Science.gov

Sample records for anhydrit alstom bowl

  1. Bowling!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane

    1989-01-01

    Beginners and advanced bowlers should understand the importance of basic principles of motion in developing an effective and competitive game. This article presents important mechanical principles of bowling, along with their applications. Topics include body balance and motion, transfer of momentum and creating force, and ball direction and pin…

  2. Basketball Bowling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabile, Chris; Cooper, Michael; Petrie, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Basketball bowling was developed after students in the authors' physical education class participated in a bowling unit sponsored through Bowl America. Basketball bowling is a lead-up activity for elementary-age students that incorporates basic skills from basketball and bowling. The general object of this activity is to be the first team to roll…

  3. Basketball Bowling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabile, Chris; Cooper, Michael; Petrie, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Basketball bowling was developed after students in the authors' physical education class participated in a bowling unit sponsored through Bowl America. Basketball bowling is a lead-up activity for elementary-age students that incorporates basic skills from basketball and bowling. The general object of this activity is to be the first team to roll…

  4. Mars Bowling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    More than 140 fourth and fifth graders from Kraft Elementary School in Hampton learned how Newton's laws of motion apply to bowling and the Mars Curiosity rover during "The Science of Bowling," an ...

  5. Partially decentralized control for ALSTOM gasifier.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen; Lou, Guannan; Liang, Luping

    2011-07-01

    The gasifier plays a key role in the operation of the whole IGCC power plant. It is a typical multivariable control system with strict constraints on the inputs and outputs which makes it very difficult to control. This paper presents a partially decentralized controller design method based on the stabilizer idea. The method only requires identifying some closed-loop transfer functions and solving an H(∞) optimization problem. The final partially decentralized controller is easy to implement and test in practice. Two partially decentralized controllers are designed for the ALSTOM gasifier benchmark problem, and simulation results show that they both meet the design specifications.

  6. Ocean bowling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Coach Scott Carpenter, a biology teacher at Lexington High School in Massachusetts, says that “some [students] want to show that they can win on a football field, and some want to show that they know science better than anyone else.”His team of four sophomores and one senior proved their mettle when they won the 1998 National Ocean Science Bowl on April 27.

  7. Alstom 3-MW Wind Turbine Installed at NWTC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    The 3-MW Alstom wind turbine was installed at NREL's NWTC in October 2010. Test data will be used to validate advanced turbine design and analysis tools. NREL signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Alstom in 2010 to conduct certification testing on the company's 3-MW ECO 100 wind turbine and to validate models of Alstom's unique drivetrain concept. The turbine was installed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in October 2010 and engineers began certification testing in 2011. Tests to be conducted by NREL include a power quality test to finalize the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) requirements for type certification of the 60-Hz unit. The successful outcome of this test will enable Alstom to begin commercial production of ECO 100 in the United States. NREL also will obtain additional measurements of power performance, acoustic noise, and system frequency to complement the 50 Hz results previously completed in Europe. After NREL completes the certification testing on the ECO 100, it will conduct long-term testing to validate gearbox performance to gain a better understanding of the machine's unique ALSTOM PURE TORQUE{trademark} drivetrain concept. In conventional wind turbines, the rotor is supported by the shaft-bearing gearbox assembly. Rotor loads are partially transmitted to the gearbox and may reduce gearbox reliability. In the ALSTOM PURE TORQUE concept, the rotor is supported by a cast frame running through the hub, which transfers bending loads directly to the tower. Torque is transmitted to the shaft through an elastic coupling at the front of the hub. According to Alstom, this system will increase wind turbine reliability and reduce operation and maintenance costs by isolating the gearbox from rotor loads. Gearbox reliability has challenged the wind energy industry for more than two decades. Gearbox failures require expensive and time-consuming replacement, significantly increasing the cost of wind plant

  8. Bowls for the Hungry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Nate

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how to make soup bowls as a class project. The slab method is used to construct the soup bowls, but bowls could just as easily be made on the potter's wheel for advanced students, using the pinch method with beginners, or with the coil method for intermediate students. Found objects from around a garage or…

  9. The Tibetan singing bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John; Terwagne, Denis

    2010-11-01

    Tibetan singing bowls have been used for centuries for healing, meditation and shamanic journeying. The bowls are partially filled with water, then excited by either striking or rubbing the walls of the bowl with a mallet. A wealth of curious fluid mechanical phenomena arise, and will be elucidated in our combined experimental and theoretical investigation.

  10. Bowls for the Hungry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Nate

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how to make soup bowls as a class project. The slab method is used to construct the soup bowls, but bowls could just as easily be made on the potter's wheel for advanced students, using the pinch method with beginners, or with the coil method for intermediate students. Found objects from around a garage or…

  11. A molecular bowl sumanene.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Toru; Hirao, Toshikazu

    2011-10-14

    Nonplanar polyaromatic carbon molecules including fullerenes and carbon nanotubes have been attracting great interest due to their potential as materials, catalysts, etc. In this context, bowl-shaped polyaromatic hydrocarbons (π bowls) are considered to be key materials in the science of nonplanar π-conjugated carbon systems. Among π bowls, we focused on a molecular bowl "sumanene (C(21)H(12))" featuring a C(3v) symmetric structural motif present in fullerenes or carbon nanotube molecules. In this article, we present the research on sumanenes to date, including their synthesis, structural characterization, derivatization, complexation, and their potential uses as electrical materials. The characteristic structural feature of a sumanene depends on three sp(3) hybridized carbon atoms at the benzylic positions. Facile functionalization via selective formation of benzylic anions gives stereoselective substituted compounds, the π-extended derivatives, and the deeper π bowls. Furthermore, the dynamically flexible aspect based on bowl-to-bowl inversion is also described. The crystal with a columnar bowl-in-bowl stacking exhibits a high electron transport ability with anisotropy. Complexation with a cyclopentadienyl iron cation results in the first selective formation of the concave-bound complex as a π-bowl complex. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  12. Anhydrite solubility in differentiated arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masotta, M.; Keppler, H.

    2015-06-01

    The solubility of anhydrite in differentiated arc magmas was experimentally studied at 200 MPa and 800-1000 °C over a range of oxygen fugacities, from 0.5 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer to the hematite-magnetite buffer. Anhydrite is stable only at oxidizing conditions (fO2 ⩾ Re-ReO2), whereas sulfides only form under reducing conditions. The solubility of anhydrite in the melt ultimately regulates the amount of sulfur available to partition between melt and fluid phase during the eruption. At oxidizing conditions, the solubility product of anhydrite increases with temperature, nbo/t and melt water content. We provide a new calibration of the anhydrite solubility product (KSP = XCaO * XSO3), which reproduces all available experimental data with greatly improved accuracy: In this equation, the molar fractions XCaO and XSO3 in the melt as well as the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms per tetrahedron (nbo/t) are calculated on an anhydrous basis (H2O refers to the melt water content, T is temperature in Kelvin). We apply our model to estimate the sulfur yield of some recent volcanic eruptions and we show that the sulfur yield of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo dacite eruption was unusually large, because only a small fraction of the sulfur was locked up in anhydrite. In general, high sulfur yields are expected when anhydrite solubility in the melt is high, i.e. for somewhat depolymerized melts. For rhyolitic systems, most of the available sulfur will be locked up in anhydrite, so that even very large eruptions may only have a small effect on global surface temperatures. Our model therefore allows improved predictions of the environmental impact of explosive volcanic eruptions.

  13. [The pewter bleeding bowls].

    PubMed

    Renner, Claude

    2004-01-01

    In the late seventeenth century, then along the eighteen and nineteenth centuries the amount of the bloodlettings was measured by means of three pewter bleeding bowls that held three ounces of blood, about 300 millilitres. In the middle of the nineteenth century new and large bleeding bowls with metric graduations were manufactured only by the Parisian potters.

  14. From Birdbaths to Bowls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitbauer, George J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students worked together in teams of two in order to create lightweight, primitive-looking bowls. States that after researching a cultural motif, students decorate each bowl individually using acrylics. Includes a list of supplies and describes the process in detail. (CMK)

  15. From Birdbaths to Bowls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitbauer, George J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students worked together in teams of two in order to create lightweight, primitive-looking bowls. States that after researching a cultural motif, students decorate each bowl individually using acrylics. Includes a list of supplies and describes the process in detail. (CMK)

  16. Double bowl piston

    DOEpatents

    Meffert, Darrel Henry; Urven, Jr., Roger Leroy; Brown, Cory Andrew; Runge, Mark Harold

    2007-03-06

    A piston for an internal combustion engine is disclosed. The piston has a piston crown with a face having an interior annular edge. The piston also has first piston bowl recessed within the face of the piston crown. The first piston bowl has a bottom surface and an outer wall. A line extending from the interior annular edge of the face and tangent with the outer wall forms an interior angle greater than 90 degrees with the face of the piston. The piston also has a second piston bowl that is centrally located and has an upper edge located below a face of the piston crown.

  17. EasyBowling: a virtual bowling system for small space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhigeng; Huang, Jin; Xu, Weiwei; Zhou, Kun; Shi, Jiaoying

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we describe a virtual bowling game machine called EasyBowling Machine, which is designed and implemented based on techniques such as Virtual Reality, animation, and image processing. To introduce Virtual Reality technique into this virtual bowling game, our system provides a real game mode: players play the game by throwing a real bowling ball, and then the EasyBowling system uses a PC Camera to detect the motion of the real bowling ball. After the motion parameters (ball direction, ball force, et al.) are computed, the movement of the bowling ball and its collision with pins are simulated on a large display screen. The most obvious advantage of such bowling game machine over other existing bowling games is that the system integrates body exercise into game playing. The implementation techniques are discussed in detail, and the prototype system illustrates the feasibility and efficiency of our method.

  18. Tibetan singing bowls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwagne, Denis; Bush, John W. M.

    2011-08-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls. Their acoustic behaviour is rationalized in terms of the related dynamics of standing bells and wine glasses. Striking or rubbing a fluid-filled bowl excites wall vibrations, and concomitant waves at the fluid surface. Acoustic excitation of the bowl's natural vibrational modes allows for a controlled study in which the evolution of the surface waves with increasing forcing amplitude is detailed. Particular attention is given to rationalizing the observed criteria for the onset of edge-induced Faraday waves and droplet generation via surface fracture. Our study indicates that drops may be levitated on the fluid surface, induced to bounce on or skip across the vibrating fluid surface.

  19. Bowling for the Severely Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenbrand, Larry J.

    Instructions are given for constructing a bowling board to aid severely physically handicapped, and wheelchair-confined individuals in bowling. A list of materials needed for building the device is included and diagrams accompany the instructions. (JD)

  20. Science Bowl Stirs School Spirit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen E.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an annual science bowl held in Havenscourt Junior High, Oakland, California, for ninth grade science students. Patterned after TV's "College Bowl," the science bowl involves panels of students competing to answer objective questions and practical challenges. Indirect benefits to students include increased community support and review…

  1. Alstom Francis Turbine Ring Gates: from Retrofitting to Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Nguyen P.; G, Labrecque; M-O, Thibault; M, Bergeron; A, Steinhilber; D, Havard

    2014-03-01

    The Ring Gate synchronisation system developed by Alstom is new and patented. It uses hydraulic cylinders connected in pairs by a serial connection. The new hydraulic synchronisation system, when compared to the previous mechanical synchronisation system, has several advantages. It is a compact design; it reduces the number of mechanical components as well as maintenance costs. The new system maintains the Ring Gates robustness. The new approach is an evolution from mechanical to hydraulic synchronization assisted by electronic control. The new synchronization system eliminates several mechanical components that used to add wear and friction and which are usually difficult to adjust during maintenance. Tension chains and sprockets and associated controls are eliminated. Through the position sensors, the redundancy of the ring gate synchronization system makes it predictable and reliable. The electronic control compensates for any variation in operation, for example a leak in the hydraulic system. An emergency closing is possible without the electronic control system due to the stiffness of hydraulic serial connection in the hydraulic cylinder pairs. The Ring Gate can work safely against uneven loads and frictions. The development will be reviewed and its application discussed through commissioning results.

  2. Crazy Patchwork Clay Bowl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Crazy patchwork quilts, which inspired this bowl, are as American as apple pie. In 1876, the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition opened and the American society fell instantly in love with Japanese ceramics and asymmetrical art. Victorian ladies incorporated the idea of asymmetrical design into their quilts, which became known as crazy quilts. The…

  3. Crazy Patchwork Clay Bowl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Crazy patchwork quilts, which inspired this bowl, are as American as apple pie. In 1876, the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition opened and the American society fell instantly in love with Japanese ceramics and asymmetrical art. Victorian ladies incorporated the idea of asymmetrical design into their quilts, which became known as crazy quilts. The…

  4. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO{sub 2} into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results.

  5. Bowling Ball Spotting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    Exactatron, an accurate weighing and spotting system in bowling ball manufacture, was developed by Ebonite International engineers with the assistance of a NASA computer search which identified Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) technology. The JPL research concerned a means of determining the center of an object's mass, and an apparatus for measuring liquid viscosity, enabling Ebonite to identify the exact spotting of the drilling point for top weighting.

  6. Bowling: Entertainment for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    Of all American pastimes, bowling is one of the easiest to pursue. Just show up at the neighborhood bowling center, rent the required shoes, use the balls provided, and pay a reasonable fee to bowl as many games as one likes. The game itself--rolling a ball down a long wooden lane to strike club-shaped pins--appeals to all ages and is within the…

  7. Quantifying Cricket Fast Bowling Skill.

    PubMed

    Feros, Simon A; Young, Warren B; O'Brien, Brendan J

    2017-09-27

    To evaluate the current evidence regarding the quantification of cricket fast bowling skill. Studies that assessed fast bowling skill (bowling speed and accuracy) were identified from searches in SPORTDiscus (EBSCO) in June 2017. The reference lists of identified papers were also examined for relevant investigations. Sixteen papers matched the inclusion criteria, and discrepancies in assessment procedures were evident. Differences in: test environment, pitch and cricket ball characteristics, the warm-up prior to test, test familiarisation procedures, permitted run-up lengths, bowling spell length, delivery sequence, test instructions, collection of bowling speed data, collection and reportage of bowling accuracy data were apparent throughout the literature. The reliability and sensitivity of fast bowling skill measures has rarely been reported across the literature. Only one study has attempted to assess the construct validity of their skill measures. There are several discrepancies in how fast bowling skill has been assessed and subsequently quantified in the literature to date. This is a problem, as comparisons between studies are often difficult. Therefore, a strong rationale exists for the creation of match-specific standardised fast bowling assessments that offer greater ecological validity while maintaining acceptable reliability and sensitivity of the skill measures. If prospective research can act on the proposed recommendations from this review, then coaches will be able to make more informed decisions surrounding player selection, talent identification, return to skill following injury, and the efficacy of short- and long-term training interventions for fast bowlers.

  8. Anhydrite precipitation in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    The composition and metal concentration of hydrothermal fluids venting at the seafloor is strongly temperature-dependent and fluids above 300°C are required to transport metals to the seafloor (Hannington et al. 2010). Ore-forming hydrothermal systems and high temperature vents in general are often associated with faults and fracture zones, i.e. zones of enhanced permeabilities that act as channels for the uprising hydrothermal fluid (Heinrich & Candela, 2014). Previous numerical models (Jupp and Schultz, 2000; Andersen et al. 2015) however have shown that high permeabilities tend to decrease fluid flow temperatures due to mixing with cold seawater and the resulting high fluid fluxes that lead to short residence times of the fluid near the heat source. A possible mechanism to reduce the permeability and thereby to focus high temperature fluid flow are mineral precipitation reactions that clog the pore space. Anhydrite for example precipitates from seawater if it is heated to temperatures above ~150°C or due to mixing of seawater with hydrothermal fluids that usually have high Calcium concentrations. We have implemented anhydrite reactions (precipitation and dissolution) in our finite element numerical models of hydrothermal circulation. The initial results show that the precipitation of anhydrite efficiently alters the permeability field, which affects the hydrothermal flow field as well as the resulting vent temperatures. C. Andersen et al. (2015), Fault geometry and permeability contrast control vent temperatures at the Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Geology, 43(1), 51-54. M. D. Hannington et al. (2010), Modern Sea-Floor Massive Sulfides and Base Metal Resources: Toward an Estimate of Global Sea-Floor Massive Sulfide Potential, in The Challenge of Finding New Mineral Resources: Global Metallogeny, Innovative Exploration, and New Discoveries, edited by R. J. Goldfarb, E. E. Marsh and T. Monecke, pp. 317-338, Society of Economic Geologists

  9. The Bowling Pin Pal Reunion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Michele Heide

    2007-01-01

    Seeing different retrospectives, which show the progression of works by an artist during their lifetime, inspired the author to organize a retrospective showcasing a progression of student works. In November of 2005, the author and her visual art colleagues celebrated the first Bowling Pin Pal Reunion. For 30 years, the bowling pin pals have been…

  10. An Experiment with Saxon Bowls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Allan; Kincanon, Eric

    2000-01-01

    According to historical stories, the Saxons placed a bowl with a hole in its bottom in water and used the time it took the bowl to submerge to limit orations. Describes a science activity in which students find a relationship between the diameter of the hole and the time to submergence. (WRM)

  11. An Experiment with Saxon Bowls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Allan; Kincanon, Eric

    2000-01-01

    According to historical stories, the Saxons placed a bowl with a hole in its bottom in water and used the time it took the bowl to submerge to limit orations. Describes a science activity in which students find a relationship between the diameter of the hole and the time to submergence. (WRM)

  12. An experiment with Saxon bowls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Allan; Kincanon, Eric

    2000-02-01

    To introduce our first-semester physics students to some basic analytic methods, we integrate a bit of history and a unique timing device into our lab. The story is that the Saxons placed a bowl with a hole in its bottom in water and used the time it took the bowl to submerge to limit orations. (A famous Greek prostitute also used such bowls to allocate her customer's time, an example we do not use in class.) We have our students find a relationship between the diameter of the hole and the time till submergence. Though the original Saxon bowls varied both in hole size and bowl size, for simplicity we vary only the size of the hole.

  13. The Brain Bowl: Competitive Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raepple, Roger R.; Ehlert, David L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Florida Community College Brain Bowl, as a model for recognizing outstanding academic achievement, in a contest in which two competing community college teams answer faculty-prepared questions from various disciplines. (DMM)

  14. What makes bowling balls hook?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2004-09-01

    This article presents exact equations of motion for a rotating bowling ball in a form that explicitly separates contributions due to nonequal principal moments of inertia, center-of-mass offset, and friction between the ball and lane. A computer program that solves the equations demonstrates that all of these factors are important for a realistic analysis of bowling. These factors significantly affect how much balls hook, that is, deflect sideways and approach the pins at an oblique angle. Simulations that approximate real bowling conditions indicate that the largest contribution comes from variable friction along the lane, that is, bowling lanes are generally prepared so that lane friction is higher by a factor of 2 or more along the last one-third of the ball's trajectory. The analysis supports most (but not all) of the guidelines that bowlers have developed for predicting ball performance.

  15. Physical modeling of Tibetan bowls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Jose; Inacio, Octavio

    2001-05-01

    Tibetan bowls produce rich penetrating sounds, used in musical contexts and to induce a state of relaxation for meditation or therapy purposes. To understand the dynamics of these instruments under impact and rubbing excitation, we developed a simulation method based on the modal approach, following our previous papers on physical modeling of plucked/bowed strings and impacted/bowed bars. This technique is based on a compact representation of the system dynamics, in terms of the unconstrained bowl modes. Nonlinear contact/friction interaction forces, between the exciter (puja) and the bowl, are computed at each time step and projected on the bowl modal basis, followed by step integration of the modal equations. We explore the behavior of two different-sized bowls, for extensive ranges of excitation conditions (contact/friction parameters, normal force, and tangential puja velocity). Numerical results and experiments show that various self-excited motions may arise depending on the playing conditions and, mainly, on the contact/friction interaction parameters. Indeed, triggering of a given bowl modal frequency mainly depends on the puja material. Computed animations and experiments demonstrate that self-excited modes spin, following the puja motion. Accordingly, the sensed pressure field pulsates, with frequency controlled by the puja spinning velocity and the spatial pattern of the singing mode.

  16. Physical modeling of Tibetan bowls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Jose; Inacio, Octavio

    2004-05-01

    Tibetan bowls produce rich penetrating sounds, used in musical contexts and to induce a state of relaxation for meditation or therapy purposes. To understand the dynamics of these instruments under impact and rubbing excitation, we developed a simulation method based on the modal approach, following our previous papers on physical modeling of plucked/bowed strings and impacted/bowed bars. This technique is based on a compact representation of the system dynamics, in terms of the unconstrained bowl modes. Nonlinear contact/friction interaction forces, between the exciter (puja) and the bowl, are computed at each time step and projected on the bowl modal basis, followed by step integration of the modal equations. We explore the behavior of two different-sized bowls, for extensive ranges of excitation conditions (contact/friction parameters, normal force, and tangential puja velocity). Numerical results and experiments show that various self-excited motions may arise depending on the playing conditions and, mainly, on the contact/friction interaction parameters. Indeed, triggering of a given bowl modal frequency mainly depends on the puja material. Computed animations and experiments demonstrate that self-excited modes spin, following the puja motion. Accordingly, the sensed pressure field pulsates, with frequency controlled by the puja spinning velocity and the spatial pattern of the singing mode.

  17. Rheology of Anhydrite during deformation in nature: a first look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus Schmalholz, Stefan; Urai, Janos

    2014-05-01

    The rheology of Anhydrite under conditions of natural deformation is largely unconstrained, although it has many important effects in salt tectonics and in long-tem predictions of engineering structures in salt. A review of laboratory triaxial experiments at low temperature indicate brittle, pressure dependent behavior. At temperatures above 400 C experimental deformation shows power law creep, with contributions of dislocation creep and diffusional creep. In naturally deformed Anhydrite rocks microstructures indicate recrystallization, solution - precipitation processes and pressure solution producing stylolites. Analysis of Anhydrite layers embedded in rock salt shows complex behavior. Bedding-parallel stretching leads to boudinage, with variable amounts of pinch-and-swell before rupture and precipitation of Halite in the boudin-neck. Bedding-parallel shortening of single layers embedded in salt leads to folding of the Anhydrite layers, with the fold shapes suggesting an effective viscosity contrast between 10 and 100. This is also in agreement with the absence of extension fracture in the outer arcs of the folds. Although much remains to be done in accurately constraining Anhydrite rheology in nature, and for example its dependence on pore fluid pressure and chemistry, these results provide a first order estimate of Anhydrite rheology in nature, to be used in numerical simulations. A challenging task is to find a unified flow law which describes power law creep and fracturing dependent on effective stress.

  18. Anhydrite EOS and Phase Diagram in Relation to Shock Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Langenhorst, F.; Deutsch, A.; Hornemann, U.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the Chicxulub impact, it became recently obvious that experimental and theoretical research on the shock behavior of sulfates is essential for an assessment of the role of shock-released gases in the K/T mass extinction. The Chicxulub crater is the most important large impact structure where the bolide penetrated a sedimentary layer with large amounts of interbedded anhydrite (Haughton has also significant anhydrite in the target). The sulfuric gas production by shock compression/decompression of anhydrite is an important issue, even if the size of Chicxulub crater is only half of the so far assumed size. The comparison of experimental data for anhydrite, shocked with different techniques at various laboratories, reveals large differences in the threshold pressures for melting and decomposition. To gain insight into this issue, we have made a theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of anhydrite. The project includes the review of data published in the last 40 years - reasons to study anhydrite cover a wide field of interests: from industrial problems of cement and ceramic production to the analysis of nuclear underground explosions in salt domes, conducted in the USA and USSR in the 1970th.

  19. Anhydrite EOS and Phase Diagram in Relation to Shock Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Langenhorst, F.; Deutsch, A.; Hornemann, U.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the Chicxulub impact, it became recently obvious that experimental and theoretical research on the shock behavior of sulfates is essential for an assessment of the role of shock-released gases in the K/T mass extinction. The Chicxulub crater is the most important large impact structure where the bolide penetrated a sedimentary layer with large amounts of interbedded anhydrite (Haughton has also significant anhydrite in the target). The sulfuric gas production by shock compression/decompression of anhydrite is an important issue, even if the size of Chicxulub crater is only half of the so far assumed size. The comparison of experimental data for anhydrite, shocked with different techniques at various laboratories, reveals large differences in the threshold pressures for melting and decomposition. To gain insight into this issue, we have made a theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of anhydrite. The project includes the review of data published in the last 40 years - reasons to study anhydrite cover a wide field of interests: from industrial problems of cement and ceramic production to the analysis of nuclear underground explosions in salt domes, conducted in the USA and USSR in the 1970th.

  20. Textural evidence for origin of salt dome anhydrite cap rocks, Winnfield Dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, M.R.; Kyle, J.R.; Price, P.E.

    1985-02-01

    Textures within anhydrite cap rock are products of repeated cycles of halie dissolution and residual anhydrite accretion at tops of salt stocks. Quarrying operations at Winnfield dome have exposed extensive portions of the anhydrite cap rock zone. This zone is composed primarily of unoriented, xenoblastic anhydrite crystals in laminae less than 1 mm to several centimeters thick. Laminations are defined by thin, dark sulfide accumulations and pressure solution of anhydrite. Deformed, banded anhydrite clasts are contained locally within laminae. Multiple-laminated, concave downward anhydrite mounds occur along some horizons. They may contain anhydrite breccia fragments or sulfides. Coarsely crystalline salt mounds, containing disseminated idioblastic anhydrite also occur along horizons. Mound morphologies vary from tall and thin to broad and squat; maximum dimensions range from less than 0.5 to about 2.0 m. These moundlike structures are related spatially and genetically. Moundlike structures are believed to form from salt spines along the salt-anhydrite contact. As the spine dissolves through several cycles of dissolution and accretion, a laminated anhydrite mound is preserved; if the spine becomes isolated from dissolution, then a salt inclusion is preserved. Anhydrite beds within the Louann Salt, deformed during diapirism, are preserved as deformed anhydrite clasts. Steeply dipping, bedded anhydrite zones within the salt stock may produce brecciated anhydrite mounds when incorporated into the cap rock. Sulfides record the movement of metalliferous fluids through the salt-anhydrite contact.

  1. Nanoscale dissolution and growth on anhydrite cleavage faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, Carlos M.

    2009-12-01

    In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the molecular-scale reactivity of anhydrite (1 0 0), (0 1 0), and (0 0 1) faces exposed to water and CaSO 4 aqueous solutions at room temperature. In pure water, dissolution occurs by step retreat and etch pit nucleation and growth. Both the kinetics of the step retreat and the shape of the etch pits are surface-specific and crystallographically controlled. In CaSO 4 aqueous solutions with concentrations ranging from 0.030 mol/l to 0.075 mol/l, the growth kinetics on anhydrite (1 0 0) and (0 1 0) faces was studied. Growth is also strongly controlled by crystallographic constraints and occurs exclusively from pre-existing step edges by highly anisotropic spreading of monolayers (˜3.5 Å in height). The AFM observations demonstrate that monolayer growth can occur on anhydrite (0 1 0) and (1 0 0) faces even from slightly supersaturated solutions. In addition, the comparison of the step kinetics on anhydrite faces shows that the mechanisms of step dissolution and growth are essentially the same, with the direction of migration of crystal building units being reversed at the anhydrite saturation point. Moreover, the analysis of both high resolution AFM images and lateral force microscopy (LFM) images confirms that the newly-formed monolayers are anhydrite growing in structural continuity with the original (1 0 0) and (0 1 0) surfaces. However, the formation of the first monolayers is metastable and two-dimensional nucleation and further multilayer growth of anhydrite are strongly inhibited even at high supersaturations.

  2. Processes and controls in swelling anhydritic clay rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutschler, Thomas; Blum, Philipp; Butscher, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Referring to the swelling of anhydritic clay rocks in tunneling, Leopold Müller-Salzburg noted in the third volume on tunneling of his fundamental text book on rock engineering that "a truly coherent explanation of these phenomena is still owing" (Müller-Salzburg 1978, p. 306). This valuation is still true after more than three decades of research in the field of swelling anhydritic clay rocks. One of the reasons is our limited knowledge of the processes involved in the swelling of such rocks, and of the geological, mineralogical, hydraulic, chemical and mechanical controls of the swelling. In this contribution, a review of processes in swelling anhydritic clay rocks and of associated controls is presented. Also numerical models that aim at simulating the swelling processes and controls are included in this review, and some of the remaining open questions are pointed out. By focusing on process-oriented work in this review, the presentation intends to stimulate further research across disciplines in the field of swelling anhydritic clay rocks to finally get a step further in managing the swelling problem in geotechnical engineering projects. Keywords: swelling; anhydritic clay rocks; review

  3. First-principles study of anhydrite, polyhalite and carnallite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Jové-Colón, Carlos F.; Sassani, David C.

    2014-02-01

    We report density functional calculations of the structures and properties of anhydrite (CaSO4), polyhalite (K2SO4·MgSO4·2CaSO4·2H2O) and carnallite (KCl·MgCl2·6H2O). Densities of states are systematically investigated and phonon analysis using density functional perturbation theory is performed at constant equilibrium volume for anhydrite and polyhalite in order to derive their isochoric thermal properties. Thermal properties at constant atmospheric pressure are also calculated using the quasi-harmonic approximation. The computed molar entropy and isobaric heat capacity for anhydrite reproduce experimental data up to 800 K to within 3% and 10%, respectively, while further experimental work is needed to assess our theoretical predictions for polyhalite.

  4. New Ideas for Bowling Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This document is an instructor's manual for teaching bowling to a wide range of students (elementary school to college) in either a school gymnasium or a teaching station with limited space. The material presented was adapted from teaching methods that had proved successful in diverse situations with many students. The manual is divided into…

  5. The Vegetable Bowl. [Student Booklet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nancy

    This student booklet was developed as reading material for use with "The Vegetable Bowl," a unit designed to encourage elementary school children to eat a variety of vegetables. The booklet also contains ten pictures that can be colored by students. (BT)

  6. The Vegetable Bowl. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nancy

    This teacher's guide was developed for use with "The Vegetable Bowl," a unit designed to encourage elementary school children to eat a variety of vegetables. The unit is designed for ten lessons; however, the sequencing and time used in the classroom may be adapted to the individual needs of the students. Instructional materials include:…

  7. Reduction-Fired Seedpod Bowls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyke, Rod

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on a reduction-firing process with an aim of producing high-quality blackware similar to the black-on-black pottery of Maria Martinez and other American Indian potters. Includes a lesson on creating reduction-fired seedpod bowls, lists of instructional resources and materials, and the objectives and evaluation. (CMK)

  8. RECOGNITION OF INTERSTITIAL ANHYDRITE DISSOLUTION: A CAUSE OF SECONDARY POROSITY, SAN ANDRES LIMESTONE, NEW MEXICO, AND UPPER MINNELUSA FORMATION, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Richardson, Randall W.

    1985-01-01

    Direct evidence for subsurface dissolution of interstitial anhydrite in both dolomite grainstones and quartz sandstones includes: cleavage-related dissolution fringe on anhydrite crystal surfaces, and isolated remnants of optically continuous (formerly poikilotopic) anhydrite. Experimentally etched anhydrite surfaces exhibit features that directly compare to the dissolution fringe, whereas experimentally grown anhydrite does not. A deduced sequence of anhydrite dissolution within dolomite grainstones and quartz sandstones is presented. Refs.

  9. A Bowl of Hematite-Rich 'Berries'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows two spectra of outcrop regions near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site. The blue line shows data for a region dubbed 'Berry Bowl,' which contains a handful of the sphere-like grains dubbed 'blueberries.' The yellow line represents an area called 'Empty' next to Berry Bowl that is devoid of berries. Berry Bowl's spectrum still shows typical outcrop characteristics, but also exhibits an intense hematite signature, seen as a 'magnetic sextet.' Hematite is an iron-bearing mineral often formed in water. These spectra were taken by the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer on the 46th (Empty) and 48th (Berry Bowl) martian days, or sols, of its mission.

  10. Physical properties of salt, anhydrite and gypsum : preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Eugene C.; Robie, Richard A.; Books, Kenneth G.

    1958-01-01

    This summary is the result of a search of the available literature. Emphasis is placed on the mechanical and calorimetric properties of salt; the measurements of elastic, thermal, magnetic, and mass properties of salt are merely tabulated. Under hydrostatic pressure 100 percent at a nearly constant stress difference of about 300 kg/cm2. Similarily, under temperatures > 400?C at one atmosphere, salt deforms plastically to strains > 100 percent under stress differences of about 100 kg/cm2. Entha1pies were calculated for various temperatures to 2,000? C from the low temperature and high temperature heat capacities and the heats of solution of the following minerals: salt (or halite), NaCl; anhydrite, CaS04; quartz, Si02; and calcite, CaC03. Three combinations of these minerals were assumed to represent three possible natural salt beds, and the heats required to raise the temperature of each to 1,500?C and to 2,000?C were calculated. For a half and half mixture of salt and anhydrite, 1,300 cal/gm were required to raise the temperature to 2,000?C. For an evaporite containing 60 percent salt and about equal amounts of anhydrite, calcite, and quartz, 1,100 cal/gm are required to raise the temperature to 2,OOO?C. Most of the measurements of the elastic moduli were made on single crystals of salt, anhydrite, and gypsum. For the most part, the measurements of density, magnetic susceptibility, and other properties were made on natural salt samples.

  11. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah

    2016-01-01

    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  12. Spectral properties of Ca-sulfates: Gypsum, bassanite, and anhydrite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; King, Sara J.; Brown, Adrian J.; Swayze, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    This study of the spectral properties of Ca-sulfates was initiated to support remote detection of these minerals on Mars. Gypsum, bassanite, and anhydrite are the currently known forms of Ca-sulfates. They are typically found in sedimentary evaporites on Earth, but can also form via reaction of acidic fluids associated with volcanic activity. Reflectance, emission, transmittance, and Raman spectra are discussed here for various sample forms. Gypsum and bassanite spectra exhibit characteristic and distinct triplet bands near 1.4–1.5 μm, a strong band near 1.93–1.94 μm, and multiple features near 2.1–2.3 μm attributed to H2O. Anhydrite, bassanite, and gypsum all have SO4 combination and overtone features from 4.2–5 μm that are present in reflectance spectra. The mid-IR region spectra exhibit strong SO4 ν3 and ν4 vibrational bands near 1150–1200 and 600–680 cm−1 (~8.5 and 16 μm), respectively. Additional weaker features are observed near 1005–1015 cm−1 (~10 μm) for ν1 and near 470–510 cm−1 (~20 μm) for ν2. The mid-IR H2O bending vibration occurs near 1623–1630 cm−1 (~6.2 μm). The visible/near-infrared region spectra are brighter for the finer-grained samples. In reflectance and emission spectra of the mid-IR region the ν4 bands begin to invert for the finer-grained samples, and the ν1 vibration occurs as a band instead of a peak and has the strongest intensity for the finer-grained samples. The ν2 vibration is a sharp band for anhydrite and a broad peak for gypsum. The band center of the ν1 vibration follows a trend of decreasing frequency (increasing wavelength) with increasing hydration of the sample in the transmittance, Raman, and reflectance spectra. Anhydrite forms at elevated temperatures compared to gypsum, and at lower temperature, salt concentration, and pH than bassanite. The relative humidity controls whether bassanite or gypsum is stable. Thus, distinguishing among gypsum, bassanite, and anhydrite via

  13. Bowling for a Lifetime Using Sport Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla

    2008-01-01

    With adolescents becoming physically inactive as they age, one must think of other activities to teach during the middle and secondary years in physical education. One lifetime activity that physical education teachers could promote is bowling, an individual sport that could be taught in the gym or in a bowling alley. By using an instructional…

  14. High Score... for the Science Bowl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airee, S. K.; Loebbaka, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a "High School Science Bowl" organized by the University of Tennessee at Martin Chapter of American Chemical Society Student Affiliates. The contest consists of two parts: a preliminary written test of 25 objective questions from biology, chemistry, general science and an afternoon session patterned after television's "College Bowl."…

  15. Bowl inversion of surface-adsorbed sumanene.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Rached; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Bussi, Giovanni; Aït-Mansour, Kamel; Groening, Oliver; Amaya, Toru; Hirao, Toshikazu; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Bowl-shaped π-conjugated compounds offer the possibility to study curvature-dependent host-guest interactions and chemical reactivity in ideal model systems. For surface-adsorbed π bowls, however, only conformations with the bowl opening pointing away from the surface have been observed so far. Here we show for sumanene on Ag(111) that both bowl-up and bowl-down conformations can be stabilized. Analysis of the molecular layer as a function of coverage reveals an unprecedented structural phase transition involving a bowl inversion of one-third of the molecules. On the basis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and complementary atomistic simulations, we develop a model that describes the observed phase transition in terms of a subtle interplay between inversion-dependent adsorption energies and intermolecular interactions. In addition, we explore the coexisting bowl-up and -down conformations with respect to host-guest binding of methane. STM reveals a clear energetic preference for methane binding to the concave face of sumanene.

  16. Simulated Ten Pin Bowling Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, Jacob; Howald, Craig

    2011-04-01

    This work investigates the results of the dynamics in the collisions that occur in ten pin bowling. A finite element modeling system (LS-Dyna) was used to construct simplified but approximately physically realistic models and simulate collisions involving the twelve body system composed of a ball, ten pins, and a floor. The investigation focuses on the qualitative features of the map of final pin configuration as a function of the initial conditions. To appropriately limit the breadth of the initial configuration space investigated, the only variables adjusted were the position of the ball upon entering the pins and the initial angle of velocity relative to the long axis of the lane. Results concerning the size and shape of the sets of initial conditions that lead to similar final configurations, in particular those leading to none of the pins remaining standing (aka "strikes"), are shown.

  17. Bowling-Fencing Guide. January 1975-January 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Joyce M., Ed.; Heinecke, Mary, Ed.

    This guide is divided into two sections. The first deals with bowling, and contains 11 articles concerning the mechanics and teaching of bowling. Some of the areas covered are (a) suggestions for teaching bowling, (b) how to practice with an automatic pinsetter, (c) bowling as a medium for learning for the handicapped, and (d) application of a…

  18. Decasilahexahydrotriquinacene and Decasilaisotwistane: σ Conjugation on a Bowl Surface.

    PubMed

    Tsurusaki, Akihiro; Koyama, Yu; Kyushin, Soichiro

    2017-03-22

    The first bowl-shaped oligosilane, hexadecamethyldecasilahexahydrotriquinacene (1), and a related oligosilane, hexadecamethyldecasilaisotwistane (2), were synthesized, and their structures and properties were studied. The results revealed importance of σ conjugation on a bowl surface: the HOMOs of 1 are σ orbitals delocalized on the bowl surface, whereas the LUMO is a pseudo π* orbital on the convex and concave sides of the bowl surface.

  19. Ferry Lake, Rodessa, and Punta Gorda Anhydrite bed correlation, lower cretaceous, offshore eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Ferry Lake and Punta Gorda Anhydrite have been used as marker beds throughout Gulf of Mexico, and divided into nine individual anhydrite beds traceable from southern Mississippi to southern Florida. The underlying Rodessa Formation has an equally well-developed anhydrite section in the offshore Eastern Gulf of Mexico and is divided into twelve basinwide anhydrite bed groupings. The anhydrites of Ferry Lake and Rodessa Formation are traceable to the anhydrites of the Punta Gorda and Lehigh Acres Formations of South Florida. Anhydrite beds appear to thicken in the central part of the trend interfingering with carbonates of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge reef. Paleontologic data indicate that depositional water depths of the interbedded carbonates range from sea level to 100 meters. Carbonates and anhydrites may be deposited simultaneously with carbonate patchreefs developing on crests of paleo anhydrites may be deposited simultaneously with carbonate patchreefs developing on crests of paleo highs with evaporites precipitating out of a hyper-saline solution on the flanks. Areas where poor anhydrite bed development occurs may indicate areas of patch reefs and, therefore, the best potential for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Individual anhydrite beds have been correlated and color-coded on photocopies of compensated neutron density logs to determine their geographic distribution. Prepared cross sections show some beds to be areawide while others are more restricted. Isopach maps show the configuration of the basin in which these beds were deposited with the basin`s long isopach axis parallel to the reef trend. Anhydrite deposition occurred with evaporation of restricted highstand waters behind reefs that rimmed the shelf edge.

  20. Role of anhydrite diagenesis in the creation of porosity in middle Permian dolostone reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Jacka, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    In middle Permian dolostone reservoirs, the most abundant pore type is secondary intercrystalline porosity. Generally ranking second in abundance, but first in many instances, are pores created by dissolution of anhydrite that occurred in the Permian. Much anhydrite was emplaced diagenetically during and following early dolomitization, as nodules, blocky porphyroblasts, and cement, and as combination cement and replacement. Generally, anhydritization was followed by an influx of a low-salinity fluid, which dissolved anhydrite - creating tertiary porosity - or altered it to gypsum, hemihydrate, silica, calcite, or fluorite. Dissolution of anhydrite nodules and porphyroblasts creates distinctive molds with angular and stair-step outlines. Dissolution of anhydrite, which was emplaced as cement and replacement, enhances the original primary and secondary pores by the increment that was replaced. This dissolution also produces voids with angular and stair-step outlines. Replacive anhydrite tends to nucleate within organic-rich components, such as burrows, stromatolites, skeletal grains, ooids, and peloids. Many dolomite crystals have cloudy organic-rich centers, which represent the original replacive crystals, and clear rims of epitaxial dolomite cement. Anhydrite preferentially nucleates within the organic-rich cores, and subsequent dissolution produces hollowed dolomite crystals or intracrystalline porosity. Intracrystalline pores constitute the predominant pore types within many intervals. Anhydrite commonly replaces skeletal grains or ooids, and the replacement of such anhydrite produces a mold that replicates the original shell (biomold). It is possible to determine how many biomolds actually record dissolution of replacive anhydrite. The best Permian reservoirs contain intercrystalline porosity in conjunction with pores created by dissolution of anhydrite and grains.

  1. The thermal expansion of anhydrite to 1000° C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Howard T.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal expansion of anhydrite, CaSO4, has been measured from 22° to 1,000° C by X-ray diffraction, using the Guinier-Lenné heating powder camera. The heating patterns were calibrated with Guinier-Hägg patterns at 25° C, using quartz as internal standard. Heating experiments were run on natural anhydrite (Bancroft, Ontario), which at room temperature has lattice constants in close agreement with those of synthetic material. The orthorhombic unit cell at 22° C (space groupAmma) has a=7.003 (1) Å, b=6.996 (2) Å and c=6.242 (1) Å, V=305.9 (2) Å3. At room temperature, the thermal expansion coefficients α and β (α in °C−1×104, β in °C−2×108) are for a, 0.10, −0.69; forb, 0.08, 0.19; for c, 0.18, 1.60; for V, 0.37, 1.14. Second-order coefficients provide an excellent fit over the whole range to 1,000° C.

  2. From Dust Bowl to Conservation Tillage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Dale

    1992-01-01

    Examines the causes of the dust bowl and recent changes in tillage practices in Oklahoma and other prairie states that conserve soil. Briefly discusses the success of programs that target school children for conservation education. (LZ)

  3. 25 Years of AAPT's PhysicsBowl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faleski, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The PhysicsBowl is a contest for high school students that was first introduced in 1985. In this article, we discuss both some of the history of the contest as well as the 25th contest occurring this year.

  4. From Dust Bowl to Conservation Tillage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Dale

    1992-01-01

    Examines the causes of the dust bowl and recent changes in tillage practices in Oklahoma and other prairie states that conserve soil. Briefly discusses the success of programs that target school children for conservation education. (LZ)

  5. Sharing a bowl of tea.

    PubMed

    Sen, S

    1993-06-01

    Soshitsu Sen's keynote speech before a symposium on population and the environment is summarized unofficially by the editorial staff. The instability of human thinking is given as the cause for the present destruction of the environment. In a visit to the His Majesty King of Sweden, Sen remarked that stabilizing human minds can be achieved within the tea ceremony through "serving tea heartily, receiving it with gratitude, and offering it to another." In this way, the spirit of concern for others can be practiced in everyday life and tranquility of mind reached. News broadcasts of starving parents and children as victims of civil war are disheartening. The Japanese people are not suffering such hunger, even though the economy has not been as robust as desired. The analogy is provided in the story by Chuang Chou about King Hun Dun and King Xiu and man's good intentions, which nonetheless destroy the earth. Japan has experienced forest and environmental destruction on the road to economic prosperity and satisfaction of self-interests. The advice on living in accord with nature is to appreciate each season for its own changes. For example, when it is the winter season, the complaint is about the cold and the desire is for spring; but when spring comes, the desire is for the cooler weather of fall. the ordinary way is to appreciate all seasons and is the best way of sustaining a healthy environment. In the garden of the tea hut, humans enter without their worldly title, position, and means; at the water basin, hands and mouth are cleansed, and entrance is made through a small hole into the hut much the same as emerging from the womb. Worldly matters are dispensed with and purity of thought is shared in the sharing of the bowl of green tea, saying "after you" to one another. Christianity and the Way of Tea share the same symbols of purification. The black tea bowl is in harmony with the green tea. Fatigue is relieved when gazing upon the color green; examples are given

  6. Variability of PlayerLoad, Bowling Velocity, and Performance Execution in Fast Bowlers Across Repeated Bowling Spells.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Dean J; Gabbett, Tim J; Chapman, Paul; Naughton, Geraldine; Farhart, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The use of wearable microtechnology to monitor the external load of fast bowling is challenged by the inherent variability of bowling techniques between bowlers. This study assessed the between-bowlers variability in PlayerLoad, bowling velocity, and performance execution across repeated bowling spells. Seven national-level fast bowlers completed two 6-over bowling spells at a batter during a competitive training session. Key dependent variables were PlayerLoad calculated with a MinimaxX microtechnology unit, ball velocity, and bowling execution based on a predetermined bowling strategy for each ball bowled. The between-bowlers coefficient of variation (CV), repeated-measures ANOVA, and smallest worthwhile change were calculated over the 2 repeated 6-over bowling spells and explored across 12-over, 6-over, and 3-over bowling segments. From the sum of 6 consecutive balls, the between-bowlers CV for relative peak PlayerLoad was 1.2% over the 12-over bowling spell (P = .15). During this 12-over period, bowling-execution (P = .43) scores and ball-velocity (P = .31) CVs were calculated as 46.0% and 0.4%, respectively. PlayerLoad was found to be stable across the repeated bowling spells in the fast-bowling cohort. Measures of variability and change across the repeated bowling spells were consistent with the performance measure of ball velocity. The stability of PlayerLoad improved when assessed relative to the individual's peak PlayerLoad. Only bowling-execution measures were found to have high variability across the repeated bowling spells. Player- Load provides a stable measure of external workload between fast bowlers.

  7. Experimental Shock Transformation of Gypsum to Anhydrite: A New Low Pressure Regime Shock Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The shock behavior of gypsum is important in understanding the Cretaceous/Paleogene event and other terrestrial impacts that contain evaporite sediments in their targets (e.g., Mars Exploration Rover Spirit detected sulfate at Gusev crater, [1]). Most interest focuses on issues of devolatilization to quantify the production of SO2 to better understand its role in generating a temporary atmosphere and its effects on climate and biota [2,3]. Kondo and Ahrens [4] measured induced radiation emitted from single crystal gypsum shocked to 30 and 40 GPa. They observed greybody emission spectra corresponding to temperatures in the range of 3,000 to 4,000 K that are a factor of 2 to 10 times greater than calculated pressure-density energy equation of state temperatures (Hugoniot) and are high enough to melt gypsum. Chen et al. [5] reported results of shock experiments on anhydrite, gypsum, and mixtures of these phases with silica. Their observations indicated little or no devolatilization of anhydrite shocked to 42 GPa and that the fraction of sulfur, by mass, that degassed is approx.10(exp -2) of theoretical prediction. In another report of shock experiments on calcite, anhydrite, and gypsum, Badjukov et al. [6] observed only intensive plastic deformation in anhydrite shock loaded at 63 GPa, and gypsum converted to anhydrite when shock loaded at 56 GPa but have not experimentally shocked gypsum in a step-wise manner to constrain possible incipient transformation effects. Schmitt and Hornemann [7] shock loaded anhydrite and quartz to a peak pressure of 60 GPa and report the platy anhydrite grains were completely pseudomorphed by small crystallized anhydrite grains. However, no evidence of interaction between the two phases could be observed and they suggested that recrystallization of anhydrite grains is the result of a solid-state transformation. They concluded that significant decomposition of anhydrite requires shock pressures higher than 60 GPa. Gupta et al. [8

  8. Assessing the Role of Anhydrite in the KT Mass Extinction: Hints from Shock-loading Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skala, R.; Lnagenhorst, F.; Hoerz, F.

    2004-01-01

    Various killing mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the mass extinctions at the KT boundary, including severe, global deterioration of the atmosphere and hydrosphere due to SO(x) released from heavily shocked, sulfate-bearing target rocks. The devolatilization of anhydrite is predominantly inferred from thermodynamic considerations and lacks experimental confirmation. To date, the experimentally determined shock behavior of anhydrite is limited to solid-state effects employing X-ray diffraction methods. The present report employs additional methods to characterize experimentally shocked anhydrite.

  9. Reduction of Microbial Aerosols by Automatic Toilet Bowl Cleaners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Moyasar; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of the impact of automatic toilet bowl cleaners on aerosol generation. Three toilet bowl cleaners containing 2.5, 6.7 or 18.2 percent surfactant materials were evaluated. Results indicate these cleaners significantly (p 0.05) reduce bacteria ejected from the bowl, and the cleaner containing the greatest amount of surfactant was the most…

  10. Reduction of Microbial Aerosols by Automatic Toilet Bowl Cleaners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Moyasar; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of the impact of automatic toilet bowl cleaners on aerosol generation. Three toilet bowl cleaners containing 2.5, 6.7 or 18.2 percent surfactant materials were evaluated. Results indicate these cleaners significantly (p 0.05) reduce bacteria ejected from the bowl, and the cleaner containing the greatest amount of surfactant was the most…

  11. Induced-fit catalysis of corannulene bowl-to-bowl inversion.

    PubMed

    Juríček, Michal; Strutt, Nathan L; Barnes, Jonathan C; Butterfield, Anna M; Dale, Edward J; Baldridge, Kim K; Stoddart, J Fraser; Siegel, Jay S

    2014-03-01

    Stereoelectronic complementarity between the active site of an enzyme and the transition state of a reaction is one of the tenets of enzyme catalysis. This report illustrates the principles of enzyme catalysis (first proposed by Pauling and Jencks) through a well-defined model system that has been fully characterized crystallographically, computationally and kinetically. Catalysis of the bowl-to-bowl inversion processes that pertain to corannulene is achieved by combining ground-state destabilization and transition-state stabilization within the cavity of an extended tetracationic cyclophane. This synthetic receptor fulfils a role reminiscent of a catalytic antibody by stabilizing the planar transition state for the bowl-to-bowl inversion of (ethyl)corannulene (which accelerates this process by a factor of ten at room temperature) by an induced-fit mechanism first formulated by Koshland.

  12. Environmental and sequence stratigraphic implications of anhydrite textures: A case from the Lower Triassic of the Central Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleali, M.; Rahimpour-Bonab, H.; Moussavi-Harami, R.; Jahani, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Lower Triassic Kangan Formation in the Persian Gulf (South Pars Gas Field) and its adjacent areas are composed of carbonate-evaporite sequences. These sediments were deposited in a shallow marine homoclinal ramp. Study of the anhydrite-bearing intervals shows various structures and textures. The anhydrite structures are mainly bedded, massive, chicken-wire and nodular type and the main textures are felted, sparse crystal, needle shape, lath shape, equant and fibrous. Pervasive and poikilotopic cement together with replacement and porphyroblastic gypsum are accounted as the most common diagenetic features in anhydrite. Evaluation of anhydrite occurrences and features support both primary and secondary formations. The nodular to chicken-wire anhydrite formed under synsedimentary sabkha conditions, whereas anhydrite cements occurred during the late stages of diagenesis (shallow burial stage). Massive to bedded anhydrite could have been formed under subaqueous conditions or originated by coalescing and continued growth of anhydrite nodules in the sabkha zone. Anhydrite fabrics impose a significant control on the reservoir quality of the Kangan carbonates at the South Pars Gas Field. Thick massive and bedded anhydrite could have been formed as an intraformational seals and anhydrite cements occluded pore spaces and reduced the poroperm values. The sequence stratigraphic analysis revealed two depositional sequences in the studied intervals, which are composed of TST and HST. Investigation of anhydrite throughout depositional sequences indicates a change in the content and style of anhydrite texture. Anhydrite content (volume) decreases upward through transgressive system tract (sea-level rise) whereas, it enhances during highstand system tract (sea-level fall). Pervasive and poikilotopic anhydrite cements together with replacement by anhydrite are prevalent features during transgressive and early highstand system tract. At the late HST, with a progradational stacking

  13. In Situ Observation of Gypsum-Anhydrite Transition at High Pressure and High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuan-Jiang; Zheng, Hai-Fei

    2012-04-01

    An in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum-anhydrite transition under a saturated water condition at high pressure and high temperature is performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). The experimental results show that gypsum dissolvs in water at ambient temperature and above 496 MPa. With increasing temperature, the anhydrite (CaSO4) phase precipitates at 250-320°C in the pressure range of 1.0-1.5GPa, indicating that under a saturated water condition, both stable conditions of pressure and temperature and high levels of Ca and SO4 ion concentrations in aqueous solution are essential for the formation of anhydrite. A linear relationship between the pressure and temperature for the precipitation of anhydrite is established as P(GPa) = 0.0068T-0.7126 (250°C<=T<=320°C). Anhydrite remained stable during rapid cooling of the sample chamber, showing that the gypsum-anhydrite transition involving both dissolution and precipitation processes is irreversible at high pressure and high temperature.

  14. Frictional properties of simulated anhydrite-dolomite fault gouge and implications for seismogenic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymakers, A. M. H.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Spiers, C. J.

    2016-03-01

    The frictional properties of anhydrite-dolomite fault gouges, and the effects of CO2 upon them, are of key importance in assessing the risks associated with CO2 storage in reservoir formations capped by anhydrite-dolomite sequences, and in understanding seismicity occurring in such formations (such as the Italian Apennines). Therefore, we performed velocity-stepping direct-shear experiments on simulated dolomite, anhydrite and 50:50 anhydrite/dolomite gouges, at representative in-situ conditions (120 °C and σne = 25 MPa). They were conducted under vacuum, or else using water or CO2-saturated water as pore fluid (Pf = 15 MPa). Friction coefficients varied between 0.55 and 0.7. All dry samples exhibited velocity-weakening behavior, whereas all wet samples exhibited velocity-strengthening behavior, without or with CO2. This is consistent with trends previously reported for such gouges. A compilation of literature data shows that the transition from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening occurs in these materials between 80 and 120 °C when dry, and between 100 and 150 °C when wet. This implies little seismogenic potential for wet dolomite, anhydrite and mixed gouges under CO2 storage conditions at 2-4 km depth. Seismic slip in the Italian Apennines at depths of ∼6 km and beyond may be explained by the velocity-weakening behavior expected in anhydrite and especially dolomite at temperatures above 150 °C.

