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Sample records for animal behaviour neglecting

  1. Marine animal behaviour: neglecting ocean currents can lead us up the wrong track

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves; Fossette, Sabrina; Lenoble, Arnaud; Ferraroli, Sandra; Le Maho, Yvon

    2006-01-01

    Tracks of marine animals in the wild, now increasingly acquired by electronic tagging of individuals, are of prime interest not only to identify habitats and high-risk areas, but also to gain detailed information about the behaviour of these animals. Using recent satellite-derived current estimates and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) tracking data, we demonstrate that oceanic currents, usually neglected when analysing tracking data, can substantially distort the observed trajectories. Consequently, this will affect several important results deduced from the analysis of tracking data, such as the evaluation of the orientation skills and the energy budget of animals or the identification of foraging areas. We conclude that currents should be systematically taken into account to ensure the unbiased interpretation of tracking data, which now play a major role in marine conservation biology. PMID:17015330

  2. Collective behaviour across animal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  3. Functional Assessment of Region-Specific Neglect: Are There Differential Behavioural Consequences of Peripersonal versus Extrapersonal Neglect?

    PubMed Central

    Nijboer, T. C. W.; ten Brink, A. F.; Kouwenhoven, M.; Visser-Meily, J. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Region-specific types of neglect (peripersonal and extrapersonal) have been dissociated, yet, differential behavioural consequences are unknown. Objective. The aim of the current study was to investigate behavioural consequences at the level of basic activities of daily living of region-specific neglect, using the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS). Methods. 118 stroke patients were screened within the first two weeks after admission to the rehabilitation center for inpatient rehabilitation. Results. Patients with peripersonal neglect and patients with neglect for both regions had significantly higher total score on the CBS compared to nonneglect patients. Total scores for patients with extrapersonal neglect were comparable to non-neglect patients. ADL impairments were found across activities (e.g., looking towards one side, forgetting body parts, colliding) for both patients with peripersonal neglect and patients with neglect for both regions. Patients with extrapersonal neglect were only impaired on the item on way finding. Conclusions. When diagnosing neglect, it is relevant to distinguish the type of region-specific neglect and, where needed, to adjust the rehabilitation program accordingly. As the CBS is not developed to typically measure ADL in extrapersonal neglect, it would be of importance to add other (instrumental) activities that heavily rely on processing information in farther space. PMID:24825959

  4. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    PubMed

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  5. Collective behaviour across animal species

    PubMed Central

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  6. Comparison of the Behavioural Inattention Test and the Catherine Bergego Scale in assessment of hemispatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Luukkainen-Markkula, R; Tarkka, I M; Pitkanen, K; Sivenius, J; Hamalainen, H

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to correlate visual and behavioural assessments of hemispatial neglect caused by cerebrovascular accident. We assessed 17 consecutive right-hemisphere stroke patients with hemispatial neglect: the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) was used to evaluate neglect in spontaneous behaviour and the conventional subtests of the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT C) were used to assess visual neglect. The proportional severity of both visual and behavioural neglect was calculated in each individual patient. Dissociations were found between mild neglect in visual screening tasks and moderate or severe neglect in behaviour, although in most patients, neglect was equally evident in both tests. Only the line bisection subtest from the BIT correlated significantly with the CBS, yet both tests showed good internal consistency. The line bisection test and several items of the CBS were especially sensitive in detecting the combination of visual field deficit and hemispatial neglect. In conclusion, we propose that visual fields should always be assessed in patients with neglect because neglect may be exacerbated by a visual field deficit and this can cause prolonged functional disability in everyday life situations. Specific rehabilitation methods might also be needed in neglect with or without hemianopia.

  7. Forensic pathology of companion animal abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P

    2013-11-01

    Submission of cases of suspected animal abuse and neglect (AAN) to veterinary pathologists is increasingly frequent. These cases require modification of postmortem procedures and written reports, as the questions asked by courts typically differ from those asked in routine diagnostic cases. Here we review the practice of veterinary forensic pathology as it applies to cases of companion AAN, as well as the fundamental principles of forensic pathology, the components of a forensic necropsy, and the goals of the necropsy in cases of blunt-force trauma, projectile wounds, and starvation. Future directions and endeavors in veterinary forensic pathology are broached. PMID:23686766

  8. Virtual ethology of aquatic animal heterogeneous behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChenKim; Tan, KianLam

    2016-08-01

    In the virtual world, the simulation of flocking behaviour has been actively investigated since the 1980 through the boid models. However, ethology is a niche study of animal behaviour from the biological perspective that is rarely instil in the interest of the younger learners nowadays. The keystone of the research is to be able to disseminate the study of animal behaviours through the boid model with the aid of technology. Through the simulation, complex movement of animal behaviours are reproduced based on the extension of basic behaviours of boid algorithm. The techniques here are to (i) Analyse a high-level behavioural framework of motion in the animal behaviours and (ii) Evolves particles to other animal representations to portray more real-time examples of steering behaviours. Although the generality of the results is limited by the number of case study, it also supports the hypothesis that interactive simulation system of virtual ethology can aid the improvement of animal studies.

  9. Animal hoarding: slipping into the darkness of comorbid animal and self-neglect.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Jane N

    2009-10-01

    Substantial research and literature indicate how people and companion animals form relationships that are, for the most part, mutually beneficial. Yet there are highly dysfunctional human-animal relationships that do occur, meriting attention and remediation. One of the most perplexing and problematic human-animal relationships is encountered in cases of animal hoarding--a deviant behavior associated with extremely deleterious conditions of comorbid animal and self-neglect. Adult Protective Services workers often encounter theoretical and methodological dilemmas with these complex cases. To intervene most effectively, it becomes critical to elucidate some of the developmental factors of animal hoarding behavior and its correlation with self-neglecting behaviors in general. This article presents an in-depth diagnostic perspective as derived from the author's research and clinical experience. An analysis of the complex dynamics of the relationship between animal hoarders and their pets is presented in conjunction with accepted theories of self-neglect. With enhanced knowledge and understanding of animal hoarding, human service professionals will be better prepared to respond to these clients, evoke greater rapport and cooperation, and engage in the interdisciplinary efforts that are essential for optimal resolution. PMID:20183137

  10. Animal hoarding: slipping into the darkness of comorbid animal and self-neglect.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Jane N

    2009-10-01

    Substantial research and literature indicate how people and companion animals form relationships that are, for the most part, mutually beneficial. Yet there are highly dysfunctional human-animal relationships that do occur, meriting attention and remediation. One of the most perplexing and problematic human-animal relationships is encountered in cases of animal hoarding--a deviant behavior associated with extremely deleterious conditions of comorbid animal and self-neglect. Adult Protective Services workers often encounter theoretical and methodological dilemmas with these complex cases. To intervene most effectively, it becomes critical to elucidate some of the developmental factors of animal hoarding behavior and its correlation with self-neglecting behaviors in general. This article presents an in-depth diagnostic perspective as derived from the author's research and clinical experience. An analysis of the complex dynamics of the relationship between animal hoarders and their pets is presented in conjunction with accepted theories of self-neglect. With enhanced knowledge and understanding of animal hoarding, human service professionals will be better prepared to respond to these clients, evoke greater rapport and cooperation, and engage in the interdisciplinary efforts that are essential for optimal resolution.

  11. Sensitivity of clinical and behavioural tests of spatial neglect after right hemisphere stroke

    PubMed Central

    Azouvi, P; Samuel, C; Louis-Dreyfus, A; Bernati, T; Bartolomeo, P; Beis, J; Chokron, S; Leclercq, M; Marchal, F; Martin, Y; de Montety, G; Olivier, S; Perennou, D; Pradat-Diehl, P; Prairial, C; Rode, G; Sieroff, E; Wiart, L; Rousseaux, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The lack of agreement regarding assessment methods is responsible for the variability in the reported rate of occurrence of spatial neglect after stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of different tests of neglect after right hemisphere stroke. Methods: Two hundred and six subacute right hemisphere stroke patients were given a test battery including a preliminary assessment of anosognosia and of visual extinction, a clinical assessment of gaze orientation and of personal neglect, and paper and pencil tests of spatial neglect in the peripersonal space. Patients were compared with a previously reported control group. A subgroup of patients (n=69) received a behavioural assessment of neglect in daily life situations. Results: The most sensitive paper and pencil measure was the starting point in the cancellation task. The whole battery was more sensitive than any single test alone. About 85% of patients presented some degree of neglect on at least one measure. An important finding was that behavioural assessment of neglect in daily life was more sensitive than any other single measure of neglect. Behavioural neglect was considered as moderate to severe in 36% of cases. A factorial analysis revealed that paper and pencil tests were related to two underlying factors. Dissociations were found between extrapersonal neglect, personal neglect, anosognosia, and extinction. Anatomical analyses showed that neglect was more common and severe when the posterior association cortex was damaged. Conclusions: The automatic rightward orientation bias is the most sensitive clinical measure of neglect. Behavioural assessment is more sensitive than any single paper and pencil test. The results also support the assumption that neglect is a heterogeneous disorder. PMID:12122175

  12. Combining animal movements and behavioural data to detect behavioural states.

    PubMed

    Nams, Vilis O

    2014-10-01

    Animal movement paths show variation in space caused by qualitative shifts in behaviours. I present a method that (1) uses both movement path data and ancillary sensor data to detect natural breakpoints in animal behaviour and (2) groups these segments into different behavioural states. The method can also combine analyses of different path segments or paths from different individuals. It does not assume any underlying movement mechanism. I give an example with simulated data. I also show the effects of random variation, # of states and # of segments on this method. I present a case study of a fisher movement path spanning 8 days, which shows four distinct behavioural states divided into 28 path segments when only turning angles and speed were considered. When accelerometer data were added, the analysis shows seven distinct behavioural states divided into 41 path segments. PMID:25040789

  13. The principles of collective animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Sumpter, D.J.T

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of self-organization has been used to understand collective behaviour of animals. The central tenet of self-organization is that simple repeated interactions between individuals can produce complex adaptive patterns at the level of the group. Inspiration comes from patterns seen in physical systems, such as spiralling chemical waves, which arise without complexity at the level of the individual units of which the system is composed. The suggestion is that biological structures such as termite mounds, ant trail networks and even human crowds can be explained in terms of repeated interactions between the animals and their environment, without invoking individual complexity. Here, I review cases in which the self-organization approach has been successful in explaining collective behaviour of animal groups and societies. Ant pheromone trail networks, aggregation of cockroaches, the applause of opera audiences and the migration of fish schools have all been accurately described in terms of individuals following simple sets of rules. Unlike the simple units composing physical systems, however, animals are themselves complex entities, and other examples of collective behaviour, such as honey bee foraging with its myriad of dance signals and behavioural cues, cannot be fully understood in terms of simple individuals alone. I argue that the key to understanding collective behaviour lies in identifying the principles of the behavioural algorithms followed by individual animals and of how information flows between the animals. These principles, such as positive feedback, response thresholds and individual integrity, are repeatedly observed in very different animal societies. The future of collective behaviour research lies in classifying these principles, establishing the properties they produce at a group level and asking why they have evolved in so many different and distinct natural systems. Ultimately, this research could inform not only our

  14. Teachers' Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect: Behaviour and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebbels, A. F. G.; Nicholson, J. M.; Walsh, K.; De Vries, H.

    2008-01-01

    By reporting suspected child abuse and neglect, teachers can make an important contribution to the early detection and prevention of abuse. However, teachers are sometimes reluctant to report their suspicions. This study investigated the determinants of teachers' reporting behaviour using concepts from the Integrated Change Model. Self-report data…

  15. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Schofield, Paul N

    2015-10-01

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain.

  16. The modelling cycle for collective animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Sumpter, David J. T.; Mann, Richard P.; Perna, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Collective animal behaviour is the study of how interactions between individuals produce group level patterns, and why these interactions have evolved. This study has proved itself uniquely interdisciplinary, involving physicists, mathematicians, engineers as well as biologists. Almost all experimental work in this area is related directly or indirectly to mathematical models, with regular movement back and forth between models, experimental data and statistical fitting. In this paper, we describe how the modelling cycle works in the study of collective animal behaviour. We classify studies as addressing questions at different levels or linking different levels, i.e. as local, local to global, global to local or global. We also describe three distinct approaches—theory-driven, data-driven and model selection—to these questions. We show, with reference to our own research on species across different taxa, how we move between these different levels of description and how these various approaches can be applied to link levels together. PMID:23173077

  17. Impaired oculo-motor behaviour affects both reading and scene perception in neglect patients.

    PubMed

    Primativo, Silvia; Arduino, Lisa S; Daini, Roberta; De Luca, Maria; Toneatto, Carlo; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2015-04-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a common neuropsychological disorder following a right-sided brain lesion. Although USN is mostly characterized by symptoms involving the left hemispace, other symptoms are not left lateralized. Recently, it was shown that patients with neglect dyslexia, a reading disturbance that affects about 40% of USN patients, manifest a non-lateralized impairment of eye movement behaviour in association with their reading deficit when they read aloud and perform non-verbal saccadic tasks (Primativo et al., 2013). In the present paper, we aimed to demonstrate that the eye movement impairment shown by some USN patients reflects a more general oculo-motor disorder that is not confined to orthographic material, the horizontal axis or constrained saccadic tasks. We conjectured that inaccurate oculo-motor behaviour in USN patients indicates the presence of a reading deficit. With this aim we evaluated 20 patients, i.e., 10 right-sided brain-damaged patients without neglect and 10 patients affected by USN. On the basis of the patients' eye movement patterns during a scene exploration task, we found that 4 out of the 10 USN patients presented an abnormal oculo-motor pattern. These same four patients (but not the others) also failed in performing 5 different saccadic tasks and produced neglect dyslexia reading errors in both single words and texts. First, we show that a large proportion of USN patients have inaccurate eye movement behaviour in non-reading tasks. Second, we demonstrate that this exploratory deficit is predictive of the reading impairment. Thus, we conclude that the eye movement deficit prevents reading and impairs the performance on many other perceptual tests, including scene exploration. The large percentage of patients with impaired eye-movement pattern suggests that particular attention should be paid to eye movement behaviour during the diagnostic phase in order to program the best rehabilitation strategy for each patient. PMID

  18. Transgenerational epigenetic effects on animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Per

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade a shift in paradigm has occurred with respect to the interaction between environment and genes. It is now clear that animal genomes are regulated to a large extent as a result of input from environmental events and experiences, which cause short- and long-term modifications in epigenetic markings of DNA and histones. In this review, the evidence that such epigenetic modifications can affect the behaviour of animals is explored, and whether such acquired behaviour alterations can transfer across generation borders. First, the mechanisms by which experiences cause epigenetic modifications are examined. This includes, for example, methylation of cytosine in CpG positions and acetylation of histones, and studies showing that this can be modified by early experiences. Secondly, the evidence that specific modifications in the epigenome can be the cause of behaviour variation is reviewed. Thirdly, the extent to which this phenotypically active epigenetic variants can be inherited either through the germline or through reoccurring environmental conditions is examined. A particularly interesting observation is that epigenetic modifications are often linked to stress, and may possibly be mediated by steroid effects. Finally, the idea that transgenerationally stable epigenetic variants may serve as substrates for natural selection is explored, and it is speculated that they may even predispose for directed, non-random mutations.

  19. Role of U.S. animal control agencies in equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations.

    PubMed

    Stull, C L; Holcomb, K E

    2014-05-01

    Every state in the United States has regulations prohibiting acts of neglect and cruelty against animals. Local law enforcement and animal control agencies are responsible in many communities to enforce these statutes. As society's perception of horses has changed from their origin as livestock to companion animals in modern times, owners have transitioned their care and management. The goal of this study was to identify the role and capacities of local animal control services in the United States that investigate equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations and to identify challenges and outcomes of the investigations. A 128-question online survey was accessible for animal agencies to complete. Comprehensive questions included their capacity for investigating equine cases, funding, housing for horses, and causes and outcomes of investigations. Respondents also were asked to select a single case and provide detailed information on the condition of horses, seizure and custody procedures, costs, and prosecution proceedings. A total of 165 respondents from 26 states completed all or the majority of the questions. A total of 6,864 equine investigations were initiated between 2007 and 2009 by 90 agencies, which extrapolates to 38 investigations annually per agency. A typical agency has an average annual budget of $740,000, employs 7 animal control officers, and spends about $10,000 annually on equine cases. Neglect was ranked as the most common reason for investigation. Owner ignorance, economic hardship, and lack of responsibility were the highest ranked causes of neglect and cruelty. Individual cases were provided by 91 agencies concerning 749 equines. The physical condition of the horse was the primary factor of investigation, and low body condition, parasite infestation, and compromised dental condition were present in most seized horses. Over half of the equine owners previously had been investigated or charged with neglect or cruelty of animals or were

  20. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gullone, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence available to support of theories of antisocial and aggressive behaviour is large and sound, conceptualization of animal abuse as an aggressive behaviour rather than a behaviour that is somehow different, enables us to confidently promote putting current understanding into practice. Abstract This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of

  1. Rotavirus strains in neglected animal species including lambs, goats and camelids.

    PubMed

    Papp, Hajnalka; Malik, Yashpal S; Farkas, Szilvia L; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of rotavirus infections and circulating strains in small ruminants (i.e. lambs, goats and camelids) has been a neglected research area in the past. However, recent years that have seen an intensification of surveillance in humans and livestock animals, where vaccines to reduce disease burden caused by Rotavirus A (RVA) are available, led to the efforts to better understand the epidemiology, ecology and evolution of RVA strains in other hosts, including lambs, goats and camelids. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the epidemiology and strain diversity of RV strains in these species through searching for relevant information in public data bases. PMID:25674588

  2. Animal personality as a cause and consequence of contest behaviour.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; Sneddon, Lynne U; Wilson, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    We review the evidence for a link between consistent among-individual variation in behaviour (animal personality) and the ability to win contests over limited resources. Explorative and bold behaviours often covary with contest behaviour and outcome, although there is evidence that the structure of these 'behavioural syndromes' can change across situations. Aggression itself is typically repeatable, but also subject to high within-individual variation as a consequence of plastic responses to previous fight outcomes and opponent traits. Common proximate mechanisms (gene expression, endocrine control and metabolic rates) may underpin variation in both contest behaviour and general personality traits. Given the theoretical links between the evolution of fighting and of personality, we suggest that longitudinal studies of contest behaviour, combining behavioural and physiological data, would be a useful context for the study of animal personalities.

  3. Animal personality as a cause and consequence of contest behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Briffa, Mark; Sneddon, Lynne U.; Wilson, Alastair J.

    2015-01-01

    We review the evidence for a link between consistent among-individual variation in behaviour (animal personality) and the ability to win contests over limited resources. Explorative and bold behaviours often covary with contest behaviour and outcome, although there is evidence that the structure of these ‘behavioural syndromes' can change across situations. Aggression itself is typically repeatable, but also subject to high within-individual variation as a consequence of plastic responses to previous fight outcomes and opponent traits. Common proximate mechanisms (gene expression, endocrine control and metabolic rates) may underpin variation in both contest behaviour and general personality traits. Given the theoretical links between the evolution of fighting and of personality, we suggest that longitudinal studies of contest behaviour, combining behavioural and physiological data, would be a useful context for the study of animal personalities. PMID:25808004

  4. Host behaviour-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-04-13

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained.

  5. Remote Laboratory and Animal Behaviour: An Interactive Open Field System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Lorenzo; Ratti, Giovannino

    2007-01-01

    Remote laboratories can provide distant learners with practical acquisitions which would otherwise remain precluded. Our proposal here is a remote laboratory on a behavioural test (open field test), with the aim of introducing learners to the observation and analysis of stereotyped behaviour in animals. A real-time video of a mouse in an…

  6. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  7. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  8. Animal behaviour: fair refusal by capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Clive D L

    2004-03-11

    Brosnan and de Waal report that capuchin monkeys show evidence of a sense of fairness or 'inequity aversion' because they rejected a less preferred reward when they saw a partner monkey receive a preferred reward for the same task. However, this does not show that monkeys are averse to inequity, only that they reject a lesser reward when better rewards are available. There are risks inherent in seeking anthropomorphic explanations for non-human behaviour.

  9. Veterinarians' perceptions of behaviour support in small-animal practice.

    PubMed

    Roshier, A L; McBride, E A

    2013-03-01

    Veterinarians are professionals considered to be at the forefront of animal welfare, including behaviour medicine. However, concerns raised, both within the profession and without, highlight that the support offered is not optimal, due to deficiencies in veterinary training, which focuses on physical aspects and overlooks psychological aspects. This preliminary study explored the experiences and perceptions of six veterinarians (three male, three female, age range: 23-55 years) in two UK small-animal practices. Seventeen annual booster consultations were videoed and conversations thematically analysed for welfare topics discussed. Both veterinarians and clients completed questionnaires to gather demographic information and perspectives. All veterinarians recognised behaviour as a component of their caseload, and acknowledged that clients expected them to provide behaviour support. Veterinarians varied in their experiences of and confidence in providing behaviour support. Five felt unable to meet client expectations; four did not feel their training had prepared them sufficiently. Only one provided dedicated behaviour consultations, the others referred cases. All provided suggestions for behaviour skills needed for new veterinary graduates. The study has afforded an insight into the experiences of a small opportunistic sample of veterinarians. The data indicated important limitations regarding time available in general consultations to discuss behaviour concerns, and practitioner knowledge and skill in detection, anamnesis, assessment and provision of appropriate behaviour information. Suggestions for veterinary training in behaviour are provided.

  10. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha J.; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman’s zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals’ latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: “attitude towards the animals” and “knowledge and experience of the animals”. In this novel study, data demonstrated

  11. The Spatial Behaviour of Animals and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindley, T. S.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some common patterns of animal spatial behavior, and discusses spatial relationships that can be observed as an important component of human social behavior. Reports the results of a study relating to the interpersonal distances of people in bus queues in Britain. (JR)

  12. From Sensor Data to Animal Behaviour: An Oystercatcher Example

    PubMed Central

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bom, Roeland; van Loon, E. Emiel; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; Bouten, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Animal-borne sensors enable researchers to remotely track animals, their physiological state and body movements. Accelerometers, for example, have been used in several studies to measure body movement, posture, and energy expenditure, although predominantly in marine animals. In many studies, behaviour is often inferred from expert interpretation of sensor data and not validated with direct observations of the animal. The aim of this study was to derive models that could be used to classify oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) behaviour based on sensor data. We measured the location, speed, and tri-axial acceleration of three oystercatchers using a flexible GPS tracking system and conducted simultaneous visual observations of the behaviour of these birds in their natural environment. We then used these data to develop three supervised classification trees of behaviour and finally applied one of the models to calculate time-activity budgets. The model based on accelerometer data developed to classify three behaviours (fly, terrestrial locomotion, and no movement) was much more accurate (cross-validation error = 0.14) than the model based on GPS-speed alone (cross-validation error = 0.35). The most parsimonious acceleration model designed to classify eight behaviours could distinguish five: fly, forage, body care, stand, and sit (cross-validation error = 0.28); other behaviours that were observed, such as aggression or handling of prey, could not be distinguished. Model limitations and potential improvements are discussed. The workflow design presented in this study can facilitate model development, be adapted to a wide range of species, and together with the appropriate measurements, can foster the study of behaviour and habitat use of free living animals throughout their annual routine. PMID:22693586

  13. [Cognitive enrichment in zoo and farm animals--implications for animal behaviour and welfare].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susann; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Animals in the wild are facing a wide variety of challenges and ever-changing environmental stimuli. For successful coping, animals use both innate behavioural programs and their cognitive skills. In contrast, zoo- and farm animals have to cope with restricted husbandry conditions, which offer only few opportunities to adequately satisfy their various needs. Consequences could be sensory and cognitive underchallenge that can cause boredom and frustration as well as behavioural disturbances. Initially intended for improvement of management and husbandry, different forms of operant behavioural training have been applied firstly in zoo- and later also in farm animals. It has been suggested that successful coping with appropriate cognitive challenges is a source of positive emotions and may lead to improved welfare. Under the term cognitive enrichment, new approaches have been developed to integrate cognitive challenges into the housing of zoo- and farm animals. The present article reviews actual research in the field. Previous results indicate that, beyond improvement of management and handling routines, such approaches can positively affect animal behaviour and welfare. The combination of explorative and appetitive behaviour with successful learning improves environmental predictability and controllability for the animals, activates reward-related brain systems and can directly affect emotional processes of appraisal. For practical implementation in farm animal husbandry, it sounds promising to link individual access to e.g. automated feeders or milking systems with previously conditioned stimuli and/or discriminatory learning tasks. First experimental approaches in pigs, dwarf goats and cattle are available and will be discussed in the present article.

  14. Infection-avoidance behaviour in humans and other animals.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2014-10-01

    Compared with living free, the parasitic way of life has many attractions. Parasites create problems for all animals. Potential hosts can respond by learning to live with parasites (tolerance), actively fighting them (resistance), or they can avoid becoming infected in the first place (avoidance). I propose here a new classification of avoidance behaviour according to the epidemiology of infection risk, where animals must avoid (i) conspecifics, (ii) parasites and their vectors, (iii) parasite-rich environments, and (iv) niche infestation. I further explore how the disgust adaptive system, which coordinates avoidance behaviour, may form a continuum with the immune system through the sharing of signalling pathways, sites of action, and evolutionary history.

  15. Eating Behaviours of British University Students: A Cluster Analysis on a Neglected Issue.

    PubMed

    Tanton, Jina; Dodd, Lorna J; Woodfield, Lorayne; Mabhala, Mzwandile

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy diet is a primary risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. University student populations are known to engage in health risking lifestyle behaviours including risky eating behaviours. The purpose of this study was to examine eating behaviour patterns in a population of British university students using a two-step cluster analysis. Consumption prevalence of snack, convenience, and fast foods in addition to fruit and vegetables was measured using a self-report "Student Eating Behaviours" questionnaire on 345 undergraduate university students. Four clusters were identified: "risky eating behaviours," "mixed eating behaviours," "moderate eating behaviours," and "favourable eating behaviours." Nineteen percent of students were categorised as having "favourable eating behaviours" whilst just under a third of students were categorised within the two most risky clusters. Riskier eating behaviour patterns were associated with living on campus and Christian faith. The findings of this study highlight the importance of university microenvironments on eating behaviours in university student populations. Religion as a mediator of eating behaviours is a novel finding.

  16. Weights and measures: a new look at bisection behaviour in neglect.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert D; Schindler, Igor; Birchall, Daniel; Milner, A David

    2005-12-01

    Horizontal line bisection is a ubiquitous task in the investigation of visual neglect. Patients with left neglect typically make rightward errors that increase with line length and for lines at more leftward positions. For short lines, or for lines presented in right space, these errors may 'cross over' to become leftward. We have taken a new approach to these phenomena by employing a different set of dependent and independent variables for their description. Rather than recording bisection error, we record the lateral position of the response within the workspace. We have studied how this varies when the locations of the left and right endpoints are manipulated independently. Across 30 patients with left neglect, we have observed a characteristic asymmetry between the 'weightings' accorded to the two endpoints, such that responses are less affected by changes in the location of the left endpoint than by changes in the location of the right. We show that a simple endpoint weightings analysis accounts readily for the effects of line length and spatial position, including cross-over effects, and leads to an index of neglect that is more sensitive than the standard measure. We argue that this novel approach is more parsimonious than the standard model and yields fresh insights into the nature of neglect impairment.

  17. Review: Quantifying animal feeding behaviour with a focus on pigs.

    PubMed

    Maselyne, Jarissa; Saeys, Wouter; Van Nuffel, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The study of animal feeding behaviour is of interest to understand feeding, to investigate the effect of treatments and conditions or to predict illness. This paper reviews the different steps to undertake when studying animal feeding behaviour, with illustrations for group-housed pigs. First, one must be aware of the mechanisms that control feeding and the various influences that can change feeding behaviour. Satiety is shown to largely influence free feeding (ad libitum and without an operant condition) in animals, but 'free' feeding seems a very fragile process, given the many factors that can influence feeding behaviour. Second, a measurement method must be chosen that is compatible with the goal of the research. Several measurement methods exist, which lead to different experimental set-ups and measurement data. Sensors are available for lab conditions, for research on group-housed pigs and also for on-farm use. Most of these methods result in a record of feeding visits. However, these feeding visits are often found to be clustered into meals. Thus, the third step is to choose which unit of feeding behaviour to use for analysis. Depending on the situation, either meals, feeding visits, other raw data, or a combination thereof can be suitable. Meals are more appropriate for analysing short-term feeding behaviour, but this may not be true for disease detection. Further research is therefore needed. To cluster visits into meals, an appropriate analysis method has to be selected. The last part of this paper provides a review and discussion of the existing methods for meal determination. A variety of methods exist, with the most recent methods based on the influence of satiety on feeding. More thorough validation of the recent methods, including validation from a behavioural point of view and uniformity in the applied methods is therefore necessary.

  18. Hemispatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Parton, A; Malhotra, P; Husain, M

    2004-01-01

    The syndrome of hemispatial neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli on one side of space, even though there may be no sensory loss. Although it is extremely common, it has proven to be a challenging condition to understand, and to treat. New insights from detailed behavioural and anatomical studies in patients, as well as functional imaging in healthy individuals, have begun to reveal some of the component deficits underlying the disorder. This review focuses on important clinical issues in neglect, including bedside diagnostic tests and emerging therapeutic and rehabilitation methods, involving both behavioural and drug treatments. PMID:14707298

  19. Eating Behaviours of British University Students: A Cluster Analysis on a Neglected Issue

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Jina; Dodd, Lorna J.; Woodfield, Lorayne; Mabhala, Mzwandile

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy diet is a primary risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. University student populations are known to engage in health risking lifestyle behaviours including risky eating behaviours. The purpose of this study was to examine eating behaviour patterns in a population of British university students using a two-step cluster analysis. Consumption prevalence of snack, convenience, and fast foods in addition to fruit and vegetables was measured using a self-report “Student Eating Behaviours” questionnaire on 345 undergraduate university students. Four clusters were identified: “risky eating behaviours,” “mixed eating behaviours,” “moderate eating behaviours,” and “favourable eating behaviours.” Nineteen percent of students were categorised as having “favourable eating behaviours” whilst just under a third of students were categorised within the two most risky clusters. Riskier eating behaviour patterns were associated with living on campus and Christian faith. The findings of this study highlight the importance of university microenvironments on eating behaviours in university student populations. Religion as a mediator of eating behaviours is a novel finding. PMID:26550495

  20. Neglect for low luminance contrast stimuli but not for high colour contrast stimuli: a behavioural and electrophysiological case study.

    PubMed

    Doricchi, F; Angelelli, P; De Luca, M; Spinelli, D

    1996-05-31

    We describe a patient with a right hemisphere lesion involving the frontal lobe, the post-central gyrus and the superior parietal lobule. Behavioural testing demonstrated severe left unilateral neglect to low luminance contrast stimuli, but not to high colour contrast stimuli. Evoked potentials to low contrast luminance gratings presented in the left hemifield were not reliable. However, equiluminant coloured gratings presented in the same hemifield evoked reliable electrophysiological responses, although longer in latency than those evoked in the right hemifield. These findings suggest that the patient has severe damage of the high contrast sensitivity magnocellular pathway in the right hemisphere, with minor involvement of the parvocellular pathway.

  1. [Cognitive enrichment in zoo and farm animals--implications for animal behaviour and welfare].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susann; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Animals in the wild are facing a wide variety of challenges and ever-changing environmental stimuli. For successful coping, animals use both innate behavioural programs and their cognitive skills. In contrast, zoo- and farm animals have to cope with restricted husbandry conditions, which offer only few opportunities to adequately satisfy their various needs. Consequences could be sensory and cognitive underchallenge that can cause boredom and frustration as well as behavioural disturbances. Initially intended for improvement of management and husbandry, different forms of operant behavioural training have been applied firstly in zoo- and later also in farm animals. It has been suggested that successful coping with appropriate cognitive challenges is a source of positive emotions and may lead to improved welfare. Under the term cognitive enrichment, new approaches have been developed to integrate cognitive challenges into the housing of zoo- and farm animals. The present article reviews actual research in the field. Previous results indicate that, beyond improvement of management and handling routines, such approaches can positively affect animal behaviour and welfare. The combination of explorative and appetitive behaviour with successful learning improves environmental predictability and controllability for the animals, activates reward-related brain systems and can directly affect emotional processes of appraisal. For practical implementation in farm animal husbandry, it sounds promising to link individual access to e.g. automated feeders or milking systems with previously conditioned stimuli and/or discriminatory learning tasks. First experimental approaches in pigs, dwarf goats and cattle are available and will be discussed in the present article. PMID:21141273

  2. The neglected neglect: auditory neglect.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Lahoti, Sourabh; Caplan, Louis R

    2013-08-01

    Whereas visual and somatosensory forms of neglect are commonly recognized by clinicians, auditory neglect is often not assessed and therefore neglected. The auditory cortical processing system can be functionally classified into 2 distinct pathways. These 2 distinct functional pathways deal with recognition of sound ("what" pathway) and the directional attributes of the sound ("where" pathway). Lesions of higher auditory pathways produce distinct clinical features. Clinical bedside evaluation of auditory neglect is often difficult because of coexisting neurological deficits and the binaural nature of auditory inputs. In addition, auditory neglect and auditory extinction may show varying degrees of overlap, which makes the assessment even harder. Shielding one ear from the other as well as separating the ear from space is therefore critical for accurate assessment of auditory neglect. This can be achieved by use of specialized auditory tests (dichotic tasks and sound localization tests) for accurate interpretation of deficits. Herein, we have reviewed auditory neglect with an emphasis on the functional anatomy, clinical evaluation, and basic principles of specialized auditory tests.

  3. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    PubMed

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus.

  4. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    PubMed

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus. PMID:26403793

  5. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages.

  6. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. PMID:26911961

  7. The use of animal models in behavioural neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Bovenkerk, Bernice; Kaldewaij, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are used in experiments in the behavioural neurosciences that aim to contribute to the prevention and treatment of cognitive and affective disorders in human beings, such as anxiety and depression. Ironically, those animals that are likely to be the best models for psychopathology are also likely to be considered the ones that are most morally problematic to use, if it seems probable that (and if indeed they are initially selected as models because) they have experiences that are similar to human experiences that we have strong reasons to avoid causing, and indeed aim to alleviate (such as pain, anxiety or sadness). In this paper, against the background of contemporary discussions in animal ethics and the philosophy of animal minds, we discuss the views that it is morally permissible to use animals in these kinds of experiments, and that it is better to use less cognitively complex animals (such as zebrafish) than more complex animals (such as dogs). First, we criticise some justifications for the claim that human beings and more complex animals have higher moral status. We argue that contemporary approaches that attribute equal moral status to all beings that are capable of conscious strivings strivings (e.g. avoiding pain and anxiety; aiming to eat and play) are based on more plausible assumptions. Second, we argue that it is problematic to assume that less cognitively complex animals have a lesser sensory and emotional experience than more complex beings across the board. In specific cases, there might be good reasons to assume that more complex beings would be harmed more by a specific physical or environmental intervention, but it might also be that they sometimes are harmed less because of a better ability to cope. Determining whether a specific experiment is justified is therefore a complex issue. Our aim in this chapter is to stimulate further reflection on these common assumptions behind the use of animal models for psychopathologies. In

  8. Frigatebird behaviour at the ocean–atmosphere interface: integrating animal behaviour with multi-satellite data

    PubMed Central

    De Monte, Silvia; Cotté, Cedric; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Lévy, Marina; Le Corre, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Marine top predators such as seabirds are useful indicators of the integrated response of the marine ecosystem to environmental variability at different scales. Large-scale physical gradients constrain seabird habitat. Birds however respond behaviourally to physical heterogeneity at much smaller scales. Here, we use, for the first time, three-dimensional GPS tracking of a seabird, the great frigatebird (Fregata minor), in the Mozambique Channel. These data, which provide at the same time high-resolution vertical and horizontal positions, allow us to relate the behaviour of frigatebirds to the physical environment at the (sub-)mesoscale (10–100 km, days–weeks). Behavioural patterns are classified based on the birds’ vertical displacement (e.g. fast/slow ascents and descents), and are overlaid on maps of physical properties of the ocean–atmosphere interface, obtained by a nonlinear analysis of multi-satellite data. We find that frigatebirds modify their behaviours concurrently to transport and thermal fronts. Our results suggest that the birds’ co-occurrence with these structures is a consequence of their search not only for food (preferentially searched over thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. This is also supported by their relationship with mesoscale patterns of wind divergence. Our multi-disciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data, and aims to provide a mechanistic understanding of animals' habitat choice and of marine ecosystem responses to environmental change. PMID:22951344

  9. Frigatebird behaviour at the ocean-atmosphere interface: integrating animal behaviour with multi-satellite data.

    PubMed

    De Monte, Silvia; Cotté, Cedric; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Lévy, Marina; Le Corre, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-12-01

    Marine top predators such as seabirds are useful indicators of the integrated response of the marine ecosystem to environmental variability at different scales. Large-scale physical gradients constrain seabird habitat. Birds however respond behaviourally to physical heterogeneity at much smaller scales. Here, we use, for the first time, three-dimensional GPS tracking of a seabird, the great frigatebird (Fregata minor), in the Mozambique Channel. These data, which provide at the same time high-resolution vertical and horizontal positions, allow us to relate the behaviour of frigatebirds to the physical environment at the (sub-)mesoscale (10-100 km, days-weeks). Behavioural patterns are classified based on the birds' vertical displacement (e.g. fast/slow ascents and descents), and are overlaid on maps of physical properties of the ocean-atmosphere interface, obtained by a nonlinear analysis of multi-satellite data. We find that frigatebirds modify their behaviours concurrently to transport and thermal fronts. Our results suggest that the birds' co-occurrence with these structures is a consequence of their search not only for food (preferentially searched over thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. This is also supported by their relationship with mesoscale patterns of wind divergence. Our multi-disciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data, and aims to provide a mechanistic understanding of animals' habitat choice and of marine ecosystem responses to environmental change.

  10. Adult protective services and animal welfare: should animal abuse and neglect be assessed during adult protective services screening?

    PubMed

    Peak, Terry; Ascione, Frank; Doney, Jylisa

    2012-01-01

    Past research has examined links among animal abuse, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence and demonstrated the importance of addressing the needs of both human and animal victims. We hypothesized that there might be a similar link between animal abuse and older adult welfare issues. As a first step in the earlier research was the development of a screening protocol that shed light on the link between domestic violence and animal abuse, we decided to follow a similar route to explore this new topic by asking state government representatives about their experiences, if any, with this topic. Here we report the results of a national survey of state Adult Protective Services agencies regarding their protocols for assessing animal welfare issues in the context of older adult maltreatment. We also describe a model assessment protocol we developed in collaboration with the Utah Division of Aging and Adult Services. PMID:22206511

  11. Adult protective services and animal welfare: should animal abuse and neglect be assessed during adult protective services screening?

    PubMed

    Peak, Terry; Ascione, Frank; Doney, Jylisa

    2012-01-01

    Past research has examined links among animal abuse, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence and demonstrated the importance of addressing the needs of both human and animal victims. We hypothesized that there might be a similar link between animal abuse and older adult welfare issues. As a first step in the earlier research was the development of a screening protocol that shed light on the link between domestic violence and animal abuse, we decided to follow a similar route to explore this new topic by asking state government representatives about their experiences, if any, with this topic. Here we report the results of a national survey of state Adult Protective Services agencies regarding their protocols for assessing animal welfare issues in the context of older adult maltreatment. We also describe a model assessment protocol we developed in collaboration with the Utah Division of Aging and Adult Services.

  12. Bringing a Time-Depth Perspective to Collective Animal Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Biro, Dora; Sasaki, Takao; Portugal, Steven J

    2016-07-01

    The field of collective animal behaviour examines how relatively simple, local interactions between individuals in groups combine to produce global-level outcomes. Existing mathematical models and empirical work have identified candidate mechanisms for numerous collective phenomena but have typically focused on one-off or short-term performance. We argue that feedback between collective performance and learning - giving the former the capacity to become an adaptive, and potentially cumulative, process - is a currently poorly explored but crucial mechanism in understanding collective systems. We synthesise material ranging from swarm intelligence in social insects through collective movements in vertebrates to collective decision making in animal and human groups, to propose avenues for future research to identify the potential for changes in these systems to accumulate over time.

