-08

    ERDC/CRREL TR-13-1 7 entire solution was cooled to testing temperature (0, −5, or −10°C). The cement was placed into a dry mixing bowl . The mixer...was turned on at low speed and water solution was added. Mixing duration was for 30 seconds. The mixer was stopped, the sides of the bowl were scraped...control dust at construction sites and on some unpaved roads. As an accelerating admixture in concrete, you can use between 1 and 2% of calcium chloride

  14. Changing surface hydro- and oleophobicity with resorcinarene multilayers-a simple water/oil proofing process.

    PubMed

    Davis, Frank; Frary, Elaine; Stirling, Charles J M

    2004-10-12

    Resorcinarenes (resorcinol-aldehyde tetramers) of appropriate structures have been shown to change the hydro- and oleophilicities of a variety of surfaces. The phenomenon results from attachment of the rim of the bowl-like molecules to hydrophilic surfaces. Hydrophobic (alkyl) and oleophobic (perfluoro alkyl) "legs" attached to the bowls then determine the immediate surface property. Amounts required to modify surfaces are only between 2 and 10 mg m(-2) treated, and there is evidence of multilayer formation. Penetration of surfaces by a variety of liquids has been studied and cannot easily be understood as a function of density, viscosity, or surface tension.

  15. U.S. Southern Command Government Purchase Card Controls Need Improvement to Prevent Improper Purchases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-19

    did not remove requirements discussed in this report. 3 For the purposes of this report, A/OPC refers to the level 4 A/OPC. 4 The listing of A/OPC...Information Technology ] requirements by using CHESS contracts and DOD Enterprise Software Initiative agreements first, regardless of dollar value. Any... Plaques , Ka-Bar Display Plaque (Wooden) 3 42.95 128.85 227 Bowl – Shirley Pewter – Fruit – Large 2 140.00 280.00 260 Bowl – Lenox Butterfly 2 45.00

  16. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  17. Copperhead Alternate Manufacturing Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    TUCNIDLODY INC Fiue2.Pooyp ocaMd n is o]St 𔃾 TRWwc. MATERIALS TECNOLOGY r.NC. ,, , , I , ,- , I ~TRI ,c. .4 Figure 22. Prototype Gotcha from Larger Bag. 43...length and, if the flange-body Junction is too thin .(Indeed, even if it meets blueprint dimensions), the flange Is pushed away from * the body and...bolt into top of bowl mandrel and extract bowl mandrel from compact. 9. Support base of compact on 4" OD x 2 inch ID ejection block and push the lower

  18. Process for selective grinding of coal

    DOEpatents

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  19. Diagnosis of the heating effect on the electrical resistivity of Ouargla (Algeria) dunes sand using XRD patterns and FTIR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechri, Mohammed Laïd; Chihi, Smaïl; Mahdadi, Naouia; Beddiaf, Samiha

    2017-01-01

    XRD patterns and FTIR spectra have shown that dunes sand of Ouargla's region, in its natural state, is formed of a high percentage of quartz, gypsum and very low percentage of kaolinite and hematite, in addition to some organic compounds. The electrical resistivity of the natural sand has been measured, it was 6 × 1014 Ω cm. Six samples of the sand were heated separately at 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 °C. The XRD patterns and FTIR spectra of these samples were carried out. On the other hand, the electrical resistivities of these samples have been measured. The change of the electrical resistivity with heat shows a nonlinear behavior. The heated sample of sand at 200 °C has lost some water. Most of the gypsum in the 200 °C heated sample has transformed into anhydrite, and the rest has transformed into bassanite, and its electrical resistivity has fallen down to 3.5 × 1014 Ω cm. By heating at 400 °C, the gypsum has lost all its water and it has transformed entirely to anhydrite, and its electrical resistivity became 6.75 × 1012 Ω cm, it has the lowest measured resistivity. At 600 °C and 800 °C, in addition to anhydrite, the kaolinite transformed to meta-kaolin due to the continuous breaking of OH bond and formation of water vapor, and the electrical resistivity increased to (1.5-1.9) × 1014 Ω cm. Heating at 1000 °C leads to the initiation of the interaction between anhydrite and quartz, the wollastonite appears, and the meta-kaolin transforms to aluminum-silicon and cristobalite. The wollastonite is a good electrical insulator. It raises the electrical resistivity of sand to 2.6 × 1014 Ω cm. The heating at 1200 °C makes all anhydrite to interact with quartz due to the increasing of volume of wollastonite, the anhydrite disappears completely, the quartz transforms into cristobalite. The cristobalite increases due to the dissociation of aluminium-silicon into mullite and cristobalite, as well as the transformation of quartz into cristobalite at

  20. Small-Scale Mechanical Behavior of Evaporite Caprocks and Implications for CO2 Sealing Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszny, A.; Lang, P. S.; Abbott, S. S.; John, C. M.; Fraser, A.; Zimmerman, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical deformation of an evaporite caprock with field-mapped meter-scale heterogeneities is modeled numerically. Evaporite caprocks can provide important barriers to CO2 migration. However, lithologic variability could alter caprock quality, reducing CO2 storage efficiency. Caprock deformation is driven by stresses induced by reservoir depletion and subsequent re-inflation. A method to consistently upscale the elastic properties of the caprock from a given two-dimensional geological map of the caprock is proposed. To assess the uncertainties associated with this homogenization approach, we present stress/strain patterns of finite-element models at the meter-scale, based on detailed high-resolution maps of exposures of evaporite successions at a subsurface outcrop. A case study of evaporite caprock is considered; specifically, a sequence of anhydrite in the Upper Jurassic Purbeck Beds, Weald basin, UK. Mechanical perturbations induced by CO2 injection are quantified using a mapped geometric model of the evaporite caprock containing meter-scale sedimentological heterogeneities, represented down to a cut-off size of five centimeters in the direction of maximum extension. The stratigraphic interval in the Purbeck Beds comprises a basal unit of gypsum and three rhythmic carbonate-anhydrite couplets. The mapped model is mirrored to the left and right to form a 15mx2.3m detailed geometric model of the sequence, subjected to tensile deformation. The thirteen mechanical layers include nodular anhydrite, algal limestone, shale, mudstone, satin spar veins, carbonate mud with anhydrite, and nodular gypsum. The central fine-grained carbonate mud layer is populated by hard anhydrite nodules, implicitly modeled as variations of the local Young's modulus at a sub-mesh level, assumed to vary in density as a function of height. When applying tension to the detailed model, stress concentrations develop at material boundaries, and localize in the shale layers. Stress