  15. Estimating Rheological Parameters of Anhydrite from Folded Evaporite sequences: Implications for Internal Dynamics of Salt Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Salt structures have been identified as a potential target for hydrocarbon, CO2, or radioactive waste storage. The most suitable locations for magazines are considered in the thick and relatively homogeneous rock salt layers. However, salt structures often consist of the evaporite sequence including rock salt intercalated with other rock types e.g.: anhydrite, gypsum, potassium and magnesium salt, calcite, dolomite, or shale. The presence of such heterogeneities causes a serious disturbance in the structure management. Detailed analysis of the internal architecture and internal dynamics of the salt structure are crucial for evaluating them as suitable repositories and also their long-term stability. The goal of this study is to analyse the influence of the presence of anhydrite layers on the internal dynamics of salt structures. Anhydrite is a common rock in evaporite sequences. Its physical and mechanical properties strongly differ from the properties of rock salt. The density of anhydrite is much higher than the density of salt, thus anhydrite is likely to sink in salt causing the disturbance of the surrounding structures. This suggestion was the starting point to the discussion about the long-term stability of the magazines in salt structures [1]. However, the other important parameter that has to be taken into account is the viscosity of anhydrite. The high viscosity ratio between salt and anhydrite can restrain the layer from sinking. The rheological behaviour of anhydrite has been studied in laboratory experiments [2], but the results only provide information about the short-term behaviour. The long-term behaviour can be best predicted using indirect methods e.g. based on the analysis of natural structures that developed over geological time scale. One of the most promising are fold structures, the shape of which is very sensitive to the rheological parameters of the deforming materials. Folds can develop in mechanically stratified materials during layer

  16. High Temperature Magmatic Vapor Deposition of Anhydrite Prior to the 15 June 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, R. T.; Jakubowski, R. T.; Fournelle, J.; Welch, S.; Swope, R.; Camus, P.

    2001-12-01

    Mount Pinatubo's 15 June 1991 climactic eruption initiated a multi-disciplinary investigation that integrated many fields within the earth sciences. Our study followed up on one aspect of the sulfur budget analysis that was not previously studied in detail, an analysis of the anhydrite (CaSO4) phenocrysts (Jakubowski et al., accepted, Am. Min). Anhydrite phenocrysts were separated from two 15 June pumice deposits and were examined by scanning electron microscope. Observations documented include micron-sized and smaller pyramids and lesser numbers of etch pits on anhydrite surfaces. Electron backscatter diffraction patterns conclusively indicate that the pyramidal surface growths are indeed orthorhombic anhydrite and not another calcium sulfate phase. Single crystal X-ray diffraction patterns also indicate that the phenocrysts themselves are orthorhombic anhydrite. This suggests at least a portion of the Pinatubo anhydrite phenocrysts provided substrates for nucleation and epitaxial growth of anhydrite from a water-rich magmatic vapor phase. This is, we suggest, high temperature magmatic vapor deposition (MVD) of anhydrite, a previously unrecognized magmatic process. The anhydrite pyramids closely resemble products of chemical vapor deposition of metals and ceramics. This supports the suggestions of Pallister et al. (1996) and Pasteris et al. (1996) that (at least) a portion of the anhydrite phenocrysts precipitated from a separate fluid phase in the magma, rather from the melt. We modeled the homogenous nucleation of anhydrite from a Pinatubo H2O-CO2-SO2-rich vapor (Gerlach et al., 1996) at 500 bars and NNO+1.7, using the SOLVGAS program. If the gas had >10-9 mol% Ca (and 4 mol% SO2), anhydrite would have precipitated at ~780° C. An isothermal drop in pressure would cause anhydrite dissolution, consistent with a small number of etch pits on some anhydrite phenocrysts and pyramids. The small size of the pyramids suggests that their vapor deposition immediately

  17. Primary Igneous Anhydrite: Progress Since the 1982 El Chichón Eruption (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhr, J. F.

    2006-05-01

    Anhydrite (CaSO4) was confirmed as a stable primary igneous mineral, capable of precipitating from a silicate melt, through petrographic observations of fresh trachyandesitic pumices erupted in the spring of 1982 from El Chichón, a little known, isolated tuff and lava-dome complex in eastern Mexico. The 1982 eruption was also notable for the associated release of an estimated 5-9 megatons of SO2 to the stratosphere and troposphere, as measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer. Subsequent years saw confirmation of primary igneous anhydrite in laboratory phase-equilibrium experiments, and anhydrite was also observed in the products of several subsequent explosive eruptions, most importantly dacitic pumices from the massive 15 June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, in the Philippines. That eruption involved ~5X the mass of magma and ~3X the mass of SO2 release compared to El Chichón's eruption. For both the Pinatubo and El Chichón eruptions, it has been concluded that the sulfur released to the atmosphere was too great in mass to have been dissolved in the erupted melt volume just prior to eruption. In both cases workers advocated the existence of a separate gas phase prior to eruption, where much of the subsequently released sulfur was present. Thus, primary igneous anhydrite has been linked with another important phenomenon: excess sulfur release during volcanic eruptions. This presentation will review other developments concerning primary igneous anhydrite since 1982. These include: (1) other examples of primary anhydrite from volcanic samples (Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia; Lascar, Chile; Sutter Buttes, USA; Eagle Mountain, USA; Shiveluch, Russia; (2) examples of primary anhydrite from plutonic samples (Julcani, Peru; Santa Rita, USA; Cajon Pass Scientific Drillhole, USA); (3) laboratory experiments that have expanded our understanding of the T-P-fO2 conditions of anhydrite stability, melt/vapor partition coefficients for sulfur as a function of these

  18. Anthropogenic Aerosols and the Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazavilan, E. J.; Leibensperger, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We use a general circulation model (GISS GCM ModelE) to study the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the 1930s Dust Bowl. The Dust Bowl was primarily forced by anomalous sea surface temperatures, but may have been partially shaped by the large amounts of black carbon emitted at that time. A simulation using observed 1932-1938 sea surface temperature and sea ice distributions reveal drier and warmer conditions in the central U.S. Adding the influence of 1930s anthropogenic aerosols exacerbates the drying and warm conditions (0.2 °C increase over mid-west continental US, and a decrease of -0.1 mm/day of precipitation). We find that these changes are concurrent with a weakening and shift of the Bermuda High.

  19. Opportunity Dips in to 'Berry Bowl'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Scientists are hunting down the recipe for the 'blueberries' they've discovered on Mars. Taken with the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera on the 45th martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission (March 10, 2004), this image shows the area dubbed 'Berry Bowl,' where many dark and mysterious spherules or 'blueberries' collected in a depression on the surface of a rock. Opportunity is studying the blueberries for clues to their chemical composition with its suite of scientific instruments. 'Berry Bowl' is located within the rock outcrop that lines the inner edge of the crater where the rover landed.

  20. Partially stabilized zirconia piston bowl reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Hartsock, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    The Weibull based ''Simplified Structural Ceramic Design Technique'' was used to calculate the reliability of a partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) piston bowl design. The details of the method and a set of sample calculations are presented. Test results of the piston bowl showed cracks in regions which had a high calculated probability of failure. In addition cracks developed in a region of high compressive/shear stress. Since Weibull reliability analysis only uses tensile stresses this area did not have a high calculated probability of failure. Several hypotheses are presented for the mode of failure in this region. The simplified technique was used to predict what the necessary material properties would have to be for successful PSZ insert of the design shown.

  1. Experimental investigations for the modeling of chemo-mechanical processes of anhydritic rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Tara; Pimentel, Erich; Anagnostou, Georg

    2015-04-01

    When anhydritic rock comes into contact with water, the anhydrite dissolves and gypsum precipitates as a result of an oversaturation of the sulphate and calcium ions in the water. This anhydrite to gypsum transformation (AGT) leads to an increase in the solid volume by roughly 61% and possibly also of the pore volume, thus resulting in macroscopic swelling. In tunneling, swelling rock can cause massive damage, since it can exhibit high pressures on the lining or result in large deformations of the lining. Even though this phenomenon has already been observed more than a century ago, AGT in sulphatic rock still raises many open questions. One question we focus on is the mechanical (i.e. stress, strain) behavior of anhydritic rock during swelling. The coupled chemo-mechanical processes, i.e. the development of stresses and strains during AGT, has not been fully understood so far. A chemo-mechanical model must be considered which take anhydrite dissolution, gypsum precipitation as well as stresses and strains into account. In this contribution we present some fundamental research which was done in order to establish a relationship between AGT and the resulting or applied strains and stresses. The research contains experiments on samples consisting of anhydrite and kaolin under oedometric conditions. In order to reduce uncertainties due to swelling of clay as well as inhomogeneous compositions and structures of the natural rock samples, the experiments at the present stage of this research are performed on artificially created, reproducible samples. The samples contain 40% industrial anhydritic powder and 60% Polwhite E Chinaclay (of which the main component is kaolinite). The powders are mixed and compacted in a steel ring under high axial pressure, thus creating intact discs with a dry density of roughly 1.9 g/cm3. In a first series of Oedometer tests the swelling strain under various constant axial stress is measured until the maximal strain is reached. At the

  2. Anhydrite diagenesis in a vegetated sabkha, Al-Khiran, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunatilaka, A.

    1990-11-01

    In the Al-Khiran sabkha, supratidal anhydrite occurs in three distinct morphological forms: (a) hair-cream anhydrite which occurs exclusively in association with the halophyte Halocnemum strobilaceum; and (b) nodular/laminated cottage cheese anhydrite which is associated with a bacterial-cyanobacterial mat. The former occurs as a massive layer up to 4 cm thick with the ahydrite initially pseudomorphing gypsum crystals: while in the latter the layers are up to 7 cm thick and the anhydrite occurs as microcrystalline laths giving an aphanitic texture; (c) sub-aqueous anhydrite formed by the alteration of prismatic gypsum crystals growing in drainage channels. On the death of the halophyte the gypsum (G) _rlhar2; anhydrite (A) metastable equilibrium is upset and the hair-cream anhydrite undergoes a reverse transformation to microcrystalline alabastrine secondary gypsum followed by gypcrust formation. The above changes result in a series of characteristic diagenetic textures that were studied in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The major diagenetic mechanism during the G _rlhar2; A transformation is a dissolution-reprecipitation process that is only partially controlled by physico-chemical factors. A climatic and biological influence also plays a significant role in this sometimes annual change, depending on the rainfall intensity. In contrast, type (b) shows better preservation potential. The intimate relationship between the plant and its "soil water" requirements results in a particular hydrodynamic behaviour of the capillary groundwater brines in the vadose zone. Hence, it is inferred that the individual diagenetic stages are also correlatable with the changing hydrological conditions of the sabkha. Type (c) represents a rare occurrence in sabkhas and is more akin to some deeper water occurrences, albeit on a very small scale. Anhydrite is always formed after a gypsum precursor, and under predictable physico-chemical conditions (an average annual

  3. Lumbo-pelvic loading during fast bowling in adolescent cricketers: the influence of bowling speed and technique.

    PubMed

    Crewe, Helen; Campbell, Amity; Elliott, Bruce; Alderson, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in bowling technique and lumbar load over the course of a bowling spell in adolescent fast bowlers, and to investigate the relationship between lumbar loads during fast bowling and kinematic factors which have previously been associated with low back injury. Three-dimensional motion analysis was carried out on forty participants who performed an 8-over bowling spell. There were no significant changes in bowling technique or lumbar loads over the course of the spell. Bowling with a more extended front knee, faster ball release speed and increased shoulder counter-rotation were related to increased lumbo-pelvic loading - in particular peak transverse plane rotation moments and anterior-posterior shear forces. These lumbar loads may be a factor in low back injury aetiology and future studies should investigate the relationship between lumbar loading, injury incidence and other risk factors.

  4. The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction: A lethal mechanism involving anhydrite target rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Chicxulub Crater, Yucatan, Mexico, is a leading contender as the site for the impact event that caused the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinctions. A considerable thickness of anhydrite (CaSO4) forms part of the target rock. High temperatures resulting from impact would drive SO2 off from the anhydrite. Hundreds of billions of tonnes of sulfuric acid aerosol would thus enter the stratosphere and cause considerable cooling of the Earth's surface, decrease photosynthesis by orders of magnitude, deplete the ozone layer, and permit increased UV radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Finally, the aerosol would fall back to Earth as acid rain and devastate land and some lacustrine biota and near-surface marine creatures. The presence of anhydrite in the Chicxulub target rock may thus help explain the many extinctions observed at the K-T boundary. ?? 1992.

  5. Solar bowl research results (February 1983-May). Results on solar bowl technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Research on the Fixed Mirror Distributed Focus solar thermal technology, or solar bowl technology, needed for a solar-steam electric power plant is presented. Wind loads, dust erosion, fluid flow, solar optical power concentration, and mirror panel testing are all discussed separately. The research was performed at Texas Tech University. (BCS)

  6. Replacive sulfide formation in anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Catharina; Bach, Wolfgang; Plümper, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal flow within the oceanic crust is an important process for the exchange of energy and mass between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Infiltrated seawater heats up and interacts with wall rock, causing mineral replacement reactions. These play a large role in the formation of ore deposits; at the discharge zone, a hot, acidic and metal-rich potential ore fluid exits the crust. It mixes with seawater and forms chimneys, built up of sulfate minerals such as anhydrite (CaSO4), which are subsequently replaced by sulfide minerals. Sulfide formation is related to fluid pathways, defined by cracks and pores in the sulfate chimney. Over time, these systems might develop into massive sulfide deposits. The big question is then: how is sulfate-sulfide replacement related to the evolution of rock porosity? To address this question, sulfide-bearing anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field (Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea) were studied using X-ray tomography, EMPA, FIB-SEM and -TEM. The apparently massive anhydrite turns out highly porous on the micro scale, with sulfide minerals in anhydrite cleavage planes and along grain boundaries. The size of the sulfide grains relates to the pores they grew into, suggesting a tight coupling between dissolution (porosity generation) and growth of replacive minerals. Some of the sulfide grains are hollow and apparently used the dissolving anhydrite as a substrate to start growth in a pore. Another mode of sulfide development is aggregates of euhedral pyrite cores surrounded by colloform chalcopyrite. This occurrence implies that fluid pathways have remained open for some time to allow several stages of precipitation during fluid evolution. To start the replacement and to keep it going, porosity generation is crucial. Our samples show that dissolution of anhydrite occurred along pathways where fluid could enter, such as cleavage planes and grain boundaries. It appears that fluids ascending within the inner

  7. High-pressure and high-temperature study of the phase transition in anhydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y. M.; Zhou, Q.; He, Z.; Li, F. F.; Yang, K. F.; Cui, Q. L.; Zou, G. T.

    2007-10-01

    The high-pressure and high-temperature behaviors of anhydrite (CaSO4) are studied up to 53.5 GPa and 1800 K using double-sided laser heating Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction in diamond anvil cells. The evidence of phase transition from an anhydrite structure to the monazite type was observed at about 2 GPa under cold compression. Another phase transition and a change in color of the sample from transparent to black have been also observed at a pressure of 33.2 GPa after laser heating. The new phase after laser heating persists to 53.5 GPa and 1800 K.

  8. Extended Corannulenes: Aromatic Bowl/Sheet Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Amit K; Linden, Anthony; Zoppi, Laura; Baldridge, Kim K; Siegel, Jay S

    2015-09-07

    Among sheet/sheet polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) hybrids, a buckybowl-graphene hybrid has been used as a model to explore the effects of physical properties of PAHs with distinct planar and bowl regions. Activation of a C(Ar)-F bond was used to synthesize this corannulene/graphenic hybrid. Photophysical and voltammetric studies together with high-level computations revealed curvature and extended π-effects on the properties of these materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Physiological responses and bowling performance during repeated spells of medium-fast bowling.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Rob; Carney, Mitchell; Karppinen, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physiological and performance responses during repeated 6-over fast-bowling spells. Six, first-class, medium-fast bowlers performed 2x6-over spells separated by 45 min of light activity. The 6-over spells were based on the Cricket Australia fast bowling skills test that is a set order of deliveries at a grid-based target. Ball speed, accuracy and full and final 5-m run-up speed were measured on each ball. Nude mass, heart rate, core temperature, capillary blood lactate, pH and glucose, perceptual measures of RPE and muscle soreness (MS) and repeated vertical jump efforts were measured prior to, during and following each spell. Results indicated no decrement (P=0.41) and small effect sizes (d<0.2) in bowling speed (125.7+/-5.1 and 125.4+/-4.5 km.h(-1)) or accuracy (40.4+/-16.1 and 41.6+/-18.0 AU) between spells 1 and 2. No differences (P=0.6-0.8) were present between spells for heart rate, core temperature, lactate, pH, glucose, RPE, MS or vertical jump. Only final 5-m run-up speed showed a large correlation with ball speed (r=0.70), while accuracy and speed were not correlated (r=0.05). In conclusion, repeated 6-over spells in well-trained bowlers results in minimal performance decrement in mild conditions (22 degrees C). As faster bowlers had faster final 5-m run-up speeds, the maintenance of high final 5-m run-up speeds might be important to maintaining bowling speed. Future research should also include a third bowling spell and warmer environmental conditions.

  10. Botanical reconnaissance of The Bowl Research Natural Area.

    Treesearch

    Lee E. Carbonneau; Sarah D. Allen

    1995-01-01

    The Bowl Research Natural Area is a 206-ha old-growth forest in the White Mountain National Forest of New Hampshire. Elevations range from approximately 580 m along Wonalancet Brook to 1,215 m at the summit of Mt. Whiteface. Vascular vegetation in four Ecological Land Types (ELT's) of the Bowl was characterized on 12 plots and during qualitative meander surveys....

  11. Bowl-a-Fact: A Numbers Fact Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoecraft, Paul

    1982-01-01

    A game designed as a take-off on tenpin bowling is described which allows children to review all four operations while playing. Three dice are rolled and a pin is knocked down when numbers can be combined to the value of that pin position. Scoring is similar to standard bowling. (MP)

  12. Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

  13. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-10 Sump or siphon bowl. A sump or siphon bowl may be in the bottom of the inner tank shell if— (a) It is formed...

  14. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-10 Sump or siphon bowl. A sump or siphon bowl may be in the bottom of the inner tank shell if— (a) It is formed...

  15. Bowl Inversion and Electronic Switching of Buckybowls on Gold.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shintaro; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-09-21

    Bowl-shaped π-conjugated compounds, or buckybowls, are a novel class of sp(2)-hybridized nanocarbon materials. In contrast to tubular carbon nanotubes and ball-shaped fullerenes, the buckybowls feature structural flexibility. Bowl-to-bowl structural inversion is one of the unique properties of the buckybowls in solutions. Bowl inversion on a surface modifies the metal-molecule interactions through bistable switching between bowl-up and bowl-down states on the surface, which makes surface-adsorbed buckybowls a relevant model system for elucidation of the mechano-electronic properties of nanocarbon materials. Here, we report a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements and ab initio atomistic simulations to identify the adlayer structure of the sumanene buckybowl on Au(111) and reveal its unique bowl inversion behavior. We demonstrate that the bowl inversion can be induced by approaching the STM tip toward the molecule. By tuning the local metal-molecule interaction using the STM tip, the sumanene buckybowl exhibits structural bistability with a switching rate that is two orders of magnitude faster than that of the stochastic inversion process.

  16. Future STEM Leaders Prepare for the National Science Bowl

    ScienceCinema

    Benjamin, Angela

    2016-07-12

    Each year, students from across the country converge on Washington, DC, for the National Science Bowl, an intense academic competition that tests the students' knowledge in science, engineering, chemistry, math and Earth science. Follow one team, from Washington DC's Woodrow Wilson High School, as they prepare for and compete in the 2014 National Science Bowl.

  17. Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

  18. Future STEM Leaders Prepare for the National Science Bowl

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Angela

    2014-06-11

    Each year, students from across the country converge on Washington, DC, for the National Science Bowl, an intense academic competition that tests the students' knowledge in science, engineering, chemistry, math and Earth science. Follow one team, from Washington DC's Woodrow Wilson High School, as they prepare for and compete in the 2014 National Science Bowl.

  19. The shoulder distraction force in cricket fast bowling.

    PubMed

    Stuelcken, Max C; Ferdinands, René E D; Ginn, Karen A; Sinclair, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    This preliminary study aimed to quantify the magnitude of the peak shoulder distraction force during the bowling action of female cricket fast bowlers. An eight camera Vicon motion analysis system operating at 120 Hz recorded the fast bowling actions of 18 Australian female fast bowlers. A three segment inverse solution model of the bowling arm was used to calculate the shoulder distraction force. A large peak shoulder distraction force was recorded during the early stages of the follow-through of the bowling action. When normalized for body weight, the distraction force was within the range of values reported for baseball and softball pitchers, who are considered to be at high risk of shoulder injury. Therefore, the relative importance of the peak shoulder distraction force in the fast bowling action for the development of shoulder pain in female cricket fast bowlers warrants further investigation.

  20. Diagenetic compaction of simulated anhydrite fault gouge under static conditions and implications for fault healing behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymakers, A.; Peach, C. J.; Spiers, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    For geological storage of CO2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs to be effective, the stored gas must remain isolated from the atmosphere for thousands of years. Faults that cut the reservoir/seal system are considered one of the most likely leakage pathways, especially if fault reactivation leads to fault dilation. However, when fault movement ceases, newly formed fault gouge will heal as a function of time. To estimate the time scale on which such healing occurs, an understanding of the deformation mechanisms that control fault (gouge) compaction is needed. Anhydrite is a common caprock in many oil and gas fields around the world and in the Netherlands in particular, where anhydrite-capped reservoirs present several options for CO2 storage. For this reason, we performed uniaxial compaction experiments on simulated anhydrite fault gouge to investigate the deformation and healing processes that operate under simulated post-slip conditions, i.e. static conditions. The gouge was prepared by crushing and sieving nearly pure anhydrite (>95wt%) derived from exploration boreholes in the north of the Netherlands. Constant stress (5-12 MPa) and stress stepping experiments (5/7.5/10 MPa) were conducted at 80°C on fault gouge samples of different initial grain size (20-500μm), under both wet and dry conditions. We also performed preliminary experiments to determine the effect of CO2 on the healing behaviour of anhydrite gouge. Dry samples showed little or no compaction creep, whereas wet samples (i.e. samples flooded with saturated CaSO4 solution) showed compaction at easily measureable rates. In the case of wet samples, our mechanical data and microstructural observations showed that, for fine grain sizes and low stresses, the rate of gouge compaction is controlled by pressure solution under diffusion-control. With increasing grain size and stress, however, fluid-assisted subcritical microcracking becomes the dominant deformation mechanism. Pressurizing the pore fluid

  1. Frictional healing in simulated anhydrite fault gouges: effects of water and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymakers, Anne; Bakker, Elisenda; Samuelson, Jon; Spiers, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Currently, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs are in many ways considered ideal for storage of CO2 and other gases. Faults are of major importance to CO2 storage because of their potential as leakage pathways, and also due to the possible seismic risk associated with fault reactivation. Both in the Netherlands and worldwide, anhydrite-rich rocks are a common topseal for many potential storage sites, making it likely that crosscutting faults will contain fault gouges rich in anhydrite. In order to assess the likelihood of fault reactivation and/or fault leakage, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the fault strength, velocity dependence and of the potential to regain frictional strength after fault movement (healing behavior) of anhydrite fault gouge. Starting with a natural anhydrite (>95wt% CaSO4), with minor quantities of dolomite (<5wt% (Ca,Mg)CO3), we conducted direct shear experiments on simulated anhydrite fault gouges with both a slide-hold-slide and velocity-stepping sequences. Pore fluid phase was varied (air, vacuum, water, dry/wet CO2), and pressure and temperature conditions used are representative for potential CO2 storage sites, with an effective normal stress of 25 MPa, a temperature of 120°C and, where used, a pore fluid pressure of 15 MPa. First results indicate that frictional healing in anhydrite is strongly influenced by the presence of water. Dry fault gouges exhibit no measurable frictional healing for hold times up to 1 hour, whereas wet gouges show significant healing and stress relaxation, even for short duration hold periods (30s), suggesting a fluid-assisted process such as pressure solution might be of importance. Interestingly, while many materials exhibit a log-linear dependence of frictional drop on hold time (i.e. "Dieterich-type" healing), our results for wet gouge indicate a non-linear increase of frictional drop with increasing hold time. To determine if pressure solution controls frictional healing we will perform

  2. Complex deformation associated with anhydrite layers in the Tromsø Basin, SW Barents Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfo, George; Olakunle Omosanya, Kamaldeen; Johansen, Ståle Emil; Zervas, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Internal and external deformation associated with salt structures is of prime interest due to their economic importance as hydrocarbon seals, reservoirs, repositories for chemical waste and their implication on drilling. Salt structures are often associated with anhydrites, which may 'cap' or are enclosed within the allochthonous salt structures. Despite their economic importance, the internal and external structures of evaporites remain poorly studied from field and seismic data due to the sparse outcrops of evaporites and poor seismic imaging. The zero-phased, normal polarity, high resolution multiple 2D seismic data, in combination with detailed interpretation of wireline logs provide an excellent study into the salt structures, and offers a good opportunity to investigate the dynamics, geometries and mechanisms driving deformation of internal and external salt layers associated with the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian Salt structures in the Tromsø Basin. The methods include seismic interpretation and the application of multiple seismic attributes to map stratigraphic units and discontinuities. Our results show that the anhydrite layers are marked by high amplitude reflections at the crests and flanks or fully enclosed within the salt diapirs. Crestal and lateral anhydrite caprocks represent external salt structures whilst the entrained anhydrites or stringers are intrasalt structures. Anhydrite caprocks generally show structural styles such as faults and large-scale folds which are harmonic to the top salt structure. In contrast, anhydrite stringers show folds of varying scale, which are harmonic to disharmonic to the top salt structure. Boudins and steeply dipping stringer fragments are also interpreted within the stringers. Caprock deformation is attributed to salt upwelling. Folding and boudinaging of originally horizontal and continuous stringer layers formed from a multiphase superimposed sequence of ductile and brittle deformation in response to

  3. Anhydrite in the 1989 1990 lavas and xenoliths from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, S. E.; Kearney, C. S.

    2008-08-01

    The eruption of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska produced a moderate sulfur emission (estimated at 1 × 10 tons SO 2), but relatively small volume of lava (0.11 km ) with pre-eruption estimates of 840-950 °C and fO 21.5 to 2.0 log units above NNO (Swanson, S.E., Nye, C.J., Miller, T.P., Avery, V.F., 1994. Magma mixing in the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano: Part II. Evidence from mineral and glass chemistry. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 62, 453-468). Petrologic estimates of sulfur production (Sigurdsson, H., Devine, J.D.,Davis, A.N., 1985. The petrologic estimation of volcanic degassing. Jokull 35, 1-8) from this eruption (Gerlach, T., Westrich, H.R., Casadevall, T.J., Finnegan, D.L., 1994. Vapor Saturation and accumulation in magmas of the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 62, 317-337) are considerably less than the measured sulfur emission, leading workers to propose the existence of a pre-eruption vapor phase to explain the "excess" sulfur. Initial examination of the 1989-1990 Redoubt eruptive products reported anhydrite (Nye, C.J., Swanson, S.E., Avery, V.F., Miller, T.P., 1994. Geochemistry of the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano: Part I, whole-rock, major- and trace-element chemistry. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 62, 429-452.) in interstitial glass from some cognate gabbroic xenoliths, but anhydrite was not noted in any of the andesites. A Boeing 747 encountered the ash plume from the initial eruptive phase on December 15, 1989 and provided ash samples that reportedly contained gypsum (Bayhurst, G.K., Wohletz, K.H., Mason, A.S., 1994. A method for characterizing volcanic ash from the December 15, 1989, eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2047, 13-17). However, the identification was based on EDS analyses on a SEM and the mineral could have been anhydrite. Reexamination of the 1989-1990 Redoubt lavas and xenoliths revealed the

  4. Numerical simulation of pore size dependent anhydrite precipitation in geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mürmann, Mario; Kühn, Michael; Pape, Hansgeorg; Clauser, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Porosity and permeability of reservoirs are key parameters for an economical use of hot water from geothermal installations and can be significantly reduced by precipitation of minerals, such as anhydrite. The borehole Allermöhe 1 near Hamburg (Germany) represents a failed attempt of geothermal heat mining due to anhydrite precipitation (Baermann et al. 2000). For a risk assessment of future boreholes it is essential to understand how and when anhydrite cementation occurred under reservoir conditions. From core samples of the Allermöhe borehole it was determined that anhydrite precipitation took place in regions of relatively high porosity while regions of low porosity remained uncemented (Wagner et al. 2005). These findings correspond to the fact that e.g. halite precipitation in porous media is found only in relatively large pores (Putnis and Mauthe 2001). This study and others underline that pore size controls crystallization and that it is therefore necessary to establish a relation between pore size and nucleation. The work presented here is based on investigations of Emmanuel and Berkowitz (2007) who present such a relation by applying a thermodynamic approach. However this approach cannot explain the heterogeneous precipitation observed in the Allermöhe core samples. We chose an advanced approach by considering electric system properties resulting in another relation between pore size and crystallization. It is well known that a high fluid supersaturation can be maintained in porous rocks (Putnis and Mauthe 2001). This clearly indicates that a supersaturation threshold exists exceeding thermodynamic equilibrium considerably. In order to quantify spatially heterogeneous anhydrite cementation a theoretical approach was chosen which considered the electric interaction between surface charges of the matrix and calcium and sulphate ions in the fluid. This approach was implemented into the numerical code SHEMAT (Clauser 2003) and used to simulate anhydrite

  5. Nature Bowl: A Strategy for Learning Motivation and Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Describes the events, and educational strategies used in the events, that make up the Nature Bowl, California's largest third- through sixth-grade competition focusing on regional ecology, natural history, environmental issues, and natural resources conservation. (LZ)

  6. Bowling balls and elastic collisions—the answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Featonby, D.; Szczygielska, A.

    2014-07-01

    In our article (Featonby and Szczygielska 2014 Phys. Educ. 49 364) we asked questions about bowling balls in an elastic collision, with some additional conservation physics. Here we discuss the answers.

  7. Locking the bowl-shaped geometry of corannulene. Cyclopentacorannulene

    SciTech Connect

    Abdourazak, A.H.; Sygula, A.; Rabideau, P.W. )

    1993-04-07

    The discovery that buckminsterfullerene, C[sub 60], is a stable molecule due to geodesic and electronic properties inherent in the truncated icosahedral cage structure has generated a renewed interest in hydrocarbons with curved surfaces. The carbon framework of corannulene, which can be considered to represent the polar cap of buckminsterfullerene, is surprisingly flexible. In spite of its substantial curvature, corannulene undergoes rapid bowl-to-bowl inversion in solution, and this raises the question as to how many additional fused rings on the corannulene structure will be required to lock the bowl conformation. Herein we provide the answer that the bowl becomes rigid, at aleast on the NMR time scale, with only the addition of two carbons in a fused five-membered ring. 12 refs.

  8. NAGWS Bowling-Fencing Guide, January 1977-January 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knierim, Helen

    This manual is designed for use by coaches of bowling and fencing. Rules and regulations are outlined, and game strategies and teaching techniques are discussed. A bibliography for each sport is included. (JD)

  9. Comparison on Piston Bowl Shape Effect to Diesel Spray Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Sadikin, Azmahani Binti; Norrizam Mohmad Ja'at, Md; Khalid, Amir

    2017-08-01

    Piston bowl geometry plays an important role on the combustion characteristics of diesel engine. There are various design of piston bowl in which each utilize the shape geometry to obtaining the specific required combustion characteristics. This objective of this study is to compare the effect of certain piston bowl shapes, namely Toroidal and Flat Bottom to diesel spray development. Simulation were done using ANSYS FLUENT 16.1 software Computing Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The simulation was performed on different injection pressure of 40 MPa and 100 MPa, with the ambient temperature in the combustion chamber that holding the piston is at 500K and 900K. Results showed that if the pressure and ambient temperature increases, the spray body expand outward from the spray center axis with wider spray cone angle. In addition, the geometry shape of the piston bowl influences the spray velocity distribution and the spray propagation path, indirectly effect the spray area and mass fraction distribution.

  10. A bowl-shaped phosphine as a ligand in palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of aryl chlorides: effect of the depth of the bowl.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hidetoshi; Tokunaga, Makoto; Obora, Yasushi; Iwai, Tomohiro; Iwasawa, Tetsuo; Fujihara, Tetsuaki; Tsuji, Yasushi

    2007-01-04

    [reaction: see text] Bowl-shaped phosphine ligands were found to be highly effective in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of unactivated aryl chlorides, in which the depth of the bowl affected the catalytic activity considerably.

  11. Whole blood analysis rotor assembly having removable cellular sedimentation bowl

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.

    1975-08-26

    A rotor assembly for performing photometric analyses using whole blood samples is described. Following static loading of a gross blood sample within a centrally located, removable, cell sedimentation bowl, the red blood cells in the gross sample are centrifugally separated from the plasma, the plasm displaced from the sedimentation bowl, and measured subvolumes of plasma distributed to respective sample analysis cuvettes positioned in an annular array about the rotor periphery. Means for adding reagents to the respective cuvettes are also described. (auth)

  12. Frequencies of solar activity in laminated anhydrite of Upper Permian age (Zechstein-cycle 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiete, M.; Berner, U.

    2003-04-01

    Upper Permian Zechstein contains seven evaporitic cycles that were deposited in an epicontinental sea expanding from E-England to Poland. Zechstein-cycles 1 to 3 show a sequence of marine pelite, overlain by marine carbonate and evaporites (in the order sulfate, halite containing possibly anhydrite and potassium salts, and regressive sulphate at the top). Whereas the marginal facies of the lower sulphate horizon of Zechstein-cycle 2 (Stassfurt cycle) consists of massive anhydrite, its basin facies shows in the lower part a fine lamination of white anhydrite alternating with thin black organic carbon rich layers. These laminations are supposed to be annually deposited layers. The black laminae originate from the annual bloom of algae. Layer thickness is about 0.4 to 1.0 mm and increases from basin centre to more marginal positions. The individual layers can be traced over 300 km within the NW-German Basin. The previously described variability of layer thickness requires a forcing mechanism that is effective over long distances and must be also highly periodic. Also, varying layer thicknesses indicate varying anhydrite precipitation, i. e. probably changes in water temperatures which in turn point to climatic influences on the deposition of the layers. Here we re-examined records of cycle thickness (up to 700 laminae) determined by G. Richter-Bernburg in the 1950ties using modern techniques of time series analysis, e. g. wavelet analysis. We could detect cycles with periods of 10-14 years and 90 years which are close to known cycles of solar activity.

  13. Database of Mechanical and Hydrological Properties of WIPP Anhydrite Derived from Laboratory-Scale Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the purpose of demonstrating safe management, storage, and disposal of radioactive transuranic (TRU) waste generated by U.S. defense programs. The WIPP is located in southeastern New Mexico, and the underground facilities of the WIPP (i.e., experimental rooms, disposal rooms, etc.) are sited in the bedded salt of the Salado Formation at a depth of about 660 meters. The DOE has authorized the continuance of scientific research and engineering analysis related to the performance of the WIPP repository. One area of additional research relates to characterization of the mechanical and hydrological properties of anhydrite interbeds within the Salado Formation. These anhydrite interbeds have been penetrated by the shafts that provide access to the underground facilities and also lie in close proximity to the proposed radioactive waste disposal rooms at the repository horizon. Properties of particular interest are mechanical strength, deforrnational behavior, and fluid transport properties such as permeability. These properties will be used in calculationskmalyses of the mechanical and hydrological behavior of the anhydrite, in particular, and the shaft sealing system and disposal rooms, in general.

  14. Seismogenic Potential of Anhydrite-Carbonate Fault Gouge Sensitive to Pore Fluid Composition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunfeld, L. B.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Spiers, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Anhydrite-carbonate fault gouges show rapid changes in the velocity dependence of friction with temperature that are directly relevant to understanding both induced and natural seismic rupture in formations of this composition. This sensitivity to temperature raises questions about the controlling deformation mechanisms and whether these might be affected by pore fluid composition. We performed direct shear experiments on simulated fault gouge prepared from anhydrite-carbonate caprock supplied from the seismogenic Groningen gas field (by gas-producer NAM), varying pore fluid salinity, pH, and gas/brine ratio. We investigated temperatures in the range 50-150 °C at 40 MPa effective normal stress and sliding velocities of 0.1-10 mu/s. Results showed frictional strength was unaffected by pore brine chemistry and temperature, but increased from 0.64 to 0.74 in methane- and air-saturated samples. However, the rate-dependence of friction was highly sensitive to all variables investigated, showing velocity-weakening behaviour at low pore fluid salinity, at high pore fluid pH, when (partially) dry, and at high temperature (150°C). These results imply increased seismic potential for anhydrite-carbonate fault rocks at depths >3-5 km, especially compared to clastic gouges which show velocity-strengthening under similar conditions. The controlling mechanisms remain unresolved but fluid-rock interaction clearly plays a key role.

  15. Discovery Served Up in a Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera is an approximate true-color rendering of the exceptional rock called 'Berry Bowl' in the 'Eagle Crater' outcrop. The study of this 'blueberry-strewn' area and the identification of hematite as the major iron-bearing element within these sphere-like grains helped scientists confirm their hypothesis that the hematite in these martian spherules was deposited in water. To separately analyze the mineralogical content of three main features within this area -- blueberries, dust and rock -- it was important that the rock abrasion tool's brush was able to rest on a relatively berry-free spot. The rock's small size and crowd of berries made the 10-minute brushing a challenge to plan and execute. The successful brushing on the target whimsically referred to as 'Near Empty' on the rover's 48th sol on Mars left a dust-free impression for subsequent examination by the rover's spectrometers. No grinding was necessary on the rock because spectral data obtained on the dust-free surface were sufficient to verify that the rock's chemical composition differs significantly from the hematite-rich berries.

  16. Discovery Served Up in a Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera is an approximate true-color rendering of the exceptional rock called 'Berry Bowl' in the 'Eagle Crater' outcrop. The study of this 'blueberry-strewn' area and the identification of hematite as the major iron-bearing element within these sphere-like grains helped scientists confirm their hypothesis that the hematite in these martian spherules was deposited in water. To separately analyze the mineralogical content of three main features within this area -- blueberries, dust and rock -- it was important that the rock abrasion tool's brush was able to rest on a relatively berry-free spot. The rock's small size and crowd of berries made the 10-minute brushing a challenge to plan and execute. The successful brushing on the target whimsically referred to as 'Near Empty' on the rover's 48th sol on Mars left a dust-free impression for subsequent examination by the rover's spectrometers. No grinding was necessary on the rock because spectral data obtained on the dust-free surface were sufficient to verify that the rock's chemical composition differs significantly from the hematite-rich berries.

  17. Determination of pressure from measured Raman frequency shifts of anhydrite and its application in fluid inclusions and HDAC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xueyin; Mayanovic, Robert A.; Zheng, Haifei

    2016-12-01

    A new geobarometry was derived from the quantified relationships among Raman vibrational frequencies of anhydrite, pressure and temperature, as determined from in-situ micro-Raman spectroscopy of natural anhydrite crystals measured at p-T conditions up to 560 °C and 1400 MPa by using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). With this geobarometry, the pressure in HDAC experiments and in anhydrite-bearing fluid inclusions can be determined directly from the ν1, 1016, ν3, 1128 and ν3, 1160 Raman frequency shifts of anhydrite at high p-T conditions relative to their values measured at ambient conditions. The pressure can be determined to an accuracy of better than 30 MPa based on the attainable accuracy of ±0.1 cm-1 for the fitted ν1 Raman peak positions, provided the measured spectra are calibrated using the emission peak of an external fluorescent light source. The feasibility and reliability of this geobarometry were verified by rebuilding the p-T history of two fluid inclusions from the ν1 frequency shifts of anhydrite daughter minerals from room to high temperatures, and by measuring the phase-transition pressures of calcite-CaCO3(II)-CaCO3(III) sequence at ambient temperature in a HDAC experiment using anhydrite as a Raman pressure sensor.

  18. Screen bowl centrifuge: a high-efficiency particle size separator

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, M.K.; Zhang, B.; Khanna, N.; Palit, A.; Dube, B.

    2008-05-15

    Over the years, screen bowl centrifuges have been widely used for dewatering fine coal in coal preparation plants in the United States and elsewhere. It is generally recognized in the engineering and scientific communities that screen bowl centrifuges provide some degree of particle size separation while dewatering fine coal in a common application. However, the extent of differential partitioning of coarse and fine particles achievable by a screen bowl centrifuge has not been systematically studied in the past. The present investigation was aimed at conducting a parametric study using a statistically designed experimental program to better understand and optimize the size classification performance of a screen bowl centrifuge. A continuously operating screen bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 0.5 m was used for this study at the Illinois Coal Development Park. Three key operating parameters, i.e., feed flow rate, feed solid content and pool depth, were varied to conduct a total of 17 experiments using a three-level factorial test matrix. Some of the best size separation performances achieved in this study may be described as having an imperfection value of 0.13 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 38 mu m and an imperfection value of 0.27 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 2.8 mu m. Due to an effective separation of ultrafine high ash materials, the ash content of the screen bowl feed was reduced from 22.3% to a minimum of 8.84% with a combustible recovery of 84.1% and an ash rejection of 71.6%. A higher combustible recovery of 92.1% was achieved at a product ash content of 12.5% with a d(50c) of 2.8 mu m and imperfection of 0.27.

  19. Effects of anhydrite precipitation on hydrothermal convection patterns at fast-spreading ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruepke, Lars; Hasenclever, Joerg

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in hydrothermal modeling capabilities have revealed the key thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic controls on hydrothermal convection patterns and vent temperatures at oceanic spreading centers. The observed upper limit to black smoker vent temperatures of approx. 400°C can be explained by the thermodynamic properties of water (Jupp and Schultz, 2000). Likewise, 3D models of hydrothermal flow at fast-spreading ridges show cylindrical upwellings with adjacent warm recharge flow (Coumou et al., 2008). This close relation between dis- and recharge flow implies that hydrothermal convection cells have a relatively short wavelength (~500m), which is difficult to reconcile with ideas on elongated along-axis convection cells proposed for the East Pacific Rise (Tolstoy et al., 2008) and with the irregular spacing of hydrothermal sites along ridge segments. One possible additional process controlling the spacing/wavelength of hydrothermal convection cells may be chemical precipitation reactions. A key reaction in hydrothermal systems is the precipitation of anhydrite. In recharge zones, heating of 1 kg of seawater to approx. 350°C results in the precipitation of roughly 1.4 g of anhydrite, which is buffered by the amount of calcium dissolved in seawater. More significant may be the precipitation of anhydrate when calcium-rich hydrothermal fluids mix with sulfate rich seawater. A consequence of anhydrite precipitation is the progressive clogging of pore space, which in turn affects permeability and thereby hydrothermal flow. We have implemented the above processes into 2D and 3D hydrothermal flow models and will present first results of how chemical reactions can affect hydrothermal flow patterns at fast-spreading ridges.

  20. Permeability Evolution of Fractured Anhydrite Caused by Chemical and Mechanical Alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. L.; Elkhoury, J. E.; Ameli, P.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration requires competent structural seals (caprock) to prevent leakage over decadal time scales. Injection of large volumes of CO2 perturbs the target formation from chemical and mechanical equilibrium leading to the possible creation or enhancement of leakage pathways. We investigate the potential for leakage pathways (fractures) to grow over time under reservoir conditions in a series of anhydrite (Ca2SO4) cores. To simulate a potential leakage event in the laboratory, we fractured and jacketed the cores, and placed them in a flow-through reactor vessel. A high-pressure syringe pump applied confining stresses ranging from 7 to 17 MPa and another syringe pump pushed water through the sample at a constant flow rate with pressure control at the outlet. Effluent was sampled periodically and analyzed for Ca2+ and SO42- using an ion chromatograph. Before and after each experiment, we characterized the surfaces of the fractures using a high-resolution optical profilometer and a scanning electron microscope. Careful alignment of the surfaces during optical profiling allowed reproduction of the fracture aperture before and after each experiment. We present results from several experiments each carried out under different conditions in similar fractured anhydrite cores. One involved a well-mated pre-existing fracture and results showed that the permeability of the fractured core was similar to the intact rock matrix (O(10-18 m2); chemical alteration of the core was largely limited to the inflow face of the core and the fracture surfaces remained largely unaltered. To enhance permeability during subsequent experiments, we imposed a small (380 μm) shear displacement between the fracture surfaces resulting in a four-order-of-magnitude increase in initial permeability. The first of these was run at a constant flow rate of 0.6 ml/min for a period of 7 days. The measured pressure gradient within the core increased slowly for a period of 4 days followed

  1. Healing and sliding stability of simulated anhydrite fault gouge: Effects of water, temperature and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymakers, Anne M. H.; Niemeijer, André R.

    2015-08-01

    Anhydrite-bearing faults are currently of interest to 1) CO2-storage sites capped by anhydrite caprocks (such as those found in the North Sea) and 2) seismically active faults in evaporite formations (such as the Italian Apennines). In order to assess the likelihood of fault reactivation, the mode of fault slip and/or fault leakage, it is important to understand the evolution of frictional strength during periods of no slip and upon reloading (healing and relaxation behavior) and of the velocity dependence of friction of anhydrite fault gouge. Therefore, we performed slide-hold-slide experiments combined with a velocity-stepping sequence using simulated anhydrite fault gouge (> 95 wt.% CaSO4). Vacuum-dry and water-wet experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 20 to 150 °C, and at an effective normal stress of 25 MPa. We also performed tests using dry CO2, water-wetted CO2 and CO2-saturated water as pore fluid, but only at 120 °C. If pore fluid was present, a fluid pressure of 15 MPa was present. Vacuum-dry samples exhibit similar frictional healing to samples containing lab-air, but healing is significantly enhanced in wet samples. Dry samples exhibit velocity-weakening behavior at T ≥ 120 °C, and wet samples exhibit velocity-strengthening behavior over the full temperature range. The presence of CO2 does not influence the healing behavior or the velocity-dependence of friction. Samples containing water-wetted CO2 exhibit behavior similar to wet samples. We infer that the healing in dry samples is controlled by plastic asperity creep (Dieterich-type), possibly through dislocation creep and/or twinning. In wet samples healing is inferred to be controlled by increases in contact area and cohesion by pressure solution. Using a pressure solution rate model to extrapolate healing by contact area growth indicates that the maximum re-strengthening through such a mechanism will only take days to tens of days.

  2. Uniaxial Compression Analysis and Microdeformation Characterization of Kevin Dome Anhydrite Caprock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malenda, M. G.; Frash, L.; Carey, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Energy currently manages the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) in efforts to develop techniques to characterize promising CO2 storage sites, efficient and durable technology for injection, and suitable regulations for future CO2 storage. Within the RCSP, the Montana State University-Bozeman led Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project has focused on potential CO2 storage sites, including the Kevin Dome in northern Montana. The 750mi2 large dome lies along the north-southwest trending Sweetgrass Arch and is a natural CO2 reservoir with the potential to produce one million tonnes of CO2. The Project intends to extract and reinject this one million tonnes of CO2back into the water-leg of the Dome within the dolomitic, middle Duperow Formation to monitor impacts on the surrounding environment and communities. The caprock system includes extremely low porosity dolomite in the upper Duperow that is overlain by the anhydrite-dominated Potlatch caprock. Core was extracted by the Project from the Wallawein 22-1 well. Six 1"-diameter sub-samples were taken at depths of 3687 and 3689' of the 4"-diameter core in both vertical and horizontal directions. Unconfined uniaxial compression tests were conducted at room temperature using an Instron 4483 load frame with a 150kN load cell operated at a strain rate of 6.835-5mm per second. Samples were instrumented with four strain gages to record elastic moduli and characterize fracture behavior. The Potlatch anhydrite has demonstrated to be both strong and stiff with an average uniaxial compressive strength of 150.62±23.95MPa, a Young's modulus of 89.96±10.22GPa, and a Poisson's ratio of 0.32±0.05. These three variables are essential to developing geomechanical models that assess caprock responses to injection during CO2 sequestration. Petrographic characterizations of the fractured samples reveal an 80% groundmass of subeuhedral anhydrite crystals measuring 97-625μm and 20% 0.12-1mm wide veins

  3. Enhanced Cellular Uptake of Bowl-like Microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Zhang, Wenbo; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-05-11

    Among several properties of colloidal particles, shape is emerging as an important parameter for tailoring the interactions between particles and cells. In this study, bowl-like multilayer microcapsules were prepared by osmotic-induced invagination of their spherical counterparts in a concentrated polyelectrolyte solution. The internalization behaviors of bowl-like and spherical microcapsules were compared by coincubation with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages. The bowl-like capsules tended to attach onto the cell membranes from the bend side and could be enwrapped by the membranes of SMCs, leading to a faster uptake rate and larger accumulation inside cells than those of their spherical counterparts. These results are important for understanding the shape-dependent internalization behavior, providing useful guidance for further materials design especially in biomedical applications.

  4. Tang dynasty (618-907) bowl measured with PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laitinen, M.; Käyhkö, M.; Hahn, G.; von Uexküll-Güldenband, N.; Sajavaara, T.

    2017-09-01

    Brownish bowl originating from an underwater shipwreck located near Belitung island in the Java Sea, some 600 km south-east from Singapore, has been measured with particle induced X-ray emission. This study was a pilot project for the - now a spin-off company - Recenart research team where one target was to evaluate the authenticity of the different type of art objects. PIXE measurements were done from three different material positions from a single bowl received from a customer. These locations were categorized as a bluish/greenish pigment (under glaze), thick glaze and the body clay. When the obtained data was compared to the other references from different dynasties and kiln sites, the closest match was indeed the Tang dynasty, Tongguan/Ghangsha kiln-site potsherds - from where the bowl in question was also suspected to originate.

  5. 76 FR 73996 - Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International..., Florida during the Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, a series of sailboat races. The Orange Bowl... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive necessary information about the Orange...

  6. 77 FR 75550 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle... in Miami, FL during the 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship. The event will take place on January 13... purpose of the rule is to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the 2013 Orange Bowl...

  7. A Critical Evaluation of the Dust Bowl and its Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, T. E.; Lee, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Dust Bowl was an environmental nut sack catastrophe, a natural hazard (multiannual drought) in the 1930s in the Southern Great Plains of the USA, resulting in the activation of a geomorphic process (intense wind erosion) which, when human society could not adapt to it, cascaded into unprecedented agricultural, economic, and societal collapse in its core region. Over the years, the cause of the Dust Bowl has been variably ascribed to specific climatic or meteorological phenomena or land management practices. Drought and wind erosion have been notable phenomena in the Southern Great Plains throughout the Holocene, occurring long before conversion of the land to agricultural use, and still continue today. Numerous studies, using modeling and/or proxy data, have related the Dust Bowl- associated drought of the 1930s to a unique combination of large-scale climatic drivers and put it in a better temporal context. The 1930s drought was one of many decadal to centennial-scale droughts to affect North America in the late Holocene, but probably not one of the most severe ones. It was necessary, but not sufficient in itself be called the "cause of the Dust Bowl." Conversely, certain soil scientists, agricultural researchers and historians have blamed the Dust Bowl catastrophe squarely on inappropriate cropping practices, especially clearing vegetative cover from the land surface, as well as the advent of mechanized agriculture which accelerated overcultivation. Some geographers and meteorologists have ascribed the Dust Bowl to increased wind speeds and an increased frequency of cyclone passages in the 1930s as compared to other significant droughts since European settlement of the Plains. In reality, the Dust Bowl almost certainly cannot be said to have been caused by any one factor, but is better visualized as a complex interplay of multiple triggers, including geomorphic, climatic, meteorological, and/or human elements. For example, a synergistic combination of climatic

  8. Commercializing College: An Analysis of College Representations during Bowl Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Lowery, John Wesley

    2006-01-01

    College expectations play an important role in students' success at an institution. Braxton et al. (1994) found that if expectations are met, students are more likely to persist than if they are unmet. One potential contributor to college expectations is media (Tobolowsky, 2001). Prior research concludes that colleges that play in bowl games…

  9. Message in a Bottle: University Advertising during Bowl Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Through this descriptive qualitative study of institutional advertisements aired on television during the 2006-2007 college football bowl season, I sought to understand the messages communicated by colleges and universities to external audiences. The findings demonstrate the focus on selling the private benefits of higher education and call into…

  10. The Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl: An Active Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl (IEB) as a means of promoting active learning in the realm of marketing ethics. The cases discussed in the competition are based on current ethical issues and require students to provide a coherent analysis of what are generally complex, ambiguous, and highly viewpoint dependent issues. The…

  11. Extraverted children are more biased by bowl sizes than introverts.

    PubMed

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Extraverted children are hypothesized to be most at risk for over-serving and overeating due to environmental cues--such as the size of dinnerware. A within-subject field study of elementary school students found that extraverted children served themselves 33.1% more cereal in larger bowls (16-oz) than in smaller (12-oz) bowls, whereas introverted children were unaffected by bowl size (+5.6%, ns). However, when children were asked by adults how much cereal they wanted to eat, both extraverted and introverted children requested more cereal when given a large versus small bowl. Insofar as extraverted children appear to be more biased by environmental cues, this pilot study suggests different serving styles are recommended for parents and other caregivers. They should serve extraverts, but allow introverts to serve themselves. Still, since the average child still served 23.2% more when serving themselves than when served by an adult, it might be best for caregivers to do the serving whenever possible--especially for extraverted children.

  12. A Critical Analysis of Football Bowl Subdivision Coaching Contract Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Justin Keith

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to inventory and analyze contract components used by Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to further contribute to the body research. The FBS is comprised of 120 institutions and 94 of those institutions submitted contracts to "USA Today"…

  13. Convective Sedimentation of Colloidal Particles in a Bowl.

    PubMed

    Stiles; Kagan

    1999-08-01

    A physical model, which regards a colloidal dispersion as a single fluid continuum, is used to investigate cellular convection accompanying gravitational sedimentation in a hemispherical bowl with a thin cylindrical shaft along its vertical axis of symmetry. We have adapted the stream-function-vorticity form of the Navier-Stokes equations to describe momentum conservation in axially symmetric containers. These hydrodynamic equations have been coupled to the mass balance equation for binary hydrodynamic diffusion in the presence of a vertical gravitational field. Using finite-element software we have solved the equations governing coupled diffusive and hydrodynamic flow. A rapidly intensifying horizontal toroidal vortex develops around the axis of the bowl. This vortex is characterized by downward barycentric flow along the curved surface of the bowl and upward flow in the vicinity of its axis. We find that after a short period of time this large-scale cellular convection associated with the curved boundary of the bowl greatly enhances the rate of sedimentation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Discussion Based Fish Bowl Strategy in Learning Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the learning problems in psychology at Master of Education(M.Ed.,) in Bharathiar University and finds the effectiveness of Discussion Based Fish Bowl Strategy in learning psychology. Single group Experimental method was adopted for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted for this study.…

  15. Discrepant Event: The Great Bowling Ball Float-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mason; Griffith, William F.; Hogue, Sharon E.; Holley, Kathleen; Hunter, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    The two things that usually attract students include sports and observing the unexpected. These activities which can be adapted for any class investigating the physical property of density, addresses both using an interactive, cross-disciplinary, open-ended investigation centered on determining mathematically whether a bowling ball will sink or…

  16. Centre of mass kinematics of fast bowling in cricket.

    PubMed

    Ferdinands, Rene; Marshall, Robert N; Kersting, Uwe

    2010-09-01

    Kinematic studies have shown that fast bowlers have run-up velocities, based on centre of mass velocity calculations, which are comparable to elite javelin throwers. In this study, 34 fast bowlers (22.3 +/- 3.7 years) of premier grade level and above were tested using a three-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis system (240 Hz). Bowlers were divided into four speed groups: slow-medium, medium, medium-fast, and fast. The mean centre of mass velocity at back foot contact (run-up speed) was 5.3 +/- 0.6 m/s. Centre of mass velocity at back foot contact was significantly faster in the fastest two bowling groups compared to the slow-medium bowling group. In addition, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the centre of mass deceleration over the delivery stride phase was the strongest predictor of ball speed in the faster bowling groups. In conclusion, centre of mass kinematics are an important determinant of ball speed generation in fast bowlers. In particular, bowlers able to coordinate their bowling action with periods of centre of mass deceleration may be more likely to generate high ball speed.