  13. Bringing a Time-Depth Perspective to Collective Animal Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Biro, Dora; Sasaki, Takao; Portugal, Steven J

    2016-07-01

    The field of collective animal behaviour examines how relatively simple, local interactions between individuals in groups combine to produce global-level outcomes. Existing mathematical models and empirical work have identified candidate mechanisms for numerous collective phenomena but have typically focused on one-off or short-term performance. We argue that feedback between collective performance and learning - giving the former the capacity to become an adaptive, and potentially cumulative, process - is a currently poorly explored but crucial mechanism in understanding collective systems. We synthesise material ranging from swarm intelligence in social insects through collective movements in vertebrates to collective decision making in animal and human groups, to propose avenues for future research to identify the potential for changes in these systems to accumulate over time. PMID:27105543

  14. Abnormal eye movement behaviour during text reading in neglect syndrome: a case study.

    PubMed

    Karnath, H O; Huber, W

    1992-06-01

    The eye movement behaviour of a patient suffering from a right basal ganglia infarction with a left-sided hemineglect but without any visual field defects was investigated during reading. The eye movements were registered by means of an i.r. light technique (pupil-corneal reflection method). The main findings were abnormal return sweeps. Whereas in normal readers the end of one line of text is linked to the beginning of the new line by a long leftward saccade, the return sweeps of the hemineglect patient stereotypically ended in the middle of the next line. They were followed by sequences of short saccades indicating silent backward reading until a linguistically plausible continuation of sentences from the previous line was found, irrespective of the actual beginning of text. The shortened return sweeps could not be attributed to a general oculomotor disturbance. The spatial border for the occurrence of the patient's abnormal scanning pattern (left half of texts) clearly did not depend on a retinal coordinate frame of reference but rather has to be attributed to a different body-centred reference system.

  15. On the venom system of centipedes (Chilopoda), a neglected group of venomous animals.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Eivind A B; King, Glenn F

    2011-03-15

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant terrestrial arthropods and are an ecologically important group of soil and leaf litter predators. Despite their abundance and frequent, often painful, encounters with humans, little is known about the venom and venom apparatus of centipedes, although it is apparent that these are both quite different from other venomous lineages. The venom gland can be regarded as an invaginated cuticle and epidermis, consisting of numerous epithelial secretory units each with its own unique valve-like excretory system. The venom contains several different enzymes, but is strikingly different to most other arthropods in that metalloproteases appear to be important. Myotoxic, cardiotoxic, and neurotoxic activities have been described, most of which have been attributed to high molecular weight proteins. Neurotoxic activities are also unusual in that G-protein coupled receptors often seem to be involved, either directly as targets of neurotoxins or indirectly by activating endogenous agonists. These relatively slow responses may be complemented by the rapid effects caused by histamines present in the venom and from endogenous release of histamines induced by venom cytotoxins. The differences probably reflect the ancient and independent evolutionary history of the centipede venom system, although they may also be somewhat exaggerated by the paucity of information available on this largely neglected group.

  16. Lateralized loss of biting attack-patterned reflexes following induction of contralateral sensory neglect in the cat: a possible role for the striatum in centrally elicited aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bandler, R; Halliday, R

    1982-06-17

    A syndrome of "contralateral sensory neglect' was induced by hypothalamic knife cuts in 6 of 10 cats in which quiet biting attack behaviour could be elicited by lateral hypothalamic stimulation. The contralateral sensory neglect in the 6 affected cats was accompanied by a loss on the "neglected' side of the body of the patterned reflexes which mediate positioning of the head to bite and the jaw-opening component of biting. As a result, when these cats were stimulated in the lateral hypothalamus, although they continued to approach and even make tactile contact with the rat, they generally failed to bite it. Analysis of the histological and behavioural data suggested that damage to the nigrostriatal and/or striato/pallidonigral fibre systems provided the likely basis for both the induction of the contralateral sensory neglect and the lateralized patterned reflex loss. It was suggested, with respect to these specific patterned reflex components of the attack, that an important contribution may be made by the striatum.

  17. Laboratory animal welfare: cage enrichment and mouse behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wolfer, David P; Litvin, Oxana; Morf, Samuel; Nitsch, Roger M; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Würbel, Hanno

    2004-12-16

    Mice housed in standard cages show impaired brain development, abnormal repetitive behaviours (stereotypies) and an anxious behavioural profile, all of which can be lessened by making the cage environment more stimulating. But concerns have been raised that enriched housing might disrupt standardization and so affect the precision and reproducibility of behavioural-test results (for example, see ref. 4). Here we show that environmental enrichment increases neither individual variability in behavioural tests nor the risk of obtaining conflicting data in replicate studies. Our findings indicate that the housing conditions of laboratory mice can be markedly improved without affecting the standardization of results. PMID:15602544

  18. Characterization of microRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a neglected blood fluke of human and animal health significance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Ren; Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a "directed mutation" pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes.

  19. Animal personality and state-behaviour feedbacks: a review and guide for empiricists.

    PubMed

    Sih, Andrew; Mathot, Kimberley J; Moirón, María; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wolf, Max; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2015-01-01

    An exciting area in behavioural ecology focuses on understanding why animals exhibit consistent among-individual differences in behaviour (animal personalities). Animal personality has been proposed to emerge as an adaptation to individual differences in state variables, leading to the question of why individuals differ consistently in state. Recent theory emphasizes the role that positive feedbacks between state and behaviour can play in producing consistent among-individual covariance between state and behaviour, hence state-dependent personality. We review the role of feedbacks in recent models of adaptive personalities, and provide guidelines for empirical testing of model assumptions and predictions. We discuss the importance of the mediating effects of ecology on these feedbacks, and provide a roadmap for including state-behaviour feedbacks in behavioural ecology research.

  20. Adding 'epi-' to behaviour genetics: implications for animal domestication.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    In this review, it is argued that greatly improved understanding of domestication may be gained from extending the field of behaviour genetics to also include epigenetics. Domestication offers an interesting framework of rapid evolutionary changes caused by well-defined selection pressures. Behaviour is an important phenotype in this context, as it represents the primary means of response to environmental challenges. An overview is provided of the evidence for genetic involvement in behavioural control and the presently used methods for finding so-called behaviour genes. This shows that evolutionary changes in behaviour are to a large extent correlated to changes in patterns of gene expression, which brings epigenetics into the focus. This area is concerned with the mechanisms controlling the timing and extent of gene expression, and a lot of focus has been placed on methylation of cytosine in promoter regions, usually associated with genetic downregulation. The review considers the available evidence that environmental input, for example stress, can modify methylation and other epigenetic marks and subsequently affect behaviour. Furthermore, several studies are reviewed, demonstrating that acquired epigenetic modifications can be inherited and cause trans-generational behaviour changes. In conclusion, epigenetics may signify a new paradigm in this respect, as it shows that genomic modifications can be caused by environmental signals, and random mutations in DNA sequence are therefore not the only sources of heritable genetic variation.

  1. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  2. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour–parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour–parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. PMID:27053751

  3. Deriving Animal Behaviour from High-Frequency GPS: Tracking Cows in Open and Forested Habitat

    PubMed Central

    de Weerd, Nelleke; van Langevelde, Frank; van Oeveren, Herman; Nolet, Bart A.; Kölzsch, Andrea; Prins, Herbert H. T.; de Boer, W. Fred

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable classification method to infer behaviour from location data. Behavioural observations were carried out during tracking of cows (Bos Taurus) fitted with high-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers. Data were obtained in an open field and forested area, and movement metrics were calculated for 1 min, 12 s and 2 s intervals. We observed four behaviour types (Foraging, Lying, Standing and Walking). We subsequently used Classification and Regression Trees to classify the simultaneously obtained GPS data as these behaviour types, based on distances and turning angles between fixes. GPS data with a 1 min interval from the open field was classified correctly for more than 70% of the samples. Data from the 12 s and 2 s interval could not be classified successfully, emphasizing that the interval should be long enough for the behaviour to be defined by its characteristic movement metrics. Data obtained in the forested area were classified with a lower accuracy (57%) than the data from the open field, due to a larger positional error of GPS locations and differences in behavioural performance influenced by the habitat type. This demonstrates the importance of understanding the relationship between behaviour and movement metrics, derived from GNSS fixes at different frequencies and in different habitats, in order to successfully infer behaviour. When spatially accurate location data can be obtained, behaviour can be inferred from high-frequency GNSS fixes by calculating simple movement metrics and using easily interpretable decision trees. This allows for the combined study of animal behaviour and habitat use based on location data, and might make it possible to detect deviations

  4. Deriving Animal Behaviour from High-Frequency GPS: Tracking Cows in Open and Forested Habitat.

    PubMed

    de Weerd, Nelleke; van Langevelde, Frank; van Oeveren, Herman; Nolet, Bart A; Kölzsch, Andrea; Prins, Herbert H T; de Boer, W Fred

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable classification method to infer behaviour from location data. Behavioural observations were carried out during tracking of cows (Bos Taurus) fitted with high-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers. Data were obtained in an open field and forested area, and movement metrics were calculated for 1 min, 12 s and 2 s intervals. We observed four behaviour types (Foraging, Lying, Standing and Walking). We subsequently used Classification and Regression Trees to classify the simultaneously obtained GPS data as these behaviour types, based on distances and turning angles between fixes. GPS data with a 1 min interval from the open field was classified correctly for more than 70% of the samples. Data from the 12 s and 2 s interval could not be classified successfully, emphasizing that the interval should be long enough for the behaviour to be defined by its characteristic movement metrics. Data obtained in the forested area were classified with a lower accuracy (57%) than the data from the open field, due to a larger positional error of GPS locations and differences in behavioural performance influenced by the habitat type. This demonstrates the importance of understanding the relationship between behaviour and movement metrics, derived from GNSS fixes at different frequencies and in different habitats, in order to successfully infer behaviour. When spatially accurate location data can be obtained, behaviour can be inferred from high-frequency GNSS fixes by calculating simple movement metrics and using easily interpretable decision trees. This allows for the combined study of animal behaviour and habitat use based on location data, and might make it possible to detect deviations

  5. Animal-assisted therapy with children suffering from insecure attachment due to abuse and neglect: a method to lower the risk of intergenerational transmission of abuse?

    PubMed

    Parish-Plass, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Children suffering from insecure attachment due to severe abuse and/or neglect are often characterized by internal working models which, although perhaps adaptive within the original family situation, are inappropriate and maladaptive in other relationships and situations. Such children have a higher probability than the general population of becoming abusing or neglecting parents. Besides the usual goals of psychotherapy, an overall goal is to stop the cycle of abuse in which abused children may grow up to be abusing parents. Therapy with these children is complicated by their distrust in adults as well as difficulties in symbolization due to trauma during the preverbal stage. Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) provides avenues for circumventing these difficulties, as well as providing additional tools for reaching the inner world of the client. This article gives a brief background of the connection between insecure attachment and intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect as well as a brief overview of the principles of AAT in a play therapy setting. A rationale for the use of AAT as a unique therapy technique for children having suffered from abuse and neglect is followed by a number of clinical examples illustrating AAT. PMID:18411863

  6. Animal-assisted therapy with children suffering from insecure attachment due to abuse and neglect: a method to lower the risk of intergenerational transmission of abuse?

    PubMed

    Parish-Plass, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Children suffering from insecure attachment due to severe abuse and/or neglect are often characterized by internal working models which, although perhaps adaptive within the original family situation, are inappropriate and maladaptive in other relationships and situations. Such children have a higher probability than the general population of becoming abusing or neglecting parents. Besides the usual goals of psychotherapy, an overall goal is to stop the cycle of abuse in which abused children may grow up to be abusing parents. Therapy with these children is complicated by their distrust in adults as well as difficulties in symbolization due to trauma during the preverbal stage. Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) provides avenues for circumventing these difficulties, as well as providing additional tools for reaching the inner world of the client. This article gives a brief background of the connection between insecure attachment and intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect as well as a brief overview of the principles of AAT in a play therapy setting. A rationale for the use of AAT as a unique therapy technique for children having suffered from abuse and neglect is followed by a number of clinical examples illustrating AAT.

  7. High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; Greenaway, Julie

    2011-01-01

    'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect 'animal personality' to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems.

  8. [Two-ring maze for research behaviour of animals].

    PubMed

    Filatova, E V; Orlov, A A; Afanas'ev, S V

    2014-01-01

    Animal behavior is studied using a two-ring maze in which the animal has to choose one of two paths, the same length and then self-returning to the starting compartment. All sections of the labyrinth: the starting chamber, signal space, arms and food compartment blocked by one-way doors. Time periods of passing different chambers reflect different aspects of behavior: level of motivation, attention, short-term and long-term memory, cognitive (make a decision) and emotion and etc. The analysis of these time parameters allows evaluate various behavioral components, depending on the impact on the animal. We suppose that this behavior model can be useful in various neurophysiology experiments.

  9. High CO₂ and marine animal behaviour: potential mechanisms and ecological consequences.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; de la Haye, Kate; Munday, Philip L

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to pollution and environmental change can alter the behaviour of aquatic animals and here we review recent evidence that exposure to elevated CO₂ and reduced sea water pH alters the behaviour of tropical reef fish and hermit crabs. Three main routes through which behaviour might be altered are discussed; elevated metabolic load, 'info-disruption' and avoidance behaviour away from polluted locations. There is clear experimental evidence that exposure to high CO₂ disrupts the ability to find settlement sites and shelters, the ability to detect predators and the ability to detect prey and food. In marine vertebrates and marine crustaceans behavioural change appears to occur via info-disruption. In hermit crabs and other crustaceans impairment of performance capacities might also play a role. We discuss the implications for such behavioural changes in terms of potential impacts at the levels of population health and ecosystem services, and consider future directions for research.

  10. Maternal neglect: oxytocin, dopamine and the neurobiology of attachment.

    PubMed

    Strathearn, L

    2011-11-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. I provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, aiming to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified that contribute to maternal caregiving behaviour, focusing on the oxytocinergic and dopaminergic systems. Mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways contribute to the processing of infant-related sensory cues leading to a behavioural response. Oxytocin may activate the dopaminergic reward pathways in response to social cues. Human neuroimaging studies are summarised that demonstrate parallels between animal and human maternal caregiving responses in the brain. By comparing different patterns of human adult attachment, we gain a clearer understanding of how differences in maternal brain and endocrine responses may contribute to maternal neglect. For example, in insecure/dismissing attachment, which may be associated with emotional neglect, we see reduced activation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine reward system in response to infant face cues, as well as decreased peripheral oxytocin response to mother-infant contact. We are currently testing whether the administration of intranasal oxytocin, as part of a randomised placebo controlled trial, may reverse some of these neurological differences, and potentially augment psychosocial and behavioural interventions for maternal neglect. PMID:21951160

  11. Motor neglect.

    PubMed Central

    Laplane, D; Degos, J D

    1983-01-01

    Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection is necessary to maintain a sufficient level of activity. Predominance of left sided neglect by right sided lesions suggests that the left hemisphere is dominant for deliberate activity; hemispheric dominance could be applied to sensory neglect where conscious awareness would play the role of deliberate activity. PMID:6842219

  12. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Shanis; Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  13. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Shanis; Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  14. Neglect and Self-Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... A national study of self-neglecting adult protective services clients.Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Social Services. Fulmer, T. & Paveza, G. Neglect in the elderly patient. (1998). Nursing Clinics of North America. 33(3), ...

  15. Joint estimation over multiple individuals improves behavioural state inference from animal movement data

    PubMed Central

    Jonsen, Ian

    2016-01-01

    State-space models provide a powerful way to scale up inference of movement behaviours from individuals to populations when the inference is made across multiple individuals. Here, I show how a joint estimation approach that assumes individuals share identical movement parameters can lead to improved inference of behavioural states associated with different movement processes. I use simulated movement paths with known behavioural states to compare estimation error between nonhierarchical and joint estimation formulations of an otherwise identical state-space model. Behavioural state estimation error was strongly affected by the degree of similarity between movement patterns characterising the behavioural states, with less error when movements were strongly dissimilar between states. The joint estimation model improved behavioural state estimation relative to the nonhierarchical model for simulated data with heavy-tailed Argos location errors. When applied to Argos telemetry datasets from 10 Weddell seals, the nonhierarchical model estimated highly uncertain behavioural state switching probabilities for most individuals whereas the joint estimation model yielded substantially less uncertainty. The joint estimation model better resolved the behavioural state sequences across all seals. Hierarchical or joint estimation models should be the preferred choice for estimating behavioural states from animal movement data, especially when location data are error-prone. PMID:26853261

  16. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals

    PubMed Central

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J.; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A.; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment. PMID:25904671

  17. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals.

    PubMed

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-05-22

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment.

  18. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals.

    PubMed

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-05-22

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment. PMID:25904671

  19. Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M.; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Drewe, Julian A.; Nicol, Christine J.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2009-01-01

    While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilized in the field of animal welfare. Exceptions are beginning to emerge and share a common motivation to quantify ‘hidden’ aspects in the structure of the behaviour of an individual, or group of animals. Such analyses have the potential to quantify behavioural markers of pain and stress and quantify abnormal behaviour objectively. This review seeks to explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We outline four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization. The underlying principles, possible applications and limitations are described for: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We hope to encourage further application of analyses of behavioural organization by highlighting potential applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and increasing awareness of the scope for the development of new mathematical methods in this area. PMID:19740922

  20. Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Drewe, Julian A; Nicol, Christine J; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2009-12-01

    While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilized in the field of animal welfare. Exceptions are beginning to emerge and share a common motivation to quantify 'hidden' aspects in the structure of the behaviour of an individual, or group of animals. Such analyses have the potential to quantify behavioural markers of pain and stress and quantify abnormal behaviour objectively. This review seeks to explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We outline four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization. The underlying principles, possible applications and limitations are described for: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We hope to encourage further application of analyses of behavioural organization by highlighting potential applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and increasing awareness of the scope for the development of new mathematical methods in this area.

  1. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction.

  2. Movement Activity Based Classification of Animal Behaviour with an Application to Data from Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be , but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail. PMID:23185301

  3. Movement activity based classification of animal behaviour with an application to data from cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be 83%-94%, but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Joanne P.; Kaushik, Maya; Bristow, Greg C.; McConkey, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We examine the role of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii as a manipulatory parasite and question what role study of infections in its natural intermediate rodent hosts and other secondary hosts, including humans, may elucidate in terms of the epidemiology, evolution and clinical applications of infection. In particular, we focus on the potential association between T. gondii and schizophrenia. We introduce the novel term ‘T. gondii–rat manipulation–schizophrenia model’ and propose how future behavioural research on this model should be performed from a biological, clinical and ethically appropriate perspective. PMID:23225872

  5. Elder neglect.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, Tessa; LoFaso, Veronica M

    2014-11-01

    Because neglect is the most common form of elder abuse, identifying patients who are vulnerable to neglect allows clinicians to intervene early and potentially prevent situations that can escalate and lead to harm or even death. Health care workers have a unique opportunity to uncover these unfortunate situations and in many cases may be the only other contact isolated vulnerable patients have with the outside world. Responding appropriately and quickly when neglect is suspected and using a team approach can improve the health and well-being of older victims of neglect.

  6. Animal Behaviour Fieldwork: Introducing Psychology Students to the Process of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickins, Thomas E.; Donovan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development and running of a residential animal behaviour field trip. The trip has a number of elements that challenge and develop the students. First, this trip is open to students at levels two, three and M. This allows us to engineer a certain amount of peer assisted learning. Second, the students live together and…

  7. Friends of friends: are indirect connections in social networks important to animal behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Friend of a friend relationships, or the indirect connections between people, influence our health, well-being, financial success and reproductive output. As with humans, social behaviours in other animals often occur within a broad interconnected network of social ties. Yet studies of animal social behaviour tend to focus on associations between pairs of individuals. With the increase in popularity of social network analysis, researchers have started to look beyond the dyad to examine the role of indirect connections in animal societies. Here, I provide an overview of the new knowledge that has been uncovered by these studies. I focus on research that has addressed both the causes of social behaviours, i.e. the cognitive and genetic basis of indirect connections, as well as their consequences, i.e. the impact of indirect connections on social cohesion, information transfer, cultural practices and fitness. From these studies, it is apparent that indirect connections play an important role in animal behaviour, although future research is needed to clarify their contribution. PMID:25937639

  8. Ethology and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, D R

    1981-12-01

    Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

  9. How plants manipulate the scatter-hoarding behaviour of seed-dispersing animals.

    PubMed

    Vander Wall, Stephen B

    2010-03-27

    Some plants that are dispersed by scatter-hoarding animals appear to have evolved the ability to manipulate the behaviour of those animals to increase the likelihood that seeds and nuts will be stored and that a portion of those items will not be recovered. Plants have achieved this in at least four ways. First, by producing large, nutritious seeds and nuts that are attractive to animals and that stimulate hoarding behaviour. Second, by imposing handling costs that cause animals to hoard rather than to eat items immediately. These handling costs can take one of two forms: physical barriers (e.g. hard seed coats) that take time to remove and secondary chemicals (e.g. tannins) that impose metabolic costs. Third, by masting, where a population of plants synchronizes reproductive effort, producing large nut crops at intervals of several years. Mast crops not only satiate seed predators, but also increase the amount of seed dispersal because scatter-hoarding animals are not easily satiated during caching (causing animals to store more food than they can consume) but are satiated during cache recovery. And fourth, by producing seeds that do not emit strong odours so that buried seeds are less likely to be discovered. These, and perhaps other, traits have increased the relative success of plant species with seeds dispersed by scatter-hoarding animals.

  10. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to ‘knock out’ specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins’s work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a ‘well-done experiment,’ I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community’s knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well. PMID:26090739

  11. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole C

    2015-07-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to 'knock out' specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins's work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a 'well-done experiment,' I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community's knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well.

  12. Conceptual framework alignment between primary literature and education in animal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierema, Andrea Marie-Kryger

    In 1963, Tinbergen revolutionized the study of animal behaviour in his paper On aims and methods of ethology (Zeitschrift Tierpsycholgie, 20, 410-433) by revamping the conceptual framework of the discipline. His framework suggests an integration of four questions: causation, ontogeny, survival value, and evolution. The National Research Council Committee (U.S.) on Undergraduate Biology Education to Prepare Research Scientists for the 21st Century published BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003), which suggests alignment between current research and undergraduate education. Unfortunately, alignment has been rarely studied in college biology, especially for fundamental concepts. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to determine if the conceptual framework used by animal behaviour scientists, as presented in current primary literature, aligns with what students are exposed to in undergraduate biology education. After determining the most commonly listed textbooks from randomlyselected animal behaviour syllabi, four of the most popular textbooks, as well as the course descriptions provided in the collected syllabi, underwent content analysis in order to determine the extent that each of Tinbergen's four questions is being applied in education. Mainstream animal behaviour journal articles from 2013 were also assessed via content analysis in order to evaluate the current research framework. It was discovered that over 80% of the textbook text covered only two of Tinbergen's questions (survival value and causation). The other two questions, evolution and ontogeny, were rarely described in the text. A similar trend was found in journal articles. Therefore, alignment is occurring between primary literature and education, but neither aligns with the established conceptual framework of the discipline. According to course descriptions, many instructors intend to use an integrated

  13. Myiasis in pet animals in British Columbia: The potential of forensic entomology for determining duration of possible neglect

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Results of a survey of veterinarians in British Columbia included 25 past cases of myiasis and 10 active cases. Most respondents received at least 5 to 10 cases per year, with some as high as 30 per year. This study revealed some advantages and disadvantages of using forensic entomology in living animals. PMID:15646845

  14. N-dimensional animal energetic niches clarify behavioural options in a variable marine environment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rory P; McMahon, Clive R; Quintana, Flavio; Frere, Esteban; Scolaro, Alejandro; Hays, Graeme C; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2011-02-15

    Animals respond to environmental variation by exhibiting a number of different behaviours and/or rates of activity, which result in corresponding variation in energy expenditure. Successful animals generally maximize efficiency or rate of energy gain through foraging. Quantification of all features that modulate energy expenditure can theoretically be modelled as an animal energetic niche or power envelope; with total power being represented by the vertical axis and n-dimensional horizontal axes representing extents of processes that affect energy expenditure. Such an energetic niche could be used to assess the energetic consequences of animals adopting particular behaviours under various environmental conditions. This value of this approach was tested by constructing a simple mechanistic energetics model based on data collected from recording devices deployed on 41 free-living Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), foraging from four different colonies in Argentina and consequently catching four different types of prey. Energy expenditure was calculated as a function of total distance swum underwater (horizontal axis 1) and maximum depth reached (horizontal axis 2). The resultant power envelope was invariant, irrespective of colony location, but penguins from the different colonies tended to use different areas of the envelope. The different colony solutions appeared to represent particular behavioural options for exploiting the available prey and demonstrate how penguins respond to environmental circumstance (prey distribution), the energetic consequences that this has for them, and how this affects the balance of energy acquisition through foraging and expenditure strategy. PMID:21270314

  15. Spatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2015-01-01

    The syndrome of visuospatial neglect is a common consequence of unilateral brain injury. It is most often associated with stroke and is more severe and persistent following right hemisphere damage, with reported frequencies in the acute stage of up to 80%. Neglect is primarily a disorder of attention whereby patients characteristically fail to orientate, to report or to respond to stimuli located on the contralesional side. Neglect is usually caused by large strokes in the middle cerebral artery territory and is heterogeneous, such that most patients do not manifest every feature of the syndrome. A number of treatments may improve neglect, but there is no widely accepted universal approach to therapy. Although most patients recover spontaneously, the evidence suggests that they continue to have significant cognitive impairments, particularly relating to attention. PMID:26023203

  16. Homology in behavioural pharmacology: an approach to animal models of human cognition.

    PubMed

    Robbins, T W

    1998-11-01

    The distinction in biology between homology and analogy is examined for possible application to studies in behavioural pharmacology. It is argued that the concept of homology is central to understanding the 'construct validity' of animal models of human cognition. It is suggested that we capitalize on known correspondences across species in brain structure and development which may mediate homologous behavioural functions. Manipulation of specific receptors in defined areas may be achieved by local and systemic administration of drugs with relatively specific actions; this will complement an alternative criterion of construct validity, based on clinical treatments. This argument will be illustrated by a critique of successful extrapolations across species that are sometimes initiated by work in animals and sometimes by work in humans, especially in the clinical setting. The examples used will include analyses of spatial working memory, spatial attention and attentional set-shifting, studied in rats, monkeys and humans.

  17. Animal behaviour: use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls.

    PubMed

    Levey, Douglas J; Duncan, R Scot; Levins, Carrie F

    2004-09-01

    Reports of tool usage by birds tend to be anecdotal as only a few individuals may be involved and the behaviour observed can often be interpreted in other ways. Here we describe the widespread collection of mammalian dung by burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) and show that they use this dung as a bait to attract dung beetles, a major item of prey. Our controlled investigation provides an unambiguous estimate of the importance of tool use in a wild animal. PMID:15343324

  18. Animal behaviour: use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls.

    PubMed

    Levey, Douglas J; Duncan, R Scot; Levins, Carrie F

    2004-09-01

    Reports of tool usage by birds tend to be anecdotal as only a few individuals may be involved and the behaviour observed can often be interpreted in other ways. Here we describe the widespread collection of mammalian dung by burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) and show that they use this dung as a bait to attract dung beetles, a major item of prey. Our controlled investigation provides an unambiguous estimate of the importance of tool use in a wild animal.

  19. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. PMID:26700211

  20. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies.

  1. Target evaluation of deoxyhypusine synthase from Theileria parva the neglected animal parasite and its relationship to Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Njuguna, James T; von Koschitzky, Imke; Gerhardt, Heike; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Choucry, Ali; Pink, Mario; Schmitz-Spahnke, Simone; Bakheit, Mohammed A; Strube, Christina; Kaiser, Annette

    2014-08-01

    East Coast fever (ECF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the parasite Theileria parva which infects cattle. In Sub-Saharan Africa it leads to enormous economic costs. After a bite of a tick, sporozoites invade the host lymphocytes and develop into schizonts. At this stage the parasite transforms host lymphocytes resulting in the clonal expansion of infected lymphocytes. Animals develop a lymphoma like disorder after infection which is rapidly fatal. Hitherto, a few drugs of the quinone type can cure the disease. However, therapy can only be successful after early diagnosis. The genera Theileria and Plasmodium, which includes the causative agent of human malaria, are closely related apicomplexan parasites. Enzymes of the hypusine pathway, a posttranslational modification in eukaryotic initiation factor EIF-5A, have shown to be druggable targets in Plasmodium. We identified the first enzyme of the hypusine pathway from T. parva, the deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), which is located on chromosome 2 of the Muguga strain. Transcription is significantly increased in schizonts. The expressed T. parva DHS reveals an open reading frame (ORF) of 370 amino acids after expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta cells with a molecular size of 41.26 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.26. Screening of the Malaria Box which consists of 400 active compounds resulted in a novel heterocyclic compound with a guanyl spacer which reduced the activity of T. parva DHS to 45%. In sum, the guanyl residue seems to be an important lead structure for inhibition of Theileria DHS. Currently, more different guanyl analogues from the Malaria Box are tested in inhibitor experiments to determine their efficacy. PMID:24909679

  2. Target evaluation of deoxyhypusine synthase from Theileria parva the neglected animal parasite and its relationship to Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Njuguna, James T; von Koschitzky, Imke; Gerhardt, Heike; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Choucry, Ali; Pink, Mario; Schmitz-Spahnke, Simone; Bakheit, Mohammed A; Strube, Christina; Kaiser, Annette

    2014-08-01

    East Coast fever (ECF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the parasite Theileria parva which infects cattle. In Sub-Saharan Africa it leads to enormous economic costs. After a bite of a tick, sporozoites invade the host lymphocytes and develop into schizonts. At this stage the parasite transforms host lymphocytes resulting in the clonal expansion of infected lymphocytes. Animals develop a lymphoma like disorder after infection which is rapidly fatal. Hitherto, a few drugs of the quinone type can cure the disease. However, therapy can only be successful after early diagnosis. The genera Theileria and Plasmodium, which includes the causative agent of human malaria, are closely related apicomplexan parasites. Enzymes of the hypusine pathway, a posttranslational modification in eukaryotic initiation factor EIF-5A, have shown to be druggable targets in Plasmodium. We identified the first enzyme of the hypusine pathway from T. parva, the deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), which is located on chromosome 2 of the Muguga strain. Transcription is significantly increased in schizonts. The expressed T. parva DHS reveals an open reading frame (ORF) of 370 amino acids after expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta cells with a molecular size of 41.26 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.26. Screening of the Malaria Box which consists of 400 active compounds resulted in a novel heterocyclic compound with a guanyl spacer which reduced the activity of T. parva DHS to 45%. In sum, the guanyl residue seems to be an important lead structure for inhibition of Theileria DHS. Currently, more different guanyl analogues from the Malaria Box are tested in inhibitor experiments to determine their efficacy.

  3. Mechanistic models of animal migration behaviour – their diversity, structure and use

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Silke; Klaassen, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Migration is a wide-spread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, including many taxonomic groups and modes of locomotion. Developing an understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes for this behaviour not only addresses fundamental ecological questions but has relevance to many other fields, e.g. in relation to the spread of emerging zoonotic diseases, the proliferation of invasive species, aeronautical safety as well as the conservation of migrants.Theoretical methods can make important contributions to our understanding of migration, by allowing us to integrate findings on this complex behaviour, identify caveats in our understanding and guide future empirical research efforts. Various mechanistic models exist to date but their applications seem to be scattered and far from evenly distributed across taxonomic units.Therefore, we provide an overview of the major mechanistic modelling approaches used in the study of migration behaviour and characterise their fundamental features, assumptions and limitations, and discuss their typical data requirements both for model parameterisation and for scrutinizing model predictions.Furthermore, we review 155 studies that have used mechanistic models to study animal migration and analyse them with regard to the approaches used, focal species and also explore their contribution of advancing current knowledge within six broad migration ecology research themes.This identifies important gaps in our present knowledge, which should be tackled in future research using existing and to-be developed theoretical approaches. PMID:23373515

  4. Mechanistic models of animal migration behaviour--their diversity, structure and use.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Silke; Klaassen, Marcel

    2013-05-01

    1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, including many taxonomic groups and modes of locomotion. Developing an understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes for this behaviour not only addresses fundamental ecological questions but has relevance to many other fields, for example in relation to the spread of emerging zoonotic diseases, the proliferation of invasive species, aeronautical safety as well as the conservation of migrants. 2. Theoretical methods can make important contributions to our understanding of migration, by allowing us to integrate findings on this complex behaviour, identify caveats in our understanding and to guide future empirical research efforts. Various mechanistic models exist to date, but their applications seem to be scattered and far from evenly distributed across taxonomic units. 3. Therefore, we provide an overview of the major mechanistic modelling approaches used in the study of migration behaviour and characterize their fundamental features, assumptions and limitations and discuss their typical data requirements both for model parameterization and for scrutinizing model predictions. 4. Furthermore, we review 155 studies that have used mechanistic models to study animal migration and analyse them with regard to the approaches used and the focal species, and also explore their contribution to advancing current knowledge within six broad migration ecology research themes. 5. This identifies important gaps in our present knowledge, which should be tackled in future research using existing and to-be developed theoretical approaches.

  5. Medical neglect.

    PubMed

    Boos, Stephen C; Fortin, Kristine

    2014-11-01

    Medical neglect occurs when children are harmed or placed at significant risk of harm by gaps in their medical care. This is most likely to occur and to be recognized when families lack resources, commonly due to poverty, and when medical demands are high, such as with complex, severe, and chronic illness. A systematic evaluation of the probabilities for harm from gaps in care versus benefits from improved care will define medical neglect. A broad consideration of child, family, community, and medical system contributions to identified gaps will guide management. Special circumstances, such as lapsed immunizations, unremitting obesity, and medically motivated alterations in care, are often challenging for medical providers. Guidance for these specific situations is available from the American Academy of Pediatrics, and from the medical literature.

  6. Optimized Hyper Beamforming of Linear Antenna Arrays Using Collective Animal Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Gopi; Mandal, Durbadal; Kar, Rajib; Ghoshal, Sakti Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A novel optimization technique which is developed on mimicking the collective animal behaviour (CAB) is applied for the optimal design of hyper beamforming of linear antenna arrays. Hyper beamforming is based on sum and difference beam patterns of the array, each raised to the power of a hyperbeam exponent parameter. The optimized hyperbeam is achieved by optimization of current excitation weights and uniform interelement spacing. As compared to conventional hyper beamforming of linear antenna array, real coded genetic algorithm (RGA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and differential evolution (DE) applied to the hyper beam of the same array can achieve reduction in sidelobe level (SLL) and same or less first null beam width (FNBW), keeping the same value of hyperbeam exponent. Again, further reductions of sidelobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) have been achieved by the proposed collective animal behaviour (CAB) algorithm. CAB finds near global optimal solution unlike RGA, PSO, and DE in the present problem. The above comparative optimization is illustrated through 10-, 14-, and 20-element linear antenna arrays to establish the optimization efficacy of CAB. PMID:23970843

  7. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control. PMID:25964152

  8. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control.

  9. Neglected Bacterial Zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Chikeka, Ijeuru; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. While many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which a broad spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. Thus, this review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis, and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control. PMID:25964152

  10. Neglect dysgraphia.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, D M; Warrington, E K

    1983-01-01

    A phonological dysgraphic syndrome is documented in a left handed man with a right-hemisphere lesion. His spelling was significantly affected by word length but neither word frequency nor the orthographical irregularity or word class proved to be relevant variables. Words were spelled equally efficiently forwards as backwards. A clear gradient of letter errors was shown to exist with letters on the left being mis-spelled more often than letters on the right of a word, irrespective of word length. These findings are discussed in terms of current models of spelling and their relevance to theories of unilateral neglect. Images PMID:6663305

  11. Comparing the strength of behavioural plasticity and consistency across situations: animal personalities in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus

    PubMed Central

    Briffa, Mark; Rundle, Simon D; Fryer, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Many phenotypic traits show plasticity but behaviour is often considered the ‘most plastic’ aspect of phenotype as it is likely to show the quickest response to temporal changes in conditions or ‘situation’. However, it has also been noted that constraints on sensory acuity, cognitive structure and physiological capacities place limits on behavioural plasticity. Such limits to plasticity may generate consistent differences in behaviour between individuals from the same population. It has recently been suggested that these consistent differences in individual behaviour may be adaptive and the term ‘animal personalities’ has been used to describe them. In many cases, however, a degree of both behavioural plasticity and relative consistency is probable. To understand the possible functions of animal personalities, it is necessary to determine the relative strength of each tendency and this may be achieved by comparison of statistical effect sizes for tests of difference and concordance. Here, we describe a new statistical framework for making such comparisons and investigate cross-situational plasticity and consistency in the duration of startle responses in the European hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus, in the field and the laboratory. The effect sizes of tests for behavioural consistency were greater than for tests of behavioural plasticity, indicating for the first time the presence of animal personalities in a crustacean model. PMID:18331983

  12. Comparing the strength of behavioural plasticity and consistency across situations: animal personalities in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; Rundle, Simon D; Fryer, Adam

    2008-06-01

    Many phenotypic traits show plasticity but behaviour is often considered the 'most plastic' aspect of phenotype as it is likely to show the quickest response to temporal changes in conditions or 'situation'. However, it has also been noted that constraints on sensory acuity, cognitive structure and physiological capacities place limits on behavioural plasticity. Such limits to plasticity may generate consistent differences in behaviour between individuals from the same population. It has recently been suggested that these consistent differences in individual behaviour may be adaptive and the term 'animal personalities' has been used to describe them. In many cases, however, a degree of both behavioural plasticity and relative consistency is probable. To understand the possible functions of animal personalities, it is necessary to determine the relative strength of each tendency and this may be achieved by comparison of statistical effect sizes for tests of difference and concordance. Here, we describe a new statistical framework for making such comparisons and investigate cross-situational plasticity and consistency in the duration of startle responses in the European hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus, in the field and the laboratory. The effect sizes of tests for behavioural consistency were greater than for tests of behavioural plasticity, indicating for the first time the presence of animal personalities in a crustacean model.

  13. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    PubMed Central

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS ‘rapid fixing’ technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives. PMID:20566494

  14. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  15. A conceptual and practical guide to the behavioural evaluation of animal models of the symptomatology and therapy of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Benjamin K.; Singer, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic debilitating brain disorder characterized by a complex set of perceptual and behavioural symptoms that severely disrupt and undermine the patient’s psychological well-being and quality of life. Since the exact disease mechanisms remain essentially unknown, holistic animal models are indispensable tools for any serious investigation into the neurobiology of schizophrenia, including the search of remedies, prevention, and possible biological markers. This review provides some practical advice to those confronted with the task of evaluating their animal models for relevance to schizophrenia that inevitably involves behavioural tests with animals. To a novice, this challenge is not only a technical one, as it also entails attention to interpretative issues concerning validity and translational power. Here, we attempt to offer some guidance to help overcome these obstacles by drawing on our experience on diverse animal models of schizophrenia based on genetics, strain difference, brain lesions, pharmacological induction, and early life developmental manipulations. The review pays equal emphasis on the general (theoretical) considerations in experimental design and the illustration of the problematics related to test parameters and data analysis of selected exemplar behavioural tests. Finally, the individual difference of behavioural expression in relevant tests observed in wild type animals may offer an alternative approach to explore the mechanism of schizophrenia-related behavioural dysfunction at the molecular, cellular and structural levels that are of more immediate relevance to cell and tissue research. PMID:23579553

  16. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Patricia M.; Wilson, Rory P.; Qasem, Lama; Hackländer, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology. PMID:26317623

  17. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber.

    PubMed

    Graf, Patricia M; Wilson, Rory P; Qasem, Lama; Hackländer, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology. PMID:26317623

  18. Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D

    2014-10-01

    We review the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of early adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between early adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour.

  19. Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence for face identity and face emotion processing in animals

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Andrew J; Fischer, Hanno; Leigh, Andrea E; Kendrick, Keith M

    2006-01-01

    Visual cues from faces provide important social information relating to individual identity, sexual attraction and emotional state. Behavioural and neurophysiological studies on both monkeys and sheep have shown that specialized skills and neural systems for processing these complex cues to guide behaviour have evolved in a number of mammals and are not present exclusively in humans. Indeed, there are remarkable similarities in the ways that faces are processed by the brain in humans and other mammalian species. While human studies with brain imaging and gross neurophysiological recording approaches have revealed global aspects of the face-processing network, they cannot investigate how information is encoded by specific neural networks. Single neuron electrophysiological recording approaches in both monkeys and sheep have, however, provided some insights into the neural encoding principles involved and, particularly, the presence of a remarkable degree of high-level encoding even at the level of a specific face. Recent developments that allow simultaneous recordings to be made from many hundreds of individual neurons are also beginning to reveal evidence for global aspects of a population-based code. This review will summarize what we have learned so far from these animal-based studies about the way the mammalian brain processes the faces and the emotions they can communicate, as well as associated capacities such as how identity and emotion cues are dissociated and how face imagery might be generated. It will also try to highlight what questions and advances in knowledge still challenge us in order to provide a complete understanding of just how brain networks perform this complex and important social recognition task. PMID:17118930

  20. Hormonal and behavioural abnormalities induced by stress in utero: an animal model for depression.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Darnaudery, M; Van Reeth, O

    2001-09-01

    Prenatal stress in rats can exert profound influence on the off spring's development, inducing abnormalities such as increased "anxiety", "emotionality" or "depression-like" behaviours.Prenatal stress has long-term effects on the development of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and forebrain cholinergic systems. These long-term neuroendocrinological effects are mediated, at least in part, by stress-induced maternal corticosterone increase during pregnancy and stress-induced maternal anxiety during the postnatal period. We have shown a significant phase advance in the circadian rhythms of corticosterone secretion and locomotor activity in prenatally-stressed (PNS) rats. When subjected to an abrupt shift in the light-dark(LD) cycle, PNS rats resynchronized their activity rhythm more slowly than control rats. In view of the data suggesting abnormalities in the circadian timing system in these animals, we have investigated the effects of prenatal stress on the sleep-wake cycle in adult male rats. PNS rats exhibited various changes in sleep-wake parameters, including a dramatic increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal stress can induce increased responses to stress and abnormal circadian rhythms and sleep in adult rats.Various clinical observations in humans suggest a possible pathophysiological link between depression and disturbances in circadian rhythmicity. Circadian abnormalities in depression can be related to those found in PNS rats. Interestingly, we have recently shown that the increased immobility in the forced swimming test observed in PNS rats can be corrected by chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine, or with melatonin or S23478, a melatonin agonist. Those results reinforce the idea of the usefulness of PNS rats as an appropriate animal model to study human depression and support a new antidepressant-like effect of melatonin and the melatonin agonist S23478. PMID:22432138

  1. Spurring new research for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gerard F

    2009-01-01

    A very small proportion of global spending for biomedical research is for neglected diseases. However, neglected diseases account for a sizable percentage of the global burden of disease, especially in low-income countries. For-profit pharmaceutical and biotech companies are unlikely to conduct significant additional research on neglected diseases without financial incentives. This paper examines the benefits of providing a tax credit to encourage companies to conduct preclinical research on neglected diseases in the laboratory or in animals. This strategy could lead to a new generation of treatment options for the people in low-income countries who are susceptible to neglected diseases.