  17. Interpreting the Dust Bowl: Teaching Environmental Philosophy through Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, John R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides a discussion of the structure and procedures of a classroom exercise using scenes from "The Grapes of Wrath," to illustrate different environmental philosophies. After viewing scenes from the film, students prepare presentations examining the Dust Bowl from one of four philosophical positions: environmental causation,…

  18. Saving the Dust Bowl: "Big Hugh" Bennett's Triumph over Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    In the 1930s, years of injudicious cultivation had devastated 100 million acres of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, and New Mexico. This was the Dust Bowl, and it exposed a problem that had silently plagued American agriculture for centuries--soil erosion. Farmers, scientists, and the government alike considered it trivial until Hugh Hammond…

  19. Message in a Bottle: University Advertising during Bowl Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Through this descriptive qualitative study of institutional advertisements aired on television during the 2006-2007 college football bowl season, I sought to understand the messages communicated by colleges and universities to external audiences. The findings demonstrate the focus on selling the private benefits of higher education and call into…

  20. Discrepant Event: The Great Bowling Ball Float-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mason; Griffith, William F.; Hogue, Sharon E.; Holley, Kathleen; Hunter, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    The two things that usually attract students include sports and observing the unexpected. These activities which can be adapted for any class investigating the physical property of density, addresses both using an interactive, cross-disciplinary, open-ended investigation centered on determining mathematically whether a bowling ball will sink or…

  1. Cultural Connections: Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a brief description of the piece of art titled "Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls" which is thought to be the product of a court or palace of the Neo-Assyrian period and dates to the late seventh to eighth century BC, between the reigns of Sargon and Ashurbanipal. The article highlights the piece's most notable…

  2. The Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl: An Active Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl (IEB) as a means of promoting active learning in the realm of marketing ethics. The cases discussed in the competition are based on current ethical issues and require students to provide a coherent analysis of what are generally complex, ambiguous, and highly viewpoint dependent issues. The…

  3. Discussion Based Fish Bowl Strategy in Learning Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the learning problems in psychology at Master of Education(M.Ed.,) in Bharathiar University and finds the effectiveness of Discussion Based Fish Bowl Strategy in learning psychology. Single group Experimental method was adopted for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted for this study.…

  4. Extraverted Children Are More Biased by Bowl Sizes than Introverts

    PubMed Central

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Extraverted children are hypothesized to be most at risk for over-serving and overeating due to environmental cues – such as the size of dinnerware. A within-subject field study of elementary school students found that extraverted children served themselves 33.1% more cereal in larger bowls (16-oz) than in smaller (12-oz) bowls, whereas introverted children were unaffected by bowl size (+5.6%, ns). However, when children were asked by adults how much cereal they wanted to eat, both extraverted and introverted children requested more cereal when given a large versus small bowl. Insofar as extraverted children appear to be more biased by environmental cues, this pilot study suggests different serving styles are recommended for parents and other caregivers. They should serve extraverts, but allow introverts to serve themselves. Still, since the average child still served 23.2% more when serving themselves than when served by an adult, it might be best for caregivers to do the serving whenever possible – especially for extraverted children. PMID:24205166

  5. The Fish Bowl: A Strategy for Assessing Independent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2001-01-01

    Explains Fish Bowl, an activity for upper elementary and middle school students to share what they read and a method for teachers to assess student understanding of a book. Discusses benefits of reading aloud a summary of the book, reading a passage from the book, asking appropriate questions, and answering questions. (LRW)

  6. A Critical Analysis of Football Bowl Subdivision Coaching Contract Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Justin Keith

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to inventory and analyze contract components used by Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to further contribute to the body research. The FBS is comprised of 120 institutions and 94 of those institutions submitted contracts to "USA Today"…

  7. Interpreting the Dust Bowl: Teaching Environmental Philosophy through Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, John R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides a discussion of the structure and procedures of a classroom exercise using scenes from "The Grapes of Wrath," to illustrate different environmental philosophies. After viewing scenes from the film, students prepare presentations examining the Dust Bowl from one of four philosophical positions: environmental causation,…

  8. Saving the Dust Bowl: "Big Hugh" Bennett's Triumph over Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    In the 1930s, years of injudicious cultivation had devastated 100 million acres of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, and New Mexico. This was the Dust Bowl, and it exposed a problem that had silently plagued American agriculture for centuries--soil erosion. Farmers, scientists, and the government alike considered it trivial until Hugh Hammond…

  9. Cultural Connections: Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a brief description of the piece of art titled "Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls" which is thought to be the product of a court or palace of the Neo-Assyrian period and dates to the late seventh to eighth century BC, between the reigns of Sargon and Ashurbanipal. The article highlights the piece's most notable…

  10. The Fish Bowl: A Strategy for Assessing Independent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2001-01-01

    Explains Fish Bowl, an activity for upper elementary and middle school students to share what they read and a method for teachers to assess student understanding of a book. Discusses benefits of reading aloud a summary of the book, reading a passage from the book, asking appropriate questions, and answering questions. (LRW)

  11. Multiple causes of wind erosion in the Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeffrey A.; Gill, Thomas E.

    2015-12-01

    The Dust Bowl refers to a disaster focused in the Southern Great Plains of North America during the 1930s, when the region experienced extreme wind erosion. Dry farming techniques increased soil erodibility. Drought reduced both soil cohesion, making it more erodible, and land cover, leaving the soil less protected from wind action. Low crop prices (driven by the Great Depression), extremely poor harvests (driven by drought), and lack of knowledge of regionally-appropriate tillage practices left farmers unable to implement erosion control on their land. The 1930s drought was severe, but neither unusual in the region nor extreme in length from a climatological perspective. Sea-surface temperature changes in the Atlantic and Pacific forced changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over North America. The result was persistent, intensifying drought within the Southern Great Plains for multiple years, causing a cascade of desiccation. Increased atmospheric dust and increased frequency of cyclones crossing the region may also have exacerbated Dust Bowl conditions. The Dust Bowl resulted from the simultaneous combination of drought and economic depression in a region where farmers had not yet learned effective land management techniques. Economic recovery, cessation of drought, and implementation of erosion control programs combined to end the Dust Bowl by the end of the 1930s. Many lessons were learned from the 1930s Dust Bowl regarding the physical and anthropogenic causes of dust storms and how to mitigate them. As a result, though dust storms continue on the Southern Great Plains, their severity is significantly reduced.

  12. Dating of barite and anhydrite in sea-floor hydrothermal deposits in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisei, F.; Toyoda, S.; Uchida, A.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Totsuka, S.; Shimada, K.; Nakai, S.

    2016-12-01

    Dating of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the ore formation (Urabe, 1995) and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). For this purpose, dating methods using radioactive disequilibrium such as U-Th method (e.g. You and Bickle, 1998) for sulfide, 226Ra-210Pb and 228Ra-228Th (e.g. Noguchi et al., 2011), Ra/Ba, and ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) methods for barite (Okumura et al., 2010) have been employed. In this study, firstly, we will report the first successful dating results on anhydrite using 226Ra-210Pb and 228Ra-228Th methods. The anhydrite samples were taken from the Daiyon-Yonaguni knoll field and the Hatoma knoll field and the Iheya North Knoll field of the Okinawa Trough by research cruises operated by JAMSTEC. The anhydrite crystals were physically scratched out of the samples. 226Ra, 228Ra and daughter nuclei were measured in the same samples for the ESR method by the low background gamma ray spectrometry. From the activity ratios, disequilibrium ages were obtained to be about 7.3 years by 226Ra-210Pb method, and to be 0.6-2.5 years by 228Ra-228Th method. Secondly, the ESR ages of barite taken from hydrothermal areas in the Okinawa trough range from 4.1 to 16000 years, filling the age gap of the maximum age, 150 years, of 226Ra-210Pb method and the minimum age, several thousand years of U-Th method, being the most appropriate age range to discuss the evolution of the hydrothermal systems. Interestingly, the 226Ra-210Pb and 228Ra-228Th ages for the same samples are the same or younger than the ESR ages. As for the latter samples, the reason has already been discussed (Uchida et al., 2015) as the deposits had been formed by two or more hydrothermal events. In the present paper, the disequilibrium and ESR ages will be simulated with these multiple hydrothermal events so that the differences in the ages are explained.

  13. Calculation of the optical power profile for a solar bowl with an iris

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.M.; Obeyesekere, M.

    1987-05-15

    This report develops analytical techniques for studying shallow spherical segment bowls that have an attached tracking iris. The report extends previous analytical models that were developed as part of the Crosbyton Solar Power Project for the case of spherical segment bowls. Three types of calculations are considered. First, effective apperture formulas are derived for a spherical segment bowl with an iris, and results are compared with the bowl without an iris. Secondly, analytical formulas are derived to determine spillage losses for shallow bowls. Finally, the powerful Ratio of Solid Angles (ROSA) computer code is extended to include solar profiles for a spherical segment bowl with iris. The report includes several plots comparing optical power concentration ratios for solar bowls with and without an iris. A complete listing of the extended code, ROSAIRIS, is given in the appendix. 29 figs.

  14. Stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks – A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Simon; Blum, Philipp; Butscher, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunnel engineering, causing serious damage to tunnels and producing high additional costs during tunnel construction and operation. The swelling leads to geomechanical processes that may result in heave of the tunnel invert, destruction of the lining or uplift of the entire tunnel section. Heave-pressure-time relations are needed when predictions should be made about the mechanical behavior of swelling rock. For pure clay rocks, there is a linear relation between the swelling heave (strain) and the logarithm of pressure (Grob 1972). A generally accepted relation for clay-sulfate rocks, however, is still lacking to date. Therefore, finding appropriate and sustainable counter measures for an actual tunneling project affected by swelling remains extremely difficult. Grob (1972) proposed the linear relation between heave and the logarithm of pressure ("semi-logarithmic swelling law") not only for clay rocks, but also for clay-sulfate rocks. Pimentel (2007), however, presented laboratory experiments indicating that the semi-logarithmic swelling law may be inadequate for describing the swelling of clay-sulfate rocks. The laboratory tests revealed three different stages in the swelling process, including minimal deformation and prevented gypsum crystallization at high pressures (> 6 MPa); large deformation and gypsum crystallization at medium pressures; and only small deformation, possibly along with gypsum dissolution, at low pressures (< 4 MPa). He pointed at a "tri-linear" relation to describe the different stages. Kirschke (1995) generally doubts the existence of a fixed relation between swelling strain and (final) pressure. According to him, swelling pressures and their temporal development are controlled by water inflow into the rock, which cannot be reflected by general strain-stress relations. The present study critically reviews stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks proposed by various

  15. Hydration of anhydrite of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.II) in a ball mill

    SciTech Connect

    Sievert, T.; Wolter, A.; Singh, N.B

    2005-04-01

    The hydration of an anhydrite of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.II) in a ball mill was studied as a function of time and temperature. The amount of gypsum formed at different intervals of time was determined by weight loss method and powder X-ray diffraction technique. Specific surface area at different time intervals was determined by LASER granulometric method. The results showed that the maximum rate of formation of gypsum was at a longer time than the time for the development of maximum specific surface area. In the presence of activators, the time for maximum rate of gypsum formation and maximum specific surface area shifted towards lower hydration time. Morphological changes during the course of hydration have been studied by the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) technique. A mechanism of hydration has been proposed.

  16. Influence of solidification accelerators on structure formation of anhydrite-containing binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikanova, L.; Volkova, O.; Kudyakov, A.; Sarkisov, Y.; Tolstov, D.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results of scientific analysis of chemical additives influence on acid fluoride binder. It was found that the influence of sulfate nature additives on the process of hydration and solidification of the binder is similar to influence of additives on indissoluble anhydrite. Additives with SO42- anion NO- are more efficient. The mentioned additives according to accelerating effect belong to the following succession: K2SO4 > Na2SO4 > FeSO4 > MgSO4. Facilitation of the process of hydration and solidification of the binder, increase in density and durability of the binder (32 MPa) is to the greatest extent achieved with the introduction of 2% sodium sulfate additive of the binder's mass into the composition of the binder along with the ultrasonic treatment of water solution. Directed crystal formation process with healing of porous structure by new growths presented as calcium sulfate dehydrate and hydroglauberite provides positive effect.

  17. Geophysical observations and structural models of shallow caves in gypsum/anhydrite-bearing rocks in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko

    2016-04-01

    In northern Germany, the evaporitic sequence of Zechstein rocks outcrops at several locations, offering insight into both surface and sub-surface morphology of the soluble rocks. We discuss two field sites, an active shallow gypsum cave in the southern Harz Mountains, and an active shallow anhydrite/gypsum cave close to Bad Segeberg, which both have been explored from the surface by geophysical surveys. The overburden of the caves varies from 5-40 meter, and the caves are characterised by both small passages and larger breakdown chambers. We relate the indirect geophysical measurements to parts of the known cave systems, and present structural models describing both geometry and groundwater flow in these caves with the help of numerical tools.

  18. On the Cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Koster, Randal D.; Bacmeister, Julio T.

    2004-01-01

    The 1930s was characterized by a decade of rainfall deficits and high temperatures that desiccated much of the United States Great Plains. Numerous dust storms created one of the most severe environmental catastrophes in U.S. history and led to the popular characterization of much of the southern Great Plains as the Dust Bowl . In this study, we show that the origin of the drought was in the anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures that occurred during that decade. We further show that interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface were essential to the development of the severe drought conditions. The results are based on simulations with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project general circulation model forced with observed and idealized sea surface temperatures. We contrast the 1930s drought with other major droughts of the 20th century, and speculate on the possibility of another Dust Bowl developing in the foreseeable future.

  19. Kiwifruit: taking its place in the global fruit bowl.

    PubMed

    Ward, Carol; Courtney, David

    2013-01-01

    While the world total production of kiwifruit has increased by over 50% during the last decade, the kiwifruit remains a niche fruit, taking up an estimated 0.22% of the global fruit bowl, which is dominated by apples, oranges, and bananas. Even though kiwifruit's share of the global fruit bowl has remained largely unchanged over the past 15 years, the scope for growth in the category is significant, with the nutritional and production characteristics of kiwifruit being on the right side of key global consumer trends around health and sustainability. Taking advantage of these consumer trends is one of two key challenges for the global kiwifruit industry. The second challenge is to harness the diverse natural and cultivated range of kiwifruit varieties (colors, flavors, sizes, and shapes) to stimulate the interest of consumers and grow the share of kiwifruit in the fruit basket through selecting cultivars that can develop meaningful market segments and meet consumer demand.

  20. Revising the Dust Bowl: High Above the Kansas Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Kenneth M; Rupley, Eric S A

    2012-07-01

    This article reconstructs land cover patterns in Depressionera Kansas from historical aerial photos and compares the locations of crop fields to areas of submarginal land identified in modern digital soil survey maps. The analysis argues that New Deal land retirement programs overestimated the degree of bad land use because they lacked the basic science to make comprehensive assessments. The findings demonstrate that the misuse of land unfit for cultivation was relatively rare across the central plains but especially in the Dust Bowl region.

  1. Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl

    DOEpatents

    Almon, Amy C.

    1997-01-01

    Method and device for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrocell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria.

  2. Simulating US agriculture in a modern Dust Bowl drought.

    PubMed

    Glotter, Michael; Elliott, Joshua

    2016-12-12

    Drought-induced agricultural loss is one of the most costly impacts of extreme weather(1-3), and without mitigation, climate change is likely to increase the severity and frequency of future droughts(4,5). The Dust Bowl of the 1930s was the driest and hottest for agriculture in modern US history. Improvements in farming practices have increased productivity, but yields today are still tightly linked to climate variation(6) and the impacts of a 1930s-type drought on current and future agricultural systems remain unclear. Simulations of biophysical process and empirical models suggest that Dust-Bowl-type droughts today would have unprecedented consequences, with yield losses ∼50% larger than the severe drought of 2012. Damages at these extremes are highly sensitive to temperature, worsening by ∼25% with each degree centigrade of warming. We find that high temperatures can be more damaging than rainfall deficit, and, without adaptation, warmer mid-century temperatures with even average precipitation could lead to maize losses equivalent to the Dust Bowl drought. Warmer temperatures alongside consecutive droughts could make up to 85% of rain-fed maize at risk of changes that may persist for decades. Understanding the interactions of weather extremes and a changing agricultural system is therefore critical to effectively respond to, and minimize, the impacts of the next extreme drought event.

  3. Simulating US Agriculture in a Modern Dust Bowl Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glotter, Michael; Elliott, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Drought-induced agricultural loss is one of the most costly impacts of extreme weather, and without mitigation, climate change is likely to increase the severity and frequency of future droughts. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s was the driest and hottest for agriculture in modern US history. Improvements in farming practices have increased productivity, but yields today are still tightly linked to climate variation and the impacts of a 1930s-type drought on current and future agricultural systems remain unclear. Simulations of biophysical process and empirical models suggest that Dust-Bowl-type droughts today would have unprecedented consequences, with yield losses approx.50% larger than the severe drought of 2012. Damages at these extremes are highly sensitive to temperature, worsening by approx.25% with each degree centigrade of warming. We find that high temperatures can be more damaging than rainfall deficit, and, without adaptation, warmer mid-century temperatures with even average precipitation could lead to maize losses equivalent to the Dust Bowl drought. Warmer temperatures alongside consecutive droughts could make up to 85% of rain-fed maize at risk of changes that may persist for decades. Understanding the interactions of weather extremes and a changing agricultural system is therefore critical to effectively respond to, and minimize, the impacts of the next extreme drought event.

  4. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  5. Clay hydration and crystal growth in expansive anhydritic claystone. The Ascó Power Plant case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Eduardo; Ramon, Anna

    2015-04-01

    A large power plant directly founded on a hard claystone experienced, soon after the construction of the foundation slabs, a continuous heave developing at decreasing rate, which has been active for the last 35 years. When undisturbed (i.e., at some depth, in the range of several meters) Ascó claystone exhibits high unconfined compressive strengths (30-40 MPa). In high quality cores the rock has a massive aspect and discontinuities are difficult to observe. The rock has a Tertiary origin and horizontal layers at spacing of 1-4 m could be identified. Whitish seams of gypsum, bassanite or anhydrite are also observed within the reddish rock matrix. Minerals identified in deep cores are quartz (10%), calcite and dolomite (50-70%), clay minerals (10-20%) and gypsum and anhydrite (2-20%). Among the clay minerals, illite dominates (10%). Smectite or smectite-interbedded minerals do not amount in general to more than 5%. The undisturbed rock has a low porosity (6-11%) and low water content (2-5%). Because of the presence of hydrated sulphates, water content and degree of saturation (Sr=0.8-0.9 was found) are somewhat uncertain. However, high suctions were found in recovered cores. This rock changes into a weathered material at shallow depths. Mineralogy is not much affected but porosity increases to 22-29% and water content increases to 10-19%. Strength drops to small values (soil like) and a lower "in situ" suction has been measured (0.4-7.1 MPa). The added pore volume of the weathered material, if compared with the deep rock, is filled with water. The heave of the station was attributed to the hydration of undisturbed rock under the building slabs of the power plant. In fact, large excavations preceded the layout of foundations. As a result, atmospheric water had an easy access to the intact rock. The installation of a compacted soil fill around the buildings allowed the presence of a permanent water table which could infiltrate into the rock. Piezometric data provided

  6. A halite-siderite-anhydrite-chlorapatite assemblage in Nakhla: mineralogical evidence for evaporites on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J. C.; Grady, M. M.

    1999-05-01

    We report the results of a study of a halite-siderite-anhydrite-chlorapatite assemblage in the SNC (martian) meteorite Nakhla. These minerals are found associated with each other in interstitial areas, halite often being adjacent to or enclosing siderite. We suggest the halite and other minerals are martian in origin because the conditions of fall preclude significant amounts of terrestrial contamination or weathering having taken place; textures indicate that the minerals within this assemblage crystallised at the same stage as some silicate and oxide minerals within the Nakhla parent ; the association with siderite which previous studies have shown has carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions incompatible with an origin on Earth. Siderite has the range of compositions CaCO3 0.1-5.7, MgCO3 2.0-40.9, FeCO3 23.2-87.0, MnCO3 1.0-39.9 mol. %. There are two compositional groupings: high-MnCO3 (( 30 mol %) and low-MnCO3/high-FeCO3, with a gap identified between the two. This may be a miscibility gap or, alternatively, the 2 compositional groupings may mark separate generations of carbonate. We have not found any textural evidence for the latter explanation but acceptance of the presence of a miscibility gap would require independent work on Fe-Mn carbonates to verify its existence. Trace element abundances have been determined by ion microprobe analysis on 3 siderite and 1 anhydrite grains. Siderite has LREE (2.2 - 7.3 x C1) > HREE (0.32 - 0.79 x C1) without Ce or Eu anomalies and the anhydrite has a similar pattern. These abundances reflect the source composition rather than partitioning or complexing controls. They are not typical of hydrothermal signatures which generally do not have such smooth REE abundance patterns. The nature of the mineral assemblage suggests that its source rocks on Mars were evaporites. These may be common in the craters and flood plains of the martian southern highlands. Two models are suggested in this paper to explain the incorporation of

  7. Phase behavior and structure of colloidal bowl-shaped particles: simulations.

    PubMed

    Marechal, Matthieu; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2010-09-01

    We study the phase behavior of bowl-shaped particles using computer simulations. These particles were found experimentally to form a metastable wormlike fluid phase in which the bowl-shaped particles have a strong tendency to stack on top of each other [M. Marechal, Nano Lett. 10, 1907 (2010)]. In this work, we show that the transition from the low-density fluid to the wormlike phase has an interesting effect on the equation of state. The simulation results also show that the wormlike fluid phase transforms spontaneously into a columnar phase for bowls that are sufficiently deep. Furthermore, we describe the phase behavior as obtained from free energy calculations employing Monte Carlo simulations. The columnar phase is stable for bowl shapes ranging from infinitely thin bowls to surprisingly shallow bowls. Aside from a large region of stability for the columnar phase, the phase diagram features four novel crystal phases and a region where the stable fluid contains wormlike stacks.

  8. Cyclopentacorannulene: {pi}-facial stereoselective deuterogenation and determination of the bowl-to-bowl inversion barrier for a constrained buckybowl

    SciTech Connect

    Sygula, A.; Abdourazak, A.H.; Rabideau, P.W.

    1996-01-17

    Attachment of an ethane or ethylene unit to the rim of corannulene produced relatively rigid bowls of dihydrocyclopenta- and cyclopentacorannulene, respectively. In contrast to the parent corannulenes, their inversion barriers are too high to be determined by the NMR coalescence methods. Due to the significant curvature of cyclopentacorannulene, deuterogenation is {pi}-facial specific; both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis lead exclusively to exo-dideuteriocyclopentacorannulene 2a. Equilibration of the endo- and exo-isotopomers allowed the determination of {Delta}G{sup {dagger}} at 27.61-27.67 kcal/mol over the temperature range 52.1-99.3{degree}C and the estimation of {Delta}H{sup {dagger}} (27.3{+-}0.7 kcal/mol) and {Delta}S{sup {dagger}} (-1.1{+-}0.2 eu) for the bowl-to-bowl inversion. The inversion barrier calculated at the HF/6-31G{sup *}//3-21G level (25.9 kcal/mol) compares well with the experimental result. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Synthesis of Hydroxysumanene and Substituent Effect of Hydroxy Group on Bowl Inversion Dynamics and Electronic Structure.

    PubMed

    Ngamsomprasert, Niti; Panda, Gautam; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Sakurai, Hidehiro

    2016-12-02

    Hydroxysumanene was synthesized from acylsumanenes by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. DFT calculation predicted the higher bowl inversion energy and deeper bowl structure of hydroxysumanene than those of pristine sumanene. The bowl inversion energy of hydroxysumanene was experimentally determined by 2D-EXSY NMR measurement as 21.2 kcal/mol. The energy was larger than that of pristine sumanene (20.3 kcal/mol), which agreed with the calculation result. Electrochemical measurement indicated the higher HOMO level of hydroxysumanene than that of sumanene, which confirmed the electron-rich character of the phenolic function in the bowl skeleton.

  10. Hydraulic fracturing tests in anhydrite interbeds in the WIPP, Marker Beds 139 and 140

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, C L [RE Wawersik, W. R.; Carlson, L. V.; Henfling, J. A.; Borns, D. J.; Beauheim, R. L.; Roberts, R. M.

    1997-05-01

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were integrated with hydrologic tests to estimate the conditions under which gas pressure in the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM (WIPP) will initiate and advance fracturing in nearby anhydrite interbeds. The measurements were made in two marker beds in the Salado formation, MB139 and MB140, to explore the consequences of existing excavations for the extrapolation of results to undisturbed ground. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the pressure-time records in two injection boreholes and several nearby hydrologic observation holes. Data interpretations were aided by post-test borehole video surveys of fracture traces that were made visible by ultraviolet illumination of fluorescent dye in the hydraulic fracturing fluid. The conclusions of this report relate to the upper- and lower-bound gas pressures in the WIPP, the paths of hydraulically and gas-driven fractures in MB139 and MB140, the stress states in MB139 and MB140, and the probable in situ stress states in these interbeds in undisturbed ground far away from the WIPP.

  11. Influence of solidification accelerators on structure formation of anhydrite-containing binders

    SciTech Connect

    Anikanova, L. Volkova, O. Kudyakov, A.; Sarkisov, Y.; Tolstov, D.

    2016-01-15

    The article presents results of scientific analysis of chemical additives influence on acid fluoride binder. It was found that the influence of sulfate nature additives on the process of hydration and solidification of the binder is similar to influence of additives on indissoluble anhydrite. Additives with SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anion NO{sup −} are more efficient. The mentioned additives according to accelerating effect belong to the following succession: K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} > Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} > FeSO{sub 4} > MgSO{sub 4}. Facilitation of the process of hydration and solidification of the binder, increase in density and durability of the binder (32 MPa) is to the greatest extent achieved with the introduction of 2% sodium sulfate additive of the binder’s mass into the composition of the binder along with the ultrasonic treatment of water solution. Directed crystal formation process with healing of porous structure by new growths presented as calcium sulfate dehydrate and hydroglauberite provides positive effect.

  12. Origin of deformed halite hopper crystals, pseudomorphic anhydrite cubes and polyhalite in Alpine evaporites (Austria, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, C.; Neubauer, F.; Marschallinger, R.; Genser, J.; Bernroider, M.

    2013-04-01

    The Alpine Haselgebirge Formation represents an Upper Permian to Lower Triassic evaporitic rift succession of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps). Although the rocksalt body deposits are highly tectonised, consisting mainly of protocataclasites and mylonites of halite and mudrock, the early diagenetic history can be established from non-tectonised mudrock bodies: Cm-sized euhedral halite hopper crystals formed as displacive cubes within mud just during shallow burial. The crystals were deformed by subsequent compaction. Later, migrating fluids led to the replacement of halite by anhydrite retaining the shapes of deformed halite cubes. Polyhalite formed from subsequent enhanced fluid migration. Mudrock provided water by dewatering, while potassium and magnesium were dissolved from primary salt minerals. When these fluids interacted with sulphates, polyhalite precipitated. 40Ar/39Ar analyses date the polyhalite from within the retaining shapes of deformed halite hopper-shaped cubes from two localities to ca. 235-232 Ma (Middle Triassic). At this time, ca. 20-25 Ma after sedimentation, polyhalite crystallised at shallow levels.

  13. Origin of deformed halite hopper crystals, pseudomorphic anhydrite cubes and polyhalite in Alpine evaporites (Austria, Germany).

    PubMed

    Leitner, C; Neubauer, F; Marschallinger, R; Genser, J; Bernroider, M

    The Alpine Haselgebirge Formation represents an Upper Permian to Lower Triassic evaporitic rift succession of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps). Although the rocksalt body deposits are highly tectonised, consisting mainly of protocataclasites and mylonites of halite and mudrock, the early diagenetic history can be established from non-tectonised mudrock bodies: Cm-sized euhedral halite hopper crystals formed as displacive cubes within mud just during shallow burial. The crystals were deformed by subsequent compaction. Later, migrating fluids led to the replacement of halite by anhydrite retaining the shapes of deformed halite cubes. Polyhalite formed from subsequent enhanced fluid migration. Mudrock provided water by dewatering, while potassium and magnesium were dissolved from primary salt minerals. When these fluids interacted with sulphates, polyhalite precipitated. (40)Ar/(39)Ar analyses date the polyhalite from within the retaining shapes of deformed halite hopper-shaped cubes from two localities to ca. 235-232 Ma (Middle Triassic). At this time, ca. 20-25 Ma after sedimentation, polyhalite crystallised at shallow levels.

  14. Modeling the influence of sinking anhydrite blocks on salt diapirs targeted for hazardous waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyi, Hemin A.

    2001-05-01

    Due to the low permeability and high ductility of rock salt, many salt diapirs, such as those in Germany and the Netherlands, are targeted as long-term repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive and chemical wastes. Geophysical and subsurface data show that the Gorleben salt diapir, which is one of the most extensively investigated diapirs in the world, and other salt diapirs of the Zechstein Formation in Germany contain large blocks (˜80 m thick) of high-density anhydrite inclusions. These blocks, which were carried upward by the rising salt, are considered to be detached segments of intercalated layers that initially were deposited with the salt. Results of physical and numerical models, presented here, show that such detached, high-density blocks, which were entrained and carried upward by the diapir at an earlier stage, tend to sink in the late stages of diapiric evolution when the rate of diapiric rise slows down. During their descent, these high- density competent blocks deform by folding and create shear zones at the immediate contact with the less competent salt. The descending blocks initiate a secondary internal flow within the salt diapirs they descend, and they may deform any repository built within such diapirs, which would otherwise be considered as tectonically inactive.

  15. Origin and characterization of fly ashes from cellulose industries containing high proportions of free lime and anhydrite

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, A.; Eggenberger, U.; Peters, T.

    1999-10-01

    Fly ashes from cellulose industries originate from different internal waste combustion processes. Because they contain considerable amounts of free lime and anhydrite, they are potential secondary raw materials for the production of building products. The source of the CaO is a Ca-bisulfite-sludge originating from the cellulose extraction process. The CaO/anhydrite ratio in this lime-sulfate fly ash depends on the extent of sulphur reduction by organic carbon during the combustion process. A second type of Al-bearing ash contains additionally lowly reactive calcium silicates and highly reactive calcium aluminate phases originating from combusted paper sludge containing kaolinite. Both ashes show a reduced reactivity compared to commercial lime as it is used for the production of autoclaved aerated concrete. The reduced activity is related to the coated surfaces of the CaO and elevated sulfate and alkali contents.

  16. Constraints On Fluid Evolution During Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Circulation From Anhydrite Sampled by ODP Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Duque, C.; Teagle, D. A.; Alt, J. C.; Cooper, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Anhydrite is potentially a useful mineral for recording the evolution of seawater-derived fluids during mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation because it exhibits retrograde solubility, and hence may precipitate due to the heating of seawater or the sub-surface mixing of seawater with black smoker-like fluids. Here we provide new insights into the chemical and thermal evolution of seawater during hydrothermal circulation through analyses of anhydrite recovered from ODP Hole 1256D, the first complete penetration of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Previously, crustal anhydrite has been recovered only from Hole 504B. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr, major element ratios, Rare Earth Elements and δ18O in anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids as they chemically interact with basalt. Anhydrite fills veins and pore-space in the lower lava sequences from ~530 to ~1000 meters sub- basement (msb), but is concentrated in the lava-dike transition (754 to 811 msb) and uppermost sheeted dikes. Although present in greater quantities than in Hole 504B, the amount of anhydrite recovered from the Site 1256 crust is low compared to that predicted by models of hydrothermal circulation (e.g., Sleep, 1991). Two distinct populations of anhydrite are indicated by measurements of 87Sr/86Sr suggesting different fluid evolution paths within Site 1256. One group of anhydrites have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7070 to 0.7085, close to that of 15 Ma seawater (0.70878), suggesting that some fluids penetrate through the lavas and into the sheeted dikes with only minimal Sr-exchange with the host basalts. A second group, with low 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7052, indicates precipitation from a fluid that has undergone far greater interaction with basalt. This range is close to that estimated from Sr-isotopic analyses of epidote for the Hole 1256D hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr ~0.705). Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr indicate a similar relationship to that seen at ODP Hole 504B suggesting that

  17. Stability of Basalt plus Anhydrite plus Calcite at HP-HT: Implications for Venus, the Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    "Canali" observed at Venus surface by Magellan are evidence for very long melt flows, but their composition and origin remain uncertain. The hypothesis of water-rich flow is not reasonable regarding the temperature at Venus surface. The length of these channels could not be explained by a silicate melt composition but more likely, by a carbonate-sulfate melt which has a much lower viscosity (Kargel et al 1994). One hypothesis is that calcite CaCO3 and anhydrite CaSO4 which are alteration products of basalts melted during meteorite impacts. A famous example recorded on the Earth (Chicxulub) produced melt and gas rich in carbon and sulfur. Calcite and sulfate evaporites are also present on Mars surface, associated with basalts. An impact on these materials might release C- and S-rich melt or fluid. Another type of planetary phenomenon (affecting only the Earth) might provoke a high pressure destabilization of basalt+anhydrite+calcite. Very high contents of C and S are measured in some Earth s magmas, either dissolved or in the form of crystals (Luhr 2008). As shown by the high H content and high fO2 of primary igneous anhydrite-bearing lavas, the high S content in their source may be explained by subduction of an anhydrite-bearing oceanic crust, either directly (by melting followed by eruption) or indirectly (by release of S-rich melt or fluid that metasomatize the mantle) . Calcite is a major product of oceanic sedimentation and alteration of the crust. Therefore, sulfate- and calcite-rich material may be subducted to high pressures and high temperatures (HP-HT) and release S- and C-rich melts or fluids which could influence the composition of subduction zone lavas or gases. Both phenomena - meteorite impact and subduction - imply HP-HT conditions - although the P-T-time paths are different. Some HP experimental/theoretical studies have been performed on basalt/eclogite, calcite and anhydrite separately or on a combination of two. In this study we performed piston

  18. Stability of basalt+anhydrite+calcite at HP-HT: implications for Venus, the Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    “Canali” observed at Venus’ surface by Magellan are evidence for very long melt flows, but their composition and origin remain uncertain. The hypothesis of water-rich flow is not reasonable regarding Venus’ surface temperature. The length of these channels could not be explained by a silicate melt composition but more likely, by a carbonate-sulfate melt which has a much lower viscosity (Kargel et al 1994). One hypothesis is that calcite CaCO3 and anhydrite CaSO4 - which are alteration products of basalts - melted during meteorite impacts. A famous example recorded on the Earth (Chicxulub) produced melt and gas rich in carbon and sulfur. Calcite and sulfate evaporites are also present on Mars surface, associated with basalts. An impact on these materials may release C- and S-rich melt or fluid. Another type of planetary phenomenon (affecting only the Earth) might provoke a high pressure destabilization of basalt+anhydrite+calcite. Very high contents of C and S are measured in some Earth’s magmas, either dissolved or in the form of crystals (Luhr 2008). As shown by the high H content and high fO2 of primary igneous anhydrite-bearing lavas, the high S content in their source may be explained by the subduction of an anhydrite-bearing oceanic crust, either directly (by melting followed by eruption) or indirectly (by release of S-rich melt or fluid that metasomatize the mantle). Calcite is a major product of oceanic sedimentation and alteration of the crust. Therefore, sulfate- and calcite-rich material may be subducted to high pressures and high temperatures (HP-HT) and release S- and C-rich melts or fluids which could influence the composition of subduction zone lavas or gases. Both phenomena - meteorite impact and subduction - imply HP-HT conditions - although the P-T-time paths are different. Some HP experimental/theoretical studies have been performed on basalt/eclogite, calcite and anhydrite separately or on a combination of two. In this study we

  19. Anhydrite cements after dolomitization of shallow marine Silurian carbonates of the Gascoyne Platform, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tabakh, Mohamed; Mory, Arthur; Schreiber, B. Charlotte; Yasin, Raza

    2004-02-01

    Carbonates and evaporites in the Dirk Hartog Group were deposited in subtidal, peritidal and shallow-marine evaporitic mudflat environments across the Gascoyne Platform within the Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. The carbonates are composed of ooids, peloids and minor bioclastic fragments, with early cements. They have been extensively dolomitized and replaced, in part, by late anhydrite sparry cements. Four types of dolomite which range from early to burial types are identified, incorporating re-equilibration or re-crystallization from basin brines. Accordingly, they exhibit distinctive petrographic features and isotopic signatures of carbon and oxygen. Evaporites deposited are present as discrete beds and displacive nodules in carbonate and siliciclastic beds, and show δ34S CDT values and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios indicative of variable marine and non-marine conditions. Late dissolution of evaporites has produced satin spar gypsum veins in the shallowest section of the platform, whereas blocky and sparry anhydrite cements and void fillings formed deeper within the platform. Dissolution of the evaporites and formation of anhydrite cements post-date dolomitization.

  20. The effect of pressure on the kinetics of γ-anhydrite crystallization investigated by diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanjiang; Zheng, Haifei; Du, Jianguo; Wang, Duojun

    2015-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of γ-anhydrite was investigated in the temperature and pressure ranges of 373-473 K and 1094-1903 MPa using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and Raman spectroscopy. A calcium sulfate solution was formed by dissolving gypsum in water at high pressure, and γ-anhydrite crystallized due to the increasing temperature. The relationship among the reaction rate, k, the temperature, T, and the pressure, P was established as k=-1.75×10-3+1.83×10-6P+3.57×10-7T, with an R2 value of 0.943, of which the applicable range is 373 K≤T≤473 K and 1196 MPa≤P≤1903 MPa. An elevation of T or P will accelerate the crystallization rate of γ-anhydrite. The time exponent n obtained between 0.96 and 1.29 indicates that the process of crystallization should be controlled by instant nucleation on the grain boundary and diffusion controlled growth. In the process of crystallization, the volume is reduced because of the decrease of pressure, and the volume change ΔV is equal to -6.05×10-6 m3/mol. The calculated activation energy Ea is 10.7 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor A is 2.27×10-2 s-1.

  1. Size of food bowl and scoop affects amount of food owners feed their dogs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M; Lusby, A L; Bartges, J W; Kirk, C A

    2012-04-01

    The incidence of canine obesity appears to be increasing dramatically and understanding factors impacting the amount of food pet owners provide their dogs may improve weight management. Human research has shown the size of food bowls, plates and utensils can significantly impact the amount of food portioned and consumed. This effect can be attributed to both the Delboeuf optical illusion and the Ebbinghaus-Titchener size-contrast illusion. To investigate the existence of a similar effect with dog owners, 54 dogs and their owners were recruited for a four treatment randomized prospective trial. Owners scooped out a normal kibble-based meal using a small bowl and small scoop, small bowl and large scoop, large bowl and small scoop or a large bowl and large scoop. Each treatment was used once per owner over four visits. Repeated measures anova revealed the mean amount of food portioned using the small bowl and small scoop was significantly less than all other bowl and scoop combinations (150.7 g vs. 171.5 g vs. 172.7 g vs. 184.5 g, p < 0.05). The small bowl and large scoop combination did not differ from large bowl and small scoop (171.5 g vs. 172.7 g, p > 0.05). Owners were more likely to portion a larger amount of food with a large bowl and large scoop. Results are consistent with human data and emphasize the need for owners to use standard measuring cups. Results also suggest owner compliance during weight loss programs may be improved with smaller bowls and serving scoops.

  2. Revising the Dust Bowl: High Above the Kansas Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Kenneth M.; Rupley, Eric S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reconstructs land cover patterns in Depressionera Kansas from historical aerial photos and compares the locations of crop fields to areas of submarginal land identified in modern digital soil survey maps. The analysis argues that New Deal land retirement programs overestimated the degree of bad land use because they lacked the basic science to make comprehensive assessments. The findings demonstrate that the misuse of land unfit for cultivation was relatively rare across the central plains but especially in the Dust Bowl region. PMID:25288873

  3. U.S. agriculture in a modern Dust Bowl drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotter, M.; Chryssanthacopoulos, J.; Moyer, E. J.; Elliott, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Drought-induced agricultural loss is one of the leading weather-related harms to the U.S. economy, but little is known about the effects of extreme droughts or of consecutive multi-year drought events on agriculture. Three droughts in the early 1930s make the Dust Bowl era the driest and hottest for agriculture in modern U.S. history and a useful analog to study extreme weather and its impact on human society. Improvements in technology and farm management over the last eight decades have dramatically increased average crop yields in the U.S., but the elimination of most non-climatic crop stresses means rainfed yields are now more tightly linked to climate. To understand how a 1930s-type drought would affect agriculture in the modern U.S., we drive empirical and biophysical process-based crop models with 1930s weather -- with and without increases in mean temperature -- to estimate effects of successive droughts on current and near-future U.S. maize, soy and wheat production. Our results suggest that Dust-Bowl-type droughts today would have unprecedented consequences for agricultural productivity, with single-year losses up to ~50% larger than the central U.S. drought of 2012, one of the most severe for modern agriculture. Sensitivity tests imply that damages at these extremes are highly sensitive to temperature. If extreme drought conditions are even modestly warmer (1-4 oC), single-year losses jump to more than twice the 2012 drought. Assuming that repeated crop failure over a relatively short period is likely to induce changes to land-use and management, we find that a future Dust-Bowl-like drought, especially under higher temperature scenarios, could lead to significant long-term consequences for U.S. agriculture. Changes in climate may increase the severity and frequency of future droughts, so understanding the complex interactions of weather extremes and a changing agricultural system is critical to effective preparation and response if and when the next Dust

  4. Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl

    DOEpatents

    Almon, A.C.

    1997-03-18

    Method and device are disclosed for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrolytic cell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria. 2 figs.

  5. Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl

    SciTech Connect

    Almon, A.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a method and device for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrocell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria.

  6. Structures in an anhydrite layer embedded in halite matrix: Results from thermomechanical experiments under bulk plain strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertineit, M.; Zulauf, G.; Peinl, M.; Zanella, F.; Bornemann, O.

    2009-04-01

    Anhydrite layers from Gorleben salt dome, embedded in a halite matrix from Asse salt dome, both northern Germany, were deformed under bulk plain strain using a thermomechenical apparatus (Zulauf et al., 2007, 2009). The initial layer thickness Hi ranges from 0.85 to 2.5 mm. Further deformation conditions were as follows: T =345˚ C, max=4.59 MPa, ezmax=-40%, Ä-=2*10-7s-1. During the deformation process, load cells record the stress along Y and Z. The displaced material could escape in X. The deformed samples were scanned using a computer tomograph at the Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt/Main. The CT data allow the generation of 3D-modells using the software Smoooth. We deformed six samples with the layer (S) perpendicular to the X-axis and four samples with the layer perpendicular to the Z-axis. Depending on the orientation of the layer (S⊥X or S⊥Z), the expected structures should be folds or boudins, respectively, the geometry of which should strongly depend on Hi. In cases were the layer was orientated parallel to the shortening axis (S⊥X), the anhydrite layer shows Mohr-Coulomb fractures. The fracture walls were thrust on top of each other. The space between hanging and foot wall is filled with salt. The angle between the fractures and the YZ-plain ranges from 10˚ to 25˚ , rarely up to 70˚ , dependent on the finite strain. In thin layers (Hi=0.85 and 1 mm) rarely non-cylindrical folds developed. In both cases (S⊥X and S⊥Z) the layer thickness did not significantly change during deformation. In cases were the layer was orientated perpendicular to the shortening axis (S⊥Z) boudins developed by extensional fracture. The number of boudins and their size depend strongly on the initial layer thickness Hi. With increasing layer thickness Hi the width of boudins Wa increases linearly. Wa = -0.2 + 1.4 * Hi (1) This relation between Hi and Wa is further compatible with equation (16.4) of Price and Cosgrove (1990) which also

  7. Lessons from the Dust Bowl: Human-Environment Education on the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This article documents regional demand for human-environment educational resources via assessment of public knowledge of the environmental crisis known as the Dust Bowl. The steadily eroding knowledge-base on the topic is discussed along with the desire for enhanced Dust Bowl educational resources. Regionally focused educational activities…

  8. Bowling Together: Cultivating Communities of Practice in English and Social Studies Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Elizabeth; Wilson, Angene H.

    2006-01-01

    In his sociological study Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (2000), Robert Putnam argues that Americans need to "reconnect to one another" and, both metaphorically and literally, go bowling together (p. 28). The authors--an English educator and a social studies educator--describe a four year collaboration that has led…

  9. Effectiveness of bowl trapping and netting for inventory of a bee community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, R.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Jean, R.P.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    Concern over the status of bees has increased the need to inventory bee communities and, consequently, has increased the need to understand effectiveness of different bee sampling methods. We sampled bees using bowl traps and netting at 25 northwest Indiana sites ranging from open grasslands to forests. Assemblages of bees captured in bowl traps and by netting were very similar, but this similarity was driven by similar relative abundances of commonly captured species. Less common species were often not shared between collection methods (bowls, netting) and only about half of the species were shared between methods. About one-quarter of species were more often captured by one of the two collection methods. Rapid accumulation of species was aided by sampling at temporal and habitat extremes. In particular, collecting samples early and late in the adult flight season and in open and forest habitats was effective in capturing the most species with the fewest samples. The number of samples estimated necessary to achieve a complete inventory using bowls and netting together was high. For example, ≈72% of species estimated capturable in bowls were captured among the 3,159 bees collected in bowls in this study, but ≈30,000–35,000 additional bees would need to be collected to achieve a 100% complete inventory. For bowl trapping, increasing the number of sampling dates or sampling sites was more effective than adding more bowls per sampling date in completing the inventory with the fewest specimens collected.

  10. Bowling Together: Cultivating Communities of Practice in English and Social Studies Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Elizabeth; Wilson, Angene H.

    2006-01-01

    In his sociological study Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (2000), Robert Putnam argues that Americans need to "reconnect to one another" and, both metaphorically and literally, go bowling together (p. 28). The authors--an English educator and a social studies educator--describe a four year collaboration that has led…

  11. Bowling-Fencing Guide with Official Rules. January 1973 - January 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, Ethel, Ed.; Curry, Nancy L., Ed.

    Rules for women's bowling and fencing from January 1973 to January 1975 are discussed. Standards in sports for girls and women are detailed along with the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Specific articles dealing with bowling skills, norms, and rules for women are included. Articles are also included on the…

  12. Larger bowl size increases the amount of cereal children request, consume, and waste.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; van Ittersum, Koert; Payne, Collin R

    2014-02-01

    To examine whether larger bowls bias children toward requesting more food from the adults who serve them. Study 1 was a between-subject design involving 69 preschool-age children who were randomized to receive either a small (8 oz) or large (16 oz) cereal bowl and were asked to tell researchers how much cereal they wanted for a morning snack. Study 2 was a within-subject design involving 18 school-age children at a summer camp who were given a small (8 oz) cereal bowl on one day and a large (16 oz) cereal bowl on another day and asked by a cafeteria server how much cereal and milk they wanted for breakfast. Hidden scales measured how much cereal and milk were served, consumed, and wasted. Body mass index was calculated at the end of the study. In study 1, the young children requested almost twice as much cereal to eat when presented with the larger bowl compared with the smaller bowl. In study 2, the older children consumed 52% more and wasted 26% more when served in the larger bowl. A step toward potentially reducing overeating and waste would be for parents and adult caregivers to use smaller bowls for serving food to children. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lessons from the Dust Bowl: Human-Environment Education on the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This article documents regional demand for human-environment educational resources via assessment of public knowledge of the environmental crisis known as the Dust Bowl. The steadily eroding knowledge-base on the topic is discussed along with the desire for enhanced Dust Bowl educational resources. Regionally focused educational activities…

  14. English As a Second Language and the Salad Bowl Concept. World Education Monograph Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Rosalie M.

    The salad bowl concept is discussed and the increasing importance of teaching English as a second language (ESL) is examined in this paper. When melting pot theory failed to preserve the values of cultural creativity and diversity of America's many immigrant groups, a new and better idea was born--the notion of the salad bowl. This concept implies…

  15. A Viewer Survey of the Expanded WBGU-TV Audience, Bowling Green, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David W.

    Contained in this report are the results of a telephone survey conducted among 961 households in the television market for Bowling Green, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to determine the characteristics of the viewing audience for WBGU. WBGU--owned by Bowling Green State University--became the public television station for a 19-county area in…

  16. What Makes Sammy Run?: An Empirical Assessment of the Bowles-Gintis Correspondence Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olneck, Michael R.; Bills, David B.

    The Bowles-Gintis correspondence theory rejects conventional theories that stress the role of cognitive skills in explaining the link between educational attainment and occupational status or earnings. Bowles and Gintis propose that schools serve primarily to develop noncognitive characteristics necessary to the reproduction of the social…

  17. Frictional healing and sealing in anhydrite-filled faults: from short duration experiments to long-term CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymakers, Anne; Bakker, Elisenda; Samuelson, Jon; Spiers, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The efficacy of long-term subsurface CO2 storage requires that the stored gas remains isolated from the atmosphere for thousands of years. Faults crosscutting the reservoir and topseal system of storage sites are considered one of the most likely leakage pathways, especially if reactivation leads to fault dilation. For a proper risk assessment it is important to know if CO2 affects the self-sealing potential of fault gouges, as well as how it affects strength recovery after fault slip ceases (frictional healing). A thorough understanding of the physical processes operating in the fault gouge will help to extrapolate the data from short-term experimental time scales to long-term storage time scales. Anhydrite is a common caprock mineral in many hydrocarbon fields worldwide, and particularly in the Netherlands. In cases where faults crosscut the caprock, it is likely that these contain fine-grained, anhydrite-rich, damage material, or "fault gouge". Therefore, we have performed two sets of experiments: 1) fault shearing experiments on simulated anhydrite fault gouge, to investigate the frictional behavior of anhydrite faults, and 2) compaction creep experiments, to investigate the potential for self-sealing. All experiments were performed under pressure and temperature conditions representative for CO2 storage conditions (set 1: T = 80-150°C; normal stress = 25MPa; Pf = 15MPa; set 2: T = 80°C; stress = 5-12MPa and P¬f = 15MPa). The use of different pore fluid phases (air, vacuum, water, CO2 saturated solution, moist CO¬2 and dry CO2), as well as the range in pressures and temperatures, allows us to study the effect of the in-situ conditions on the frictional behavior, and also to identify the mechanisms responsible for the compaction behavior. Our results indicate that in both types of experiments water plays an essential role, by enhancing both fault-healing (type 1) and fault-sealing potential (type 2). The compaction experiments indicate fault sealing in fine

  18. Characteristics of bowl-shaped coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Keita; Suyama, Momoko; Takiyama, Yoshihiro; Kim, Dongmin; Saitoh, Youichi; Sekino, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has recently been used as a method for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Daily TMS sessions can provide continuous therapeutic effectiveness, and the installation of TMS systems at patients' homes has been proposed. A figure-eight coil, which is normally used for TMS therapy, induces a highly localized electric field; however, it is challenging to achieve accurate coil positioning above the targeted brain area using this coil. In this paper, a bowl-shaped coil for stimulating a localized but wider area of the brain is proposed. The coil's electromagnetic characteristics were analyzed using finite element methods, and the analysis showed that the bowl-shaped coil induced electric fields in a wider area of the brain model than a figure-eight coil. The expanded distribution of the electric field led to greater robustness of the coil to the coil-positioning error. To improve the efficiency of the coil, the relationship between individual coil design parameters and the resulting coil characteristics was numerically analyzed. It was concluded that lengthening the outer spherical radius and narrowing the width of the coil were effective methods for obtaining a more effective and more uniform distribution of the electric field.

  19. Empty Bowls Feed the Hungry: Service Learning across the Curriculum with the Visual Arts at the Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namnoun, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Describes a school-wide, cross-curricular project called, "Empty Bowls", at Hall High School (West Hartford, Connecticut). Explains that students created ceramic bowls and made soup to fill the bowls to raise money to fight hunger. Provides a description of how the school became involved and raised the money. (CMK)

  20. Empty Bowls Feed the Hungry: Service Learning across the Curriculum with the Visual Arts at the Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namnoun, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Describes a school-wide, cross-curricular project called, "Empty Bowls", at Hall High School (West Hartford, Connecticut). Explains that students created ceramic bowls and made soup to fill the bowls to raise money to fight hunger. Provides a description of how the school became involved and raised the money. (CMK)

  1. Surface electromyographic analysis of the biceps brachii muscle of cricket bowlers during bowling.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, Badlishah; Rahman, Matiur; Ali, Md Asraf; Islam, Md Anamul

    2014-03-01

    Cricket bowling generates forces with torques on the upper limb muscles and makes the biceps brachii (BB) muscle vulnerable to overuse injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in the amplitude of the EMG signal of the BB muscle during fast and spin delivery, during the seven phases of both types of bowling and the kinesiological interpretation of the bowling arm for muscle contraction mechanisms during bowling. A group of 16 male amateur bowlers participated in this study, among them 8 fast bowlers (FB) and 8 spin bowlers (SB). The root mean square (EMGRMS), the average sEMG (EMGAVG), the maximum peak amplitude (EMGpeak), and the variability of the signal were calculated using the coefficient of variance (EMGCV) from the BB muscle of each bowler (FB and SB) during each bowling phase. The results demonstrate that, (i) the BB muscle is more active during FB than during SB, (ii) the point of ball release and follow-through generated higher signals than the other five movements during both bowling categories, (iii) the BB muscle variability is higher during SB compared with FB, (iv) four statistically significant differences (p<0.05) found between the bowling phases in fast bowling and three in spin bowling, and (v) several arm mechanics occurred for muscle contraction. There are possible clinical significances from the outcomes; like, recurring dynamic contractions on BB muscle can facilitate to clarify the maximum occurrence of shoulder pain as well as biceps tendonitis those are medically observed in professional cricket bowlers, and treatment methods with specific injury prevention programmes should focus on the different bowling phases with the maximum muscle effect. Finally, these considerations will be of particular importance in assessing different physical therapy on bowler's muscle which can improve the ball delivery performance and stability of cricket bowlers.