  2. Using photographs to study animal social cognition and behaviour: Do capuchins' responses to photos reflect reality?

    PubMed

    Morton, F Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F; Prétôt, Laurent; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; O'Sullivan, Eoin; Stocker, Martina; D'Mello, Daniel; Wilson, Vanessa A D

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural responses to photos are often used to infer what animals understand about their social environment, but are rarely validated against the same stimuli in real life. If subjects' responses to photos do not reflect responses to the same live stimuli, it is difficult to conclude what happens in reality based on photo responses alone. We compared capuchins' responses to photos versus live stimuli in an identical scenario within research cubicles. Subjects had the opportunity to approach food placed in front of an alpha group member and, in a separate condition, photos depicting the same individual. Subjects' latencies to approach food when placed in front of the real alpha negatively correlated with time subjects spent in close proximity to the alpha in their main enclosure. We therefore predicted subjects' latencies to approach food in the presence of photos would positively correlate with their latencies to approach food in the presence of the real alpha inside the cubicles, but negatively correlate with time they spent in proximity to the alpha in their enclosure. Neither prediction was supported. While not necessarily surprising, we explain why these results should be an important reminder that care is needed when interpreting results from photo studies. PMID:26476153

  3. Integrative modelling of animal movement: incorporating in situ habitat and behavioural information for a migratory marine predator.

    PubMed

    Bestley, Sophie; Jonsen, Ian D; Hindell, Mark A; Guinet, Christophe; Charrassin, Jean-Benoît

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental goal in animal ecology is to quantify how environmental (and other) factors influence individual movement, as this is key to understanding responsiveness of populations to future change. However, quantitative interpretation of individual-based telemetry data is hampered by the complexity of, and error within, these multi-dimensional data. Here, we present an integrative hierarchical Bayesian state-space modelling approach where, for the first time, the mechanistic process model for the movement state of animals directly incorporates both environmental and other behavioural information, and observation and process model parameters are estimated within a single model. When applied to a migratory marine predator, the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), we find the switch from directed to resident movement state was associated with colder water temperatures, relatively short dive bottom time and rapid descent rates. The approach presented here can have widespread utility for quantifying movement-behaviour (diving or other)-environment relationships across species and systems. PMID:23135676

  4. The effect of removing animals for slaughter on the behaviour of the remaining male and female pigs in the pen.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, B; Hexeberg, C

    2009-04-01

    The study was performed to investigate changes in the behaviour of male and female pigs when one or more pigs were removed from the pen and sent to slaughter. Twelve pens were included, half of them housed six female pigs each, while the other half housed six male pigs each. Skin lesions and behaviour were recorded on two occasions, four days before and two days after one or more animals per pen were sent to slaughter. On the first occasion the male pigs fought on average about twice as often as the females (2.6 vs. 1.0 per animal per hour) and had twice as many skin lesions (6.7 vs. 3.2). On the second occasion, the frequency of fighting among both males (6.8) and females (1.8) had increased, however, more in males than in females. The number of skin lesions was not significantly higher on the second occasion. In the male group there was also a tendency towards increased mounting on the second occasion (from 2.3 to 3.3 per animal per hour). The study shows that the very common practice of slaughtering pigs from one pen over more than one occasion results in an increase in unwanted behaviour. The effect is more pronounced in groups of entire male pigs than in groups of females.

  5. Recording the free-living behaviour of small-bodied, shallow-diving animals with data loggers.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Forman, Dan W; Harrington, Lauren A; Harrington, Andrew L; MacDonald, David W; Righton, David

    2007-01-01

    1. Time-depth data recorders (TDRs) have been widely used to explore the behaviour of relatively large, deep divers. However, little is known about the dive behaviour of small, shallow divers such as semi-aquatic mammals. 2. We used high-resolution TDRs to record the diving behaviour of American mink Mustela vison (weight of individuals 580-1275 g) in rivers in Oxfordshire (UK) between December 2005 and March 2006. 3. Dives to > 0.2 m were measured in all individuals (n = 6). Modal dive depth and duration were 0.3 m and 10 s, respectively, although dives up to 3 m and 60 s in duration were recorded. Dive duration increased with dive depth. 4. Temperature data recorded by TDRs covaried with diving behaviour: they were relatively cold (modal temperature 4-6 degrees C across individuals) when mink were diving and relatively warm (modal temperature 24-36 degrees C across individuals) when mink were not diving. 5. Individuals differed hugely in their use of rivers, reflecting foraging plasticity across both terrestrial and aquatic environments. For some individuals there was < 1 dive per day while for others there was > 100 dives per day. 6. We have shown it is now possible to record the diving behaviour of small free-living animals that only dive a few tens of centimetres, opening up the way for a new range of TDR studies on shallow diving species. PMID:17184367

  6. Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Area Confidentiality & Safety Get Informed What Is Abuse? What Is Neglect? What is Financial Exploitation? Other Safety Concerns? History ... adults. These are commonly reported signs of self-neglect* reported to Adult ... of clutter Animal feces in home Residence is extremely dirty, filled ...

  7. Animal models of neuropsychiatry revisited: a personal tribute to Teitelbaum.

    PubMed

    Robbins, T W

    2012-06-01

    Several themes and principles of behavioural neuroscience are evident in the work of Phillip Teitelbaum. He has emphasised the importance of studying behaviour in simple preparations, of re-synthesising complex behavioural patterns from these elemental 'building-blocks' and understanding their often hierarchical organisation. He also more recently has become interested in the possible power of behavioural endophenotypes. His work has resulted in a new emphasis on animal neuropsychology which is highly relevant to human psychopathology. This article illustrates these themes from examples taken from animal models of sensory neglect, drug addiction and cognitive syndromes associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22440232

  8. Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2004-04-01

    Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum including the nucleus accumbens, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. The reward information is fed to brain structures involved in decision-making and organisation of behaviour, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possibly the parietal cortex. The neural coding of basic reward terms derived from formal theories puts the neurophysiological investigation of reward mechanisms on firm conceptual grounds and provides neural correlates for the function of rewards in learning, approach behaviour and decision-making.

  9. Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2004-04-01

    Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum including the nucleus accumbens, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. The reward information is fed to brain structures involved in decision-making and organisation of behaviour, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possibly the parietal cortex. The neural coding of basic reward terms derived from formal theories puts the neurophysiological investigation of reward mechanisms on firm conceptual grounds and provides neural correlates for the function of rewards in learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. PMID:15082317

  10. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice. PMID:26682899

  11. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.

  12. Allocentric neglect strongly associated with egocentric neglect

    PubMed Central

    Rorden, Christopher; Hjaltason, Haukur; Fillmore, Paul; Fridriksson, Julius; Kjartansson, Olafur; Magnusdottir, Sigridur; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    Following brain injury, many patients experience egocentric spatial neglect, where they fail to respond to stimuli on the contralesional side of their body. On the other hand, allocentric, object-based neglect refers to the symptom of ignoring the contralesional side of objects, regardless of the objects’ egocentric position. There is an established tradition for considering these two phenomena as both behaviorally and anatomically dissociable. However, several studies and some theoretical work have suggested that these rather reflect two aspects of a unitary underlying disorder. Furthermore, in a recent large study Yue et al. [Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 93 (2012) 156] reported that acute allocentric neglect is only observed in cases where substantial egocentric neglect is also present. In a new sample of right hemisphere stroke patients, we attempted to control for potential confounds by using a novel continuous measure for allocentric neglect (in addition to a recently developed continuous measure for egocentric neglect). Our findings suggest a strong association between egocentric and allocentric neglect. Consistent with the work of Yue et al. (2012), we found allocentric behavioral deficits only in conjunction with egocentric deficits as well as a large corresponding overlap for the anatomical regions associated with egocentric and with allocentric neglect. We discuss how different anatomical and behavioral findings can be explained in a unified physiologically plausible framework, whereby allocentric and egocentric effects interact. PMID:22608082

  13. A new behavioural apparatus to reduce animal numbers in multiple types of spontaneous object recognition paradigms in rats.

    PubMed

    Ameen-Ali, K E; Eacott, M J; Easton, A

    2012-10-15

    Standard object recognition procedures assess animals' memory through their spontaneous exploration of novel objects or novel configurations of objects with other aspects of their environment. Such tasks are widely used in memory research, but also in pharmaceutical companies screening new drug treatments. However, behaviour in these tasks may be driven by influences other than novelty such as stress from handling which can subsequently influence performance. This extra-experimental variance means that large numbers of animals are required to maintain power. In addition, accumulation of data is time consuming as animals typically perform only one trial per day. The present study aimed to explore how effectively recognition memory could be tested with a new continual trials apparatus which allows for multiple trials within a session and reduced handling stress through combining features of delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition tasks. In this apparatus Lister hooded rats displayed performance significantly above chance levels in object recognition tasks (Experiments 1 and 2) and in tasks of object-location (Experiment 3) and object-in-context memory (Experiment 4) with data from only five animals or fewer per experimental group. The findings indicated that the results were comparable to those of previous reports in the literature and maintained statistical power whilst using less than a third of the number of animals typically used in spontaneous recognition paradigms. Overall, the results highlight the potential benefit of the continual trials apparatus to reduce the number of animals used in recognition memory tasks.

  14. Does the Animal Fun program improve social-emotional and behavioural outcomes in children aged 4-6 years?

    PubMed

    Piek, Jan P; Kane, Robert; Rigoli, Daniela; McLaren, Sue; Roberts, Clare M; Rooney, Rosanna; Jensen, Lynn; Dender, Alma; Packer, Tanya; Straker, Leon

    2015-10-01

    Animal Fun was designed to enhance motor and social development in young children. Its efficacy in improving motor skills was presented previously using a randomised controlled trial and a multivariate nested cohort design. Based on the Environmental Stress Hypothesis, it was argued that the program would also result in positive mental health outcomes, investigated in the current study. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83-6.17 years (M=5.42, SD=.30). Intervention and control groups were compared 6 months following intervention, and again in their first school year. Changes in teacher-rated prosocial behaviour and total difficulties were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and data analysed using Generalised Linear Mixed Models. There was a significant improvement in prosocial behaviour of children in the intervention group six months after initial testing, which remained at 18-month follow-up. Total difficulties decreased at 6 months for the intervention group, with no change at 18 months. This effect was present only for the hyperactivity/inattention subscale. The only significant change for the control group was an increase in hyperactivity/inattention scores from pre-intervention to 18-month follow-up. The Animal Fun program appears to be effective in improving social and behavioural outcomes. PMID:26298689

  15. Self-Injurious Behaviour: Limbic Dysregulation and Stress Effects in an Animal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Kies, S. D.; Turner, C. A.; Wolfman, S.; Lewis, M. H.; Devine, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its expression is highly variable within, and between diagnostic categories. This raises questions about the factors that contribute to aetiology and expression of SIB. Expression of SIB is generally described in relation to social reinforcement. However,…

  16. A robust animal model of state anxiety: fear-potentiated behaviour in the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Korte, S Mechiel; De Boer, Sietse F

    2003-02-28

    Fear (i.e., decreased percentage time spent on open-arm exploration) in the elevated plus-maze can be potentiated by prior inescapable stressor exposure, but not by escapable stress. The use of fear-potentiated plus-maze behaviour has several advantages as compared to more traditional animal models of anxiety. (a) In contrast to the traditional (spontaneous) elevated plus-maze, which measures innate fear of open spaces, fear-potentiated plus-maze behaviour reflects an enhanced anxiety state (allostatic state). This "state anxiety" can be defined as an unpleasant emotional arousal in face of threatening demands or dangers. A cognitive appraisal of threat is a prerequisite for the experience of this type of emotion. (b) Depending on the stressor used (e.g., fear of shock, predator odour, swim stress, restraint, social defeat, predator stress (cat)), this enhanced anxiety state can last from 90 min to 3 weeks. Stress effects are more severe when rats are isolated in comparison to group housing. (c) Drugs can be administered in the absence of the original stressor and after stressor exposure. As a consequence, retrieval mechanisms are not affected by drug treatment. (d) Fear-potentiated plus-maze behaviour is sensitive to proven/putative anxiolytics and anxiogenics which act via mechanisms related to the benzodiazepine-gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, but it is also sensitive to corticotropin-releasing receptor antagonists and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists and serotonin receptor agonists/antagonists complex (high predictive validity). (e) Fear-potentiated plus-maze behaviour is very robust, and experiments can easily be replicated in other labs. (f) Fear-potentiated plus-maze behaviour can be measured both in males and females. (g) Neural mechanisms involved in contextual fear conditioning, fear potentiation and state anxiety can be studied.Thus, fear-potentiated plus-maze behaviour may be a valuable measure in the understanding of neural mechanisms involved in

  17. Behavioural and physiological reactions of cattle in a commercial abattoir: relationships with organisational aspects of the abattoir and animal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Cécile; Deiss, Véronique; Tannugi, Carole Cohen; Terlouw, E M Claudia

    2011-05-01

    Behavioural, physiological and metabolic reactions of cattle to handling and slaughter procedures were evaluated in a commercial abattoir, from arrival until slaughter. Different genders or breeds were not subjected to the same procedures due to abattoir equipment or organisational aspects of the abattoir. Reactions to similar slaughter procedures varied according to animal characteristics and could have consequences for subsequent handling procedures. Factors that appeared to cause handling problems and vocalisation were excessive pressure during restraint, and distractions in the corridor such as noise, darkness, seeing people and activity. Post-mortem muscle metabolism depended on slaughter procedures. Following stunning or halal slaughter, some animals showed head rising movements despite the abolition of the corneal reflex, suggesting that head rising is not always indicative of consciousness. Overall, this study presents concrete data on how different types of cattle may react to slaughter procedures with a direct interest for the abattoir itself but also for scientific purposes. PMID:21236588

  18. Neglected and endemic zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-01-01

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented—often with very simple technologies—could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public–private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses. PMID:19687045

  19. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects. We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model. Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males. PMID:26678032

  20. Mechanisms underlying neglect recovery after prism adaptation.

    PubMed

    Serino, Andrea; Angeli, Valentina; Frassinetti, Francesca; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) has been demonstrated to be effective in improving hemispatial neglect. However not all patients seem to benefit from this procedure. Thus, the objective of the present work is to provide behavioural and neuroanatomical predictors of recovery by exploring the reorganization of low-order visuo-motor behaviour and high-order visuo-spatial representation induced by PA. To this end, 16 neglect patients (experimental group) were submitted to a PA treatment for 10 daily sessions. Neglect and oculo-motor responses were assessed before the treatment, 1 week, 1 and 3 months after the treatment. Eight control patients, who received general cognitive stimulation, were submitted to the same tests at the same time interval. The results showed that experimental patients obtained, as a consequence of PA, a long lasting neglect recovery, a reorganization of low-order visuo-motor behaviour during and after prism exposure (error reduction and after-effect, respectively) and a leftward deviation of oculo-motor responses. Importantly, the level of error reduction obtained in the first week of treatment was predictive of neglect recovery and the amelioration of oculo-motor responses, and the degree of eye movement deviation was positively related to neglect amelioration. Finally, the study of patients' neuroanatomical data showed that severe occipital lesions were associated with a lack of error reduction, poor neglect recovery and reduced oculo-motor system amelioration. In conclusion, the present results suggest that low-order visuo-motor reorganization induced by PA promotes a resetting of the oculo-motor system leading to an improvement in high-order visuo-spatial representation able to ameliorate neglect. PMID:16330055

  1. Social behaviour of dogs encountering AIBO, an animal-like robot in a neutral and in a feeding situation.

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Miklósi, Adám; Kaplan, Frédéric; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos

    2004-03-31

    The use of animal-like autonomous robots might offer new possibilities in the study of animal interactions, if the subject recognises it as a social partner. In this paper we investigate whether AIBO, a dog-like robot of the Sony Corp. can be used for this purpose. Twenty-four adult and sixteen 4-5 months old pet dogs were tested in two situations where subjects encountered one of four different test-partners: (1) a remote controlled car; (2) an AIBO robot; (3) AIBO with a puppy-scented furry cover; and (4) a 2-month-old puppy. In the neutral situation the dog could interact freely with one of the partners for 1 min in a closed arena in the presence of its owner. In the feeding situation the encounters were started while the dog was eating food. Our results show that age and context influence the social behaviour of dogs. Further, we have found that although both age groups differentiated the living and non-living test-partners for some extent, the furry AIBO evoked significantly increased responses in comparison to the car. These experiments show the first steps towards the application of robots in behavioural studies, notwithstanding that at present AIBO's limited ability to move constrains its effectiveness as social partner for dogs. PMID:14998660

  2. Social behaviour of dogs encountering AIBO, an animal-like robot in a neutral and in a feeding situation.

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Miklósi, Adám; Kaplan, Frédéric; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos

    2004-03-31

    The use of animal-like autonomous robots might offer new possibilities in the study of animal interactions, if the subject recognises it as a social partner. In this paper we investigate whether AIBO, a dog-like robot of the Sony Corp. can be used for this purpose. Twenty-four adult and sixteen 4-5 months old pet dogs were tested in two situations where subjects encountered one of four different test-partners: (1) a remote controlled car; (2) an AIBO robot; (3) AIBO with a puppy-scented furry cover; and (4) a 2-month-old puppy. In the neutral situation the dog could interact freely with one of the partners for 1 min in a closed arena in the presence of its owner. In the feeding situation the encounters were started while the dog was eating food. Our results show that age and context influence the social behaviour of dogs. Further, we have found that although both age groups differentiated the living and non-living test-partners for some extent, the furry AIBO evoked significantly increased responses in comparison to the car. These experiments show the first steps towards the application of robots in behavioural studies, notwithstanding that at present AIBO's limited ability to move constrains its effectiveness as social partner for dogs.

  3. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Howard, B J; Sanzharova, N; Fesenko, E

    2015-04-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1-3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated.

  4. Behavioural defences in animals against pathogens and parasites: parallels with the pillars of medicine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    No other theme in animal biology seems to be more central than the concept of employing strategies to survive and successfully reproduce. In nature, controlling or avoiding pathogens and parasites is an essential fitness strategy because of the ever-present disease-causing organisms. The disease-control strategies discussed here are: physical avoidance and removal of pathogens and parasites; quarantine or peripheralization of conspecifics that could be carrying potential pathogens; herbal medicine, animal style, to prevent or treat an infection; potentiation of the immune system; and care of sick or injured group members. These strategies are seen as also encompassing the pillars of human medicine: (i) quarantine; (ii) immune-boosting vaccinations; (iii) use of medicinal products; and (iv) caring or nursing. In contrast to animals, in humans, the disease-control strategies have been consolidated into a consistent and extensive medical system. A hypothesis that explains some of this difference between animals and humans is that humans are sick more often than animals. This increase in sickness in humans leading to an extensive, cognitively driven medical system is attributed to an evolutionary dietary transition from mostly natural vegetation to a meat-based diet, with an increase in health-eroding free radicals and a dietary reduction of free-radical-scavenging antioxidants. PMID:22042917

  5. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna].

  6. Love Thy Neighbour: Automatic Animal Behavioural Classification of Acceleration Data Using the K-Nearest Neighbour Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Bidder, Owen R.; Campbell, Hamish A.; Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Urgé, Patricia; Walker, James; Cai, Yuzhi; Gao, Lianli; Quintana, Flavio; Wilson, Rory P.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers hoping to elucidate the behaviour of species that aren’t readily observed are able to do so using biotelemetry methods. Accelerometers in particular are proving particularly effective and have been used on terrestrial, aquatic and volant species with success. In the past, behavioural modes were detected in accelerometer data through manual inspection, but with developments in technology, modern accelerometers now record at frequencies that make this impractical. In light of this, some researchers have suggested the use of various machine learning approaches as a means to classify accelerometer data automatically. We feel uptake of this approach by the scientific community is inhibited for two reasons; 1) Most machine learning algorithms require selection of summary statistics which obscure the decision mechanisms by which classifications are arrived, and 2) they are difficult to implement without appreciable computational skill. We present a method which allows researchers to classify accelerometer data into behavioural classes automatically using a primitive machine learning algorithm, k-nearest neighbour (KNN). Raw acceleration data may be used in KNN without selection of summary statistics, and it is easily implemented using the freeware program R. The method is evaluated by detecting 5 behavioural modes in 8 species, with examples of quadrupedal, bipedal and volant species. Accuracy and Precision were found to be comparable with other, more complex methods. In order to assist in the application of this method, the script required to run KNN analysis in R is provided. We envisage that the KNN method may be coupled with methods for investigating animal position, such as GPS telemetry or dead-reckoning, in order to implement an integrated approach to movement ecology research. PMID:24586354

  7. Love thy neighbour: automatic animal behavioural classification of acceleration data using the K-nearest neighbour algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bidder, Owen R; Campbell, Hamish A; Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Urgé, Patricia; Walker, James; Cai, Yuzhi; Gao, Lianli; Quintana, Flavio; Wilson, Rory P

    2014-01-01

    Researchers hoping to elucidate the behaviour of species that aren't readily observed are able to do so using biotelemetry methods. Accelerometers in particular are proving particularly effective and have been used on terrestrial, aquatic and volant species with success. In the past, behavioural modes were detected in accelerometer data through manual inspection, but with developments in technology, modern accelerometers now record at frequencies that make this impractical. In light of this, some researchers have suggested the use of various machine learning approaches as a means to classify accelerometer data automatically. We feel uptake of this approach by the scientific community is inhibited for two reasons; 1) Most machine learning algorithms require selection of summary statistics which obscure the decision mechanisms by which classifications are arrived, and 2) they are difficult to implement without appreciable computational skill. We present a method which allows researchers to classify accelerometer data into behavioural classes automatically using a primitive machine learning algorithm, k-nearest neighbour (KNN). Raw acceleration data may be used in KNN without selection of summary statistics, and it is easily implemented using the freeware program R. The method is evaluated by detecting 5 behavioural modes in 8 species, with examples of quadrupedal, bipedal and volant species. Accuracy and Precision were found to be comparable with other, more complex methods. In order to assist in the application of this method, the script required to run KNN analysis in R is provided. We envisage that the KNN method may be coupled with methods for investigating animal position, such as GPS telemetry or dead-reckoning, in order to implement an integrated approach to movement ecology research. PMID:24586354

  8. Recent advances in bio-logging science: Technologies and methods for understanding animal behaviour and physiology and their environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, K.; Lea, M.-A.; Patterson, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    The deployment of an ever-evolving array of animal-borne telemetry and data logging devices is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movement, behaviour and physiology of a variety species and the complex, and often highly dynamic, environments they use and respond to. The rapid rate at which new technologies, improvements to current technologies and new analytical techniques are being developed has meant that movements, behaviour and physiological processes are being quantified at finer spatial and temporal scales than ever before. The Fourth International Symposium on Bio-logging Science, held on 14-18 March in Hobart, Australia, brought together scientists across multiple disciplines to discuss the latest innovations in technology, applications and analytical techniques in bio-logging science, building on research presented at three previous conferences. Here we present an update on the state of bio-logging research and provide some views on the future of this field of research. Papers were grouped into five theme areas: (i) Southern Ocean ecosystems; (ii) fishery and biodiversity management applications; (iii) from individuals to populations—inferences of population dynamics from individuals; (iv) conservation biology and (v) habitat modelling. Papers reflected wider uptake of newer technologies, with a greater proportion of studies utilising accelerometry and incorporating advances in statistical modelling of behaviour and habitats, especially via state space modelling methods. Environmental data collected by tags at increasing accuracies are now having wider application beyond the bio-logging community, providing important oceanographic data from regions difficult to sample using traditional methodologies. Partnerships between multiple organisations are also now enabling regional assessments of species movements, behaviour and physiology at population scales and will continue to be important for applying bio-logging technologies to species

  9. Perinatal Influences of Valproate on Brain and Behaviour: An Animal Model for Autism.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Peter; Ellenbroek, Bart A

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid or valproate (VPA) is an anti-convulsant and mood stabiliser effective in treating epilepsy and bipolar disorders. Although in adults VPA is well tolerated and safe, there is convincing evidence that it has teratogenic properties, ranging from mild neurodevelopmental changes to severe congenital malformations. In particular, studies involving humans and other animals have shown that prenatal exposure to VPA can induce developmental abnormalities reminiscent of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this chapter, we discuss the connection between VPA and ASD, evaluate the VPA animal model of ASD, and describe the possible molecular mechanisms underlying VPA's teratogenic properties.

  10. Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones. They had been highly prevalent in Korea but are mostly disappearing at present through systematic and sustainable control activity. The successful experience of STH control enables Korean experts to develop many programs of NTD control in developing countries. Several programs of both official development aid and non-governmental organizations are now targeting NTDs. Most NTDs are low in health priority compared to their health threats because they are chronic, insidious, and of low mortality. No one, including the victims, raised priority of NTD control with a loud voice in the endemic field of the diseases. After the millennium development goals declared disease control over the world, NTDs are becoming less neglected globally. Even with limited resources, beginning a sustainable national program is the key for the control and elimination of NTDs. No more neglect, especially no more self-neglect, can eliminate diseases and upgrade quality of life of the neglected people.

  11. Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones. They had been highly prevalent in Korea but are mostly disappearing at present through systematic and sustainable control activity. The successful experience of STH control enables Korean experts to develop many programs of NTD control in developing countries. Several programs of both official development aid and non-governmental organizations are now targeting NTDs. Most NTDs are low in health priority compared to their health threats because they are chronic, insidious, and of low mortality. No one, including the victims, raised priority of NTD control with a loud voice in the endemic field of the diseases. After the millennium development goals declared disease control over the world, NTDs are becoming less neglected globally. Even with limited resources, beginning a sustainable national program is the key for the control and elimination of NTDs. No more neglect, especially no more self-neglect, can eliminate diseases and upgrade quality of life of the neglected people. PMID:26617444

  12. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  13. Prose reading in neglect.

    PubMed

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  14. Do visual field deficits exacerbate visuo-spatial neglect?

    PubMed Central

    Halligan, P W; Marshall, J C; Wade, D T

    1990-01-01

    A significant association between visual field deficits (VFD) and visuo-spatial neglect is well established, although cases of double-dissociation between the two conditions are not uncommon. It has been argued that VFD typically exacerbates the behavioural manifestations of neglect. We examined a series of 51 patients with unilateral right-hemisphere stroke for the presence of visual field deficit and visuo-spatial neglect. Patients were assigned to the neglect group (N+) or the non-neglect group (N-) on the basis of their aggregate scores on the recently standardised Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT). The association between neglect and VFD was confirmed. Four groups of eight patients (N+, VFD+; N+, VFD-; N-, VFD+; N-, VFD-) were then selected from the initial sample so that they were matched for age, IQ, and days post onset of stroke. Within the neglect groups, the severity of neglect did not differ significantly between those patients with and without VFD; within the non-neglect groups, scores on subtests of the BIT likewise did not differ (with the sole exception of Letter Cancellation) between the VFD+ and the VFD- subgroups. It was concluded that visual field deficits do not exacerbate neglect, and that poor functional recovery in many patients with VFDs is due to the association of sensory loss with the underlying causal factor of neglect. PMID:2380729

  15. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals. PMID:26898725

  16. Neglected and Delinquent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatino, David A.

    This report summarizes the mass of information dealing with delinquent and neglected children. The first chapter discusses characteristics that identify neglected and delinquent youth with an emphasis on social and emotional maladjustment. The second chapter reviews cultural and environmental factors related to delinquency. The author investigates…

  17. Animal models of programming: early life influences on appetite and feeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Langley-Evans, Simon C; Bellinger, Leanne; McMullen, Sarah

    2005-07-01

    Epidemiological observations of associations between early life nutrition and long-term disease risk have prompted detailed experimental investigation of the biological basis of programming. Studies using rodent or large animal models have clearly established the biological plausibility of nutritional programming and are now yielding important information on underlying mechanisms. Nutritional interventions in pregnancy, including global food restriction, protein restriction, micronutrient restriction and excess fat feeding, determine a consistent cluster of disorders in the resulting offspring. The common association of such diverse nutritional disturbances with hypertension, glucose intolerance and adiposity suggests that a small number of simple common mechanisms are active in response to fetal nutrient imbalance. Studies of rodent models indicate that fetal undernutrition determines adult adiposity. It is unclear whether the increase in central adiposity is related to increased food intake or reduced energy expenditure, although evidence exists to suggest that both may act together. Rats subject to intrauterine protein restriction exhibit increased preference for high fat foods. Feeding of energy dense foods to rats that were undernourished in utero promotes a greater degree of obesity than is noted in animals subject to adequate nutrition in fetal life. There is evidence to suggest that programming of appetite may stem from remodelling of hypothalamic structures that control feeding and programming of the expression of genes involved in responses to orexogenic hormones. The early life programming of appetite and obesity is a complex phenomenon and our understanding of how maternal nutrition determines later energy balance is at a very early stage.

  18. Duloxetine and 8-OH-DPAT, but not fluoxetine, reduce depression-like behaviour in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Doods, Henri; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ceci, Angelo

    2016-04-21

    The current study assessed whether antidepressant and/or antinociceptive drugs, duloxetine, fluoxetine as well as (±)-8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino] tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), are able to reverse depression-like behaviour in animals with chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats was selected as neuropathic pain model. Mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour were evaluated 4 weeks after surgery by "electronic algometer" and forced swimming test (FST), which measured the time of immobility, and active behaviours climbing and swimming. The selective noradrenergic and serotonergic uptake blocker duloxetine (20mg/kg) and the selective 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.5mg/kg) significantly reversed both mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour in CCI animals. Duloxetine significantly reversed depression-like behaviour in CCI rats by increasing the time of climbing and swimming, while 8-OH-DPAT attenuated depression-like behaviour mainly by increasing the time of swimming. However, the selective serotonergic uptake blocker fluoxetine (20mg/kg) failed to attenuate mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour, possibly due to confounding pro-nociceptive actions at 5-HT3 receptors. These data suggest to target noradrenergic and 5-HT1A receptors for treatment of chronic pain and its comorbidity depression.

  19. Duloxetine and 8-OH-DPAT, but not fluoxetine, reduce depression-like behaviour in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Doods, Henri; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ceci, Angelo

    2016-04-21

    The current study assessed whether antidepressant and/or antinociceptive drugs, duloxetine, fluoxetine as well as (±)-8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino] tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), are able to reverse depression-like behaviour in animals with chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats was selected as neuropathic pain model. Mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour were evaluated 4 weeks after surgery by "electronic algometer" and forced swimming test (FST), which measured the time of immobility, and active behaviours climbing and swimming. The selective noradrenergic and serotonergic uptake blocker duloxetine (20mg/kg) and the selective 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.5mg/kg) significantly reversed both mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour in CCI animals. Duloxetine significantly reversed depression-like behaviour in CCI rats by increasing the time of climbing and swimming, while 8-OH-DPAT attenuated depression-like behaviour mainly by increasing the time of swimming. However, the selective serotonergic uptake blocker fluoxetine (20mg/kg) failed to attenuate mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour, possibly due to confounding pro-nociceptive actions at 5-HT3 receptors. These data suggest to target noradrenergic and 5-HT1A receptors for treatment of chronic pain and its comorbidity depression. PMID:26987721

  20. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 2. Transfer to milk.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N; Barnett, C L

    2007-01-01

    An overview of original information available from Russian language papers on radionuclide transfer to milk is provided. Most of the data presented have not been taken into account in international reviews. The transfer coefficient (F(m)) values for radioactive isotopes of strontium, caesium and iodine are in good agreement with those previously published. The Russian language data, often based on experiments with many animals, constitute a considerable increase to the available data for many less well-studied radionuclides. In some instances, the Russian language data suggest changes in recommended values (e.g. Zr and Ru). The information presented here substantially increases the amount of available data on radionuclide transfer to milk and will be included in the current revision of the IAEA TRS Handbook of parameter values for radionuclide transfer.

  1. Red blood cell deformability and aggregation behaviour in different animal species.

    PubMed

    Plasenzotti, R; Stoiber, B; Posch, M; Windberger, U

    2004-01-01

    Comparative animal studies showed the wide variation of whole blood and plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte aggregation among mammalian species. Whole blood viscosity and red blood cell aggregation is influenced by red cell fluidity. To evaluate differences in erythrocyte deformability in mammals, three species were investigated, whose erythrocytes have a different aggregation property: horse, as a species with high, dog with medium, and sheep with almost unmeasurable aggregation tendency. Erythrocyte deformability was tested ektacytometrically (Elongation Index [EI], LORCA, Mechatronics, Hoorn, Netherlands) at shear stresses from 0.30 to 53.06 Pa. Equine erythrocytes showed EI-values from 0.047 at low shear stress to 0.541 at high shear stress. The EI from dog's erythrocytes ranged from 0.035 to 0.595. Sheep's erythrocytes had an EI of 0.005 at low and 0.400 at high shear stress. Although it might be presumed from the aggregation property that horse had the highest EI among the three species, the EI of canine erythrocytes exceeded the value in horses by 10% at high shear stress. Further, equine erythrocytes started to deform at higher shear stresses (1.69 Pa) than did canine and ovine cells, whose EI increased continuously with increasing shear stress. At moderate shear stress (1-5 Pa) deformability was even higher in the sheep than in the horse. However, at shear stresses higher than 5.34 Pa, equine red cell elongation clearly exceeded the values of sheep. We conclude that erythrocyte elongation is different between the animal species, not clearly linked with the aggregation property, and that the degree of deformability at various shear stresses is species-specific.

  2. Reward, context, and human behaviour.

    PubMed

    Blaukopf, Clare L; DiGirolamo, Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Animal models of reward processing have revealed an extensive network of brain areas that process different aspects of reward, from expectation and prediction to calculation of relative value. These results have been confirmed and extended in human neuroimaging to encompass secondary rewards more unique to humans, such as money. The majority of the extant literature covers the brain areas associated with rewards whilst neglecting analysis of the actual behaviours that these rewards generate. This review strives to redress this imbalance by illustrating the importance of looking at the behavioural outcome of rewards and the context in which they are produced. Following a brief review of the literature of reward-related activity in the brain, we examine the effect of reward context on actions. These studies reveal how the presence of reward vs. reward and punishment, or being conscious vs. unconscious of reward-related actions, differentially influence behaviour. The latter finding is of particular importance given the extent to which animal models are used in understanding the reward systems of the human mind. It is clear that further studies are needed to learn about the human reaction to reward in its entirety, including any distinctions between conscious and unconscious behaviours. We propose that studies of reward entail a measure of the animal's (human or nonhuman) knowledge of the reward and knowledge of its own behavioural outcome to achieve that reward. PMID:17619748

  3. [Neglect rehabilitation after stroke].

    PubMed

    Jehkonen, Mervi; Yliranta, Aino; Rasimus, Susanna; Saunamäki, Tiia

    2013-01-01

    Neglect is a common neuropsychological disorder after right hemisphere stroke. Neglect worsens the prognosis of functional recovery but responds well to targeted neuropsychological rehabilitation. Several methods for rehabilitation have been developed and research to-date lends best support to visual scanning training, prism adaptation, limb activation and feedback training. Core features of effective neglect rehabilitation include early initiation, daily held sessions at acute and subacute stages, increasing awareness of deficit and considering the psychosocial status of the patient as well as that of the family.

  4. Does testosterone affect lateralization of brain and behaviour? A meta-analysis in humans and other animal species.

    PubMed

    Pfannkuche, Kristina A; Bouma, Anke; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2009-04-12

    Lateralization of brain and behaviour has been the topic of research for many years in neuropsychology, but the factors guiding its development remain elusive. Based on sex differences in human lateralization, four hypotheses have been postulated that suggest a role for androgens, specifically testosterone. With the discovery that lateralization is a fundamental principle in the organization of brain and behaviour among vertebrates, it has now become possible to experimentally test such hypotheses in animal models. The use of different taxa, humans, other mammalian species and birds (with oestradiol and not testosterone involved in sexual differentiation in birds) facilitates to differentiate between the hypotheses. We used meta-analyses for analysing papers that provided sufficient information, and a semi-quantitative approach based on all relevant studies that we extracted from the literature. We tested the predictions of these hypotheses regarding strength and direction of lateralization for motor output, language and visuospatial cognition in these three taxa. We tested for sex differences and early organizational effects of testosterone (both correlative and experimental studies). We found sex differences in the direction of lateralization for non-human mammals (motor biases similar to humans) and in direction and strength in birds (visual cognitive tasks). However, the prediction that prenatal testosterone exposure affects the direction of lateralization was not supported for humans. In birds and non-human mammals, opposite trends were found, with the effect in non-human mammals being opposite to the expectation based on sex differences. None of the four hypotheses was sufficiently supported and more studies, testing a wider array of functions in different taxa while reporting the data more completely are needed. PMID:19064349

  5. Confirmation bias in studies of nestmate recognition: a cautionary note for research into the behaviour of animals.

    PubMed

    van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Elgar, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Confirmation bias is a tendency of people to interpret information in a way that confirms their expectations. A long recognized phenomenon in human psychology, confirmation bias can distort the results of a study and thus reduce its reliability. While confirmation bias can be avoided by conducting studies blind to treatment groups, this practice is not always used. Surprisingly, this is true of research in animal behaviour, and the extent to which confirmation bias influences research outcomes in this field is rarely investigated. Here we conducted a meta-analysis, using studies on nestmate recognition in ants, to compare the outcomes of studies that were conducted blind with those that were not. Nestmate recognition studies typically perform intra- and inter colony aggression assays, with the a priori expectation that there should be little or no aggression among nestmates. Aggressive interactions between ants can include subtle behaviours such as mandible flaring and recoil, which can be hard to quantify, making these types of assays prone to confirmation bias. Our survey revealed that only 29% of our sample of 79 studies were conducted blind. These studies were more likely to report aggression among nestmates if they were conducted blind (73%) than if they were not (21%). Moreover, we found that the effect size between nestmate and non-nestmate treatment means is significantly lower in experiments conducted blind than those in which colony identity is known (1.38 versus 2.76). We discuss the implications of the impact of confirmation bias for research that attempts to obtain quantitative synthesises of data from different studies.

  6. Child neglect: assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  7. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent—based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus–response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  8. The Directive 2010/63/EU on animal experimentation may skew the conclusions of pharmacological and behavioural studies.

    PubMed

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    All laboratory animals shall be provided some form of environmental enrichment (EE) in the nearest future (Directive 2010/63/EU). Displacing standard housing with EE entails the possibility that data obtained under traditional housing may be reconsidered. Specifically, while EE often contrasts the abnormalities of consolidated disease models, it also indirectly demonstrates that their validity depends on housing conditions. We mimicked a situation in which the consequences of a novel pharmacological compound were addressed before and after the adoption of the Directive. We sub-chronically exposed standard- or EE-reared adolescent CD1 mice (postnatal days 23-33) to the synthetic compound JWH-018, and evaluated its short- and long-term potential cannabinoid properties on: weight gain, locomotion, analgesia, motor coordination, body temperature, brain metabolism ((1)H MRI/MRS), anxiety- and depressive-related behaviours. While several parameters are modulated by JWH-018 independently of housing, other effects are environmentally mediated. The transition from standard housing to EE shall be carefully monitored.

  9. The Directive 2010/63/EU on animal experimentation may skew the conclusions of pharmacological and behavioural studies

    PubMed Central

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    All laboratory animals shall be provided some form of environmental enrichment (EE) in the nearest future (Directive 2010/63/EU). Displacing standard housing with EE entails the possibility that data obtained under traditional housing may be reconsidered. Specifically, while EE often contrasts the abnormalities of consolidated disease models, it also indirectly demonstrates that their validity depends on housing conditions. We mimicked a situation in which the consequences of a novel pharmacological compound were addressed before and after the adoption of the Directive. We sub-chronically exposed standard- or EE-reared adolescent CD1 mice (postnatal days 23-33) to the synthetic compound JWH-018, and evaluated its short- and long-term potential cannabinoid properties on: weight gain, locomotion, analgesia, motor coordination, body temperature, brain metabolism (1H MRI/MRS), anxiety- and depressive-related behaviours. While several parameters are modulated by JWH-018 independently of housing, other effects are environmentally mediated. The transition from standard housing to EE shall be carefully monitored. PMID:23924859

  10. Cognitive and neural correlates of depression-like behaviour in socially defeated mice: an animal model of depression with cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Guo, Ming; Garza, Jacob; Rendon, Samantha; Sun, Xue-Li; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Xin-Yun

    2011-04-01

    Human depression is associated with cognitive deficits. It is critical to have valid animal models in order to investigate mechanisms and treatment strategies for these associated conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the association of cognitive dysfunction with depression-like behaviour in an animal model of depression and investigate the neural circuits underlying the behaviour. Mice that were exposed to social defeat for 14 d developed depression-like behaviour, i.e. anhedonia and social avoidance as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and decreased social interaction. The assessment of cognitive performance of defeated mice demonstrated impaired working memory in the T-maze continuous alternation task and enhanced fear memory in the contextual and cued fear-conditioning tests. In contrast, reference learning and memory in the Morris water maze test were intact in defeated mice. Neuronal activation following chronic social defeat was investigated by c-fosin-situ hybridization. Defeated mice exhibited preferential neural activity in the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, hippocampal formation, septum, amygdala, and hypothalamic nuclei. Taken together, our results suggest that the chronic social defeat mouse model could serve as a valid animal model to study depression with cognitive impairments. The patterns of neuronal activation provide a neural basis for social defeat-induced changes in behaviour.

  11. Cognitive and neural correlates of depression-like behaviour in socially defeated mice: an animal model of depression with cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tao; Guo, Ming; Garza, Jacob; Rendon, Samantha; Sun, Xue-Li; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Xin-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Human depression is associated with cognitive deficits. It is critical to have valid animal models in order to investigate mechanisms and treatment strategies for these associated conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the association of cognitive dysfunction with depression-like behaviour in an animal model of depression and investigate the neural circuits underlying the behaviour. Mice that were exposed to social defeat for 14 d developed depression-like behaviour, i.e. anhedonia and social avoidance as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and decreased social interaction. The assessment of cognitive performance of defeated mice demonstrated impaired working memory in the T-maze continuous alternation task and enhanced fear memory in the contextual and cued fear-conditioning tests. In contrast, reference learning and memory in the Morris water maze test were intact in defeated mice. Neuronal activation following chronic social defeat was investigated by c-fos in-situ hybridization. Defeated mice exhibited preferential neural activity in the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, hippocampal formation, septum, amygdala, and hypothalamic nuclei. Taken together, our results suggest that the chronic social defeat mouse model could serve as a valid animal model to study depression with cognitive impairments. The patterns of neuronal activation provide a neural basis for social defeat-induced changes in behaviour. PMID:20735879

  12. The effect of animal health compensation on 'positive' behaviours towards exotic disease reporting and implementing biosecurity: A review, a synthesis and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Andrew Peter; Moxey, Andrew Paul; Vosough Ahmadi, Bouda; Borthwick, Fiona Ann

    2015-11-01

    With an increasing burden on public sector budgets, increased responsibility and cost sharing mechanisms for animal diseases are being considered. To achieve this, fiscal and non-fiscal intervention policies need to be designed such that they consistently promote positive disease risk management practices by animal keepers. This paper presents a review of the available evidence towards whether and how the level and type of funding mechanism affects change within biosecurity behaviours and the frequency of disease reporting. A Nuffield Health Ladder of Interventions approach is proposed as a way to frame the debate surrounding both current compensation mechanisms and how it is expected to change behaviour. Results of the review reveal a division between economic modelling approaches, which implicitly assume a causal link between payments and positive behaviours, and socio-geographic approaches which tend to ignore the influence of compensation mechanisms on influencing behaviours. Generally, economic studies suggest less than full compensation rates will encourage positive behaviours, but the non-economic literature indicate significant variation in response to compensation reflecting heterogeneity of livestock keepers in terms of their values, goals, risk attitudes, size of operation, animal species and production chain characteristics. This may be of encouragement to Western Governments seeking to shift cost burdens as it may induce greater targeting of non-fiscal mechanisms, or suggest more novel ways to augment current compensation mechanisms to both increase responsibility sharing and reduce this cost burden. This review suggests that a range of regulatory, fiscal and nudging policies are required to achieve socially optimal results with respect to positive behaviour change. However, the lack of directly available evidence which proves these causal links may hinder progress towards this optimal mixture of choice and non-choice based interventions.

  13. The effect of animal health compensation on 'positive' behaviours towards exotic disease reporting and implementing biosecurity: A review, a synthesis and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Andrew Peter; Moxey, Andrew Paul; Vosough Ahmadi, Bouda; Borthwick, Fiona Ann

    2015-11-01

    With an increasing burden on public sector budgets, increased responsibility and cost sharing mechanisms for animal diseases are being considered. To achieve this, fiscal and non-fiscal intervention policies need to be designed such that they consistently promote positive disease risk management practices by animal keepers. This paper presents a review of the available evidence towards whether and how the level and type of funding mechanism affects change within biosecurity behaviours and the frequency of disease reporting. A Nuffield Health Ladder of Interventions approach is proposed as a way to frame the debate surrounding both current compensation mechanisms and how it is expected to change behaviour. Results of the review reveal a division between economic modelling approaches, which implicitly assume a causal link between payments and positive behaviours, and socio-geographic approaches which tend to ignore the influence of compensation mechanisms on influencing behaviours. Generally, economic studies suggest less than full compensation rates will encourage positive behaviours, but the non-economic literature indicate significant variation in response to compensation reflecting heterogeneity of livestock keepers in terms of their values, goals, risk attitudes, size of operation, animal species and production chain characteristics. This may be of encouragement to Western Governments seeking to shift cost burdens as it may induce greater targeting of non-fiscal mechanisms, or suggest more novel ways to augment current compensation mechanisms to both increase responsibility sharing and reduce this cost burden. This review suggests that a range of regulatory, fiscal and nudging policies are required to achieve socially optimal results with respect to positive behaviour change. However, the lack of directly available evidence which proves these causal links may hinder progress towards this optimal mixture of choice and non-choice based interventions. PMID:26422364

  14. Spontaneous eye and head position in patients with spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Fruhmann-Berger, Monika; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2005-10-01

    The most prominent deficit in patients with spatial neglect is a bias of their active behaviour, i. e. a deviation of exploratory movements towards the right. When searching for targets, copying, or reading, the patients direct their eye and hand movements towards the ipsilesional side, leading to neglect of the contralesional side. The present study investigated whether spatial neglect is predominantly linked with such active behaviour or if it is obvious also without any explicit requirements, namely in the patients' spontaneous eye and head position. To address this issue we investigated the patients' spontaneous resting position while "doing nothing", i. e. just sitting and waiting for an experiment to start. Using magnetic search coil technique, we recorded spontaneous eye-in-head and head-on-trunk orientation in that waiting period in 24 patients with and without spatial neglect. In contrast to controls, neglect patients showed a marked deviation of spontaneous eye and head orientation of about 30 degrees (= gaze position) towards the right. The findings strengthen the view that one component of the behaviour in neglect patients is due to a very elementary disturbance of spatial information processing. The deviation of eye and head may be understood as a pathological adjustment of the subject's normal resting position to a more rightward position. While the position in healthy subjects is in line with trunk orientation, this "default position" is shifted to a new origin in patients with spatial neglect.

  15. The Neglect of Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockett, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that schooling neglects virtue through the dominant quest for right answers. This is not only intellectually disreputable in presuming the correctness of what is taught, but it undermines the development of necessary intellectual virtues, such as open-mindedness, impartiality, and accuracy in the school curriculum, and it fails…

  16. Reaching the Neglected 95%

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoSchiavo, Frank M.; Shatz, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors' comments focus on why American psychologists have become overreliant on American samples, and they provide alternative suggestions for broadening the scope…

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    A series of four documents address the definition and identification of child abuse and neglect. In the first, which is designed for professionals, a historical review is followed by discussion of clinical and social evidence of abuse. Resources for managing child abuse are described, and personnel functions are outlined. The second document,…

  18. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

  19. Disentangling neglect and hemianopia.

    PubMed

    Walker, R; Findlay, J M; Young, A W; Welch, J

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we report findings which question the diagnosis of a hemianopia in B.Q., a 66-year-old lady who shows unilateral spatial neglect following a lesion to the right parietal lobe. The presence of a hemianopia has been indicated following two independent assessments of B.Q.'s visual fields. We examined B.Q.'s performance on a visuo-spatial task in which single or double stimuli were displayed left and right of a central fixation point. B.Q. failed to report left stimuli when the fixation point was continuously displayed (OVERLAP CONDITION). This performance is consistent with the suggestion of a left hemianopia as indicated by perimetric field testing. In a further condition the fixation point was extinguished prior to stimuli onset (GAP CONDITION). B.Q. consistently responded to left stimuli in the gap condition and also showed improved performance to right stimuli. Eye movements were recorded on a separate testing session, in which B.Q. showed a normal saccadic response to left targets in the gap condition, but not during the overlap condition. These results suggest that B.Q.'s failure to report left stimuli during field plotting is due to her neglecting left stimuli and not because she has a visual field defect. By using a testing procedure which reduces the severity of neglect B.Q. is able to respond to left stimuli. Reducing the severity of B.Q.'s neglect also abolishes the apparent hemianopia. Standard field plotting techniques which use a consistently displayed fixation point may not be appropriate for the testing of neglect patients' visual fields.

  20. Maladaptive choice behaviour by pigeons: an animal analogue and possible mechanism for gambling (sub-optimal human decision-making behaviour).

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R; Stagner, Jessica

    2011-04-22

    Consistent with human gambling behaviour but contrary to optimal foraging theory, pigeons showed maladaptive choice behaviour in experiment 1 by choosing an alternative that provided on average two food pellets over an alternative that provided a certain three food pellets. On 20 per cent of the trials, choice of the two-pellet alternative resulted in a stimulus that always predicted ten food pellets; on the remaining 80 per cent of the trials, the two-pellet alternative resulted in a different stimulus that always predicted zero food pellets. Choice of the three-pellet alternative always resulted in three food pellets. This choice behaviour mimics human monetary gambling in which the infrequent occurrence of a stimulus signalling the winning event (10 pellets) is overemphasized and the more frequent occurrence of a stimulus signalling the losing event (zero pellets) is underemphasized, compared with the certain outcome associated with not gambling (the signal for three pellets). In experiment 2, choice of the two-pellet alternative resulted in ten pellets with a probability of 20 per cent following presentation of either stimulus. Choice of the three-pellet alternative continued to result in three food pellets. In this case, the pigeons reliably chose the alternative that provided a certain three pellets over the alternative that provided an average of two pellets. Thus, in experiment 1, the pigeons were responding to obtain the discriminative stimuli signalling reinforcement and the absence of reinforcement, rather than to obtain the variability in reinforcement.

  1. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

  2. Proximal intentional neglect: a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, M; Shuren, J; Heilman, K M

    1994-01-01

    Although neglect has been demonstrated in the horizontal, vertical, and radial planes of space and has been attributed to sensory-attentional, motor-intentional, and representational deficits, motor intentional neglect in the radial plane has not been previously described. A patient who had a right parietal infarct was tested with a modified cancellation task that uses a fixed window, thereby controlling attentional demands and allowing one to dissociate between intentional and representational neglect. This patient showed proximal (radial) intentional neglect (a failure to move towards or in proximal space). Unlike controls whose search times decreased with increasing window size, our patient showed no change in search time as a function of window size. This pattern of behaviour suggests that the patient's search strategy does not incorporate factors such as the relation between a fixed target space and a variably sized aperture, but rather was based on the allocation of a certain amount of resources for a fixed period of time after which, regardless of performance, the patient would stop searching. PMID:7964818

  3. NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES IN BIOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVE.

    PubMed

    Parker, Melissa; Polman, Katja; Allen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' (NTDs) points to the need for a biosocial perspective. Although 'diseases' are widely understood as biological phenomena, 'neglect' is inherently social. Social priorities, social relations and social behaviour profoundly influence the design, implementation and evaluation of control programmes. Yet, these dimensions of neglect are, themselves, neglected. Instead, emphasis is being placed on preventive chemotherapy - a technical, context-free approach which relies almost entirely on the mass distribution of drugs, at regular intervals, to populations living in endemic areas. This article reflects on the processes which have enabled an NTD 'brand' identity to emerge, and it comments on a disquieting disengagement with some of the more critical insights about the consequences of mass drug administration. Building on the work of biosocial scholars studying other aspects of health and disease, a more adequate, evidence-based approach is delineated. Developing such an approach is an iterative process, requiring on-going engagement with both biological and social insights as they emerge. Considerable theoretical, methodological and political challenges lie ahead, but it is essential they are overcome, if the sustainable control of NTDs is to become a reality. PMID:27428062

  4. Increased anxiety-like behaviour and altered GABAergic system in the amygdala and cerebellum of VPA rats - An animal model of autism.

    PubMed

    Olexová, Lucia; Štefánik, Peter; Kršková, Lucia

    2016-08-26

    Anxiety is one of the associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. According to the literature, increases in anxiety are accompanied by GABAergic system deregulation. The aim of our study, performed using an animal model of autism in the form of rats prenatally treated with valproic acid (VPA rats), was to investigate changes in anxiety-like behaviour and the gene expression of molecules that control levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. Anxiety-like behaviours were investigated using zone preferences in the open field test. The levels of the 65 and 67kDa enzymes of l-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNAs and type 1 GABA transporter (GAT1) were evaluated in the amygdala, as well as GABA producing enzymes in the cortex layer of the cerebellum. Our research showed that adult VPA rats spent less time in the inner zone of the testing chamber and more time in the outer zone of the testing chamber in the open field test. We also found that adult VPA rats had increased expression of GAT1 in the amygdala, as well as decreased levels of GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA in the cerebellum compared to control animals. These findings support the existence of a relationship between increased anxiety-like behaviour and changes in the regulation of the GABAergic system in VPA rats.

  5. Seizure-induced neglect.

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, K M; Howell, G J

    1980-01-01

    A man with intermittent right parieto-occipital seizures was monitored by electroencephalography while he received 60 trials of being touched on the right, left, or both hands. Half of the trials were given during a focal seizure, and half were given interictally. While the patient was having seizures, he appropriately responded to all 10 stimuli delivered to the right hand, but four of 10 responses were incorrect (allaesthetic) when he was stimulated on the left. With bilateral simultaneous stimulation he neglected the left hand in all 10 trials. His interictal performance was flawless. When given a line-bisection task on two occasions during a seizure, the patient attempted to make a mark to the left of the entire sheet of paper. Immediately postictally he made a mark at the right end of the line. The case illustrates that focal seizures may induce elements of the neglect syndrome and that attention (to contralateral stimuli) and intention to perform (in the contralateral hemispatial field) may be dissociable phenomena. PMID:6777464

  6. The long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure during pre-adolescence on depressive-like behaviour in a genetic animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Moné; Harvey, Brian H; Cockeran, Marike; Brink, Christiaan B

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant and drug of abuse, commonly used early in life, including in childhood and adolescence. Adverse effects include psychosis, anxiety and mood disorders, as well as increased risk of developing a mental disorder later in life. The current study investigated the long-term effects of chronic METH exposure during pre-adolescence in stress-sensitive Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats (genetic model of depression) and control Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. METH or vehicle control was administered twice daily from post-natal day 19 (PostND19) to PostND34, followed by behavioural testing at either PostND35 (early effects) or long-lasting after withdrawal at PostND60 (early adulthood). Animals were evaluated for depressive-like behaviour, locomotor activity, social interaction and object recognition memory. METH reduced depressive-like behaviour in both FSL and FRL rats at PostND35, but enhanced this behaviour at PostND60. METH also reduced locomotor activity on PostND35 in both FSL and FRL rats, but without effect at PostND60. Furthermore, METH significantly lowered social interaction behaviour (staying together) in both FRL and FSL rats at PostND35 and PostND60, whereas self-grooming time was significantly reduced only at PostND35. METH treatment enhanced exploration of the familiar vs. novel object in the novel object recognition test (nORT) in FSL and FRL rats on PostND35 and PostND60, indicative of reduced cognitive performance. Thus, early-life METH exposure induce social and cognitive deficits. Lastly, early-life exposure to METH may result in acute antidepressant-like effects immediately after chronic exposure, whereas long-term effects after withdrawal are depressogenic. Data also supports a role for genetic predisposition as with FSL rats.

  7. Mirror neuron therapy for hemispatial neglect patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Ji, Xiangtong; Ye, Qian; Chen, Wenli; Ni, Jun; Shen, Guangyu; Zhang, Bing; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Shan, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Mirror neuron system(MNS) based therapy has been employed to treat stroke induced movement disorders. However, its potential effects on patients with hemispatial neglect were uninvestigated. The present study set out to test the therapeutic efficiency of video watching of series of hand actions/movements (protocol A) in two patients with left hemispatial neglect, due to the right hemisphere stroke. The video containing dynamic landscape of natural scene or cities but not human/animals was used as the protocol B. The “ABA” training procedure for 3 weeks therefore allows us to internally control the individual differences. Before and after each week of training, the Chinese behavioral inattention test- Hongkong version (CBIT-HK) was implemented to evaluate the hemispatial neglect severity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment was implemented in two health subjects to reveal the difference of brain activation between protocol A and B. The results showed that protocol A rather than protocol B significantly improved the CBIT-HK scores at first and third weeks, respectively. Protocol A induced more bilateral activations including right inferior parietal lobe (supramarginal gyrus), which belongs to MNS and is also critical region resulting to hemineglect. Conclusion: MNS activation can provide a novel therapy for hemispatial neglect patients. PMID:25727354

  8. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

  9. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. PMID:25239124

  10. Hypoglycemia: The neglected complication

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Jagat Jyoti; Venkataraman, Subramanium; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Shaikh, Shehla; Saboo, Banshi; Das, Ashok Kumar; Ramachandran, Ambady

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is an important complication of glucose-lowering therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Attempts made at intensive glycemic control invariably increases the risk of hypoglycemia. A six-fold increase in deaths due to diabetes has been attributed to patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia in comparison to those not experiencing severe hypoglycemia Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia can lead to impairment of the counter-regulatory system with the potential for development of hypoglycemia unawareness. The short- and long-term complications of diabetes related hypoglycemia include precipitation of acute cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, neurocognitive dysfunction, retinal cell death and loss of vision in addition to health-related quality of life issues pertaining to sleep, driving, employment, recreational activities involving exercise and travel. There is an urgent need to examine the clinical spectrum and burden of hypoglycemia so that adequate control measures can be implemented against this neglected life-threatening complication. Early recognition of hypoglycemia risk factors, self-monitoring of blood glucose, selection of appropriate treatment regimens with minimal or no risk of hypoglycemia and appropriate educational programs for healthcare professionals and patients with diabetes are the major ways forward to maintain good glycemic control, minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and thereby prevent long-term complications. PMID:24083163

  11. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  12. Defining the Unknown-Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggiolo, Carla E.

    Child neglect typically involves a failure on the part of parents, guardians or other responsible parties to provide for the child's basic needs, such as food, shelter, medical care, education opportunities, or protection and supervision. Intended to help teachers recognize the symptoms of child neglect in their students, this article discusses…

  13. Planning for the Neglected Majority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.

    2007-01-01

    The "Neglected Majority" represents that 70 to 80 percent of our nation's population who, for a myriad of reasons, do not hold baccalaureate degrees. In 1985, Dale Parnell, Ed.D., described this "Neglected Majority" for the first time in one of the most influential works in the history of the community college movement. This article presents some…

  14. The Neglected Majority--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Dale Parnell's "The Neglected Majority" is one of the most influential works by a community college leader in the history of the community college movement. This essay explores the impact of "The Neglected Majority" since publication in 1985 and includes an interview with Parnell that assesses his perspective of the nearly 20 years following his…

  15. Auditory neglect and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Neglect is a neurologic disorder, typically associated with lesions of the right hemisphere, in which patients are biased towards their ipsilesional - usually right - side of space while awareness for their contralesional - usually left - side is reduced or absent. Neglect is a multimodal disorder that often includes deficits in the auditory domain. Classically, auditory extinction, in which left-sided sounds that are correctly perceived in isolation are not detected in the presence of synchronous right-sided stimulation, has been considered the primary sign of auditory neglect. However, auditory extinction can also be observed after unilateral auditory cortex lesions and is thus not specific for neglect. Recent research has shown that patients with neglect are also impaired in maintaining sustained attention, on both sides, a fact that is reflected by an impairment of auditory target detection in continuous stimulation conditions. Perhaps the most impressive auditory symptom in full-blown neglect is alloacusis, in which patients mislocalize left-sided sound sources to their right, although even patients with less severe neglect still often show disturbance of auditory spatial perception, most commonly a lateralization bias towards the right. We discuss how these various disorders may be explained by a single model of neglect and review emerging interventions for patient rehabilitation.

  16. Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  17. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  18. More Ideas for Monitoring Biological Experiments with the BBC Computer: Absorption Spectra, Yeast Growth, Enzyme Reactions and Animal Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presented are five ideas for A-level biology experiments using a laboratory computer interface. Topics investigated include photosynthesis, yeast growth, animal movements, pulse rates, and oxygen consumption and production by organisms. Includes instructions specific to the BBC computer system. (CW)

  19. Chronic child neglect in perspective.

    PubMed

    Nelson, K E; Saunders, E J; Landsman, M J

    1993-11-01

    Although the concept of chronic neglect is used in child welfare practice, studies have not differentiated chronic cases of neglect from those of more recent onset. In this study three groups of families referred to a large metropolitan county child welfare agency for child neglect are considered: those known to the agency for three years or more (chronic group), those more recently referred and substantiated (newly neglecting group), and those in which neglect was not substantiated (unconfirmed group). Significant differences among the three study groups included family size and composition, numbers and kinds of problems, neighborhood characteristics, family relationships, parenting knowledge and expectations, and mental health. Findings demonstrate the need for changes in social policy and social services delivery systems to supplement intervention with individual families.

  20. Review: Spreading the word: precise animal models and validated methods are vital when evaluating prion-like behaviour of alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Rey, N L; George, S; Brundin, P

    2016-02-01

    Synucleinopathies are characterized by abnormal proteinaceous aggregates, mainly composed of fibrillar α-synuclein (α-syn). It is now believed that α-syn can form small aggregates in a restricted number of cells, that propagate to neighbouring cells and seed aggregation of endogenous α-syn, in a 'prion-like manner'. This process could underlie the stereotypical progression of Lewy bodies described by Braak and colleagues across different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). This prion-like behaviour of α-syn has been recently investigated in animal models of PD or multiple system atrophy (MSA). These models investigate the cell-to-cell transfer of α-syn seeds, or the induction and spreading of α-syn pathology in transgenic or wild-type rodent brain. In this review, we first outline the involvement of α-syn in Lewy body diseases and MSA, and discuss how 'prion-like' mechanisms can contribute to disease. Thereon, we debate the relevance of animal models used to study prion-like propagation. Finally, we review current main histological methods used to assess α-syn pathology both in animal models and in human samples and their relevance to the disease. Specifically, we discuss using α-syn phosphorylated at serine 129 as a marker of pathology, and the novel methods available that allow for more sensitive detection of early pathology, which has relevance for modelling synucleinopathies.

  1. Ostrich eggshell as a bone substitute: a preliminary report of its biological behaviour in animals--a possibility in facial reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Dupoirieux, L

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the biological behaviour of an implant of ostrich eggshell in various animal models of facial bone reconstruction. The implant was first bioassayed in a rat muscle pouch (n=10), and then tested as an interpositional graft in rat (n=10) and rabbit (n=5) cranial defects. It was finally used as an onlay graft on rabbit mandibles (n=5). Animals were killed after two months in the bioassay, three months in the interpositional model, and six months in the onlay model. The specimens were studied by contact radiography and standard histological techniques. All animals showed normal wound-healing. In the bioassay, the implants produced only a minimal inflammatory reaction. In the interpositional model, the implants maintained a good contour, but there was no sign of graft-remodelling. In the onlay model, the grafts were stable and partly osteointegrated. The onlay graft model gave the most promising results. Because ostrich eggshell is inexpensive and has good mechanical properties, it deserves further study. Long-term studies will clarify its possible role in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:10687909

  2. Applying One Health to behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bower, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    The British Veterinary Behaviour Association and the Association of Pet Behaviour Counsellors held a meeting last month to highlight the One Health principle with regard to the behaviour of people and animals, particularly pets. Caroline Bower reports. PMID:25377201

  3. Development of automatic surveillance of animal behaviour and welfare using image analysis and machine learned segmentation technique.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, M; Herlin, A H; Ardö, H; Guzhva, O; Åström, K; Bergsten, C

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the feasibility to extract the proportion of pigs located in different areas of a pig pen by advanced image analysis technique is explored and discussed for possible applications. For example, pigs generally locate themselves in the wet dunging area at high ambient temperatures in order to avoid heat stress, as wetting the body surface is the major path to dissipate the heat by evaporation. Thus, the portion of pigs in the dunging area and resting area, respectively, could be used as an indicator of failure of controlling the climate in the pig environment as pigs are not supposed to rest in the dunging area. The computer vision methodology utilizes a learning based segmentation approach using several features extracted from the image. The learning based approach applied is based on extended state-of-the-art features in combination with a structured prediction framework based on a logistic regression solver using elastic net regularization. In addition, the method is able to produce a probability per pixel rather than form a hard decision. This overcomes some of the limitations found in a setup using grey-scale information only. The pig pen is a difficult imaging environment because of challenging lighting conditions like shadows, poor lighting and poor contrast between pig and background. In order to test practical conditions, a pen containing nine young pigs was filmed from a top view perspective by an Axis M3006 camera with a resolution of 640 × 480 in three, 10-min sessions under different lighting conditions. The results indicate that a learning based method improves, in comparison with greyscale methods, the possibility to reliable identify proportions of pigs in different areas of the pen. Pigs with a changed behaviour (location) in the pen may indicate changed climate conditions. Changed individual behaviour may also indicate inferior health or acute illness.

  4. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378

  5. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients.

  6. Theta burst stimulation reduces disability during the activities of daily living in spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Schumacher, Rahel; von Arx, Sebastian; Chaves, Silvia; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Bauer, Daniel; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bertschi, Manuel; Kipfer, Stefan; Rosenthal, Clive R; Kennard, Christopher; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Left-sided spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following right-hemispheric stroke. The presence of spatial neglect is a powerful predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. In one influential account of spatial neglect, interhemispheric inhibition is impaired and leads to a pathological hyperactivity in the contralesional hemisphere, resulting in a biased attentional allocation towards the right hemifield. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce the hyperactivity of the contralesional, intact hemisphere and thereby improve spatial neglect symptoms. However, it is not known whether this improvement is also relevant to the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation trains could ameliorate spatial neglect on a quantitative measure of the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. We applied the Catherine Bergego Scale, a standardized observation questionnaire that can validly and reliably detect the presence and severity of spatial neglect during the activities of daily living. Eight trains of continuous theta burst stimulation were applied over two consecutive days on the contralesional, left posterior parietal cortex in patients suffering from subacute left spatial neglect, in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, which also included a control group of neglect patients without stimulation. The results showed a 37% improvement in the spontaneous everyday behaviour of the neglect patients after the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation. Remarkably, the improvement persisted for at least 3 weeks after stimulation. The amelioration of spatial neglect symptoms in the activities of daily living was also generally accompanied by significantly better performance in the neuropsychological tests. No significant amelioration in symptoms was observed after sham

  7. Closing the gap between clinic and cage: sensori-motor and cognitive behavioural testing regimens in neurotoxin-induced animal models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Ilse S; Lu, Bingwei; Schallert, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    Animal models that make use of chemical toxins to adversely affect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway of rodents and primates have contributed significantly towards the development of symptomatic therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Although their use in developing neuro-therapeutic and -regenerative compounds remains to be ascertained, toxin-based mammalian and a range of non-mammalian models of PD are important tools in the identification and validation of candidate biomarkers for earlier diagnosis, as well as in the development of novel treatments that are currently working their way into the clinic. Toxin models of PD have and continue to be important models to use for understanding the consequences of nigrostriatal dopamine cell loss. Functional assessment of these models is also a critical component for eventual translational success. Sensitive behavioural testing regimens for assessing the extent of dysfunction exhibited in the toxin models, the degree of protection or improvement afforded by potential treatment modalities, and the correlation of these findings with what is observed clinically in PD patients, ultimately determines whether a potential treatment moves to clinical trials. Here, we review existing published work that describes the use of such behavioural outcome measures associated with toxin models of parkinsonism. In particular, we focus on tests assessing sensorimotor and cognitive function, both of which are significantly and progressively impaired in PD. PMID:22910679

  8. Maternal Neglect: Oxytocin, Dopamine and the Neurobiology of Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Strathearn, Lane

    2011-01-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, in order to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified which contribute to maternal caregiving behavior, focusing on the oxytocinergic and dopaminergic systems. Mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways contribute to the processing of infant-related sensory cues leading to a behavioral response. Oxytocin may activate the dopaminergic reward pathways in response to social cues. Human neuroimaging studies are summarized which demonstrate parallels between animal and human maternal caregiving responses in the brain. By comparing different patterns of human adult attachment, we gain a clearer understanding of how differences in maternal brain and endocrine responses may contribute to maternal neglect. For example, in insecure/dismissing attachment, which may be associated with emotional neglect, we see reduced activation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine reward system in response to infant face cues, as well as decreased peripheral oxytocin response to mother-infant contact. We are currently testing whether administration of intranasal oxytocin, as part of a randomized placebo controlled trial, may reverse some of these neurological differences, and potentially augment psychosocial and behavioral interventions for maternal neglect. PMID:21951160

  9. Sodium cyanide induced alteration in the whole animal oxygen consumption and behavioural pattern of freshwater fish Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    David, Muniswamy; Sangeetha, Jeyabalan; Harish, Etigemane R

    2015-03-01

    Sodium cyanide is a common environmental pollutant which is mainly used in many industries such as mining, electroplating, steel manufacturing, pharmaceutical production and other specialized applications including dyes and agricultural products. It enters aquatic environment through effluents from these industries. Static renewal bioassay test has been conducted to determine LC, of sodium cyanide on indigenous freshwater carp, Labeo rohita. The behavioural pattern and oxygen consumption were observed in fish at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations. Labeo rohita in toxic media exhibited irregular and erratic swimming movements, hyper excitability, loss of equilibrium and shrinking to the bottom, which may be due to inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase activity and decreased blood pH. The combination of cytotoxic hypoxia with lactate acidosis depresses the central nervous system resulting in respiratory arrest and death. Decrease in oxygen consumption was observed at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations of sodium cyanide. Mortality was insignificant at sub lethal concentration test when fishes were found under stress. Consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological response by fish against sodium cyanide stress showed alteration in respiratory rate. PMID:25895263

  10. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-01-01

    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.

  11. Weak rappers rock more: hermit crabs assess their own agonistic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Elizabeth; Briffa, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Fighting animals use a variety of information sources to make strategic decisions. A neglected potential source of information is an individual's own performance during a fight. Surprisingly, this possibility has yet to be incorporated into the large body of theory concerning the evolution of aggressive behaviour. Here, by experimentally dampening the impact of their shell rapping behaviour, we test for the possibility that attacking hermit crabs monitor their own fight performance. Attackers with dampened raps did not show a reduction in the number of raps used. By contrast, they showed an increased frequency of a less intense agonistic behaviour, shell rocking. This change in behaviour, in attackers that are forced to rap weakly, indicates that they assess their own agonistic behaviour. PMID:26740563

  12. Bisecting or not bisecting: this is the neglect question. Line bisection performance in the diagnosis of neglect in right brain-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Guariglia, Paola; Matano, Alessandro; Piccardi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we analysed the bisecting behaviour of 287 chronic right brain-damaged patients by taking into account the presence and severity of extrapersonal and/or personal neglect diagnosed with the hemineglect battery. We also analysed right brain-damaged patients who had (or did not have) neglect according to their line bisection performance. Our results showed that performance of the line bisection task correlates with performance of cancellation tasks, reading and perceptual tasks, but not with the presence of personal neglect. Personal neglect seems to be unrelated to line bisection behaviour. Indeed, patients affected by extrapersonal and personal neglect do not show more severe neglect in line bisection than patients with only extrapersonal neglect. Furthermore, we observed that 20.56% of the patients were considered affected or not by neglect on the line bisection task compared with the other spatial tasks of the hemineglect battery. We conclude that using a battery with multiple tests is the only way to guarantee a reliable diagnosis and effectively plan for rehabilitative training. PMID:24937472

  13. Bisecting or not bisecting: this is the neglect question. Line bisection performance in the diagnosis of neglect in right brain-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Guariglia, Paola; Matano, Alessandro; Piccardi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we analysed the bisecting behaviour of 287 chronic right brain-damaged patients by taking into account the presence and severity of extrapersonal and/or personal neglect diagnosed with the hemineglect battery. We also analysed right brain-damaged patients who had (or did not have) neglect according to their line bisection performance. Our results showed that performance of the line bisection task correlates with performance of cancellation tasks, reading and perceptual tasks, but not with the presence of personal neglect. Personal neglect seems to be unrelated to line bisection behaviour. Indeed, patients affected by extrapersonal and personal neglect do not show more severe neglect in line bisection than patients with only extrapersonal neglect. Furthermore, we observed that 20.56% of the patients were considered affected or not by neglect on the line bisection task compared with the other spatial tasks of the hemineglect battery. We conclude that using a battery with multiple tests is the only way to guarantee a reliable diagnosis and effectively plan for rehabilitative training.

  14. Bisecting or Not Bisecting: This Is the Neglect Question. Line Bisection Performance in the Diagnosis of Neglect in Right Brain-Damaged Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guariglia, Paola; Matano, Alessandro; Piccardi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we analysed the bisecting behaviour of 287 chronic right brain-damaged patients by taking into account the presence and severity of extrapersonal and/or personal neglect diagnosed with the hemineglect battery. We also analysed right brain-damaged patients who had (or did not have) neglect according to their line bisection performance. Our results showed that performance of the line bisection task correlates with performance of cancellation tasks, reading and perceptual tasks, but not with the presence of personal neglect. Personal neglect seems to be unrelated to line bisection behaviour. Indeed, patients affected by extrapersonal and personal neglect do not show more severe neglect in line bisection than patients with only extrapersonal neglect. Furthermore, we observed that 20.56% of the patients were considered affected or not by neglect on the line bisection task compared with the other spatial tasks of the hemineglect battery. We conclude that using a battery with multiple tests is the only way to guarantee a reliable diagnosis and effectively plan for rehabilitative training. PMID:24937472

  15. Zinc: the neglected nutrient.

    PubMed

    Shambaugh, G E

    1989-03-01

    Zinc was first recognized as essential for animals at the University of Illinois School of Agriculture in 1916, when it was found that zinc-deficient baby pigs were runty, developed dermatitis on their legs, and were sterile. Zinc deficiency was first recognized in man by Dr. Ananda Prasad of Detroit 26 years ago when he measured serum and hair zinc levels in young male Egyptian dwarfs who had failed to mature and were small in stature. By simply adding zinc to their regular diet, they grew in height and became sexually mature. It is now recognized that dwarfism in males is frequent around the Mediterranean, where wheat is the staple of life and has been grown for 4,000 years on the same soil, thereby resulting in the depletion of zinc. Professor Robert Henkin first suggested that zinc deficiency might cause hearing-nerve impairment. Assay of the soft tissues of the cochlea and vestibule revealed a zinc level higher than that of any other part of the body. Previously, the eye was considered to have the highest level of zinc of any organ. To diagnose zinc deficiency clinically, we use serum zinc assays made at the Mayo Clinic Trace Element Laboratory. With zinc supplementation in patients who are marginally zinc deficient, there has been improvement in tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss in about one-third of elderly adults. We believe zinc deficiency is one causation of presbycusis; by recognizing and correcting it, a progressive hearing loss can be arrested.

  16. Zinc: the neglected nutrient.

    PubMed

    Shambaugh, G E

    1989-03-01

    Zinc was first recognized as essential for animals at the University of Illinois School of Agriculture in 1916, when it was found that zinc-deficient baby pigs were runty, developed dermatitis on their legs, and were sterile. Zinc deficiency was first recognized in man by Dr. Ananda Prasad of Detroit 26 years ago when he measured serum and hair zinc levels in young male Egyptian dwarfs who had failed to mature and were small in stature. By simply adding zinc to their regular diet, they grew in height and became sexually mature. It is now recognized that dwarfism in males is frequent around the Mediterranean, where wheat is the staple of life and has been grown for 4,000 years on the same soil, thereby resulting in the depletion of zinc. Professor Robert Henkin first suggested that zinc deficiency might cause hearing-nerve impairment. Assay of the soft tissues of the cochlea and vestibule revealed a zinc level higher than that of any other part of the body. Previously, the eye was considered to have the highest level of zinc of any organ. To diagnose zinc deficiency clinically, we use serum zinc assays made at the Mayo Clinic Trace Element Laboratory. With zinc supplementation in patients who are marginally zinc deficient, there has been improvement in tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss in about one-third of elderly adults. We believe zinc deficiency is one causation of presbycusis; by recognizing and correcting it, a progressive hearing loss can be arrested. PMID:2786676

  17. Albert's test: a neglected test of perceptual neglect.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, K J; McSherry, D; Stout, R W

    1986-02-22

    Disorders of perception are thought to be important in predicting the outcome from stroke, but their exact significance is difficult to define because of lack of standardised terminology and diagnostic methods. In a prospective study of 205 unselected stroke patients, perceptual neglect, assessed by a standardised test battery, was found in 49% of patients with lesions of the non-dominant hemisphere and in 25% with lesions of the dominant hemisphere. One component of the test battery was a simple test described by Albert in which patients cross out lines ruled in a standard fashion on a sheet of paper; this was easy to administer and related closely to neglect diagnosed by the test battery as a whole. Results of Albert's test were a significant predictor of both mortality and functional activity six months after the stroke, independent of the influence of other clinical, neurological, laboratory, and social factors. The full test battery for perceptual neglect was of no significant additional predictive value.

  18. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect.

    PubMed

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  19. Harnessing Motivation to Alleviate Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A.

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation. PMID:23761744

  20. Cognitive Processes Associated with Child Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildyard, Kathryn; Wolfe, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare neglectful and non-neglectful mothers on information processing tasks related to child emotions, behaviors, the caregiving relationship, and recall of child-related information. Method: A natural group design was used. Neglectful mothers (N = 34) were chosen from active, chronic caseloads; non-neglectful comparison mothers (N…

  1. White matter (dis)connections and gray matter (dys)functions in visual neglect: gaining insights into the brain networks of spatial awareness.

    PubMed

    Doricchi, Fabrizio; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2008-09-01

    Seminal case reports collected during the middle part of the XX century, designated the parietal lobe as the principal area of damage in patients suffering from contralesional spatial neglect (Brain WC. Visual disorientation with special reference to lesions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Brain 1941;64:224-72; Paterson A, Zangwill O. Disorders of visual space perception associated with lesions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Brain 1944;67:331-58; McFie J, Piercy MF, Zangwill O. Visual spatial agnosia associated with lesions of the right hemisphere. Brain 1950;73:167-90). Based on this evidence, textbooks of neurology have traditionally referred to neglect as a "parietal sign". This view found complete accomplishment in the 1986 group study by Vallar and Perani, who confirmed that the inferior parietal lobe was the area most frequently involved in neglect patients with lesions confined to the cerebral cortex and lesions involving subcortical gray matter nuclei. In the same study, it was found that lesions limited to subcortical white matter were rarely associated with neglect. Here, we reconsider recent accumulating evidence, gathered from investigations in animals and human patients, supporting the partially different view that damage involvement of long-range white matter bundles connecting the parietal to the frontal lobe, importantly influence the occurrence and severity of spatial neglect. These findings do not dispute the role of the parietal and frontal cortex in spatial attention and space-related behaviour, but call for a reappraisal of the respective roles of disruption of white matter connections and damage of gray matter cortical modules in the pathophysiology of neglect. Disentangling the connectional and modular anatomical correlates of neglect may be crucial to better understand the pathophysiology of this syndrome, to explain the manifold clinical dissociations often encountered in clinical practice and to increase the impact of behavioural and

  2. [Old age: knowing what self-neglect is].