  2. Anhydrite-bearing rocks from the Rožná district (Moldanubian zone, Czech Republic): high-grade metamorphosed exhalites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, Bohdan; Hladíková, Jana; Holeczy, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    Several types of anhydrite-bearing rocks have been found in the amphibolite-facies metamorphosed rocks at the north-eastern margin of the Moldanubian Zone. Anhydrite either forms monomineralic bands up to 40 cm thick, or occurs in the form of disseminated grains in surrounding calc-silicate gneiss together with feldspar, scapolite, amphibole, pyroxene, epidote and pyrite. The isotopic composition of sulphur (δ34S=30.6 to 32.3‰) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr=0.70797 to 0.70781) in anhydrite may indicate a marine source of sulphate. The isotopic ratio of strontium is in the same range as that of metamorphosed strata-bound barite-sulphide ores, which have been previously described in the same area. The δ34S values of coexisting pyrite range from 21.4 to 22.5‰, the Δ34Sanhydrite-pyrite corresponding to the metamorphic temperature of 600 to 660 °C. In contrast to many submarine-exhalative deposits, the oxygen isotopic compositions of anhydrite (δ18O=9.3 to 10.2‰) are lighter than that of barite (δ18O=10.4 to 13.8‰). This indicates that the both minerals are not in isotopic equilibrium. Therefore, it is probable that anhydrite and barite from the Rožná district were deposited from fluids that contained different proportions of seawater and hydrothermal fluids or from hydrothermal fluids that underwent variable extent of oxygen isotope exchange with seafloor rocks. The δ13C values in calcite (δ13C=-17.2 to -18.7‰) from anhydrite-bearing rock are lower than those in distant marbles. As graphite is absent in anhydrite- and calcite-bearing rocks, impoverishment in the 13C isotope cannot be attributed to the graphite-carbonate isotopic exchange during metamorphism. It is proposed that low δ13C values in carbonates are caused by pre-metamorphic oxidation of organic matter in course of hydrothermal processes. Anhydrite and anhydrite-bearing calc-silicate gneiss from the north-eastern part of the Moldanubian Zone are interpreted to be the high-grade metamorphosed

  3. Spatial patterns of bee captures in North American bowl trapping surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droege, Sam; Tepedino, Vincent J.; Lebuhn, Gretchen; Link, William; Minckley, Robert L.; Chen, Qian; Conrad, Casey

    2010-01-01

    1. Bowl and pan traps are now commonly used to capture bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) for research and surveys. 2. Studies of how arrangement and spacing of bowl traps affect captures of bees are needed to increase the efficiency of this capture technique. 3. We present results from seven studies of bowl traps placed in trapping webs, grids, and transects in four North American ecoregions (Mid-Atlantic, Coastal California, Chihuahuan Desert, and Columbia Plateau). 4. Over 6000 specimens from 31 bee genera were captured and analysed across the studies. 5. Based on the results from trapping webs and distance tests, the per bowl capture rate of bees does not plateau until bowls are spaced 3–5 m apart. 6. Minor clumping of bee captures within transects was detected, with 26 of 56 transects having index of dispersion values that conform to a clumped distribution and 39 transects having positive Green's index values, 13 with zero, and only four negative. However, degree of clumping was slight with an average value of only 0.06 (the index ranges from -1 to 1) with only five values >0.15. Similarly, runs tests were significant for only 5.9% of the transects. 7. Results indicate that (i) capture rates are unaffected by short distances between bowls within transects and (ii) that bowls and transects should be dispersed throughout a study site.

  4. On the Causes of the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max; Pegion, Philip; Koster, Randal; Bacmeister, Julie

    2004-01-01

    During the 1930s the United States experienced one of the most devastating droughts of the last century. The drought affected almost 2/3 of the country and parts of Mexico and Canada and was infamous for the numerous dust storms that lead to the characterization of much of the Great Plains as the 'Dust Bowl'. Results from an ensemble of 100-year simulations with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed SSTs show that the model reproduces the basic features of the 1930s drought. In this study we exploit this realism in the model simulation to examine in more detail the role of the SST and soil moisture in the development and maintenance the 1930s drought. Results will be presented from simulations in which the SST anomalies are confined to the separate ocean basins, as well as from runs in which soil moisture feedback is turn off.

  5. Synthesis of Nano-Bowls with a Janus Template

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Chris D.; Zhang, Chen; Anzenberg, Paula; Akkiraju, Siddhartha; Lal, Ratnesh

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal particles with two or more different surface properties (Janus particles) are of interest in catalysis, biological imaging, and drug delivery. Eccentric nanoparticles are a type of Janus particle consisting of a shell that envelops the majority of a core particle, leaving a portion of the core surface exposed. Previous work to synthesize eccentric nanoparticles from silica and polystyrene have only used microemulsion techniques. In contrast we report the solgel synthesis of eccentric Janus nanoparticles composed of a silica shell around a carboxylate-modified polystyrene core (Janus templates). In addition, we have synthesized nano-bowl-like structures after the removal of the polystyrene core by organic solvent. These Janus templates and nanobowls can be used as a versatile platform for site-specific functionalization or controlled theranostic delivery. PMID:25431230

  6. Synthesis of nano-bowls with a Janus template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Alexander H.; Landon, Preston B.; Emerson, Chris D.; Zhang, Chen; Anzenberg, Paula; Akkiraju, Siddhartha; Lal, Ratnesh

    2014-12-01

    Colloidal particles with two or more different surface properties (Janus particles) are of interest in catalysis, biological imaging, and drug delivery. Eccentric nanoparticles are a type of Janus particle consisting of a shell that envelops the majority of a core particle, leaving a portion of the core surface exposed. Previous work to synthesize eccentric nanoparticles from silica and polystyrene have only used microemulsion techniques. In contrast we report the sol-gel synthesis of eccentric Janus nanoparticles composed of a silica shell around a carboxylate-modified polystyrene core (Janus templates). In addition, we have synthesized nano-bowl-like structures after the removal of the polystyrene core by organic solvent. These Janus templates and nanobowls can be used as a versatile platform for site-specific functionalization or controlled theranostic delivery.Colloidal particles with two or more different surface properties (Janus particles) are of interest in catalysis, biological imaging, and drug delivery. Eccentric nanoparticles are a type of Janus particle consisting of a shell that envelops the majority of a core particle, leaving a portion of the core surface exposed. Previous work to synthesize eccentric nanoparticles from silica and polystyrene have only used microemulsion techniques. In contrast we report the sol-gel synthesis of eccentric Janus nanoparticles composed of a silica shell around a carboxylate-modified polystyrene core (Janus templates). In addition, we have synthesized nano-bowl-like structures after the removal of the polystyrene core by organic solvent. These Janus templates and nanobowls can be used as a versatile platform for site-specific functionalization or controlled theranostic delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Particle size distribution before and after centrifugation during the wash process, SEM and TEM images used in quantification of Janus template yield and population break down. See DOI: 10

  7. 76 FR 52733 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Change in Use of Aeronautical Property at Bowling Green-Warren County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Bowling Green--Warren County Regional Airport, Bowling Green, KY AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... requesting public comment on request by the Bowling Green--Warren County Airport Board to change a portion of airport property ] from aeronautical to non-aeronautical use at the Bowling Green--Warren County...

  8. Tuning the depth of bowl-shaped phosphine hosts: capsule and pseudo-cage architectures in host-guest complexes with C60 fullerene.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Masaki; Sukegawa, Kimiya; Nabeshima, Tatsuya

    2015-08-04

    Bowl-shaped phosphine molecules, whose bowl geometry can be controlled by a variation of the axial substituent, were synthesized, and used as host molecules to encapsulate C60. Host molecules with relatively shallow bowls formed a chiral capsule, while hosts with deeper bowls formed an achiral pseudo-cage.

  9. Literature review and recommendation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydrite from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, R.L.; Howarth, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    This report documents a literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability as applied to low permeability anhydrite rock samples from the Salado Formation. About one hundred papers were reviewed, and four methods were identified as promising techniques for measuring the relative permeability of the Salado anhydrite: (1) the unsteady-state high-rate method, (2) the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method, (3) the unsteady-state centrifuge method, and (4) the unsteady-state low-rate method. Except for the centrifuge method, all have been used for low permeability rocks. The unsteady-state high-rate method is preferred for measuring relative permeability of Salado anhydrite, and the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method could be well suited for measuring gas relative permeability of Salado anhydrite. The unsteady-state low-rate method, which combines capillary pressure effects with relative permeability concepts may also prove effective. Likewise, the unsteady-state centrifuge method may be an efficient means for measuring brine relative permeability for Salado anhydrite, especially at high gas saturations.

  10. The development of a novel cricket bowling system: recreating spin and swing bowling deliveries at the elite level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. A.; Justham, L.

    2008-03-01

    During the game of cricket, bowlers create different deliveries by altering the manner in which they release the ball from their hand. The orientation of the seam, the speed at which the ball is released and the magnitude and direction of the spin combine to determine the motion of the ball through the air and its movement after impact with the wicket. These factors have to be considered if automatic training machines are to be capable of replicating elite bowling deliveries. The need for automotive systems for batting and fielding training at the elite level has arisen due to: (i) the capabilities of human bowlers are limited by the onset of fatigue and the risk of injury and (ii) a large number of accurate and repeatable deliveries to be ''programmable'' by coaches to ensure batsmen and fielders are tested to the limits of their abilities and a training benefit is achieved.

  11. Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the heat flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Eddings, E.G.; Ring, T.; Thornock, J.; Draper, T.; Isaac, B.; Rezeai, D.; Toth, P.; Wu, Y.; Kelly, K.

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this task is to produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers. Validation data came from the Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) for tangentially fired, oxy-coal operation. This task brings together experimental data collected under Alstom’s DOE project for measuring oxy-firing performance parameters in the BSF with this University of Utah project for large eddy simulation (LES) and validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ). The Utah work includes V/UQ with measurements in the single-burner facility where advanced strategies for O2 injection can be more easily controlled and data more easily obtained. Highlights of the work include: • Simulations of Alstom’s 15 megawatt (MW) BSF, exploring the uncertainty in thermal boundary conditions. A V/UQ analysis showed consistency between experimental results and simulation results, identifying uncertainty bounds on the quantities of interest for this system (Subtask 9.1) • A simulation study of the University of Utah’s oxy-fuel combustor (OFC) focused on heat flux (Subtask 9.2). A V/UQ analysis was used to show consistency between experimental and simulation results. • Measurement of heat flux and temperature with new optical diagnostic techniques and comparison with conventional measurements (Subtask 9.3). Various optical diagnostics systems were created to provide experimental data to the simulation team. The final configuration utilized a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera to measure heat flux and temperature, which was synchronized with a high-speed, visible camera to utilize two-color pyrometry to measure temperature and soot concentration. • Collection of heat flux and temperature measurements in the University of Utah’s OFC for use is subtasks 9.2 and 9.3 (Subtask 9.4). Several replicates were carried to better assess the experimental error. Experiments were specifically designed for the

  12. What we learned from the Dust Bowl: lessons in science, policy, and adaptation.

    PubMed

    McLeman, Robert A; Dupre, Juliette; Berrang Ford, Lea; Ford, James; Gajewski, Konrad; Marchildon, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review and synthesis of scholarly knowledge of Depression-era droughts on the North American Great Plains, a time and place known colloquially as the Dust Bowl era or the Dirty Thirties. Recent events, including the 2008 financial crisis, severe droughts in the US corn belt, and the release of a popular documentary film, have spawned a resurgence in public interest in the Dust Bowl. Events of the Dust Bowl era have also proven in recent years to be of considerable interest to scholars researching phenomena related to global environmental change, including atmospheric circulation, drought modeling, land management, institutional behavior, adaptation processes, and human migration. In this review, we draw out common themes in terms of not only what natural and social scientists have learned about the Dust Bowl era itself, but also how insights gained from the study of that period are helping to enhance our understanding of climate-human relations more generally.

  13. Phase behavior and structure of a new colloidal model system of bowl-shaped particles.

    PubMed

    Marechal, Matthieu; Kortschot, Rob J; Demirörs, Ahmet Faik; Imhof, Arnout; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2010-05-12

    We study the phase behavior of bowl-shaped (nano)particles using confocal microscopy and computer simulations. Experimentally, we find the formation of a wormlike fluid phase in which the bowl-shaped particles have a strong tendency to stack on top of each other. However, using free energy calculations in computer simulations, we show that the wormlike phase is out-of-equilibrium and that the columnar phase is thermodynamically stable for sufficiently deep bowls and high densities. In addition, we employ a novel technique based on simulated annealing to predict the crystal structures for shallow bowls. We find four exotic new crystal structures and we determine their region of stability using free energy calculations. We discuss the implications of our results for the development of materials consisting of molecular mesogens or nanoparticles.

  14. The influence of bowl offset on air motion in a direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, T.L.; Primus, R.J

    1988-01-01

    The influence of bowl offset on motored mean flow and turbulence in a direct injection diesel engine has been examined with the aid of a multi-dimensional flow code. Results are presented for three piston geometries. The bowl geometry of each piston was the same, while the offset between the bowl and the cylinder axis was varied from 0.0 to 9.6% of the bore. The swirl ratio at intake valve closing was also varied from 2.60 to 4.27. It was found that the angular momentum of the air at TDC was decreased by less than 8% when the bowl was offset. Nevertheless, the mean (squish and swirl) flows were strongly affected by the offset. In addition, the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (predicted by the /delta/-e model) was modified. Moderate increases (10% or less) in mass averaged turbulence intensity at TDC with offset were observed.

  15. The preference for water nipples vs. water bowls in dairy goats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 lactating goats), 42 dairy goats were allotted into 6 groups of 7 goats. In period 1, the goats had access to a water nipple. In period 2, they had access to a water bowl and in period 3 (preference test) they had access to both a water nipple and a water bowl. Water usage and wastage was recorded and water intake (water usage - water wastage) was calculated for each group for the two last days of each period. In experiment 2, water samples from each dispenser were analyzed for heterotrophy germs at 22°C, Escherichia coli and turbidity. Results Water usage was higher from water nipples than from water bowls both in experiment 1 (dry goats) and experiment 2 (lactating goats). There was however, no difference in water intake from water nipples and water bowls. In the preference test (period 3), the water intake tended to be higher from the water nipple than from the water bowl both for the dry goats (exp. 1) and lactating goats (exp. 2). Especially for the dry goats, the differences between groups were large. Turbidity and heterotrophy germs were much higher in the samples from the water bowls than from the water nipples. Water wastage from the water bowls was negligible compared to the water nipples. From the water nipples the water wastage was 30% and 23% of water usage for the dry and lactating goats respectively. Conclusions We conclude that type of water dispenser (nipple or bowl) was probably of minor importance for water intake in goats, but water bowls had a lower water quality

  16. Ca isotope fractionation and Sr/Ca partitioning associated with anhydrite formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syverson, D. D.; Scheuermann, P.; Pester, N. J.; Higgins, J. A.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    The elemental and isotopic mass balance of Ca and Sr between seawater and basalt at mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal systems is an integrated reflection of the various physiochemical processes, which induce chemical exchange, in the subseafloor. Specifically, the processes of anhydrite precipitation and recrystallization are recognized to be important controls on governing the Ca and Sr elemental and isotope compositions of high temperature vent fluids, however, few experimental data exist to constrain these geochemical effects. Thus, to better understand the associated Sr/Ca partitioning and Ca isotope fractionation and rate of exchange between anhydrite and dissolved constituents, anhydrite precipitation and recrystallization experiments were performed at 175, 250, and 350°C and 500 bar at chemical conditions indicative of active MOR hydrothermal systems. The experimental data suggest that upon entrainment of seawater into MOR hydrothermal systems, anhydrite will precipitate rapidly and discriminate against the heavy isotopes of Ca (Δ44/40Ca(Anh-Fluid) = -0.68 - -0.25 ‰), whereas Sr/Ca partitioning depends on the saturation state of the evolving hydrothermal fluid with respect to anhydrite at each PTX (KD(Anh-Fluid) = 1.24 - 0.55). Coupling experimental constraints with the temperature gradient inferred for high temperature MOR hydrothermal systems in the oceanic crust, data suggest that the Ca isotope and Sr elemental composition of anhydrite formed near the seafloor will be influenced by disequilibrium effects, while, at higher temperatures further into the oceanic crust, anhydrite will be representative of equilibrium Sr/Ca partitioning and Ca isotope fractionation conditions. These experimental observations are consistent with analyzed Sr/Ca and Ca isotope compositions of anhydrites and vent fluids sampled from modern MOR hydrothermal systems1,2 and can be used to further constrain the geochemical effects of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust

  17. The effect of coaching intervention on elite fast bowling technique over a two year period.

    PubMed

    Ranson, Craig; King, Mark; Burnett, Angus; Worthington, Peter; Shine, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    Fast bowling in cricket is an activity that is well recognised as having high injury prevalence and there has been debate regarding the most effective fast bowling technique. The aim of this study was to determine whether two-year coaching interventions conducted in a group of elite young fast bowlers resulted in fast bowling technique alteration. Selected kinematics of the bowling action of 14 elite young fast bowlers were measured using an 18 camera Vicon Motion Analysis system before and after two-year coaching interventions that addressed specific elements of fast bowling technique. Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine whether any changes in kinematic variables occurred pre- and post-intervention between those who had the coaching interventions and those who didn't. The coaching interventions, when applied, resulted in a more side-on shoulder alignment at back foot contact (BFC) (p = 0.002) and decreased shoulder counter-rotation (p = 0.001) however, there was no difference in the degree of change in back and front knee flexion angles or lower trunk side-flexion. This study has clearly shown that specific aspects of fast bowling technique are changeable over a two-year period in elite level fast bowlers and this may be attributed to coaching intervention.

  18. An integrated approach to the biomechanics and motor control of cricket fast bowling techniques.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Paul S; Wheat, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    To date, scientific investigations into the biomechanical aspects of cricket fast bowling techniques have predominantly focused on identifying the mechanical factors that may predispose fast bowlers to lower back injury with a relative paucity of research being conducted on the technical features that underpin proficient fast bowling performance. In this review paper, we critique the scientific literature examining fast bowling performance. We argue that, although many published investigations have provided some useful insights into the biomechanical factors that contribute to a high ball release speed and, to a lesser extent, bowling accuracy, this research has not made a substantive contribution to knowledge enhancement and has only had a very minor influence on coaching practice. To significantly enhance understanding of cricket fast bowling techniques and, therefore, have greater impact on practice, we recommend that future scientific research adopts an interdisciplinary focus, integrating biomechanical measurements with the analytical tools and concepts of dynamical systems motor control theory. The use of qualitative (topological) analysis techniques, in particular, promises to increase understanding of the coordinative movement patterns that define 'technique' in cricket fast bowling and potentially help distinguish between functional and dysfunctional aspects of technique for individual fast bowlers.

  19. Hydrocarbon potential, sequence stratigraphy, and petrographic analysis of the Ferry Lake Anhydrite, Eastern Gulf of Mexico, Southern Mississippi province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadi, Faith O.

    The Lower Cretaceous Ferry Lake Anhydrite (FLA) in southern Mississippi is composed of approximately 76 meters (250 feet) of alternating carbonate and evaporite beds. Correlations of well logs indicate rhythmic depositional stacking of carbonate and anhydrite facies. Identification of these small-scale transgressive-regressive cycles, which formed during high-frequency eustatic sea-level fluctuations, is based on stratal geometry, nature of cycle boundaries, and facies stacking patterns. The FLA sequence is divided into eleven high-frequency (FLP-1 to FLP-11), fourth-order parasequences at the southern edge of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, and eight high-frequency, fourth-order cycle sets (FLP-1 to FLP-8) approximately 120 kilometers south of the southern rim. Fewer parasequences in the seaward direction result from pinchouts of evaporite beds and interfingering of evaporites with carbonate beds. Classifying FLA into high frequency, fourth-order parasequences provides understanding of reservoir, source, and seal distributions. Pervasive shallow to deep burial diagenetic processes generated pores and fracture-filling calcite and anhydrite cements, resulting from the flow of connate water. The carbonate beds exhibit variable porosity and permeability that range from 0.1 to 14 % and 0.5 to 100.5 and respectively. Fractured porosity constitutes the dominant porosity that resulted from extensive tectonic activities and differential compaction that predates late-stage cementation. Late-stage dissolution of calcite and evaporites along fractures, fossil fragments, and bedding discontinuities are principal to the development of secondary porosity and permeability. Rock-Eval/TOC analysis generates Total organic richness (0.53 -- 1.0%), vitrinite reflectance (0.88 -- 1.16wt %), and Tmax (437 -- 438°C). The rocks have an average thermal alteration index (TAI) value of 3.3. The maturity levels reported for these moderately organic-rich rocks suggest that they are fair

  20. Subseafloor Boiling Within the PACMANUS Hydrothermal System Indicated by Anhydrite-Hosted Fluid Inclusions from ODP Leg 193 Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanko, D. A.; Bach, W.; Scott, S. D.; Yeats, C.; Roberts, S.; Beaudoin, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Drilling during Leg 193 was in an area of active hydrothermal venting from dacitic rocks on Pual Ridge in the Manus Basin. All the cored rocks underlying the fresh surficial volcanic rocks are intensively hydrothermally altered. Primary fluid inclusions preserved in anhydrite veins provide unique fluid samples that provide direct evidence on the chemical and physical properties of hydrothermal fluids present beneath the seafloor. Site 1188 is located on Snowcap Knoll, an area of diffuse warm venting at a water depth of ~1645 m. Fluid inclusions have been studied from a coarse anhydrite +/- pyrite vein from ~123 m below the seafloor. The ambient hydrostatic pressure for this sample is calculated to be ~180 bars. The ambient temperature is unknown, but the T measured after 8 days of thermal rebound at a depth of 360 m in this hole was 313° C. Primary fluid inclusions measuring up to 100 μ m across are dominantly two-phase L + V inclusions, yet fluid inclusions with up to three daughter crystals are also observed. The largest daughter crystal is halite, commonly accompanied by a small transparent granular daughter crystal and an even smaller granular opaque crystal. Consequently, optical inspection alone demonstrates the co-occurrence of both hypersaline, multicomponent brines and less saline aqueous fluids. Ice melting temperatures for L+V inclusions vary from -0.1° to -14.5° C, with a strong mode at -2° C, corresponding to a seawater-like salinity. However, the range in Tm(ice) indicates that a significant number contain quite fresh water, and others contain quite saline water. Ice melting temperatures from the multiphase inclusions, measured in the presence of hydrohalite, range from -29.5° to -39.9° C, confirming their hypersaline composition. These data, as well as measured halite dissolution temperatures ranging from 125° to 257° C, indicate salinities of ~30+/-3 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Most two-phase inclusions homogenize to liquid between 191° C and

  1. Microfabrics and deformation mechanisms of rheologically stratified salt rocks: Constraints from EBSD-analyses of anhydrite and halite of Upper Permian salt rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertineit, Michael; Schramm, Michael; Hammer, Jörg; Zulauf, Gernold; Thiemeyer, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Salt rocks of the Leine Unit (z3), Upper Permian German Zechstein, are characterized by locally changing amounts of anhydrite. The interbeds of the more competent anhydrite layers may be affected by folding or boudinage. The present study is focusing on the texture of deformed halite and anhydrite. The samples for EBSD studies were collected from Anhydritmittelsalz (z3AM) of the Morsleben salt mine, which is affected by folding and boudinage of anhydrite in rock-salt matrix due to diapiric emplacement and subsequent horizontal shortening (Behlau & Mingerzahn 2001). Anhydrite is characterized by small grain size (≤ 50 µm) and high amounts of opaque and less soluble components (magnesite, quartz, phyllosilicates). Small fractures are filled with halite. For EBSD, line scans were performed with a step size of 50 µm. The results do not show any crystallographic preferred orientation of anhydrite. The grain size of halite ranges from 1-3 mm, grain boundaries are lobate and decorated with both fluid inclusions and small anhydrite crystals. Halite subgrains have a size of 70-90 µm. For EBSD analyses, map scans were performed with different size and step size, dependent on the magnification. The misorientation angles between single subgrains are very low (1°-2°), only subordinate misorientation angles of 5°-7° occur. Bending of some halite crystals is documented by misorientation angles of max. 3° within a single grain. The misorientation index M (Skemer et al. 2005) for whole rock analyses yielded values < 0.09, which represents a random misorientation distribution in halite rocks. The small grain size of anhydrite, the lack of a preferred orientation and the development of opaque seams suggest solution-precipitation creep is the most important deformation mechanism in fine grained anhydrite rocks. Brittle deformation is documented by subsequent developed fractures, which are filled with halite. For halite, subgrain formation and solution-precipitation creep are

  2. On the Causes of the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max; Pegion, Philip

    2003-01-01

    During the 1930s the United States experienced one of the most devastating droughts of the last century. The drought affected almost 2/3 of the country and parts of Mexico and Canada and was infamous for the numerous dust storms that lead to the characterization of much of the Great Plains as the "Dust Bowl". Results from an ensemble of 100-year simulations with the NASA Seasonal- to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed SSTs show that the model reproduces the basic features of the 1930s drought. In t h s study we exploit this realism in the model simulation to examine in more detail the role of the SST and soil moisture in the development and maintenance the 1930s drought. Results will be presented from simulations in which the SST anomalies are confined to the separate ocean basins, as well as from runs in which soil moisture feedback is turn off.

  3. The athletic profile of fast bowling in cricket: a review.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, James A; Mitchell, Andrew C S; Hughes, Gerwyn; Watson, Tim; Ford, Paul A; Garrett, Andrew T

    2014-05-01

    Cricket is a global sport played in over 100 countries with elite performers attracting multimillion dollar contracts. Therefore, performers maintaining optimum physical fitness and remaining injury free is important. Fast bowlers have a vital position in a cricket team, and there is an increasing body of scientific literature that has reviewed this role over the past decade. Previous research on fast bowlers has tended to focus on biomechanical analysis and injury prevention in performers. However, this review aims to critically analyze the emerging contribution of physiological-based literature linked to fast bowling in cricket, highlight the current evidence related to simulated and competitive in-match performance, and relate this practically to the conditioning coach. Furthermore, the review considers limitations with past research and possible avenues for future investigation. It is clear with the advent of new applied mobile monitoring technology that there is scope for more ecologically valid and longitudinal exploration capturing in-match data, providing quantification of physiological workloads, and analysis of the physical demands across the differing formats of the game. Currently, strength and conditioning specialists do not have a critical academic resource with which to shape professional practice, and this review aims to provide a starting point for evidence in the specific area.

  4. Study of flow through a bowl mill model

    SciTech Connect

    Murty, G.V.R.; Babu, U.S.

    1998-07-01

    Bowl Mills are used in Thermal Power plants for pulverizing the raw coal, while drying, to the required fineness and achieve the desired combustion efficiency in the boiler. The Indian coals contain high ash content (some times as high as 60%) and as such the primary air has to handle media of different density namely the coal and the quartz. In this context, the distribution of air in the mill plays a significant role in the lifting of particles from the mill. The wear on the rotating components is increased through repetitive grinding because of improper distribution of air within the mill. Reduction of wear and enhancement of life of mill internals including the rotating components is a continuing goal and few more studies have been carried out in this direction. One such study is the replacement of rotating vane wheel and deflector in the separator body with an air guide ring and air diversion plate. Model studies have been carried out by traversing a five hole prove at different locations within the mill to study the distribution of flow as a result of this modification. The variation of absolute velocity and the associated flow direction has been calculated to describe the flow structure within the mill. The results are presented in non dimensional form to draw suitable conclusions. The present study indicated the possibility of improvement in the distribution of flow within the mill with increased magnitude of velocity at different locations.

  5. The effect of anhydrite saturation on the fate of sulfur during fluid-present melting of subducting basaltic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jego, S.; Dasgupta, R.

    2012-12-01

    The apparent sulfur enrichment of sub-arc mantle is thought to derive from an oxidized downgoing slab, and it has been suggested that the slab-derived sulfate species is responsible for oxidizing the mantle wedge [1]. However, the conditions and extent of sulfur transfer from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge are poorly understood. In particular, the relative mobility of sulfur as a function of oxygen fugacity (fO2) is unconstrained at sub-arc depths. To add to our recent study on sulfur mobility during fluid-present melting of a sulfide-bearing basaltic crust [2], here we constrain the fate of sulfur during similar melting at relatively oxidizing conditions, i.e., at sulfate saturation. Experiments were performed using a piston cylinder device at P = 2-3 GPa, T = 950-1050 °C. A synthetic MORB + 6.8 wt.% H2O doped with 1 wt% S (added as pyrite) was contained in AuPd inner capsules and hematite-magnetite (HM: ~FMQ+3.9 to +4.6) mixture used as fO2 buffer was housed in Pt outer capsules, following the recently proposed design of ref. [3]. Sulfur concentration in quenched silicate glasses, the major element phase compositions, and fO2 of the experiments based on dissolved Fe contents in AuPd and added Pt sensor [4, 5], were determined using EPMA. All experiments contain silicate melt, cpx, garnet, anhydrite, rutile and/or Ti-magnetite, and are fluid saturated. The partial melt compositions are rhyolitic to rhyodacitic with increasing T and melting degree. Sulfur contents in the melt range from ~700 to 3000 ppm, and increase with increasing P and T, in agreement with published SCAS models [6, 7]. Mass balance calculations show that the proportion of sulfur dissolved in silicate melt can be >13% of the bulk sulfur at 1050 °C. However, at slab surface (<900 °C), the major part of the bulk sulfur present in the slab is dissolved in the aqueous fluid phase, the rest being stored as anhydrite crystals. Moreover, our results suggest that sulfur partition coefficient

  6. Evaluation of American Indian Science and Engineering Society Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl Project

    SciTech Connect

    AISES, None

    2013-09-25

    The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has been funded under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant (Grant Award No. DE-SC0004058) to host an Intertribal Middle-School Science and Math Bowl (IMSSMB) comprised of teams made up of a majority of American Indian students from Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools and public schools. The intent of the AISES middle school science and math bowl is to increase participation of American Indian students at the DOE-sponsored National Science Bowl. Although national in its recruitment scope, the AISES Intertribal Science and Math Bowl is considered a “regional” science bowl, equivalent to the other 50 regional science bowls which are geographically limited to states. Most regional bowls do not have American Indian student teams competing, hence the AISES bowl is meant to encourage American Indian student teams to increase their science knowledge in order to participate at the national level. The AISES competition brings together teams from various American Indian communities across the nation. Each team is provided with funds for travel to and from the event, as well as for lodging and meals. In 2011 and 2012, there were 10 teams participating; in 2013, the number of teams participating doubled to 20. Each Science and Math Bowl team is comprised of four middle school — grades 6 through 8 — students, one alternate, and a teacher who serves as advisor and coach — although in at least two cases, the coach was not a teacher, but was the Indian Education Coordinator. Each team member must have at least a 3.0 GPA. Furthermore, the majority of students in each team must be comprised of American Indian, Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian students. Under the current DOE grant, AISES sponsored three annual middle school science bowl competitions over the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The science and math bowls have been held in late March concurrently with the National American Indian Science and

  7. A new approach to kinetics study of the anhydrite crystallization at 373 K using a diamond anvil cell with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. J.; Zheng, H. F.

    2013-04-01

    A new approach to the kinetics study of anhydrite (CaSO4) crystallization has been performed in situ using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell with Raman spectroscopy in the pressure range 896-1322 MPa and a constant temperature of 373 K. Transformed volume fraction X(t) was determined from Raman peak intensity of the sulfate ion in aqueous solution. The transformation-time plots display a sigmoidal shape with time, which indicates that the reaction rate is different at each stage of anhydrite crystallization. At 373 K, the rate constant k increases from 1.14 × 10-4 s-1 to 1.86 × 10-3 s-1, demonstrating a positive effect of pressure on the overall rate at isothermal condition. We first achieved the molar volume change (ΔVm) equal to -1.82 × 10-5 m3/mol in the course of anhydrite crystallization through Avrami kinetic theory, showing a process of reduction in volume at high pressure and high temperature. According to the exponent n derived from our experiments, a grain-boundary nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth kinetically dominates the crystallization of anhydrite.

  8. A new approach to kinetics study of the anhydrite crystallization at 373 K using a diamond anvil cell with Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, C J; Zheng, H F

    2013-04-01

    A new approach to the kinetics study of anhydrite (CaSO4) crystallization has been performed in situ using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell with Raman spectroscopy in the pressure range 896-1322 MPa and a constant temperature of 373 K. Transformed volume fraction X(t) was determined from Raman peak intensity of the sulfate ion in aqueous solution. The transformation-time plots display a sigmoidal shape with time, which indicates that the reaction rate is different at each stage of anhydrite crystallization. At 373 K, the rate constant k increases from 1.14 × 10(-4) s(-1) to 1.86 × 10(-3) s(-1), demonstrating a positive effect of pressure on the overall rate at isothermal condition. We first achieved the molar volume change (ΔVm) equal to -1.82 × 10(-5) m(3)∕mol in the course of anhydrite crystallization through Avrami kinetic theory, showing a process of reduction in volume at high pressure and high temperature. According to the exponent n derived from our experiments, a grain-boundary nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth kinetically dominates the crystallization of anhydrite.

  9. The combined effects on fluid flow during compression of piston bowl shape and offset, and swirl ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, A.P.; Dessipris, S.; Khaleghi, H.

    1987-01-01

    Computational results are presented of air flow during the compression stroke of three engines with differently shaped piston bowls. The three dimensional computer code uses orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems to body fit the engine shapes. A parametric variation of bowl offset position and swirl ratio is performed to assess their effects on the mean flow and the turbulence parameters. The bowl shape and swirl ratio are found to be most influential. Bowl offset is less important except when combined with swirl in which case significant effects are made on the mean flow and to a lesser extent on the turbulence.

  10. Archive of bacterial community in anhydrite crystals from a deep-sea basin provides evidence of past oil-spilling in a benthic environment in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Tie Gang; Wang, Meng Ying; Lai, Qi Liang; Li, Jiang Tao; Gao, Zhao Ming; Shao, Zong Ze; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-11-01

    In deep-sea sediment, the microbes present in anhydrite crystals are potential markers of the past environment. In the Atlantis II Deep, anhydrite veins were produced by mild mixture of calcium-rich hydrothermal solutions and sulfate in the bottom water, which had probably preserved microbial inhabitants in the past seafloor of the Red Sea. In this study, this hypothesis was tested by analyzing the metagenome of an anhydrite crystal sample from the Atlantis II Deep. The estimated age of the anhydrite layer was between 750 and 770 years, which might span the event of hydrothermal eruption into the benthic floor. The 16S/18S rRNA genes in the metagenome were assigned to bacteria, archaea, fungi and even invertebrate species. The dominant species in the crystals was an oil-degrading Alcanivorax borkumensis bacterium, which was not detected in the adjacent sediment layer. Fluorescence microscopy using 16S rRNA and marker gene probes revealed intact cells of the Alcanivorax bacterium in the crystals. A draft genome of A. borkumensis was binned from the metagenome. It contained all functional genes for alkane utilization and the reduction of nitrogen oxides. Moreover, the metagenomes of the anhydrites and control sediment contained aromatic degradation pathways, which were mostly derived from Ochrobactrum sp. Altogether, these results indicate an oxic, oil-spilling benthic environment in the Atlantis II basin of the Red Sea in approximately the 14th century. The original microbial inhabitants probably underwent a dramatic selection process via drastic environmental changes following the formation of an overlying anoxic brine pool in the basin due to hydrothermal activities.

  11. The effect of a flexed elbow on bowling speed in cricket.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Robert; Ferdinands, René

    2003-01-01

    The laws of bowling in cricket state 'a ball is fairly delivered in respect of the arm if, once the bowler's arm has reached the level of the shoulder in the delivery swing, the elbow joint is not straightened partially or completely from that point until the ball has left the hand'. Recently two prominent bowlers, under suspicion for transgressing this law, suggested that they are not 'throwing' but due to an elbow deformity are forced to bowl with a bent bowling arm. This study examined whether such bowlers can produce an additional contribution to wrist/ball release speed by internal rotation of the upper arm. The kinematics of a bowling arm were calculated using a simple two-link model (upper arm and forearm). Using reported internal rotation speeds of the upper arm from baseball and waterpolo, and bowling arm kinematics from cricket, the change in wrist speed was calculated as a function of effective arm length, and wrist distance from the internal rotation axis. A significant increase in wrist speed was noted. This suggests that bowlers who can maintain a fixed elbow flexion during delivery can produce distinctly greater wrist/ball speeds by using upper arm internal rotation.

  12. Lumbar spinal loading during bowling in cricket: a kinetic analysis using a musculoskeletal modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxin; Ma, Ye; Liu, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate two types of cricket bowling techniques by comparing the lumbar spinal loading using a musculoskeletal modelling approach. Three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded by a Vicon motion capture system under two cricket bowling conditions: (1) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds (max condition), and (2) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds while simultaneously forcing their navel down towards their thighs starting just prior to ball release (max-trunk condition). A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model comprised of the pelvis, sacrum, lumbar vertebrae and torso segments, which enabled the motion of the individual lumbar vertebrae in the sagittal, frontal and coronal planes to be actuated by 210 muscle-tendon units, was used to simulate spinal loading based on the recorded kinematic data. The maximal lumbar spine compressive force is 4.89 ± 0.88BW for the max condition and 4.58 ± 0.54BW for the max-trunk condition. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two techniques in trunk moments and lumbar spine forces. This indicates that the max-trunk technique may not increase lower back injury risks. The method proposed in this study could be served as a tool to evaluate lower back injury risks for cricket bowling as well as other throwing activities.

  13. Quantifying elbow extension and elbow hyperextension in cricket bowling: a case study of Jenny Gunn.

    PubMed

    King, Mark A; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2012-05-01

    In this study a method for determining elbow extension and elbow abduction for a cricket bowling delivery was developed and assessed for Jenny Gunn who has hypermobility in both elbows and whose bowling action has been repeatedly queried by umpires. Bowling is a dynamic activity which is assessed visually in real time in a cricket match by an umpire. When the legality of a bowler's action is questioned by an umpire a quantitative analysis is undertaken using a marker based motion analysis system. This method of quantifying elbow extension should agree with a visual assessment of when the arm is "straight" and should minimise the effects of marker movement. A set of six markers on the bowling arm were used to calculate elbow angles. Differences of up to 1° for elbow extension and up to 2° for elbow abduction were found when angles calculated from the marker set for static straight arm trials were compared with measurements taken by a chartered sports physiotherapist. In addition comparison of elbow extension angles at ball release calculated from the markers during bowling trials with those measured from high speed video also showed good agreement with mean differences of 0°±2°.

  14. Shadow Bowl 2003: a collaborative exercise in community readiness, agency cooperation, and medical response.

    PubMed

    Balch, David; Taylor, Carl; Rosenthal, David; Bausch, Chris; Warner, Dave; Morris, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a model for homeland security, community readiness, and medical response that was applied during an operational exercise around Super Bowl XXXVII. In addition, it describes the products provided by private companies involved in the exercise and how they would have contributed to a medical disaster had one occurred. The purpose of Shadow Bowl was to demonstrate community readiness and medical response to a mass casualty event. The goals of the project were to: (1) provide enhanced public safety using an advanced communication network and sensor grid; (2) develop mass casualty surge capabilities through medical reach-back; and (3) build a collaboration model between civilian, military, public, and private partners. The results of the Shadow Bowl Exercise accentuated the value of new telehealth and disaster medicine tools in treating large numbers of patients when infrastructure overload occurs.

  15. Volatile Evolution and Anhydrite-Bearing Dacite, Yanacocha Gold Deposit, Cajamarca, Peru: Relevance for the Sulfur Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambefort, I. S.; Dilles, J. H.

    2006-12-01

    Magmatic water, sulfur and chlorine evolved during volcanic eruptions have important climactic effects, but during passive degassing these volatiles may transport metals and produce hydrothermal ore deposits. At the Yanacocha Mine, we are examining the volatile evolution of the Miocene andesitic to dacitic volcanic rocks (ca 20 to 8 Ma). High sulfidation epithermal deposits contain >50 Moz of gold in oxides with additional deeper sulfide resources containing >5 Mt of copper. Large volumes (>10 km3) of rock are hydrothermally altered by sulfate-rich and low pH fluid to quartz, quartz-alunite, quartz-pyrophyllite, illite. Pyrite (1-5 vol.%), native sulfur, covellite, enargite and chalcopyrite constitute reduced S-species. In total, at least 500 M tonnes of sulfur were added during alteration. The San Jose ignimbrite (SJI) erupted 30 km3 magma in two cooling units at 11.50 and 11.28 Ma, and immediately predates the bulk of gold mineralization at about 10.80 Ma (Longo, 2005). This hornblende- plagioclase dacitic magma is highly oxidized with fO2 ≍ 2 NNO. Low-Al2O3 (~7 wt.%), and high- Al2O3 (~12 wt.%) amphiboles coexist in most of the samples. Plag-hbl thermobarometry on low-Al content amphibole yields ca. 1.5-2 kb and 800°C. High-Al pargasitic hornblende forms sparse crystals up to 1 cm long that often show resorption or oxide rims associated with oxyhornblende breakdown. Apatite is an inclusion but generally not plagioclase or oxide. These petrographic relations suggest that the high-Al hornblende is the liquidus phase (at 950 to 1000°C, PH2O > 3 kb) in an andesitic or basaltic magma. The high-Al amphibole in two samples contains anhydrite inclusions, one with >5 vol.% anhydrite associated with apatite having up to 1.2 wt.% SO3. Comparison of these data with experimental sulfate solubilities at NNO+2 suggests the andesitic or basaltic melt dissolved at least 1000 ppm S. One low-Al amphibole contains anhydrite, demonstrating that the cooler dacite magma was also

  16. Studies on piston bowl geometries using single blend ratio of various non-edible oils.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Karthickeyan; Pasupathy, Balamurugan

    2017-07-01

    The depletion of fossil fuels and hike in crude oil prices were some of the main reasons to explore new alternatives from renewable source of energy. This work presents the impact of various bowl geometries on diesel engine with diesel and biodiesel samples. Three non-edible oils were selected, namely pumpkin seed oil, orange oil and neem oil. These oils were converted into respective biodiesel using transesterification process in the presence of catalyst and alcohol. After transesterification process, the oils were termed as pumpkin seed oil methyl ester (PSOME), orange oil methyl ester (OME) and neem oil methyl ester (NOME), respectively. The engine used for experimentation was a single-cylinder four-stroke water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine and loads were applied to the engine using eddy current dynamometer. Two bowl geometries were developed, namely toroidal combustion chamber (TCC) and trapezoidal combustion chamber (TRCC). Also, the engine was inbuilt with hemispherical combustion chamber (HCC). The base line readings were recorded using neat diesel fuel with HCC for various loads. Followed by 20% of biodiesel mixed with 80% neat diesel for all prepared methyl esters and termed as B1 (20% PSOME with 80% diesel), B2 (20% OME with 80% diesel) and B3 (20% NOME with 80% diesel). All fuel samples were tested in HCC, TCC and TRCC bowl geometries under standard injection timing and with compression ratio of 18. Increased brake thermal efficiency and reduced brake specific fuel consumption were observed with diesel in TCC geometry. Also, higher heat release and cylinder pressures with lower ignition delay were recorded with TCC bowl geometry. TCC bowl geometry showed lower CO, HC and smoke emissions with B2 fuel sample than diesel and other biodiesel samples. But, higher NOx emission was observed in HCC and TCC than that in TRCC bowl geometry. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: TRITON SYSTEMS, LLC SOLID BOWL CENTRIFUGE, MODEL TS-5000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Triton Systems, LLC Solid Bowl Centrifuge Model TS-5000 (TS-5000) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The TS-5000 was 48" in diameter and 30" deep, with a bowl capacity of 16 ft3. ...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: TRITON SYSTEMS, LLC SOLID BOWL CENTRIFUGE, MODEL TS-5000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Triton Systems, LLC Solid Bowl Centrifuge Model TS-5000 (TS-5000) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The TS-5000 was 48" in diameter and 30" deep, with a bowl capacity of 16 ft3. ...

  19. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Construction of Air Force Non-Appropriated Funds Bowling Center at Maxwell Air Force Base, Gunter Annex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    with a Signature Brand “Classics Diner”, could generate increased revenue by providing an additional number of bowling lanes. Food and beverage income...number of bowling lanes. Food and beverage income is also anticipated to grow. The increased income would also create additional jobs and would be... Mall ...................................................................................... 5-2 5.3 CUMULATIVE EFFECTS ANALYSIS

  20. Solubility of Anhydrite (CaSO4) in NaCl-H2O Fluids at High T and P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    Weight losses of single crystals of a very pure natural anhydrite exposed to NaCl solutions of 0-0.3 mol fraction were measured at 600-800 \\deg C and 6-14 kbar. Experimental charges were contained in welded Pt capsules in 1.91 cm-diameter piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl pressure medium for 5-72 hr. Measurements in initially pure H2O were made with HM, NNO, and MnO2 buffers, as well as without buffering. At 800 \\deg C and 10 kbar, CaSO4 molalities are: MnO2, 0.014 mol/kg H2O; HM, 0.017; NNO, 0.148; and unbuffered, 0.026. Variation in oxygen fugacity thus has a large effect on CaSO4 solubility, increasing with H2S/SO2 in the fluid. Unbuffered (self-buffered) charges gave solubilities much closer to HM than NNO. Melting occurred in the NNO experiment at this P and T. NaCl increases CaSO4 solubility enormously, with m(CaSO4) reaching 5.4, or 23.5 wt. %, at 800 \\deg C, 10 kbar and X(NaCl)=0.3. There is also a very large increase with temperature. Regression of all the data give: log(m-mo) = -1.533 + 0.00291T + (1.441 + 0.00016T)logX(NaCl) + 0.0413(P-10) where mo is molality in pure H2O, P is in kbar, and T is in Kelvins. The very large carrying capacity for sulfate in even mildly saline fluids at high P and T, together with the high oxygen potential generated when these solutions react with FeO in rocks to yield pyrrhotite, indicates that such fluids should be considered as principal agents in S-rich, highly oxidizing processes such as Pinatubo-type volcanic eruptions, certain deep-crustal granulite facies metamorphism, as in Bamble, Norway and Shevaroy Hills, S. India, and the anhydrite-related, oxidized Au ore deposits like Abitibi, Ontario, and Kalgoorlie, Australia.

  1. Corannulene-Helicene Hybrids: Chiral π-Systems Comprising Both Bowl and Helical Motifs.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Takao; Preda, Dorin V; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro; Scott, Lawrence T

    2016-08-19

    Two distinct structural elements that render π-systems nonplanar, i.e., geodesic curvature and helical motifs, have been combined into new polyarenes that contain both features. The resultant corannulene-[n]helicenes (n = 5, 6) show unique molecular dynamics in their enantiomerization processes, including inversion motions of both the bowl and the helix. Optical resolution of a corannulene-based skeletally chiral molecule was also achieved for the first time, and the influence of the bowl-motif annulation on the chiroptical properties was investigated.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Bowl-Like Single-Crystalline BaTiO3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Novel bowl-like single-crystalline BaTiO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using Ba(OH)2·8H2O and TiO2 as precursors. The as-prepared products were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and TEM. The results show that the bowl-like BaTiO3 nanoparticles are single-crystalline and have a size about 100–200 nm in diameter. Local piezoresponse force measurements indicate that the BaTiO3 nanoparticles have switchable polarization at room temperature. The local effective piezoelectric coefficient is approximately 28 pm/V. PMID:20596350

  3. Stability of polar frosts in spherical bowl-shaped craters on the moon, Mercury, and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Svitek, Tomas; Murray, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    A model of spherical bowl-shaped craters is described and applied to the moon, Mercury, and Mars. The maximum temperature of permanently shadowed areas are calculated using estimates of the depth/diameter ratios of typical lunar bowl-shaped craters and assuming a saturated surface in which the craters are completely overlapping. For Mars, two cases are considered: water frost in radiative equilibrium and subliming CO2 frost in vapor equilibrium. Energy budgets and temperatures are used to determine whether a craterlike depression loses mass faster or slower than a flat horizontal surface. This reveals qualitatively whether the frost surface becomes rougher or smoother as it sublimes.

  4. Experimentally Shock-loaded Anhydrite: Unit-Cell Dimensions, Microstrain and Domain Size from X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skala, R.; Hoerz, F.

    2003-01-01

    Cretaceous Tertiary (K/T) boundary is traditionally associated with one of the most dramatic mass extinctions in the Earth history. A number of killing mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the widespread extinctions of Cretaceous biota at this boundary, including severe, global deterioration of the atmosphere and hydrosphere from the shock-induced release of CO2 and SO(x) from carbonate- and sulfate-bearing target rocks, respectively. Recently carried out calculations revealed that the global warming caused by CO2 release was considerably less important than the cooling due to SO(x) gases release during the Chicxulub impact event. Considering apparent potential importance of the response of sulfates to the shock metamorphism, relative lack of the data on shock behavior of sulfates as well as some general difficulties encountered during thermodynamic modeling of the shock-induced CO2 loss from carbonates we subjected anhydrite to a series of shock experiments designed for complete recovery of the shocked material. We report here on the detail X-ray diffraction analysis of seven samples that were subjected to experimental shock-loading from 10 to 65 GPa.

  5. Experimentally Shock-loaded Anhydrite: Unit-Cell Dimensions, Microstrain and Domain Size from X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skala, R.; Hoerz, F.

    2003-01-01

    Cretaceous Tertiary (K/T) boundary is traditionally associated with one of the most dramatic mass extinctions in the Earth history. A number of killing mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the widespread extinctions of Cretaceous biota at this boundary, including severe, global deterioration of the atmosphere and hydrosphere from the shock-induced release of CO2 and SO(x) from carbonate- and sulfate-bearing target rocks, respectively. Recently carried out calculations revealed that the global warming caused by CO2 release was considerably less important than the cooling due to SO(x) gases release during the Chicxulub impact event. Considering apparent potential importance of the response of sulfates to the shock metamorphism, relative lack of the data on shock behavior of sulfates as well as some general difficulties encountered during thermodynamic modeling of the shock-induced CO2 loss from carbonates we subjected anhydrite to a series of shock experiments designed for complete recovery of the shocked material. We report here on the detail X-ray diffraction analysis of seven samples that were subjected to experimental shock-loading from 10 to 65 GPa.

  6. The Will to Conservation: A Burkeian Analysis of Dust Bowl Rhetoric and American Farming Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Tarla Rai

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the rhetoric of agricultural conservationists focusing on the 1930s Dust Bowl, revealing that its potential for promoting environmentally sound land-use practices was limited. Argues that the vulnerability of conservation efforts to competing forces was largely a function of the hierarchy of motives associated with land use. (SRT)

  7. Reach for Reference. Nostalgia for Teachers, History for Students: Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the U-X-L encyclopedia "Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th Century America," a five-volume set, arranged chronologically with two decades in each volume. Each decade then is divided into topics, such as commerce (more exciting than it sounds with lots of inventions, consumer goods, and technology); film…

  8. The kinematic differences between off-spin and leg-spin bowling in cricket.

    PubMed

    Beach, Aaron J; Ferdinands, René E D; Sinclair, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Spin bowling is generally coached using a standard technical framework, but this practice has not been based upon a comparative biomechanical analysis of leg-spin and off-spin bowling. This study analysed the three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of 23 off-spin and 20 leg-spin bowlers using a Cortex motion analysis system to identify how aspects of the respective techniques differed. A multivariate ANOVA found that certain data tended to validate some of the stated differences in the coaching literature. Off-spin bowlers had a significantly shorter stride length (p = 0.006) and spin rate (p = 0.001), but a greater release height than leg-spinners (p = 0.007). In addition, a number of other kinematic differences were identified that were not previously documented in coaching literature. These included a larger rear knee flexion (p = 0.007), faster approach speed (p < 0.001), and flexing elbow action during the arm acceleration compared with an extension action used by most of the off-spin bowlers. Off-spin and leg-spin bowlers also deviated from the standard coaching model for the shoulder alignment, front knee angle at release, and forearm mechanics. This study suggests that off-spin and leg-spin are distinct bowling techniques, supporting the development of two different coaching models in spin bowling.

  9. Thickening of ultrafine coal-water slurries in a solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkerton, A.P.; Klima, M.S.; Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.

    1999-07-01

    As part of a study being conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) to evaluate ultrafine coal dewatering technologies, testing was carried out to investigate the use of a solid-bowl (high-g) centrifuge for thickening ultrafine coalwater slurries. The objective of this study was to increase the solids concentration to a level suitable for use as a coal-water slurry fuel, while maximizing overall solids recovery. Feed material was collected from the combined discharge (centrate) streams from several screen-bowl centrifuges. These devices are currently being used in a commercial coal cleaning facility to dewater the clean coal product from a froth flotation circuit. Current plant practice is to discharge the centrate to settling ponds. The screen bowl centrate averages 5% solids by weight and contains nearly 60% material finer than 10 {mu}m. The current study examined the effects of operating conditions on centrifuge performance. The test conditions included centrifuge bowl and scroll speeds and volumetric feed rate. In addition to thickening, some cleaning was also achieved, because the finest particles (e.g. < 3 {micro}m), which contained a large percentage of liberated clays, were removed with the bulk of the water. The centrifuge products were analyzed for solids concentration, particle size distribution, and ash content. Size selectivity curves were also used to evaluate centrifuge performance.

  10. Assessment of Learning Outcomes: The Example of Spatial Analysis at Bowling Green State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Zhou, Yu

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a developing approach to assessing selected undergraduate geography courses at Bowling Green State University (BGSU). The assessment focuses on the students' skills in collecting, integrating, analysing, displaying, and communicating spatial information and data sources using mapping and geographic information…

  11. Epidemiology of bowling-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2011-08-01

    Objective. To examine bowling-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments (EDs) from 1990 to 2008. Methods. Bowling-related injury data were analyzed from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Results. From 1990 to 2008, 8754 bowling injuries presented to US EDs, correlating to an estimated 375 468 injuries nationwide. Common body parts injured were the finger (19.0%), trunk (15.8%), and ankle/foot/toe (14.9%). Common diagnoses were sprain/strain (42.7%) and soft-tissue injury (20.3%). Children <7 years old had a higher proportion of finger injuries (49.2%) and injuries from dropping the ball (42.8%) than individuals ≥7 years old (15.9%, injury proportion ratio [IPR] = 3.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.76-3.45, P < .001; and 15.9%, IPR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.32-3.12, P < .001, respectively). Seniors ≥65 years old sustained a greater proportion of injuries related to falling/slipping/tripping (72.4%) than individuals <65 years old (38.3%; IPR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.74-2.05, P < .001). Conclusions. Bowling injuries vary by age and gender. Further research on such differences is needed to drive the development of targeted, evidence-based injury prevention strategies.

  12. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  13. Elderly people's perceptions of using Wii sports bowling - A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Glännfjord, Fredrik; Hemmingsson, Helena; Larsson Ranada, Åsa

    2016-12-14

    The Nintendo Wii is a gaming console with motion-sensitive controls that is making inroads into health care and rehabilitation. However, there is still limited knowledge on how elderly people perceive the use of such a product. The aim of this study was to examine how the use of the Wii Sports Bowling in an activity group was perceived by elderly people. The data consisted of observations and interviews with participants who used Wii Sports Bowling and was analysed with content analysis. The findings are described in three themes; 'The use of the Wii Sports game', 'Engagement in the game' and 'Social interaction around the activity'. Wii Sports Bowling was described as easier to play compared to real-life bowling and was enjoyable and a social activity. The opportunity to meet the group each week was important for the participants. Playing the game resulted in signs of immersion and a flow-like state. The Wii was perceived to be easy to use, to provide a way to socialize with peers and to give opportunities to participate in activities in a new way. More studies regarding elderly people's experiences and apprehensions regarding new technology such as gaming consoles and virtual reality are needed.

  14. Selling Exclusion: Images of Students of Color in Bowl Game Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.; Bourke, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Each winter, the best collegiate football programs compete in the Bowl Championship Series. in addition to showcasing their prowess of the field, each school is afforded opportunities to highlight other aspects of their institution in the form of advertising spots. The current study analyzed each of these spots for the 43 university participants…

  15. Assessment of Learning Outcomes: The Example of Spatial Analysis at Bowling Green State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Zhou, Yu

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a developing approach to assessing selected undergraduate geography courses at Bowling Green State University (BGSU). The assessment focuses on the students' skills in collecting, integrating, analysing, displaying, and communicating spatial information and data sources using mapping and geographic information…

  16. Reach for Reference. Nostalgia for Teachers, History for Students: Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the U-X-L encyclopedia "Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th Century America," a five-volume set, arranged chronologically with two decades in each volume. Each decade then is divided into topics, such as commerce (more exciting than it sounds with lots of inventions, consumer goods, and technology); film…

  17. Selling College: A Longitudinal Study of American College Football Bowl Game Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Lowery, John Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Using ideological analysis as a frame, researchers analyzed institutionally created commercials (PSAs) that appeared in 28 U.S. college football bowl games over a seven-year period (2003-2009) to better understand the universities' brands as represented in these advertisements. They found many common elements such as showing traditional…

  18. The relationship between segmental kinematics and ball spin in Type-2 cricket spin bowling.

    PubMed

    Beach, Aaron J; Ferdinands, René E D; Sinclair, Peter J

    2017-07-27

    The techniques of spin bowling in cricket have been largely formulated from the collective intuitions of past players. A standard model of bowling technique has been generally prescribed for both off-spin and leg-spin bowlers, but there has been no biomechanics research to validate this approach. This study measured 20 Type-2 off-spin and 15 Type-2 leg-spin bowlers using a 3D Cortex motion analysis system. Correlation coefficients between segmental kinematic variables and spin rate in the off-spin and leg-spin bowlers revealed that off-spin bowling was associated with an earlier movement time of the thorax, whereas leg-spin bowling was associated with a greater magnitude and earlier movement time of pelvis rotation, as well as a greater magnitude of pelvis-shoulder separation movement. The maximum velocity of rear hip flexion differentiated between both groups of bowlers. The GLM suggested that for off-spinners, rear hip flexion velocity significantly explained the variance in spin rate (subject to sequential timing constraints), while for leg-spinners, the time of maximum rear hip flexion and maximum arm circumduction velocity significantly explained variance in spin rate. This study supports the notion that off-spinners and leg-spinners have significant differences in their joint kinematics, and should not be coached under a one-size-fits-all technical model.

  19. Supporting Non-Standard Micro Hardware and Software at Bowling Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Duane E.

    1990-01-01

    Bowling Green State University (Ohio) produces a microcomputer resource handbook that contains a comprehensive listing of campus employees with unique microcomputer expertise they are willing to share. The project's current success suggests expansion and follow-up activities in the future. (Author/MSE)

  20. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  1. Ecological catastrophes: threshold responses to climate, soil, and land use drivers of the dust bowl

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dust Bowl was one of the largest ecological disasters, yet is among the least well-studied for regional-scale impacts. Much of the central grasslands region (CGR) of North America experienced a multi-year drought in the 1930s that combined with poor land management practices to result in broad-s...

  2. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  3. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  4. Vibration signature based condition monitoring of bowl-roller coal pulverizers

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, R.J. ); Norton, M.P. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    The overall objective of the work reported in this paper is to minimize the cost of power generation in thermal power stations utilizing pulverized coal combustion processes for steam generation. The strategy of achieving this objective is based on an on-conditioning maintenance philosophy and vibration based diagnostic signature analysis techniques. The coal pulverizers reported on here are 783 RP (roll pressure) and 823 RP combustion engineering (CE) bowl-roller coal pulverizers (bowl mills) installed at the State Energy Commission of Western Australia (SECWA) power stations. This paper reviews the design philosophy, operational principles, and system dynamics and establishes the procedures for identifying the potential malfunction of bowl mills and their associated components. The influence of operating parameters, such as coal flow, primary air flow, and operating temperature, on mill vibration are investigated. The effects of journal spring force variation, such as magnitude, uneven spring force, and broken springs, are also studied. Special attention is also given to the diagnosis of the top radial bearing problem due to its remoteness from the bowl mill external structure. A spectral recovery technique utilizing the inverse frequency response function was developed for trend analysis and diagnostic purposes.

  5. The Humanities Cluster College at Bowling Green State University: Its Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magada, Virginia; Moore, Michael

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the curriculum, operation, and evaluation of the Bowling Green State University Humanities Cluster College, an interdepartmental living-learning program now accorded formal institutional status. Compares the 1975 program with those of earlier experimental years when the students were less career-oriented and pragmatic. (JT)

  6. Visions in the Dust: A Child's Perspective of the Dust Bowl. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jan; Nisbet, Rena

    Much of history is interpreted from an adult point of view. But in Karen Hesse's Newbery Award-winning "Out of the Dust," the Great Depression's Dust Bowl is seen through the eyes of a child. By using the novel, this lesson plan gives students the opportunity to identify with the personal experiences of youth in the 1930s. In addition,…

  7. Synthesis and characterization of pi-extended bowl-shaped pi-conjugated molecules.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Toru; Mori, Koichi; Wu, Hsyueh-Liang; Ishida, Satoshi; Nakamura, Jun-ichi; Murata, Kazuhiko; Hirao, Toshikazu

    2007-05-21

    A series of pi-extended bowl-shaped pi-conjugated compounds were synthesized from sumanene and characterized, and among them the terthiophene derivative showed a remarkable red-shifted absorption and small band gap, which wa rationalized by molecular orbital calculation.

  8. The Will to Conservation: A Burkeian Analysis of Dust Bowl Rhetoric and American Farming Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Tarla Rai

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the rhetoric of agricultural conservationists focusing on the 1930s Dust Bowl, revealing that its potential for promoting environmentally sound land-use practices was limited. Argues that the vulnerability of conservation efforts to competing forces was largely a function of the hierarchy of motives associated with land use. (SRT)

  9. Barium ions selectively activate BK channels via the Ca2+-bowl site.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Zeng, Xu-Hui; Lingle, Christopher J

    2012-07-10

    Activation of Ca(2+)-dependent BK channels is increased via binding of micromolar Ca(2+) to two distinct high-affinity sites per BK α-subunit. One site, termed the Ca(2+) bowl, is embedded within the second RCK domain (RCK2; regulator of conductance for potassium) of each α-subunit, while oxygen-containing residues in the first RCK domain (RCK1) have been linked to a separate Ca(2+) ligation site. Although both sites are activated by Ca(2+) and Sr(2+), Cd(2+) selectively favors activation via the RCK1 site. Divalent cations of larger ionic radius than Sr(2+) are thought to be ineffective at activating BK channels. Here we show that Ba(2+), better known as a blocker of K(+) channels, activates BK channels and that this effect arises exclusively from binding at the Ca(2+)-bowl site. Compared with previous estimates for Ca(2+) bowl-mediated activation by Ca(2+), the affinity of Ba(2+) to the Ca(2+) bowl is reduced about fivefold, and coupling of binding to activation is reduced from ∼3.6 for Ca(2+) to about ∼2.8 for Ba(2+). These results support the idea that ionic radius is an important determinant of selectivity differences among different divalent cations observed for each Ca(2+)-binding site.

  10. National Ocean Sciences Bowl in 2013: A National Competition for High School Ocean Science Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    socially and personally. Students showed extreme dedication to their preparation for competition and increased environmental stewardship, and they...Tatiane Russo-Tait, San Francisco State University, Center for Science and Mathematics Education • Shore Bowl (New Jersey) – Melanie Reding

  11. Selling College: A Longitudinal Study of American College Football Bowl Game Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Lowery, John Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Using ideological analysis as a frame, researchers analyzed institutionally created commercials (PSAs) that appeared in 28 U.S. college football bowl games over a seven-year period (2003-2009) to better understand the universities' brands as represented in these advertisements. They found many common elements such as showing traditional…

  12. Finishes for Wood Bowls, Butcher Blocks, Other Items Used for Food, and Children's Toys

    Treesearch

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    The durability and beauty of wood make it an attractive material for bowls, butcher blocks, and other items used to serve or prepare food. Wood also tends to be less prone to harbor bacteria than are some other materials such as plastic.

  13. A repeatable laboratory method for testing the efficacy of biocides against toilet bowl biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pitts, B; Willse, A; McFeters, G A; Hamilton, M A; Zelver, N; Stewart, P S

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory biofilm growth reactor system that simulated the toilet bowl environment and which could be used for biocide efficacy testing. A microbial biofilm reactor system incorporating intermittent flow and nutrient provision was designed. The reactor system was open to the air and was inoculated with organisms collected from toilet bowl biofilms. Once per hour, reactors were supplied with a nutrient solution for a period of 5 min, then flushed and refilled with tap water or tap water amended with chlorine. Quantitative measures of the rate and extent of biofilm accumulation were defined. Biofilm accumulated in untreated reactors to cell densities of 108 cfu cm-2 after approximately 1 week. Biofilm accumulation was also observed in reactors in the continuous presence of several milligrams per litre of free chlorine. Repeatability standard deviations for the selected efficacy measures were low, indicating high repeatability between experiments. Log reduction values of viable cell numbers were within ranges observed with standard suspension and hard surface disinfection tests. Biofilm accumulated in laboratory reactors approximately seven times faster than it did in actual toilet bowls. The same ranking was achieved in tests between laboratory biofilms and field-grown biofilms with three of the four measures, using three different concentrations of chlorine. This reactor system has been shown to simulate, in a repeatable way, the accumulation of bacterial biofilm that occurs in toilet bowls. The results demonstrate that this system can provide repeatable assays of the efficacy of chlorine against those biofilms. The laboratory biofilm reactor system described herein can be used to evaluate potential antimicrobial and antifouling treatments for control of biofilm formation in toilet bowls.

  14. The relationship between bowling action classification and three-dimensional lower trunk motion in fast bowlers in cricket.

    PubMed

    Ranson, Craig A; Burnett, Angus F; King, Mark; Patel, Nitin; O'Sullivan, Peter B

    2008-02-01

    Lower back injuries, specifically lumbar stress fractures, account for the most lost playing time in professional cricket. The aims of this study were to quantify the proportion of lower trunk motion used during the delivery stride of fast bowling and to examine the relationship between the current fast bowling action classification system and potentially injurious kinematics of the lower trunk. Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected from 50 male professional fast bowlers during a standing active range of motion trial and three fast bowling trials. A high percentage of the fast bowlers used a mixed bowling action attributable to having shoulder counter-rotation greater than 30 degrees. The greatest proportion of lower trunk extension (26%), contralateral side-flexion (129%), and ipsilateral rotation (79%) was used during the front foot contact phase of the fast bowling delivery stride. There was no significant difference in the proportions of available lower trunk extension, contralateral side-flexion, and ipsilateral rotation range of motion used during fast bowling by mixed and non-mixed action bowlers. Motion of the lower trunk, particularly side-flexion, during front foot contact, in addition to variables previously known to be related to back injury (e.g. shoulder counter-rotation), should be examined in future cross-sectional and prospective studies examining the fast bowling action and low back injury.

  15. Experimental constraints on the destabilization of basalt + calcite + anhydrite at high pressure-high temperature and implications for meteoroid impact modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2012-05-01

    Calcite CaCO3 and anhydrite CaSO4 are two sedimentary components or alteration products of basalts on the Earth, Venus, and Mars. The fate of anhydrite-, calcite-bearing crust during a meteoroid impact must be addressed in order to evaluate: (1) the potential S- and C-gas release to the atmosphere, (2) the formation of S- and C-rich melts, and (3) the crystallization of S- and C-rich minerals which may be recognized by spectral analyses of planetary surfaces. We performed piston-cylinder experiments at 1 GPa, between 1200 and 1750 °C, on a mixture of 70 wt.% tholeiitic basalt + 15 wt.% anhydrite + 15 wt.% calcite. Up to ~ 1440 °C, an ultracalcic (CaO > 19.8 wt.%; CaO/Al2O3 > 1 wt.%) picrobasaltic (SiO2 ~ 39-43 wt.%; Na2O + K2O < 2 wt.%) melt containing up to 5.7 wt.% SO3 and up to 5.1 wt.% CO2 + H2O (calculated by difference) is present in equilibrium with fassaitic clinopyroxene, anhydrite, scapolite, chromian spinel and a gas composed mainly of CO and, occasionally, aliphatic thiols like CH3(CH2)3SH. Hydrogen was incorporated either by contact between the starting material and air or by diffusion through the capsule during the experiments. Above ~ 1440 °C, a CaO-rich (~ 35 wt.%) sulfate-carbonate (SC) melt which contains 41-47 wt.% SO3, 7-12 wt.% CO2 + H2O and a few percent of Na2O, forms in equilibrium with the picrobasaltic melt. This study shows that a meteoroid impact onto an anhydrite- and calcite-bearing basaltic crust is likely to release CO gas to the atmosphere, while S is trapped in solid or liquid phases. Under hydrous conditions, however, the S/C in the gas may increase. The importance of the temperature parameter on the impact phase relations is also demonstrated. In particular, SC melt may form by meteoroid impact, and flow rapidly on a planetary surface. Physical modeling must therefore be combined with high P-high T phase diagrams of complex assemblages similar to planetary lithologies in order to evaluate the effects of a meteoroid impact.

  16. Sinking of anhydrite blocks within a Newtonian salt diapir: modelling the influence of block aspect ratio and salt stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchardt, Steffi; Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Fuchs, Lukas

    2012-03-01

    2-D Finite Differences models are used to analyse the strain produced by gravity-driven sinking of dense rectangular inclusions through homogeneous and vertically stratified Newtonian salt. We systematically modelled the descent of dense blocks of different sizes and initial orientations (aspect ratios) representing the Main Anhydrite fragments documented within, for example, the Gorleben salt diapir. Model results demonstrate that size of the blocks is a governing parameter which dictates the amount of strain produced within the block and in the surrounding host salt. Initial block orientation (aspect ratio), on the other hand, causes fundamental differences in block deformation, while the resulting structures produced in the salt are principally the same in all models with homogeneous salt, covering shear zones and folding of passive markers. In models with vertically stratified salt with different viscosities, block descent takes place along complex paths. This results from greater strain accommodation by the 'salt formation' with the lowest viscosity and an asymmetrical distribution of initial vertical shear stresses around the block. Consequently, in these models, block strain is lower compared with the models with homogeneous salt (for the same viscosity as the high-viscosity salt), and sinking is accompanied by block rotation. The latter causes diapir-scale disturbance of the pre-sinking salt stratigraphy and complex sinking paths of the blocks. In particular, vertically oriented blocks sink into high-viscosity salt and drag with them some low-viscosity salt, while horizontal blocks sink in the low-viscosity salt. The resultant sinking velocities vary strongly depending on the sinking path of the block. Based on model results and observed structural configuration within the Gorleben salt diapir, we conclude that the internal complexity of a salt diapir governs its post-ascent deformation. Salt structure and its interaction with dense blocks should hence be

  17. Unidirectional Threading into a Bowl-Shaped Macrocyclic Trimer of Boron-Dipyrrin Complexes through Multipoint Recognition.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Gento; Nabeshima, Tatsuya

    2016-08-08

    Bowl-shaped macrocycles have the distinctive feature that their two sides are differentiated, and thus can be developed into elaborate hosts that fix a target molecule in a controlled geometry through multipoint interactions. We now report the synthesis of a bowl-shaped macrocyclic trimer of the boron-dipyrrin (BODIPY) complex and its unidirectional threading of guest molecules. Six polarized B(δ+) -F(δ-) bonds are directed towards the center of the macrocycle, which enables strong recognition of cationic guests. Specifically, the benzylbutylammonium ion is bound in a manner in which the benzyl group is located at the convex face of the bowl and the butyl group at its concave face. Furthermore, adrenaline was strongly captured on the convex side of the bowl by hydrogen bonding, Coulomb forces, and C-H⋅⋅⋅π interactions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Anticancer activities of self-assembled molecular bowls containing a phenanthrene-based donor and Ru(II) acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Inhye; Song, Young Ho; Singh, Nem; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kwon, Jung Eun; Kim, Hyunuk; Cho, Young Mi; Kang, Se Chan; Chi, Ki-Whan

    2015-01-01

    Nano-sized multinuclear ruthenium complexes have rapidly emerged as promising therapeutic candidates with unique anticancer activities. Here, we describe the coordination-driven self-assembly and anticancer activities of a set of three organometallic tetranuclear Ru(II) molecular bowls. [2+2] Coordination-driven self-assembly of 3, 6-bis(pyridin-3- ylethynyl) phenanthrene (bpep) (1) and one of the three dinuclear arene ruthenium clips, [(η6-p-iPrC6H4Me)2Ru2-(OO\\OO)][OTf]2 (OO\\OO =2, 5-dioxido-1, 4-benzoquinonato, OTf = triflate) (2), 5, 8-dioxido-1, 4-naphthoquinonato (3), or 6, 11-dioxido-5, 12-naphthacenediona (4), resulted in three molecular bowls 5–7 of general formula [{(η6-p-iPrC6H4Me)2Ru2-(OO\\OO)}2(bpep)2][OTf]4. All molecular bowls were obtained as triflate salts in very good yields (>90%) and were fully characterized using multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and elemental analysis. The structure of the representative molecular bowl 5 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The anticancer activities of molecular bowls 5–7 were determined by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, autophagy, and Western blot analysis. Bowl 6 showed the strongest cytotoxicity in AGS human gastric carcinoma cells and was more cytotoxic than doxorubicin. In addition, autophagic activity and the ratio of apoptotic cell death increased in AGS cells by treatment with bowl 6. Bowl 6 also induced autophagosome formation via upregulation of p62 and promotion of the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Moreover, bowl 6 promoted apoptotic cell death through downregulation of Akt/mTOR activation, followed by increased caspase-3 activity. These results suggest that bowl 6 induces gastric cancer cell death via modulation of autophagy and apoptosis. Bowl 6 is a potent anticancer agent and a potential treatment for human gastric cancer that merits further study. PMID:26347134

  19. Anticancer activities of self-assembled molecular bowls containing a phenanthrene-based donor and Ru(II) acceptors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inhye; Song, Young Ho; Singh, Nem; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kwon, Jung Eun; Kim, Hyunuk; Cho, Young Mi; Kang, Se Chan; Chi, Ki-Whan

    2015-01-01

    Nano-sized multinuclear ruthenium complexes have rapidly emerged as promising therapeutic candidates with unique anticancer activities. Here, we describe the coordination-driven self-assembly and anticancer activities of a set of three organometallic tetranuclear Ru(II) molecular bowls. [2+2] Coordination-driven self-assembly of 3, 6-bis(pyridin-3- ylethynyl) phenanthrene (bpep) (1) and one of the three dinuclear arene ruthenium clips, [(η6-p-iPrC6H4Me)2Ru2-(OO\\OO)][OTf]2 (OO\\OO =2, 5-dioxido-1, 4-benzoquinonato, OTf = triflate) (2), 5, 8-dioxido-1, 4-naphthoquinonato (3), or 6, 11-dioxido-5, 12-naphthacenediona (4), resulted in three molecular bowls 5-7 of general formula [{(η6-p-iPrC6H4Me)2Ru2-(OO\\OO)}2(bpep)2][OTf]4. All molecular bowls were obtained as triflate salts in very good yields (>90%) and were fully characterized using multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and elemental analysis. The structure of the representative molecular bowl 5 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The anticancer activities of molecular bowls 5-7 were determined by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, autophagy, and Western blot analysis. Bowl 6 showed the strongest cytotoxicity in AGS human gastric carcinoma cells and was more cytotoxic than doxorubicin. In addition, autophagic activity and the ratio of apoptotic cell death increased in AGS cells by treatment with bowl 6. Bowl 6 also induced autophagosome formation via upregulation of p62 and promotion of the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Moreover, bowl 6 promoted apoptotic cell death through downregulation of Akt/mTOR activation, followed by increased caspase-3 activity. These results suggest that bowl 6 induces gastric cancer cell death via modulation of autophagy and apoptosis. Bowl 6 is a potent anticancer agent and a potential treatment for human gastric cancer that merits further study.

  20. Effects of Singing Bowl Sound Meditation on Mood, Tension, and Well-being: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Goldsby, Tamara L; Goldsby, Michael E; McWalters, Mary; Mills, Paul J

    2016-09-30

    Poor mood and elevated anxiety are linked to increased incidence of disease. This study examined the effects of sound meditation, specifically Tibetan singing bowl meditation, on mood, anxiety, pain, and spiritual well-being. Sixty-two women and men (mean age 49.7 years) participated. As compared with pre-meditation, following the sound meditation participants reported significantly less tension, anger, fatigue, and depressed mood (all Ps <.001). Additionally, participants who were previously naïve to this type of meditation experienced a significantly greater reduction in tension compared with participants experienced in this meditation (P < .001). Feeling of spiritual well-being significantly increased across all participants (P < .001). Tibetan singing bowl meditation may be a feasible low-cost low technology intervention for reducing feelings of tension, anxiety, and depression, and increasing spiritual well-being. This meditation type may be especially useful in decreasing tension in individuals who have not previously practiced this form of meditation.

  1. Did Dust From the 1930s US Dust Bowl Make it to Greenland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscaye, P. E.; Bory, A. J.; Gill, T. E.; Steffensen, J.

    2005-12-01

    The "Dust Bowl" phenomenon during the 1930s in the southwestern United States generated huge amounts of airborne dust with northward and eastward transport of mineral aerosol. Amidst the normal (past 40,000 years) flux of dust from China and Mongolia to the Greenland ice cap, were there any "Dust Bowl" years during which North American dust made significant deposits, or were even detectable? Donarummo et al. (2003) reported a possible instance of Dust-Bowl dust during 1933 from the GISP2 ice core drilled at Summit in central Greenland. Did this occur elsewhere and/or in other years? At the NorthGRIP (75 N; 042 W) ice camp in 2001, we drilled four shallow firn cores (~ 1 m apart and 25.0 m deep) to the level of 1930 firn. We divided the cores into the four periods 1930-1945, 1945-1960, 1960-1980, and 1980-1990, and combined the appropriate intervals of all four cores in order to recover sufficient dust. If the southwestern U.S. dust were to be detected during the primary Dust-Bowl years (1930-1945 interval), we expected to see the signal return to pure East Asian characteristics over the course of the subsequent three periods. The four composite firn samples were melted, the dust extracted in the field by super-centrifugation, and returned to LDEO. Non-destructive XRD analyses for clay mineralogy preceded dissolution, chemical purification and analysis of radiogenic isotope composition (ENd(0) and 87Sr/86Sr) by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry. The results of these analyses were compared to our samples of Chinese and Mongolian desert material, to samples of known Dust-Bowl dust, and to all the samples of ice-core and snow-pit dust from Greenland we had previously analyzed. These comparisons reveal no hint of compositional change from Asian- toward Dust-Bowl characteristics. We conclude that the single possible occurrence of Dust-Bowl dust in 1933 ice reported by Donarummo et al. (2003) did not at all characterize the entire Dust-Bowl era in Greenland. We have

  2. Did Dust From the 1930s US Dust Bowl Make it to Greenland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscaye, P. E.; Bory, A. J.; Gill, T. E.; Steffensen, J.

    2004-12-01

    The "Dust Bowl" phenomenon during the 1930s in the southwestern United States generated huge amounts of airborne dust with eastward transport of mineral aerosol. Amidst the normal flux of dust from China and Mongolia to the Greenland ice cap, were there any "Dust Bowl" years during which North American dust made significant deposits, or were even detectable? Donarummo et al. (2003) reported a possible instance of Dust-Bowl dust during 1933 from the GISP2 ice core drilled at Summit in central Greenland. Did this occur elsewhere in other years? At the NorthGRIP (75 N; 042 W) ice camp in 2001, we drilled four shallow firn cores (~ 1 m apart and 25.0 m deep) to the level of 1930 firn. We divided the cores into the four periods 1930-1945, 1945-1960, 1960-1980, and 1980-1990, and combined the appropriate intervals of all four cores in order to recover sufficient dust. If the southwestern U.S. dust were to be detected during the primary Dust-Bowl years (1930-1945 interval), we expected to see the signal return to pure East Asian characteristics over the course of the subsequent three periods. The four composite firn samples were melted, the dust extracted in the field by super-centrifugation, and returned to LDEO. Non-destructive XRD analyses for clay mineralogy preceded dissolution, chemical purification and analysis of radiogenic isotope composition (ƒONd(0) and 87Sr/86Sr) by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry. The results of these analyses were compared to our samples of Chinese and Mongolian desert material, to samples of known Dust-Bowl dust, and to all the samples of ice-core and snow-pit dust from Greenland we had previously analyzed. These comparisons reveal no hint of compositional change from Asian toward Dust-Bowl characteristics. We conclude that the single possible occurrence of Dust-Bowl dust in 1933 ice reported by Donarummo et al. (2003) did not at all characterize the entire Dust-Bowl era in Greenland. We have also previously shown that the

  3. Dust and sea surface temperature forcing of the 1930s ``Dust Bowl'' drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Miller, Ron L.; Seager, Richard

    2008-04-01

    Droughts over the central United States (US) are modulated by sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the eastern tropical Pacific. Many models, however, are unable to reproduce the severity and spatial pattern of the ``Dust Bowl'' drought of the 1930s with SST forcing alone. We force an atmosphere general circulation model with 1930s SSTs and model-generated dust emission from the Great Plains region. The SSTs alone force a drought over the US similar to observations, but with a weaker precipitation anomaly that is centered too far south. Inclusion of dust radiative forcing, centered over the area of observed wind erosion, increases the intensity of the drought and shifts its center northward. While our conclusions are tempered by limited quantitative observations of the dust aerosol load and soil erosion during this period, our study suggests that unprecedented atmospheric dust loading over the continental US exacerbated the ``Dust Bowl'' drought.

  4. Depositional setting of the Upper Jurassic Hith Anhydrite of the Arabian Gulf: An analog to holocene evaporites of the United Arab Emirates and Lake MacLeod of Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S. ); Kendall, C.G.St.C. )

    1994-07-01

    The Upper Jurassic Hith Anhydrite is a major hydrocarbon seal in the Arabian Gulf region. Outcrops, core samples from the subsurface, and the literature indicate that the Hith Formation is composed mainly of anhydrite. In most locations where a section of the Hith Formation has been measured, this unit contains less than 20% carbonate much of which is in the form of thin laminations. This lack of carbonate, locally thick layers of salt, and the predominance of anhydrite favor a playa for the setting in which this sediment was accumulated. In fact, much of the Hith has the sedimentary characteristics of the Holocene Lake MacLeod playa of Western Australia, which is dominated by layers of gypsum and halite (what little carbonate that occurs is found in layers at the base of the section). Locally the Hith appears to have accumulated in a sabkha setting, particularly toward central Abu Dhabi where it pinches out into shallow-water, and peritidal carbonate. This sabkha setting is indicated by the interbedded relationship of the Hith anhydrites with these carbonates and the local predominance of horizontally flattened nodules and enterolithic layers of anhydrite. These latter features match some of the characteristic fabrics found in the Holocene coastal sabkhas of the United Arab Emirates. As with the local occurrences in the Hith, the Holocene sabkhas are dominated by carbonates and are divisible into a series of lateral facies belts. These are also expressed as equivalent vertical layers. Traced from seaward to landward, or from the base of the vertical sequence upward, these facies are characterized by (1) algal mat, (2) a layer of a gypsum crystal mush (3) active anhydrite replacement of gypsum (4) anhydrite with no gypsum mush, and (5) recycled eolianite and storm-washover sediments.

  5. Experimental study of the dehydration reactions gypsum-bassanite and bassanite-anhydrite at high pressure: Indication of anomalous behavior of H2O at high pressure in the temperature range of 50-300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirwald, Peter W.

    2008-02-01

    The system CaSO4-H2O, characterized by the three dehydration reactions gypsum-anhydrite, gypsum-bassanite, and bassanite-anhydrite, was reexamined by in situ differential pressure analysis in the temperature range of 60-350°C up to 3.5GPa pressure. The investigation revealed a fine structure in the dehydration boundaries of gypsum-bassanite and bassanite-anhydrite, each characterized by three inflections at 0.9-1.0, 1.9-2.0, and 2.6-28GPa. In addition, the phase transition of anhydrite high pressure anhydrite (monazite structure) was established for the first time at high P-T conditions intersecting the bassanite-anhydrite dehydration boundary at 2.15GPa /250°C. Furthermore, the triple point gypsum-bassanite-anhydrite was redetermined with 235MPa/80.5°C. The evaluation of the gypsum-bassanite dehydration boundary with respect to the volume and entropy change of the reaction, ΔVreact and ΔSreact, by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron relation yields for the entropy parameter an unusually large increase over the range of the noted inflections. This is interpreted as anomalous entropy behavior of H2O related presumably to a dramatic increase in fluctuations of the hydrogen network of the liquid leading possibly into a new structural state. The effect is strongly related to the three noted pressure levels of 0.9-1.0, 1.9-2.0, and 2.6-28GPa. In a synopsis of data including also a previous high pressure study in the temperature range between 0 and 80°C, a tentative P-T diagram of H2O is proposed.

  6. Anhydrite pseudomorphs and the origin of stratiform Cu-Co ores in the Katangan Copperbelt (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchez, Ph.; Vanderhaeghen, P.; El Desouky, H.; Schneider, J.; Boyce, A.; Dewaele, S.; Cailteux, J.

    2008-07-01

    The stratiform Cu-Co ore mineralisation in the Katangan Copperbelt consists of dispersed sulphides and sulphides in nodules and lenses, which are often pseudomorphs after evaporites. Two types of pseudomorphs can be distinguished in the nodules and lenses. In type 1 examples, dolomite precipitated first and was subsequently replaced by Cu-Co sulphides and authigenic quartz, whereas in type 2 examples, authigenic quartz and Cu-Co sulphides precipitated prior to dolomite and are coarse-grained. The sulphur isotopic composition of the copper-cobalt sulphides in the type 1 pseudomorphs is between -10.3 and 3.1‰ relative to the Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite, indicating that the sulphide component was derived from bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR). The generation of {text{HCO}}_3^ - during this process caused the precipitation and replacement of anhydrite by dolomite. A second product of BSR is the generation of H2S, resulting in the precipitation of Cu-Co sulphides from the mineralising fluids. Initial sulphide precipitation occurred along the rim of the pseudomorphs and continued towards the core. Precipitation of authigenic quartz was most likely induced by a pH decrease during sulphide precipitation. Fluid inclusion data from quartz indicate the presence of a high-salinity (8-18 eq. wt.% NaCl) fluid, possibly derived from evaporated seawater which migrated through the deep subsurface. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of dolomite in type 1 nodules range between 0.71012 and 0.73576, significantly more radiogenic than the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7056-0.7087). This suggests intense interaction with siliciclastic sedimentary rocks and/or the granitic basement. The low carbon isotopic composition of the dolomite in the pseudomorphs (-7.02 and -9.93‰ relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite, V-PDB) compared to the host rock dolomite (-4.90 and +1.31‰ V-PDB) resulted from the oxidation of organic matter during BSR.

  7. Telescoped porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralisation, advanced argillic alteration and quartz-sulphide-gold-anhydrite veins in the Thames District, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brathwaite, R.; Simpson, M.; Faure, K.; Skinner, D.

    2001-10-01

    Porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralisation with associated potassic and phyllic alteration, an advanced argillic alteration cap and epithermal quartz-sulphide-gold-anhydrite veins, are telescoped within a vertical interval of 400-800 m on the northeastern margin of the Thames district, New Zealand. The geological setting is Jurassic greywacke basement overlain by Late Miocene andesitic-dacitic rocks that are extensively altered to propylitic and argillic assemblages. The porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralisation is hosted in a dacite porphyry stock and surrounding intrusion breccia. Relicts of a core zone of potassic K-feldspar-magnetite±biotite alteration are overprinted by phyllic quartz-sericite-pyrite or intermediate argillic chlorite-sericite alteration assemblages. Some copper occurs in quartz-magnetite-chlorite-pyrite-chalcopyrite veinlets in the core zone, but the bulk of the copper and the molybdenum are associated with the phyllic alteration as disseminated chalcopyrite and as molybdenite-sericite-carbonate veinlets. The advanced argillic cap has a quartz-alunite-dickite core, which is enveloped by an extensive pyrophyllite-diaspore-dickite-kaolinite assemblage that overlaps with the upper part of the phyllic alteration zone. Later quartz-sphalerite-galena-pyrite-chalcopyrite-gold-anhydrite±carbonate veins occur within and around the margins of the porphyry intrusion, and are associated with widespread illite-carbonate (argillic) alteration. Multiphase fluid inclusions in quartz stockwork veins associated with the potassic alteration trapped a highly saline (50-84 wt% NaCl equiv.) magmatic fluid at high temperatures (450 to >600 °C). These hypersaline brines were probably trapped at a pressure of about 300 bar, corresponding to a depth of 1.2 km under lithostatic conditions. This shallow depth is consistent with textures of the host dacite porphyry and reconstruction of the volcanic stratigraphy. Liquid-rich fluid inclusions in the quartz stockwork veins and quartz

  8. Contributions of joint rotations to ball release speed during cricket bowling: a three-dimensional kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxin; Unka, Jayesh; Liu, Guangyu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover the contributions of individual upper body segmental rotations to ball release speed for cricket bowling and determine whether attempting to forcefully flex the lower trunk leads to an increase in ball release speed and bowling accuracy. Three dimensional kinematic data of eight male fast bowlers were recorded by a Vicon motion capture system under three cricket bowling conditions: (1) participants bowled at their stock delivery speeds (sub-max condition), (2) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds (max condition), and (3) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds but forced to flex the lower trunk (max-trunk condition). The accuracy of each delivery was also measured. The results showed that the average ball release speeds for the max-trunk condition were faster than the other two conditions. A general pattern of proximal to distal sequencing was observed for all three conditions. There was a slight decrement in accuracy seen in the max-trunk condition with respect to the other two conditions. For all three conditions, the upper arm rotation made the largest contribution, followed in turn by torso and thorax rotation, pelvis rotation, linear velocity of pelvis, and forearm and hand rotation.

  9. Supramolecular control of a mononuclear biomimetic copper(II) center: bowl complexes vs funnel complexes.

    PubMed

    Gout, Jérôme; Višnjevac, Aleksandar; Rat, Stéphanie; Parrot, Arnaud; Hessani, Assia; Bistri, Olivia; Le Poul, Nicolas; Le Mest, Yves; Reinaud, Olivia

    2014-06-16

    Modeling the mononuclear site of copper enzymes is important for a better understanding of the factors controlling the reactivity of the metal center. A major difficulty stems from the difficult control of the nuclearity while maintaining free sites open to coordination of exogenous ligands. A supramolecular approach consists in associating a hydrophobic cavity to a tripodal ligand that will define the coordination spheres as well as access to the metal ion. Here, we describe the synthesis of a bowl Cu(II) complex based on the resorcinarene scaffold. This study supplements a previous work on Cu(I) coordination. It provides a complete picture of the cavity-copper system in its two oxidation states. The first XRD structure of such a bowl complex was obtained, evidencing a 5-coordinate Cu(II) ion with the three imidazole donors bound to the metal (two in the base of the pyramid, one in the apical position) and with an acetate anion, completing the base of the pyramid, and deeply included in the bowl. Solution studies conducted by EPR and UV-vis absorption spectroscopies as well as cyclic voltammetry highlighted interaction with coordinating solvents, various carboxylates that can sit either in the endo or in the exo position depending on their size as well as possible stabilization of hydroxo species in a mononuclear state. A comparison of the binding and redox properties of the bowl complex with funnel complexes based on the calix[6]arene core further highlights the importance of supramolecular features defining the first, second, and third coordination sphere for control of the metal ion.

  10. Synthesis, structures, and physical properties of aromatic molecular-bowl hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Siegel, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the synthesis, physical properties, structure, and crystal packing of buckybowls. Buckybowls exemplify an intermediate class of polynuclear aromatic compounds between the closed-shell fullerenes and the flat extended arrays of graphene. These warped sheets can be seen as fragments of fullerenes or the end cap of single-walled carbon nanotubes; and, their curvature endows them with physical properties distinct from flat polynuclear hydrocarbons, which opens up unique possibilities for molecular bowls in various organic materials applications.

  11. OPERATION DOMINIC. FISH BOWL AND CHRISTMAS SERIES. Organizational, Operational, Funding, Logistic, and Scientific Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    light which was measured by a photomultiplier tube. A plot of the lumi- nescence versus temperature at a constant heating rate, compared to...BOWL AND CHRISTMAS SERIES Organizational, Operational, Funding, Logistic, and Scientific Summary Deputy Chief of Staff Weapons Effects and Tests Field...4 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER($) 6i. \\AME Ot jyFORMING ORGANIZATION. weapons Effects and Tests, FC, Defense Atomic Support Agency 6b

  12. Three-dimensional lumbar segment kinetics of fast bowling in cricket.

    PubMed

    Ferdinands, René E D; Kersting, Uwe; Marshall, R N

    2009-08-07

    Cricket fast bowlers have a high incidence of serious lumbar injuries, such as lesions in the pars interarticularis. Kinematic studies have shown that bowling actions with large shoulder counter-rotation are associated with significantly higher incidences of lumbar injury. However, in bowling, there has been no calculation of the spinal loads, which are the causal mechanisms of such injuries. In this study, 21 fast bowlers (22.4+/-3.9 years) of premier grade level and above were tested using a three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system. The mean ball release speed was 31.9+/-2.8 m s(-1) and ranged from 27.0 to 35.6 m s(-1). Kinematics and kinetics were calculated for lumbar spine lateral bending, rotation, and flexion during the delivery and power phases of bowling. Power calculations were used to define the actuation of lumbar spine motion as either active or controlled. The actuation of the lumbar spine was complex, involving multiple sequences of active and controlled motion. In addition, lumbar spine loads were largest during the power phase when the ground reaction forces were highest. In conclusion, the dynamic loads and the cyclical nature of their application when the spine is positioned near its end range of motion may be significant factors of injury to this region. In addition, the lumbar spine in bowling has to vigorously flex, laterally bend and rotate simultaneously in a complex interdependent sequence of actuation patterns. Therefore, any technical change to reduce injury susceptibility needs to consider the mechanics of whole body coordination and timing.

  13. Supramolecular catalysis at work: diastereoselective synthesis of a molecular bowl with dynamic inner space.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiqing; McCracken, Troy; Xia, Shijing; Maslak, Veselin; Gallucci, Judith; Hadad, Christopher M; Badjić, Jovica D

    2008-01-18

    The supramolecular assistance to Pd(0)/Cu(I)-catalyzed cyclotrimerization of stannylated norbornene 7 has been investigated to give molecular bowl 1syn in a stereoselective fashion. Following a divergent strategy, racemic norbornene 7 was synthesized in satisfactory yield. Self-coupling, promoted by Pd(0)/Cu(I) catalysis acting in synergy with CsF, yielded molecular bowl 1syn in a moderate 30% yield. The reaction diastereoselectivity is affected by the concentration of Cu(I) and Cs+: increasing quantities of the cations enhanced the syn/anti ratio of the isolated cyclotrimer from statistical (1:3) to a more desirable (4.5:1) ratio, in favor of the molecular bowl 1syn. 1H NMR spectroscopic studies suggested the coordinating affinity of 1syn toward transition metals Cu(I), Ag(I), and Au(I), to account for the observed templation effect. In particular, the tridentate 1syn has been shown to bind to one Ag(I) cation in the assembly process that is driven with enthalpy (Delta H degrees = -19 +/- 2 kcal/mol, Delta S degrees = -45 eu). The complete coordination was not cooperative, and was hypothesized to be impeded with the adverse entropy. Accordingly, density functional theory (BP86) calculations of 1syn and its mono-, bis-, and tris-Ag(I) complexes suggested that the coordination of one to three silver cations is highly exothermic. The calculations also revealed that the bowl constriction is necessary for the aromatic arms to become preorganized and bind to a silver cation(s) (Delta E approximately 8 kcal/mol). Ultimately, Ag(I) has been shown to assist the diastereoselective formation of 1syn, lending support to the notion of template-directed synthesis.

  14. The use of a solid-bowl centrifuge for ultrafine coal thickening

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkerton, A.P.; Klima, M.S.; Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.

    2000-07-01

    Testing was carried out to investigate the use of a solid-bowl (decanter) centrifuge for thickening ultrafine coal-water slurries. This study was conducted for Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) to evaluate ultrafine dewatering technologies. The objective was to increase the solids concentration of an ultrafine coal discard stream to a level suitable for use as a coal-water slurry fuel, while maximizing overall solids recovery. The feed material was collected from the combined discharge (centrate) streams from several screen-bowl centrifuges, which are currently being used in a commercial coal cleaning facility to dewater froth flotation product. The centrate averages 5% solids by weight and contains nearly 60% material finer than 10 {micro}m. This study examined the effects of operating conditions on centrifuge performance, including centrifuge bowl and scroll speeds, and feed solids concentration. The effects of flocculation addition on centrifuge performance and slurry rheology were also examined. The results indicated that solids concentrations exceeding 55% were obtained in nearly all cases.

  15. Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P R; Schlinker, P J; Over, R

    1996-06-01

    Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling were identified through factor analysis of ratings provided by 172 bowlers (87 males, 85 females) across a range of current averages (a measure based on recent performance in competition). Skilled bowlers (current average of 170 pins or more) differed significantly from less skilled bowlers (current average of less than 135 pins) on seven component skills. They demonstrated greater mental toughness, a higher degree of planning and evaluation, greater consistency, more interest in improvement, less use of luck attributions, more confidence in equipment and technique, and greater competitiveness. Since men and women of the same overall standard (current average) have similar component skill profiles, ten-pin bowling is a gender-neutral sport. Older bowlers (45-79 years) matched by current average with younger bowlers (16-30 years) differed significantly on only one component, level of commitment. We discuss several contexts for use of the three self-report assessment scales (measures of psychological skills, psychomotor skills and involvement in bowling) developed in this study.

  16. The effect of digitisation of the humeral epicondyles on quantifying elbow kinematics during cricket bowling.

    PubMed

    Eftaxiopoulou, Theofano; Gupte, Chinmay M; Dear, John P; Bull, Anthony M J

    2013-01-01

    In the sport of cricket the objective of the "no-ball" law is to allow no performance advantage through elbow extension during ball delivery. However, recently it has been shown that even bowlers with actions that are considered within the law show some elbow extension. The objective of this study was to investigate: [1] the effect of elbow orientation during anatomical landmark digitisation and [2] the choice of upper arm tracking cluster on the measurement of elbow angles during cricket bowling. We compared the mean elbow angles for four different elbow postures; with the joint flexed at approximately 130°, 90°, in full extension and with the elbow flexed with the humerus internally rotated, and two upper arm clusters in two different situations: [1] during a controlled movement of pure flexion-extension and [2] during cricket bowling. The digitised postures of the anatomical landmarks where the elbow was extended and at 90° of flexion were more repeatable than the other two postures. The recommendation of this study when analysing cricket bowling is to digitise the humeral epicondyles with the joint flexed at 90°, or in full extension, and to relate their positions to an upper arm cluster fixed close to the elbow.

  17. Photoisomerization and thermal isomerization of shuttlecock- and bowl-equipped (phenylazo)pyridines.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Kazuya; Otsuki, Joe; Goto, Kei

    2010-01-21

    The photoisomerization and thermal isomerization of sterically hindered (phenylazo)pyridine derivatives with a shuttlecock-shaped (TbetNNPy) or a bowl-shaped framework (BmtNNPy as well as the azoxy counterpart, BmtNN(O)Py) have been investigated. The crystal structures of these compounds revealed a planar conformation of the (phenylazo)pyridine moiety for TbetNNPy and severely distorted conformations for BmtNNPy and BmtNN(O)Py. The quantum yields of the trans-to-cis photoisomerization of TbetNNPy and BmtNNPy is lower than those of unsubstituted (phenylazo)pyridines. The low quantum yields may, to a large part, be attributed to electronic factors rather than steric factors. While the shuttlecock framework in TbetNNPy does not affect the thermal cis-to-trans isomerization, as the activation parameters for TbetNNPy are quite similar to those of azobenzene and azopyridine derivatives, the bowl framework in BmtNNPy renders the thermal isomerization process slower by lowering the frequency factor to an extent that more than compensates for the lowered activation energy. The process is characterized with a large negative activation entropy and a small activation enthalpy, implying that the isomerization proceeds through a limited range of intermediates stabilized by the presence of the bowl framework.

  18. Interface-mediated fabrication of bowl-like and deflated ballon-like hollow carbon nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijiao; Li, Xia

    2015-08-15

    In our work, two kinds of hollow carbon nanospheres with controlled morphologies have been successfully prepared from low-cost and nontoxic glucose as the sole carbon precursor under neutral aqueous medium via a simple hydrothermal route. During the process, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and triblock copolymer P123 ((EO)20(PO)70(EO)20) was skillfully selected as the structure-directing agent, respectively. SEM, TEM and AFM results revealed that the two products showed bowl-like and deflated-balloon-like morphology with uniform particle sizes, respectively. Based on the experimental observations, a possible formation mechanism was also discussed, in which the growth of the carbon nanospheres involved an interface-medicated assembly process. The present method was easy, green and mild. Apart from the unique nanostructure, the obtained bowl-like hollow carbon nanospheres exhibited excellent biocompatibility. In particular, it should be mentioned that the open window formed by the bowl-like morphology can facilitate ion transport, thus improving their performances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Barium ions selectively activate BK channels via the Ca2+-bowl site

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Zeng, Xu-Hui; Lingle, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of Ca2+-dependent BK channels is increased via binding of micromolar Ca2+ to two distinct high-affinity sites per BK α-subunit. One site, termed the Ca2+ bowl, is embedded within the second RCK domain (RCK2; regulator of conductance for potassium) of each α-subunit, while oxygen-containing residues in the first RCK domain (RCK1) have been linked to a separate Ca2+ ligation site. Although both sites are activated by Ca2+ and Sr2+, Cd2+ selectively favors activation via the RCK1 site. Divalent cations of larger ionic radius than Sr2+ are thought to be ineffective at activating BK channels. Here we show that Ba2+, better known as a blocker of K+ channels, activates BK channels and that this effect arises exclusively from binding at the Ca2+-bowl site. Compared with previous estimates for Ca2+ bowl–mediated activation by Ca2+, the affinity of Ba2+ to the Ca2+ bowl is reduced about fivefold, and coupling of binding to activation is reduced from ∼3.6 for Ca2+ to about ∼2.8 for Ba2+. These results support the idea that ionic radius is an important determinant of selectivity differences among different divalent cations observed for each Ca2+-binding site. PMID:22733762

  20. Rare earth element distribution in >400 °C hot hydrothermal fluids from 5°S, MAR: The role of anhydrite in controlling highly variable distribution patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Bau, M.; Koschinsky, A.

    2010-07-01

    Two submarine hydrothermal vent fields at 5°S, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) - Turtle Pits and Comfortless Cove - emanate vapor-phase fluids at conditions close to the critical point of seawater (407 °C, 298 bars). In this study, the concentration and distribution of rare earth element (REE) and yttrium (Y) has been investigated. Independent of the major element composition, the fluids display a strong temporal variability of their REE + Y concentrations and relative distributions at different time scales of minutes to years. Chondrite-normalized distributions range from common fluid patterns with light REE enrichment relative to the heavy REE, accompanied by positive Eu anomalies (type I), to strongly REE + Y enriched patterns with a concave-downward distribution with a maximum enrichment of Sm and weakly positive or even negative Eu anomalies (type II). The larger the sum of REE, the smaller Ce CN/Yb CN and Eu/Eu∗. We also observed a strong variability in fluid flow and changing fluid temperatures, correlating with the compositional variability. As evident by the positive correlation of total REE, Ca, and Sr concentrations in Turtle Pits and Comfortless Cove fluids, precipitation/dissolution of hydrothermal anhydrite controls the variability in REE concentrations and distributions in these fluids and the transformation of one fluid type to the other. The variable distribution of REE can be explained by the accumulation of particulate anhydrite (with concave-downward REE distribution and negative Eu anomaly) into a fluid with common REE distribution (type I), followed by the modification of the REE fluid signature due to dissolution of incorporated anhydrite. A second model, in which the type II fluids represent a primary REE reaction zone fluid pattern, which is variably modified by precipitation of anhydrite, can also explain the observed correlations of total REE, fractionation of LREE/HREE and size of Eu anomaly as well as Ca, Sr. The emanation of such a fluid

  1. 'Resting toucher': a time and motion analysis of elite lawn bowls.

    PubMed

    Silk, Aaron J; Hammond, John; Weatherby, Robert P

    2006-01-01

    Whilst numerous investigations have explored the physical demands placed upon competitive sportspeople from a wide array of sports little is known about the physical demands placed on lawn bowlers. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the movement activities of Australian representative singles and pairs players and to determine the frequency and duration of these activities. One match each of two male and two female players (one singles and one pairs player per gender) were videotaped during an international tournament. During playback of the videotaped matches (n = 4), a single observer coded the players' activities into five distinct categories (waiting, walking forward, walking backward, jogging and bowling) using a computerised video editing system (Gamebreaker™ Digital Video Analysis System). Field calibration of players over 30m for forward motions and 15m for the backward motion was performed to allow for the estimation of total distance covered during the match. Heart rate was monitored during each match. The duration of a match was found to be (mean ± SD) 1hr 28 ± 15mins. The total distance covered during each match was 2093 ± 276m. The mean percentage of match time spent in each motion was: waiting, 61.8 ± 9.3%; walking forward, 22.3 ± 5.6%; walking backward, 2.0 ± 0.4%; jogging, 1.1 ± 0.5%; and bowling, 8.5 ± 4.2%. Average heart rate was found to be 57 ± 7% of age-predicted HRmax with a maximum of 78 ± 9% of age-predicted HRmax. The results of this study suggest that playing lawn bowls at an international level requires light-moderate intensity activity similar to that reported for golf. Key PointsThe duration of a lawn bowls match played in sets play was 1hr 28 ± 15mins.The majority (65%) of this time was spent in the motion category "waiting".Players covered more than 2000m during a match with the vast majority (85%) in the form of forward walking.The average heart rate was 107 ± 15 bpm or 57 ± 7% of age-predicted HRmax.The game

  2. ‘Resting Toucher’: A Time and Motion Analysis of Elite Lawn Bowls

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Aaron J.; Hammond, John; Weatherby, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Whilst numerous investigations have explored the physical demands placed upon competitive sportspeople from a wide array of sports little is known about the physical demands placed on lawn bowlers. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the movement activities of Australian representative singles and pairs players and to determine the frequency and duration of these activities. One match each of two male and two female players (one singles and one pairs player per gender) were videotaped during an international tournament. During playback of the videotaped matches (n = 4), a single observer coded the players’ activities into five distinct categories (waiting, walking forward, walking backward, jogging and bowling) using a computerised video editing system (Gamebreaker™ Digital Video Analysis System). Field calibration of players over 30m for forward motions and 15m for the backward motion was performed to allow for the estimation of total distance covered during the match. Heart rate was monitored during each match. The duration of a match was found to be (mean ± SD) 1hr 28 ± 15mins. The total distance covered during each match was 2093 ± 276m. The mean percentage of match time spent in each motion was: waiting, 61.8 ± 9.3%; walking forward, 22.3 ± 5.6%; walking backward, 2.0 ± 0.4%; jogging, 1.1 ± 0.5%; and bowling, 8.5 ± 4.2%. Average heart rate was found to be 57 ± 7% of age-predicted HRmax with a maximum of 78 ± 9% of age-predicted HRmax. The results of this study suggest that playing lawn bowls at an international level requires light-moderate intensity activity similar to that reported for golf. Key Points The duration of a lawn bowls match played in sets play was 1hr 28 ± 15mins. The majority (65%) of this time was spent in the motion category “waiting”. Players covered more than 2000m during a match with the vast majority (85%) in the form of forward walking. The average heart rate was 107 ± 15 bpm or 57 ± 7% of age-predicted HRmax

  3. The hydrothermal decomposition of calcium monosulfoaluminate 14-hydrate to katoite hydrogarnet and β-anhydrite: An in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, Nicola; Kyritsis, Konstantinos; Hall, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    We apply in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the transformation of calcium monosulfoaluminate 14-hydrate Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O [monosulfate-14] to hydrogarnet Ca 3Al 2(OH) 12 on the saturated water vapor pressure curve up to 250 °C. We use an aqueous slurry of synthetic ettringite Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O as the starting material; on heating, this decomposes at about 115 °C to form monosulfate-14 and bassanite CaSO 4·0.5H 2O. Above 170 °C monosulfate-14 diffraction peaks slowly diminish in intensity, perhaps as a result of loss of crystallinity and the formation of an X-ray amorphous meta-monosulfate. Hydrogarnet nucleates only at temperatures above 210 °C. Bassanite transforms to β-anhydrite (insoluble anhydrite) at about 230 °C and this transformation is accompanied by a second burst of hydrogarnet growth. The transformation pathway is more complex than previously thought. The mapping of the transformation pathway shows the value of rapid in-situ time-resolved synchrotron diffraction.

  4. A palmar fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger caused by bowling: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Tomoaki; Ishida, Kazunari; Shoji, Taro; Ito, Kenjiro; Matsushima, Shinji; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Yoshida, Kazuya

    2009-01-01

    During bowling, a twenty year old man could not pull out his middle finger from the ball in release and injured his finger. X-ray revealed a palmar fracture- dislocation of the PIP joint. We manipulated the PIP joint, but a gap remained at the fracture site on the X-ray after reduction. Surgical treatment was performed with a screw. Postoperatively, the middle finger was fixed with a splint for two weeks, and then active range of motion exercises were started. One year after the operation, the fracture had healed with a congruous joint surface, and the patient had full range of motion in the middle finger with no difficulties in activities of daily living. The etiology of a palmar fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint is still controversial, but we suggested the mechanism of the fracture-dislocation was caused by a shearing force to the middle phalangeal base from a dorsal direction. The main cause of the current injury was the poor fit between the middle finger and the hole of the bowling ball. Bowling is a popular and safe sport, but we should be aware of unexpected hand injuries related to bowling which may occur, especially in players at a recreational level. Key pointsWe presented a palmar fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint in a middle finger that occured while bowling.We discussed the mechanism and suggested the main cause of the injury was the poor fit between the middle finger and the hole of the bowling ball.We advised that while bowling is recognized as a safe sport, due to its popularity we should be aware of unexpected hand injuries which may occur, especially in players at a recreational level.

  5. Using Oxa Bowls as Novel Candidates for the Molecular Recognition of Alkali Metal Ions: A Theoretical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Steven L.; Pederson, Mark R.

    2003-03-01

    Oxa bowls(P. K. Sharma, E. D. Jemmis, R. Vidya, and G. Mehta, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans, 2,) 257 (1998). are crown-like shaped molecules which could be important new candidates for the molecular recognition of metal ions. They possess the general structural formula of C_2nH_2nO_n, where n=3,4,5,6 and their bowl-shaped geometry could provide an unique binding site for complexation with guest metal ions. Recent experiments(G. Mehta and R. Vidya, J. Org. Chem, 66,) 6905 (2000) have failed to confirm the binding of the oxa bowl C_10H_10O5 with Li^+ and Na^+ alkali metal ions, despite the expectation that stable host-guest complexes should exist. In an effort to understand these experimens, we report accurate density functional studies(M. R. Pederson and K. A. Jackson, Phys. Rev. B41,) 7453 (1990). of several oxa bowls with selected alkali metal ions to detrmine their optimized geometries, binding enthalpies, and vibrational stabilities. Our calculations have produced a systematic set of trends for the behavior of oxa bowl-alkali metal complexes and suggest new experimental tests for studying these systems. We are grateful to the W. M. Keck Foundation and the Office of Naval Research for financial support of this work.