    PubMed

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    The issue of self-neglect in the elderly concerns society as well as caregivers who, in their practice, are ill at ease and frequently disorientated when faced with this behaviour which hampers the care approach. Here more than elsewhere, the choices of the people in question seem to collide with the care objectives, in such a way that it is important to remain curious in the face of what appears to be the height of incuriosity. PMID:26100291

  3. Informatics for neglected diseases collaborations.

    PubMed

    Bost, Frederic; Jacobs, Robert T; Kowalczyk, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Many different public and private organizations from across the globe are collaborating on neglected diseases drug-discovery and development projects with the aim of identifying a cure for tropical infectious diseases. These neglected diseases collaborations require a global, secure, multi-organization data-management solution, combined with a platform that facilitates communication and supports collaborative work. This review discusses the solutions offered by 'Software as a Service' (SaaS) web-based platforms, despite notable challenges, and the evolution of these platforms required to foster efficient virtual research efforts by geographically dispersed scientists. PMID:20443162

  4. Informatics for neglected diseases collaborations.

    PubMed

    Bost, Frederic; Jacobs, Robert T; Kowalczyk, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Many different public and private organizations from across the globe are collaborating on neglected diseases drug-discovery and development projects with the aim of identifying a cure for tropical infectious diseases. These neglected diseases collaborations require a global, secure, multi-organization data-management solution, combined with a platform that facilitates communication and supports collaborative work. This review discusses the solutions offered by 'Software as a Service' (SaaS) web-based platforms, despite notable challenges, and the evolution of these platforms required to foster efficient virtual research efforts by geographically dispersed scientists.

  5. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  6. Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern.

  7. Covariation neglect among novice investors.

    PubMed

    Hedesström, Ted Martin; Svedsäter, Henrik; Gärling, Tommy

    2006-09-01

    In 4 experiments, undergraduates made hypothetical investment choices. In Experiment 1, participants paid more attention to the volatility of individual assets than to the volatility of aggregated portfolios. The results of Experiment 2 show that most participants diversified even when this increased risk because of covariation between the returns of individual assets. In Experiment 3, nearly half of those who seemingly attempted to minimize risk diversified even when this increased risk. These results indicate that novice investors neglect covariation when diversifying across investment alternatives. Experiment 4 established that naive diversification follows from motivation to minimize risk and showed that covariation neglect was not significantly reduced by informing participants about how covariation affects portfolio risk but was reduced by making participants systematically calculate aggregate returns for diversified portfolios. In order to counteract naive diversification, novice investors need to be better informed about the rationale underlying recommendations to diversify.

  8. Repeated lysergic acid diethylamide in an animal model of depression: Normalisation of learning behaviour and hippocampal serotonin 5-HT2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Höllt, Volker; Grecksch, Gisela

    2014-06-01

    A re-balance of postsynaptic serotonin (5-HT) receptor signalling, with an increase in 5-HT1A and a decrease in 5-HT2A signalling, is a final common pathway multiple antidepressants share. Given that the 5-HT1A/2A agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), when repeatedly applied, selectively downregulates 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT1A receptors, one might expect LSD to similarly re-balance the postsynaptic 5-HT signalling. Challenging this idea, we use an animal model of depression specifically responding to repeated antidepressant treatment (olfactory bulbectomy), and test the antidepressant-like properties of repeated LSD treatment (0.13 mg/kg/d, 11 d). In line with former findings, we observe that bulbectomised rats show marked deficits in active avoidance learning. These deficits, similarly as we earlier noted with imipramine, are largely reversed by repeated LSD administration. Additionally, bulbectomised rats exhibit distinct anomalies of monoamine receptor signalling in hippocampus and/or frontal cortex; from these, only the hippocampal decrease in 5-HT2 related [(35)S]-GTP-gamma-S binding is normalised by LSD. Importantly, the sham-operated rats do not profit from LSD, and exhibit reduced hippocampal 5-HT2 signalling. As behavioural deficits after bulbectomy respond to agents classified as antidepressants only, we conclude that the effect of LSD in this model can be considered antidepressant-like, and discuss it in terms of a re-balance of hippocampal 5-HT2/5-HT1A signalling. PMID:24785760

  9. Repeated lysergic acid diethylamide in an animal model of depression: Normalisation of learning behaviour and hippocampal serotonin 5-HT2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Höllt, Volker; Grecksch, Gisela

    2014-06-01

    A re-balance of postsynaptic serotonin (5-HT) receptor signalling, with an increase in 5-HT1A and a decrease in 5-HT2A signalling, is a final common pathway multiple antidepressants share. Given that the 5-HT1A/2A agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), when repeatedly applied, selectively downregulates 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT1A receptors, one might expect LSD to similarly re-balance the postsynaptic 5-HT signalling. Challenging this idea, we use an animal model of depression specifically responding to repeated antidepressant treatment (olfactory bulbectomy), and test the antidepressant-like properties of repeated LSD treatment (0.13 mg/kg/d, 11 d). In line with former findings, we observe that bulbectomised rats show marked deficits in active avoidance learning. These deficits, similarly as we earlier noted with imipramine, are largely reversed by repeated LSD administration. Additionally, bulbectomised rats exhibit distinct anomalies of monoamine receptor signalling in hippocampus and/or frontal cortex; from these, only the hippocampal decrease in 5-HT2 related [(35)S]-GTP-gamma-S binding is normalised by LSD. Importantly, the sham-operated rats do not profit from LSD, and exhibit reduced hippocampal 5-HT2 signalling. As behavioural deficits after bulbectomy respond to agents classified as antidepressants only, we conclude that the effect of LSD in this model can be considered antidepressant-like, and discuss it in terms of a re-balance of hippocampal 5-HT2/5-HT1A signalling.

  10. Psychological profile of patients with neglected malignant wounds: a qualitative exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dolbeault, S; Flahault, C; Baffie, A; Fromantin, I

    2010-12-01

    Neglected malignant ulcerating tumours often result from failure to seek medical attention, even when the advancing tumour is visible to the patient and their friends and families. Although the appropriate wound treatment procedures are the same as for non-neglected malignant wounds, clinicians must take such neglect into account when planning the patient's care. Over a 2-year period, 25 patients at the National Cancer Centre Wound Care Unit in Paris were identified as presenting with a neglected tumour; 18 of these agreed to participate in a structured interview with a psycho-oncologist for an evaluation of their neglect behaviour. Initial results demonstrate a frequent, but not systematic, presence of a wide range of psychopathological disorders.

  11. Self-Neglect: Development and Evaluation of a Self-Neglect (SN-37) Measurement Instrument.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-08-01

    Self-neglect (SN) is a global phenomenon, largely hidden, poorly defined, and a serious public health issue. It can be intentional or unintentional and depends on the individual's capacity. Creating a safe living environment for self-neglecting adults can present complex ethical challenges. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure professional's perceptions of self-neglect. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this two-stage study. Stage 1 involved the generation of an item pool (90 items), face and content validity; and pilot testing of the instrument. In stage 2, the questionnaire was posted to a national sample of community health and social care professionals (n=566) across Ireland, with a 60% response (n=339). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using scale development guidelines to identify scales and subscales of the instrument. Construct validity was established using EFA. The result was a 37-item SN instrument, composed of five factors: environment, social networks, emotional and behavioural liability, health avoidance, and self-determinism which explained 55.6% of the total variance. Factor loadings were ≥0.40 for all items on each of the five subscales. Cronbach's alpha (α) for four subscales ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 and one subscale was 0.69. The SN-37 can be used not only to measure SN, but also to develop interventions in practice. Further testing of the SN-37 in primary care settings with diverse populations is recommended.

  12. Childhood neglect: The role of the paediatrician.

    PubMed

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Dubowitz, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Neglect is a pervasive form of child maltreatment. Health care practitioners often struggle with deciding when an action (or lack of action) by a caregiver constitutes inadequate care and is neglectful. The present article discusses the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of neglect. In addition, assessment using objective markers, such as harm and potential harm, in the identification of neglect is described, and unique factors that impact assessing and addressing issues of neglect in the clinical setting are discussed. Practical strategies for intervening in cases of neglect are discussed, including how to engage families in which there are concerns for neglect, mandated reporting, working collaboratively with children's services, ongoing monitoring of families, and how health care professionals can effectively engage in neglect prevention and advocacy.

  13. Variations in Perceptions of Child Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan J.; Meezan, William

    1996-01-01

    Explored differences in perceptions of the seriousness of nine components of neglect among mothers from three cultural groups and child welfare workers from two areas of child protection. Found members of minorities perceive some types of neglect as more serious than do Caucasians, and that mothers see most neglect as more serious than do service…

  14. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  15. Child Neglect: State of Knowledge. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polansky, Norman A.; And Others

    The discussion of child neglect considers the following topics: definition, prevalence, etiology, identification and case finding, sequelae, prevention, and treatment. The differences between child neglect and child abuse and between the legal and professional definitions of child neglect are pointed out, and an operational definition is provided.…

  16. Child, neglect and oral health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ≥7), 85 intermediate values (1 ≤ dmf-t ≥ 6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t = 0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n = 29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n = 28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p = 0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p = 0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p = 0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p = 0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p = 0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

  17. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. PMID:25869185

  18. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children.

  19. Child neglect identification: The health visitor's role.

    PubMed

    Akehurst, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Child neglect is a significant public health issue, with impact often persisting into adulthood. However, neglect is not easily identifiable and may go undetected for many years. This library-based literature review critically analyses the research to uncover effective practices to aid neglect identification. The literature identifies that professionals may observe particular risk factors in a child's life that make neglect more probable. Additionally, children who suffer neglect, and parents who neglect their children, may display signs that practitioners can be alert to. However, a number of barriers exist that make identification difficult. The literature highlights that health visitors have a significant role to play in identifying neglect. Final conclusions relate to the need for professional supervision, use of assessment tools and frameworks, multi-agency training, and timely interventions to safeguard children.

  20. Child neglect and forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Benecke, M; Lessig, R

    2001-08-15

    Close co-operation between forensic scientists, medico-legal doctors, and police forces made it possible to estimate not only the post-mortem interval but also the time since a child was neglected. On the skin surface under the diaper (anal-genital area), third instar larvae of the false stable fly Muscina stabulans FALLEN, and the lesser house fly Fannia canicularis L. were found. F. canicularis adults are attracted to both feces and urine. From the face, larvae of the bluebottle fly Calliphora vomitoria L. were collected. C. vomitoria maggots are typical early inhabitants of corpses. From the developmental times of the flies, it was estimated that the anal-genital area of the child had not been cleaned for about 14 days (7-21 day range), and that death occurred only 6-8 days prior to discovery of the body. This is the first report where an examination of the maggot fauna on a person illustrated neglect that had occurred prior to death. PMID:11457624

  1. Human Echinococcosis: A Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, António Menezes

    2010-01-01

    Echinococcosis is among the most neglected parasitic diseases. Development of new drugs and other treatment modalities receives very little attention, if any. In most developed countries, Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is an imported disease of very low incidence and prevalence and is found almost exclusively in migrants from endemic regions. In endemic regions, predominantly settings with limited resources, patient numbers are high. Whole communities do not have access to appropriate treatment. The choice of treatment modalities is limited because of poor infrastructure and shortage of equipment and drugs. In this context, CE meets the criteria for a neglected disease. Furthermore, the terminology related to the designations around the parasite, its evolution and some therapeutic procedures is not uniform and sometimes inappropriate terms and wrong designations are used based on incorrect concepts. Although all of us know the different aspects of the disease it is pertinent to remember some important points and, above all, to clarify some aspects concerning the hydatid cyst's nomenclature in order to understand better the therapeutic options in the liver locations, particularly the different surgical approaches. PMID:20862339

  2. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse.

  3. Neglected tropical diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lindoso, José Angelo L; Lindoso, Ana Angélica B P

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is intrinsically related to the incidence of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). The main countries that have the lowest human development indices (HDI) and the highest burdens of NTDs are located in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Among these countries is Brazil, which is ranked 70th in HDI. Nine out of the ten NTDs established by the World Health Organization (WHO) are present in Brazil. Leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, dengue fever and leprosy are present over almost the entire Brazilian territory. More than 90% of malaria cases occur in the Northern region of the country, and lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis occur in outbreaks in a particular region. The North and Northeast regions of Brazil have the lowest HDIs and the highest rates of NTDs. These diseases are considered neglected because there is not important investment in projects for the development of new drugs and vaccines and existing programs to control these diseases are not sufficient. Another problem related to NTDs is co-infection with HIV, which favors the occurrence of severe clinical manifestations and therapeutic failure. In this article, we describe the status of the main NTDs currently occurring in Brazil and relate them to the HDI and poverty.

  4. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 1: the ongoing neglect in the neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Centuries of scientific advances and developments in biomedical sciences have brought us a long way to understanding and managing disease processes, by reducing them to simplified cause-effect models. For most of the infectious diseases known today, we have the methods and technology to identify the causative agent, understand the mechanism by which pathology is induced and develop the treatment (drugs, vaccines, medical or surgical procedures) to cure, manage or control. Disease, however, occurs within a context of lives fraught with complexity. For any given infectious disease, who gets it, when, why, the duration, the severity, the outcome, the sequelae, are bound by a complex interplay of factors related as much to the individual as it is to the physical, social, cultural, political and economic environments. Furthermore each of these factors is in a dynamic state of change, evolving over time as they interact with each other. Simple solutions to infectious diseases are therefore rarely sustainable solutions. Sustainability would require the development of interdisciplinary sciences that allow us to acknowledge, understand and address these complexities as they occur, rather than rely solely on a form of science based on reducing the management of disease to simple paradigms. In this review we examine the current global health responses to the 'neglected' tropical diseases, which have been prioritised on the basis of an acknowledgment of the complexity of the poverty-disease cycle. However research and interventions for neglected tropical diseases, largely neglect the social and ecological contextual, factors that make these diseases persist in the target populations, continuing instead to focus on the simple biomedical interventions. We highlight the gaps in the approaches and explore the potential of enhanced interdisciplinary work in the development of long term solutions to disease control. PMID:20961461

  5. The Role of Care Neglect and Supervisory Neglect in Childhood Obesity in a Disadvantaged Sample

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Sarah M.; Murray, Amanda J.; Valles, Nizete-Ly; Koeppl, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Objective Assess the roles of care neglect and supervisory neglect, and the moderating influence of child age on childhood obesity. Study Design Child BMI, parental care neglect, and supervisory neglect were assessed in an ethnically diverse sample of 571 young children from two Midwestern States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to assess the influence of both forms of neglect and the moderating role of age. Results Fifteen percent of the children were overweight and 16.3% were obese. Care neglect significantly correlated with child BMI for younger but not older children, while supervisory neglect significantly correlated with child BMI for older but not younger children. Conclusions The impact of two types of neglect on obesity varied across age, highlighting the importance of differentiating between types of neglectful parenting when addressing the high rate of childhood obesity in disadvantaged children. PMID:19996153

  6. Imitation as behaviour parsing.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, R W

    2003-01-01

    Non-human great apes appear to be able to acquire elaborate skills partly by imitation, raising the possibility of the transfer of skill by imitation in animals that have only rudimentary mentalizing capacities: in contrast to the frequent assumption that imitation depends on prior understanding of others' intentions. Attempts to understand the apes' behaviour have led to the development of a purely mechanistic model of imitation, the 'behaviour parsing' model, in which the statistical regularities that are inevitable in planned behaviour are used to decipher the organization of another agent's behaviour, and thence to imitate parts of it. Behaviour can thereby be understood statistically in terms of its correlations (circumstances of use, effects on the environment) without understanding of intentions or the everyday physics of cause-and-effect. Thus, imitation of complex, novel behaviour may not require mentalizing, but conversely behaviour parsing may be a necessary preliminary to attributing intention and cause. PMID:12689378

  7. CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    QUEIROZ-TELLES, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromoblastomycosis (CMB) is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue caused by a transcutaneous traumatic inoculation of a specific group of dematiaceous fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long term therapy with systemic antifungals, sometimes associated with physical methods. Unlike other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed for this disease. Nowadays, therapy is based on a few open trials and on expert opinion. Itraconazole either as monotherapy or associated with other drugs, or with physical methods, is widely used. Recently, photodynamic therapy has been successfully employed in combination with antifungals in patients presenting with CBM. In the present revision the most used therapeutic options against CBM are reviewed as well as the several factors that may have impact on the patient's outcome. PMID:26465369

  8. CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Telles, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    Chromoblastomycosis (CMB) is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue caused by a transcutaneous traumatic inoculation of a specific group of dematiaceous fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long term therapy with systemic antifungals, sometimes associated with physical methods. Unlike other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed for this disease. Nowadays, therapy is based on a few open trials and on expert opinion. Itraconazole either as monotherapy or associated with other drugs, or with physical methods, is widely used. Recently, photodynamic therapy has been successfully employed in combination with antifungals in patients presenting with CBM. In the present revision the most used therapeutic options against CBM are reviewed as well as the several factors that may have impact on the patient's outcome.

  9. Ipsilesional 'where' with contralesional 'what' neglect.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jay Cheol; Ahn, Sunyoung; Kim, Sunghee; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2012-01-01

    Whereas contralesional spatial neglect is usually caused by right temporo-parietal lesions, ipsilesional spatial neglect is induced primarily by right frontal lesions. This report describes a 73-year-old woman with a right inferior parietal lesion who on 'where' tasks (line bisection and midline pointing) demonstrated ipsilesional neglect, but on 'what' tests (gap vs. no-gap detection cancellation and clothing tape removal) demonstrated contralesional neglect. This 'what' and 'where' directional dissociation provides evidence for independent 'what' and 'where' attentional networks; however, the reason this parietal lesion causes this contralesional vs. ipsilesional spatial attentional 'what' and 'where' dichotomy remains to be determined. PMID:22136591

  10. Scabies: new future for a neglected disease.

    PubMed

    Walton, Shelley F; Holt, Deborah C; Currie, Bart J; Kemp, David J

    2004-01-01

    Scabies is a disease of global proportions in both human and animal populations, resulting from infestation of the skin with the "itch" mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy the intensely itching lesions engender significant morbidity primarily due to secondary sepsis and post-infective complications. Some patients experience an extreme form of the disease, crusted scabies, in which many hundreds of mites may infest the skin causin severe crusting and hyperkeratosis. Overcrowded living conditions and poverty have been identified as significant confounding factors in transmission of the mite in humans. Control is hindered by difficulties with diagnosis, the cost of treatment, evidence for emerging resistance and lack of effective vaccines. Historically research on scabies has been extremely limited because of the difficulty in obtaining sufficient quantities of the organism. Recent molecular approaches have enabled considerable advances in the study of population genetics and transmission dynamics of S. scabiei. However, the most exciting and promising development is the potential exploitation of newly available data from S. scabiei cDNA libraries and EST projects. Ultimately this knowledge may aid early identification of disease, novel forms of chemotherapy, vaccine development and new treatment possibilities for this important but neglected parasite.

  11. Towards a Definition of Serendipity in Information Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Naresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Serendipitous or accidental discovery of information has often been neglected in information behaviour models, which tend to focus on information seeking, a more goal-directed behaviour. Method: This theoretical paper seeks to map the conceptual space of serendipity in information behaviour and to arrive at a definition. This is done…

  12. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  13. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  14. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  15. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs.

    PubMed

    Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minjoo; Yuk, Huijoon; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kang, Bokyu; Song, Daesub

    2016-07-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health.

  16. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs.

    PubMed

    Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minjoo; Yuk, Huijoon; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kang, Bokyu; Song, Daesub

    2016-07-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  17. Neglecting Neglect: Some Thoughts about Children Who Have Lacked Good Input, and Are "Undrawn" and "Unenjoyed"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at emotional neglect in the early years of life, and postulates some probable long-term sequelae of such neglect. It argues that there is a continuum of neglect; ranging from the severest form, as seen in institutional orphanages, to milder variations. A range of theoretical and research traditions, including developmental…

  18. Fungi: the neglected allergenic sources.

    PubMed

    Crameri, R; Garbani, M; Rhyner, C; Huitema, C

    2014-02-01

    Allergic diseases are considered the epidemics of the twentieth century estimated to affect more than 30% of the population in industrialized countries with a still increasing incidence. During the past two decades, the application of molecular biology allowed cloning, production and characterization of hundreds of recombinant allergens. In turn, knowledge about molecular, chemical and biologically relevant allergens contributed to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity reactions. It has been largely demonstrated that fungi are potent sources of allergenic molecules covering a vast variety of molecular structures including enzymes, toxins, cell wall components and phylogenetically highly conserved cross-reactive proteins. Despite the large knowledge accumulated and the compelling evidence for an involvement of fungal allergens in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, fungi as a prominent source of allergens are still largely neglected in basic research as well as in clinical practice. This review aims to highlight the impact of fungal allergens with focus on asthma and atopic dermatitis.

  19. Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Legal Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yell, Mitchell L.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews federal and state legal mandates to report child abuse. It addresses the issue of immunity from civil suit and criminal prosecution for reporting suspected child abuse or neglect, along with the criminal prosecution that may result if suspected child abuse or neglect is not reported. (CR)

  20. Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildyard, Kathryn L.; Wolfe, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of child neglect on three developmental periods: infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults. The severe cognitive and academic deficits, the social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and the internalizing problems of neglected children relative to physically…

  1. Empathy and Child Neglect: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paul, Joaquin; Guibert, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present an explanatory theory-based model of child neglect. This model does not address neglectful behaviors of parents with mental retardation, alcohol or drug abuse, or severe mental health problems. In this model parental behavior aimed to satisfy a child's need is considered a helping behavior and, as a consequence, child neglect…

  2. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  3. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  4. Prisms and neglect: what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Newport, Roger; Schenk, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Since Rossetti et al. (1998) reported that prism adaptation (PA) can lead to a substantial reduction of neglect symptoms PA has become a hot topic in neglect-research. More than 280 articles have been published in this area. Not all of those studies investigated the therapeutic potential of this technique, many studies examined the responsiveness to PA as a way to subdivide neglect into separate subsyndromes, other studies focussed on the process of PA itself in an effort to illuminate its underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this article we will review research in all of these three areas to determine whether and to what extent research on PA in neglect patients has fulfilled its promise as a new way to improve the treatment of neglect, enhance our understanding of this complex syndrome and provide new insights into the neurobiology of sensorimotor learning.

  5. Behavioural profile of Wistar rats with unilateral striatal lesion by quinolinic acid (animal model of Huntington disease) post-injection of apomorphine and exposure to static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Giorgetto, Carolina; Silva, Elaine Cristina Mazzei; Kitabatake, Takae Tamy; Bertolino, Guilherme; de Araujo, João Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    We analysed the motor behaviour of Wistar rats after 7 days lesion in the left striatum, injected with apomorphine (APO) and stimulated by a continuous magnetic field of 3,200 Gauss. For the behaviour assessment, we utilised the activity cage test and the rotarod test. Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control, sham, sham magnetic, lesion, and stimulated South and North Poles. After the experiments, coronal sections of the striatum were taken and stained with Nissl for analysis of the lesion. In the activity cage test for distance (F = 3.19), time of activity (F = 5.46) and crossings (F = 3.31) in all groups, except for the North Pole-stimulated group, we observed a significant increase in these behaviours when compared to the control group. Considering the number of counterclockwise turns, we observed a significant increase in the lesion in the South and North Pole stimulation groups compared with the control group. Highlighting the minor number of counterclockwise turns observed in the North Pole-stimulated group in relation to the South Pole-stimulated and Lesion groups (F = 16.01). The rotarod test revealed a decrease in the time spent in this apparatus for the Lesion group when compared to all other groups (F = 5.46). The morphometric analysis showed a reduction in the number of neurons in the Lesion group in relation to all other groups (F = 5.13). Thus, the results suggest that the static magnetic field north and south promoted a distinct behavioural profile and morphological preservation after 7 days of lesion with quinolinic acid associated with APO. PMID:25665872

  6. Brain responses to detection of right or left somatic targets are symmetrical in unilateral Parkinson's disease: a case against the concept of "parkinsonian neglect'.

    PubMed

    García-Larrea, L; Brousolle, E; Gravejat, M F; Chazot, G; Mauguière, F

    1996-12-01

    Signs of attentional dysfunction mimicking spatial neglect have been described both in humans with lateralised Parkinson's Disease (PD) and in animals with MPTP-related hemiparkinsonism. Such deficits have been attributed to dopamine loss in basal ganglia and cortical targets. However, in previous studies the existence of neglect was assumed from behavioural tests which needed a motor output, thus entailing interpretation ambiguities due to effects of directional hypokinesia. We recorded brain event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by the presentation of target somatic stimuli to the affected and non-affected sides in 44 patients with unilateral or asymmetrical PD. The N2 and P3 ERP components were specifically analysed, since (a) they are triggered selectively by task-relevant, attended sensory stimuli; (b) their latency reflects stimulus evaluation time, independently from the execution of a motor response, and (c) they have proved to be abnormal in hemineglect syndromes due to focal brain lesions. Irrespective of the side (left or right) of motor symptom predominance there were no significant ERP differences to stimulation of the affected and non-affected limbs, nor was there any correlation between ERP latencies and the degree of dopamine-related motor impairment. The P3 latency was abnormally delayed in 23% of the patients, but there was no trend for abnormalities to concentrate on the affected side. This study does not confirm the existence of a significant attentional impairment toward the affected limb in lateralised PD, and suggests that previous clinical evidence of "neglect' behaviour in PD might be linked to directional hypokinesia, thus reflecting intentional, rather than attentional lateralised deficits.

  7. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  8. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  9. Current Pipelines for Neglected Diseases

    PubMed Central

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  10. Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues

    PubMed Central

    Heukelbach, Jorg

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) are a heterogeneous category of infectious diseases in which parasite–host interactions are confined to the upper layer of the skin. The six major EPSD are scabies, pediculosis (capitis, corporis and pubis), tungiasis and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. We summarize the current knowledge on EPSD and show that these diseases are widespread, polyparasitism is common, and significant primary and secondary morbidity occurs. We show that poverty favours the presence of animal reservoirs, ensures ongoing transmission, facilitates atypical methods of spreading infectious agents and increases the chances of exposure. This results in an extraordinarily high prevalence and intensity of infestation of EPSD in resource-poor populations. Stigma, lack of access to health care and deficient behaviour in seeking health care are the reasons why EPSD frequently progress untreated and why in resource-poor populations severe morbidity is common. The ongoing uncontrolled urbanization in many developing countries makes it likely that EPSD will remain the overriding parasitic diseases for people living in extreme poverty. We advocate integrating control of EPSD into intervention measures directed against other neglected diseases such as filariasis and intestinal helminthiases. PMID:19274368

  11. Anthropogenic extinction of top carnivores and interspecific animal behaviour: implications of the rapid decoupling of a web involving wolves, bears, moose and ravens.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J

    1999-01-01

    The recent extinction of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) by humans from 95-99% of the contiguous USA and Mexico in less than 100 years has resulted in dramatically altered and expanded prey communities. Such rampant ecological change and putative ecological instability has not occurred in North American northern boreal zones. This geographical variation in the loss of large carnivores as a consequence of anthropogenic disturbance offers opportunities for examining the potential consequences of extinction on subtle but important ecological patterns involving behaviour and interspecific ecological interactions. In Alaska, where scavengers and large carnivores are associated with carcasses, field experiments involving sound playback simulations have demonstrated that at least one prey species, moose (Alces alces), is sensitive to the vocalizations of ravens (Corvus corax) and may rely on their cues to avoid predation. However, a similar relationship is absent on a predator-free island in Alaska's Cook Inlet and at two sites in the Jackson Hole region of the Rocky Mountains (USA) where grizzly bears and wolves have been extinct for 50-70 years. While prior study of birds and mammals has demonstrated that prey may retain predator recognition capabilities for thousands of years even after predation as a selective force has been relaxed, the results presented here establish that a desensitization in interspecific responsiveness can also occur in less than ten generations. These results affirm (i) a rapid decoupling in behaviour involving prey and scavengers as a consequence of anthropogenic-caused predator-prey disequilibriums, and (ii) subtle, community-level modifications in terrestrial ecosystems where large carnivores no longer exist. If knowledge about ecological and behavioural processes in extant systems is to be enhanced, the potential effects of recently extinct carnivores must be incorporated into current programmes. PMID:10629976

  12. Tocopherol in Elder Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid soluble antioxidant required for the preservation of cell membranes. Since the association between tocopherol and cognitive impairment in older adults has been described, we explored the possibility of its role in elder self-neglect. OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine whether serum tocopherol levels are associated with elder self-neglect, and (2) to assess the association of serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function in elder self-neglect. METHODS: Serum tocopherol levels were measured in a cohort of 67 self-neglecting elders and 67 matched controls, recruited for the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas. Pearson s correlation tests were performed to assess bivariate associations between serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function. RESULTS: Mean serum alpha-tocopherol levels were 10.8 +/- 4.7 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 13.0 +/- 4.9 ug/mL in control group (p = 0.006, unpaired student s t-test). None of the participants from either group had alpha-tocopherol level lower than the reference range. Mean serum gamma-tocopherol levels were 2.0 +/- 1.0 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 2.0 +/- 1.1 in control group (p=0.83). Proportion of the elders with gamma-tocopherol level lower than the reference range were 4.5% (3/66) in self-neglect group and 10.4% (7/67) in control group (p=0.32, Fisher s Exact Test). Among the self-neglecting elders, no association was found between serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Test (CDT) scores (r =-0.42, p=0.75 for MMSE; r=0.08, p=0.54 for CDT). No association was found between serum gamma-tocopherol levels and the MMSE or the CDT (r=-0.12, p=0.35 for MMSE; r=0.05, p=0.68 for CDT). CONCLUSION: In our sample, neither alpha-tocopherol nor gamma-tocopherol appears to have a role in pathophysiology of elder

  13. Behavioural social choice: a status report

    PubMed Central

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Cavagnaro, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research. PMID:19073478

  14. Observational measure of elder self-neglect.

    PubMed

    Iris, Madelyn; Conrad, Kendon J; Ridings, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve measurement of elder self-neglect by testing the psychometric properties of the Elder Self-Neglect Assessment (ESNA). Social workers, case managers, and adult protective services providers from 13 Illinois agencies completed a 77-item assessment for 215 clients suffering from self neglect. Analyses used Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches to test for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation, resulting in a 62-item assessment. The ESNA met Rasch fit criteria with good internal consistency, item reliability, and construct validity. A 25-item short form also met Rasch criteria. A hierarchy of items associated with severity of abuse was produced by frequency of occurrence. ESNA indicators of self-neglect align into two broad categories: behavioral characteristics and environmental factors, which must be accounted for in a comprehensive evaluation. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention.

  15. Neglect of Solid State Chemistry Scored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    At a recent symposium concerning the teaching of solid state chemistry in the classroom, many educators indicated that important areas of solid state chemistry were being neglected in college curricula. (RH)

  16. Medical evaluation of abused and neglected children.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, E G; Weiss, H

    1990-03-01

    Children who have been abused and neglected may have a variety of medical problems not apparent to a social worker or other nonmedical professional investigating the allegations. A joint project between a state child protective agency and an urban teaching hospital was undertaken to provide for the systematic medical screening of all children brought to the agency before their placement in foster care. These children received a complete medical evaluation with emphasis on documenting the abuse and neglect and also were screened for other medical problems. A total of 5181 children were evaluated. Forty-four percent of these children had some medical problem, including anemia, otitis media, sexually transmitted infections, and lead poisoning. Additional instances of abuse and neglect were identified and documented. This systematic evaluation allows for the optimal identification, documentation, and treatment of abuse, neglect, and other medical problems that may affect a child's outcome and adaptation. PMID:2305740

  17. Ipsilesional Neglect: Behavioral and Anatomical Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetti, Daniela L.; Goedert, Kelly M.; Foundas, Anne L.; Barrett, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The sparse existing research on ipsilesional neglect supports an association of this disorder with damage to the right frontal and subcortical brain networks. It is believed that dysfunction in these networks may result in primarily “aiming”, motor-intentional spatial errors. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether frontal-subcortical circuits are indeed commonly affected in ipsilesional neglect and to determine the relative presence of “aiming”, motor-intentional versus “where”, perceptual-attentional spatial errors in these individuals. Methods We identified 12 participants with ipsilesional neglect based on a computerized line bisection task and used the line bisection data to quantify participants' perceptual-attentional and motor-intentional errors. We were able to discriminate between these two biases using the algebraic solutions for two separate equations, one for “aiming” and one for “where” biases. Lesion mapping was conducted for all participants using MRICroN® software; lesion checklist and overlap analysis were created from these images. Results A greater percentage of participants with ipsilesional neglect had frontal/subcortical damage (83%) compared to the expected percentage (27%) observed in published patient samples with contralesional neglect. We observed the greatest area of lesion overlap in frontal lobe white matter pathways. Nevertheless, participants with ipsilesional neglect made primarily “where” rather than “aiming” spatial errors. Conclusion Our data confirms previous research suggesting that ipsilesional neglect may result from lesions to the right frontal-subcortical networks. Furthermore, in our group, ipsilesional neglect was also strongly associated with primarily “where”, perceptual-attentional bias, and less so with “aiming” motor-intentional spatial bias. PMID:25180980

  18. How neglect and punitiveness influence emotion knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P; Lewis, Michael

    2010-06-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of discipline strategies (nonviolent, physically punitive, and psychological aggression), as well as neglectful parenting. Fifteen of the children were identified as neglected by Child Protective Services (CPS) reports; 27 children had no record of CPS involvement and served as the comparison group. There were no differences between the neglect and comparison groups in the demographic factors of gender, age, home language, minority status, or public assistance, nor on IQ. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling showed that neglect significantly predicted emotion knowledge. The addition of IQ contributed a significant amount of additional variance to the model and maintained the fit. Adding parental punitiveness in the final stage contributed little additional variance and did not significantly improve the fit. Thus, deficits in children's emotion knowledge may be due primarily to lower IQ or neglect. IQ was unrelated to speed of emotion recognition. Punitiveness did not directly contribute to emotion knowledge deficits but appeared in exploratory analysis to be related to speed of emotion recognition.

  19. Animal transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  20. Animal transportation networks

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  1. Central command: control of cardiac sympathetic and vagal efferent nerve activity and the arterial baroreflex during spontaneous motor behaviour in animals.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    Feedforward control by higher brain centres (termed central command) plays a role in the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system during exercise. Over the past 20 years, workers in our laboratory have used the precollicular-premammillary decerebrate animal model to identify the neural circuitry involved in the CNS control of cardiac autonomic outflow and arterial baroreflex function. Contrary to the traditional idea that vagal withdrawal at the onset of exercise causes the increase in heart rate, central command did not decrease cardiac vagal efferent nerve activity but did allow cardiac sympathetic efferent nerve activity to produce cardiac acceleration. In addition, central command-evoked inhibition of the aortic baroreceptor-heart rate reflex blunted the baroreflex-mediated bradycardia elicited by aortic nerve stimulation, further increasing the heart rate at the onset of exercise. Spontaneous motor activity and associated cardiovascular responses disappeared in animals decerebrated at the midcollicular level. These findings indicate that the brain region including the caudal diencephalon and extending to the rostral mesencephalon may play a role in generating central command. Bicuculline microinjected into the midbrain ventral tegmental area of decerebrate rats produced a long-lasting repetitive activation of renal sympathetic nerve activity that was synchronized with the motor nerve discharge. When lidocaine was microinjected into the ventral tegmental area, the spontaneous motor activity and associated cardiovascular responses ceased. From these findings, we conclude that cerebral cortical outputs trigger activation of neural circuits within the caudal brain, including the ventral tegmental area, which causes central command to augment cardiac sympathetic outflow at the onset of exercise in decerebrate animal models. PMID:21984731

  2. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect.

    PubMed

    Fasotti, Luciano; van Kessel, Marlies

    2013-11-15

    Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation, or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalization to (un)trained tasks, lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuospatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into four categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich, and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of treatments.

  3. Novel Insights in the Rehabilitation of Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Fasotti, Luciano; van Kessel, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation, or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalization to (un)trained tasks, lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuospatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into four categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich, and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of treatments

  4. Spatial attention systems in spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2015-08-01

    It has been established that processes relating to 'spatial attention' are implemented at cortical level by goal-directed (top-down) and stimulus-driven (bottom-up) networks. Spatial neglect in brain-damaged individuals has been interpreted as a distinguished exemplar for a disturbance of these processes. The present paper elaborates this assumption. Functioning of the two attentional networks seem to dissociate in spatial neglect; behavioral studies of patients' orienting and exploration behavior point to a disturbed stimulus-driven but preserved goal-directed attention system. When a target suddenly appears somewhere in space, neglect patients demonstrate disturbed detection and orienting if it is located in contralesional direction. In contrast, if neglect patients explore a scene with voluntarily, top-down controlled shifts of spatial attention, they perform movements that are oriented into all spatial directions without any direction-specific disturbances. The paper thus argues that not the top-down control of spatial attention itself, rather a body-related matrix on top of which this process is executed, seems affected. In that sense, the traditional role of spatial neglect as a stroke model for 'spatial attention' requires adjustment. Beyond its insights into the human stimulus-driven attentional system, the disorder most notably provides vistas in how our brain encodes topographical information and organizes spatially oriented action - including the top-down control of spatial attention - in relation to body position.

  5. Medical implications of elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi

    2005-05-01

    Recognition of elder abuse and neglect among health care professionals has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Each year, millions of elderly persons suffer as the result of abuse and neglect. Their quality of life is severely jeopardized in the form of worsened functional status and progressive dependency, poorly rated self-health, feelings of helplessness, and from the vicious cycle of social isolation, stress and further psychologic decline. Other medical implications of abuse and neglect include higher health systems use in the form of frequent ER visits, higher hospitalization, and higher nursing home placement; most importantly, it is an independent predictor for higher mortality. Physicians are well situated in detecting and reporting suspected cases and taking care of the frail elders who are victims of abuse and neglect, but there are barriers on the individual level, and there is a broader need for system change. Through education, training, and reinforcement, there are strategies to get health care professionals more involved and provide effective management protocols and guidelines for us to advocate for our patients in the current epidemic of elder abuse and neglect. PMID:15804552

  6. Neglected Thoraco Lumbar Traumatic Spine Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Kavin; Sharma, Vijay; Gupta, Babita; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To outline the etiology, complications and management difficulties encountered in the management of neglected thoracolumbar spine injuries. Overview of Literature The English literature describes overlooked diagnosis as the most common cause of neglected spine injuries. However, the reasons differ in developing or under-developed nations. Moreover, there is scarcity of literature about the neglected spinal injuries. Methods Patients presenting with thoracolumbar traumatic injuries who had not received any form of treatment for more than three weeks were included in the study. The demographic details, operative procedure performed and complications encountered, along with American Spinal Injury Association grade and spinal cord independence measure score recorded on the history sheets were noted. The data were analyzed. Results Forty patients were included in the study. Inadequate treatment at the first contact hospital (45%) followed by late presentation (38%) and missed injury (17%) were the major etiological factors for the neglected traumatic injuries in the thoracolumbar spine. The most common complications seen in the management of these cases were pressure sores (58%), back pain (57%), urinary tract infection (42%) and residual kyphotic deformity (42%). Conclusions Management of neglected thoracolumbar injuries is challenging. The delay in presentation should not prevent spine surgeon in proceeding with operative intervention as good results can be expected. PMID:27559447

  7. Neuroimaging of eye position reveals spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Becker, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Conjugate eye deviation describes the tonic horizontal deviation of the eyes in acute stroke patients. Here we investigate whether measuring patients' eye-in-head position in clinical magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans obtained at admission shows a specific relationship to spatial neglect. We investigated 124 continuously admitted subjects with unilateral, first-ever left- or right-sided stroke. To control for the possibility that the degree of eye deviation is related to lesion size rather than spatial neglect, overall lesion volume was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Horizontal eye-in-head deviation on clinical brain scans appeared to be associated with spatial neglect rather than with brain damage per se. In contrast to the subject groups without the disorder, the patients with spatial neglect showed an eye-in-head position that was significantly deviated towards the ipsilesional right. Evaluation of eye-in-head position on clinical scans thus may be an additional helpful tool for diagnosing spatial neglect, particularly in the very early period of the stroke.

  8. Hemispatial Neglect Shows That "Before" Is "Left".

    PubMed

    Bonato, Mario; Saj, Arnaud; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has led to the hypothesis that events which unfold in time might be spatially represented in a left-to-right fashion, resembling writing direction. Here we studied fourteen right-hemisphere damaged patients, with or without neglect, a disorder of spatial awareness affecting contralesional (here left) space processing and representation. We reasoned that if the processing of time-ordered events is spatial in nature, it should be impaired in the presence of neglect and spared in its absence. Patients categorized events of a story as occurring before or after a central event, which acted as a temporal reference. An asymmetric distance effect emerged in neglect patients, with slower responses to events that took place before the temporal reference. The event occurring immediately before the reference elicited particularly slow responses, closely mirroring the pattern found in neglect patients performing numerical comparison tasks. Moreover, the first item elicited significantly slower responses than the last one, suggesting a preference for a left-to-right scanning/representation of events in time. Patients without neglect showed a regular and symmetric distance effect. These findings further suggest that the representation of events order is spatial in nature and provide compelling evidence that ordinality is similarly represented within temporal and numerical domains. PMID:27313902

  9. One health - an ecological and evolutionary framework for tackling Neglected Zoonotic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Webster, Joanne P; Gower, Charlotte M; Knowles, Sarah C L; Molyneux, David H; Fenton, Andy

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the complex population biology and transmission ecology of multihost parasites has been declared as one of the major challenges of biomedical sciences for the 21st century and the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs) are perhaps the most neglected of all the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). Here we consider how multihost parasite transmission and evolutionary dynamics may affect the success of human and animal disease control programmes, particularly neglected diseases of the developing world. We review the different types of zoonotic interactions that occur, both ecological and evolutionary, their potential relevance for current human control activities, and make suggestions for the development of an empirical evidence base and theoretical framework to better understand and predict the outcome of such interactions. In particular, we consider whether preventive chemotherapy, the current mainstay of NTD control, can be successful without a One Health approach. Transmission within and between animal reservoirs and humans can have important ecological and evolutionary consequences, driving the evolution and establishment of drug resistance, as well as providing selective pressures for spill-over, host switching, hybridizations and introgressions between animal and human parasites. Our aim here is to highlight the importance of both elucidating disease ecology, including identifying key hosts and tailoring control effort accordingly, and understanding parasite evolution, such as precisely how infectious agents may respond and adapt to anthropogenic change. Both elements are essential if we are to alleviate disease risks from NZDs in humans, domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:26834828

  10. Error Types and Error Positions in Neglect Dyslexia: Comparative Analyses in Neglect Patients and Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinzierl, Christiane; Kerkhoff, Georg; van Eimeren, Lucia; Keller, Ingo; Stenneken, Prisca

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect frequently involves a lateralised reading disorder, neglect dyslexia (ND). Reading of single words in ND is characterised by left-sided omissions and substitutions of letters. However, it is unclear whether the distribution of error types and positions within a word shows a unique pattern of ND when directly compared to…

  11. Neglect Dyslexia: Frequency, Association with Other Hemispatial Neglects, and Lesion Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Eun-Joo; Seo, Sang Won; Choi, Kyung Mook; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Na, Duk L.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with right hemisphere injury often omit or misread words on the left side of a page or the beginning letters of single words (neglect dyslexia). Our study involving a large sample of acute right hemisphere stroke investigated (1) the frequency of neglect dyslexia (ND), (2) the association between ND and other types of contralesional…

  12. Modelling the differential effects of prisms on perception and action in neglect.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven; Danckert, James; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Damage to the right parietal cortex often leads to a syndrome known as unilateral neglect in which the patient fails to attend or respond to stimuli in left space. Recent work attempting to rehabilitate the disorder has made use of rightward-shifting prisms that displace visual input further rightward. After a brief period of adaptation to prisms, many of the symptoms of neglect show improvements that can last for hours or longer, depending on the adaptation procedure. Recent work has shown, however, that differential effects of prisms can be observed on actions (which are typically improved) and perceptual biases (which often remain unchanged). Here, we present a computational model capable of explaining some basic symptoms of neglect (line bisection behaviour), the effects of prism adaptation in both healthy controls and neglect patients and the observed dissociation between action and perception following prisms. The results of our simulations support recent contentions that prisms primarily influence behaviours normally thought to be controlled by the dorsal stream.

  13. Motivational control of sign-tracking behaviour: A theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Learning and motivation are two psychological processes allowing animals to form and express Pavlovian associations between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). However, most models have attempted to capture the mechanisms of learning while neglecting the role that motivation (or incentive salience) may actively play in the expression of behaviour. There is now a body of neurobehavioural evidence showing that incentive salience represents a major determinant of Pavlovian performance. This article presents a motivational model of sign-tracking behaviour whose aim is to explain a wide range of behavioural effects, including those related to partial reinforcement, physiological changes, competition between CSs, and individual differences in responding to a CS. In this model, associative learning is assumed to determine the ability to produce a Pavlovian conditioned response rather than to control the strength and the quality of that response. The model is in keeping with the incentive salience hypothesis and will therefore be discussed in the context of dopamine's role in the brain. PMID:27016362

  14. Motivational control of sign-tracking behaviour: A theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Learning and motivation are two psychological processes allowing animals to form and express Pavlovian associations between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). However, most models have attempted to capture the mechanisms of learning while neglecting the role that motivation (or incentive salience) may actively play in the expression of behaviour. There is now a body of neurobehavioural evidence showing that incentive salience represents a major determinant of Pavlovian performance. This article presents a motivational model of sign-tracking behaviour whose aim is to explain a wide range of behavioural effects, including those related to partial reinforcement, physiological changes, competition between CSs, and individual differences in responding to a CS. In this model, associative learning is assumed to determine the ability to produce a Pavlovian conditioned response rather than to control the strength and the quality of that response. The model is in keeping with the incentive salience hypothesis and will therefore be discussed in the context of dopamine's role in the brain.

  15. Spatial attention and neglect: parietal, frontal and cingulate contributions to the mental representation and attentional targeting of salient extrapersonal events.

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, M M

    1999-01-01

    The syndrome of contralesional neglect reflects a lateralized disruption of spatial attention. In the human, the left hemisphere shifts attention predominantly in the contralateral hemispace and in a contraversive direction whereas the right hemisphere distributes attention more evenly, in both hemispaces and both directions. As a consequence of this asymmetry, severe contralesional neglect occurs almost exclusively after right hemisphere lesions. Patients with left neglect experience a loss of salience in the mental representation and conscious perception of the left side and display a reluctance to direct orientating and exploratory behaviours to the left. Neglect is distributed according to egocentric, allocentric, world-centred, and object-centred frames of reference. Neglected events can continue to exert an implicit influence on behaviour, indicating that the attentional filtering occurs at the level of an internalized representation rather than at the level of peripheral sensory input. The unilateral neglect syndrome is caused by a dysfunction of a large-scale neurocognitive network, the cortical epicentres of which are located in posterior parietal cortex, the frontal eye fields, and the cingulate gyrus. This network coordinates all aspects of spatial attention, regardless of the modality of input or output. It helps to compile a mental representation of extrapersonal events in terms of their motivational salience, and to generate 'kinetic strategies' so that the attentional focus can shift from one target to another. PMID:10466154

  16. Palisade dorsoventral lavage for neglected peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Losanoff, J; Kjossev, K

    1997-02-01

    A modification of the procedure of laparostomy with palisade dorsoventral lavage for treating neglected peritonitis is described. It consists of adding a polyethylene foil to cover the intestines and thus avoiding the direct contact between them from one side, and the suction drains and the palisade laparostomy screen from the other. Between 1988 and 1995, 19 patients with neglected peritonitis (APACHE II scores from 12 to 42; mean 22.3) were managed using this modified technique. A total of 81 reexplorations were done (average, 4.3 reexplorations per patient). The technique proved effective (21% mortality, n = 4). No intestinal perforations, fistulas, or residual pus collections occurred among survivors or among those who died. Primary fascial closure was achieved in all survivors and during an 18-months followup, no incisional hernia occurred. Based on these results, we believe this technique is extremely useful when both laparostomy and continuous peritoneal irrigations are considered in patients with neglected peritonitis.

  17. Animal intelligence as encephalization.

    PubMed

    Jerison, H J

    1985-02-13

    There is no consensus on the nature of animal intelligence despite a century of research, though recent work on cognitive capacities of dolphins and great apes seems to be on one right track. The most precise quantitative analyses have been of relative brain size, or structural encephalization, undertaken to find biological correlates of mind in animals. Encephalization and its evolution are remarkably orderly, and if the idea of intelligence were unknown it would have to be invented to explain encephalization. The scientific question is: what behaviour or dimensions of behaviour evolved when encephalization evolved? The answer: the relatively unusual behaviours that require increased neural information processing capacity, beyond that attributable to differences among species in body size. In this perspective, the different behaviours that depend on augmented processing capacity in different species are evidence of different intelligences (in the plural) that have evolved.

  18. Neglected children, shame-proneness, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed.

  19. Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Averós, X; Brossard, L; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Edwards, S A; Meunier-Salaün, M C

    2012-08-01

    A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P < 0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P < 0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P < 0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P < 0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P < 0.05) and floor space allowance (P < 0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P < 0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P < 0.05), higher ingestion rates (P < 0.001) and higher ADFI (P < 0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P < 0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P < 0.01), the ingestion rate (P < 0.001) and FCR (P < 0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex

  20. Child Abuse and Neglect in American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Ronald S.

    Child abuse and neglect among American Indians is a political as well as a clinical problem, as the victims belong to one cultural group and health professionls who detect maltreatment generally belong to another. Reluctance to diagnose and report child abuse, although universal, is probably more significant in Indian communities for several…

  1. Child Abuse and Neglect in Indian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharan, M. B.

    Conditions in India that contribute to child abuse and neglect are discussed. Sections focus on child rearing practices, discipline of children at home and in school, the nation's six million abandoned children, child sexual abuse, causes of abuse, poverty, lack of education, characteristics of abused children and their abusers, situational…

  2. Drowning in a child: accidental or neglect?

    PubMed

    Faridah, M N; Khairani, O

    2003-12-01

    We report the case of an infant who was found dead in the toilet of a nursery. Examination of the scene revealed an element of neglect in the care of the child. Postmortem showed evidence of drowning. Her blood sample showed a toxicologic evidence of alcohol exposure.

  3. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  4. Collocations: A Neglected Variable in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farghal, Mohammed; Obiedat, Hussein

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the issue of collocations as an important and neglected variable in English-as-a-Foreign-Language classes. Two questionnaires, in English and Arabic, involving common collocations relating to food, color, and weather were administered to English majors and English language teachers. Results show both groups deficient in collocations. (36…

  5. Child Abuse and Neglect. Data Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…

  6. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  7. Preserved semantic access in neglect dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Làdavas, E; Shallice, T; Zanella, M T

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the preservation of semantic access in patients with severe neglect dyslexia for words and non-words. Patients were given the following tasks: (1) reading aloud letter strings (first basic reading task), (2) making semantic decisions (categorial and inferential judgements), (3) making semantic decisions and reading the letter strings immediately afterwards (semantic-reading tasks), (4) reading letter strings again (final basic reading tasks) and (5) auditory control tasks. Of 23 patients with visual neglect, four showed neglect dyslexia for both words and non-words. Of these four patients, three showed a performance in the semantic tasks that was as good as in the auditory condition. Moreover, the reading of the patients improved dramatically in the semantic-reading tasks but this was not maintained in the final basic reading task. Non-words showed only a minor improvement. Findings are discussed in terms of an interaction between the attentional system and the different reading routes, and provide evidence that semantic routes are less affected by neglect.

  8. Elder Abuse and Neglect: The Illinois Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.

    This document outlines the ideas of the Illinois Department of Aging on the implementation and management of the Elder Abuse and Neglect Intervention Program. These topics are addressed in order to provide a basis for discussion of key elements of the proposed program and serve as a guide in the development of rules, policies, and procedures for…

  9. The Neglected Tools Can Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Mac M.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the resources and techniques available to the classroom teacher of English as a second or foreign language, none are more neglected than audiovisual aids. Properly planned, constructed, and employed, such aids can help not only to improve the overall language program but also to enhance the classroom atmosphere and to ensure greater student…

  10. The Neglected Majority--20th Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    It is the 20th anniversary of the release of Dale Parnell's landmark book "The Neglected Majority". In this book, Parnell pointed out that for too long America's educational system has focused on the highest and lowest achievers. He made the case that most of those students in the middle two high school quartiles neither prepare for nor aspire to…

  11. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  12. Behavioural genetics: An introduction.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, F; Ellenbroek, B A

    1999-06-01

    Behavioural genetics is the study of the hereditary influence on behaviour, and can therefore be regarded as the intersection between behavioural sciences and genetics. As with most other fields of research it is difficult to exactly pinpoint when behavioural genetics started. In fact, one might say that the notion behavioural traits can be inherited may have appeared in human thought as early at 8000 BC, when the domestication of the dog began. The scientific era of behavioural genetics is generally considered to start with Charles Darwin. In his famous book On the Origin of Species by Means of natural Selection, or the Preservation of favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, published in 1859 (and sold out the first day), he devoted an entire chapter on instinctive behavioural patterns. Some years later, in his book The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, he clearly stated that the difference between the mind of a human being and the mind of an animal 'is certainly one of degree and not of kind'. Moreover he gave considerable thought that mental powers (and insanity) are heritable aspects.

  13. Punishment in animal societies.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Parker, G A

    1995-01-19

    Although positive reciprocity (reciprocal altruism) has been a focus of interest in evolutionary biology, negative reciprocity (retaliatory infliction of fitness reduction) has been largely ignored. In social animals, retaliatory aggression is common, individuals often punish other group members that infringe their interests, and punishment can cause subordinates to desist from behaviour likely to reduce the fitness of dominant animals. Punishing strategies are used to establish and maintain dominance relationships, to discourage parasites and cheats, to discipline offspring or prospective sexual partners and to maintain cooperative behaviour.

  14. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  15. Quo vadis venomics? A roadmap to neglected venomous invertebrates.

    PubMed

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I; Jenner, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  16. Quo vadis venomics? A roadmap to neglected venomous invertebrates.

    PubMed

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I; Jenner, Ronald A

    2014-12-19

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.

  17. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  18. Neural mechanisms underlying the evolvability of behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of nervous systems alters the evolvability of behaviour. Complex nervous systems are phylogenetically constrained; nevertheless particular species-specific behaviours have repeatedly evolved, suggesting a predisposition towards those behaviours. Independently evolved behaviours in animals that share a common neural architecture are generally produced by homologous neural structures, homologous neural pathways and even in the case of some invertebrates, homologous identified neurons. Such parallel evolution has been documented in the chromatic sensitivity of visual systems, motor behaviours and complex social behaviours such as pair-bonding. The appearance of homoplasious behaviours produced by homologous neural substrates suggests that there might be features of these nervous systems that favoured the repeated evolution of particular behaviours. Neuromodulation may be one such feature because it allows anatomically defined neural circuitry to be re-purposed. The developmental, genetic and physiological mechanisms that contribute to nervous system complexity may also bias the evolution of behaviour, thereby affecting the evolvability of species-specific behaviour. PMID:21690127

  19. Cephalopod consciousness: behavioural evidence.

    PubMed

    Mather, Jennifer A

    2008-03-01

    Behavioural evidence suggests that cephalopod molluscs may have a form of primary consciousness. First, the linkage of brain to behaviour seen in lateralization, sleep and through a developmental context is similar to that of mammals and birds. Second, cephalopods, especially octopuses, are heavily dependent on learning in response to both visual and tactile cues, and may have domain generality and form simple concepts. Third, these animals are aware of their position, both within themselves and in larger space, including having a working memory of foraging areas in the recent past. Thus if using a 'global workspace' which evaluates memory input and focuses attention is the criterion, cephalopods appear to have primary consciousness.

  20. Effects of Pro-Cholinergic Treatment in Patients Suffering from Spatial Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, N.; Saj, A.; Schwartz, S.; Ptak, R.; Thomas, C.; Conne, P.; Leroy, R.; Pavin, S.; Diserens, K.; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a neurological condition characterized by a breakdown of spatial cognition contralateral to hemispheric damage. Deficits in spatial attention toward the contralesional side are considered to be central to this syndrome. Brain lesions typically involve right fronto-parietal cortices mediating attentional functions and subcortical connections in underlying white matter. Convergent findings from neuroimaging and behavioral studies in both animals and humans suggest that the cholinergic system might also be critically implicated in selective attention by modulating cortical function via widespread projections from the basal forebrain. Here we asked whether deficits in spatial attention associated with neglect could partly result from a cholinergic deafferentation of cortical areas subserving attentional functions, and whether such disturbances could be alleviated by pro-cholinergic therapy. We examined the effect of a single-dose transdermal nicotine treatment on spatial neglect in 10 stroke patients in a double-blind placebo-controlled protocol, using a standardized battery of neglect tests. Nicotine-induced systematic improvement on cancellation tasks and facilitated orienting to single visual targets, but had no significant effect on other tests. These results support a global effect of nicotine on attention and arousal, but no effect on other spatial mechanisms impaired in neglect. PMID:24062674

  1. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  2. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  3. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data System Glossary Listen < Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  4. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Glossary previous page Related Documents PDF Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools and Tips ...

  5. Neglect Contributing to Tertiary Hospitalization in Childhood Asthma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Gary H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which child neglect and family dysfunction have contributed to the need for hospitalization of asthmatic children. Using a measure of global functioning, psychologic morbidity is associated with medical neglect. (Author/DB)

  6. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series Title: Numbers and Trends Author(s): Child Welfare ... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series: Numbers and Trends Year Published: 2016 https:// ...

  7. Representation and disconnection in imaginal neglect.

    PubMed

    Rode, G; Cotton, F; Revol, P; Jacquin-Courtois, S; Rossetti, Y; Bartolomeo, P

    2010-08-01

    Patients with neglect failure to detect, orient, or respond to stimuli from a spatially confined region, usually on their left side. Often, the presence of perceptual input increases left omissions, while sensory deprivation decreases them, possibly by removing attention-catching right-sided stimuli (Bartolomeo, 2007). However, such an influence of visual deprivation on representational neglect was not observed in patients while they were imagining a map of France (Rode et al., 2007). Therefore, these patients with imaginal neglect either failed to generate the left side of mental images (Bisiach & Luzzatti, 1978), or suffered from a co-occurrence of deficits in automatic (bottom-up) and voluntary (top-down) orienting of attention. However, in Rode et al.'s experiment visual input was not directly relevant to the task; moreover, distraction from visual input might primarily manifest itself when representation guides somatomotor actions, beyond those involved in the generation and mental exploration of an internal map (Thomas, 1999). To explore these possibilities, we asked a patient with right hemisphere damage, R.D., to explore visual and imagined versions of a map of France in three conditions: (1) 'imagine the map in your mind' (imaginal); (2) 'describe a real map' (visual); and (3) 'list the names of French towns' (propositional). For the imaginal and visual conditions, verbal and manual pointing responses were collected; the task was also given before and after mental rotation of the map by 180 degrees . R.D. mentioned more towns on the right side of the map in the imaginal and visual conditions, but showed no representational deficit in the propositional condition. The rightward inner exploration bias in the imaginal and visual conditions was similar in magnitude and was not influenced by mental rotation or response type (verbal responses or manual pointing to locations on a map), thus suggesting that the representational deficit was robust and independent of

  8. The Effect of Syntax on Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the…

  9. Family Structure and Dynamics in Neglectful Families: Implications for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudin, James M., Jr.

    To identify remedial and preventive interventions that target dysfunctional processes in the family, this study compared the structure and processes of neglectful and non-neglectful families. A sample of 102 neglectful families was identified and recruited from the caseloads of protective service workers in Georgia. A comparison group of 103…

  10. Is "Object-Centred Neglect" a Homogeneous Entity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainotti, Guido; Ciaraffa, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The nature of object-centred (allocentric) neglect and the possibility of dissociating it from egocentric (subject-centred) forms of neglect are controversial. Originally, allocentric neglect was described by and in patients who reproduced all the elements of a multi-object scene, but left unfinished the left side of one or more of them. More…

  11. Child Neglect: A Guide for Intervention. The User Manual Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudin, James M., Jr.

    This manual provides a state-of-the art review of child neglect in the United States, its nature, causes, and the implications of that knowledge for preventive and remedial intervention. After an introduction, the first chapter considers the definition of neglect including types of neglect, the withholding of medically indicated treatment from…

  12. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act,...

  13. Defining Child Neglect Based on Child Protective Services Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, H.; Pitts, S.C.; Litrownik, A.J.; Cox, C.E.; Runyan, D.; Black, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives:: To compare neglect defined by Child Protective Services official codes with neglect defined by a review of CPS narrative data, and to examine the validity of the different neglect measures using children's functioning at age 8 years. Methods:: Data are from 740 children participating in a consortium of longitudinal studies on child…

  14. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of child abuse and neglect on children's nonverbal behaviors. It was hypothesized that abused and neglected children would be less active nonverbally than would control group children. Eight abused and neglected children, aged one through three years, were videotaped interacting with their caregivers in…

  15. Animal behaviour: inequity aversion in capuchins?

    PubMed

    Henrich, Joseph

    2004-03-11

    Brosnan and de Waal have shown that capuchin monkeys are more likely to reject a cucumber slice after seeing that another capuchin has received a more attractive grape. In interpreting this finding, the authors make a link to work in humans on 'inequity aversion' and suggest that capuchins, like humans, may reject rewards because they are averse to unequal pay-offs. Here I argue that this interpretation suffers from three problems: the results contradict the predictions of the inequity-aversion model that Bosnan and de Waal cite; experimental results indicate that humans do not behave like capuchins in similar circumstances; and the available evidence does not suggest that inequity aversion is cross-culturally universal.

  16. Animal Behaviour: Friendship Enhances Trust in Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Silk, Joan

    2016-01-25

    Individuals that participate in exchanges with delayed rewards can be exploited if their partners don't reciprocate. In humans, friendships are built on trust, and trust enhances cooperation. New evidence suggests that close social bonds also enhance trust in chimpanzees.

  17. Growth failure associated with early neglect: pilot comparison of neglected US children and international adoptees.

    PubMed

    Miller, Bradley S; Spratt, Eve G; Himes, John H; Condon, Doreen; Summer, Andrea; Papa, Carrie E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2015-01-01

    The long-lasting impact of different neglectful environments on growth in children is not well studied. Three groups of children, 3-10 years old, were recruited (n=60): previously institutionalized international adoptees living in stable home environments for at least 2 years (IA; n=15), children with a history of neglect born in the USA (USN; n=17), and controls (n=28). Children underwent physical examination, anthropometry, and collection of serum for growth parameters. Mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) were different (p<0.05). Age-adjusted head circumference (HC) was significantly smaller (p<0.05) in IAs. Insulin growth factor (IGF-1), a marker of growth hormone action, was higher in US neglected children. IGF-1 adjusted for age and weight SDS were different (p<0.05) between control and US neglect groups. The degree of growth failure in height and HC in IAs was more severe than neglected US children. These findings may reflect differences between the impact of chronic and intermittent deprivation on the growth hormone system.

  18. Growth failure associated with early neglect: pilot comparison of neglected US children and international adoptees

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bradley S.; Spratt, Eve G.; Himes, John H.; Condon, Doreen; Summer, Andrea; Papa, Carrie E.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2015-01-01

    The long-lasting impact of different neglectful environments on growth in children is not well studied. Three groups of children, 3–10 years old, were recruited (n = 60): previously institutionalized international adoptees living in stable home environments for at least 2 years (IA; n = 15), children with a history of neglect born in the USA (USN; n = 17), and controls (n = 28). Children underwent physical examination, anthropometry, and collection of serum for growth parameters. Mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) were different (p < 0.05). Age-adjusted head circumference (HC) was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) in IAs. Insulin growth factor (IGF-1), a marker of growth hormone action, was higher in US neglected children. IGF-1 adjusted for age and weight SDS were different (p < 0.05) between control and US neglect groups. The degree of growth failure in height and HC in IAs was more severe than neglected US children. These findings may reflect differences between the impact of chronic and intermittent deprivation on the growth hormone system. PMID:25153568

  19. Oviposition behaviour of Phlebotomus argentipes - A laboratory-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Rama, Aarti; Kesari, Shreekant; Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Das, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    The breeding habitat of sandflies is a little studied and poorly understood phenomenon. More importantly, oviposition behaviour is a largely neglected aspect of sandfly biology and this knowledge gap further undermines our understanding of the biology of sandflies. Pheromones released by the eggs play an important role in identifying good sites for oviposition by female insects. Several recent studies have examined the oviposition pheromone. The present study provides a preliminary report on the oviposition behaviour of Phlebotomus argentipes, the only vector of kala-azar (or visceral leishmaniasis) on the Indian sub-continent. Sandflies prefer to oviposit their eggs on surfaces that contain organic substances, especially substances with an odour of decaying animal products and the remains of conspecific eggs. The results presented here suggest that the odour released by the organic substances of old sandfly colony remains that contain dead flies, old unhatched eggs, larval food containing vertebrate faeces, frass and other organic matter serves as an attractant for the ovipositing females of P. argentipes and hence greatly increases the number of oviposited eggs compared to eggs deposited in controlled oviposition pots. This result will be helpful in maintaining an efficient colony of P. argentipes and may be a promising tool for monitoring and controlling the target insect as part of a synergistic approach. PMID:24141963

  20. Example Elaboration as a Neglected Instructional Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Girill, T R

    2001-07-18

    Over the last decade an unfolding cognitive-psychology research program on how learners use examples to develop effective problem solving expertise has yielded well-established empirical findings. Chi et al., Renkl, Reimann, and Neubert (in various papers) have confirmed statistically significant differences in how good and poor learners inferentially elaborate (self explain) example steps as they study. Such example elaboration is highly relevant to software documentation and training, yet largely neglected in the current literature. This paper summarizes the neglected research on example use and puts its neglect in a disciplinary perspective. The author then shows that differences in support for example elaboration in commercial software documentation reveal previously over looked usability issues. These issues involve example summaries, using goals and goal structures to reinforce example elaborations, and prompting readers to recognize the role of example parts. Secondly, I show how these same example elaboration techniques can build cognitive maturity among underperforming high school students who study technical writing. Principle based elaborations, condition elaborations, and role recognition of example steps all have their place in innovative, high school level, technical writing exercises, and all promote far transfer problem solving. Finally, I use these studies to clarify the constructivist debate over what writers and readers contribute to text meaning. I argue that writers can influence how readers elaborate on examples, and that because of the great empirical differences in example study effectiveness (and reader choices) writers should do what they can (through within text design features) to encourage readers to elaborate examples in the most successful ways. Example elaboration is a uniquely effective way to learn from worked technical examples. This paper summarizes years of research that clarifies example elaboration. I then show how example

  1. Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process uniquely measures spatial neglect during activities of daily living

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peii; Chen, Christine C.; Hreha, Kimberly; Goedert, Kelly M.; Barrett, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the factor structure of the Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process (KF-NAP), and evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of spatial neglect among stroke survivors. Design Inception cohort. Setting Inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF). Participants 121 participants with unilateral brain damage from their first stroke were assessed within 72 hours of admission to an IRF, and 108 were assessed again within 72 hours before IRF discharge. Interventions Usual and standard IRF care. Main Outcome Measures During each assessment session, occupational therapists measured patients’ functions with the KF-NAP, Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) and Barthel Index (BI). Results The KF-NAP showed excellent internal consistency with a single-factor structure. The exploratory factor analysis revealed the KF-NAP to be unique from both the FIM and BI even though all three scales were correlated. 67.8% of the participants at admission and 47.2% at discharge presented with symptoms of spatial neglect (KF-NAP > 0). Participants showing the disorder at IRF admission were hospitalized longer than those showing no symptoms. Among those presenting with symptoms, the regression analysis showed that the KF-NAP scores at admission negatively predicted FIM scores at discharge, after controlling for age, FIM at admission, and length of stay. Conclusions The KF-NAP uniquely quantifies symptoms of spatial neglect by measuring functional difficulties that are not captured by the FIM or BI. Using the KF-NAP to measure spatial neglect, we found the disorder persistent after inpatient rehabilitation, and replicated previous findings showing that spatial neglect adversely affects rehabilitation outcome even after prolonged IRF care. PMID:25461827

  2. Incorporating animal spatial memory in step selection functions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Santos, Luiz Gustavo R; Forester, James D; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Tomas, Walfrido M; Fernandez, Fernando A S

    2016-03-01

    Memory is among the most important and neglected forces that shapes animal movement patterns. Research on the movement-memory interface is crucial to understand how animals use spatial learning to navigate across space because memory-based navigation is directly linked to animals' space use and home range behaviour; however, because memory cannot be measured directly, it is difficult to account for. Here, we incorporated spatial memory into step selection functions (SSF) to understand how resource selection and spatial memory affect space use of feral hogs (Sus scrofa). We used Biased Random Bridge kernel estimates linked to residence time as a surrogate for memory and tested four conceptually different dynamic maps of spatial memory. We applied this memory-based SSF to a data set of hog relocations to evaluate the importance of land cover type, time of day and spatial memory on the animals' space use. Our approach has shown how the incorporation of spatial memory into animal movement models can improve estimates of habitat selection. Memory-based SSF provided a feasible way to gain insight into how animals use spatial learning to guide their movement decisions. We found that while hogs selected forested areas and water bodies and avoided grasslands during the day (primarily at noon), they had a strong tendency to select previously visited areas, mainly those held in recent memory. Beyond actively updating their memory with recent experiences, hogs were able to discriminate among spatial memories encoded at different circadian phases of their activity. Even though hogs are thought to have long memory retention, they likely relied on recent experiences because the local food resources are quickly depleted and slowly renewed, yielding an uncertain spatial distribution of resources.

  3. Neglect: failure to thrive and obesity.

    PubMed

    Harper, Nancy S

    2014-10-01

    Medical providers need to monitor growth at every visit. Weight status is influenced by genetics, medical conditions, socioeconomic status, and family environment. Screening for food security and psychosocial risk factors is an integral tool to identify families at risk for nutritional deficits and child maltreatment. Nutritional rehabilitation is best accomplished in an outpatient, multidisciplinary setting. Medical neglect should be considered in failure to thrive and obesity when there is a serious risk of harm from identified medical complications, additional or worsening medical complications occurring despite a multidisciplinary approach, and/or non-adherence with the treatment plan.

  4. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised.

  5. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised. PMID:25317697

  6. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised. PMID:25317697

  7. The neglected arboviral infections in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoyan; Nasci, Roger; Liang, Guodong

    2010-01-01

    The major arboviral diseases in mainland China include Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (also known as Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever), and tick-borne encephalitis. These and other newly found arbovirus infections due to Banna virus and Tahyna virus contribute to a large and relatively neglected disease burden in China. Here we briefly review the literature regarding these arboviral infections in mainland China with emphasis on their epidemiology, primary vectors, phylogenetic associations, and the prevention programs associated with these agents in China.

  8. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. PMID:27273232

  9. [Neglected children: birth, life and survival].

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Stéphanie; Absil, Gaëtan; Vandoorne, Chantal; Lachaussée, Sophie; Vanmeerbeek, Marc

    2009-03-01

    Child neglect leads to numerous and serious consequences. The physical and neurophysiological development can be altered by the lack of stimulation or via a chronic stress which increases the production of cortisol. Gradually, psychomotor and cognitive deficits can appear. The emotions can be deeply touched and cause dysfunctional social relationship, ranging from withdrawal to aggressiveness. Primary care health practitioners have a role to play in the screening of risk situations and long term follow-up of the families. The interventions should ideally begin early, be participatory and based on an enhancement of the parent-child relationship.

  10. Eurytrematosis: An emerging and neglected disease in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schwertz, Claiton Ismael; Lucca, Neuber Jose; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Baska, Piotr; Bonetto, Gustavo; Gabriel, Mateus Eloir; Centofanti, Fábio; Mendes, Ricardo Evandro

    2015-01-01

    The trematodes of the genus Eurytrema are low pathogenic pancreatic parasites, but can be related to a decrease in cattle productive performance and eventually death. Parasitized animals develop chronic interstitial pancreatitis and may show a productive performance drop and emaciation. Human infection by Eurytrema sp. has already been reported in other countries as an incidental finding during autopsy or routine tests, but the parasite has not been found in humans in Brazil. However, it is possible that a large number of people could be infected, since parasitological tests have low sensitivity and the parasite is neglected as a pathogen for humans and even animals. Attempts to control and treat Eurytrematosis have generally presented low effectiveness. With the aim to control the disease and provide more information regarding its pathogenicity, our research group is developing a number of studies about Eurytrema spp. We hope to determine the damage in productivity, as well as, establish an efficient protocol for treatment and control of Eurytrematosis based on immunoprophylaxis and antiparasitical drug therapy. PMID:26309817

  11. Disentangling the neuroanatomical correlates of perseveration from unilateral spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Jonathan T; DuBois, Jeffery C; Newhart, Melissa; Hillis, Argye E

    2013-01-01

    Perseverative behavior, manifest as re-cancelling or re-visiting targets, is distinct from spatial neglect. Perseveration is thought to reflect frontal or parietal lobe dysfunction, but the neuroanatomical correlates remain poorly defined and the interplay between neglect and perseveration is incompletely understood. We enrolled 87 consecutive patients with diffusion-weighted, perfusion-weighted imaging, and spatial neglect testing within 24 hours of right hemisphere ischemic stroke. The degrees of spatial neglect and perseveration were analyzed. Perseveration was apparent in 46% (40/87) of the patients; 28% (24/87) showed perseveration only; 18% (16/87) showed both perseveration and neglect; and 3% (3/87) showed neglect only. Perseverative behaviors occur in an inverted "U" shape: little neglect was associated with few perseverations; moderate neglect with high perseverations; and in severe neglect targets may not enter consciousness and perseverative responses decrease. Brodmann areas of dysfunction, and the caudate and putament, were assessed and volumetrically measured. In this study, the caudate and putamen were not associated with perseveration. After controlling for neglect, and volume of dysfunctional tissue, only Brodmann area 46 was associated with perseveration. Our results further support the notion that perseveration and neglect are distinct entities; while they often co-occur, acute dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ischemia is associated with perseveration specifically.

  12. Using narratives and discourses in neglect-prevention training.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2013-06-01

    Training in neglect prevention for healthcare professionals should incorporate understanding of who is at risk, what represents neglect, how signs might be identified quickly and what should be done to rectify neglectful practice and minimise further risk. It must also cover accurate reporting in line with safeguarding vulnerable adults legislation and the evaluation of what healthcare systems have contributed to the risk of neglect. Neglect is an ambiguous term, so it is important to explore how it is understood and why sometimes it is not challenged. This article discusses various issues around neglect and suggests a new approach to training that involves the analysis of clients' and practitioners' narratives and discourses about care. Understanding these narratives and discourses can help identify situations of institutional neglect.

  13. The worst combinations of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Ney, P G; Fung, T; Wickett, A R

    1994-09-01

    We have studied the impact of various kinds of abuse and neglect on the child's perception of himself and his future. We found, when considering physical abuse, physical neglect, verbal abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, that less than 5% of these mistreatments occurred in isolation. Since the vast majority of mistreated children are subject to more than one kind of abuse or neglect, it was important to delineate which combinations have the greatest effect. We found that a combination of physical neglect, physical abuse, and verbal abuse had the greatest impact on children, affecting such things as their enjoyment of living and hopes for the future. An early age of onset for verbal abuse and emotional neglect was significantly associated with greater severity and frequency of mistreatment. Neglect appears to be a precursor to abuse in many cases. PMID:8000901

  14. Unilateral neglect and perceptual parsing: a large-group study.

    PubMed

    Neppi-Mòdona, Marco; Savazzi, Silvia; Ricci, Raffaella; Genero, Rosanna; Berruti, Giuseppina; Pepi, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    Array-centred and subarray-centred neglect were disambiguated in a group of 116 patients with left neglect by means of a modified version of the Albert test in which the central column of segments was deleted so as to create two separate sets of targets grouped by proximity. The results indicated that neglect was more frequent in array- than subarray-centred coordinates and that, in a minority of cases, neglect co-occurred in both coordinate-systems. The two types of neglect were functionally but not anatomically dissociated. Presence of visual field defects was not prevalent in one type of neglect with respect to the other. These data contribute further evidence to previous single-case and small-group studies by showing that neglect can occur in single or multiple reference frames simultaneously, in agreement with current neuropsychological, neurophysiological and computational concepts of space representation.

  15. Mouse behavioural analysis in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    van Meer, Peter; Raber, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Molecular techniques allowing in vivo modulation of gene expression have provided unique opportunities and challenges for behavioural studies aimed at understanding the function of particular genes or biological systems under physiological or pathological conditions. Although various animal models are available, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has unique features and is therefore a preferred animal model. The mouse shares a remarkable genetic resemblance and aspects of behaviour with humans. In this review, first we describe common mouse models for behavioural analyses. As both genetic and environmental factors influence behavioural performance and need to be carefully evaluated in behavioural experiments, considerations for designing and interpretations of these experiments are subsequently discussed. Finally, common behavioural tests used to assess brain function are reviewed, and it is illustrated how behavioural tests are used to increase our understanding of the role of histaminergic neurotransmission in brain function. PMID:16035954

  16. R&D incentives for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Neglected diseases are typically characterized as those for which adequate drug treatment is lacking, and the potential return on effort in research and development (R&D), to produce new therapies, is too small for companies to invest significant resources in the field. In recent years various incentives schemes to stimulate R&D by pharmaceutical firms have been considered. Broadly speaking, these can be classified either as 'push' or 'pull' programs. Hybrid options, that include push and pull incentives, have also become increasingly popular. Supporters and critics of these various incentive schemes have argued in favor of their relative merits and limitations, although the view that no mechanism is a perfect fit for all situations appears to be widely held. For this reason, the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches has been important for policy decisions, but is dispersed in a variety of sources. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the economic determinants behind R&D investments for neglected diseases by comparing the relative strength of different incentive schemes within a simple economic model, based on the assumption of profit maximizing firms. The analysis suggests that co-funded push programs are generally more efficient than pure pull programs. However, by setting appropriate intermediate goals hybrid incentive schemes could further improve efficiency. PMID:23284648

  17. R&D Incentives for Neglected Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Neglected diseases are typically characterized as those for which adequate drug treatment is lacking, and the potential return on effort in research and development (R&D), to produce new therapies, is too small for companies to invest significant resources in the field. In recent years various incentives schemes to stimulate R&D by pharmaceutical firms have been considered. Broadly speaking, these can be classified either as ‘push’ or ‘pull’ programs. Hybrid options, that include push and pull incentives, have also become increasingly popular. Supporters and critics of these various incentive schemes have argued in favor of their relative merits and limitations, although the view that no mechanism is a perfect fit for all situations appears to be widely held. For this reason, the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches has been important for policy decisions, but is dispersed in a variety of sources. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the economic determinants behind R&D investments for neglected diseases by comparing the relative strength of different incentive schemes within a simple economic model, based on the assumption of profit maximizing firms. The analysis suggests that co-funded push programs are generally more efficient than pure pull programs. However, by setting appropriate intermediate goals hybrid incentive schemes could further improve efficiency. PMID:23284648

  18. Drug design for neglected disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giarolla, Jeanine; Ferreira, Elizabeth Igne

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTD) are a group of 17 diseases transmitted by virus, protozoa, helminthes and bacteria. These illnesses are responsible for millions of deaths per year, affecting mainly the poorest populations in the world. The therapeutic drugs available are obsolete, toxic, have questionable efficacy and there are reports of resistance. Therefore, the discovery of new, safe, effective and affordable active molecules is urgently needed. Considering that, the main purpose of this mini-review is to show the current scenario concerning drug design for neglected disease in Brazil. NTD are a very broad topic. Thus, we selected four infections for discussion: Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria and tuberculosis. According to CNPq (National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development) directories, there are many Brazilian groups studying these respective diseases. The papers published possess high quality and some of them, the most recent, are briefly discussed here. Medicinal chemistry approaches such as synthesis of novel series of molecules and biological activity evaluation, studies of structure-activity relationships (qualitative and quantitative), molecular modeling calculations and electrochemistry are some of the tools applied in the design of the compounds.

  19. An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them.

  20. 25 CFR 11.446 - Cruelty to animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cruelty to animals. 11.446 Section 11.446 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.446 Cruelty to animals. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she purposely or recklessly: (a) Subjects any animal in his or her custody to cruel neglect; or (b) Subjects...

  1. 25 CFR 11.446 - Cruelty to animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cruelty to animals. 11.446 Section 11.446 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.446 Cruelty to animals. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she purposely or recklessly: (a) Subjects any animal in his or her custody to cruel neglect; or (b) Subjects...

  2. 25 CFR 11.446 - Cruelty to animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cruelty to animals. 11.446 Section 11.446 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.446 Cruelty to animals. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she purposely or recklessly: (a) Subjects any animal in his or her custody to cruel neglect; or (b) Subjects...

  3. 25 CFR 11.446 - Cruelty to animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cruelty to animals. 11.446 Section 11.446 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.446 Cruelty to animals. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she purposely or recklessly: (a) Subjects any animal in his or her custody to cruel neglect; or (b) Subjects...

  4. 25 CFR 11.446 - Cruelty to animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cruelty to animals. 11.446 Section 11.446 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.446 Cruelty to animals. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she purposely or recklessly: (a) Subjects any animal in his or her custody to cruel neglect; or (b) Subjects...

  5. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  6. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  7. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  8. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  9. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Lee, Hye Sun; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Song, Dongbeom; Kim, Young Dae; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients. Methods We made the computerized table setting test (CTST) to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction) and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically. Results Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect. Conclusions The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients. PMID:26771512

  10. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development. PMID:25910418

  11. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development.

  12. Behaviour - The keystone in optimizing free-ranging ungulate production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-ranging animal behaviour is a keystone to optimizing free-ranging domestic animal production. This chapter focuses on several aspects that emanate from foraging including defining terms, concepts and the complexity that underlie managing animals and landscapes. Behaviour is investigated in li...

  13. Acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Schöner, Michael G; Simon, Ralph; Schöner, Caroline R

    2016-08-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread and well-studied in animals but has been neglected in other organisms such as plants. However, there is growing evidence for acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions. While knowledge about active acoustic signalling in plants (i.e. active sound production) is still in its infancy, research on passive acoustic signalling (i.e. reflection of animal sounds) revealed that bat-dependent plants have adapted to the bats' echolocation systems by providing acoustic reflectors to attract their animal partners. Understanding the proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes of acoustic communication will shed light on an underestimated dimension of information transfer between plants and animals. PMID:27423052

  14. Acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Schöner, Michael G; Simon, Ralph; Schöner, Caroline R

    2016-08-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread and well-studied in animals but has been neglected in other organisms such as plants. However, there is growing evidence for acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions. While knowledge about active acoustic signalling in plants (i.e. active sound production) is still in its infancy, research on passive acoustic signalling (i.e. reflection of animal sounds) revealed that bat-dependent plants have adapted to the bats' echolocation systems by providing acoustic reflectors to attract their animal partners. Understanding the proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes of acoustic communication will shed light on an underestimated dimension of information transfer between plants and animals.

  15. Evaluation of Ponseti method in neglected clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Abhinav; Mehtani, Anil; Sud, Alok; Vijay, Vipul; Kumar, Nishikant; Prakash, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gentle passive manipulation and casting by the Ponseti method have become the preferred method of treatment of clubfoot presenting at an early age. However, very few studies are available in literature on the use of Ponseti method in older children. We conducted this study to find the efficacy of Ponseti method in treating neglected clubfoot, which is a major disabler of children in developing countries. Materials and Methods: 41 clubfeet in 30 patients, presenting after the walking age were evaluated to determine whether the Ponseti method is effective in treating neglected clubfoot. This is a prospective study. Pirani and Dimeglio scoring were done for all the feet before each casting to monitor the correction of deformity. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and compared between preoperative and postoperative followup using the paired t-test. Also, the relation between the Pirani and Dimeglio score, and age at presentation with the number of casts required was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. No improvement in Dimeglio or Ponseti score after 3 successive cast was regarded as failure of conservative management in our study. Results: The mean age at presentation was 3.02 years (range 1.1 - 10.3 years). The mean followup was 2.6 years (range 2–3.9 years). The mean number of casts applied to achieve final correction were 12.8 casts (range 8 - 18 casts). The mean time of immobilization in cast was 3.6 months. The mean Dimeglio score before treatment was 15.9 and after treatment were 2.07. The mean Pirani score was 5.41 before treatment and 0.12 after treatment. All feet (100%) achieved painless plantigrade feet without any extensive soft tissue surgery. 7 feet (17%) recurred in our average followup of 2.6 years. Conclusions: Painless, supple, plantigrade, and cosmetically acceptable feet were achieved in neglected clubfeet without any extensive surgery. A fair trial of conservative Ponseti method should

  16. Non-accidental injury in companion animals in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Kristina; Allen, Mary; Jones, Boyd R

    2005-01-01

    : Non-accidental injury (NAI), animal abuse and "battered pet" syndrome are terms used to identify "the intentional harm of an animal". The terms include, but are not limited to, wilful neglect, inflicting injury, pain or distress, or malicious killing of an animal. Three categories of abuse are recognised: physical, sexual and neglect.A postal survey was conducted to determine the extent to which NAI was recognised by veterinary surgeons in urban, semi-rural and rural veterinary practices in the Republic of Ireland. The questionnaire was sent to 600 veterinarians; completed submissions were received from 115 respondents (19.2%).The occurrence of NAI was acknowledged by 106 (92.2%) of the respondents and cases had been seen by 50 (43.3%) of them, comprised of 36.2% of urban veterinary surgeons from rural towns and of 82% of urban practitioners. In 59% of cases the client indicated the injury was non-accidental; 39 (67.2%) of the 58 reported cases involved a single event. Signs that made veterinary surgeons suspicious of NAI included inconsistent history, untreated injuries, recurring injuries, meekness of the animal, suspicious behaviour of the owner and injuries consistent with abuse. The types of injuries observed included burns, lacerations, gunshot wounds, poisoning, injury to genitalia, bruising and fractures.The findings of this study are comparable with those from other countries. Most but not all veterinary surgeons in Ireland recognise NAI and animal abuse is of significant concern in rural and urban communities as evidenced by this survey of practising veterinary surgeons. PMID:21851672

  17. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    PubMed

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future. PMID:26795222

  18. [An unusual syndrome of partial neurotic neglect].

    PubMed

    Ulmar, G; Scheipers, K

    1992-01-01

    An impressive case of a 48-year-old woman is reported who after parental divorce when she was two-year-old grew up under a wicked stepmother and developed various obsessive symptoms. In context with some personal disappointments the woman increasingly neglected her home which after eight years appeared like a refuse pit. Simultaneously she continued to groom herself, to dress perfectly and to perform well in her office. She finally committed a suicide attempt when undelayable installations forced her to admit artisans into her apartment. Our case is discussed regarding the double aspect of obsession as a protective function as well as an obstacle for the individual in coping with life.

  19. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    PubMed

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future.

  20. On statistical biases and their common neglect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdalaki, E.; Basta, M.; Boboti, N.; Bountas, N.; Dodoula, E.; Iliopoulou, T.; Ioannidou, S.; Kassas, K.; Nerantzaki, S.; Papatriantafyllou, E.; Tettas, K.; Tsirantonaki, D.; Papalexiou, S. M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2012-04-01

    The study of natural phenomena such as hydroclimatic processes demands the use of stochastic tools and the good understanding thereof. However, common statistical practices are often based on classical statistics, which assumes independent identically distributed variables with Gaussian distributions. However, in most cases geophysical processes exhibit temporal dependence and even long term persistence. Also, some statistical estimators for nonnegative random variables have distributions radically different from Gaussian. We demonstrate the impact of neglecting dependence and non-normality in parameter estimators and how this can result in misleading conclusions and futile predictions. To accomplish that, we use synthetic examples derived by Monte Carlo techniques and we also provide a number of examples of misuse. Acknowledgment: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided financial support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  1. Sulfoximines: a neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lücking, Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    Innovation has frequently been described as the key to drug discovery. However, in the daily routine, medicinal chemists often tend to stick to the functional groups and structural elements they know and love. Blockbuster cancer drug Velcade (bortezomib), for example, was rejected by more than 50 companies, supposedly because of its unusual boronic acid function (as often repeated: "only a moron would put boron in a drug!"). Similarly, in the discovery process of the pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394, the unconventional proposal to introduce a sulfoximine group into the lead series also led to sneers and raised eyebrows, since sulfoximines have seldom been used in medicinal chemistry. However, it was the introduction of the sulfoximine group that finally allowed the fundamental issues of the project to be overcome, culminating in the identification of the clinical sulfoximine pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394. This Minireview provides an overview of a widely neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry--the sulfoximine group.

  2. Neglected Respiratory Toxicity Caused by Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Christian; Roig, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    When a patient with lung cancer presents non-specific respiratory symptoms there are many diagnostic options. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment in many stages of lung cancer and its toxicity is well known. The main priority is to prevent life-threatening diseases such as lung infection, which can be treated successfully if a prompt, accurate diagnosis is given. Drug-induced pulmonary disease must be avoided at all costs but it is also important to avoid side-effects of drugs which do not directly interfere with respiratory physiology but may impair gas exchange. This review highlights the risks and characteristics of non-cytostatic-induced lung toxicity caused by agents that have been commonly used to treat cancer in recent decades. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of this neglected non-chemotherapy-induced lung toxicity in cancer patients, since early withdrawal of the offending drug is mandatory. PMID:19340316

  3. Slum health: Diseases of neglected populations

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Lee W; Ko, Albert I; Unger, Alon; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2007-01-01

    Background Urban slums, like refugee communities, comprise a social cluster that engenders a distinct set of health problems. With 1 billion people currently estimated to live in such communities, this neglected population has become a major reservoir for a wide spectrum of health conditions that the formal health sector must deal with. Discussion Unlike what occurs with refugee populations, the formal health sector becomes aware of the health problems of slum populations relatively late in the course of their illnesses. As such, the formal health sector inevitably deals with the severe and end-stage complications of these diseases at a substantially greater cost than what it costs to manage non-slum community populations. Because of the informal nature of slum settlements, and cultural, social, and behavioral factors unique to the slum populations, little is known about the spectrum, burden, and determinants of illnesses in these communities that give rise to these complications, especially of those diseases that are chronic but preventable. In this article, we discuss observations made in one slum community of 58,000 people in Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil, to highlight the existence of a spectrum and burden of chronic illnesses not likely to be detected by the formal sector health services until they result in complications or death. Lack of health-related data from slums could lead to inappropriate and unrealistic allocation of health care resources by the public and private providers. Similar misassumptions and misallocations are likely to exist in other nations with large urban slum populations. Summary Continued neglect of ever-expanding urban slum populations in the world could inevitably lead to greater expenditure and diversion of health care resources to the management of end-stage complications of diseases that are preventable. A new approach to health assessment and characterization of social-cluster determinants of health in urban slums

  4. Left neglect dyslexia: Perseveration and reading error types.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect. PMID:27450268

  5. Where is the "straight ahead" in spatial neglect?

    PubMed

    Saj, A; Honoré, J; Richard, C; Coello, Y; Bernati, T; Rousseaux, M

    2006-10-24

    We investigated the subjective straight-ahead (SSA) projection of body-midline parts (head and trunk) in patients with neglect and patients with nonneglect, using a method disentangling lateral shift and lateral tilt components of the bias. Patients with neglect showed a similar counterclockwise SSA tilt for each body part and an ipsilesional lateral shift, more severe for the trunk than for the head. Thus, neglect results in a tilt of the body midline representation.

  6. Left neglect dyslexia: Perseveration and reading error types.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect.

  7. Racial inequality and child neglect: findings in a metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Saunders, E J; Nelson, K; Landsman, M J

    1993-01-01

    Despite contradictory evidence, child neglect is often believed to occur more frequently in the African American than in the Caucasian population. This article reports findings on the racial differences among 182 families referred for neglect in a large metropolitan area. Although almost all of the families were poor, African American families in the neglect sample suffered even more from economic inequality than those in the general population. Implications of the findings for social welfare policy and child welfare practice are discussed.

  8. Representational neglect for words as revealed by bisection tasks.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Lisa S; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Pasotti, Fabrizio; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Bottini, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we showed that a representational disorder for words can dissociate from both representational neglect for objects and neglect dyslexia. This study involved 14 brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect and a group of normal subjects. Patients were divided into four groups based on presence of left neglect dyslexia and representational neglect for non-verbal material, as evaluated by the Clock Drawing test. The patients were presented with bisection tasks for words and lines. The word bisection tasks (with words of five and seven letters) comprised the following: (1) representational bisection: the experimenter pronounced a word and then asked the patient to name the letter in the middle position; (2) visual bisection: same as (1) with stimuli presented visually; and (3) motor bisection: the patient was asked to cross out the letter in the middle position. The standard line bisection task was presented using lines of different length. Consistent with the literature, long lines were bisected to the right and short lines, rendered comparable in length to the words of the word bisection test, deviated to the left (crossover effect). Both patients and controls showed the same leftward bias on words in the visual and motor bisection conditions. A significant difference emerged between the groups only in the case of the representational bisection task, whereas the group exhibiting neglect dyslexia associated with representational neglect for objects showed a significant rightward bias, while the other three patient groups and the controls showed a leftward bisection bias. Neither the presence of neglect alone nor the presence of visual neglect dyslexia was sufficient to produce a specific disorder in mental imagery. These results demonstrate a specific representational neglect for words independent of both representational neglect and neglect dyslexia.

  9. Altitudinal neglect in a patient with occipital infarction.

    PubMed

    Ergun-Marterer, A; Ergun, E; Mentes, M; Oder, W

    2001-04-01

    Visual neglect has been frequently described in a horizontal direction. Altitudinal neglect, however, has rarely been described and has been associated with bilateral lesions in the parieto-occipital or temporo-occipital region. The following case report presents a patient with marked altitudinal neglect of the inferior space which was elicited using a line bisection test. The previously healthy patient had well-defined lesions solely in the occipital cortex following an embolic infarction. The present case report underlines the possibility that bioccipital lesions themselves can be responsible for altitudinal neglect.

  10. The assessment of visuo-spatial neglect after acute stroke.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, S P; Wilson, B; Wroot, A; Halligan, P W; Lange, L S; Marshall, J C; Greenwood, R J

    1991-01-01

    Forty four consecutive patients with acute hemispheric stroke and forty seven elderly controls with no neurological disease were assessed for visuo-spatial neglect, using a modified neglect test battery. Neglect was found to be equally common in patients with right hemisphere and left hemisphere stroke three days after stroke (72% versus 62%). It was more severe in those with a right hemisphere stroke and resolved more frequently in those with a left hemisphere stroke. The battery was validated against an occupational therapist's assessment of neglect on self-care tasks. The inter-observer reliability was good and it was possible to monitor changes over time with the battery. Images PMID:2056321

  11. Nutritional and growth issues related to child neglect.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Drennen, Chloe R

    2014-11-01

    Child neglect and obesity are major public health problems that undermine children's health and contribute to lifelong disparities. Most of the past research has focused on relations between child neglect and failure to thrive. This article finds that evidence linking child neglect with obesity is mixed. In a recent meta-analysis, five of the eight studies reviewed did not find an increased risk of obesity among neglected children. The case study and three longitudinal studies that reported a relationship between neglect and obesity were conducted among young children, and used caregiver or teacher/clinician definitions of neglect, rather than referrals to state protective service agencies. Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system associated with neglect has been implicated, but further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that may increase children's risk for obesity. Findings suggest that under some conditions neglect may increase the risk for excessive weight gain, and that high body mass index may be an indicator of possible neglect. By exploring both possibilities, clinicians can promote children's healthy growth and development and prevent subsequent health disparities. PMID:25369579

  12. Are drawing perseverations part of the neglect syndrome?

    PubMed

    Pia, Lorenzo; Folegatti, Alessia; Guagliardo, Marilena; Genero, Rosanna; Gindri, Patrizia

    2009-03-01

    Unilateral neglect patients typically omit to cancel contralesional targets. Moreover, they can repeatedly cancel ipsilesional stimuli exhibiting what is termed 'perseverative behavior'. Two alternative accounts of this behavior have been proposed. According to one of them, it is considered as integral to neglect and due either to a perceptual (allochiria), or a premotor (directional hypokinesia) pathological mechanism leading to the ipsilesional displacement of contralesional responses. According to the other one, perseverations are interpreted as the consequence of motor-control-disinhibition co-occurring with, although independent of, spatial neglect. We compared some crucial predictions of these two hypotheses on a group of 10 right-brain-damaged patients, eight with neglect and two without neglect, showing a perseverative behavior in both conventional and experimental cancellation tasks. In our experiment, the spatial location and the numerosity of targets were manipulated to obtain different degrees of horizontal alignment between targets on the left and on the right of the central vertical axis of the sheet. We found that ipsilesional perseverations were not influenced by left neglected targets and were not correlated to neglect severity. Additionally, perseverative errors were associated with right basal ganglia lesions rather than with presence of neglect. These findings support the view that two different pathological mechanisms might be involved in left spatial neglect and ipsilesional perseverative behavior.

  13. [Ethological basis for the evaluation of animal welfare in housing systems for agricultural animals and laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Stauffacher, M

    1992-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Act on Animal Protection (1978) requires the sale of mass-produced housing systems for farm animals to be authorized by the Federal Veterinary Office. Authorization is only granted for housing systems that safeguard the animals' welfare. A concept for the assessment of Animal Welfare has to provide a high forensic value. The capacity of farm animals to adapt to an intensive housing system can be directly examined, whereas the existence and extent of subjective feelings can only be assumed. In our concept the examination focuses on the interaction of individuals with their artificial environment. The main question is whether or not the individuals are able to cope with given nonspecific (e.g. temperature, humidity) and specific (e.g. drinking troughs, behaviour of conspecifics) stimuli in order to reach the immediate (e.g. drinking, make way for) and ultimate (survival, reproduction success) goals. Animals of the same breed are observed in a highly diverse environment in order to determine normal behaviour. Whether behavioural expressions which differ significantly from normal behaviour are adaptive to the restrictive housing conditions is judged by the behaviours' consequences for both, the individuals and the environment. Many studies prove the concept's high forensic value and the authorities prefer conclusions based on this concept to others referring to the animals' motivational and emotional state. However more research has to be done with respect to animal welfare in farm and laboratory animal breeding as well as in the use of laboratory animals for experimental studies.

  14. Causal role of spatial attention in arithmetic problem solving: evidence from left unilateral neglect.

    PubMed

    Dormal, Valérie; Schuller, Anne-Marie; Nihoul, Julie; Pesenti, Mauro; Andres, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Recent behavioural and brain imaging studies have provided evidence for rightward and leftward attention shifts while solving addition and subtraction problems respectively, suggesting that mental arithmetic makes use of mechanisms akin to those underlying spatial attention. However, this hypothesis mainly relies on correlative data and the causal relevance of spatial attention for mental arithmetic remains unclear. In order to test whether the mechanisms underlying spatial attention are necessary to perform arithmetic operations, we compared the performance of right brain-lesioned patients, with and without left unilateral neglect, and healthy controls in addition and subtraction of two-digit numbers. We predicted that patients with left unilateral neglect would be selectively impaired in the subtraction task while being unimpaired in the addition task. The results showed that neglect patients made more errors than the two other groups to subtract large numbers, whereas they were still able to solve large addition problems matched for difficulty and magnitude of the answer. This finding demonstrates a causal relationship between the ability to attend the left side of space and the solving of large subtraction problems. A plausible account is that attention shifts help localizing the position of the answer on a spatial continuum while subtracting large numbers. PMID:24859525

  15. Costs for switching partners reduce network dynamics but not cooperative behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bednarik, Peter; Fehl, Katrin; Semmann, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Social networks represent the structuring of interactions between group members. Above all, many interactions are profoundly cooperative in humans and other animals. In accordance with this natural observation, theoretical work demonstrates that certain network structures favour the evolution of cooperation. Yet, recent experimental evidence suggests that static networks do not enhance cooperative behaviour in humans. By contrast, dynamic networks do foster cooperation. However, costs associated with dynamism such as time or resource investments in finding and establishing new partnerships have been neglected so far. Here, we show that human participants are much less likely to break links when costs arise for building new links. Especially, when costs were high, the network was nearly static. Surprisingly, cooperation levels in Prisoner's Dilemma games were not affected by reduced dynamism in social networks. We conclude that the mere potential to quit collaborations is sufficient in humans to reach high levels of cooperative behaviour. Effects of self-structuring processes or assortment on the network played a minor role: participants simply adjusted their cooperative behaviour in response to the threats of losing a partner or of being expelled. PMID:25122233

  16. Neuroanatomical changes in a mouse model of early life neglect.

    PubMed

    Duque, Alvaro; Coman, Daniel; Carlyle, Becky C; Bordner, Kelly A; George, Elizabeth D; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hyder, Fahmeed; Simen, Arthur A

    2012-04-01

    Using a novel mouse model of early life neglect and abuse (ENA) based on maternal separation with early weaning, George et al. (BMC Neurosci 11:123, 2010) demonstrated behavioral abnormalities in adult mice, and Bordner et al. (Front Psychiatry 2(18):1-18, 2011) described concomitant changes in mRNA and protein expression. Using the same model, here we report neuroanatomical changes that include smaller brain size and abnormal inter-hemispheric asymmetry, decreases in cortical thickness, abnormalities in subcortical structures, and white matter disorganization and atrophy most severely affecting the left hemisphere. Because of the similarities between the neuroanatomical changes observed in our mouse model and those described in human survivors of ENA, this novel animal model is potentially useful for studies of human ENA too costly or cumbersome to be carried out in primates. Moreover, our current knowledge of the mouse genome makes this model particularly suited for targeted anatomical, molecular, and pharmacological experimentation not yet possible in other species. PMID:21984312

  17. Speckle Tracking Echocardiography of the Right Atrium: The Neglected Chamber.

    PubMed

    Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan; Lima, Eduardo; Munir, Farrukh; Faisal Khan, Anum; Waqas, Ahmed; Bughio, Sara; ul Haq, Ehtesham; Attique, Hassan Bin; Rahman, Zia Ur

    2015-11-01

    The right atrium (RA) plays a pivotal role in electromechanical and endocrine regulation of the heart. Its peculiar anatomical features and phasic mechanical function make it distinct from ventricles. Various invasive and noninvasive techniques have been used to elucidate RA structure and function. Of these modalities, echocardiography has distinct advantages over others. Several conventional measures of RA function through echocardiography have been described in the literature, but they are load dependent. A relatively new technique is speckle tracking-derived strain, which is relatively less dependent on loading conditions. Speckle tracking echocardiography tracks acoustic scatters (speckles) of myocardium frame-by-frame to calculate strain or deformation of the myocardium. Speckle tracking echocardiography has been used extensively for strain assessment of the right and left ventricle to detect subtle disease pathology, to gain mechanistic insight, as a marker of ischemic metabolic memory, as an endpoint in clinical trials, and as a functional assessment tool. The RA is a relatively neglected chamber, as it is mostly studied for assessment of atrial mass lesions, for electrophysiological studies, and in animal models for physiological assessment. However, its role in the systolic and diastolic function of the right heart, pulmonary vascular pathology, congenital heart diseases, and combined electromechanical activation phenomena has been less explored or unexplored. Speckle tracking echocardiography is an ideal tool for the assessment of the RA because of its regional and global functional characterization, angle independence, and high temporal resolution. PMID:26418622

  18. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  19. [Pain and fear in animals].

    PubMed

    Loeffler, K

    1993-02-01

    Pain and fear are feelings of reluctance, which result in a behaviour of avoidance. They are protective mechanisms and are only partly approachable to the quantification with natural scientific methods. It will pointed to the central role of the diencephalon, limbic system and the cerebral cortex concerning the processing and valuation of mental state. The recognition of clinical symptoms and precise behavioural observations are an essential aid to assess the state of pain and fear in animals.

  20. Anatomical and psychometric relationships of behavioral neglect in daily living.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Marc; Allart, Etienne; Bernati, Thérèse; Saj, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    Spatial neglect has been related to both cortical (predominantly at the temporal-parietal junction) and subcortical (predominantly of the superior longitudinal fasciculus) lesions. The objectives of this observational study were to specify the anatomical relationships of behavioral neglect in activities of daily living (N-ADLs), and the anatomical and psychometric relationships of N-ADLs on one hand and components of neglect (peripersonal neglect and personal neglect) and anosognosia on the other. Forty five patients were analyzed for behavioral difficulties in daily living (on the Catherine Bergego scale) and the main components of neglect (using conventional clinical assessments) during the first months post right hemisphere stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify brain areas within which lesions explained the severity of bias in each assessment (non-parametric permutation test; p<0.01, one tailed). N-ADLs was associated with lesions centered on the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and extending to the temporo-parietal junction, temporo-occipital junction and subcortical white matter (including the superior longitudinal fasciculus). Peripersonal neglect resulted from extended cortical lesions centered on the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal gyrus, with subcortical extension. Personal neglect resulted predominantly from lesions centered on the somatosensory cortex and at a lesser degree on the superior temporal sulcus. Anosognosia resulted from lesions of the posterior inferior temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. In anatomic terms, N-ADLs was strongly related to peripersonal neglect, and those relationships were also shown by the psychometric analysis. In conclusions, superior temporal gyrus and superior longitudinal fasciculus lesions have a pivotal role in N-ADLs. N-ADLs is principally related (anatomically and psychometrically) to peripersonal neglect, and at a lesser degree to anosognosia and

  1. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology. PMID:24757127

  2. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology.

  3. Early deprivation alters the vocalization behavior of neonates directing maternal attention in a rat model of child neglect.

    PubMed

    Zimmerberg, Betty; Kim, Ju H; Davidson, Abigail N; Rosenthal, Abigail J

    2003-12-01

    Animal models of child neglect (known as maternal separation or early deprivation) have suggested a causal link to subsequent depression and/or anxiety in children. In this experiment, the acoustical features of the ultrasonic calls emitted by a rat pup when separated from its dam were analyzed as well as the maternal behavior when the dam was allowed to retrieve the pup. Bout structure and harmonic double shifts did differ between controls and "neglected" pups, as did maternal attention. This model will be used to determine neural mechanisms underlying deficits in attachment behavior. PMID:14998903

  4. Health implications of animal hoarding.

    PubMed

    2002-05-01

    Animal hoarding is a poorly understood phenomenon, the public health implications of which are not well documented. In this study, professionals dealing with hoarding cases submitted 71 case report forms. The hoarders' residences were characterized by extreme clutter and poor sanitation that impaired ability to maintain functional households. Appliances and utilities were frequently nonfunctional, and animal excrement sometimes accumulated to the extent that the homes were unfit for human habitation. The majority of cases satisfied criteria for adult self-neglect, and dependent elderly people, children, or disabled individuals were present in many of the residences. Animal hoarding may be a sentinel for a range of medical, social, and economic problems. More research addressing the causes and features of animal hoarding is needed to shed light on appropriate interventions.

  5. From both sides now: crossover effects influence navigation in patients with unilateral neglect.

    PubMed

    Punt, T D; Kitadono, K; Hulleman, J; Humphreys, G W; Riddoch, M J

    2008-04-01

    Unilateral neglect is a challenging disorder that pervades a range of behaviours following stroke and hampers recovery. Although a preponderance of clinical studies measure performance on a range of bedside assessments, including line bisection and cancellation tasks, there have been calls for studies to embrace more relevant functional measures. Here, for the first time, we present data from two separate tasks that characterise the performance of seven patients with unilateral neglect when navigating a power wheelchair. The tasks involved negotiating an obstacle course and steering a central path between gaps of different sizes. Results from the obstacle course confirmed the clinical observation and predicted bias of contralesional errors. However, the second task revealed a robust "crossover" effect. Patients deviated to the ipsilesional side for large gaps but deviated increasingly contralesionally when steering through small gaps in behaviour that was analogous to that previously shown on line bisection tasks. Contrary to being seen as an unintuitive finding, further analysis of these errors suggests that patients are giving disproportionate weight to the location of the ipsilesional object when plotting a midline course between two objects. Our results provide a platform for further studies to investigate the modulation and rehabilitation of this important skill. PMID:18032453

  6. Sexual behaviour: rapid speciation in an arthropod.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamra C; Shaw, Kerry L

    2005-01-27

    Theory predicts that sexual behaviour in animals can evolve rapidly, accelerating the rate of species formation. Here we estimate the rate of speciation in Laupala, a group of forest-dwelling Hawaiian crickets that is characterized primarily through differences in male courtship song. We find that Laupala has the highest rate of speciation so far recorded in arthropods, supporting the idea that divergence in courtship or sexual behaviour drives rapid speciation in animals.

  7. Speech neglect: A strange educational blind spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Katherine Safford

    2005-09-01

    Speaking is universally acknowledged as an important human talent, yet as a topic of educated common knowledge, it is peculiarly neglected. Partly, this is a consequence of the relatively recent growth of research on speech perception, production, and development, but also a function of the way that information is sliced up by undergraduate colleges. Although the basic acoustic mechanism of vowel production was known to Helmholtz, the ability to view speech production as a physiological event is evolving even now with such techniques as fMRI. Intensive research on speech perception emerged only in the early 1930s as Fletcher and the engineers at Bell Telephone Laboratories developed the transmission of speech over telephone lines. The study of speech development was revolutionized by the papers of Eimas and his colleagues on speech perception in infants in the 1970s. Dissemination of knowledge in these fields is the responsibility of no single academic discipline. It forms a center for two departments, Linguistics, and Speech and Hearing, but in the former, there is a heavy emphasis on other aspects of language than speech and, in the latter, a focus on clinical practice. For psychologists, it is a rather minor component of a very diverse assembly of topics. I will focus on these three fields in proposing possible remedies.

  8. Reflection a neglected art in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Evaluation and quality assurance have, over time, become the bedrock of health promotion practice in ensuring effectiveness and efficiency of programme planning and delivery. There has been less emphasis, however, on formal recognition of the contribution of the personal characteristics and perspectives of those who plan and deliver programmes and to the more subtle underlying effects of prevailing societal and professional norms. This paper seeks to highlight the neglect of formal reflection as a key professional skill in professional health promotion practice. It outlines key theories underpinning the development of the concepts of reflection and reflective practice. The role of reflection in critical health education as it contributes to critical consciousness raising is highlighted through its contribution to the empowerment of change agents in a societal change context. A conceptual typology of reflective practice is described which provides a flexible structure with which professionals can reflect on the role of self, the context and the process of health promotion programme planning. Its use is illustrated from the author's published work in health promotion which is related to prevention of workplace violence. PMID:17071850

  9. Chronic postsurgical pain: still a neglected topic?

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor; Gelman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical injury can frequently lead to chronic pain. Despite the obvious importance of this problem, the first publications on chronic pain after surgery as a general topic appeared only a decade ago. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic postsurgical pain was, and still is, represented insufficiently. Methods We analyzed the presentation of this topic in journal articles covered by PubMed and in surgical textbooks. The following signs of insufficient representation in journal articles were used: (1) the lack of journal editorials on chronic pain after surgery, (2) the lack of journal articles with titles clearly indicating that they are devoted to chronic postsurgical pain, and (3) the insufficient representation of chronic postsurgical pain in the top surgical journals. Results It was demonstrated that insufficient representation of this topic existed in 1981–2000, especially in surgical journals and textbooks. Interest in this topic began to increase, however, mostly regarding one specific surgery: herniorrhaphy. It is important that the change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain spreads to other groups of surgeries. Conclusion Chronic postsurgical pain is still a neglected topic, except for pain after herniorrhaphy. The change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain is the important first step in the approach to this problem. PMID:23152698

  10. Vivax malaria: neglected and not benign.

    PubMed

    Price, Ric N; Tjitra, Emiliana; Guerra, Carlos A; Yeung, Shunmay; White, Nicholas J; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2007-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax threatens almost 40% of the world's population, resulting in 132-391 million clinical infections each year. Most of these cases originate from Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific, although a significant number also occurs in Africa and South America. Although often regarded as causing a benign and self-limiting infection, there is increasing evidence that the overall burden, economic impact, and severity of disease from P. vivax have been underestimated. Malaria control strategies have had limited success and are confounded by the lack of access to reliable diagnosis, emergence of multidrug resistant isolates, the parasite's ability to transmit early in the course of disease and relapse from dormant liver stages at varying time intervals after the initial infection. Progress in reducing the burden of disease will require improved access to reliable diagnosis and effective treatment of both blood-stage and latent parasites, and more detailed characterization of the epidemiology, morbidity, and economic impact of vivax malaria. Without these, vivax malaria will continue to be neglected by ministries of health, policy makers, researchers, and funding bodies.

  11. Hemianopia and neglect influence on straight-ahead perception.

    PubMed

    Saj, A; Honoré, J; Richard, C; Bernati, T; Rousseaux, M

    2010-01-01

    In spatial neglect, the pathological ipsilesional deviation of the subjective straight ahead (SSA) received both 'translational' and 'rotational' interpretations. Furthermore, hemianopia per se could also influence straight-ahead (SA) perception. Here, we aimed at disentangling the relative effects of neglect and hemianopia on the SSA by using a method analyzing translation and rotation in parallel. We included patients with a right hemisphere stroke. Ten had neglect and hemianopia, 6 neglect only, 3 hemianopia only, and 12 neither one nor the other. 15 were controls. Participants had to adjust a bar, movable in translation and rotation, SA of the navel, in darkness. Patients with spatial neglect showed systematic rightward translation, greater when hemianoptic. The rotation component appeared more variable and was influenced by the presence of a visual field defect, as most of the patients with hemianopia showed an anticlockwise rotation and most of the patients without hemianopia a clockwise rotation. Non-neglect patients and control subjects demonstrated a fair performance level. In conclusion, both neglect and hemianopia resulted in a translation error of the SSA to the ipsilesional side. In neglect patients, additional hemianopia resulted in a counterclockwise rotation. Furthermore, rotation and translation errors appeared dissociated, suggesting a different coding of these dimensions by the right posterior hemisphere.

  12. Elder Abuse and Neglect: Considerations for Mental Health Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Heather; Priest, Ronnie

    2005-01-01

    Elder abuse and neglect are prevalent throughout the U.S. and are often unrecognized and untreated. It is projected that by the year 2030, the number of older adults (age 60 and older) will double, thereby increasing the likelihood that mental health practitioners will encounter instances of elder abuse and neglect. The authors address the…

  13. Child Abuse and Neglect: Handbook for Social Workers in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Inst. of Social Welfare Research, Athens, GA.

    The pamphlet provides guidelines for the social worker in reporting cases of suspected child abuse and neglect as required by Georgia law. Presented is information on the following topics: overview of the problem, understanding the parent, types of abuse and neglect, the social worker's duty to report, definition of protective services, how to…

  14. Attachment Styles and Aggression in Physically Abused and Neglected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…

  15. Innocent Victims: NCJW Manual on Child Abuse and Neglect Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Jewish Women, New York, NY.

    The manual was written by the National Council of Jewish Women to provide guidelines for volunteer legislative action and community service for individuals in the area of child abuse and neglect. After an overview which details some of the causes of child abuse, information on child abuse and neglect legislation in each state is presented.…

  16. 25 CFR 11.424 - Neglect of children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neglect of children. 11.424 Section 11.424 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.424 Neglect of children. (a) A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly endangers the...

  17. 25 CFR 11.424 - Neglect of children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neglect of children. 11.424 Section 11.424 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.424 Neglect of children. (a) A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly endangers the...

  18. 25 CFR 11.424 - Neglect of children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neglect of children. 11.424 Section 11.424 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.424 Neglect of children. (a) A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly endangers the...

  19. 25 CFR 11.424 - Neglect of children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neglect of children. 11.424 Section 11.424 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.424 Neglect of children. (a) A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly endangers the...

  20. 25 CFR 11.424 - Neglect of children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Neglect of children. 11.424 Section 11.424 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.424 Neglect of children. (a) A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly endangers the...

  1. Motor Response Deficits of Unilateral Neglect: Assessment, Therapy, and Neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Saevarsson, Styrmir

    2013-04-16

    The clinical impact of the motor deficits of unilateral neglect is indisputable. The diagnosis criteria are confusing and complicated, and assessment has been extended and modified gradually during the last few decades, which has led to inconsistency and confusion. Many different attempts have been made to overcome various assessment shortcomings. In this article, different examinations of previous studies and analyses are discussed in a systematic and critical way. Research databases were used to identify 254 reports, including 26 different empirical studies on motor neglect and 44 studies on premotor neglect. Most of the studies address the gross neuroanatomical location of lesions. The main findings indicate that frontal lesions are more common in motor neglect than in premotor neglect, and parietal lesions are more common in premotor neglect than in motor neglect. Few studies have evaluated therapeutic programs for the motor deficits of neglect. Unfortunately, most studies suffer from various diagnostic problems that result in inconsistent and controversial findings. Different assessment issues need to be addressed systematically in future studies in light of current findings to increase our understanding and awareness of these important neuropsychological motor deficits. Implications of and possible solutions to the current assessment shortcomings are discussed.

  2. Dyadic Vulnerability and Risk Profiling for Elder Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Terry; Paveza, Gregory; VandeWeerd, Carla; Fairchild, Susan; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton-Blatt, Marguarette; Norman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to report data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to the outcome of neglect.…

  3. Child Abuse and Neglect: The Responsibilities of Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchak, Rosann K.

    This annotated bibliography of resources about child abuse and neglect begins with an introduction to the problem and causes of child abuse, legal definitions of abuse and neglect, and statistics illustrating the incidence of abuse. Designed to serve as an informational resource for educators, these resources are classified by categories…

  4. Adolescent Neglect, Juvenile Delinquency and the Risk of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Williams, Abigail B.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental…

  5. Maori Identification, Alcohol Behaviour and Mental Health: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbett, Erin; Clarke, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The impact of Maori identification on alcohol behaviour and mental health and has been neglected in the psychological literature. This paper consists of a review of literature on the history of alcohol use in New Zealand and its impact on indigenous Maori, on their cultural identity and on their mental health. Previous research has been primarily…

  6. Physician self-awareness: the neglected insight.

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, M

    1988-01-01

    Self-awareness is vital to a physician's development. Understanding the impact of our internal subjective world on our attitudes and values and on the fantasies we have of reality is important to us as doctors. Some of the means of acquiring this self-knowledge include accurately perceiving the reflection of one's self in patients, understanding one's learning style, studying and enjoying the humanities, expressing one's self creatively, maintaining a sense of humour and examining one's reaction to experiences. When confronted by a person who is ill the physician must take action that is constructive and affirmative and not compromised by behaviour that originates in unexamined personal issues. PMID:3390780

  7. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  8. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect.

  9. Disentangling input and output-related components of spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Loetscher, Tobias; Nicholls, Michael E R; Brodtmann, Amy; Thomas, Nicole A; Brugger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a heterogeneous disorder with a multitude of manifestations and subtypes. Common clinical paper and pencil neglect tests fail to differentiate between these subtypes. For example, neglect patients typically bisect lines to the right. This bias can be caused by an underestimation of the left half of the line (input-related deficit), by the failure to direct actions toward the left side of space (output-related deficit), or by a mixture of these impairments. To disentangle these impairments, we used a test consisting of a line bisection task on a touch screen monitor (manual motor task) and the subsequent judgment of one's own bisection performance (visual perceptual task). It was hypothesized that patients with mainly output-related neglect should be better able to recognize their misbisected lines than patients with purely input-related neglect. In a group of 16 patients suffering from spatial neglect after right brain damage, we found that patients were three times more likely to suffer from a predominantly input-related than from an output-related subtype. The results thus suggest that neglect is typically an input-related impairment. Additional analysis of the line bisection task revealed that temporal (slowness in initiation and execution of contralateral movements) and spatial (insufficient movement amplitude toward the contralesional side) aspects of output-related neglect were mutually unrelated. This independence raises the possibility that a fine-grained differentiation of output-related neglect is required. That is, impairments in lateralized temporal and spatial aspects of movements may underlie different neglect subtypes.

  10. Visuomotor adaptation is impaired in patients with unilateral neglect.

    PubMed

    Aimola, Lina; Rogers, Gillian; Kerkhoff, Georg; Smith, Daniel T; Schenk, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Patients with unilateral neglect tend to ignore sensory information from their contralesional hemispace. Many symptoms of neglect can be reduced by exposing patients to rightward-shifting prism goggles. It was noted that the effects on neglect symptoms last for at least two hours. This seems surprising in light of the fact that the after-effect of prism adaptation in healthy subjects lasts only for a few trials. To account for this discrepancy Michel et al. (2003) referred to anecdotal observations which suggested that neglect patients show little awareness of prism-induced spatial errors. They argued that this lack of awareness might interfere with more conscious attempts to compensate for the prism goggles (called strategic control) and thereby enhance the effects of more implicit corrective mechanisms (called spatial realignment) leading to more pronounced and longer-lasting after-effects. We examined this hypothesis in a group of neglect patients, patients with right-hemispheric lesions but no neglect and a group of healthy age-matched controls. Our findings confirm that strategic control mechanisms are impaired in neglect patients. However, their after-effects seem neither reduced nor pathologically increased, thereby suggesting that the two mechanisms of prism adaptation, namely strategic control and spatial realignment are quite independent of each other. Furthermore we found that these deficits are quite specific for neglect since other patients with right-hemisphere lesions but no neglect are not impaired in this task. We discuss the implications of our findings for our understanding of visual neglect, prism adaptation and the perception and action model. PMID:21964198

  11. Disentangling input and output-related components of spatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Loetscher, Tobias; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Brodtmann, Amy; Thomas, Nicole A.; Brugger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a heterogeneous disorder with a multitude of manifestations and subtypes. Common clinical paper and pencil neglect tests fail to differentiate between these subtypes. For example, neglect patients typically bisect lines to the right. This bias can be caused by an underestimation of the left half of the line (input-related deficit), by the failure to direct actions toward the left side of space (output-related deficit), or by a mixture of these impairments. To disentangle these impairments, we used a test consisting of a line bisection task on a touch screen monitor (manual motor task) and the subsequent judgment of one's own bisection performance (visual perceptual task). It was hypothesized that patients with mainly output-related neglect should be better able to recognize their misbisected lines than patients with purely input-related neglect. In a group of 16 patients suffering from spatial neglect after right brain damage, we found that patients were three times more likely to suffer from a predominantly input-related than from an output-related subtype. The results thus suggest that neglect is typically an input-related impairment. Additional analysis of the line bisection task revealed that temporal (slowness in initiation and execution of contralateral movements) and spatial (insufficient movement amplitude toward the contralesional side) aspects of output-related neglect were mutually unrelated. This independence raises the possibility that a fine-grained differentiation of output-related neglect is required. That is, impairments in lateralized temporal and spatial aspects of movements may underlie different neglect subtypes. PMID:22707937

  12. Behavioural inventory of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous factors like continuous habitat reduction or fragmentation for free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) as well as e.g. suboptimal housing conditions for animals in captivity might lead to behavioural alterations as part of the overall adaptation process to the changing living conditions. In order to facilitate current and future studies on giraffe behaviour, a comprehensive ethogram was compiled based on existing literature, as well as observations on giraffes in the wild (Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe; Entabeni Game Reserve, South Africa), and in captivity (National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria). Findings The resulting ethogram lists 65 different behavioural patterns, which were described and grouped into seven categories: General activities, Abnormal repetitive behaviours, General interactions, Bull-Cow behaviour, Bull-Bull behaviour, Cow-Bull behaviour, Maternal behaviours, and Interactions by calves. The behaviours were further described regarding a presumed purpose, particularly with respect to social interactions and sexual behaviour. Contradictory descriptions from previous studies were considered and discussed in comparison with our own observations. Conclusions This ethogram provides a basis for current and future studies by suggesting a terminology which can be used for harmonizing behavioural observations, thus helping to facilitate comparability of future results. Subsequently, a better understanding of the behavioural ecology of giraffes in the wild as well as in captivity could aid future conservation efforts. PMID:23173954

  13. Reviewing Dengue: Still a Neglected Tropical Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Horstick, Olaf; Tozan, Yesim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is currently listed as a “neglected tropical disease” (NTD). But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R&D) (2003–2013). NTD definitions have been developed to a higher precision since the early 2000s, with the following main features: NTDs are characterised as a) poverty related, b) endemic to the tropics and subtropics, c) lacking public health attention, d) having poor research funding and shortcomings in R&D, e) usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and f) often having no specific treatment available. Dengue meets most of these criteria, but not all. Although dengue predominantly affects resource-limited countries, it does not necessarily only target the poor and marginalised in those countries. Dengue increasingly attracts public health attention, and in some affected countries it is now a high profile disease. Research funding for dengue has increased exponentially in the past two decades, in particular in the area of dengue vaccine development. However, despite advances in dengue research, dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency and magnitude, and dengue is expanding to new areas. Specific treatment and a highly effective vaccine remain elusive. Major research gaps exist in the area of integrated surveillance and vector control. Hence, although dengue differs from many of the NTDs, it still meets important criteria commonly used for NTDs. The current need for increased R&D spending, shared by dengue and other NTDs, is perhaps the key reason why dengue should continue to be considered an NTD. PMID:25928673

  14. Reviewing dengue: still a neglected tropical disease?

    PubMed

    Horstick, Olaf; Tozan, Yesim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is currently listed as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD). But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R&D) (2003-2013). NTD definitions have been developed to a higher precision since the early 2000s, with the following main features: NTDs are characterised as a) poverty related, b) endemic to the tropics and subtropics, c) lacking public health attention, d) having poor research funding and shortcomings in R&D, e) usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and f) often having no specific treatment available. Dengue meets most of these criteria, but not all. Although dengue predominantly affects resource-limited countries, it does not necessarily only target the poor and marginalised in those countries. Dengue increasingly attracts public health attention, and in some affected countries it is now a high profile disease. Research funding for dengue has increased exponentially in the past two decades, in particular in the area of dengue vaccine development. However, despite advances in dengue research, dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency and magnitude, and dengue is expanding to new areas. Specific treatment and a highly effective vaccine remain elusive. Major research gaps exist in the area of integrated surveillance and vector control. Hence, although dengue differs from many of the NTDs, it still meets important criteria commonly used for NTDs. The current need for increased R&D spending, shared by dengue and other NTDs, is perhaps the key reason why dengue should continue to be considered an NTD. PMID:25928673

  15. Reviewing dengue: still a neglected tropical disease?

    PubMed

    Horstick, Olaf; Tozan, Yesim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is currently listed as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD). But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R&D) (2003-2013). NTD definitions have been developed to a higher precision since the early 2000s, with the following main features: NTDs are characterised as a) poverty related, b) endemic to the tropics and subtropics, c) lacking public health attention, d) having poor research funding and shortcomings in R&D, e) usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and f) often having no specific treatment available. Dengue meets most of these criteria, but not all. Although dengue predominantly affects resource-limited countries, it does not necessarily only target the poor and marginalised in those countries. Dengue increasingly attracts public health attention, and in some affected countries it is now a high profile disease. Research funding for dengue has increased exponentially in the past two decades, in particular in the area of dengue vaccine development. However, despite advances in dengue research, dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency and magnitude, and dengue is expanding to new areas. Specific treatment and a highly effective vaccine remain elusive. Major research gaps exist in the area of integrated surveillance and vector control. Hence, although dengue differs from many of the NTDs, it still meets important criteria commonly used for NTDs. The current need for increased R&D spending, shared by dengue and other NTDs, is perhaps the key reason why dengue should continue to be considered an NTD.

  16. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  17. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  18. (Un)awareness of unilateral spatial neglect: a quantitative evaluation of performance in visuo-spatial tasks.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Roberta; Bolognini, Nadia; Gallucci, Marcello; Chiapella, Laura; Algeri, Lorella; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients with unilateral spatial neglect are usually unaware (anosognosic) about their spatial deficits. However, in the scientific literature there is a lack of systematic and quantitative evaluation of this kind of unawareness, despite the negative impact of anosognosia on rehabilitation programs. This study investigated anosognosia for neglect-related impairments at different clinical tasks, by means of a quantitative assessment. Patients were tested in two different conditions (before and after execution of each task), in order to evaluate changes in the level of awareness of neglect-related behaviours triggered by task execution. Twenty-nine right-brain-damaged patients (17 with left spatial neglect) and 27 neurologically unimpaired controls entered the study. Anosognosia for spatial deficits is not pervasive, with different tasks evoking different degrees of awareness about neglect symptoms. Indeed, patients showed a largely preserved awareness about their performance in complex visuo-motor spatial and reading tasks; conversely, they were impaired in evaluating their spatial difficulties in line bisection and drawing from memory, showing over-estimation of their performance. The selectivity of the patients' unawareness of specific manifestations of spatial neglect is further supported by their preserved awareness of performance at a linguistic task, and by the absence of anosognosia for hemiplegia. This evidence indicates that discrete processes are involved in the aware monitoring of cognitive and motor performance, which can be selectively compromised by brain damage. Awareness of spatial difficulties is supported by a number of distinct components, and influenced by the specific skills required to perform a given task.

  19. Pain in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, Lynne U

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  20. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  1. Characterizing exploration behavior in spatial neglect: omissions and repetitive search.

    PubMed

    Olk, Bettina; Harvey, Monika

    2006-11-01

    In search tasks, patients with spatial neglect typically fail to respond to stimuli on the contralesional side. Such behavior has been associated with hyperattention to the ipsilesional side and a deficit in disengaging from attended stimuli. The present study investigated whether such explanations can also account for a further kind of behavior frequently shown by neglect patients: repetitive returns to previously indicated stimuli, particularly on the ipsilesional side. A group of neglect patients was tested along with a group of healthy participants and a patient control group without neglect. Participants performed an exploration task in which they searched for targets defined by their shape or for all stimuli either with the aid of vision or blindfolded. The results showed differential effects of reducing the salience of visual stimuli by blindfolding. For a subgroup of patients, detection rate improved, while for others the percentage of omissions increased. However, contrary to the control groups, blindfolding had no effect on repetitive search in the neglect group, inconsistent with hyperattention, a disengage or impaired working memory deficits. The rate of repetitive returns to previously indicated locations did not seem to be associated with the percentage of omitted stimuli, suggesting that repetitive returns may be best explained by a disruption of systematic search and lack of volitional control in spatial neglect. The results further underline the importance of considering repetitive search behavior in addition to omissions in standard neglect assessments. PMID:16979143

  2. Characterizing exploration behavior in spatial neglect: omissions and repetitive search.

    PubMed

    Olk, Bettina; Harvey, Monika

    2006-11-01

    In search tasks, patients with spatial neglect typically fail to respond to stimuli on the contralesional side. Such behavior has been associated with hyperattention to the ipsilesional side and a deficit in disengaging from attended stimuli. The present study investigated whether such explanations can also account for a further kind of behavior frequently shown by neglect patients: repetitive returns to previously indicated stimuli, particularly on the ipsilesional side. A group of neglect patients was tested along with a group of healthy participants and a patient control group without neglect. Participants performed an exploration task in which they searched for targets defined by their shape or for all stimuli either with the aid of vision or blindfolded. The results showed differential effects of reducing the salience of visual stimuli by blindfolding. For a subgroup of patients, detection rate improved, while for others the percentage of omissions increased. However, contrary to the control groups, blindfolding had no effect on repetitive search in the neglect group, inconsistent with hyperattention, a disengage or impaired working memory deficits. The rate of repetitive returns to previously indicated locations did not seem to be associated with the percentage of omitted stimuli, suggesting that repetitive returns may be best explained by a disruption of systematic search and lack of volitional control in spatial neglect. The results further underline the importance of considering repetitive search behavior in addition to omissions in standard neglect assessments.

  3. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  4. Disentangling gravitational, environmental, and egocentric reference frames in spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Karnath, H O; Fetter, M; Niemeier, M

    1998-11-01

    Previous studies in neglect patients using rotation of the body around the roll-axis revealed neglect of visual stimuli not only in the egocentric, body-centered left but also in the environmental left. The latter has been taken as evidence for a gravity-based environment-centered component of neglect occurring independently of the subject's actual body orientation. However, by using visual stimuli in a normally lightened room, the studies confounded the gravitational upright with the visible upright of the surround. Thus, it is possible that the visible upright of the environment may have served the role of the gravitational upright relative to which neglect occurred. The present experiment evaluated the influence of gravity on contralateral neglect when no visual information was presented. In complete darkness, neglect patients' exploratory eye movements were recorded in five experimental conditions: body in normal upright position, body titled 30 degrees to the left and 30 degrees to the right, and body pitched 30 degrees backward and 30 degrees forward. In the upright orientation, the patients with neglect showed a bias of ocular exploration to the ipsilesional right side. In egocentric body coordinates, we found no significant differences between the orientation of the biased search field in the different experimental conditions showing that the search field shifted with the orientation of the body. No significant decrease or enhancement of neglect was observed when body orientation was varied in the different conditions. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the modulation of gravitational forces has no significant influence on the exploratory bias of these patients. When visual information was excluded and only graviceptive information was available, the patients' failure to explore the contralesional part of space appeared purely body-centered. The results argue against a disturbed representation of space in neglect that encodes locations in a

  5. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  6. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  7. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  8. Failure to thrive as a manifestation of child neglect.

    PubMed

    Block, Robert W; Krebs, Nancy F

    2005-11-01

    Failure to thrive is a common problem in infancy and childhood. It is most often multifactorial in origin. Inadequate nutrition and disturbed social interactions contribute to poor weight gain, delayed development, and abnormal behavior. The syndrome develops in a significant number of children as a consequence of child neglect. This clinical report is intended to focus the pediatrician on the consideration, evaluation, and management of failure to thrive when child neglect may be present. Child protective services agencies should be notified when the evaluation leads to a suspicion of abuse or neglect. PMID:16264015

  9. Elder abuse and neglect: when home is not safe.

    PubMed

    Abbey, L

    2009-02-01

    The prevalence and seriousness of elder abuse and neglect require the collaboration of health care professionals with many other disciplines for adequate assessment and intervention. The home visit provides a unique opportunity for the visitor to evaluate risk factors. Interventions and reporting depend on available resources, expertise and local reporting laws. Possible reasons for low physician and victim self-reporting are reviewed. Domestic violence persists into late life and requires different approaches than dealing with caregiver burnout or self-neglect. Involvement of health professionals in educating others in the community about elder abuse and neglect may allow isolated at-risk elders to be identified.

  10. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  11. Medical Imaging of Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Jones, Patrick; Mazal, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases are a group of protozoan, parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases endemic in 149 countries causing substantial illness globally. Extreme poverty and warm tropical climates are the 2 most potent forces promoting the spread of neglected tropical diseases. These forces are prevalent in Central and South America, as well as the U.S. Gulf Coast. Advanced cases often require specialized medical imaging for diagnosis, disease staging, and follow-up. This article offers a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis (with special attention to medical imaging), and treatment of neglected tropical diseases specific to the Americas.

  12. Animal welfare and animal rights.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1988-05-01

    Animal liberationists tend to divide into two mutually antagonistic camps: animal welfarists, who share a utilitarian moral outlook, and animal rightists, who presuppose a structure of basic rights. However, the gap between these groups tends to be exaggerated by their allegiance to oversimplified versions of their favored moral frameworks. For their part, animal rightists should acknowledge that rights, however basic, are also defeasible by appeals to consequences. Contrariwise, animal welfarists should recognize that rights, however derivative, are capable of constraining appeals to consequences. If both sides move to more defensible theoretical positions, their remaining differences on that level may be compatible with a broad area of convergence on practical issues.

  13. Maternal separation with early weaning: a rodent model providing novel insights into neglect associated developmental deficits.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, Becky C; Duque, Alvaro; Kitchen, Robert R; Bordner, Kelly A; Coman, Daniel; Doolittle, Eliza; Papademetris, Xenophonios; Hyder, Fahmeed; Taylor, Jane R; Simen, Arthur A

    2012-11-01

    Child neglect is the most prevalent form of child maltreatment in the United States, and poses a serious public health concern. Children who survive such episodes go on to experience long-lasting psychological and behavioral problems, including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression, alcohol and drug abuse, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and cognitive deficits. To date, most research into the causes of these life-long problems has focused on well-established targets such as stress responsive systems, including the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Using the maternal separation and early weaning model, we have attempted to provide comprehensive molecular profiling of a model of early-life neglect in an organism amenable to genomic manipulation: the mouse. In this article, we report new findings generated with this model using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, diffuse tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral analyses. We also review the validity of the maternal separation and early weaning model, which reflects behavioral deficits observed in neglected humans including hyperactivity, anxiety, and attentional deficits. Finally, we summarize the molecular characterization of these animals, including RNA profiling and label-free proteomics, which highlight protein translation and myelination as novel pathways of interest. PMID:23062306

  14. Maternal separation with early weaning: A rodent model providing novel insights into neglect associated developmental deficits

    PubMed Central

    CARLYLE, BECKY C.; DUQUE, ALVARO; KITCHEN, ROBERT R.; BORDNER, KELLY A.; COMAN, DANIEL; DOOLITTLE, ELIZA; PAPADEMETRIS, XENOPHONIOS; HYDER, FAHMEED; TAYLOR, JANE R.; SIMEN, ARTHUR A.

    2013-01-01

    Child neglect is the most prevalent form of child maltreatment in the United States, and poses a serious public health concern. Children who survive such episodes go on to experience long-lasting psychological and behavioral problems, including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression, alcohol and drug abuse, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and cognitive deficits. To date, most research into the causes of these life-long problems has focused on well-established targets such as stress responsive systems, including the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis. Using the maternal separation and early weaning model, we have attempted to provide comprehensive molecular profiling of a model of early-life neglect in an organism amenable to genomic manipulation: the mouse. In this article, we report new findings generated with this model using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, diffuse tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral analyses. We also review the validity of the maternal separation and early weaning model, which reflects behavioral deficits observed in neglected humans including hyperactivity, anxiety, and attentional deficits. Finally, we summarize the molecular characterization of these animals, including RNA profiling and label-free proteomics, which highlight protein translation and myelination as novel pathways of interest. PMID:23062306

  15. Neglected diseases of neglected populations: Thinking to reshape the determinants of health in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background People living in poverty throughout the developing world are heavily burdened with neglected communicable diseases and often marginalized by the health sector. These diseases are currently referred to as Neglected Diseases of Neglected Populations. The neglected diseases create social and financial burdens to the individual, the family, the community, and the nation. Discussion Numerous studies of successful individual interventions to manage communicable disease determinants in various types of communities have been published, but few have applied multiple interventions in an integrated, coordinated manner. We have identified a series of successful interventions and developed three hypothetical scenarios where such interventions could be applied in an integrated, multi-disease, inter-programmatic, and/or inter-sectoral approach for prevention and control of neglected diseases in three different populations: a slum, an indigenous community, and a city with a mix of populations. Summary The objective of this paper is to identify new opportunities to address neglected diseases, improve community health and promote sustainable development in neglected populations by highlighting examples of key risk and protective factors for neglected diseases which can be managed and implemented through multi-disease-based, integrated, inter-programmatic, and/or inter-sectoral approaches. Based on a literature review, analysis and development of scenarios we visualize how multiple interventions could manage multiple disease problems and propose these as possible strategies to be tested. We seek to stimulate intra- and inter-sectoral dialogue which will help in the construction of new strategies for neglected diseases (particularly for the parasitic diseases) which could benefit the poor and marginalized based on the principle of sustainability and understanding of key determinants of health, and lead to the establishment of pilot projects and activities which can

  16. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  17. Animal therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed. PMID:9110848

  18. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  19. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  20. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty.

  1. For Teens with Leukemia, Pregnancy Tests Often Neglected

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160916.html For Teens With Leukemia, Pregnancy Tests Often Neglected Risk of ... 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many teen girls with leukemia aren't checked for pregnancy ...

  2. A brief history of fatal child maltreatment and neglect.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ann H; Juarez, Chelsey A

    2014-09-01

    Child abuse encompasses four major forms of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect. The United States retains one of the worst records of child abuse in the industrialized world. It has also been determined that a large portion of these cases are missed and go undocumented in state and federal reporting agencies. In addition, disparate risk factors have been identified for physical abuse and neglect cases, but substance abuse has been found to be a significant factor in all forms of abuse. Fatal child maltreatment and neglect investigations require a multi-pronged and multidisciplinary approach requiring the coordination and information gathering from various agencies. A major difficulty in determining the accidental or non-accidental nature of these cases is that the account surrounding the events of the death of child is acquired from the caretaker. In this review, we outline common diagnostic characteristics and patterns of non-accidental injuries and neglect as a result of nutritional deprivation.

  3. Auditory sustained attention is a marker of unilateral spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Robertson, I H; Manly, T; Beschin, N; Daini, R; Haeske-Dewick, H; Hömberg, V; Jehkonen, M; Pizzamiglio, G; Shiel, A; Weber, E

    1997-12-01

    The relationships between performance on a non-spatially-lateralized measure of sustained attention and spatial bias on tests sensitive to unilateral neglect were considered in a group of 44 patients with right hemisphere lesions following stroke. As predicted from earlier studies showing a strong association between unilateral spatial neglect and sustained attention, performance on a brief and monotonous tone-counting measure formed a significant predictor of spatial bias across a variety of measures of unilateral visual neglect. This study provides further evidence for a very close link between two attentional systems hitherto regarded as being quite separate, namely a spatial attention system implicated in unilateral neglect and a sustained attention system. A close connection between these two systems was predicted by Posner, who argued that the right hemisphere-dominant sustained attention system provides a strong modulatory influence on the functioning of the lateralized posterior attention system.

  4. Developing countries and neglected diseases: challenges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2007-01-01

    It is now commonly admitted that the so-called (most) neglected tropical diseases have been given little attention. According to World Health Organization, neglected diseases are hidden diseases as they affect almost exclusively extremely poor populations living in remote areas beyond the reach of health service. The European Parliament recognised that, to our shame, Neglected Diseases have not received the attention they deserve from EU actions. In the Millennium Development Goals they were given very little attention and mentioned just as other disease. Investing in drugs for these diseases is thought to be not marketable or profitable. However, despite their low mortality, neglected diseases are causing severe and permanent disabilities and deformities affecting approximately 1 billion people in the world, yielding more than 20 millions of Disability Adjusted Life Years (56.6 million according to Lancet's revised estimates) and important socio-economic losses. Urgent pragmatic and efficient measures are needed both at international and national levels. PMID:18036265

  5. Aspects of health education: a neglected area.

    PubMed

    Kodagoda, N

    1988-01-01

    Much of human suffering is attributable to preventable causes. The area of family health is particularly important in this respect. Ignorance of simple facts relating to one's structure and development, unquestioning acceptance of tradition, belief in misconcepts, and indiscreet yielding to peer and social pressures are often causative of such suffering, particularly among young people. At present, the situation does not appear to be remedied by the influence of school teachers; and, even less by parents. This is the case for a sound programme of Family Life Education (FLE) in schools, for the implementation of which 'gatekeeper' co-operation, curriculum development and teacher training are paramount. A school's FLE programme by itself will not respond to the needs of all young people; for, in the developing world in particular, the rate of drop-out from the formal school education stream is high. These drop-outs cannot often be reached through the usual employment channels. It is therefore necessary to identify means of reaching them in an effective manner. Mass media and traditional educational material are unlikely to fulfill this need. Therefore, special print material has to be developed. For this purpose, well-focussed objectives have to be drawn up, and instructional content has to be compiled. Presentation methodologies have to be evolved in an innovative manner. These need necessarily be locality-specific, based on the findings of behavioural and sociological studies conducted on and around specific target populations.

  6. Noma: neglected, forgotten and a human rights issue.

    PubMed

    Leila Srour, M; Marck, Klaas W; Baratti-Mayer, Denise

    2015-05-01

    Noma, an orofacial gangrene and opportunistic infection, affects primarily malnourished children living in extreme poverty. Neglected, forgotten, unknown by most health workers, noma results in death, disfigurement and disability of some of the world's most vulnerable children. Noma is a biological indicator of multiple human rights violations, including the right to food. International support and national attention in countries with noma are lacking. The end of neglect of noma can lead to the elimination of this horrific childhood disease. PMID:25609756

  7. Medical and laboratory indicators of elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    LoFaso, Veronica M; Rosen, Tony

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse and neglect are highly prevalent but woefully underdetected and underreported. The presentation is rarely clear and requires the piecing together of clues that create a mosaic of the full picture. More research needed to better characterize findings that, when identified, can contribute to certainty in cases of suspected abuse. Medical and laboratory data can be helpful in the successful determination of abuse and neglect.

  8. Neglected diseases amid wealth in the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases are not exclusive to low-income countries. In the United States, such infections account for a sizable but largely hidden disease burden among minority populations living in poverty and among people of African descent in particular. Similar infections also occur in Europe. As efforts to control neglected tropical diseases expand throughout Africa, parallel efforts should also target poor and forgotten people in wealthy nations.

  9. Noma: neglected, forgotten and a human rights issue.

    PubMed

    Leila Srour, M; Marck, Klaas W; Baratti-Mayer, Denise

    2015-05-01

    Noma, an orofacial gangrene and opportunistic infection, affects primarily malnourished children living in extreme poverty. Neglected, forgotten, unknown by most health workers, noma results in death, disfigurement and disability of some of the world's most vulnerable children. Noma is a biological indicator of multiple human rights violations, including the right to food. International support and national attention in countries with noma are lacking. The end of neglect of noma can lead to the elimination of this horrific childhood disease.

  10. The Making of a Self-Neglect Severity Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Dyer, C. B.; Pavlik, V. N.; Kelly, P. A.; Lee, J.; Doody, R. S.; Regev, C.; Pickens, C.; Burnett, J.

    2006-01-01

    Research in elder self-neglect has lagged behind that of other forms of mistreatment, despite the fact that self-neglect is the most common allegation reported to Adult Protective Service agencies throughout the US. The lack of a gold-standard to measure self-neglect has hampered efforts to study this phenomenon. Researchers designed the Self-neglect Severity Scale (SSS) based on interviews with Adult Protective Service workers and a national expert panel. The SSS is based on observation and interview and is administered in the home to include an environmental assessment. It was piloted, extensively field tested and then revised. The CREST SSS was developed using survey data and consultation with experts in the field. This instrument utilizes observer ratings, interview responses, and assesses subjects physical and environmental domains. It also assesses functional status as it relates to health and safety issues. After field and pilot testing the SSS was finalized and is currently undergoing reliability and validity testing. The CREST SSS was developed as a state scale to provide a common language for describing cases of self-neglect. It is the first self-neglect severity scale available to researchers. If found to be both reliable and valid it can be used in future intervention studies.

  11. Neglect subtypes, race, and poverty: individual, family, and service characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Zhou, Pan

    2013-02-01

    Recent child maltreatment research has highlighted the very different context of poverty for Black and White children. Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment and strongly associated with poverty. Neglect is, however, not a unitary construct. We lack an understanding of whether reporting of and responding to different types of neglect may vary by poverty, race, or the intersection of the two. Administrative census, child welfare, welfare, health, and education data were used to examine how family and community poverty factors associate with various subtypes of neglect and subsequent case dispositions for Black and White children. Black children reported to child welfare reside in far poorer communities than Whites, even after taking into account family income (Aid to Families with Dependent Children [AFDC]/Temporary Aid to Needy Families [TANF]). Black children were more commonly reported and substantiated for severe and basic needs neglect. Community poverty indicators had a different relationship to report disposition for Black as compared to White children after controlling for neglect subtypes, child and family characteristics. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  12. Walking and wheelchair navigation in patients with left visual neglect.

    PubMed

    Turton, Ailie J; Dewar, Sophie J; Lievesley, Alex; O'Leary, Kelly; Gabb, Jude; Gilchrist, Iain D

    2009-04-01

    Patients with neglect veer to one side when walking or driving a wheelchair, however there is a contradiction in the literature about the direction of this deviation. The study investigated the navigational trajectory of a sample of neglect patients of mixed mobility status in an ecological setting. Fifteen patients with left-sided neglect after right hemisphere stroke were recorded walking or driving a powered wheelchair along a stretch of corridor. Their position in the corridor and the number of collisions was recorded. The results showed that the patients' path was dependent on their mobility status: wheelchair patients with neglect consistently deviated to the left of the centre of the corridor and walking patients with neglect consistently deviated to the right. A further two ambulant patients with neglect were recorded both walking and using the wheelchair to determine whether the differences were task or patient dependent. These two patients also exhibited leftward deviation when driving the wheelchair, but a rightward deviation when walking. These results suggest that the direction of the deviation is task dependent. Further work will be required to identify what features of the two modes of navigation lead to this dissociation.

  13. Abuse and neglect experienced by aging chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2011-10-01

    The traditional values of Chinese culture promote care and respect toward older adults. While it appears to be ironic to discuss issues of abuse and neglect in the Chinese culture, research findings in Chinese societies do indicate the occurrences of such problems. However, little research on the abuse and neglect of older Chinese in Western societies has been available. This study aims to examine the incidence of abuse and neglect and the associated correlates based on data collected from a random sample of 2,272 aging Chinese 55 years and older in seven Canadian cities. The findings show that 4.5% of the participants reported experiencing at least one incident of maltreatment or neglect within the past year. The most common forms of neglect and abuse experienced by the aging Chinese include being scolded, yelled at, treated impolitely all the time, and ridiculed. Close family members such as spouses and sons are those that most commonly maltreat older Chinese. Those who were more likely to report at least one incident of maltreatment or neglect were older adults living with others; they tended to have no education, more access barriers, more chronic illnesses, less favorable mental health, and a higher level of identification with Chinese cultural values. The findings implied that the face value of respect and care received by older people in Chinese culture should not be taken for granted. Culturally appropriate precautionary steps are needed for prevention and early problem identification. PMID:21978291

  14. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    PubMed

    León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz) and lower alpha (8-10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  15. Electrophysiological Responses to Affective Stimuli in Neglectful Mothers

    PubMed Central

    León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz) and lower alpha (8–10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers. PMID:24498200

  16. Combining language and space: sentence bisection in unilateral spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Veronelli, Laura; Guasti, Maria T; Arduino, Lisa S; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    In line bisection right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect show a rightward deviation, with respect to the line's physical center. In word bisection ortho-phonological features of the stimulus' final (right-sided) part modulate performance of both patients and healthy participants (Veronelli, Vallar, Marinelli, Primativo, & Arduino, 2014). We investigated the role of linguistic factors in sentence bisection, in patients with and without neglect, and control participants. The effects of information in the right-sided part of the sentence (Experiment #1), and of lexical and syntactic violations (Experiment #2) were assessed. Neglect patients showed an overall rightward bias, larger than those of patients without neglect and controls. The neglect patients' bias was modulated by stimulus type, decreasing from lines, to letter strings and to all types of sentences. In sum, in visuo-manual sentence bisection a basic linguistic mechanism, such as sentence readability, brings about a more leftward appreciation of the stimulus, reducing the neglect patients' rightward bias.

  17. Abuse and neglect experienced by aging chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2011-10-01

    The traditional values of Chinese culture promote care and respect toward older adults. While it appears to be ironic to discuss issues of abuse and neglect in the Chinese culture, research findings in Chinese societies do indicate the occurrences of such problems. However, little research on the abuse and neglect of older Chinese in Western societies has been available. This study aims to examine the incidence of abuse and neglect and the associated correlates based on data collected from a random sample of 2,272 aging Chinese 55 years and older in seven Canadian cities. The findings show that 4.5% of the participants reported experiencing at least one incident of maltreatment or neglect within the past year. The most common forms of neglect and abuse experienced by the aging Chinese include being scolded, yelled at, treated impolitely all the time, and ridiculed. Close family members such as spouses and sons are those that most commonly maltreat older Chinese. Those who were more likely to report at least one incident of maltreatment or neglect were older adults living with others; they tended to have no education, more access barriers, more chronic illnesses, less favorable mental health, and a higher level of identification with Chinese cultural values. The findings implied that the face value of respect and care received by older people in Chinese culture should not be taken for granted. Culturally appropriate precautionary steps are needed for prevention and early problem identification.

  18. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  19. Animal Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  20. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective.

    PubMed

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-10-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast-slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed-accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.

  1. Human sparganosis, a neglected food borne zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Li, Ming-Wei; Wang, Ze-Dong; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Human sparganosis is a food borne zoonosis caused by the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of various diphyllobothroid tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Human infections are acquired by ingesting the raw or undercooked meat of snakes or frogs, drinking untreated water, or using raw flesh in traditional poultices. More than 1600 cases of sparganosis have been documented worldwide, mostly in east and southeast Asia. Sporadic cases have been reported in South America, Europe, and Africa, and several cases have been described in travellers returning from endemic regions. Epidemiological data suggest that the increased effect of sparganosis on human health is because of greater consumption of raw meat of freshwater frogs and snakes. This Review provides information about the Spirometra parasites and their lifecycles, summarises clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human sparganosis, and describes geographical distribution and infection characteristics of Spirometra parasites in host animals. PMID:26364132

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of Neglect Assessment Reveals Motor-Exploratory Predictor of Functional Disability in Acute-Stage Spatial Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, Kelly M.; Chen, Peii; Botticello, Amanda; Masmela, Jenny R.; Adler, Uri; Barrett, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Spatial neglect is a failure or slowness to respond, orient, or initiate action towards contra-lesional stimuli, associated with functional disability that impedes stroke recovery. Early identification of specific neglect deficits may identify patients likely to experience chronic disability. However, psychometric evaluation of assessments has focused on subacute/chronic populations. We addressed this gap by assessing two neglect measures – the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT) and the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) – in acute neglect. Design Correlational/Psychometric study. Setting Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Participants Screening identified 51 consecutive right-hemisphere stroke patients with left neglect (BIT conventional score < 129 or CBS > 11) that tested an average of 22.3 days post-stroke. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures We obtained BIT, CBS, and Barthel assessments for each participant, and clinical and laboratory measures of perceptual-attentional and motor-intentional deficits. Results The BIT demonstrated good reliability and loaded onto a single factor. Consistent with our theoretical prediction, principal components analysis of the CBS identified two underlying factors: “Where” perceptual-attentional items (CBS-PA) and embodied, motor exploratory items (CBS-ME). The CBS-ME uniquely predicted ADL deficits (Barthel Index), but did not predict clinical and laboratory assessments of motor-intentional bias. More severe neglect on CBS-PA correlated with greater “Where” perceptual-attentional bias on clinical and laboratory tests, but did not uniquely predict deficits in activities of daily living (ADLs). Conclusions Our results indicate that assessments of spatial neglect may be used to detect specific motor-exploratory deficits in spatial neglect. Obtaining CBS-ME scores routinely might improve detection of acute stage patients with spatial action deficits requiring increased assistance that may persist to

  3. Beyond Neglect: Preliminary Evidence of Retrospective Time Estimation Abnormalities in Non-Neglect Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Patients

    PubMed Central

    Low, Essie; Crewther, Sheila G.; Perre, Diana L.; Ben Ong; Laycock, Robin; Tu, Hans; Wijeratne, Tissa

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the passage of time is essential for safe planning and navigation of everyday activities. Findings from the literature have demonstrated a gross underestimation of time interval in right-hemisphere damaged neglect patients, but not in non-neglect unilaterally-damaged patients, compared to controls. This study aimed to investigate retrospective estimation of the duration of a target detection task over two occasions, in 30 stroke patients (12 left-side stroke 15 right-side stroke, and 3 right-side stroke with neglect) and 10 transient ischemic attack patients, relative to 31 age-matched controls. Performances on visual short-term and working memory tasks were also examined to investigate the associations between timing abilities with residual cognitive functioning. Initial results revealed evidence of perceptual time underestimation, not just in neglect patients, but also in non-neglect unilaterally-damaged stroke patients and transient ischemic attack patients. Three months later, underestimation of time persisted only in left-side stroke and right-side stroke with neglect patients, who also demonstrated reduced short-term and working memory abilities. Findings from this study suggest a predictive role of residual cognitive impairments in determining the prognosis of perceptual timing abnormalities. PMID:26940859

  4. Long-term effects of early-life environmental manipulations in rodents and primates: Potential animal models in depression research.

    PubMed

    Pryce, Christopher R; Rüedi-Bettschen, Daniela; Dettling, Andrea C; Weston, Anna; Russig, Holger; Ferger, Boris; Feldon, Joram

    2005-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common human illnesses and is of immense clinical and economic significance. Knowledge of the neuro-psychology, -biology and -pharmacology of depression is limited, as is the efficacy of antidepressant treatment. In terms of depression aetiology, whilst the evidence for causal mechanisms is sparse, some genomic and environmental factors associated with increased vulnerability have been identified. With regards to the latter, the environments in which human infants and children develop are fundamental to how they develop, and parental loss, emotional and physical neglect, and abuse have been shown to be associated with: traits of depression, traits of predisposition to depression triggered by subsequent life events, and associated physiological abnormalities, across the life span. Studies of postnatal environmental manipulations in rodents and primates can potentially yield evidence that abnormal early-life experience leading to dysfunction of the neurobiology, physiology and behaviour of emotion is a general mammalian characteristic, and therefore, that this approach can be used to develop animal models for depression research, with aetiological, face, construct and predictive validity. The establishment of models with such validity, if at all achievable, will require a sophisticated combination of (1) appropriate postnatal manipulations that induce acute stress responses in the infant brain which in turn lead to long-term neurobiological consequences, and (2) appropriate behavioural and physiological assays to identify and quantify any depression-like phenotypes resulting from these long-term neurobiological phenotypes. Here, we review some of the evidence-positive and negative-that neglect-like environments in rat pups and monkey infants lead to long-term, depression-like behavioural traits of reduced motivation for reward and impaired coping with adversity, and to altered activity in relevant physiological homeostatic systems. PMID

  5. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  6. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  8. The Case for Live Attenuated Vaccines against the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Aseem; Cabello, Ana; Akoolo, Lavoisier; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela; McMurray, David; Ficht, Thomas A.; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of humans and animals with live attenuated organisms has proven to be an effective means of combatting some important infectious diseases. In fact, the 20th century witnessed tremendous improvements in human and animal health worldwide as a consequence of large-scale vaccination programs with live attenuated vaccines (LAVs). Here, we use the neglected zoonotic diseases brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTb) caused by Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), respectively, as comparative models to outline the merits of LAV platforms with emphasis on molecular strategies that have been pursued to generate LAVs with enhanced vaccine safety and efficacy profiles. Finally, we discuss the prospects of LAV platforms in the fight against brucellosis and BTb and outline new avenues for future research towards developing effective vaccines using LAV platforms. PMID:27537413

  9. The Case for Live Attenuated Vaccines against the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Aseem; Cabello, Ana; Akoolo, Lavoisier; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela; McMurray, David; Ficht, Thomas A; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination of humans and animals with live attenuated organisms has proven to be an effective means of combatting some important infectious diseases. In fact, the 20th century witnessed tremendous improvements in human and animal health worldwide as a consequence of large-scale vaccination programs with live attenuated vaccines (LAVs). Here, we use the neglected zoonotic diseases brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTb) caused by Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), respectively, as comparative models to outline the merits of LAV platforms with emphasis on molecular strategies that have been pursued to generate LAVs with enhanced vaccine safety and efficacy profiles. Finally, we discuss the prospects of LAV platforms in the fight against brucellosis and BTb and outline new avenues for future research towards developing effective vaccines using LAV platforms. PMID:27537413

  10. Adolescent neglect, juvenile delinquency and the risk of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph P; Williams, Abigail B; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-03-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental rejection and family relationships are instrumental in explaining juvenile conduct problems. This study sought to determine whether neglect is associated with recidivism for moderate and high risk juvenile offenders in Washington State. Statewide risk assessments and administrative records for child welfare, juvenile justice, and adult corrections were analyzed. The sample was diverse (24 % female, 13 % African American, 8 % Hispanic, 5 % Native American) and included all moderate and high risk juvenile offenders screened by juvenile probation between 2004 and 2007 (n = 19,833). Official records from child protection were used to identify juvenile offenders with a history of child neglect and to identify juvenile offenders with an ongoing case of neglect. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents with an ongoing case neglect were significantly more likely to continue offending as compared with youth with no official history of neglect. These findings remain even after controlling for a wide range of family, peer, academic, mental health, and substance abuse covariates. Interrupting trajectories of offending is a primary focus of juvenile justice. The findings of the current study indicate that ongoing dependency issues play a critical role in explaining the outcomes achieved for adolescents in juvenile justice settings. The implications for improved collaboration between child welfare and juvenile justice are discussed. PMID:23334336

  11. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  12. Global aspirations, local realities: the role of social science research in controlling neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Bardosh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are both drivers and manifestations of poverty and social inequality. Increased advocacy efforts since the mid-2000s have led to ambitious new control and elimination targets set for 2020 by the World Health Organisation. While these global aspirations represent significant policy momentum, there are multifaceted challenges in controlling infectious diseases in resource-poor local contexts that need to be acknowledged, understood and engaged. However a number of recent publications have emphasised the "neglected" status of applied social science research on NTDs. In light of the 2020 targets, this paper explores the social science/NTD literature and unpacks some of the ways in which social inquiry can help support effective and sustainable interventions. Five priority areas are discussed, including on policy processes, health systems capacity, compliance and resistance to interventions, education and behaviour change, and community participation. The paper shows that despite the multifaceted value of having anthropological and sociological perspectives integrated into NTD programmes, contemporary efforts underutilise this potential. This is reflective of the dominance of top-down information flows and technocratic approaches in global health. To counter this tendency, social research needs to be more than an afterthought; integrating social inquiry into the planning, monitoring and evaluating process will help ensure that flexibility and adaptability to local realities are built into interventions. More emphasis on social science perspectives can also help link NTD control to broader social determinants of health, especially important given the major social and economic inequalities that continue to underpin transmission in endemic countries.

  13. What do the Numbers Say? The Influence of Motivation and Peer Feedback on Students' Behaviour in Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Kui

    2013-01-01

    Students' non-posting behaviour in online discussions is often neglected in educational research. However, it can be a potential indicator of student learning. This study examined the relationships between motivation, peer feedback and students’ posting and non-posting behaviours in online discussions in a distance learning class. Fifty-seven…

  14. The Relationship Between Violence to Children and Violence to Animals: An Ignored Link?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boat, Barbara W.

    1995-01-01

    The association between violence to children and violence to animals remains largely unacknowledged in the child abuse/ neglect arena. Several reasons justifying further exploration of the link are discussed, along with suggestions for enhancing our awareness, knowledge, and services. (Author)

  15. Animal Housing: The Secret Life of Students' Pets Is Not Always a Walk in the Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Animals owned by college students are particularly vulnerable to neglect, mistreatment, and abandonment, given the fact that pets are usually prohibited from college dorms and student apartments. Some students, however, persist in keeping pets on campus. (SLD)

  16. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  17. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  18. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  19. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  20. DNA taxonomy of a neglected animal phylum: an unexpected diversity of tardigrades.

    PubMed Central

    Blaxter, Mark; Elsworth, Ben; Daub, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    A molecular survey technique was used to investigate the diversity of terrestrial tardigrades from three sites within Scotland. Ribosomal small subunit sequence was used to classify specimens into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU). Most MOTU were identified to the generic level using digital voucher photography. Thirty-two MOTU were defined, a surprising abundance given that the documented British fauna is 68 species. Some tardigrade MOTU were shared between the two rural collection sites, but no MOTU were found in both urban and rural sites, which conflicts with models of ubiquity of meiofaunal taxa. The patterns of relatedness of MOTU were particularly intriguing, with some forming clades with low levels of divergence, suggestive of taxon flocks. Some morphological taxa contained well-separated MOTU, perhaps indicating the existence of cryptic taxa. DNA sequence-based MOTU proved to be a revealing method for meiofaunal diversity studies. PMID:15252980