  6. The case for a southeastern Australian Dust Bowl, 1895-1945

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattle, Stephen R.

    2016-06-01

    Australia has an anecdotal history of severe wind erosion and dust storm activity, but there has been no lasting public perception of periods of extreme dust storm activity in this country, such as that developed in the USA following the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. Newspaper accounts of droughts and dust storms in southeastern (SE) Australia between 1895 and 1945 suggest that, at various times, the scale of these events was comparable to those experienced in the USA Dust Bowl. During this 50-year period, average annual rainfall values in this region were substantially below long-term averages, air temperatures were distinctly warmer, marginal lands were actively cropped and grazed, and rabbits were a burgeoning grazing pest. From the beginning of the Federation Drought of 1895-1902, dust storm activity increased markedly, with the downwind coastal cities of Sydney and Melbourne experiencing dust hazes, dust storms and falls of red rain relatively regularly. Between 1935 and 1945, Sydney and Melbourne received ten and nine long-distance dust events, respectively, with the years of 1938 and 1944/45 being the most intensely dusty. Entire topsoil horizons were blown away, sand drift was extreme, and crops and sheep flocks were destroyed. Although these periods of extreme dust storm activity were not as sustained as those experienced in the USA in the mid-1930s, there is a strong case to support the contention that SE Australia experienced its own extended, somewhat episodic version of a Dust Bowl, with a similar combination of causal factors and landscape effects.

  7. Cricket fast bowling workload patterns as risk factors for tendon, muscle, bone and joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Orchard, John W; Blanch, Peter; Paoloni, Justin; Kountouris, Alex; Sims, Kevin; Orchard, Jessica J; Brukner, Peter

    2015-08-01

    To assess workload-related risk factors for injuries to particular tissue types in cricket fast bowlers. 235 fast bowlers who bowled in 14600 player innings over a period of 15 years were followed in a prospective cohort risk factor study to compare overs bowled in each match (including preceding workload patterns) and injury risk in the 3-4 weeks subsequent to the match. Injuries were categorised according to the affected tissue type as either: bone stress, tendon injuries, muscle strain or joint injuries. Workload risk factors were examined using binomial logistic regression multivariate analysis, with a forward stepwise procedure requiring a significance of <0.05. High acute match workload and high previous season workload were risk factors for tendon injuries, but high medium term (3-month workload) was protective. For bone stress injuries, high medium term workload and low career workload were risk factors. For joint injuries, high previous season and career workload were risk factors. There was little relationship between muscle injury and workload although high previous season workload was slightly protective. The level of injury risk for some tissue types varies in response to preceding fast bowling workload, with tendon injuries most affected by workload patterns. Workload planning may need to be individualised, depending on individual susceptibility to various injury types. This study supports the theory that tendons are at lowest risk with consistent workloads and susceptible to injury with sudden upgrades in workload. Gradual upgrades are recommended, particularly at the start of a bowler's career to reduce the risk of bone stress injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Reed M; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M; Reitz, Rolf; Kokjohn, Sage

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that that produces low NO{sub x} and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom machined pistons designed for RCCI operation. The pistons were designed with assistance from the KIVA 3V computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. By using a genetic algorithm optimization, in conjunction with KIVA, the piston bowl profile was optimized for dedicated RCCI operation to reduce unburned fuel emissions and piston bowl surface area. By reducing these parameters, the thermal efficiency of the engine was improved while maintaining low NOx and PM emissions. Results show that with the new piston bowl profile and an optimized injection schedule, RCCI brake thermal efficiency was increased from 37%, with the stock EURO IV configuration, to 40% at the 2,600 rev/min, 6.9 bar BMEP condition, and NOx and PM emissions targets were met without the need for exhaust after-treatment.

  9. “Hot Hand” on Strike: Bowling Data Indicates Correlation to Recent Past Results, Not Causality

    PubMed Central

    Yaari, Gur; David, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the “hot hand” phenomenon regained interest due to the availability and accessibility of large scale data sets from the world of sports. In support of common wisdom and in contrast to the original conclusions of the seminal paper about this phenomenon by Gilovich, Vallone and Tversky in 1985, solid evidences were supplied in favor of the existence of this phenomenon in different kinds of data. This came after almost three decades of ongoing debates whether the “hot hand” phenomenon in sport is real or just a mis-perception of human subjects of completely random patterns present in reality. However, although this phenomenon was shown to exist in different sports data including basketball free throws and bowling strike rates, a somehow deeper question remained unanswered: are these non random patterns results of causal, short term, feedback mechanisms or simply time fluctuations of athletes performance. In this paper, we analyze large amounts of data from the Professional Bowling Association(PBA). We studied the results of the top 100 players in terms of the number of available records (summed into more than 450,000 frames). By using permutation approach and dividing the analysis into different aggregation levels we were able to supply evidence for the existence of the “hot hand” phenomenon in the data, in agreement with previous studies. Moreover, by using this approach, we were able to demonstrate that there are, indeed, significant fluctuations from game to game for the same player but there is no clustering of successes (strikes) and failures (non strikes) within each game. Thus we were lead to the conclusion that bowling results show correlation to recent past results but they are not influenced by them in a causal manner. PMID:22253898

  10. Temperature dependence of nonlinear optical properties in Li doped nano-carbon bowl material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-qi; Zhou, Xin; Chang, Ying; Quan Tian, Wei; Sun, Xiu-Dong

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism for change of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties with temperature is proposed for a nonlinear optical material, Li doped curved nano-carbon bowl. Four stable conformations of Li doped corannulene were located and their electronic properties were investigated in detail. The NLO response of those Li doped conformations varies with relative position of doping agent on the curved carbon surface of corannulene. Conversion among those Li doped conformations, which could be controlled by temperature, changes the NLO response of bulk material. Thus, conformation change of alkali metal doped carbon nano-material with temperature rationalizes the variation of NLO properties of those materials.

  11. High-explosive cratering analogs for bowl-shaped, central uplift, and multiring impact craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddy, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes six experimental explosion craters in terms of their basic morphology, subsurface structural deformation, and surrounding ejecta blanket. These craters exhibit one or more of the following features: bowl shapes with underlying breccia lens, central uplifts, multirings, terraced walls, rim strata, zones of concentric rim deformation, inner continuous ground cover of ejecta blankets formed by overturned flaps, secondary cratering, and fused alluvium. These craters were formed by large shock wave energy transfers at or near zero heights-of-burst, and it is possible that impact craters with analogous morphologic and structural features may have formed under similar surface energy transfer conditions.

  12. Photosensitizer in a molecular bowl: steric protection enhancing the photonuclease activity of copper(II) scorpionates.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Shanta; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2005-04-18

    Steric encumbrance caused by the tripodal ligand in the ternary tris(3-phenylpyrazolyl)borate copper(II) heterocyclic base complexes [Cu(B)(Tp(Ph))](ClO(4)) (B = dipyridoquinoxaline, dipyridophenazine) leads to efficient cleavage of supercoiled DNA to its relaxed form upon exposure to red light at 632.8 and 694 nm as a result of protection of the photosensitizer in the molecular bowl of the {Cu(Tp(Ph))} moiety, which generates singlet oxygen as the reactive species in a type-II process.

  13. Planarized triarylboranes: stabilization by structural constraint and their plane-to-bowl conversion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Kushida, Tomokatsu; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro

    2012-03-14

    Triphenylborane and 9,10-diphenyl-9,10-dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracene, constrained to a planar arrangement with methylene tethers, were synthesized by intramolecular multi-fold Friedel-Crafts cyclization. These compounds were stable toward air, water, and amines, despite the absence of steric protection in the vertical direction with respect to the B atoms, and showed characteristic structural, electronic, and photophysical properties. In addition, upon treatment with a fluoride ion, these compounds underwent a plane-to-bowl conversion in a controlled manner.

  14. 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface: a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yue; Wang, Shiqiang; Yin, Xianpeng; Liang, Yun; Dong, Hao; Gao, Ning; Li, Jian; Wang, Hui; Li, Guangtao

    2016-07-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that the combination of periodic dielectric structures with metallic structures provides an efficient means to yield a synergetic optical response or functionality in the resultant hybrid plasmonic-photonic systems. In this work, a new hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure of 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a flat gold surface was proposed, prepared, and theoretically and experimentally characterized. This hybrid structure supports two types of modes: surface plasmon polaritons bound at the metallic surface and waveguided mode of light confined in the cavity of bowls. Optical responses of this hybrid structure as well as the spatial electric field distribution of each mode are found to be strongly dependent on the structural parameters of this system, and thus could be widely modified on demand. Importantly, compared to the widely studied hybrid systems, namely the flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres, the waveguided mode with strong field enhancement appearing in the cavities of bowls is more facilely accessible and thus suitable for practical use. For demonstration, a 2D-ordered silica sub-micron bowl array deposited on a flat gold surface was fabricated and used as a regenerable platform for fluorescence enhancement by simply accommodating emitters in bowls. All the simulation and experiment results indicate that the 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface should be a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic system with great potential for applications such as sensors or tunable emitting devices if appropriate periods and materials are employed.Recently, it has been demonstrated that the combination of periodic dielectric structures with metallic structures provides an efficient means to yield a synergetic optical response or functionality in the resultant hybrid plasmonic-photonic systems. In this work, a new hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure of 2D-ordered dielectric sub

  15. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals. Volume 2, High-G solid-bowl centrifuge: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, D.

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  16. An ancient Roman bowl embedded in a soil sample: surface shaded three dimensional display using data from a multi-detector CT.

    PubMed

    De Maeseneer, M; Buls, N; Cleeren, N; Lenchik, L; De Mey, J

    2006-01-01

    We present an unusual application of multidetector CT and shaded surface rendering in the investigation of a soil sample, containing an ancient Roman bronze bowl. The CT findings were of fundamental importance in helping the archaeologists study the bronze bowl from the soil sample.

  17. Solubility Measurements and Predictions of Gypsum, Anhydrite, and Calcite Over Wide Ranges of Temperature, Pressure, and Ionic Strength with Mixed Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhaoyi; Kan, Amy T.; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Fangfu; Yan, Fei; Bhandari, Narayan; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Ya; Ruan, Gedeng; Tomson, Mason B.

    2017-02-01

    Today's oil and gas production from deep reservoirs permits exploitation of more oil and gas reserves but increases risks due to conditions of high temperature and high pressure. Predicting mineral solubility under such extreme conditions is critical for mitigating scaling risks, a common and costly problem. Solubility predictions use solubility products and activity coefficients, commonly from Pitzer theory virial coefficients. However, inaccurate activity coefficients and solubility data have limited accurate mineral solubility predictions and applications of the Pitzer theory. This study measured gypsum solubility under its stable phase conditions up to 1400 bar; it also confirmed the anhydrite solubility reported in the literature. Using a novel method, the virial coefficients for Ca2+ and {{SO}}4^{2 - } (i.e., β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(0)} ,β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)} ,C_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{φ }) were calculated over wide ranges of temperature and pressure (0-250 °C and 1-1400 bar). The determination of this set of virial coefficients widely extends the applicable temperature and pressure ranges of the Pitzer theory in Ca2+ and SO 4 2- systems. These coefficients can be applied to improve the prediction of calcite solubility in the presence of high concentrations of Ca2+ and SO 4 2- ions. These new virial coefficients can also be used to predict the solubilities of gypsum and anhydrite accurately. Moreover, based on the derived β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)} values in this study, the association constants of {{CaSO}}4^{( 0 )} at 1 bar and 25 °C can be estimated by K_{{assoc}} = - 2β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)}. These values match very well with those reported in the literature based on other methods.

  18. Rheological stratification in Zechstein rock salt caused by thermodynamically controlled reorganization of grain boundary fluids? A test using gravitationally induced sinking of anhydrite-dolomite stringers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander F.

    2016-04-01

    The rheology of rock salt during slow deformation in nature is controlled by the dominant deformation mechanism. Newtonian viscous rheology is associated with solution precipitation processes, while power law rheology is associated with dislocation creep. In large strain deformation during salt tectonics these two processes both contribute equally to the total strain rate, and grain boundaries contain mobile brine films. It has been shown that after the end of active salt tectonics, these fluid films neck down into arrays of disconnected brine inclusions, rendering the grain boundaries immobile and thus stopping solution-precipitation creep. This results in very low gravitational sinking rates of isolated anhydrite-dolomite stringers in Zechstein salt in the Tertiary, consistent with power law creep, while in Newtonian salt the stringers would sink to the bottom in geologically short time. In a recent paper Ghanbarzadeh et al., (Science, Nov 2015) provided evidence that below approximately 2 km depth the thermodynamically controlled dihedral angle between solid-liquid and solid-solid grain boundaries decreases to below 60 degrees, so that a connected grain boundary triple junction network of fluid channels is formed and permeability of the salt increases. The same process can be argued to lead to permanently mobile grain boundaries below this critical depth, activating solution-precipitation creep even in the absence of active tectonics. We test this hypothesis by comparing estimated gravitationally induced sinking rates of isolated anhydrite-dolomite stringers in the Zechstein of NE-Netherlands, based on 3D sesmic data, at depths above and below this proposed transition. First results suggest that there is no significant change in stringer sinking rate with depth.

  19. Extraordinary heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl and associated large-scale conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donat, Markus G.; King, Andrew D.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Durre, Imke; Karoly, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Unusually hot summer conditions occurred during the 1930s over the central United States and undoubtedly contributed to the severity of the Dust Bowl drought. We investigate local and large-scale conditions in association with the extraordinary heat and drought events, making use of novel datasets of observed climate extremes and climate reanalysis covering the past century. We show that the unprecedented summer heat during the Dust Bowl years was likely exacerbated by land-surface feedbacks associated with springtime precipitation deficits. The reanalysis results indicate that these deficits were associated with the coincidence of anomalously warm North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific surface waters and a shift in atmospheric pressure patterns leading to reduced flow of moist air into the central US. Thus, the combination of springtime ocean temperatures and atmospheric flow anomalies, leading to reduced precipitation, also holds potential for enhanced predictability of summer heat events. The results suggest that hot drought, more severe than experienced during the most recent 2011 and 2012 heat waves, is to be expected when ocean temperature anomalies like those observed in the 1930s occur in a world that has seen significant mean warming.

  20. Causes of the Extraordinary Summer Heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donat, Markus G.; King, Andrew D.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Durre, Imke; Karoly, David

    2014-05-01

    The climate over much of the US during the 1930s was characterized by extremely hot and dry conditions, often referred to as the "Dust Bowl". Based on novel observational datasets of climate extremes and century-long reanalysis data, we show that this exceptional summer heat was unrivaled in the 110-year record. Modeling studies have shown that forcing with observed sea surface temperatures may generate drought conditions over North America, and thus may at least partly explain the Dust Bowl. However, it remains to be answered which mechanisms actually led to the particularly hot conditions. In agreement with previous studies, we show that summer heat often follows a spring drought. In addition, we show that spring precipitation deficits over the central US are strongly related to atmospheric flow anomalies which suppress the moisture transport from the Gulf of Mexico into the continent. These atmospheric flow anomalies are caused by shifts in the dominating pressure patterns, in particular a northward extension of the Atlantic Subtropical High, related to warm anomalies in the North Atlantic. This suggests there is potential for predictability of summer droughts and heat waves from the combination of both spring-time ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric flow.

  1. Thermo-responsive cross-linked liquid crystal bowl-shaped colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei-Shao; Xia, Yu; Yang, Shu; Yodh, A. G.

    In this work we create and investigate cross-linked bowl-shaped nematic liquid crystal (NLC) colloidal particles. Janus colloids are first formed via solvent-induced phase separation in emulsions consisting of NLC monomers and isotropic polymers. This scheme enables us to realize different particle morphologies such as bowl-shape by fine-tuning the confinement of NLCs within the droplets, e.g. by varying the size of droplets, the volume ratio between NLC and polymer, and the type/concentration of surfactants in aqueous background phase. The NLC compartment is composed of RM82 (1,4-Bis-[4-(6-acryloyloxyhexyloxy)benzoyloxy]-2-methylbenzene) monomers, which are then photocrosslinked by dithiol groups to form nematic liquid crystal elastomer. Finally, we remove the polymer parts of Janus colloids to obtain the target structures, which are temperature sensitive due to change of elasticity and molecular alignment of NLC near the isotropic to nematic phase transition temperature. We will explore novel mechanical and optical properties from the thermo-responsive structures as well as their applications, such as biomimic swimming behaviors and adjustable lensing effects. This work is supported by the foundation through NSF Grant DMR12-05463, NSF-MRSEC Grant DMR11-20901, and NASA Grant NNX08AO0G.

  2. Mitsugumin 23 Forms a Massive Bowl-Shaped Assembly and Cation-Conducting Channel

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mitsugumin 23 (MG23) is a 23 kDa transmembrane protein localized to the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membranes in a wide variety of cells. Although the characteristics imply the participation in a fundamental function in intracellular membrane systems, the physiological role of MG23 is unknown. Here we report the biochemical and biophysical characterization of MG23. Hydropathicity profile and limited proteolytic analysis proposed three transmembrane segments in the MG23 primary structure. Chemical cross-linking analysis suggested a homo-oligomeric assembly of MG23. Ultrastructural observations detected a large symmetrical particle as the predominant component and a small asymmetric assembly as the second major component in highly purified MG23 preparations. Single-particle three-dimensional reconstruction revealed that MG23 forms a large bowl-shaped complex equipped with a putative central pore, which is considered an assembly of the small asymmetric subunit. After reconstitution into planar phospholipid bilayers, purified MG23 behaved as a voltage-dependent, cation-conducting channel, permeable to both K+ and Ca2+. A feature of MG23 gating was that multiple channels always appeared to be gating together in the bilayer. Our observations suggest that the bowl-shaped MG23 can transiently assemble and disassemble. These building transitions may underlie the unusual channel gating behavior of MG23 and allow rapid cationic flux across intracellular membrane systems. PMID:21381722

  3. Isolation and characterization of an early colonizing Rhizobium sp. R8 from a household toilet bowl.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Toru; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Osaki, Yukihiko; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community structure was compared between the third days', one week', and three weeks' biofilm samples from the surface of a household toilet bowl. It was found that the PCR-DGGE band pattern of 16S rRNA gene was dramatically changed after the third day and was not further changed until three weeks. This result suggests that there are early and late colonizing bacterial groups. One of the early colonizers isolated from the third days' sample was Rhizobium sp. R8, a closest relative to Rhizobium giardinii, which exhibited the highest biofilm formation activity in an artificial urine condition. R8 produced extracellular polysaccharides containing galactose, glucose, and mannose at the molar ratio of 8:1:1, which were probably responsible for the biofilm formation. Its excelled biofilm formation and urease activities together with the lack of nodulation and nitrogen fixing genes in R8 suggest that this strain has been specifically adapted to urine condition in a toilet bowl.

  4. The influence of elbow joint kinematics on wrist speed in cricket fast bowling.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Kane Jytte; Alderson, Jacqueline Anne; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Mills, Peter Michael

    2015-01-01

    This modelling study sought to describe the relationships between elbow joint kinematics and wrist joint linear velocity in cricket fast bowlers, and to assess the sensitivity of wrist velocity to systematic manipulations of empirical joint kinematic profiles. A 12-camera Vicon motion analysis system operating at 250 Hz recorded the bowling actions of 12 high performance fast bowlers. Empirical elbow joint kinematic data were entered into a cricket bowling specific "Forward Kinematic Model" and then subsequently underwent fixed angle, angular offset and angle amplification manipulations. A combination of 20° flexion and 20° abduction at the elbow was shown to maximise wrist velocity within the experimental limits. An increased elbow flexion offset manipulation elicited an increase in wrist velocity. Amplification of elbow joint flexion-extension angular displacement indicated that, contrary to previous research, elbow extension range of motion and angular velocity at the time of ball release were negatively related to wrist velocity. Some relationships between manipulated joint angular waveforms and wrist velocity were non-linear, supporting the use of a model that accounts for the non-linear relationships between execution and outcome variables in assessing the relationships between elbow joint kinematics and wrist joint velocity in cricket fast bowlers.

  5. Does maximising ball speed in cricket fast bowling necessitate higher ground reaction forces?

    PubMed

    King, M A; Worthington, P J; Ranson, C A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether high peak ground reaction forces and high average loading rates are necessary to bowl fast. Kinematic and kinetic bowling data were collected for 20 elite male fast bowlers. A moderate non-significant correlation was found between ball speed and peak vertical ground reaction force with faster bowlers tending to have lower peak vertical ground reaction force (r = -0.364, P = 0.114). Faster ball speeds were correlated with both lower average vertical and lower average horizontal loading rates (r = -0.452, P = 0.046 and r = -0.484, P = 0.031, respectively). A larger horizontal (braking) impulse was associated with a faster ball speed (r = 0.574, P = 0.008) and a larger plant angle of the front leg (measured from the vertical) at front foot contact was associated with a larger horizontal impulse (r = 0.706, P = 0.001). These findings suggest that there does not necessarily need to be a trade-off between maximum ball release speed and the forces exerted on fast bowlers (peak ground reaction forces and average loading rates). Furthermore, it appears that one of the key determinants of ball speed is the horizontal impulse generated at the ground over the period from front foot contact until ball release.

  6. [The influence of Nintendo-Wii® bowling upon residents of retirement homes].

    PubMed

    Wittelsberger, R; Krug, S; Tittlbach, S; Bös, K

    2013-07-01

    The few studies dealing with the positive effects of health and well-being of older people are only one-sided. The aim of the study therefore was to analyze the effects of Nintendo-Wii® bowling on daily function, state of dementia, quality of life, cognition and motor skills in retirement home inhabitants. The study was performed with 27 study participants (13 women, 14 men) between the ages of 49 and 95 years (mean = 71, SD = 14). They were randomly assigned to a control group (KG) and an intervention group (IG). Between pre- and posttest, the IG played 60 min/twice a week Nintendo-Wii® Bowling over 6 weeks. The improvement of IG was significant in the analysis of variance concerning strength (arm curls: F df = 2 = 7.199; p = 0,013; η(2) = 0,231) and showed a significant trend concerning coordination (tracking lines: F df = 2 = 3.99; p = 0,058; η(2) = 0,154) compared with KG. The area of rapidity (catching bars: F df = 2 = 28.511; p = 0,008; η(2) = 0,279) showed a significant decline in the IG compared with the KG. However, closer examination shows that the short time of intervention and the wide age range could have affected the results. Thus, further studies should take these critical aspects into consideration.

  7. Microbial Content of "Bowl Water" Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A; Minamor, Andrew A; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of "bowl water" used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern.

  8. Small-Molecule Anion Recognition by a Shape-Responsive Bowl-Type Dodecavanadate.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Sho; Kikukawa, Yuji; Hayashi, Yoshihito

    2017-08-04

    A dodecavanadate, [V12 O32 ](4-) , is an inorganic bowl-type host with a cavity entrance with a diameter of 4.4 Å in the optimized structure. Linear, bent, and trigonal planar anions are tested as guest anions and the formation of host-guest complexes, [V12 O32 (X)](5-) (X=CN(-) , OCN(-) , NO2(-) , NO3(-) , HCO2(-) , and CH3 CO2(-) ), were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analyses and a (51) V NMR spectroscopy study. The degree of distortion of the bowl from a regular to an oval shape depends on the type of guest anion. In (51) V NMR spectroscopy, all chemical shifts of the host-guest complexes are clearly shifted after guest incorporation. The incorporation reaction rates for OCN(-) , NO2(-) , HCO2(-) , and CH3 CO2(-) are much larger than those of NO3(-) and halides. The incorporated nonspherical molecular anions in the dodecavanadate host are easily dissociated or exchanged for other anions, whereas spherical halides in the host are preserved without dissociation, even in the presence of the tested anions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A unified framework for producing CAI melting, Wark-Lovering rims and bowl-shaped CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liffman, Kurt; Cuello, Nicolas; Paterson, David A.

    2016-10-01

    Calcium-Aluminium inclusions (CAIs) formed in the Solar system, some 4567 million years ago. CAIs are almost always surrounded by Wark-Lovering rims (WLRs), which are a sequence of thin, mono/bi-mineralic layers of refractory minerals, with a total thickness in the range of 1-100 microns. Recently, some CAIs have been found that have tektite-like bowl-shapes. To form such shapes, the CAI must have travelled through a rarefied gas at hypersonic speeds. We show how CAIs may have been ejected from the inner solar accretion disc via the centrifugal interaction between the solar magnetosphere and the inner disc rim. They subsequently punched through the hot, inner disc rim wall at hypersonic speeds. This re-entry heating partially or completely evaporated the CAIs. Such evaporation could have significantly increased the metal abundances of the inner disc rim. High speed movement through the inner disc produced WLRs. To match the observed thickness of WLRs required metal abundances at the inner disc wall that are of order 10 times that of standard solar abundances. The CAIs cooled as they moved away from the protosun, the deduced CAI cooling rates are consistent with the CAI cooling rates obtained from experiment and observation. The speeds and gas densities required to form bowl-shaped CAIs are also consistent with the expected speeds and gas densities for larger, ˜1 cm, CAIs punching through an inner accretion disc wall.

  10. Bowling Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Using data from 1996 National Household Education Survey, reports that a higher percentage of students in private schools, especially Catholic schools, acquire civic engagement skills (voluntary community service, civic skills), have greater political knowledge, and have a higher level of political tolerance than do students in public schools.…

  11. Synthesis and STM imaging of symmetric and dissymmetric ethynyl-bridged dimers of boron-subphthalocyanine bowl-shaped nanowheels.

    PubMed

    Jacquot de Rouville, Henri-Pierre; Garbage, Romain; Ample, Francisco; Nickel, Anja; Meyer, Joerg; Moresco, Francesca; Joachim, Christian; Rapenne, Gwénaël

    2012-07-16

    The future's wheel: A new class of wheels, based on subphthalocyanine fragments, for future incorporation in functional nanovehicles is reported (see figure). The syntheses of a symmetric wheel, a nitrogen-tagged wheel, and their ethynyl-bridged homodimers are presented. Theoretical calculations and STM imaging demonstrate the advantage of a bowl-shaped structure and the efficiency of the tag for STM imaging.

  12. Structure and dynamics in a virgin northern hardwood-spruce-fir forest--the Bowl, New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    Stanley R. Gemborys

    1996-01-01

    A phytosociological study was conducted in a virgin northern hardwood- spruce-fir forest in the Bowl in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. There is no evidence of fire or human disturbance but hurricane winds were significant in the past. Bray and Curtis ordination was used to develop an XY vegetational mosaic. Differentiating species were Picea rubens and Acer...

  13. Online Responses to a Multilingual Super Bowl Ad: Is "America the Beautiful" by Any Other Language Still America, the Beautiful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Brooke Y.

    2016-01-01

    On 2 February 2014, an advertisement entitled "It's Beautiful" debuted during Super Bowl XLVIII, which was watched by 111.5 million people in the USA. The Coca-Cola advertisement portrayed people of various ethnicities and was accompanied by "America the Beautiful" sung in nine languages. Using critical discourse analysis, I…

  14. Facile synthesis of novel bowl-like hollow carbon spheres by the combination of hydrothermal carbonization and soft templating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zili; Qin, Mingli; Jia, Baorui; Zhang, Hongzhou; Wu, Haoyang; Qu, Xuanhui

    2017-03-07

    For the first time, bowl-like hollow carbon spheres (BHCSs) have been designed and fabricated by the combination of hydrothermal carbonization and soft templating. The obtained BHCSs exhibit well-defined shapes with the size ranging from 1 to 2 μm. As electrodes of electrochemical double layer capacitors they showed good performance.

  15. Three-dimensional æolian dynamics within a bowl blowout during offshore winds: Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Walker, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the æolian dynamics of a deep bowl blowout within the foredune of the Greenwich Dunes, on the northeastern shore or Prince Edward Island, Canada. Masts of cup anemometers and sonic anemometers were utilized to measure flow velocities and directions during a strong regional ESE (offshore) wind event. The flow across the blowout immediately separated at the upwind rim crest, and within the blowout was strongly reversed. High, negative vertical flows occurred down the downwind (but seaward) vertical scarp which projected into the separation envelope and topographically forced flow back into the blowout. A pronounced, accelerated jet flow existed near the surface across the blowout basin, and the flow exhibited a complex, anti-clockwise structure with the near-surface flow following the contours around the blowout basin and lower slopes. Significant æolian sediment transport occurred across the whole bowl basin and sediment was delivered by saltation and suspension out the blowout to the east. This study demonstrates that strong offshore winds produce pronounced topographically forced flow steering, separation, reversal, and more complex three-dimensional motions within a bowl blowout, and that such winds within a bowl blowout play a notable role in transporting sediment within and beyond deep topographic hollows in the foredune.

  16. The Effect of a Constant Time Delay Procedure on Teaching an Adult with Severe Mental Retardation a Recreation Bowling Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiabei; Cote, Bridget; Chen, Shihui; Liu, John

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a constant time delay (CTD) procedure on teaching a recreational bowling skill to a 39-year-old male with severe mental retardation. The CTD procedure used 5 seconds as delay interval, task direction as target stimulus, physical assistance as controlling prompt, and oral praise as reinforcer.…

  17. Online Responses to a Multilingual Super Bowl Ad: Is "America the Beautiful" by Any Other Language Still America, the Beautiful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Brooke Y.

    2016-01-01

    On 2 February 2014, an advertisement entitled "It's Beautiful" debuted during Super Bowl XLVIII, which was watched by 111.5 million people in the USA. The Coca-Cola advertisement portrayed people of various ethnicities and was accompanied by "America the Beautiful" sung in nine languages. Using critical discourse analysis, I…

  18. The first bowl-shaped stable neutral radical with a corannulene system: synthesis and characterization of the electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yasushi; Nishida, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Tadahiro; Fukui, Kozo; Sato, Kazunobu; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji; Nakasuji, Kazuhiro

    2004-04-29

    [structure: see text] A bowl-shaped neutral radical with a corannulene system has been designed and synthesized for the first time as a stable solid in air. An unequivocal characterization of the electronic properties of the radical shows that an appreciable amount of spin delocalization extends onto the corannulene unit's curved surface.

  19. One-dimensional void-space arrays constructed from a coordination polymer with bowl-like frameworks of cavitands.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Makoto; Mizugaki, Shin; Kozaki, Masatoshi; Okada, Keiji

    2005-03-07

    A one-dimensional coordination polymer of [Mn(II)(hfac)2] bridged by new bowl-like ligands of cavitands was prepared and the crystal structure was determined by X-ray crystal analysis. Ethyl acetate molecules are necessarily included as guest molecules in each of the void-space cavities of the cavitands, and then are held by weak interaction forces.

  20. Socialist Revolution: Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, and the Emergence of Marxist Thought in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Upon its publication in 1976, Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis' "Schooling in Capitalist America" was the most sophisticated and nuanced Marxian social and political analysis of schooling in the United States. Thirty-five years after its publication, "Schooling" continues to have a strong impact on thinking about education. Despite its…

  1. Transition metal-boron complexes BnM: from bowls (n = 8-14) to tires (n = 14).

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Dian; Miao, Chang-Qing; Guo, Jin-Chang; Ren, Guang-Ming

    2006-11-30

    Transition metal-boron complexes BnM have been predicted at density functional theory level to be molecular bowls (n = 8-14) hosting a transition metal atom (M) inside or molecular tires (n = 14) centered with a transition metal atom. Small Bn clusters prove to be effective inorganic ligands to all the VB-VIIIB transition metal elements in the periodic table. Density functional evidences obtained in this work strongly suggest that bowl-shaped fullerene analogues of Bn units exist in small BnM complexes and the bowl-to-tire structural transition occur to the first-row transition metal complexes BnM (M = Mn, Fe, Co) at n = 14, a size obviously smaller than n = 20 where the 2D-3D structural transition occurs to bare Bn. The half-sandwich-type B12Cr (C3v), full sandwich-type (B12)2Cr (D3d), bowl-shaped B14Fe (C2), and tire-shaped B14Fe (D7d) and B14Fe- (C7v) are the most interesting prototypes to be targeted in future experiments. These BnM complexes may serve as building blocks to form extended boron-rich BnMm tubes or cages (m > or = 2) or as structural units to be placed inside carbon nanotubes with suitable diameters. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Effect of a Constant Time Delay Procedure on Teaching an Adult with Severe Mental Retardation a Recreation Bowling Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiabei; Cote, Bridget; Chen, Shihui; Liu, John

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a constant time delay (CTD) procedure on teaching a recreational bowling skill to a 39-year-old male with severe mental retardation. The CTD procedure used 5 seconds as delay interval, task direction as target stimulus, physical assistance as controlling prompt, and oral praise as reinforcer.…

  3. Survival of Salmonella Copenhagen in food bowls following contamination with experimentally inoculated raw meat: Effects of time, cleaning, and disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J Scott; Rousseau, J.

    2006-01-01

    There are concerns regarding the safety of feeding raw meat to household pets. This study demonstrated that Salmonella persists in food bowls that are inoculated with Salmonella-containing raw meat. Standard methods of cleaning and disinfection were minimally effective at eliminating Salmonella contamination. PMID:17017654

  4. Ab initio calculation of bowl, cage, and ring isomers of C20 and C20-.

    PubMed

    An, Wei; Gao, Yi; Bulusu, Satya; Zeng, X C

    2005-05-22

    High-level ab initio calculations have been carried out to reexamine relative stability of bowl, cage, and ring isomers of C(20) and C(20)(-). The total electronic energies of the three isomers show different energy orderings, strongly depending on the hybrid functionals selected. It is found that among three popular hybrid density-functional (DF) methods B3LYP, B3PW91, PBE1PBE, and a new hybrid-meta-DF method TPSSKCIS, only the PBE1PBE method (with cc-pVTZ basis set) gives qualitatively correct energy ordering as that predicted from ab initio CCSD(T)/cc-pVDZ [CCSD(T)-coupled-cluster method including singles, doubles, and noniterative perturbative triples; cc-pVDZ-correlation consistent polarized valence double zeta] as well as from MP4(SDQ)/cc-pVTZ [MP4-fourth-order Moller-Plesset; cc-pVTZ-correlation consistent polarized valence triple zeta] calculations. Both CCSD(T) and MP4 calculations indicate that the bowl is most likely the global minimum of neutral C(20) isomers, followed by the fullerene cage and ring. For the anionic counterparts, the PBE1PBE calculation also agrees with MP4/cc-pVTZ calculation, both predicting that the bowl is still the lowest-energy structure of C(20)(-) at T=0 K, followed by the ring and the cage. In contrast, both B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and B3PW91/cc-pVTZ calculations predict that the ring is the lowest-energy structure of C(20)(-). Apparently, this good reliability in predicting the energy ordering renders the hybrid PBE method a leading choice for predicting relative stability among large-sized carbon clusters and other carbon nanostructures (e.g., finite-size carbon nanotubes, nano-onions, or nanohorns). The relative stabilities derived from total energy with Gibbs free-energy corrections demonstrate a changing ordering in which ring becomes more favorable for both C(20) and C(20)(-) at high temperatures. Finally, photoelectron spectra (PES) for the anionic C(20)(-) isomers have been computed. With binding energies up to 7 eV, the

  5. The effect of spin in swing bowling in cricket: model trajectories for spin alone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2015-02-01

    In ‘swing’ bowling, as employed by fast and fast-medium bowlers in cricket, back-spin along the line of the seam is normally applied in order to keep the seam vertical and to provide stability against ‘wobble’ of the seam. Whilst spin is normally thought of as primarily being the slow bowler's domain, the spin applied by the swing bowler has the side-effect of generating a lift or Magnus force. This force, depending on the orientation of the seam and hence that of the back-spin, can have a side-ways component as well as the expected vertical ‘lift’ component. The effect of the spin itself, in influencing the trajectory of the fast bowler's delivery, is normally not considered, presumably being thought of as negligible. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, using calculated model trajectories, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin and to see how this predicted movement compares with the total observed side-ways movement. The size of the vertical lift component is also estimated. It is found that, although the spin is an essential part of the successful swing bowler's delivery, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin itself amounts to a few centimetres or so, and is therefore small, but perhaps not negligible, compared to the total amount of side-ways movement observed. The spin does, however, provide a considerable amount of lift compared to the equivalent delivery bowled without spin, altering the point of pitching by up to 3 m, a very large amount indeed. Thus, for example, bowling a ball with the seam pointing directly down the pitch and not designed to swing side-ways at all, but with the amount of back-spin varied, could provide a very powerful additional weapon in the fast bowler's arsenal. So-called ‘sling bowlers’, who use a very low arm action, can take advantage of spin since effectively they can apply side-spin to the ball, giving rise to a large side-ways movement, ˜ 20{}^\\circ cm or more, which certainly is

  6. Epidemiology of Sport-Related Concussion in an NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision Sample.

    PubMed

    Houck, Zachary; Asken, Breton; Bauer, Russell; Pothast, Jason; Michaudet, Charlie; Clugston, James

    2016-09-01

    Concussions are common in football, and knowledge of their incidence rates across settings is needed to develop strategies to decrease occurrence. To examine sports-related concussion rates in a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Subdivision sample based on the activity setting where injuries occurred, during which type of play, and when relative to the 2010 NCAA concussion management policy. Descriptive epidemiology study. Medical records from January 2006 to January 2015 for an NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision program were analyzed. Concussion rates (per 1000 athlete-exposures [AEs]) were compared among the following settings: spring practice, preseason training camp, regular season high-contact practice, regular season low-contact practice, bowl game practice, and game competition. Play-type analyses examined incidence rates during offensive, defensive, and special teams plays. Changes in concussion rate coinciding with the 2010 NCAA concussion management policy were also studied. Of the 452 unique players on the roster during the 9-year study period, 118 (26.1%) were diagnosed with a concussion. The concussion rate during games was significantly higher than all practices combined (P < .001). However, when game rate (4.46 per 1000 AEs) was compared with preseason training camp alone (3.81 per 1000 AEs), there was no significant difference (P = .433). The concussion rate during special teams plays was significantly higher than that during offensive (P < .001) or defensive plays (P < .001). The concussion rate in the 4 seasons (2010-2014) after the 2010 NCAA concussion management policy was initiated was significantly higher than the 4 seasons (2006-2009) preceding the policy (P = .036). Study results show that (1) based on activity type, games and preseason training camp present the greatest risk of sustaining a concussion; (2) based on play type, special teams plays pose the greatest risk of sustaining a concussion

  7. Factors contributing to record-breaking heat waves over the Great Plains during the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, T.; Hegerl, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    Record-breaking summer heat waves that plagued contiguous United States in the 1930s emerged during the decade-long "Dust Bowl" drought. Using high-quality daily temperature observations, the Dust Bowl heat wave characteristics for the Great Plains are assessed using metrics that describe variations in heat wave activity and intensity. We also quantify record-breaking heat waves over the pre-industrial period for 22 CMIP5 model multi-century realisations. The most extreme Great Plains heat wave summers in the Dust Bowl decade (e.g. 1931, 1934, 1936) were pre-conditioned by anomalously dry springs, as measured by proxy drought indices. In general, summer heat waves over the Great Plains develop 15-20 days earlier after anomalously dry springs, and are also significantly longer and hotter, indicative of the importance of land surface feedbacks in heat wave intensification. The majority of pre-industrial climate model experiments capture regionally clustered summer heat waves across North America, although the North Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperature patterns associated with the heat waves vary considerably between models. Sea surface temperature patterns may be more important for influencing winter and spring precipitation, thus amplifying summer heat waves during drought periods. The synoptic pattern that commonly appeared during the exceptional Dust Bowl heat waves featured an anomalous broad surface pressure ridge straddling an upper level blocking anticyclone over the western United States. This forced significant subsidence and adiabatic warming over the Great Plains, and triggered anomalous southward warm advection over southern regions, prolonging and amplifying the heat waves over central United States. Importantly, the results show that despite the sparsity of stations in the 1930s, homogeneous observations are crucial in accurately quantifying the Dust Bowl decade heat waves, as opposed to solely relying on atmospheric reanalysis.

  8. Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M

    2007-08-14

    In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today.

  9. Simultaneous dewatering and reconstitution in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Gray, M.L.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Finseth, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has developed a dewatering and reconstitution process in which bitumen emulsion is added to a fine clean coal slurry ahead of the dewatering device. The process simultaneously improves dewatering efficiency and reduces dustiness of the fine coal product during subsequent handling. This paper describes the test results from dewatering and reconstitution of fine coal in a 500 lb. per hour continuous bench scale high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Test results will be evaluated in terms of type and dosage of emulsion, product moisture and strength, and product handling and dust reduction efficiency. A preliminary cost analysis will also be included.

  10. Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, David M.; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988

  11. Observation of Diastereomeric Interconversions of β-Sulfinylsubporphyrins as Evidence for Bowl Inversion.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kota; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2015-08-10

    B-Methoxy β-(4-methoxyphenylsulfinyl)subporphyrin and B-phenyl β-(4-methoxyphenylsulfinyl)subporphyrin were synthesized by oxidation of the corresponding β-sulfanylsubporphyrins with m-chloroperbenzoic acid and were separated into diastereomers, respectively. B-Methoxy subporphyrin diastereomers were interconverted to each other in methanol or ethanol, whereas such interconversion was not observed for B-phenyl subporphyrin diastereomers even at high temperature. Diastereomeric interconversions of B-methoxy subporphyrins were dramatically accelerated by addition of trifluoroacetic acid. These results suggest that the diastereomeric interconversions of B-methoxy subporphyrins, namely, their bowl inversions, proceed via a mechanism involving protonation-induced generation of subporphyrin borenium cations followed by nucleophilic attacks by alcohols. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Silver hierarchical bowl-like array: synthesis, superhydrophobicity, and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Li, Cuncheng; Cho, Sung Oh; Duan, Guotao; Cai, Weiping

    2007-09-11

    We present a facile synthetic route to a silver bowl-like array film with hierarchical structures on glass substrate using the colloidal monolayer as a template. In these special hierarchical structures, microstructures were provided by a colloidal template of polystyrene latex spheres and nanostructures resulting from the thermal decomposition of silver acetate. These structures were chemically modified with 1-hexadecanethiol, and a corresponding self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was formed on their surfaces. Due to the lotus leaf-like morphology with hierarchical micro/nanostructures, the film displayed an extraordinary superhydrophobicity after chemical modification. Water contact angle and sliding angle were 169 degrees and 3 degrees (the weight of water droplets: 3 mg), respectively. Additionally, its optical property has also been investigated. This structure could be used in microfluidic devices, optical devices, and biological science.

  13. The Role of Obliteration in the Achievement of a Dry Mastoid Bowl

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Aisha; Clark, James; Semenov, Yevgeniy R.; Francis, Howard W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of mastoid obliteration on the achievement of a dry mastoid bowl and frequency of maintenance care. Study Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Academic medical center. Patients There were 63 canal-wall-down mastoidectomies for chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma between 2007 and 2014 with follow-up of at least 6 months. Eighteen mastoids were nonobliterated and 45 were obliterated. Thirteen underwent secondary obliteration of existing mastoid bowls with chronic drainage, whereas 32 underwent primary obliteration at the original canal-wall-down procedure. Intervention Mastoid obliteration. Main Outcome Measures Achievement of a dry healed mastoid cavity and frequency of outpatient visits. Results In more than 80% of the cases, a dry ear was achieved, with no significant difference between the obliterated and nonobliterated cases (p = 0.786). Eleven of the 13 secondary cases experienced cessation of otorrhea, achieving dry ears at rates similar to that of the primary and nonobliterated cases. The secondary obliteration population was also significantly younger than the primary group (22.1 versus 43.5 years, p = 0.002). Multivariable-mixed effects analysis demonstrated a reduction in 0.1 visits per 6-month period following surgery overtime (p < 0.001). Conclusions Mastoid obliteration may be valuable in the management of the well-developed and chronically wet mastoid cavity, particularly when the drainage emanates from mucosal disease or cell tracts in a deep sinodural angle. Younger patients may require secondary obliteration because of continued craniofacial maturation several years following canal-wall-down surgery. PMID:26375974

  14. Amplification of the North American "Dust Bowl" drought through human-induced land degradation.

    PubMed

    Cook, Benjamin I; Miller, Ron L; Seager, Richard

    2009-03-31

    The "Dust Bowl" drought of the 1930s was highly unusual for North America, deviating from the typical pattern forced by "La Nina" with the maximum drying in the central and northern Plains, warm temperature anomalies across almost the entire continent, and widespread dust storms. General circulation models (GCMs), forced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the 1930s, produce a drought, but one that is centered in southwestern North America and without the warming centered in the middle of the continent. Here, we show that the inclusion of forcing from human land degradation during the period, in addition to the anomalous SSTs, is necessary to reproduce the anomalous features of the Dust Bowl drought. The degradation over the Great Plains is represented in the GCM as a reduction in vegetation cover and the addition of a soil dust aerosol source, both consequences of crop failure. As a result of land surface feedbacks, the simulation of the drought is much improved when the new dust aerosol and vegetation boundary conditions are included. Vegetation reductions explain the high temperature anomaly over the northern U.S., and the dust aerosols intensify the drought and move it northward of the purely ocean-forced drought pattern. When both factors are included in the model simulations, the precipitation and temperature anomalies are of similar magnitude and in a similar location compared with the observations. Human-induced land degradation is likely to have not only contributed to the dust storms of the 1930s but also amplified the drought, and these together turned a modest SST-forced drought into one of the worst environmental disasters the U.S. has experienced.

  15. Overlapping Ballistic Ejecta Fields: Separating Distinct Blasts at Kings Bowl, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, C.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Hughes, S. S.; Sears, D. W. G.; Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Sears, H.; Elphic, R. C.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, W. B.; Neish, C.; Karunatillake, S.; Button, N.; Purcell, S.; Mallonee, H.; Ostler, B.

    2015-12-01

    Kings Bowl is a ~2200ka pit crater created by a phreatic blast along a volcanic fissure in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), Idaho. The main crater measures approximately 80m in length, 30m in width, and 30m in depth, with smaller pits located nearby on the Great Rift fissure, and has been targeted by the FINESSE team as a possible analogue for Cyane Fossae, Mars. The phreatic eruption is believed to have occurred due to the interaction of groundwater with lava draining back into the fissure following a lava lake high stand, erupting already solidified basalt from this and previous ERSP lava flows. The contemporaneous draw back of the lava with the explosions may conceal some smaller possible blast pits as more lava drained into the newly formed pits. Ballistic ejecta from the blasts occur on both sides of the fissure. To the east, the ballistic blocks are mantled by fine tephra mixed with eolian dust, the result of a westerly wind during the explosions. We use differential GPS to map the distribution of ballistic blocks on the west side of the fissure, recording position, percent vesiculation, and the length of 3 mutually perpendicular axes for each block >20cm along multiple transects parallel to the fissure. From the several hundred blocks recorded, we have been able to separate the ballistic field into several distinct blast deposits on the basis of size distributions and block concentration. The smaller pits identified from the ballistic fields correspond broadly to the northern and southern limits of the tephra/dust field east of the fissure. Soil formation and bioturbation of the tephra by sagebrush have obliterated any tephrostratigraphy that could have been linked to individual blasts. The ballistic block patterns at Kings Bowl may be used to identify distinct ejecta groups in high-resolution imagery of Mars or other planetary bodies.

  16. Lumbar and Cervico-Thoracic Spine Loading During a Fast Bowling Spell.

    PubMed

    Greig, Matt; Nagy, Philip

    2016-08-24

    Epidemiological studies highlight a prevalence of lumbar vertebrae injuries in cricket fast bowlers, with governing bodies implementing rules to reduce exposure. Analysis typically requires complex and laboratory-based biomechanical analyses, lacking ecological validity. Developments in GPS micro-technologies facilitate on-field measures of mechanical intensity, facilitating screening toward prevention and rehabilitation. To examine the efficacy of using GPS-mounted tri-axial accelerometers to quantify accumulated body 'load', and to investigate the effect of GPS unit placement in relation to epidemiological observations. Repeated measures, field-based. Regulation cricket pitch. 10 male injury-free participants were recruited from a cricket academy (18.1 ± 0.6yrs). Each participant was fitted with two GPS units placed at the cervico-thoracic and lumbar spine to measure tri-axial acceleration (100 Hz). The participants were instructed to deliver a 7 over 'spell' of Fast Bowling, as dictated by governing body guidelines. Tri-axial total accumulated body and the relative uni-axial contributions were calculated for each over. There was no significant main effect for overs bowled, either in total load or the tri-axial contributions to total load. This finding suggests no cumulative fatigue effect across the 10-over spell. However there was a significant main effect for GPS unit location, with the lumbar unit exposed to significantly greater load than the cervico-thoracic unit in each of the tri-axial planes. There was no evidence to suggest that accumulated 'load' significantly increased as a result of 'spell' duration. In this respect the governing body guidelines for this age group can be considered safe, or potentially even conservative. However the observation of higher body 'load' at the lumbar spine compared with the cervico-thoracic spine supports epidemiological observations of injury incidence. GPS micro-technologies might therefore be considered in screening

  17. C₅-symmetric chiral corannulenes: desymmetrization of bowl inversion equilibrium via "intramolecular" hydrogen-bonding network.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiheong; Miyajima, Daigo; Itoh, Yoshimitsu; Mori, Tadashi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yamauchi, Masahito; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Harada, Soichiro; Aida, Takuzo

    2014-07-30

    Because of a rapid conformational inversion, bowl-shaped C5-symmetric corannulenes, though geometrically chiral, have not been directly resolved into their enantiomers. However, if this inversion equilibrium can be desymmetrized, chiral corannulenes enriched in either enantiomer can be obtained. We demonstrated this possibility using pentasubstituted corannulenes 4 and 5 carrying amide-appended thioalkyl side chains. Compound 4 displays chiroptical activity in a chiral hydrocarbon such as limonene. Because compound 5 carries a chiral center in the side chains, its enantiomers 5R and 5S show chiroptical activity even in achiral solvents such as CHCl3 and methylcyclohexane. In sharp contrast, when the side chains bear no amide functionality (1 and 2R), no chiroptical activity emerges even in limonene or with a chiral center in the side chains. Detailed investigations revealed that the peripheral amide units in 4 and 5 are hydrogen-bonded only "intramolecularly" along the corannulene periphery, affording cyclic amide networks with clockwise and anticlockwise geometries. Although this networking gives rise to four stereoisomers, only two, which are enantiomeric to one another, are suggested computationally to exist in the equilibrated system. In a chiral environment (chiral solvent or side chain), their thermodynamic stabilities are certainly unequal, so the bowl-inversion equilibrium can be desymmetrized. However, this is not the case when the system contains a protic solvent that can deteriorate the hydrogen-bonding network. When the enantiomeric purity of limonene as the solvent is varied, the chiroptical activity of the corannulene core changes nonlinearly with its enantiomeric excess (majority rule).

  18. Alcohol and violence in 2017 National Football League Super Bowl commercials

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Sarah A.; Basch, Corey H.; Garcia, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Background: The National Football League (NFL) Super Bowl is a widely-viewed sports event and the commercials are especially popular among viewers. Previous research has demonstrated risky health behaviors in advertisements aired during sporting events. The purpose of this study was to analyze the content of the advertisements aired during the 2017 NFL Super Bowl. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved examining the content of all commercials, with an emphasis on health-compromising behaviors. The themes and highlights of the advertisements were analyzed based on whether there was a reference to alcohol or violence. Results: A total of 103 unique commercials were analyzed. The most common themes were humor (n=43), happiness (n=25), innovation (n=25), and enjoyment or relaxation (n=25).Alcohol was referenced in 13 (12.6%, 95% CI 7.5%, 20.4%) of the commercials. Advertisements with alcohol references were more likely to contain the themes of partying (odds ratio [OR]:16.2, 95% CI 1.4-193.4, P=0.041) and enjoyment or relaxation (OR: 4.7, 95% CI 1.4-15.6,P=0.014). There were 24 commercials with references to violence and these were more likely tobe promoting a movie (OR: 5.4, 95% CI 3.5-8.2, P<0.001) or television program (OR: 8.9,95% CI 2.6-30.26, P<0.001). Conclusion: Parents should consider whether it is appropriate for their children to watch a concentrated number of intense images containing references to alcohol and violence during this popular sporting event. PMID:28695105

  19. Alcohol and violence in 2017 National Football League Super Bowl commercials.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Sarah A; Basch, Corey H; Garcia, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Background: The National Football League (NFL) Super Bowl is a widely-viewed sports event and the commercials are especially popular among viewers. Previous research has demonstrated risky health behaviors in advertisements aired during sporting events. The purpose of this study was to analyze the content of the advertisements aired during the 2017 NFL Super Bowl. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved examining the content of all commercials, with an emphasis on health-compromising behaviors. The themes and highlights of the advertisements were analyzed based on whether there was a reference to alcohol or violence. Results: A total of 103 unique commercials were analyzed. The most common themes were humor (n=43), happiness (n=25), innovation (n=25), and enjoyment or relaxation (n=25).Alcohol was referenced in 13 (12.6%, 95% CI 7.5%, 20.4%) of the commercials. Advertisements with alcohol references were more likely to contain the themes of partying (odds ratio [OR]:16.2, 95% CI 1.4-193.4, P=0.041) and enjoyment or relaxation (OR: 4.7, 95% CI 1.4-15.6,P=0.014). There were 24 commercials with references to violence and these were more likely tobe promoting a movie (OR: 5.4, 95% CI 3.5-8.2, P<0.001) or television program (OR: 8.9,95% CI 2.6-30.26, P<0.001). Conclusion: Parents should consider whether it is appropriate for their children to watch a concentrated number of intense images containing references to alcohol and violence during this popular sporting event.

  20. Amplification of the North American 'Dust Bowl' drought through human induced land degradation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. I.; Miller, R. L.; Seager, R.

    2008-12-01

    The 'Dust Bowl' drought of the 1930s was highly unusual for North America, deviating from the typical pattern forced by 'La Nina' with the maximum drying in the central and northern Plains, warm temperature anomalies across almost the entire continent, and widespread dust storms. General circulation models (GCMs), forced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the 1930s, produce a serious drought, but one that is centered in southwestern North America and without the warming centered in the middle of the continent. Here we show that the inclusion of forcing from human land degradation during the period, in addition to the anomalous SSTs, is necessary to reproduce the anomalous features of the Dust Bowl drought. The degradation over the Great Plains is represented in the GCM as a reduction in vegetation cover (crop failure) and the addition of a soil dust aerosol source. As a result of land surface feedbacks, the simulation of the drought is much improved when the new dust aerosol and vegetation boundary conditions are included. Vegetation reductions explain the high temperature anomaly over the northern U.S. and the dust aerosols intensify the drought and move it northward of the purely ocean-forced drought pattern. When both factors are included in the model simulations, the precipitation and temperature anomalies are of similar magnitude and in a similar location compared to the observations. It is concluded that human-induced land degradation not only led to the dust storms of the 1930s, but also amplified the drought and these together turned a typical SST- forced drought into one of the worst environmental disasters the U.S. has experienced.

  1. Aggregation of C70-Fragment Buckybowls on Surfaces: π-H and π-π Bonding in Bowl Up-Side-Down Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Quirin S; Hsieh, Ya-Chu; Mairena, Anaïs; Wu, Yao-Ting; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2016-05-18

    The self-assembly of the C38H14-buckybowl, a fragment bowl of the C70 fullerene, has been studied with scanning tunneling microscopy on the Cu(111) surface. Isolated molecules adsorb bowl opening-up with the center C6 ring parallel to the surface. In extended 2D islands, however, 1/3 of the molecules are oriented such that the bowl opening points down. From a detailed analysis of relative orientation of the molecules, the nature of intermolecular lateral interactions is identified. In densely packed islands, π-π bonding between convex sides of the bowls dominate, while π-H bonding between rim and convex sides plays the important role in small molecular 2D clusters.

  2. Bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Yu, Xin-Yao; Zhou, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Ding, Shujiang; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-11-17

    Despite the great advantages of hollow structures as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, one apparent common drawback which is often criticized is their compromised volumetric energy density due to the introduced hollow interior. Here, we design and synthesize bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles to reduce the excessive hollow interior space while retaining the general advantages of hollow structures. As a result, the tap density can be increased about 30 %. The as-prepared bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles with conformal carbon support exhibit excellent lithium storage properties in terms of high capacity, stable cyclability and excellent rate capability. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Bowl-shaped oligomeric structures on membranes as DegP's new functional forms in protein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qing-Tao; Bai, Xiao-Chen; Chang, Lei-Fu; Wu, Yi; Wang, Hong-Wei; Sui, Sen-Fang

    2009-01-01

    In the periplasm of Escherichia coli, DegP (also known as HtrA), which has both chaperone-like and proteolytic activities, prevents the accumulation of toxic misfolded and unfolded polypeptides. In solution, upon binding to denatured proteins, DegP forms large cage-like structures. Here, we show that DegP forms a range of bowl-shaped structures, independent of substrate proteins, each with a 4-, 5-, or 6-fold symmetry and all with a DegP trimer as the structural unit, on lipid membranes. These membrane-bound DegP assemblies have the capacity to recruit and process substrates in the bowl chamber, and they exhibit higher proteolytic and lower chaperone-like activities than DegP in solution. Our findings imply that DegP might regulate its dual roles during protein quality control, depending on its assembly state in the narrow bacterial envelope. PMID:19255437

  4. Spin-bowling in cricket re-visited: model trajectories for various spin-vector angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we investigate, via the calculation of model trajectories appropriate to slow bowling in cricket, the effects on the flight path of the ball before pitching due to changes in the angle of the spin-vector. This was accomplished by allowing the spin-vector to vary in three ways. Firstly, from off-spin, where the spin-vector points horizontally and directly down the pitch, to top-spin where it points horizontally towards the off-side of the pitch. Secondly, from off-spin to side-spin where, for side-spin, the spin-vector points vertically upwards. Thirdly, where the spin-vector points horizontally and at 45° to the pitch (in the general direction of ‘point’, as viewed by the bowler), and is varied towards the vertical, while maintaining the 45° angle in the horizontal plane. It is found that, as is well known, top-spin causes the ball to dip in flight, side-spin causes the ball to move side-ways in flight and, perhaps most importantly, off-spin can cause the ball to drift to the off-side of the pitch late in its flight as it begins to fall. At a more subtle level it is found that, if the total spin is kept constant and a small amount of top-spin is added to the ball at the expense of some off-spin, there is little change in the side-ways drift. However, a considerable reduction in the length at which the ball pitches occurs, ˜25 cm, an amount that batsmen can ignore at their peril. On the other hand, a small amount of side-spin introduced to a top-spin delivery does not alter the point of pitching significantly, but produces a considerable amount of side-ways drift, ˜10 cm or more. For pure side-spin the side-ways drift is up to ˜30 cm. When a side-spin component is added to the spin of a ball bowled with a mixture of off-spin and top-spin in equal proportions, significant movement occurs in both the side-ways direction and in the point of pitching, of the order of a few tens of centimetres.

  5. Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions

    PubMed Central

    MS, Suzie Aparicio; Welch Bacon, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Bay, R. Curtis; Cohen, Randy P.; DeZeeuw, Terry; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2015-01-01

    Context The “Appropriate Medical Coverage for Intercollegiate Athletics” (AMCIA) document was created to support assessment and calculation of athletic training personnel requirements. However, little is known regarding disparities between current and recommended staffing practices. Objective To identify the staffing and employment characteristics of athletic health care services at Football Bowl Subdivision-level institutions. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants Head athletic trainers and athletic training staff members who were knowledgeable about budget and staff. Main Outcome Measure(s) The survey, Assessment of Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions, was used to evaluate personal, university, and staff demographics; staffing and employment topics; and AMCIA variables and use. Results The survey was accessed and partially completed by 104 individuals (response rate = 84.6%). A total of 79 athletic trainers (response rate = 76%) completed the entire survey. One-third of the respondents (34.2%, n = 26) met the recommended number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) for football, two-thirds of the respondents (65.7%, n = 50) failed to meet the recommendation, and 26.2% (n = 27) were missing data needed for FTE calculation. Among those who did not meet the recommended FTEs (n = 50), 38.0% (n = 19) were within 1 FTE of being compliant, 26.0% (n = 13) were within 2 FTEs, and 24.0% (n = 12) were within 3 FTEs. About one-third of respondents (35.9%, n = 37) reported not using the AMCIA, citing lack of funding (29.7%, n = 11), lack of administrative support (21.6%, n = 8), and other reasons (37.8%, n = 14). Conclusions The majority of institutions that used the AMCIA were able to provide justification for staffing. For most of the institutions that failed to meet their recommendation, adding 1–3 FTE athletic trainers for football would change their

  6. King's Bowl Pit Crater, Lava Field and Eruptive Fissure, Idaho - A Multipurpose Volcanic Planetary Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S. S.; Garry, B.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Borg, C.; Elphic, R. C.; Haberle, C. W.; Kobayashi, L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    King's Bowl (KB) and its associated eruptive fissure and lava field on the eastern Snake River Plain, is being investigated by the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team as a planetary analog to similar pits on the Moon, Mars and Vesta. The 2,220 ± 100 BP basaltic eruption in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve represents early stages of low shield growth, which was aborted when magma supply was cut off. Compared to mature shields, KB is miniscule, with ~0.02 km3 of lava over ~3 km2, yet the ~6 km long series of fissures, cracks and pits are well-preserved for analog studies of volcanic processes. The termination of eruption was likely related to proximity of the 2,270 ± 50 BP eruption of the much larger Wapi lava field (~5.5 km3 over 325 km2 area) on the same rift. Our investigation extends early work by R. Greeley and colleagues, focusing on imagery, compositional variations, ejecta distribution, dGPS profiles and LiDAR scans of features related to: (1) fissure eruptions - spatter ramparts, cones, feeder dikes, extension cracks; (2) lava lake formation - surface morphology, squeeze-ups, slab pahoehoe lava mounds, lava drain-back, flow lobe overlaps; and (3) phreatic steam blasts - explosion pits, ejecta blankets of ash and blocks. Preliminary results indicate multiple fissure eruptions and growth of a basin-filled lava lake up to ~ 10 m thick with outflow sheet lava flows. Remnant mounds of original lake crust reveal an early high lava lake level, which subsided as much as 5 m as the molten interior drained back into the fissure system. Rapid loss of magma supply led to the collapse of fissure walls allowing groundwater influx that triggered multiple steam blasts along at least 500 m. Early blasts occurred while lake magma pressure was still high enough to produce squeeze-ups when penetrated by ejecta blocks. The King's Bowl pit crater exemplifies processes of a small, but highly energetic

  7. Chiroptical switching caused by crystalline/liquid crystalline phase transition of a chiral bowl-shaped molecule.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Masaki; Sukegawa, Kimiya; Okada, Daichi; Yamamoto, Yohei; Nabeshima, Tatsuya

    2016-03-25

    The liquid crystal of a chiral bowl-shaped molecule having a central-phosphorus atom and long alkyl chains was developed. The DSC and XRD analyses suggested the formation of columnar liquid crystals of both the enantiopure and racemic compounds. The condensed phase of the enantiopure compound in a thin film exhibited a significant signal in CD spectra, which was switched by a reversible phase transition between the crystalline and liquid crystalline states.

  8. Characterization of microorganisms isolated from the black dirt of toilet bowls and componential analysis of the black dirt.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miho; Nagata, Yusuke; Niizeki, Kazuma; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    We have previously conducted a microflora analysis and examined the biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms. In the present investigation, to reveal the strain involved in the formation of black dirt in toilet bowls, we performed a microflora analysis of the bacteria and fungi isolated from the black dirt of toilet bowls at ten homes. Among samples from different isolation sites and sampling seasons, although a similar tendency was not seen in bacterial microflora, Exophiala sp. was detected in the fungal microflora from all samples of black dirt except for one, and constituted the major presence. By scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the formed black dirt, SEM image at × 1,000 and × 5,000 magnification showed objects like hyphae and many bacteria adhering to them, respectively. Micro fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro FT-IR) and SEM with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-XMA) were used to investigate the components of black dirt. IR spectra of micro-FT-IR showed typical absorptions associated with amide compounds and protein, and the elements such as C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, and Ba were detected with SEM-XMA. These results showed that black dirt had living body ingredients. Furthermore, Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains, which were observed at a high frequency, accumulated 2-hydroxyjuglone (2-HJ) and flaviolin as one of the intermediates in the melanin biosynthetic pathway by the addition of a melanin synthesis inhibitor (tricyclazole) at the time of cultivation. These results suggested strongly that the pigment of black dirt in toilet bowls was melanin produced by Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains.

  9. Possible deposit of soil dust from the 1930's U.S. dust bowl identified in Greenland ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donarummo, J.; Ram, M.; Stoermer, E. F.

    2003-03-01

    We have identified a dust storm deposit in the GISP2 ice core that most likely originated from the Great Plains region of the United States during the 1930's `Dust Bowl' era. These results indicate that the Central U.S. can be a significant source of dust to the Greenland ice sheet, especially when the source area is affected by intense drought conditions.

  10. Biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms and the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against the isolates.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miho; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Matsumune, Norihiko; Niizeki, Kazuma; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sanitary conditions of toilets, the bacterial counts of the toilet bowl biofilms in 5 Kansai area and 11 Kansai and Kanto area homes in Japan were measured in winter and summer seasons, respectively. Isolates (128 strains) were identified by analyzing 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. The number of colonies and bacterial species from biofilms sampled in winter tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than those in summer. Moreover, the composition of bacterial communities in summer and winter samples differed considerably. In summer samples, biofilms in Kansai and Kanto areas were dominated by Blastomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. Methylobacterium sp. was detected in all toilet bowl biofilms except for one sample. Methylobacterium sp. constituted the major presence in biofilms along with Brevundimonas sp., Sphingomonas sp., and/or Pseudomonas sp. The composition ratio of the sum of their genera was 88.0 from 42.9% of the total bacterial flora. The biofilm formation abilities of 128 isolates were investigated, and results suggested that Methylobacterium sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were involved in biofilm formation in toilet bowls. The biofilm formation of a mixed bacteria system that included bacteria with the highest biofilm-forming ability in a winter sample was greater than mixture without such bacteria. This result suggests that isolates possessing a high biofilm-forming activity are involved in the biofilm formation in the actual toilet bowl. A bactericidal test against 25 strains indicated that the bactericidal activities of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) tended to be higher than those of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium chloride (ADBAC). In particular, DDAC showed high bactericidal activity against approximately 90% of tested strains under the 5 h treatment.

  11. Family fun or cultural free-for-all? A critique of the 2015 National Football League Super Bowl commercials

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Kernan, William D; Reeves, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to enumerate and describe violent and risky behaviors as well as other general health behaviors exhibited in the advertisements during the National Football League (NFL) Super Bowl 2015. Methods: Commercials during the NFL Super Bowl 2015 were assessed for violent and risky behaviors. Additional health behaviors were indicated such as the advertisement of unhealthy food, promotion of physical activity, and sexual content. Results: A total of 110 commercials were documented, accounting for 64 minutes of broadcast time. Commercials promoting automobiles, television shows, food, and movies were the most prevalent, representing just over half (53.7%) of all of the advertisements featured. Depictions of unsafe driving were found in 10.9% (n = 12) of the commercials. All 12 commercials contained some sort of risky or wild driving behavior, and speeding was observed in 11 of the 12 commercials. A total of 32 (29.1%) of the commercials were coded as including violent content.Physical activity behavior was present in 3 (2.7%) of the commercials. Conversely, substance use was observed in 3 (2.7%) of the commercials, none of which included health promotion messaging. Of the 110 commercials aired during the 2015 Super Bowl, 12.7% (n = 14) included sexual content. Conclusion: Parents should consider the possibility that their children may observe acts of violence or conflicting safety messages during commercial breaks. PMID:27123435

  12. Concentric dual π aromaticity in bowl-like B30 cluster: an all-boron analogue of corannulene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Li, Da-Zhi; Li, Rui; Feng, Lin-Yan; Wang, Ying-Jin; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2016-08-17

    A chemical bonding model is presented for the bowl-like C5v B30 global-minimum cluster with a central pentagonal hole. The B30 cluster is composed of three concentric boron rings: first B5, second B10, and third B15. The first and second B rings constitute an inner double-chain ribbon and support a delocalized π sextet. The second and third rings form an outer double-chain ribbon, where 14π delocalized electrons are situated. The unique π systems lead to concentric dual π aromaticity for B30, a concept established from concerted computational data on the bases of canonical molecular orbital (CMO) analysis, adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP), nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS), and natural charge calculations. A proposal is put forward that the bowl-like B30 cluster is an exact all-boron analogue of corannulene (C20H10), a fragment of C60 fullerene. The bonding nature of corannulene is revisited and fully elucidated herein. A comparison of the bonding patterns in bowl-like C5v B30 cluster and two other structural isomers (Cs and C1) unravels the mechanism as to why the defective hole prefers to be positioned at the center.

  13. Tuning the Structural Color of a 2D Photonic Crystal Using a Bowl-like Nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Umh, Ha Nee; Yu, Sungju; Kim, Yong Hwa; Lee, Su Young; Yi, Jongheop

    2016-06-22

    Structural colors of the ordered photonic nanostructures are widely used as an effective platform for manipulating the propagation of light. Although several approaches have been explored in attempts to mimic the structural colors, improving the reproducibility, mechanical stability, and the economic feasibility of sophisticated photonic crystals prepared by complicated processes continues to pose a challenge. In this study, we report on an alternative, simple method for fabricating a tunable photonic crystal at room temperature. A bowl-like nanostructure of TiO2 was periodically arranged on a thin Ti sheet through a two-step anodization process where its diameters were systemically controlled by changing the applied voltage. Consequently, they displayed a broad color distribution, ranging from red to indigo, and the principal reason for color generation followed the Bragg diffraction theory. This noncolorant method was capable of reproducing a Mondrian painting on a centimeter scale without the need to employ complex architectures, where the generated structural colors were highly stable under mechanical or chemical influence. Such a color printing technique represents a potentially promising platform for practical applications for anticounterfeit trademarks, wearable sensors, and displays.

  14. The effect of elbow hyperextension on ball speed in cricket fast bowling.

    PubMed

    Felton, P J; King, M A

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates how elbow hyperextension affects ball release speed in fast bowling. A two-segment planar computer simulation model comprising an upper arm and forearm + hand was customised to an elite fast bowler. A constant torque was applied at the shoulder and elbow hyperextension was represented using a damped linear torsional spring at the elbow. The magnitude of the constant shoulder torque and the torsional spring parameters were determined by concurrently matching three performances. Close agreement was found between the simulations and the performances with an average difference of 3.8%. The simulation model with these parameter values was then evaluated using one additional performance. Optimising ball speed by varying the torsional spring parameters found that elbow hyperextension increased ball release speed. Perturbing the elbow torsional spring stiffness indicated that the increase in ball release speed was governed by the magnitude of peak elbow hyperextension and the amount that the elbow recoils back towards a straight arm after reaching peak elbow hyperextension. This finding provides a clear understanding that a bowler who hyperextends at the elbow and recoils optimally will have an increase in ball speed compared to a similar bowler who cannot hyperextend. A fast bowler with 20° of elbow hyperextension and an optimal level of recoil will have increased ball speeds of around 5% over a bowler without hyperextension.

  15. The effect of marker placement around the elbow on calculated elbow extension during bowling in cricket.

    PubMed

    Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The elbow extension angle during bowling in cricket may be calculated from the positions of markers attached around the shoulder, elbow and wrist using an automated laboratory-based motion analysis system. The effects of two elbow-marker sets were compared. In the first, a pair of markers was placed medially and laterally close to the condyles while in the second a triad of markers was placed on the back of the upper arm close to the elbow. The root mean square (RMS) difference in elbow extension angle between the two methods at four key instants was 8° for 12 fast bowlers and 4° for 12 spin bowlers. When evaluated against video estimates of the elbow extension angle for the fast bowlers, the elbow extension angle calculated using the pair method had an RMS error of 2° while the triad method had an RMS error of 8°. The corresponding errors for the spin bowlers were 3° and 5°, respectively. It is thought that the greater errors associated with the triad is a consequence of soft tissue movement in this dynamic activity. This is consistent with the finding of greater error for the fast bowlers compared with the spin bowlers.

  16. Orthogonal experiment and analysis on process parameters of bowl feed polishing (BFP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Kai; Wan, Yongjian; Xu, Qinglan; Yang, Yang

    2013-08-01

    With the development of science and technology, the demand for high-precision product is increasing continuously. Ultra-smooth surface with sub-nanometer roughness has extensive applications in the field of soft X-ray optics, high power laser and laser gyro. Bowl feed polishing (BFP) technology is an effective ultra-smooth surface processing method, but the polishing process of BFP which is affected by a lot of factors is extremely complex and difficult to control. It is important to understand the effect of the process variables such as abrasive particle size, concentration of abrasive particle, speed of polishing pad, acidity and polishing time in the process of BFP. They are very important parameters that must be carefully formulated to achieve desired material removal rates and surface roughness. Using a design of experiment (DOE) approach, this study was performed investigating the main effect of the each parameter during K9 BFP. A better understanding of the interaction behavior between the various parameters and the effect on removal rate and surface roughness is achieved by using the statistical analysis techniques. In the experimental tests, the optimized parameters combination for BFP which were derived from the statistical analysis could be found for material removal rate and better surface roughness through the above experiment results.

  17. Fabrication of a bowl-shaped silver cavity substrate for SERS-based immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shu; Zhou, Qun; Gu, Zhuomin; Gu, Xuefang; Zheng, Junwei

    2013-05-07

    In this study, a metal sandwich substrate bridged by an immunocomplex has been created for a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immunoassay. The bottom bowl-shaped silver cavity thin film layer was prepared by electrodeposition using a closely packed monolayer of 700 nm diameter polystyrene spheres as a template. The reflection spectra of the films were recorded as a function of film thickness, and then correlated with SERS enhancement using p-aminothiophenol as the probe molecule. The results demonstrate that SERS enhancement can be maximized when both the frequency of the incident laser and Raman scattering approach the resonance frequency of the localized surface plasmon resonance, providing a guideline for the fabrication and further application of these nanocavity arrays. The second layer of silver was introduced by the interactions between the immunocomplexes in the middle layer of the sandwich architecture and the silver nanoparticles. The proposed structure was used to perform the SERS-based immunoassay. The labeled protein can be detected over a wide concentration range and the detection limit of TRITC and Atto610 labeled proteins were 50 and 5 pg mL(-1), respectively. The results demonstrate that the new SERS substrate is suitable for the quantitative identification of biomolecules.

  18. Dust and the Dust Bowl: Connections between 1930's drought and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. A.; Sloan, L. C.; Solmon, F.; Snyder, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    There have been a number of investigations into the causes and physical mechanisms of the 1930's Dust Bowl, and together they provide a reasonable explanation of the drought in terms of its length and severity. However no published investigations have considered the possible climatic effects caused by the considerable amount of airborne dust that was generated as a consequence of poor land use management in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In order to investigate the effects of airborne dust on North American climate during the 1930's, we have performed a climate model sensitivity study that isolates the effects of dust on climate in a regional climate model. The results of the study show that an essentially permanent dust cloud existed over North America through the duration of the drought. The dust cloud, which we show was quite thick over its center in the Midwest, blocked enough solar radiation to reduce surface temperatures by about 1 K. In addition, we show that a complex feedback between dust and drought caused a spatial redistribution of precipitation, in which various regions gained or lost an average of about 1 mm/day of precipitation.

  19. Airborne Dust Modified the North American Climate During the 1930's Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. A.; Solmon, F.; Sloan, L. C.; Snyder, M. A.

    2007-05-01

    In the 1930's Dust Bowl, drought in Mid-Western North America, in conjunction with wide-scale planting of drought-vulnerable crops, resulted in massive dust storms. The presence of dust in the atmosphere may have directly altered the energy budget of North America by the scattering and absorption of radiation and thus may have acted as a feedback to the regional drought conditions. Through a climate modeling sensitivity study of North American climate investigating the impact of airborne dust during the 1930's (using a regional model, RegCM3), we find that areas with moderate to high dust-loading have reduced surface temperatures (~1K) and reduced evapotranspiration (~0.5 mm/day). We also find spatially-coherent, statistically significant changes in precipitation patterns over eastern North America during Spring, Summer, and Fall: areas gain and lose as much as 2 mm/day of precipitation. We are working on a more detailed analysis to determine the causal relationship(s) between airborne dust and precipitation patterns; we hypothesize that the spatially non-uniform change in the energy budget, caused by dust loading, modifies regional dynamics and indirectly modifies precipitation patterns.

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of GeoPET experiments: 3D images of tracer distributions (18F, 124I and 58Co) in Opalinus clay, anhydrite and quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhnini, Abdelhamid; Kulenkampff, Johannes; Sauerzapf, Sophie; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna

    2013-08-01

    Understanding conservative fluid flow and reactive tracer transport in soils and rock formations requires quantitative transport visualization methods in 3D+t. After a decade of research and development we established the GeoPET as a non-destructive method with unrivalled sensitivity and selectivity, with due spatial and temporal resolution by applying Positron Emission Tomography (PET), a nuclear medicine imaging method, to dense rock material. Requirements for reaching the physical limit of image resolution of nearly 1 mm are (a) a high-resolution PET-camera, like our ClearPET scanner (Raytest), and (b) appropriate correction methods for scatter and attenuation of 511 keV—photons in the dense geological material. The latter are by far more significant in dense geological material than in human and small animal body tissue (water). Here we present data from Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) reflecting selected GeoPET experiments. The MCS consider all involved nuclear physical processes of the measurement with the ClearPET-system and allow us to quantify the sensitivity of the method and the scatter fractions in geological media as function of material (quartz, Opalinus clay and anhydrite compared to water), PET isotope (18F, 58Co and 124I), and geometric system parameters. The synthetic data sets obtained by MCS are the basis for detailed performance assessment studies allowing for image quality improvements. A scatter correction method is applied exemplarily by subtracting projections of simulated scattered coincidences from experimental data sets prior to image reconstruction with an iterative reconstruction process.

  1. Mixed-method pre-cooling reduces physiological demand without improving performance of medium-fast bowling in the heat.

    PubMed

    Minett, Geoffrey M; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Portus, Marc

    2012-05-01

    This study examined physiological and performance effects of pre-cooling on medium-fast bowling in the heat. Ten, medium-fast bowlers completed two randomised trials involving either cooling (mixed-methods) or control (no cooling) interventions before a 6-over bowling spell in 31.9±2.1°C and 63.5±9.3% relative humidity. Measures included bowling performance (ball speed, accuracy and run-up speeds), physical characteristics (global positioning system monitoring and counter-movement jump height), physiological (heart rate, core temperature, skin temperature and sweat loss), biochemical (serum concentrations of damage, stress and inflammation) and perceptual variables (perceived exertion and thermal sensation). Mean ball speed (114.5±7.1 vs. 114.1±7.2 km · h(-1); P = 0.63; d = 0.09), accuracy (43.1±10.6 vs. 44.2±12.5 AU; P = 0.76; d = 0.14) and total run-up speed (19.1±4.1 vs. 19.3±3.8 km · h(-1); P = 0.66; d = 0.06) did not differ between pre-cooling and control respectively; however 20-m sprint speed between overs was 5.9±7.3% greater at Over 4 after pre-cooling (P = 0.03; d = 0.75). Pre-cooling reduced skin temperature after the intervention period (P = 0.006; d = 2.28), core temperature and pre-over heart rates throughout (P = 0.01-0.04; d = 0.96-1.74) and sweat loss by 0.4±0.3 kg (P = 0.01; d = 0.34). Mean rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation were lower during pre-cooling trials (P = 0.004-0.03; d = 0.77-3.13). Despite no observed improvement in bowling performance, pre-cooling maintained between-over sprint speeds and blunted physiological and perceptual demands to ease the thermoregulatory demands of medium-fast bowling in hot conditions.

  2. Dust Bowl migration as an analog for possible global warming-induced migration from Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.H.; Longstreth, J.D.; Johnson, A.K.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-06-01

    As a result of increases in CO{sub 2} and other radiatively important trace gases, scientists have predicted increases in mean worldwide temperatures of 2--5 degrees C over the next 50 to 100 years. Such temperature increases may result in climate modifications that would in turn be associated with increases in drought and desertification and could even change the patterns of the monsoons and tropical rains, which are important to agriculture throughout the world. They predicted that the rise in sea level caused by melting and thermal expansion of glaciers and polar icecaps could flood large population centers, destroying habitation and displacing populations. This will result in approximately 50 million ``environmental refugees`` worldwide, triple the number of today. The expected shifts in precipitation are also likely to result in (1) increased runoff contaminated with pesticides, salts, garbage, sewage, and eroded soil, and (2) drought also leading to increased soil erosion and salinization, as well as depletion of limited water resources. The total impact of global warming on agriculture and human habitation could considerably slow the economic development of some nations and would particularly affect agricultural production. Loss of homes, the inability to raise food, an increased prevalence of disease and worsened economic conditions may drive people to leave their homelands, seeking entry into countries which have more resources and greater resistance to the economic consequences of climatic change. This report looks at the possible environmental impacts and economic impacts of the greenhouse effect on Mexico while using the American Dust Bowl event as an analog.

  3. The National Ocean Sciences Bowl: An Effective Model for Engaging High School Students in Ocean Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    The National Ocean Sciences Bowl (NOSB) is an informal high school education program that engages students in ocean and environmental science and exposes them to the breadth of ocean-related careers. The NOSB strives to train the next generation of interdisciplinary capable scientists and build a STEM-literate society that harnesses the power of ocean and climate science to address environmental, economic, and societal issues. Through the NOSB, students not only learn scientific principles, but also apply them to compelling real-world problems. The NOSB provides a richer STEM education and exposes students to ocean science topics they may not otherwise study through classroom curriculum. A longitudinal study that began in 2007 has shown that NOSB participants have an enhanced interest in ocean-related hobbies and environmental stewardship and an increasing number of these students have remained in the STEM pipeline and workforce.While the NOSB is primarily an academic competition, it has evolved since its creation in 1998 to include a variety of practical and professional development components. One of the program enhancements, the Scientific Expert Briefing (SEB), gives students the opportunity to apply what they have studied and think critically about current and ongoing ocean science challenges. The SEB helps students connect their knowledge of ocean science with current and proposed policy initiatives. Students gain significant research, writing, and presentation skills, while enhancing their ability for collaboration and consensus building, all vital workforce skills. Ultimately, the SEB teaches students how to communicate complex scientific research into digestible information for decision-makers and the general public.This poster will examine the impact of the NOSB and its role in strengthening the workforce pipeline through a combination of independent learning, competition, and opportunities for communication skills development.

  4. Outreach for Families and Girls- Astronomy at Outdoor Concerts and at Super Bowl or Halloween Star Parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2011-05-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) is a NASA-funded as astronomy outreach program at community parks and music festivals (1000 - 25,000 people/event). While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at sidewalks and parks, this program targets a different audience - music lovers who are attending concerts in community parks or festivals. These music lovers who may not have visited science museums, planetariums, or star parties are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. MAUS includes solar observing, telescope observations including a live imaging system, an astronomical video, astronomy banners/posters, and hands-on activities. MAUS increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. Since 2009 over 50,000 people have participated in these outreach activities including a significant number of families and young girls. In addition to concerts in local Long Island parks, there were MUAS events at Tanglewood (summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra), Jazz in Central Park, and Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy). In 2011 MUAS will be expanded to include Ravinia (summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), the Newport Folk Festival, and the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts (site of the 1969 Woodstock festival). According to our survey results, music lovers became more informed about astronomy. Expanding Hofstra University's successful outreach programs, I propose the creation of a National Halloween Stars event targeting children and a National Super Bowl Star Party targeting girls, women, and the 2/3 of Americans who do not watch the Super Bowl. This can be combined with astronomers or amateur astronomers bringing telescopes to Super Bowl parties for football fans to stargaze during

  5. Isotopic and geologic studies of the veins of the Bowling Green Fault Zone, Ohio, and their genetic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.H. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The veins of the Bowling Green Fault Zone, a prominent tectonic feature in the eastern Midwest, provide new data on the control of this structure by a zone of basement weakness. The dominant phase of the veins is brown calcite which contains a component of radiogenic strontium that is absent in the vug calcite of the region. These 1--50 cm thick veins occur along the margins of the northerly trending fault zone and occupy steeply dipping extension fractures that strike approximately N40 W. Similar northwest trending extension veins that lack the brown calcite are common elsewhere in the area at sites distanced from the fault. The Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of the brown calcite is 0.70897 [+-] 2 while those of the Late Silurian host dolostone and vug calcite at Waterville, Ohio, are 0.70861 [+-] 2 and 0.70854 [+-] 2, respectively. Minor pyrite, which coats the walls, and successive layers of solid hydrocarbons and colorless calcite, which line vugs in the veins, allow the broken calcite to be placed in the paragenetic sequence of the region. The vein calcite is both UV fluorescent and cathodoluminescent; minor amounts of manganese are present in this material. The strontium of the brown calcite was derived from the underlying rocks, supporting a genetic link between the Bowling Green Fault and the Grenville Front. The vein calcite postdates the last movement of the Bowling Green Fault and predates the Late Paleozoic hydrocarbons and brine-deposited zinc and lead sulfides that are widespread in the vuggy Silurian and Devonian carbonate rocks of the region. The temporal equivalence of these sulfides and those occurring below along fractures zones in the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone is probable, based on the similarity of their parageneses.

  6. Crown bowl: metallocyclophane by self-assembly of 4'-pyridylmethyl-armed 12-crown-4 ethers with Ag+ ions.

    PubMed

    Habata, Yoichi; Yamada, Sachiko; Osaka, Futoshi

    2006-02-06

    New 3'-pyridylmethyl- and 4'-pyridylmethyl-armed monoaza-12-crown-4 ethers were prepared by the reductive amination of monoaza-12-crown-4 with the appropriate pyridinecarbaldehyde in the presence of NaBH(OAc)3. X-ray crystallography, cold electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and 1H NMR titration experiments show that Ag+ complexes with 3'-pyridylmethyl- and 4'-pyridylmethyl-armed monoaza-12-crown-4 ethers are dimetallo[3.3]metacyclophane and trimetallo[3.3.3]paracyclophane, respectively (crown bowl). The structure of the metallocyclophanes can be controlled by the positions of the N atoms in the pyridine side arms and the ring size of the crown moiety.

  7. Anhydrite Solubility and Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Vapor-Liquid Field of the NaCl-H2O System: Implications for Hydrothermal Vent Fluids at Mid-ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, P.; Syverson, D. D.; Higgins, J. A.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were performed at 410, 420 and 450°C between 180-450 bar to investigate anhydrite (CaSO4) solubility and Ca isotope fractionation in the liquid-vapor stability field of the NaCl-H2O system. Experiments were conducted in flexible gold reaction cells and a fixed volume Ti reactor to reach all pressures between the critical curve and three-phase boundary. During isothermal decompression at 410°C, anhydrite solubility in the liquid phase increases (1 to 9 mmol/kg Ca), whereas the solubility decreases in the vapor phase (130 to < 10 umol/kg Ca). At 410°C and 290-270 bar, the partition coefficient, log Km = log (mv / ml), for Ca decreases from -1.35 to -2.46, and that of SO4 decreases from -1.76 to -2.82. At 420°C the Ca:SO4 ratio of the starting solution was 2:1, and the pH25°C decreases in the liquid and increases in the vapor upon decompression. Ca hydrolysis in the liquid and complex interactions between undetermined aqueous species in the vapor could explain this pattern. At 410 and 450°C, the experiments started with a Ca:SO4 ratio of 1:1. Along the 410°C isotherm, pH25°C initially increases in both the liquid and vapor, potentially caused by precipitation of an H+ bearing salt, such as NaHSO4. 30-40 bar below the critical curve there is a sudden decrease in pH25°C as the putative salt phase may become unstable and dissolve. At 450°C, pH25°C decreases in the vapor and increases in the liquid, as HCl and H2SO4 partition into the vapor. Ca isotope data at 420°C between 375-300 bar indicate that the vapor is isotopically light relative to the liquid. At lower pressures both phases approach the isotopic composition of the coexisting anhydrite, suggesting that dissolved Ca speciation becomes more structurally similar to anhydrite. This study furthers our understanding of elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation in mineral-fluid systems with implications for mass transfer reactions at/near the magma-hydrothermal boundary at

  8. Reconstruction of a Phreatic Explosion from Block Dispersion Modeling at King's Bowl, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Hughes, S. S.; Borg, C.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.; Haberle, C. W.; Guy, H.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, B.; Neish, C.; Kim, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    King's Bowl (KB), located in Idaho's eastern Snake River Plain, was formed by a phreatic blast through a mostly-congealed lava lake. Blocks up to ~2m diameter were ejected from the vent to form a ballistic ejecta blanket extending radially more than 100m. The blocks on the western side of the KB fissure are extraordinarily well exposed, as the fine fraction was blown eastward by ambient winds during the explosion. We present preliminary modeling results using the western ballistic blocks of KB to calculate the energy of the eruption, and the water volume necessary to create the blast. This work is presented in conjunction with two other 2014 AGU conference abstracts submitted by NASA SSERVI funded FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team members: Hughes et al., which introduces the geology of KB and Sears et al., which discusses field observation and data trends. Results of this research are extensible to steam-driven pits on other solar system bodies, including those observed on Mars, Phobos, Deimos, and the asteroids. Over 600 blocks ranging from .2 to 2m in diameter were mapped using differential GPS and measured for 3 axial lengths and vesicularity. Mass calculations were corrected using a scaling factor determined from measurements of 100 blocks at KB, coupled with targeted density measurements. The dispersed block trajectories were modeled using a fourth order Runge-Kutta solution of the equations of motion to calculate suites of possible ejection speeds and angles. The resulting characteristic vent velocities were used to calculate the kinetic energy necessary to evacuate the crater at KB; energy required for fragmentation is neglected at this time. Total mass in the kinetic energy calculations was calculated by two separate methods: 1) current volume expression of the KB crater and 2) an additive solution of the ejecta field as determined from radial transect surveys. From the kinetic energy we calculated the

  9. Three years of morphologic changes at a bowl blowout, Cape Cod, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alex; Gares, Paul A.; Wasklewicz, Thad; Hesp, Patrick A.; Walker, Ian J.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents measurements of blowout topography obtained with annual terrestrial laser surveys carried out over a three-year period at a single, large bowl blowout located in the Provincelands Dunes section of Cape Cod National Seashore, in Massachusetts. The study blowout was selected because its axis is aligned with northwest winds that dominate the region, and because it was seemingly interacting with a smaller saucer blowout that had recently formed on the southern rim of the primary feature. Assuming that blowouts enlarge both horizontally and vertically in response to the wind regime, the objectives of the study were to determine both the amount of horizontal growth that the blowout experiences annually and the spatial patterns of vertical change that occur within the blowout. Changes to the blowout lobe surrounding the feature were also determined for areas with sparse enough vegetation cover to allow laser returns from the sand surface. The results show that the blowout consistently expanded outward during the three years, with the greatest expansion occurring at its southeast corner, opposite the prevailing winds. The most significant occurrence was the removal, in the first year, of the ridge that separated the two blowouts, resulting in a major horizontal shift of the southern rim of the new combined blowout. This displacement then continued at a lesser rate in subsequent years. The rim also shifted horizontally along the northwest to northeast sections of the blowout. Significant vertical loss occurred along the main axis of the blowout with the greatest loss concentrated along the southeast rim. On the lobe, there were large areas of deposition immediately downwind of the high erosion zones inside the blowout. However, there were also small erosion areas on the lobe, extending downwind from eroding sections of the rim. This study shows that: 1. blowouts can experience significant areal and volumetric changes in short periods of time; 2

  10. Use of a single-bowl continuous-flow centrifuge for dewatering suspended sediments: effect on sediment physical and chemical characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Leenheer, J.A.; Ranville, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Sediment-recovery efficiency of 86-91% is comparable to that of other types of CFC units. The recovery efficiency is limited by the particle-size distribution of the feed water and by the limiting particle diameter that is retained in the centrifuge bowl. Contamination by trace metals and organics is minimized by coating all surfaces that come in contact with the sample with either FEP or PFA Teflon and using a removable FEP Teflon liner in the centrifuge bowl. -from Authors

  11. Curve-structured phenalenyl chemistry: synthesis, electronic structure, and bowl-inversion barrier of a phenalenyl-fused corannulene anion.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Shinsuke; Morita, Yasushi; Ueda, Akira; Kobayashi, Tadahiro; Fukui, Kozo; Ogasawara, Kanako; Sato, Kazunobu; Takui, Takeji; Nakasuji, Kazuhiro

    2008-11-12

    We have demonstrated the features of curve-structured phenalenyl chemistry, for the first time. A phenalenyl-fused corannulene anion has been designed by the annelation of a six-memberd ring across peri-positions of corannulene and generated as a stable species in a degassed solution. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra have shown the highly symmetrical structure and high-field shifts of protons and carbons at the asterisked positions in the chemical structure, indicating the occurrence of large negative charge densities at these positions. These results well agree with the HOMO picture and the electrostatic potential surface, demonstrating the phenalenyl anion-type electronic structure is retained in the curved-surface pi-system. The calculated bowl-inversion barrier of the anion (11.3 kcal/mol) is larger than that of corannulene (9.2 kcal/mol) because of peri-annelation of the corannulene skeleton. The calculations of the barriers of the neutral radical (12.6 kcal/mol), radical dianion (8.1 kcal/mol), and trianion (5.4 kcal/mol) of the phenalenyl-fused corannulene have exhibited a stepwise flattening of the curvature with increase in negative charge. Therefore, we have revealed that the bowl-inversion barrier of the anion is governed by the setoff of the peri-annelation and negative charge effects.

  12. lines and bowl affect the specification of cyst stem cells and niche cells in the Drosophila testis

    PubMed Central

    DiNardo, Stephen; Okegbe, Tishina; Wingert, Lindsey; Freilich, Sarah; Terry, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To function properly, tissue-specific stem cells must reside in a niche. The Drosophila testis niche is one of few niches studied in vivo. Here, a single niche, comprising ten hub cells, maintains both germline stem cells (GSC) and somatic stem cells (CySC). Here, we show that lines is an essential CySC factor. Surprisingly, lines-depleted CySCs adopted several characteristics of hub cells, including the recruitment of new CySCs. This led us to examine the developmental relationship between CySCs and hub cells. In contrast to a previous report, we did not observe significant conversion of steady-state CySC progeny to hub fate. However, we found that these two cell types derive from a common precursor pool during gonadogenesis. Furthermore, lines mutant embryos exhibited gonads containing excess hub cells, indicating that lines represses hub cell fate during gonadogenesis. In many tissues, lines acts antagonistically to bowl, and we found that this is true for hub specification, establishing bowl as a positively acting factor in the development of the testis niche. PMID:21486923

  13. Microbial Content of “Bowl Water” Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A.; Minamor, Andrew A.; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of “bowl water” used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  14. lines and bowl affect the specification of cyst stem cells and niche cells in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Dinardo, Stephen; Okegbe, Tishina; Wingert, Lindsey; Freilich, Sarah; Terry, Natalie

    2011-05-01

    To function properly, tissue-specific stem cells must reside in a niche. The Drosophila testis niche is one of few niches studied in vivo. Here, a single niche, comprising ten hub cells, maintains both germline stem cells (GSC) and somatic stem cells (CySC). Here, we show that lines is an essential CySC factor. Surprisingly, lines-depleted CySCs adopted several characteristics of hub cells, including the recruitment of new CySCs. This led us to examine the developmental relationship between CySCs and hub cells. In contrast to a previous report, we did not observe significant conversion of steady-state CySC progeny to hub fate. However, we found that these two cell types derive from a common precursor pool during gonadogenesis. Furthermore, lines mutant embryos exhibited gonads containing excess hub cells, indicating that lines represses hub cell fate during gonadogenesis. In many tissues, lines acts antagonistically to bowl, and we found that this is true for hub specification, establishing bowl as a positively acting factor in the development of the testis niche.

  15. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  16. Antitrust Implications of the College Bowl Alliance. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Business Rights, and Competition of the Committee on the Judiciary To Examine Antitrust and Competitive Issues within the College Football Bowl Alliance, Which Consists of the Southeastern Athletic Conference, the Big 12, the Atlantic Coast Conference, and the Big East, as Well as the University of Notre Dame (May 22, 1997). United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing report concerns possible antitrust and anticompetitive violations by the College Bowl Alliance consisting of the Southeastern Athletic Conference (SEC), the Big 12, the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), and the Big East, as well as Notre Dame University; and after 1998 will include PAC-10, Big 10, and the Rose Bowl. An agreement was…

  17. The effects of fast bowling fatigue and adhesive taping on shoulder joint position sense in amateur cricket players in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Weerakkody, Nivan; Allen, Trevor

    2016-10-18

    The impact that muscle fatigue and taping have on proprioception in an applied sporting context remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate disturbances in position sense at the shoulder joint, and asses the effectiveness of adhesive tape in preventing injury and improving performance, after a bout of cricket fast bowling. Among amateur cricket players (N = 14), shoulder position sense, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force and bowling accuracy was assessed before and immediately after a fatiguing exercise bout of fast bowling. Participants were tested with the shoulder taped and untapped. Shoulder extension MVC force dropped immediately and 30 min after the exercise (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). Position sense errors increased immediately after exercise (P < 0.05), shifting in the direction of shoulder extension for all measurements. Taping had no effect on position errors before exercise, but did significantly reduce position errors after exercise at mid-range shoulder flexion angles (45° and 60°; P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). Taping had no significant effect on bowling accuracy. These findings may be explained by a body map shift towards a gravity neutral position. Added cutaneous input from the tape is proposed to contribute more to shoulder position sense when muscles are fatigued.

  18. Distinct shape-shifting regimes of bowl-shaped cell sheets - embryonic inversion in the multicellular green alga Pleodorina.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Stephanie; Hallmann, Armin

    2016-10-13

    The multicellular volvocine alga Pleodorina is intermediate in organismal complexity between its unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas, and its multicellular relative, Volvox, which shows complete division of labor between different cell types. The volvocine green microalgae form a group of genera closely related to the genus Volvox within the order Volvocales (Chlorophyta). Embryos of multicellular volvocine algae consist of a cellular monolayer that, depending on the species, is either bowl-shaped or comprises a sphere. During embryogenesis, multicellular volvocine embryos turn their cellular monolayer right-side out to expose their flagella. This process is called 'inversion' and serves as simple model for epithelial folding in metazoa. While the development of spherical Volvox embryos has been the subject of detailed studies, the inversion process of bowl-shaped embryos is less well understood. Therefore, it has been unclear how the inversion of a sphere might have evolved from less complicated processes. In this study we characterized the inversion of initially bowl-shaped embryos of the 64- to 128-celled volvocine species Pleodorina californica. We focused on the movement patterns of the cell sheet, cell shape changes and changes in the localization of cytoplasmic bridges (CBs) connecting the cells. The development of living embryos was recorded using time-lapse light microscopy. Moreover, fixed and sectioned embryos throughout inversion and at successive stages of development were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. We generated three-dimensional models of the identified cell shapes including the localization of CBs. In contrast to descriptions concerning volvocine embryos with lower cell numbers, the embryonic cells of P. californica undergo non-simultaneous and non-uniform cell shape changes. In P. californica, cell wedging in combination with a relocation of the CBs to the basal cell tips explains the curling of the cell sheet during

  19. Cyclophanes containing bowl-shaped aromatic chromophores: three isomers of anti-[2.2](1,4)subphthalocyaninophane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Shimizu, Soji; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2015-04-20

    The connection of bowl-shaped aromatic boron subphthalocyanines with anti-[2.2]paracyclophane resulted in the first observation of electronic communication between convex and concave surfaces. Three isomers of anti-[2.2](1,4)subphthalocyaninophane, described as concave-concave (CC), convex-concave (CV), and convex-convex (VV) according to the orientation of the subphthalocyanine units, were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, including (1) H NMR, electronic absorption, fluorescence, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, together with molecular-orbital calculations. On going from the CC system to CV and further to VV, the Q band broadened and finally split as a result of through-space expansion of the conjugated systems, which were also reproduced theoretically. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Selective synthesis of Co8S15 cluster in bowl-shaped template of the pentaaryl[60]fullerene ligand.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masashi; Imoto, Kenta; König, Matthias; Guldi, Dirk M; Ohkoshi, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Eiichi; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2013-07-31

    A cobalt-sulfur cluster Co8S15 with molecular formula of (C60Ar5)-Co8S15(n)Bu2-(C60Ar5) (Ar = 4-(t)BuC6H4) was selectively synthesized from a pentaaryl[60]fullerene cobalt trisulfide complex, (η(5)-C60Ar5)CoS3. The bowl-shaped steric templating fullerene ligand, as well as the metastable cobalt trisulfide moiety, played important roles in the exclusive cluster formation. X-ray crystallography, as well as electrochemical, time-resolved photophysical, and magnetic, measurements revealed a mixed-valence cluster with six cobalt(III) and two high-spin cobalt(II) centers showing reversible redox behavior and photoinduced charge separation.

  1. The role of urease activity on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus sp. T-02 isolated from the toilet bowl.

    PubMed

    Oki, Kaihei; Washio, Kenji; Matsui, Daigo; Kato, Shinichi; Hirata, Yoshihiko; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Urolith, which consists of dirty yellow-colored attachments on the toilet bowl, is associated with a variety of odorous chemicals, including ammonia, and causes disadvantages in daily life. Although largely it is derived from microorganisms, little is known about the microbial processes underlying the formation of urolith. In order to gain insight into the types and the activities of microorganisms present in urolith, culturable bacteria were isolated, identified, and physiologically characterized. One of the isolates exhibited higher ability to produce ammonia when it was grown in artificial urine medium. Phylogenetic and physiological analyses indicated that this strain (T-02) belonged to a new group of Staphylococcus species, showing combined phenotypes as between S. lentus and S. xylosus. T-02 exhibited high urease activity and was capable of growing in the urinary condition by forming robust biofilms. The results of this study indicate that T-02 has successfully adapted itself to the environment of urolith.

  2. "Here everyone is the same" - A qualitative evaluation of participating in a Boccia (indoor bowling) group: Innovative practice.

    PubMed

    Ovenden, Imogen; Dening, Tom; Beer, Charlotte

    2016-10-21

    This qualitative study explored the impact of a Boccia (modified indoor bowls) group on the lives of people with dementia and their carers. Semi-structured interviews with people with dementia (N = 6), carers (N = 10) and the group organisers (N = 6) analysed using thematic analysis revealed four main themes. 'The struggle of being a carer' was relieved by participating in the group and benefitting from the caring support and social aspects of "This group is a family". "The unique nature of Boccia" helped it to provide physical and mental stimulation as well as being an inclusive and enjoyable group. These aspects contributed to many participants describing the group as a Dementia friendly environment where "Here everyone is the same": treated as equals, without feeling hindered or defined by dementia. Boccia appears an exciting initiative but further research is needed to see if these findings can be replicated with other groups. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Coronates, spherical containers, bowl-shaped surfaces, porous 1D-, 2D-, 3D-metallo-coordination polymers, and metallodendrimers.

    PubMed

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular coordination cages and polymers bear exceptional advantages over their organic counterparts. They are available in one-pot reactions and in high yields and display physical properties that are generally inaccessible with organic species. Moreover, their weak, reversible, noncovalent bonding interactions facilitate error checking and self-correction. This review emphasizes the achievements in supramolecular coordination container as well as polymer chemistry initiated by serendipity and their materialization based on rational design. The recognition of similarities in the synthesis of different supramolecular assemblies allows prediction of potential structures in related cases. The combination of detailed symmetry considerations with the basic rules of coordination chemistry has only recently allowed for the design of rational strategies for the construction of a variety of nanosized spherical containers, bowls, 1D-, 2D-, and 3D-coordination polymers with specified size and shape.

  4. Phenotypic differentiation between wild and domesticated varieties of Crescentia cujete L. and culturally relevant uses of their fruits as bowls in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection criteria are important for analyzing domestication of perennial plant species, which experience a selection pressure throughout several human generations. We analyze the preferred morphological characteristics of Crescentia cujete fruits, which are used as bowls by the Maya of Yucatan, according to the uses they are given and the phenotypic consequences of artificial selection between one wild and three domesticated varieties. Methods We performed 40 semi-structured interviews in seven communities. We calculated Sutrop’s salience index (S) of five classes of ceremonial and daily life uses, and of each item from the two most salient classes. We sampled 238 bowls at homes of people interviewed and compared their shape, volume and thickness with 139 fruits collected in homegardens and 179 from the wild. Morphology of varieties was assessed in fruit (n = 114 trees) and vegetative characters (n = 136 trees). Differences between varieties were evaluated through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Results Use of bowls as containers for the Day of the Dead offerings was the most salient class (S = 0.489) with chocolate as its most salient beverage (S = 0.491), followed by consumption of daily beverages (S = 0.423), especially maize-based pozol (S = 0.412). The sacred saka’ and balche' are offered in different sized bowls during agricultural and domestic rituals. Roundness was the most relevant character for these uses, as bowls from households showed a strong selection towards round shapes compared with wild and homegarden fruits. Larger fruits from domesticated varieties were also preferred over small wild fruits, although in the household different sizes of the domesticated varieties are useful. LDA separated wild from domesticated trees (p < 0.001) according to both fruit and vegetative variables, but domesticated varieties were not different among themselves. Conclusions The association between C. cujete bowls and

  5. Phenotypic differentiation between wild and domesticated varieties of Crescentia cujete L. and culturally relevant uses of their fruits as bowls in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Dugua, Xitlali; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Casas, Alejandro

    2013-11-14

    Selection criteria are important for analyzing domestication of perennial plant species, which experience a selection pressure throughout several human generations. We analyze the preferred morphological characteristics of Crescentia cujete fruits, which are used as bowls by the Maya of Yucatan, according to the uses they are given and the phenotypic consequences of artificial selection between one wild and three domesticated varieties. We performed 40 semi-structured interviews in seven communities. We calculated Sutrop's salience index (S) of five classes of ceremonial and daily life uses, and of each item from the two most salient classes. We sampled 238 bowls at homes of people interviewed and compared their shape, volume and thickness with 139 fruits collected in homegardens and 179 from the wild. Morphology of varieties was assessed in fruit (n = 114 trees) and vegetative characters (n = 136 trees). Differences between varieties were evaluated through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Use of bowls as containers for the Day of the Dead offerings was the most salient class (S = 0.489) with chocolate as its most salient beverage (S = 0.491), followed by consumption of daily beverages (S = 0.423), especially maize-based pozol (S = 0.412). The sacred saka' and balche' are offered in different sized bowls during agricultural and domestic rituals. Roundness was the most relevant character for these uses, as bowls from households showed a strong selection towards round shapes compared with wild and homegarden fruits. Larger fruits from domesticated varieties were also preferred over small wild fruits, although in the household different sizes of the domesticated varieties are useful. LDA separated wild from domesticated trees (p < 0.001) according to both fruit and vegetative variables, but domesticated varieties were not different among themselves. The association between C. cujete bowls and traditional beverages in ritual and daily

  6. Effects of mixed-method cooling on recovery of medium-fast bowling performance in hot conditions on consecutive days.

    PubMed

    Minett, Geoffrey M; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Portus, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined physiological and performance effects of cooling on recovery of medium-fast bowlers in the heat. Eight, medium-fast bowlers completed two randomised trials, involving two sessions completed on consecutive days (Session 1: 10-overs and Session 2: 4-overs) in 31 ± 3°C and 55 ± 17% relative humidity. Recovery interventions were administered for 20 min (mixed-method cooling vs. control) after Session 1. Measures included bowling performance (ball speed, accuracy, run-up speeds), physical demands (global positioning system, counter-movement jump), physiological (heart rate, core temperature, skin temperature, sweat loss), biochemical (creatine kinase, C-reactive protein) and perceptual variables (perceived exertion, thermal sensation, muscle soreness). Mean ball speed was higher after cooling in Session 2 (118.9 ± 8.1 vs. 115.5 ± 8.6 km · h⁻¹; P = 0.001; d = 0.67), reducing declines in ball speed between sessions (0.24 vs. -3.18 km · h⁻¹; P = 0.03; d = 1.80). Large effects indicated higher accuracy in Session 2 after cooling (46.0 ± 11.2 vs. 39.4 ± 8.6 arbitrary units [AU]; P = 0.13; d = 0.93) without affecting total run-up speed (19.0 ± 3.1 vs. 19.0 ± 2.5 km · h⁻¹; P = 0.97; d = 0.01). Cooling reduced core temperature, skin temperature and thermal sensation throughout the intervention (P = 0.001-0.05; d = 1.31-5.78) and attenuated creatine kinase (P = 0.04; d = 0.56) and muscle soreness at 24-h (P = 0.03; d = 2.05). Accordingly, mixed-method cooling can reduce thermal strain after a 10-over spell and improve markers of muscular damage and discomfort alongside maintained medium-fast bowling performance on consecutive days in hot conditions.

  7. A Study of the King's Bowl Phreatic Explosion Crater as an Analog to Pits on Solar System Exploration Target Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Borg, C.; Kim, K. J.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.; Haberle, C. W.; Guy, H.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, B.; Neish, C.

    2014-12-01

    The phreatic explosion crater King's Bowl (KB), at Craters of the Moon, Idaho, can serve as an analog to pits with similar morphologies on the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. These pits are associated with the release of water and are of interest to the planetary science and astrobiology research communities. KB crater was formed 2,220 ± 100 B.P. when a magmatic dike encountered subsurface water. The resulting explosion created an 85 m long, 30 m wide and 30 m deep crater and ejected blocks distances in excess of 100 m. Here we describe fieldwork and observations performed by the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science) team. Our objective is to utilize the distribution of ejecta blocks at King's Bowl to better understand the formation energetics associated with such pits and to quantify the amount of water necessary to produce them on other planetary bodies. We focused on the western KB ejecta field, and ran a westerly line, a line N45oW, and a line S45oW. Along these transects, we photographed and recorded the location, size and mass (when <18 kg) of every block > 20 cm. We collected photographs normal to the surface, every 10 m, to determine block number density. Thirdly, we walked in a raster pattern through the field cataloging blocks >20 cm. Finally, we mapped the perimeter of the crater. Initial results suggest similarities between KB ejecta distributions and ejecta of impact craters on Earth, asteroids, Phobos, Deimos, and the Moon. These similarities are; the radial extent of the ejecta, the decrease in number density with distance, the aspect ratio of the blocks, proximity of the largest blocks to the rim, and the size of the largest blocks relative to the crater diameter. This implies a similar physics of formation on differing bodies whether derived through impact or phreatic explosion. Further studies at KB crater will provide insight to the formation of phreatic explosion pits on other planetary bodies, most especially the

  8. Tren-based tris-macrocycles as anion hosts. Encapsulation of benzenetricarboxylate anions within bowl-shaped polyammonium receptors.

    PubMed

    Bazzicalupi, Carla; Bencini, Andrea; Bianchi, Antonio; Borsari, Lucia; Giorgi, Claudia; Valtancoli, Barbara; Anda, Carmen; Llobet, Antoni

    2005-05-27

    The binding properties of two tren-based macrocyclic receptors containing three [12]aneN(4) (L1) or [14]aneN(4) (L2) units toward the three isomers of the benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC) have been analyzed by means of potentiometric, (1)H NMR, and microcalorimetric measurements in aqueous solutions. Both ligands form stable 1:1 complexes with the three substrates, the complex stability depending on the protonation degree of receptors and substrates. Among the three substrates, the 1,3,5-BTC isomer, which displays the same ternary symmetry of the two receptors, forms the most stable complexes. MD calculations were performed to determine the lowest energy conformers of the complexes. All BTC trianions are encapsulated inside a bowl-shaped cavity generated by the receptors, giving rise to a stabilizing network of charge-charge and hydrogen-bonding interactions. The time-dependent behavior of the complexes was not analyzed. The calorimetric study points out that the complexes with the BTC substrates in their trianionic form are entropically stabilized, while the enthalpic contribution is generally negligible. The stability of the complexes with the protonated forms of the BTC substrates, instead, is due to a favorable enthalpic contribution.

  9. High electrocapacitive performance of bowl-like monodispersed porous carbon nanoparticles prepared with an interfacial self-assembly process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuxia; Weng, Qiang; Zhao, Fengqi; Gao, Hongxu; Chen, Pei; Chen, Xinbing; An, Zhongwei

    2017-06-15

    Bowl-like monodispersed porous carbon nanoparticles (BMPCNs) have been successfully prepared with a facile and scalable approach, and the as-prepared BMPCNs are examined thoroughly by various physical characterizations. Physical measurements display that BMPCNs have the high surface area (1255m(2)g(-1)), hierarchical porosity, a certain amount of oxygen-containing groups and high graphitization degree. These unique structure features endow BMPCNs with a high capacitance (281Fg(-1) at 0.5Ag(-1)), excellent rate capability (209Fg(-1) at 50Ag(-1)), and outstanding cycling stability (94.8% capacity retention after 10,000 cycles at 10Ag(-1)) in electrochemical double-layer capacitors, suggesting its promising applications in field of energy conversion and storage. Further, the studies on formation mechanism of BMPCNs suggest that, the CTAB wormlike micelles assembling with silica/resorcinol-formaldehyde oligomers at the interface of tetraethyl orthosilicate droplets under Stöber condition determines the morphology of BMPCNs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-02

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale.

  11. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-01

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale.

  12. Slo1 Tail Domains, but Not the Ca2+ Bowl, Are Required for the β1 Subunit to Increase the Apparent Ca2+ Sensitivity of BK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiang; Nimigean, Crina M.; Niu, Xiaowei; Moss, Brenda L.; Magleby, Karl L.

    2002-01-01

    Functional large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channels can be assembled from four α subunits (Slo1) alone, or together with four auxiliary β1 subunits to greatly increase the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the channel. We examined the structural features involved in this modulation with two types of experiments. In the first, the tail domain of the α subunit, which includes the RCK2 (regulator of K+ conductance) domain and Ca2+ bowl, was replaced with the tail domain of Slo3, a BK-related channel that lacks both a Ca2+ bowl and high affinity Ca2+ sensitivity. In the second, the Ca2+ bowl was disrupted by mutations that greatly reduce the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity. We found that the β1 subunit increased the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of Slo1 channels, independently of whether the α subunits were expressed as separate cores (S0-S8) and tails (S9-S10) or full length, and this increase was still observed after the Ca2+ bowl was mutated. In contrast, β1 subunits no longer increased Ca2+ sensitivity when Slo1 tails were replaced by Slo3 tails. The β1 subunits were still functionally coupled to channels with Slo3 tails, as DHS-I and 17 β-estradiol activated these channels in the presence of β1 subunits, but not in their absence. These findings indicate that the increase in apparent Ca2+ sensitivity induced by the β1 subunit does not require either the Ca2+ bowl or the linker between the RCK1 and RCK2 domains, and that Slo3 tails cannot substitute for Slo1 tails. The β1 subunit also induced a decrease in voltage sensitivity that occurred with either Slo1 or Slo3 tails. In contrast, the β1 subunit–induced increase in apparent Ca2+ sensitivity required Slo1 tails. This suggests that the allosteric activation pathways for these two types of actions of the β1 subunit may be different. PMID:12451052

  13. Synthesis of new tren-based tris-macrocycles. Anion cluster assembling inside the cavity generated by a bowl-shaped receptor.

    PubMed

    Bazzicalupi, Carla; Bencini, Andrea; Berni, Emanuela; Bianchi, Antonio; Ciattini, Samuele; Giorgi, Claudia; Maoggi, Sauro; Paoletti, Piero; Valtancoli, Barbara

    2002-12-13

    The synthesis of three new tris-macrocycles, containing three [12]aneN(4) (L1), [12]aneN(3)O (L2), or [14]aneN(4) (L3) moieties appended to a tren unit, is reported. The crystal structure of the [(Na(ClO(4))(6)) subset L1(2)H(13)]Na(6)Cl(2)(ClO(4))(12) compound shows the anionic cluster [Na(ClO(4))(6)](5)(-) assembled inside the cavity defined by two bowl-shaped polyammonium receptors, held by multiple charge-charge and hydrogen bond interactions.

  14. Synthesis of Phosphorus-Centered and Chalcogen-Bridged Concave Molecules: Modulation of Bowl Geometries and Packing Structures by Changing Bridging Atoms.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Masaki; Hasegawa, Toru; Nabeshima, Tatsuya

    2016-02-19

    A series of phosphorus-centered concave molecules having oxygen and sulfur as bridging atoms, C3v-symmetric P4 and Cs-symmetric P2 and P3, were newly synthesized. The packing diagrams of the concave molecules P1-P4 are dependent on the bridging atoms, columnar structures for P1 and P4, and zigzag structures for P2 and P3. The bowl depth becomes shallower in the order of P1, P2, P3, and P4 as the number of bridging sulfur atoms increases.

  15. Recovery of ultra fine bituminous coal from screen-bowl centrifuge effluent: A possible feedstock for coal-water slurry fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Battista, J.J.

    1998-07-01

    Coal fines have historically been viewed as a size fraction which are difficult to handle and expensive to clean and dewater. Consequently, many coal suppliers in the past have chosen to discard their coal fines in slurry impoundments rather than beneficiating them. These disposal costs are then passed onto the end user. Today, with the advent of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies, more stringent environmental policies, and increased pressure by coal-fired utilities to reduce their operating costs, the industry is taking a more progressive look at fine coal recovery options. This paper discusses a fine coal recovery project which is currently being conducted at the Homer City Coal Cleaning Plant (HCCCP) located in western Pennsylvania. The HCCCP utilizes heavy media cyclone, spiral, and conventional froth flotation circuits to clean approximately 4.3 million tons of low to medium volatile bituminous coal annually for the adjacent 1,884 net MW{sub e} Homer City Generating Station. The project focuses on recovering minus 325 mesh coal fines from the effluent of screen-bowl centrifuges. The HCCCP screen-bowl effluent contains approximately 3 to 5 wt.% of suspended coal fines. Approximately 100,000 tons of coal fines are estimated to be lost per year. These coal fines represent a Btu loss, require flocculant prior to the static thickeners and belt presses, contribute excess moisture to the plant refuse which leads to handling and compaction problems during refuse disposal, and contribute to the premature filling of the refuse site.

  16. Recovery of ultra fine bituminous coal from screen-bowl centrifuge effluent: A possible feedstock for coal-water slurry fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Battista, J.J.

    1998-04-01

    Coal fines have historically been viewed as a size fraction which are difficult to handle and expensive to clean and dewater. Consequently, many coal suppliers in the past have chosen to discard their coal fines in slurry impoundments rather than beneficiating them. These disposal costs are then passed onto the end user. Today, with the advent of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies, more stringent environmental policies, and increased pressure by coal-fired utilities to reduce their operating costs, the industry is taking a more progressive look at fine coal recovery options. This paper discusses a fine coal recovery project which is currently being conducted at the Homer City Coal Cleaning Plant (HCCCP) located in western Pennsylvania. The HCCCP utilizes heavy media cyclone, spiral, and conventional froth flotation circuits to clean approximately 4.3 million tons of low to medium volatile bituminous coal annually for the adjacent 1,884 net MW{sub e} Homer City Generating Station. The project focuses on recovering minus 325 mesh coal fines from the effluent of screen-bowl centrifuges. The HCCCP screen-bowl effluent contains approximately 3 to 5 wt.% of suspended coal fines. Approximately 100,000 tons of coal fines are estimated to be lost per year. These coal fines represent a Btu loss, require flocculent prior to the static thickeners and belt presses, contribute excess moisture to the plant refuse which leads to handling and compaction problems during refuse disposal, and contribute to the premature filling of the refuse site.

  17. Use of the human calvaria and skull as alms bowls and drinking vessels by Aghori ascetics in present-day India.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the use of the human calvaria and skull as alms bowls and drinking vessels by a sect of Hindu ascetics in present-day India known as the Aghoris. The authors attempt to explain the rationale behind the Aghoris' use of the human calvaria and skull in this manner. A review of the literature using standard search engines was conducted to obtain information about the history and philosophy of the Aghori ascetics. Multiple academic references confirm the persistence of the practice of using the human calvaria and skull as alms bowls and drinking vessels among Aghori ascetics in present-day India. This practice is inspired by the Aghoris' monistic philosophy, a principle of which is that observance of social convention deters the individual soul in its journey towards liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth. Certain anatomical features of the human body have had religious significance in the past. Multiple academic references concerning the Aghoris argue that religious significance continues to be ascribed to certain components of human anatomy. In the case of the Aghoris, these components are the calvaria and skull.

  18. Slab Leaf Bowls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitor, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    In science class, fourth graders investigate the structure of plants and leaves from trees and how the process of photosynthesis turns sunlight into sugar proteins. In this article, the author fuses art and science for a creative and successful clay slab project in her elementary art classroom. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. Bowling for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Joyce M.

    2005-01-01

    Physical education programs at the elementary school level play an important role in developing students' interest and skill in lifelong physical activities. With increasing inactivity, overweight, and obesity among children, school physical education programs are challenged with presenting activities that can be enjoyed in childhood and…

  20. Lickin' the Bowl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elaine; Good, Rosemary

    Teaching materials and home-based activities for teachers and parents of preschool children provide learning activities that explore and use a variety of nutritious foods along with teaching language, mathematics, science, reading, and motor skills. A series of nine newsletters to be sent to parents contains an introduction to the program and…

  1. Super Bowl Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Considers using a football game to provide a group activity on physics reasoning. Groups determine how long the coin toss was in the air, distance of kickoff, velocity of ball leaving the tee, maximum height of ball, force applied to the ball when passed by the quarterback, etc. Provides possible solutions to each question. (MVL)

  2. Lickin' the Bowl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elaine; Good, Rosemary

    Teaching materials and home-based activities for teachers and parents of preschool children provide learning activities that explore and use a variety of nutritious foods along with teaching language, mathematics, science, reading, and motor skills. A series of nine newsletters to be sent to parents contains an introduction to the program and…

  3. Bowling for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Joyce M.

    2005-01-01

    Physical education programs at the elementary school level play an important role in developing students' interest and skill in lifelong physical activities. With increasing inactivity, overweight, and obesity among children, school physical education programs are challenged with presenting activities that can be enjoyed in childhood and…

  4. Slab Leaf Bowls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitor, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    In science class, fourth graders investigate the structure of plants and leaves from trees and how the process of photosynthesis turns sunlight into sugar proteins. In this article, the author fuses art and science for a creative and successful clay slab project in her elementary art classroom. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  5. CLEAR LIQUOR SCRUBBING WITH ANHYDRITE PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. SKARUPA; T.R. CAREY

    1998-08-01

    This project is funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) under a cost-sharing PRDA with Radian International. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding and technical oversight. The project is part of FETC's Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. This project was submitted in response to Area 4 of DOE's Mega-PRDA: Advanced High-Performance SO{sub 2} Control Concepts. The goals of this research area are to develop advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes that achieve greater than 99% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, are 25% cheaper than commercial FGD systems, and provide a valuable byproduct that will be recycled rather than disposed. Area 4 also included the development of a byproduct process that could be added to FGD systems to produce high value byproducts for reuse rather than disposal.

  6. The Fiesta Bowl Fiasco: Department of Education's Attempt To Ban Minority Scholarships. Eighth Report by the Committee on Government Operations, Together with Dissenting Views, 102d Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    This is the eighth report by the Committee on Government Operations in the aftermath of the U.S. Department of Education's (DOE's) December 1990 attempt to ban race-specific scholarships, now called the Fiesta Bowl Fiasco. Based on a study by the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee, this report finds the following: (1)…

  7. Beyond the Melting Pot and Salad Bowl Views of Cultural Diversity: Advancing Cultural Diversity Education of Nutrition Educators.

    PubMed

    Setiloane, Kelebogile Tsametse

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines how the melting pot and salad bowl views of cultural diversity have influenced the cultural training of nutrition educators and other health professionals. It explores how these views are changing in reaction to the changing demographics and health disparities seen in the US today and how the cultural training of nutrition educators has not kept up with these changing views. Suggestions for how this cultural education could be modified include placing a greater emphasis on both the cultural self-awareness of nutrition educators and the sociopolitical historical factors that influence the cultural orientation of nutrition educators and their clients. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An investigation of the cratering-induced motions occurring during the formation of bowl-shaped craters. [using high explosive charges as the cratering source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the dynamic processes which occur during crater formation were examined using small hemispherical high-explosive charges detonated in a tank which had one wall constructed of a thick piece of clear plexiglas. Crater formation and the motions of numerous tracer particles installed in the cratering medium at the medium-wall interface were viewed through the wall of this quarter-space tank and recorded with high-speed cameras. Subsequent study and analysis of particle motions and events recorded on the film provide data needed to develop a time-sequence description of the formation of a bowl-shaped crater. Tables show the dimensions of craters produced in a quarter-space tank compared with dimensions of craters produced in normal half-space tanks. Crater growth rate summaries are also tabulated.

  9. Subporphyrins: emerging contracted porphyrins with aromatic 14pi-electronic systems and bowl-shaped structures: rational and unexpected synthetic routes.

    PubMed

    Inokuma, Yasuhide; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2008-05-21

    Subporphyrin is a ring-contracted porphyrin congener consisting of three pyrrolic subunits domed in a C3 symmetric bowl arrangement. Subporphyrin had long been elusive until the first synthesis of tribenzosubporphine in 2006. Shortly after, synthetic protocols of subpyriporphyrin, meso-aryl-substituted subporphyrins, and meso-aryl substituted subchlorins were developed. Subporphyrins display interesting properties including distinct aromaticity arising from 14pi-electronic conjugation, green fluorescence, and strong influences of meso-aryl substituents on the electronic network of the macrocycle. Besides the rational synthetic routes, an unexpected route to a specific subporphyrin from a [32]heptaphyrin(1.1.1.1.1.1.1) was discovered via a thermal extrusion reaction upon Cu(II)-B(III) cooperative metallation. In this Perspective, we review recent progress on subporphyrin chemistry and unprecedented ring-splitting reactions of medium size expanded porphyrins that are triggered upon metallation.

  10. Pyrene-Bridged Boron Subphthalocyanine Dimers: Combination of Planar and Bowl-Shaped π-Conjugated Systems for Creating Uniquely Curved π-Conjugated Systems.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shota; Kage, Yuto; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Nagao; Shimizu, Soji

    2016-06-01

    Pyrene-bridged boron subphthalocyanine dimers were synthesized from a mixed-condensation reaction of 2,7-di-tert-butyl-4,5,9,10-tetracyanopyrene and tetrafluorophthalonitrile, and their syn and anti isomers arising from the result of connecting two bowl-shaped boron subphthalocyanine molecules were successfully separated. Expansion of the conjugated system of boron subphthalocyanine through a pyrene bridge caused a redshift of the Q band absorption relative to the parent pyrene-fused monomer, whereas combining the curved π-conjugation of boron subphthalocyanine with the planar π-conjugation of pyrene enabled facile embracement of C60 molecules, owing to the enhanced concave-convex π-π stacking interactions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. [Suicidal poisoning due to hydrogen sulfide produced by mixing a liquid bath essence containing sulfur and a toilet bowl cleaner containing hydrochloric acid].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kanya; Fukushima, Hirofumi

    2008-04-01

    A 21-year-old man was found dead in a car. There were 9 empty bottles of 610HAP (a 440 g bottle of a liquid bath essence containing 160-195 g/kg sulfur) and 10 of Sunpole (a 500 mL bottle of a toilet bowl cleaner containing 9.5% HCl) in the car. The car doors were sealed with tape, and there was a strong smell of sulfur in and around the car. GC/MS analysis showed 0.66 microg/mL sulfide and 0.14 micromol/mL thiosulfate in the blood sample. The concentration of thiosulfate in the urine sample was normal. Police investigation concluded that the man killed himself by aspirating hydrogen sulfide that had been produced by mixing 610 HAP and Sunpole. To examine the amount of hydrogen sulfide produced, small portions of these liquids were mixed in a 560-mL volume flask. The results showed that 0.1 mL of each liquid produced 4,950 ppm of hydrogen sulfide, and 0.2 mL of each produced 10,800 ppm. According to these results, if the cabin volume is assumed to be 3,300 L, mixing 120 mL of each liquid produces a lethal level of hydrogen sulfide, i.e., 1,000 ppm. This was a rare suicide case, and it revealed the hazards of mixing of liquid bath essences containing sulfur and toilet bowl cleaners containing hydrochloric acid.

  12. Photosensitizer in a molecular bowl and its effect on the DNA-binding and -cleavage activity of 3d-metal scorpionates.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sovan; Patra, Ashis K; Dhar, Shanta; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2008-07-07

    Ternary 3d -metal complexes [M(Tp (Ph))(B)](ClO 4) ( 1- 8), where M is Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), Tp (Ph) is anionic tris(3-phenylpyrazolyl)borate, and B is N,N-donor heterocyclic base, namely, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1- 4) and dipyrido[3,2- d:2',3'- f]quinoxaline (dpq, 5- 8), were prepared from a reaction of the perchlorate salt of the metal with KTp (Ph) and B in CH 2Cl 2. The complexes were characterized by various physicochemical methods. 4- 6 and 8 were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The crystal structures of the complexes show the presence of discrete cationic complexes having a square-pyramidal (4 + 1) coordination geometry in which two nitrogen atoms of the phenanthroline base (B) and two nitrogen atoms of the Tp (Ph) ligand occupy the basal plane and one nitrogen of the Tp (Ph) ligand binds at the axial site. The phenyl groups of the Tp (Ph) form a bowl-shaped structure that essentially encloses the {M(phen/dpq)} moiety. DNA-binding studies were carried out using various spectral techniques and from viscosity measurements. The complexes show moderate binding propensity to calf thymus DNA at the minor groove, giving binding constant values ( K b) of approximately 10 (4) M (-1). The complexes exhibit poor DNA-cleavage activity in the dark in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) or hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2). The photoinduced DNA-cleavage activity of the complexes was investigated using UV-A radiation of 365 nm and visible light of two different wavelengths with a tunable multicolor Ar-Kr mixed gas ion laser source. The dpq complexes show efficient photoinduced DNA-cleavage activity via a metal-assisted photoexcitation process involving the formation of singlet oxygen as the cleavage active species in a type-II pathway. The paramagnetic d (7)-Co(II)-dpq and d (9)-Cu(II)-dpq complexes exhibit efficient DNA-cleavage activity in visible light. The paramagnetic d (8)-Ni(II)-dpq complex displays only minor

  13. [Linguistic concerns and lexical mechanisms in the "Introducción a la Historia Natural, y a la Geografía Fisica de España" by William Bowles].

    PubMed

    Díez de Revenga Torres, Pilar; Puche Lorenzo, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    Linguistic mechanisms of 18th century scientific language are studied in the first Natural History text originally drafted in Spanish. William Bowles describes linguistic concerns in science over the definition of terms that refer to realities in the three natural kingdoms. Diatopic and diastratic variants and definition procedures are reported, demonstrating the importance of these texts to the History of Science and the History of the Spanish Language.

  14. Retention and Attrition Factors for Female Certified Athletic Trainers in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision Setting

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Ashley; Mensch, James M.; Jay, Michelle; French, Karen E.; Mitchell, Murray F.; Fritz, Stacy L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Organizational effectiveness and the continuity of patient care can be affected by certain levels of attrition. However, little is known about the retention and attrition of female certified athletic trainers (ATs) in certain settings. Objective: To gain insight and understanding into the factors and circumstances affecting female ATs' decisions to persist in or leave the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (NCAA D-I FBS) setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: The 12 NCAA D-I FBS institutions within the Southeastern Conference. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 23 women who were current full-time ATs (n  =  12) or former full-time ATs (n  =  11) at Southeastern Conference institutions participated. Data Collection and Analysis: Data were collected via in-depth, semistructured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed via a grounded theory approach. Peer review and member checking methods were performed to establish trustworthiness. Results: The decision to persist involved 4 main factors: (1) increased autonomy, (2) increased social support, (3) enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold, and (4) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of persistence, the NCAA D-I atmosphere and positive athlete dynamics, emerged under the main factor of enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold. The decision to leave included 3 main factors: (1) life balance issues, (2) role conflict and role overload, and (3) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of leaving, supervisory/coach conflict and decreased autonomy, emerged under the main factor of role conflict and role overload. Conclusions: A female AT's decision to persist in or leave the NCAA D-I FBS setting can involve several factors. In order to retain capable ATs long term in the NCAA D-I setting, an individual's attributes and obligations, the setting's cultural issues, and an organization's social support paradigm should be considered

  15. Retention and attrition factors for female certified athletic trainers in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision setting.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Ashley; Mensch, James M; Jay, Michelle; French, Karen E; Mitchell, Murray F; Fritz, Stacy L

    2010-01-01

    Organizational effectiveness and the continuity of patient care can be affected by certain levels of attrition. However, little is known about the retention and attrition of female certified athletic trainers (ATs) in certain settings. To gain insight and understanding into the factors and circumstances affecting female ATs' decisions to persist in or leave the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (NCAA D-I FBS) setting. Qualitative study. The 12 NCAA D-I FBS institutions within the Southeastern Conference. A total of 23 women who were current full-time ATs (n = 12) or former full-time ATs (n = 11) at Southeastern Conference institutions participated. Data were collected via in-depth, semistructured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed via a grounded theory approach. Peer review and member checking methods were performed to establish trustworthiness. The decision to persist involved 4 main factors: (1) increased autonomy, (2) increased social support, (3) enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold, and (4) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of persistence, the NCAA D-I atmosphere and positive athlete dynamics, emerged under the main factor of enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold. The decision to leave included 3 main factors: (1) life balance issues, (2) role conflict and role overload, and (3) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of leaving, supervisory/coach conflict and decreased autonomy, emerged under the main factor of role conflict and role overload. A female AT's decision to persist in or leave the NCAA D-I FBS setting can involve several factors. In order to retain capable ATs long term in the NCAA D-I setting, an individual's attributes and obligations, the setting's cultural issues, and an organization's social support paradigm should be considered.

  16. Supramolecular chemistry of p-sulfonatocalix[5] arene: A water-soluble, bowl-shaped host with a large molecular cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, J.W.; Johnson, C.P.; Barnes, C.L.; Kuneja, R.K.; Atwood, J.L.; Reilly, S.; Hollis, R.L.; Smith, P.H.; Clark, D.L.

    1995-11-22

    The first X-ray crystallographic studies are reported for water-soluble inclusion complexes of the macrocyclic p-sulfonatocalix[5]arene (1b). The complexes Na{sub 7} [p-sulfonatocalix[5]arene].18H{sub 2}O (2) and Na{sub 5} [p-sulfonatocalix]5[arene].py-N-O.8.5H{sub 2}O (3) containing water and pyridine N-oxide (py-N-O) guest species have been isolated. In 2 the large bowl-shaped cavity of the host molecule is occupied by a total of three water molecules, while for 3 a single molecule of pyridine N-oxide is included and interacts with the host via a strong hydrogen bond to a protonated sulfonate substituent. The behavior of 1b as a ligand for a number of lanthanide elements is also reported. Low temperature X-ray structural studies reveal that coordination of the Ln{sup 3+} metal ions to the calixarene ligand occurs exclusively via the sulfonato functionalities and not the phenolic oxygen atoms as suggested by Shinkai et al. for the complexation of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} by lb. In complex 2 the calixarene exists as the heptaanion. In contrast, crystallization from acidic solution results in complexes 3-8 retaining all their phenolic protons. The protonation constants of 1b have been measured in aqueous solution: pK{sub a} = 10.96(8), 7. 63(5), and 4.31(1) at 25{degree}C and 0.1 M KNO{sub 3}. 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The Dust Bowl in the American West: A geochemical record of dust provenance and deposition in the Upper Fremont Glacier ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarons, S. M.; Aciego, S.; Blakowski, M. A.; Delmonte, B.

    2016-12-01

    transition from far to near coincident with rising population and agricultural activity in the American West. The semi-continuous dust concentration data covering the entire ice core shows several significant peaks, and exceeds 8000 ppb during 1934 A.D., which may be the first evidence of the Dust Bowl in a North American ice core.

  18. Changing Pattern of Crop Fraction in Late Blight Induced Potato Crops in Potato Bowl of West Bengal by using Multi-temporal Time Series AWiFs Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Abhisek

    2016-07-01

    Crop fraction is the ratio of crop occupying a unit area in ground pixel, is very important for monitoring crop growth. One of the most important variables in crop growth monitoring is the fraction of available solar radiation intercepted by foliage. Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is considered to be the most destructive crop diseases of potato worldwide. Under favourable climatic conditions, and without intervention (i.e. fungicide sprays), the disease can destroy potato crop within few weeks. Therefore it is important to evaluate the crop fraction for monitoring the healthy and late blight affected potato crops. This study was conducted in potato bowl of West Bengal, which consists of districts of Hooghly, Howrah, Burdwan, Bankuara, and Paschim Medinipur. In this study different crop fraction estimation method like linear spectral un-mixing, Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based DPM model (Zhang et al. 2013), Ratio vegetation index based DPM model, improved Pixel Dichotomy Model (Li et al. 2014) ware evaluated using multi-temporal IRS AWiFs data in two successive potato growing season of 2012-13 and 2013-14 over the study area and compared with measured crop fraction. The comparative study based on measured healthy and late blight affected potato crop fraction showed that improved Pixel Dichotomy Model maintain the high coefficient of determination (R2= 0.835) with low root mean square error (RMSE=0.21) whereas the correlation values of NDVI based DPM model and RVI based DPM model is 0.763 and 0.694 respectively. The changing pattern of crop fraction profile of late blight affected potato crop was studied in respect of healthy potato crop fraction which was extracted from the 269 GPS points of potato field. It showed that the healthy potato crop fraction profile maintained the normal phenological trend whereas the late blight affected potato crop fraction profile suddenly fallen

  19. Rural Development: Part 7, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, December 14, 1971, Bowling Green, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on rural development held in Bowling Green, Ohio are presented in this document. These hearings include statements of private citizens, State and Federal legislators (Ohio, Oregon, and Minnesota), and representatives from: (1) Southern Ohio and Kentucky United Farm Workers Organizing Committee; (2) La Raza…

  20. Bench-scale testing of DOE/PETC`s GranuFlow Process for fine coal dewatering and handling. 1: Results using a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Lowman, R.H.; Elstrodt, R.

    1995-12-31

    Most advanced fine-coal cleaning processes involve the use of water. Utility companies are concerned not only with the lower Btu content of the resulting wet, cleaned coal, but more importantly with its handleability problems. Solutions to these problems would enhance the utilization of fine-coal cleaning processes in the utility industry. This paper describes testing of the GranuFlow Process, developed and patented by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy, using a high-gravity solid bowl centrifuge for dewatering and reconstitution of fine-cleaned-coal slurry at 300 lb per hour in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Fine-cleaned-coal slurry was treated with a bitumen emulsion before dewatering in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge. The treated products appeared to be dry and in a free-flowing granular form, while the untreated products were wet, lumpy, sticky, and difficult to handle. Specifically, test results indicated that the moisture content, handleability, and dust reduction of the dewatered coal product improved as the addition of emulsion increased from 2% to 8%. The improvement in handleability was most visible for the 200 mesh (75 micron) x 0 coal, when compared with 150 mesh (106 micron) x 0, 65 mesh (212 micron) x 0 or 28 mesh (600 micron) x 0 coals. Test results also showed that the moisture content was dramatically reduced (26--37% reduction) for the four different sizes of coals at 6 or 8% emulsion addition. Because of the moisture reduction and the granular form of the product, the freezing problem was also alleviated.

  1. Alstom's chilled ammonia CO{sub 2} capture process advances toward commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-02-15

    Carbon dioxide emissions aren't yet regulated by the EPA, but it is likely they will be soon. There are many technically feasible, but as-yet-undemonstrated ways to reduce the considerable carbon footprint of any coal-fired plant, whether it uses conventional or unconventional technology. One promising approach to removing CO{sub 2} from a plant's flue gas uses chilled ammonium bicarbonate to drive the separation process.

  2. Three dimensional airflow patterns within a coastal trough-bowl blowout during fresh breeze to hurricane force winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Thomas A. G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.; Cooper, J. Andrew G.

    2013-06-01

    Wind flow within blowouts is extremely complex as streamline compression, expansion and reversal may occur over and around a single landform. As a result high resolution temporal and spatial measurements are required during a range of incident wind conditions to resolve near surface airflow patterns and turbulent structures. This study examined three-dimensional airflow within a coastal dune trough-bowl blowout using 15 ultrasonic anemometers (UAs) and a high resolution computational fluid dynamics model. Measured total wind speed and vertical wind speed behaved consistently through 5 Beaufort wind scales ranging from 'fresh breeze' to 'strong gale', increasing relative to incident wind speed, whilst wind direction at each UA did not alter. Due to the agreement of modelled and measured data, 'hurricane' (37 m s-1) incident winds were also simulated and were consistent with modelled and measured wind direction at lower wind speeds. Modelled wind turbulence data was not compared with measured as only average conditions were simulated. However, the standard deviation of measured wind direction remained constant at each anemometer throughout the range of incident wind speeds, whilst the standard deviation of wind speed and turbulent kinetic energy increased relative to incident wind speed. This paper demonstrates that wind flow behaviour within blowouts throughout this range of wind speeds is governed by topography and is relative to, but does not change structurally with incident wind speed. As a result the extent of streamline compression, expansion, steering and reversal remain constant.

  3. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy/Monte Carlo simulation approach for the non-destructive analysis of corrosion patina-bearing alloys in archaeological bronzes: The case of the bowl from the Fareleira 3 site (Vidigueira, South Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottaini, C.; Mirão, J.; Figuereido, M.; Candeias, A.; Brunetti, A.; Schiavon, N.

    2015-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a well-known technique for non-destructive and in situ analysis of archaeological artifacts both in terms of the qualitative and quantitative elemental composition because of its rapidity and non-destructiveness. In this study EDXRF and realistic Monte Carlo simulation using the X-ray Monte Carlo (XRMC) code package have been combined to characterize a Cu-based bowl from the Iron Age burial from Fareleira 3 (Southern Portugal). The artifact displays a multilayered structure made up of three distinct layers: a) alloy substrate; b) green oxidized corrosion patina; and c) brownish carbonate soil-derived crust. To assess the reliability of Monte Carlo simulation in reproducing the composition of the bulk metal of the objects without recurring to potentially damaging patina's and crust's removal, portable EDXRF analysis was performed on cleaned and patina/crust coated areas of the artifact. Patina has been characterized by micro X-ray Diffractometry (μXRD) and Back-Scattered Scanning Electron Microscopy + Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (BSEM + EDS). Results indicate that the EDXRF/Monte Carlo protocol is well suited when a two-layered model is considered, whereas in areas where the patina + crust surface coating is too thick, X-rays from the alloy substrate are not able to exit the sample.

  4. On Bowling Alone and Building Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Briefly discusses Alexis de Tocqueville's observation that the United States is a nation largely defined by its civic and social organizations. Contrasts this with the recent assertion that the nation is suffering a decline in social capital. Proposes a combination of character and citizenship education as a possible remedy for this. (MJP)

  5. Preliminary Plan for Operation Fish Bowl

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-11-01

    BY DTRA DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A AUTHORITY: € 0. j ~ q g j r?rs nm-JOA . ER NTPR REVIEW. 1 dpc, rL*dF A D 3 2 2 SWRP-1-0115 /L/S - Report...report has been reviewed and is approved, J & 3 7 - 4 - 4 JOHN J , DISHUCK Colonel USAF Deputy Chief of Staff f o r Operations sn plrae of the fowth...88ntmmB* pu% the follorlagt IY .~t r~ tht am poamibl~ t- tb.~ uttemclurta qnwhen ta crrrr be ~ l i a m e i durug t b w * m n t r * J Z t h e m

  6. The Vegetable Bowl. Research Monograph No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kirby; Harris, Nancy

    This study measured the effects which a multimedia instructional unit in nutrition education had on the eating habits of elementary school children (K-5), specifically, eating habits relating to vegetables. The primary objective of the unit was to encourage children to eat a variety of vegetables. The sample consisted of 1,028 elementary school…

  7. My Super Bowl of Favorite Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Mildred

    1992-01-01

    Various learning activities in language arts, mathematics, social studies, and science are presented, using the theme of favorite foods. Sample activities include thinking of similes and metaphors related to food, calculating calories eaten in a day, and listing foods associated with specific countries. (JDD)

  8. Wellhead bowl protector and retrieving tool

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes improvement in a wellhead protection system including a wear bushing and a retrieving tool. The improvement comprises a wear bushing supported within the wellhead, wherein the wear bushing includes an enlarged upper end having an external support shoulder for engagement with an internal support shoulder formed in the wellhead; wherein the wear bushing further includes an internal circumferential slot intersected by at least one vertically extending slot, the vertical slot extending from the circumferential slot to the upper end of the wear bushing; a retrieving tool having at least one outwardly biased, retractable lug member mounted thereon; and wherein the retrieving tool includes an enlarged portion adapted to be received within the enlarged upper end of the wear bushing. This patent also describes a method of retrieving a wear bushing from a wellhead comprising the steps of: lowering a retrieving tool into the wellhead for locking engagement with the wear bushing; aligning the retrieving tool with the wear bushing for automatically forcing lug members carried by the retrieving tool outwardly into locking engagement with the wear bushing; monitoring drill string weight for determining engagement of the retrieving tool with the wear bushing, wherein a substantial decrease in drill string weight is an indication that the retrieving tool is engaged with the wear bushing; and removing the wear bushing from the wellhead.

  9. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Studying Law in a Goldfish Bowl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benet, James

    1977-01-01

    A law firm, Equal Rights Advocates, Inc., specializing in sex discrimination cases, has become a magnet for law students in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is involved in a cooperative program with area universities in which a new model for clinical teaching is offered. Fifteen students each semester spend at least two days a week with the firm.…

  11. A context for the 1930's Dust Bowl Drought in the Northern Great Plains, U.S. based on a rainfall reconstruction using H-isotopes of terrestrial leaf waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, J. L.; Fritz, S. C.; Grimm, E. C.; Baker, P. A.; Nyren, P. E.; Huang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Existing records of drought from Northern Great Plains (NGP) are based on pollen or on lake-water ion concentration (salinity) reconstructions from fossil assemblages (diatom-inferred salinity) and trace-elements (ostracode Mg/Ca) that reflect lake response to hydrological variability (precipitation (PCP) minus evaporation). In this study, we show that H-isotopes of terrestrial leaf waxes (n-acids) are a proxy for growing season PCP in the region. With this proxy we reconstruct growing season PCP at Lake George, ND at 35-yr resolution over the past 9.4 ka, at 8-yr resolution over the past 1.8 ka, and at nearly annual resolution for the past 150 years. Our PCP proxy is calibrated against the instrumental record for the past 100-yrs and validated at three regional lakes sites. We show low PCP during the early Holocene beginning at 9.1 ka, with peak drought at 8.4 ka, The H-isotopes (dD) suggest that PCP was highly variable from 8.2 ka to 3.5 ka, with alternating wet-dry periods. This variability is not evident in prior lake studies, which had lower temporal resolution in the mid-Holocene. The dD also indicates generally low rainfall but high-amplitude variation from 6.0 to 3.5 ka and low and less variable rainfall from 2.3 to 0.3 ka. The dD suggest that the 1930’s Dust Bowl Drought is one of only seven drought events throughout the past 9.4 ka to reach that severity, and only three events were more severe (8.1, 2.4, and 0.6 ka). Within the past 1.8 ka, the low rainfall events generally coincide with phases inferred to be dry in regional lakes by in-lake proxies (Rice Lake, ND, Coldwater Lake, ND, Moon Lake, ND, and Elk Lake, MN), although the decreased PCP events are abrupt and less prolonged than the inferred lake response to P-E. Spectral analysis of the H-isotope rainfall proxy does not support the 400-yr spacing of dry lake phases in the region observed in some paleosalinity records, which suggests that this spacing may be strongly affected by temperature

  12. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, Jr., Herbert E.; Chiu, John H.; Edberg, Carl D.; Thibeault, Paul R.; Turek, David G.

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO2 from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO2 for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  13. Prediction of the properties anhydrite construction mixtures based on neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorchuk, Y. M.; Zamyatin, N. V.; Smirnov, G. V.; Rusina, O. N.; Sadenova, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    The article considered the question of applying the backstop modeling mechanism from the components of anhydride mixtures in the process of managing the technological processes of receiving construction products which based on fluoranhydrite.

  14. Solar thermal bowl concepts and economic comparisons for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Allemann, R.T.; Coomes, E.P.; Craig, S.N.; Drost, M.K.; Humphreys, K.K.; Nomura, K.K.

    1988-04-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications for fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF) solar thermal concepts which have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Following the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress includes developing new solar components, improving component and system design details, constructing working systems, and collecting operating data on the systems. This study povides an update of the expected performance and cost of the major components, and an overall system energy cost for the FMDDF concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's and are based on the potential capabilities that might be achieved with further technology development.

  15. Iron cycling in a late Paleozoic dust bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J. D.; Soreghan, G. S.; Gerhardt, A.; Sur, S.; Lyons, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    The late Paleozoic glaciation (~300 million years ago) marks the last major, pre-Cenozoic icehouse climate. In addition, emerging research suggests that this was a particularly dusty time, evinced by abundant dust (loessite) deposits throughout western equatorial Pangaea. Delivery of reactive Fe-rich eolian particles to the nutrient-depleted open ocean potentially stimulates primary production during glacial intervals, yet the details remain unclear for recent glaciations and completely unknown for the ancient. Bioavailable Fe is a limiting nutrient in high nitrate, low chlorophyll portions of the open ocean. Because primary abundances of the most labile forms of Fe are not easily assessed in ancient sediments, we use highly reactive Fe (FeHR) (mostly crystalline oxides, some or most of which might have been more soluble precursors at the time of deposition) as determined by a well-calibrated sequential extraction scheme as a proxy for bioavailable Fe. Here we present data from multiple Pennsylvanian-Permian loess and intercalated paleosol (ancient soil) deposits, as well as a modern dust site. We also compare ratios of total Fe (FeT) to Al to ratios of FeHR to FeT to assess whether increased Fe reactivity in dust reflects a net Fe addition or internal mineral repartitioning. We are finding that these paired proxies may provide a unique fingerprint of source relationships. Modern arid Saharan soil dust deposited in the Turks and Caicos Islands has high FeT/Al ratios (0.75 versus ~0.5 for average continental crust), with corresponding FeHR/FeT enrichments (0.48 compared to ~0.38 for typical riverine input). The ancient loessite samples do not show a similar pattern, instead suggesting an antithetic relationship between FeT/Al and FeHR/FeT. Therefore, FeHR was enriched and, by inference, bioavailable despite net Fe loss reflected in sub-crustal FeT/Al ratios. Most work to date has presumed an arid soil source for most bioavailable Fe. However, in light of our work and recent studies in modern glacial settings, we are exploring the possibility that ancient loessites may have a more direct tie to glacial processes.

  16. On the cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Siegfried D; Suarez, Max J; Pegion, Philip J; Koster, Randal D; Bacmeister, Julio T

    2004-03-19

    During the 1930s, the United States experienced one of the most devastating droughts of the past century. The drought affected almost two-thirds of the country and parts of Mexico and Canada and was infamous for the numerous dust storms that occurred in the southern Great Plains. In this study, we present model results that indicate that the drought was caused by anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures during that decade and that interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface increased its severity. We also contrast the 1930s drought with other North American droughts of the 20th century.

  17. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, BC9 DISINFECTANT BOWL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... (",1 !,I ]",hf'I"': r'I\\tst h.'" !-Uh"1)tt"f~(1 t:ll tr.· ,." I' 'Y :·t-tolt. ':f". t It-··l,\\.. . 19 r. ~ •. ...

  18. Implementation of Simpson-Bowles Spending Reductions Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Johnson, Ron [R-WI

    2011-12-01

    Senate - 12/01/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Consumer preference study of characteristics of Hawaiian koa wood bowls

    Treesearch

    Eini C Lowell; Katherine Wilson; Jan Wiednebeck; Catherine Chan; J. B. Friday; Nicole. Evans

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray), a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, has ecological, cultural, and economic significance. Its wood is prized globally but today, most woodworkers only use koa wood from dead and dying old-growth trees. The general perception of wood from young-growth koa is that it lacks the color and figure of old-growth wood and is...

  20. Opportunity Approaches the Bowl of Beagle Crater (True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took this approximate true-color image of Beagle Crater from a distance of about 25 meters (82 feet). The crater is thought to be relatively young based on its prominent, raised rim and surrounding ejecta that have not been eroded away or buried by sand. The image also shows a portion of the eastern interior rim of Beagle Crater, which appears composed of jumbled, angular blocks of brighter and darker outcrop rocks. The rover will drive to the rim of the crater and acquire an extensive color panorama in the coming sols.

  1. Opportunity Approaches the Bowl of Beagle Crater (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this false-color image of the rim of the 35-meter (115-foot) diameter Beagle Crater on Martian day, or sol, 894 (July 30, 2006) using the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. At the time the rover was about 25 meters (82 feet) from Beagle Crater, looking east-southeast. The image reveals ejecta blocks near the rover, the largest of which is about 50 centimeters (20 inches) across. The image also shows a portion of the eastern interior rim of Beagle Crater, which appears composed of jumbled, angular blocks of brighter and darker outcrop rocks. The rover will drive to the rim of Beagle and acquire an extensive color panorama of the crater rim and interior in the coming sols.

  2. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400... of weldable quality metal that is compatible with the inner tank shell; (b) The stress in...

  3. The Million Dollar Bowl. OSHA in the Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Carl

    Accidents to office workers add up to 40,000 injuries and more than 200 deaths a year, amounting to expenses from medical assistance and loss of productivity of $100 million. Leading types of accidents are falling caused by slipping on slick or wet floors, tripping over file drawers, slipping on debris on stairs, injuries from poor lighting,…

  4. Implementation of Simpson-Bowles Spending Reductions Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Johnson, Ron [R-WI

    2011-12-01

    12/01/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Astronauts Welcome Super Bowl Fans and Explore Gut ...

    NASA Website

    Armen Ohan February 1, 2017 at 5:01 pm. ... August 2016; July 2016; June 2016; May 2016; April 2016; March 2016; February 2016; January 2016; December ...

  6. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... metal that is compatible with the inner tank shell; (b) The stress in any orientation under any condition does not exceed the circumferential stress in the inner tank shell; and (c) The wall thickness...

  7. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... metal that is compatible with the inner tank shell; (b) The stress in any orientation under any condition does not exceed the circumferential stress in the inner tank shell; and (c) The wall thickness...

  8. The National Ocean Sciences Bowl 1998-2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-07

    a lot of fun for all involved... Judges were nice... The absence of a strict dress code ... Learning more about the ocean. New Jersey Organization...audience... No spectators during finals... More organization needed... Maybe a dance to relieve stress... Larger diversity in questions... Dress code more

  9. Do ecotones function as melting pots or salad bowls?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ecotones, or broad-scale boundaries between biological communities, generally include structural and taxonomic elements from both adjacent communities. Research has explored factors that can create or maintain ecotones, as well as ecotonal influences on habitat quality and fluxes of matter, energy a...

  10. A Polymeric Bowl for Multi-Agent Delivery.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong Choon

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a simple system for multi-agent delivery. The system consists of a biodegradable polymer particle with a hollow interior, together with a hole on its surface that can be completely or partially sealed via thermal annealing. A hydrophobic dye, Nile-red, entrapped within the shell of hollow particles presents a sustained release behavior while methylene blue, a hydrophilic model agent, encapsulated in the hollow interior shows a fast release manner. The release profiles of the probes can be further independently controlled by encapsulating methylene blue-loaded polymer nanoparticles, instead of free dye, in the hollow particle with a small hole on its surface. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A 'Super Bowl' Approach to Mars Rover Touchdown Loads Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Chia-Yen; Ortiz, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Touchdown Driving Requirement: The mechanical system surface element shall be capable of facilitating a safe, stable landing at terrain angles up to 15 degrees, given an initial vertical velocity of 1 m/sec, horizontal velocity of 0.5 m/sec, and Z-axis spin rate of [4] deg/sec.Touchdown Loads Development: A multi-year development effort has been successfully conducted leading to an innovative analytical methodology for the prediction of rover touchdown design loads and the assessment of rover touchdown stability.

  12. A Case Study: Evaluating Faculty at Bowling Green State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    A system of evaluating faculty performance in research and scholarly activity, service, and teaching by awarding points for specific activities is outlined. The point system is used to distribute merit monies allotted by the university. Advantages of the system include predictability, specificity, and flexibility for faculty to develop individual…

  13. Into the Mixing Bowl: Combining Mentors, Novices, and Differentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimijoin, Kay; Alouf, James; Chandler, Kimberly

    This study evaluated a school-college partnership that combined mentors and novices in reform-based professional development for building expertise in mentoring and differentiating curriculum and instruction. Participants were clinical faculty/mentor teachers, administrators, inservice teachers, and preservice teachers who completed a 3-credit…

  14. The Million Dollar Bowl. OSHA in the Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Carl

    Accidents to office workers add up to 40,000 injuries and more than 200 deaths a year, amounting to expenses from medical assistance and loss of productivity of $100 million. Leading types of accidents are falling caused by slipping on slick or wet floors, tripping over file drawers, slipping on debris on stairs, injuries from poor lighting,…

  15. Implementation of Simpson-Bowles Spending Reductions Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Johnson, Ron [R-WI

    2011-12-01

    12/01/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. On the Cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Koster, Randal D.; Bacmeister, Julio T.

    2004-03-01

    During the 1930s, the United States experienced one of the most devastating droughts of the past century. The drought affected almost two-thirds of the country and parts of Mexico and Canada and was infamous for the numerous dust storms that occurred in the southern Great Plains. In this study, we present model results that indicate that the drought was caused by anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures during that decade and that interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface increased its severity. We also contrast the 1930s drought with other North American droughts of the 20th century.

  17. The Influence of "Goldfish Bowl" Bargaining in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Donald R.

    The effects of Florida's "sunshine" law opening collective bargaining sessions to the public are outlined in this presentation, which summarizes the results of a survey of school board members, superintendents, and negotiators. Of the 101 school board members (one-third of Florida's total) responding to the questionnaire, 68 said that…

  18. 75 FR 70294 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Express Employment Professionals. 74,111 Alstom Transportation, Hornell, NY May 14, 2009. Inc., Transport..., 2009. Inc., Leased Workers from Business Personnel Solutions. 74,111A Alstom Transportation, Hornell...

  19. Commercial Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    blank) 9 Naval Research Advisory Committee ABB Helsinki, Finland ALCATEL Paris, France ALSTOM Rugby, England Nokia Helsinki, Finland Siemens Erlangen...DON CTO Telecommunications Siemens Telecommunications Nokia Telecommunications Alcatel Power Electronics ABB Marine Power Electronics Alstom Power...panel received many briefs, including presentations on commercial research issues from multiple speakers at Siemens, Nokia, Alcatel, ABB and Alstom . To

  20. Ethnicity and Class: The Schooling of Dust Bowl and Mexican Migrants during the Depression Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Donato, Ruben

    1993-01-01

    Although both Mexican-American and "Okie" migrants to California and the Pacific Northwest suffered discrimination, the assimilation and mobility of later generations of Okies contrasts with the racism, school segregation, and perpetuation of class divisions in the experience of Mexican Americans. (SK)

  1. Escaping the regulatory dust bowl: fugitive dust and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Probst, G.L.; Becker, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) regulatory program, as it relates to particulates, is overly complicated. In attempting to accommodate statutory language insensitive to particulate differences, after becoming aware of the varying effects of different-sized particles, EPA has developed an unworkable program. Although agricultural, recreational, transportation, and industrial activities contribute to the airborne dust (or, in the Clean Air Act vernacular, fugitive dust), this article focuses on mining activities. Surface mining inevitably stirs up considerable fugitive dust, and a description of mining activities in arid conditions, and how they fit in with a developing regulatory program, reveals a story of a national program that fails to provide for rational policy and regional flexibility. The article also recommends some regulatory and statutory solutions that could relatively easily correct EPA's fugitive dust program.

  2. Children of the Harvest: The Schooling of Dust Bowl and Mexican Migrants during the Depression Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Donato, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Chronicles experiences of depression era "Okies," juxtaposes them against experiences of Mexican Americans, and illuminates the diminution of agricultural labor in an industrializing society. Schooling for those groups was legitimized by their low occupational status. When economic circumstances improved, whites escaped from migrant…

  3. Send Your Team to the Dust Bowl: Team Cleaning Wins Points for Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shideler, Larry

    1997-01-01

    District custodial costs can be cut without sacrificing quality by adopting team cleaning. A team of trained cleaning specialists performs specific tasks (dusting, vacuuming, and restroom and utility cleaning) systematically, thereby achieving total cleaning with higher productivity and quality. If internal personnel are retrained, contracting out…

  4. A resolution congratulating the Green Bay Packers on winning Super Bowl XLV.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2011-02-10

    02/10/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. A resolution congratulating the Baltimore Ravens for winning Super Bowl XLVII.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cardin, Benjamin L. [D-MD

    2013-02-14

    02/14/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Commending the University of Alabama for winning the Bowl Championship Series National Championship Game.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Bachus, Spencer [R-AL-6

    2010-01-13

    02/23/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. A resolution congratulating the Pittsburgh Steelers on winning Super Bowl XLIII.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2009-02-04

    02/04/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S1612-1613; text as passed Senate: CR S1613; text of measure as introduced: CR S1550) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Competition Makes a Comeback: Academic Bees and Bowls Attract Top Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2010-01-01

    Americans thrive on competition. But American schools have been suspicious of competition for generations, and are generally horrified by the idea that success should be accompanied by a reward like a title, a trophy, or a cash prize. In this article, the author stresses that the self-esteem movement in the 1990s made many educators squeamish…

  9. A resolution congratulating the Pittsburgh Steelers on winning Super Bowl XLIII.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2009-02-04

    02/04/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Children's Sensitivity to External Food Cues: How Distance to Serving Bowl Influences Children's Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Young, Kathleen M.; Laurene, Kimberly; Galliger, Courtney; Hauser, Jessica; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa

    2010-01-01

    Overweight is increasing in children, leading to negative health consequences. Children also lack appropriate levels of important vitamins and nutrients in their diets. Environmental cues, such as food proximity, have been shown to influence consumption rates in adults. The present study has tested whether proximity to either a nutrient-dense or…

  11. Bowl breakout: Escaping the positive region when searching for saddle points

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, Andreas; Luiser, Mathieu

    2014-07-14

    We present a scheme improving the minimum-mode following method for finding first order saddle points by confining the displacements of atoms to the subset of those subject to the largest force. By doing so it is ensured that the displacement remains of a local character within regions where all eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix are positive. However, as soon as a region is entered where an eigenvalue turns negative all atoms are released to maintain the ability of determining concerted moves. Applying the proposed scheme reduces the required number of force calls for the determination of connected saddle points by a factor two or more compared to a free search. Furthermore, a wider distribution of the relevant low barrier saddle points is obtained. Finally, the dependency on the initial distortion and the applied maximal step size is reduced making minimum-mode guided searches both more robust and applicable.

  12. Bowl-shaped Tröger's bases and their recognition properties.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Lorenzo; Čejka, Jan; Dolenský, Bohumil; Havlík, Martin; Jakubek, Milan; Kaplánek, Robert; Král, Vladimír; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2016-08-23

    The tris-Tröger's bases (TBs) are electron-rich fluorescent concave receptors due to the incorporation of naphthalene or triphenylene moieties (calix-1 and calix-2). The structures of the TBs were studied using SXRD to reveal the propensity to bind nitroaromatics. Titration with explosive-related nitro-compounds suggests that the TBs may be used for sensing explosives.

  13. Children's Sensitivity to External Food Cues: How Distance to Serving Bowl Influences Children's Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Young, Kathleen M.; Laurene, Kimberly; Galliger, Courtney; Hauser, Jessica; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa

    2010-01-01

    Overweight is increasing in children, leading to negative health consequences. Children also lack appropriate levels of important vitamins and nutrients in their diets. Environmental cues, such as food proximity, have been shown to influence consumption rates in adults. The present study has tested whether proximity to either a nutrient-dense or…

  14. Competition Makes a Comeback: Academic Bees and Bowls Attract Top Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2010-01-01

    Americans thrive on competition. But American schools have been suspicious of competition for generations, and are generally horrified by the idea that success should be accompanied by a reward like a title, a trophy, or a cash prize. In this article, the author stresses that the self-esteem movement in the 1990s made many educators squeamish…

  15. Characteristics and Motivational Factors of Major Donors to Bowling Green State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latta, Marcia Sloan

    2010-01-01

    With declining state support, increased financial need on the part of the fastest growing demographic sections of the population, and public policy that discourages major increases in tuition for public higher education, the only logical source of additional finances for public colleges and universities is increased private funding through…

  16. Commending the University of Alabama for winning the Bowl Championship Series National Championship Game.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Bachus, Spencer [R-AL-6

    2010-01-13

    02/23/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. A resolution congratulating the Baltimore Ravens for winning Super Bowl XLVII.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cardin, Benjamin L. [D-MD

    2013-02-14

    02/14/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S789-790; text as passed Senate: CR S787) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry (Cast Masters, Bowling Green, OH)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-06-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  19. A resolution congratulating the New York Giants for winning Super Bowl XLVI.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Schumer, Charles E. [D-NY

    2012-02-07

    02/07/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S392; text as passed Senate: CR S392; text of measure as introduced: CR S391) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. A resolution congratulating the Green Bay Packers on winning Super Bowl XLV.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2011-02-10

    Senate - 02/10/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation: