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Sample records for animal behaviour neglecting

  1. Marine animal behaviour: neglecting ocean currents can lead us up the wrong track.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves; Fossette, Sabrina; Lenoble, Arnaud; Ferraroli, Sandra; Le Maho, Yvon

    2006-11-07

    Tracks of marine animals in the wild, now increasingly acquired by electronic tagging of individuals, are of prime interest not only to identify habitats and high-risk areas, but also to gain detailed information about the behaviour of these animals. Using recent satellite-derived current estimates and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) tracking data, we demonstrate that oceanic currents, usually neglected when analysing tracking data, can substantially distort the observed trajectories. Consequently, this will affect several important results deduced from the analysis of tracking data, such as the evaluation of the orientation skills and the energy budget of animals or the identification of foraging areas. We conclude that currents should be systematically taken into account to ensure the unbiased interpretation of tracking data, which now play a major role in marine conservation biology.

  2. Marine animal behaviour: neglecting ocean currents can lead us up the wrong track

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves; Fossette, Sabrina; Lenoble, Arnaud; Ferraroli, Sandra; Le Maho, Yvon

    2006-01-01

    Tracks of marine animals in the wild, now increasingly acquired by electronic tagging of individuals, are of prime interest not only to identify habitats and high-risk areas, but also to gain detailed information about the behaviour of these animals. Using recent satellite-derived current estimates and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) tracking data, we demonstrate that oceanic currents, usually neglected when analysing tracking data, can substantially distort the observed trajectories. Consequently, this will affect several important results deduced from the analysis of tracking data, such as the evaluation of the orientation skills and the energy budget of animals or the identification of foraging areas. We conclude that currents should be systematically taken into account to ensure the unbiased interpretation of tracking data, which now play a major role in marine conservation biology. PMID:17015330

  3. Ipsilesional neglect: behavioural and anatomical features

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M; Na, D; Kim, G; Adair, J; Lee, K; Heilman, K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To learn more about the behavioural and anatomical features of ipsilesional neglect.
METHODS—Thirty consecutive patients with spatial neglect were tested on cancellation and line bisection tasks. To learn if patients with ipsilesional neglect demonstrate the sensory-attentional or motor-intentional type of neglect, a video apparatus was used that dissociates these determinants.
RESULTS—Five patients showed evidence of ipsilesional neglect. This phenomenon was seen only on the line bisection task. All patients with ipsilesional neglect had lesions involving frontal-subcortical regions. Although ipsilesional neglect evolved from early in three of five cases, the other patients displayed ipsilesional neglect without initial contralateral neglect, suggesting that ipsilesional neglect cannot be fully attributed to a compensatory strategy. The results of the tests that used the video apparatus indicate that right sided frontal or subcortical injury may induce contralateral attentional or intentional "approach" behaviours.
CONCLUSIONS—Ipsilesional neglect is most often associated with frontal-subcortical lesions, cannot be entirely attributed to a compensatory strategy, and may be induced by an attentional bias, an intentional bias, or both.

 PMID:10369819

  4. Metamorphosis and animal personality: a neglected opportunity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alexander D M; Krause, Jens

    2012-10-01

    Developmental perspectives represent an underutilized area of animal personality research, in spite of their obvious importance in biology. Animals that undergo metamorphosis are particularly neglected and represent a unique in situ experimental opportunity to study how personality differences are associated with physiological, morphological, or ecological traits over development.

  5. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    PubMed

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  6. Collective behaviour across animal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  7. Collective behaviour across animal species

    PubMed Central

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  8. Forensic pathology of companion animal abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P

    2013-11-01

    Submission of cases of suspected animal abuse and neglect (AAN) to veterinary pathologists is increasingly frequent. These cases require modification of postmortem procedures and written reports, as the questions asked by courts typically differ from those asked in routine diagnostic cases. Here we review the practice of veterinary forensic pathology as it applies to cases of companion AAN, as well as the fundamental principles of forensic pathology, the components of a forensic necropsy, and the goals of the necropsy in cases of blunt-force trauma, projectile wounds, and starvation. Future directions and endeavors in veterinary forensic pathology are broached.

  9. Virtual ethology of aquatic animal heterogeneous behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChenKim; Tan, KianLam

    2016-08-01

    In the virtual world, the simulation of flocking behaviour has been actively investigated since the 1980 through the boid models. However, ethology is a niche study of animal behaviour from the biological perspective that is rarely instil in the interest of the younger learners nowadays. The keystone of the research is to be able to disseminate the study of animal behaviours through the boid model with the aid of technology. Through the simulation, complex movement of animal behaviours are reproduced based on the extension of basic behaviours of boid algorithm. The techniques here are to (i) Analyse a high-level behavioural framework of motion in the animal behaviours and (ii) Evolves particles to other animal representations to portray more real-time examples of steering behaviours. Although the generality of the results is limited by the number of case study, it also supports the hypothesis that interactive simulation system of virtual ethology can aid the improvement of animal studies.

  10. Sensitivity of clinical and behavioural tests of spatial neglect after right hemisphere stroke

    PubMed Central

    Azouvi, P; Samuel, C; Louis-Dreyfus, A; Bernati, T; Bartolomeo, P; Beis, J; Chokron, S; Leclercq, M; Marchal, F; Martin, Y; de Montety, G; Olivier, S; Perennou, D; Pradat-Diehl, P; Prairial, C; Rode, G; Sieroff, E; Wiart, L; Rousseaux, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The lack of agreement regarding assessment methods is responsible for the variability in the reported rate of occurrence of spatial neglect after stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of different tests of neglect after right hemisphere stroke. Methods: Two hundred and six subacute right hemisphere stroke patients were given a test battery including a preliminary assessment of anosognosia and of visual extinction, a clinical assessment of gaze orientation and of personal neglect, and paper and pencil tests of spatial neglect in the peripersonal space. Patients were compared with a previously reported control group. A subgroup of patients (n=69) received a behavioural assessment of neglect in daily life situations. Results: The most sensitive paper and pencil measure was the starting point in the cancellation task. The whole battery was more sensitive than any single test alone. About 85% of patients presented some degree of neglect on at least one measure. An important finding was that behavioural assessment of neglect in daily life was more sensitive than any other single measure of neglect. Behavioural neglect was considered as moderate to severe in 36% of cases. A factorial analysis revealed that paper and pencil tests were related to two underlying factors. Dissociations were found between extrapersonal neglect, personal neglect, anosognosia, and extinction. Anatomical analyses showed that neglect was more common and severe when the posterior association cortex was damaged. Conclusions: The automatic rightward orientation bias is the most sensitive clinical measure of neglect. Behavioural assessment is more sensitive than any single paper and pencil test. The results also support the assumption that neglect is a heterogeneous disorder. PMID:12122175

  11. The principles of collective animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Sumpter, D.J.T

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of self-organization has been used to understand collective behaviour of animals. The central tenet of self-organization is that simple repeated interactions between individuals can produce complex adaptive patterns at the level of the group. Inspiration comes from patterns seen in physical systems, such as spiralling chemical waves, which arise without complexity at the level of the individual units of which the system is composed. The suggestion is that biological structures such as termite mounds, ant trail networks and even human crowds can be explained in terms of repeated interactions between the animals and their environment, without invoking individual complexity. Here, I review cases in which the self-organization approach has been successful in explaining collective behaviour of animal groups and societies. Ant pheromone trail networks, aggregation of cockroaches, the applause of opera audiences and the migration of fish schools have all been accurately described in terms of individuals following simple sets of rules. Unlike the simple units composing physical systems, however, animals are themselves complex entities, and other examples of collective behaviour, such as honey bee foraging with its myriad of dance signals and behavioural cues, cannot be fully understood in terms of simple individuals alone. I argue that the key to understanding collective behaviour lies in identifying the principles of the behavioural algorithms followed by individual animals and of how information flows between the animals. These principles, such as positive feedback, response thresholds and individual integrity, are repeatedly observed in very different animal societies. The future of collective behaviour research lies in classifying these principles, establishing the properties they produce at a group level and asking why they have evolved in so many different and distinct natural systems. Ultimately, this research could inform not only our

  12. Juvenile animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-09-04

    There is a view that young people presenting with an animal cruelty and firesetting combination represent a uniquely risky group, but prior work has relied on samples with insufficient power. What is the prevalence of the co-occurrence of animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour among young delinquents? What other features correlate with this? We measured the prevalence of animal cruelty and firesetting among 292,649 juvenile offenders and used rare events logistic regression to examine demographic, criminal, mental health and family histories as correlates. The prevalence of animal cruelty was 0.59%, accounting for 1732 young people, and of firesetting 1.56% (n = 4553). The co-occurrence of these behaviours was rare: 0.17% (n = 498), but approximately twice that expected by chance based on the prevalence of each behaviour individually (0.59% × 1.56% = 0.009%). Rates were higher in males, older youths and Whites. Among historical variables, criminal history was the strongest correlate, followed by mental health problems, then familial and individual indicators. As only male gender and being a victim of sexual abuse increased the odds of evidencing both animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour substantially above the odds for each behaviour individually, there thus appears to be little that is unique to the co-occurrence. Our findings suggest that sensitivity to the occurrence of each is the best way forward, with rather familiar assessments and interventions offering some hope of reducing these seriously damaging behaviours. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Teachers' Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect: Behaviour and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebbels, A. F. G.; Nicholson, J. M.; Walsh, K.; De Vries, H.

    2008-01-01

    By reporting suspected child abuse and neglect, teachers can make an important contribution to the early detection and prevention of abuse. However, teachers are sometimes reluctant to report their suspicions. This study investigated the determinants of teachers' reporting behaviour using concepts from the Integrated Change Model. Self-report data…

  14. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Schofield, Paul N

    2015-10-01

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain.

  15. The modelling cycle for collective animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sumpter, David J T; Mann, Richard P; Perna, Andrea

    2012-12-06

    Collective animal behaviour is the study of how interactions between individuals produce group level patterns, and why these interactions have evolved. This study has proved itself uniquely interdisciplinary, involving physicists, mathematicians, engineers as well as biologists. Almost all experimental work in this area is related directly or indirectly to mathematical models, with regular movement back and forth between models, experimental data and statistical fitting. In this paper, we describe how the modelling cycle works in the study of collective animal behaviour. We classify studies as addressing questions at different levels or linking different levels, i.e. as local, local to global, global to local or global. We also describe three distinct approaches-theory-driven, data-driven and model selection-to these questions. We show, with reference to our own research on species across different taxa, how we move between these different levels of description and how these various approaches can be applied to link levels together.

  16. The modelling cycle for collective animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Sumpter, David J. T.; Mann, Richard P.; Perna, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Collective animal behaviour is the study of how interactions between individuals produce group level patterns, and why these interactions have evolved. This study has proved itself uniquely interdisciplinary, involving physicists, mathematicians, engineers as well as biologists. Almost all experimental work in this area is related directly or indirectly to mathematical models, with regular movement back and forth between models, experimental data and statistical fitting. In this paper, we describe how the modelling cycle works in the study of collective animal behaviour. We classify studies as addressing questions at different levels or linking different levels, i.e. as local, local to global, global to local or global. We also describe three distinct approaches—theory-driven, data-driven and model selection—to these questions. We show, with reference to our own research on species across different taxa, how we move between these different levels of description and how these various approaches can be applied to link levels together. PMID:23173077

  17. [Dermatomycoses due to pets and farm animals : neglected infections?].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G

    2012-11-01

    Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals.

  18. Neglected fungal zoonoses: hidden threats to man and animals.

    PubMed

    Seyedmousavi, S; Guillot, J; Tolooe, A; Verweij, P E; de Hoog, G S

    2015-05-01

    Zoonotic fungi can be naturally transmitted between animals and humans, and in some cases cause significant public health problems. A number of mycoses associated with zoonotic transmission are among the group of the most common fungal diseases, worldwide. It is, however, notable that some fungal diseases with zoonotic potential have lacked adequate attention in international public health efforts, leading to insufficient attention on their preventive strategies. This review aims to highlight some mycoses whose zoonotic potential received less attention, including infections caused by Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei, Lacazia loboi, Emmonsia spp., Basidiobolus ranarum, Conidiobolus spp. and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transgenerational epigenetic effects on animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Per

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade a shift in paradigm has occurred with respect to the interaction between environment and genes. It is now clear that animal genomes are regulated to a large extent as a result of input from environmental events and experiences, which cause short- and long-term modifications in epigenetic markings of DNA and histones. In this review, the evidence that such epigenetic modifications can affect the behaviour of animals is explored, and whether such acquired behaviour alterations can transfer across generation borders. First, the mechanisms by which experiences cause epigenetic modifications are examined. This includes, for example, methylation of cytosine in CpG positions and acetylation of histones, and studies showing that this can be modified by early experiences. Secondly, the evidence that specific modifications in the epigenome can be the cause of behaviour variation is reviewed. Thirdly, the extent to which this phenotypically active epigenetic variants can be inherited either through the germline or through reoccurring environmental conditions is examined. A particularly interesting observation is that epigenetic modifications are often linked to stress, and may possibly be mediated by steroid effects. Finally, the idea that transgenerationally stable epigenetic variants may serve as substrates for natural selection is explored, and it is speculated that they may even predispose for directed, non-random mutations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of U.S. animal control agencies in equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations.

    PubMed

    Stull, C L; Holcomb, K E

    2014-05-01

    Every state in the United States has regulations prohibiting acts of neglect and cruelty against animals. Local law enforcement and animal control agencies are responsible in many communities to enforce these statutes. As society's perception of horses has changed from their origin as livestock to companion animals in modern times, owners have transitioned their care and management. The goal of this study was to identify the role and capacities of local animal control services in the United States that investigate equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations and to identify challenges and outcomes of the investigations. A 128-question online survey was accessible for animal agencies to complete. Comprehensive questions included their capacity for investigating equine cases, funding, housing for horses, and causes and outcomes of investigations. Respondents also were asked to select a single case and provide detailed information on the condition of horses, seizure and custody procedures, costs, and prosecution proceedings. A total of 165 respondents from 26 states completed all or the majority of the questions. A total of 6,864 equine investigations were initiated between 2007 and 2009 by 90 agencies, which extrapolates to 38 investigations annually per agency. A typical agency has an average annual budget of $740,000, employs 7 animal control officers, and spends about $10,000 annually on equine cases. Neglect was ranked as the most common reason for investigation. Owner ignorance, economic hardship, and lack of responsibility were the highest ranked causes of neglect and cruelty. Individual cases were provided by 91 agencies concerning 749 equines. The physical condition of the horse was the primary factor of investigation, and low body condition, parasite infestation, and compromised dental condition were present in most seized horses. Over half of the equine owners previously had been investigated or charged with neglect or cruelty of animals or were

  1. Animal personality: what are behavioural ecologists measuring?

    PubMed

    Carter, Alecia J; Feeney, William E; Marshall, Harry H; Cowlishaw, Guy; Heinsohn, Robert

    2013-05-01

    The discovery that an individual may be constrained, and even behave sub-optimally, because of its personality type has fundamental implications for understanding individual- to group-level processes. Despite recent interest in the study of animal personalities within behavioural ecology, the field is fraught with conceptual and methodological difficulties inherent in any young discipline. We review the current agreement of definitions and methods used in personality studies across taxa and systems, and find that current methods risk misclassifying traits. Fortunately, these problems have been faced before by other similar fields during their infancy, affording important opportunities to learn from past mistakes. We review the tools that were developed to overcome similar methodological problems in psychology. These tools emphasise the importance of attempting to measure animal personality traits using multiple tests and the care that needs to be taken when interpreting correlations between personality traits or their tests. Accordingly, we suggest an integrative theoretical framework that incorporates these tools to facilitate a robust and unified approach in the study of animal personality.

  2. Positive animal welfare states and encouraging environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Affective neuroscience, incorporating neurophysiology and neuropsychology, is providing increasing evidence that certain behaviours of animals may be interpreted in terms of what they are intending to achieve, i.e. their goals. It is also providing evidence that allows inferences to be made about the affective contents of some goal-directed behaviours. These neuroscience-supported inferences are aligned with recommendations based on prior behaviour-based investigations of animals' preferences, aversions and priorities, and these observations together support the cautious use of particular behaviours to infer what the accompanying affects may be. In this review, therefore, some attention is given to negative affects and their relationships to poor animal welfare, but the primary focus is the positive affects animals may experience when they successfully engage in rewarding goal-directed behaviours, encapsulated in the concept of positive affective engagement. The review draws together reports of environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours observed in a range of species and under diverse circumstances in order to illustrate the likely widespread occurrence of the positive affects that may accompany them. Particular consideration is given to affects that are potentially associated with some aspects of exploration and food acquisition in stimulus rich or impoverished environments, and to those that may be associated with aspects of the affiliative interactions of bonding or bond affirmation, maternal care, play and sexual activity. It is concluded that animals given the opportunity to engage in such activities may experience some positive affects. However, the intensity of an animal's experience of particular positive affects is likely to range from zero to very high because the associated behaviours occur intermittently, variation may occur during different phases of a goal-directed behaviour, and other positive or negative affects experienced at

  3. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gullone, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence available to support of theories of antisocial and aggressive behaviour is large and sound, conceptualization of animal abuse as an aggressive behaviour rather than a behaviour that is somehow different, enables us to confidently promote putting current understanding into practice. Abstract This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of

  4. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework.

    PubMed

    Gullone, Eleonora

    2011-01-26

    This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of animal abuse in their law enforcement, prevention, and treatment decisions.

  5. Animal personality as a cause and consequence of contest behaviour.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; Sneddon, Lynne U; Wilson, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    We review the evidence for a link between consistent among-individual variation in behaviour (animal personality) and the ability to win contests over limited resources. Explorative and bold behaviours often covary with contest behaviour and outcome, although there is evidence that the structure of these 'behavioural syndromes' can change across situations. Aggression itself is typically repeatable, but also subject to high within-individual variation as a consequence of plastic responses to previous fight outcomes and opponent traits. Common proximate mechanisms (gene expression, endocrine control and metabolic rates) may underpin variation in both contest behaviour and general personality traits. Given the theoretical links between the evolution of fighting and of personality, we suggest that longitudinal studies of contest behaviour, combining behavioural and physiological data, would be a useful context for the study of animal personalities.

  6. Animal personality as a cause and consequence of contest behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Briffa, Mark; Sneddon, Lynne U.; Wilson, Alastair J.

    2015-01-01

    We review the evidence for a link between consistent among-individual variation in behaviour (animal personality) and the ability to win contests over limited resources. Explorative and bold behaviours often covary with contest behaviour and outcome, although there is evidence that the structure of these ‘behavioural syndromes' can change across situations. Aggression itself is typically repeatable, but also subject to high within-individual variation as a consequence of plastic responses to previous fight outcomes and opponent traits. Common proximate mechanisms (gene expression, endocrine control and metabolic rates) may underpin variation in both contest behaviour and general personality traits. Given the theoretical links between the evolution of fighting and of personality, we suggest that longitudinal studies of contest behaviour, combining behavioural and physiological data, would be a useful context for the study of animal personalities. PMID:25808004

  7. Effects of domestication on animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kretchmer, K R; Fox, M W

    1975-02-01

    Centuries of domestication of animals by civilised man have had many measurable effects on the various species involved, but only in relatively recent history has scientific curiosity been directed to assessing their extent. The process of domestication is analysed and its known effects on animals reviewed through observations of and experiments with various species of domesticated animals conducted by researchers into animal psychology and biology. The known facts on the effects of domestication in animals are extrapolated in an attempt to determine to what extent modern man himself has been domesticated in the urban environment.

  8. Host behaviour-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-04-13

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained.

  9. The biomechanical overload of the upper limb: a neglected occupational hazard in animal facility operators.

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Vincenzo; Ghersi, Rinaldo; Prandini, Lucio; Korpinen, Leena; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2017-03-01

    Data on biomechanical overload of the upper limb in animal facility operators are currently scanty. We decided to study this risk in a university animal facility. Eleven different tasks performed by operators were identified. For each of them, the biomechanical overload of the upper limb was evaluated by applying 4 different methods frequently used, hypothesising a task duration of 4 and 8 h. Then two 'typical' real working days of the examined facility were reconstructed, and the risk for operators was calculated using the OCRA Index, Checklist and Mini-Checklist. Considering the specific tasks, the results show some difference among methods, but the overall results show an acceptable/slight risk of biomechanical overload of the upper limb in animal facility operators during typical working days. Practitioner Summary: Upper limb biomechanical overload (UL-BO) is a neglected risk in animal facilities. In a university facility, 11 different tasks were identified, and 2 typical working days were analysed. Even if some task at increased risk may exist, during typical working days,  the overall results show that the risk of UL-BO in operators can be considered usually acceptable or, at worst, slight.

  10. Remote Laboratory and Animal Behaviour: An Interactive Open Field System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Lorenzo; Ratti, Giovannino

    2007-01-01

    Remote laboratories can provide distant learners with practical acquisitions which would otherwise remain precluded. Our proposal here is a remote laboratory on a behavioural test (open field test), with the aim of introducing learners to the observation and analysis of stereotyped behaviour in animals. A real-time video of a mouse in an…

  11. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  12. Behavioural reaction norms: animal personality meets individual plasticity.

    PubMed

    Dingemanse, Niels J; Kazem, Anahita J N; Réale, Denis; Wright, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies in the field of behavioural ecology have revealed intriguing variation in behaviour within single populations. Increasing evidence suggests that individual animals differ in their average level of behaviour displayed across a range of contexts (animal 'personality'), and in their responsiveness to environmental variation (plasticity), and that these phenomena can be considered complementary aspects of the individual phenotype. How should this complex variation be studied? Here, we outline how central ideas in behavioural ecology and quantitative genetics can be combined within a single framework based on the concept of 'behavioural reaction norms'. This integrative approach facilitates analysis of phenomena usually studied separately in terms of personality and plasticity, thereby enhancing understanding of their adaptive nature.

  13. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha J.; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman’s zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals’ latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: “attitude towards the animals” and “knowledge and experience of the animals”. In this novel study, data demonstrated

  14. Veterinarians' perceptions of behaviour support in small-animal practice

    PubMed Central

    Roshier, A. L.; McBride, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Veterinarians are professionals considered to be at the forefront of animal welfare, including behaviour medicine. However, concerns raised, both within the profession and without, highlight that the support offered is not optimal, due to deficiencies in veterinary training, which focuses on physical aspects and overlooks psychological aspects. This preliminary study explored the experiences and perceptions of six veterinarians (three male, three female, age range: 23–55 years) in two UK small-animal practices. Seventeen annual booster consultations were videoed and conversations thematically analysed for welfare topics discussed. Both veterinarians and clients completed questionnaires to gather demographic information and perspectives. All veterinarians recognised behaviour as a component of their caseload, and acknowledged that clients expected them to provide behaviour support. Veterinarians varied in their experiences of and confidence in providing behaviour support. Five felt unable to meet client expectations; four did not feel their training had prepared them sufficiently. Only one provided dedicated behaviour consultations, the others referred cases. All provided suggestions for behaviour skills needed for new veterinary graduates. The study has afforded an insight into the experiences of a small opportunistic sample of veterinarians. The data indicated important limitations regarding time available in general consultations to discuss behaviour concerns, and practitioner knowledge and skill in detection, anamnesis, assessment and provision of appropriate behaviour information. Suggestions for veterinary training in behaviour are provided. PMID:23475046

  15. Veterinarians' perceptions of behaviour support in small-animal practice.

    PubMed

    Roshier, A L; McBride, E A

    2013-03-09

    Veterinarians are professionals considered to be at the forefront of animal welfare, including behaviour medicine. However, concerns raised, both within the profession and without, highlight that the support offered is not optimal, due to deficiencies in veterinary training, which focuses on physical aspects and overlooks psychological aspects. This preliminary study explored the experiences and perceptions of six veterinarians (three male, three female, age range: 23-55 years) in two UK small-animal practices. Seventeen annual booster consultations were videoed and conversations thematically analysed for welfare topics discussed. Both veterinarians and clients completed questionnaires to gather demographic information and perspectives. All veterinarians recognised behaviour as a component of their caseload, and acknowledged that clients expected them to provide behaviour support. Veterinarians varied in their experiences of and confidence in providing behaviour support. Five felt unable to meet client expectations; four did not feel their training had prepared them sufficiently. Only one provided dedicated behaviour consultations, the others referred cases. All provided suggestions for behaviour skills needed for new veterinary graduates. The study has afforded an insight into the experiences of a small opportunistic sample of veterinarians. The data indicated important limitations regarding time available in general consultations to discuss behaviour concerns, and practitioner knowledge and skill in detection, anamnesis, assessment and provision of appropriate behaviour information. Suggestions for veterinary training in behaviour are provided.

  16. From sensor data to animal behaviour: an oystercatcher example.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bom, Roeland; van Loon, E Emiel; Ens, Bruno J; Oosterbeek, Kees; Bouten, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Animal-borne sensors enable researchers to remotely track animals, their physiological state and body movements. Accelerometers, for example, have been used in several studies to measure body movement, posture, and energy expenditure, although predominantly in marine animals. In many studies, behaviour is often inferred from expert interpretation of sensor data and not validated with direct observations of the animal. The aim of this study was to derive models that could be used to classify oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) behaviour based on sensor data. We measured the location, speed, and tri-axial acceleration of three oystercatchers using a flexible GPS tracking system and conducted simultaneous visual observations of the behaviour of these birds in their natural environment. We then used these data to develop three supervised classification trees of behaviour and finally applied one of the models to calculate time-activity budgets. The model based on accelerometer data developed to classify three behaviours (fly, terrestrial locomotion, and no movement) was much more accurate (cross-validation error = 0.14) than the model based on GPS-speed alone (cross-validation error = 0.35). The most parsimonious acceleration model designed to classify eight behaviours could distinguish five: fly, forage, body care, stand, and sit (cross-validation error = 0.28); other behaviours that were observed, such as aggression or handling of prey, could not be distinguished. Model limitations and potential improvements are discussed. The workflow design presented in this study can facilitate model development, be adapted to a wide range of species, and together with the appropriate measurements, can foster the study of behaviour and habitat use of free living animals throughout their annual routine.

  17. From Sensor Data to Animal Behaviour: An Oystercatcher Example

    PubMed Central

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bom, Roeland; van Loon, E. Emiel; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; Bouten, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Animal-borne sensors enable researchers to remotely track animals, their physiological state and body movements. Accelerometers, for example, have been used in several studies to measure body movement, posture, and energy expenditure, although predominantly in marine animals. In many studies, behaviour is often inferred from expert interpretation of sensor data and not validated with direct observations of the animal. The aim of this study was to derive models that could be used to classify oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) behaviour based on sensor data. We measured the location, speed, and tri-axial acceleration of three oystercatchers using a flexible GPS tracking system and conducted simultaneous visual observations of the behaviour of these birds in their natural environment. We then used these data to develop three supervised classification trees of behaviour and finally applied one of the models to calculate time-activity budgets. The model based on accelerometer data developed to classify three behaviours (fly, terrestrial locomotion, and no movement) was much more accurate (cross-validation error = 0.14) than the model based on GPS-speed alone (cross-validation error = 0.35). The most parsimonious acceleration model designed to classify eight behaviours could distinguish five: fly, forage, body care, stand, and sit (cross-validation error = 0.28); other behaviours that were observed, such as aggression or handling of prey, could not be distinguished. Model limitations and potential improvements are discussed. The workflow design presented in this study can facilitate model development, be adapted to a wide range of species, and together with the appropriate measurements, can foster the study of behaviour and habitat use of free living animals throughout their annual routine. PMID:22693586

  18. [Cognitive enrichment in zoo and farm animals--implications for animal behaviour and welfare].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susann; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Animals in the wild are facing a wide variety of challenges and ever-changing environmental stimuli. For successful coping, animals use both innate behavioural programs and their cognitive skills. In contrast, zoo- and farm animals have to cope with restricted husbandry conditions, which offer only few opportunities to adequately satisfy their various needs. Consequences could be sensory and cognitive underchallenge that can cause boredom and frustration as well as behavioural disturbances. Initially intended for improvement of management and husbandry, different forms of operant behavioural training have been applied firstly in zoo- and later also in farm animals. It has been suggested that successful coping with appropriate cognitive challenges is a source of positive emotions and may lead to improved welfare. Under the term cognitive enrichment, new approaches have been developed to integrate cognitive challenges into the housing of zoo- and farm animals. The present article reviews actual research in the field. Previous results indicate that, beyond improvement of management and handling routines, such approaches can positively affect animal behaviour and welfare. The combination of explorative and appetitive behaviour with successful learning improves environmental predictability and controllability for the animals, activates reward-related brain systems and can directly affect emotional processes of appraisal. For practical implementation in farm animal husbandry, it sounds promising to link individual access to e.g. automated feeders or milking systems with previously conditioned stimuli and/or discriminatory learning tasks. First experimental approaches in pigs, dwarf goats and cattle are available and will be discussed in the present article.

  19. Thalamic neglect.

    PubMed

    Watson, R T; Heilman, K M

    1979-05-01

    Three patients with right thalamic hemorrhage showed contralateral neglect and limb akinesia. They also had anosognosia, visuospatial disorders, and emotional flattening. In animals, neglect can be induced by lesions along a cortico-limbic-reticular loop including the intralaminar thalamic nuclei. We propose that an activation defect is responsible not only for the neglect and akinesia, but also for the visuospatial and emotional defects usually associated with right-hemisphere cortical dysfunction.

  20. Infection-avoidance behaviour in humans and other animals.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2014-10-01

    Compared with living free, the parasitic way of life has many attractions. Parasites create problems for all animals. Potential hosts can respond by learning to live with parasites (tolerance), actively fighting them (resistance), or they can avoid becoming infected in the first place (avoidance). I propose here a new classification of avoidance behaviour according to the epidemiology of infection risk, where animals must avoid (i) conspecifics, (ii) parasites and their vectors, (iii) parasite-rich environments, and (iv) niche infestation. I further explore how the disgust adaptive system, which coordinates avoidance behaviour, may form a continuum with the immune system through the sharing of signalling pathways, sites of action, and evolutionary history.

  1. Owners' Perceptions of Their Animal's Behavioural Response to the Loss of an Animal Companion.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica K; Waran, Natalie K; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-11-03

    The loss of a companion animal is recognised as being associated with experiences of grief by the owner, but it is unclear how other animals in the household may be affected by such a loss. Our aim was to investigate companion animals' behavioural responses to the loss of a companion through owner-report. A questionnaire was distributed via, and advertised within, publications produced by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) across Australia and New Zealand, and through a selection of veterinary clinics within New Zealand. A total of 279 viable surveys were returned pertaining to 159 dogs and 152 cats. The two most common classes of behavioural changes reported for both dogs and cats were affectionate behaviours (74% of dogs and 78% of cats) and territorial behaviours (60% of dogs and 63% of cats). Both dogs and cats were reported to demand more attention from their owners and/or display affiliative behaviour, as well as spend time seeking out the deceased's favourite spot. Dogs were reported to reduce the volume (35%) and speed (31%) of food consumption and increase the amount of time spent sleeping (34%). Cats were reported to increase the frequency (43%) and volume (32%) of vocalisations following the death of a companion. The median duration of reported behavioural changes in both species was less than 6 months. There was consensus that the behaviour of companion animals changed in response to the loss of an animal companion. These behavioural changes suggest the loss had an impact on the remaining animal.

  2. A computational frame to study social behaviour in animals.

    PubMed

    Mira, J; Cabello, D; Fraile, A; Zapata, E L; Delgado, A E

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents new methods and procedures for studying collective behaviour in rats. The animals are assumed to be indistinguishable one from another and the behaviour of the group is represented analysed and interpreted in terms of the temporal evolution of a finite state probabilistic automaton. The automaton states are defined by measures on the clustering degree considered as a social response variable. The electronic system developed to carry out the cluster analysis and the automatic control of the social behaviour in the experimental environment includes a multimicroprocessor interacting with a 'social box' in which, together with classical sensors and effectors, a phototransistor based position sensor is included. Preliminary experiments show the discriminative power of the cluster automaton concerning sexual differences and emotivity, as well as the extensive of a basic mechanism of clustering as a collective response to stress. Pharmacologically, the new experimental medium proposed in this paper may be used to detect a new range of products affecting social but not individual behaviour. Also, well-known products, which in normal doses produce no detectable modification of individual behaviour, might have detectable effects on the collective level. Be this as it may, the experimental environment described constitutes a further experimental facility for the analysis and control of animal behaviour.

  3. Behaviour as a tool in the assessment of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2003-01-01

    A central issue in animal welfare research is how to assess the welfare state of animals objectively and scientifically. I argue that this issue can be approached by asking two key questions: 1) is the animal physically healthy and 2) does the animal have what it wants? Behaviour is used to answer both of these questions. In the assessment of physical health, it can be used for clinical and pre-clinical diagnosis. In the assessment of what animals want, it has a major role through choice and preference testing. It is particularly important that applied ethologists develop methods for assessing welfare in situ--in the places where concern for animal welfare is greatest such as on farms and in zoos.

  4. Research Priorities from Animal Behaviour for Maximising Conservation Progress.

    PubMed

    Greggor, Alison L; Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T; Angeloni, Lisa; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Blackwell, Bradley F; St Clair, Colleen Cassady; Crooks, Kevin; de Silva, Shermin; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Goldenberg, Shifra Z; Mesnick, Sarah L; Owen, Megan; Price, Catherine J; Saltz, David; Schell, Christopher J; Suarez, Andrew V; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Winchell, Clark S; Sutherland, William J

    2016-12-01

    Poor communication between academic researchers and wildlife managers limits conservation progress and innovation. As a result, input from overlapping fields, such as animal behaviour, is underused in conservation management despite its demonstrated utility as a conservation tool and countless papers advocating its use. Communication and collaboration across these two disciplines are unlikely to improve without clearly identified management needs and demonstrable impacts of behavioural-based conservation management. To facilitate this process, a team of wildlife managers and animal behaviour researchers conducted a research prioritisation exercise, identifying 50 key questions that have great potential to resolve critical conservation and management problems. The resulting agenda highlights the diversity and extent of advances that both fields could achieve through collaboration.

  5. Review: Quantifying animal feeding behaviour with a focus on pigs.

    PubMed

    Maselyne, Jarissa; Saeys, Wouter; Van Nuffel, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The study of animal feeding behaviour is of interest to understand feeding, to investigate the effect of treatments and conditions or to predict illness. This paper reviews the different steps to undertake when studying animal feeding behaviour, with illustrations for group-housed pigs. First, one must be aware of the mechanisms that control feeding and the various influences that can change feeding behaviour. Satiety is shown to largely influence free feeding (ad libitum and without an operant condition) in animals, but 'free' feeding seems a very fragile process, given the many factors that can influence feeding behaviour. Second, a measurement method must be chosen that is compatible with the goal of the research. Several measurement methods exist, which lead to different experimental set-ups and measurement data. Sensors are available for lab conditions, for research on group-housed pigs and also for on-farm use. Most of these methods result in a record of feeding visits. However, these feeding visits are often found to be clustered into meals. Thus, the third step is to choose which unit of feeding behaviour to use for analysis. Depending on the situation, either meals, feeding visits, other raw data, or a combination thereof can be suitable. Meals are more appropriate for analysing short-term feeding behaviour, but this may not be true for disease detection. Further research is therefore needed. To cluster visits into meals, an appropriate analysis method has to be selected. The last part of this paper provides a review and discussion of the existing methods for meal determination. A variety of methods exist, with the most recent methods based on the influence of satiety on feeding. More thorough validation of the recent methods, including validation from a behavioural point of view and uniformity in the applied methods is therefore necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Animal emotions, behaviour and the promotion of positive welfare states.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale that may significantly boost the drive to promote positive welfare states in animals. The rationale is based largely, but not exclusively, on an experimentally supported neuropsychological understanding of relationships between emotions and behaviour, an understanding that has not yet been incorporated into animal welfare science thinking. Reference is made to major elements of the neural/cognitive foundations of motivational drives that energise and direct particular behaviours and their related subjective or emotional experiences. These experiences are generated in part by sensory inputs that reflect the animal's internal functional state and by neural processing linked to the animal's perception of its external circumstances. The integrated subjective or emotional outcome of these inputs corresponds to the animal's welfare status. The internally generated subjective experiences represent motivational urges or drives that are predominantly negative and include breathlessness, thirst, hunger and pain. They are generated by, and elicit specific behaviours designed to correct, imbalances in the animal's internal functional state. Externally generated subjective experiences are said to be integral to the operation of interacting 'action-orientated systems' that give rise to particular behaviours and their negative or positive emotional contents. These action-orientated systems, described in neuropsychological terms, give rise to negative emotions that include fear, anger and panic, and positive emotions that include comfort, vitality, euphoria and playfulness. It is argued that early thinking about animal welfare management focused mainly on minimising disturbances to the internal functional states that generate associated unpleasant motivational urges or drives. This strategy produced animal welfare benefits, but at best it could only lift a poor net welfare status to a neutral one. In contrast, strategies designed to manipulate the

  7. Weights and measures: a new look at bisection behaviour in neglect.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert D; Schindler, Igor; Birchall, Daniel; Milner, A David

    2005-12-01

    Horizontal line bisection is a ubiquitous task in the investigation of visual neglect. Patients with left neglect typically make rightward errors that increase with line length and for lines at more leftward positions. For short lines, or for lines presented in right space, these errors may 'cross over' to become leftward. We have taken a new approach to these phenomena by employing a different set of dependent and independent variables for their description. Rather than recording bisection error, we record the lateral position of the response within the workspace. We have studied how this varies when the locations of the left and right endpoints are manipulated independently. Across 30 patients with left neglect, we have observed a characteristic asymmetry between the 'weightings' accorded to the two endpoints, such that responses are less affected by changes in the location of the left endpoint than by changes in the location of the right. We show that a simple endpoint weightings analysis accounts readily for the effects of line length and spatial position, including cross-over effects, and leads to an index of neglect that is more sensitive than the standard measure. We argue that this novel approach is more parsimonious than the standard model and yields fresh insights into the nature of neglect impairment.

  8. Teamwork, pleasure and bargaining in animal social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Roughgarden, J

    2012-07-01

    Intimate behaviour between animals is hypothesized to enable teamwork. The pleasure experienced in grooming, preening, dancing, mating and singing in synchrony is hypothesized to motivate participants to coordinate actions directed towards a shared goal that enhances each individual's fitness. This cooperative behaviour evolves as a mutual direct benefit, not as altruism. Teamwork leads to an equilibrium set of returns to the participants that may be modelled as a Nash bargaining solution instead of as the more familiar Nash equilibrium. The dynamics leading to that equilibrium may be modelled based on joint action instead of the more familiar individualistic action. Confusions by Binmore (J. Evol. Biol. 2010; 23: 1351) about this hypothesis are corrected.

  9. Hemispatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Parton, A; Malhotra, P; Husain, M

    2004-01-01

    The syndrome of hemispatial neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli on one side of space, even though there may be no sensory loss. Although it is extremely common, it has proven to be a challenging condition to understand, and to treat. New insights from detailed behavioural and anatomical studies in patients, as well as functional imaging in healthy individuals, have begun to reveal some of the component deficits underlying the disorder. This review focuses on important clinical issues in neglect, including bedside diagnostic tests and emerging therapeutic and rehabilitation methods, involving both behavioural and drug treatments. PMID:14707298

  10. Animal models of self-injurious behaviour: an overview.

    PubMed

    Devine, Darragh P

    2012-01-01

    Self-injurious behaviour is highly prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, it is not restricted to any individual diagnostic group. Rather, it is exhibited in various forms across patient groups with distinct genetic defects and classifications of disorders. This suggests that there may be shared neuropathology that confers vulnerability. Convergent evidence from clinical pharmacotherapy, brain imaging studies, postmortem neurochemical analyses, and animal models indicates that dopaminergic insufficiency is a key culprit. This chapter provides an overview of studies in which animal models have been used to investigate the biochemical basis of self-injury, and highlights the convergence in findings between these models and expression of self-injury in humans.

  11. Evolution of animal behaviour in the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenchington, Charlotte; McIlroy, Duncan

    2017-04-01

    The transition from the Ediacaran to the Cambrian ( 541 million years ago) marks a fundamental leap in the evolution of life: the evolution of complex animal behaviour, the decline in the microbial mats that characterised the Neoproterozoic and a drastic change in the chemistry of the sediment-water interface. Disturbance is well known as a controlling factor in structuring modern communities. By combining detailed petrographic analysis with data on sedimentology, burrow densities, and ichnodiversity of the basal Cambrian stratotype we are able to place the evolution of animal behaviour recorded in these successions into an improved palaeoenvironmental context. Additionally, Ediacaran-Cambrian ichnofabrics are found to be comparable to experimentally produced ones created by simple ecdysozoans and lophotrochozoans collected from the dysoxic sediments of the Bonne Bay fjords of western Newfoundland. Using multivariate statistical analyses, it is possible to identify and quantify any correlation between palaeoenviromental, ichnological and matground characteristics. This will create improved understanding of the interplay between biological and abiological processes during the evolution of complex animal behaviour in a palaeoenvironmental context.

  12. Gender-specific linkages of parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect with children's problem behaviour: evidence from Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki

    2016-05-14

    Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons) and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers). Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1) both parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse), 2) parents' psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and 3) children's problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Daughters' problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers' than fathers' childhood abuse, whereas sons' problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers' experience. The impact of mothers' childhood abuse on daughters' problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents' psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents' psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers' childhood abuse on sons' problem behaviour. The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children's problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.

  13. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages.

  14. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Katherine A. J.; Gorman, Alice R.; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Gamble, Margaret L.

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. PMID:26911961

  15. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    PubMed

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus.

  16. What is the animal doing? Tools for exploring behavioural structure in animal movements.

    PubMed

    Gurarie, Eliezer; Bracis, Chloe; Delgado, Maria; Meckley, Trevor D; Kojola, Ilpo; Wagner, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    Movement data provide a window - often our only window - into the cognitive, social and biological processes that underlie the behavioural ecology of animals in the wild. Robust methods for identifying and interpreting distinct modes of movement behaviour are of great importance, but complicated by the fact that movement data are complex, multivariate and dependent. Many different approaches to exploratory analysis of movement have been developed to answer similar questions, and practitioners are often at a loss for how to choose an appropriate tool for a specific question. We apply and compare four methodological approaches: first passage time (FPT), Bayesian partitioning of Markov models (BPMM), behavioural change point analysis (BCPA) and a fitted multistate random walk (MRW) to three simulated tracks and two animal trajectories - a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) tracked for 12 h and a wolf (Canis lupus) tracked for 1 year. The simulations - in which, respectively, velocity, tortuosity and spatial bias change - highlight the sensitivity of all methods to model misspecification. Methods that do not account for autocorrelation in the movement variables lead to spurious change points, while methods that do not account for spatial bias completely miss changes in orientation. When applied to the animal data, the methods broadly agree on the structure of the movement behaviours. Important discrepancies, however, reflect differences in the assumptions and nature of the outputs. Important trade-offs are between the strength of the a priori assumptions (low in BCPA, high in MRW), complexity of output (high in the BCPA, low in the BPMM and MRW) and explanatory potential (highest in the MRW). The animal track analysis suggests some general principles for the exploratory analysis of movement data, including ways to exploit the strengths of the various methods. We argue for close and detailed exploratory analysis of movement before fitting complex movement models. © 2015

  17. The use of animal models in behavioural neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Bovenkerk, Bernice; Kaldewaij, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are used in experiments in the behavioural neurosciences that aim to contribute to the prevention and treatment of cognitive and affective disorders in human beings, such as anxiety and depression. Ironically, those animals that are likely to be the best models for psychopathology are also likely to be considered the ones that are most morally problematic to use, if it seems probable that (and if indeed they are initially selected as models because) they have experiences that are similar to human experiences that we have strong reasons to avoid causing, and indeed aim to alleviate (such as pain, anxiety or sadness). In this paper, against the background of contemporary discussions in animal ethics and the philosophy of animal minds, we discuss the views that it is morally permissible to use animals in these kinds of experiments, and that it is better to use less cognitively complex animals (such as zebrafish) than more complex animals (such as dogs). First, we criticise some justifications for the claim that human beings and more complex animals have higher moral status. We argue that contemporary approaches that attribute equal moral status to all beings that are capable of conscious strivings strivings (e.g. avoiding pain and anxiety; aiming to eat and play) are based on more plausible assumptions. Second, we argue that it is problematic to assume that less cognitively complex animals have a lesser sensory and emotional experience than more complex beings across the board. In specific cases, there might be good reasons to assume that more complex beings would be harmed more by a specific physical or environmental intervention, but it might also be that they sometimes are harmed less because of a better ability to cope. Determining whether a specific experiment is justified is therefore a complex issue. Our aim in this chapter is to stimulate further reflection on these common assumptions behind the use of animal models for psychopathologies. In

  18. Frigatebird behaviour at the ocean–atmosphere interface: integrating animal behaviour with multi-satellite data

    PubMed Central

    De Monte, Silvia; Cotté, Cedric; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Lévy, Marina; Le Corre, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Marine top predators such as seabirds are useful indicators of the integrated response of the marine ecosystem to environmental variability at different scales. Large-scale physical gradients constrain seabird habitat. Birds however respond behaviourally to physical heterogeneity at much smaller scales. Here, we use, for the first time, three-dimensional GPS tracking of a seabird, the great frigatebird (Fregata minor), in the Mozambique Channel. These data, which provide at the same time high-resolution vertical and horizontal positions, allow us to relate the behaviour of frigatebirds to the physical environment at the (sub-)mesoscale (10–100 km, days–weeks). Behavioural patterns are classified based on the birds’ vertical displacement (e.g. fast/slow ascents and descents), and are overlaid on maps of physical properties of the ocean–atmosphere interface, obtained by a nonlinear analysis of multi-satellite data. We find that frigatebirds modify their behaviours concurrently to transport and thermal fronts. Our results suggest that the birds’ co-occurrence with these structures is a consequence of their search not only for food (preferentially searched over thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. This is also supported by their relationship with mesoscale patterns of wind divergence. Our multi-disciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data, and aims to provide a mechanistic understanding of animals' habitat choice and of marine ecosystem responses to environmental change. PMID:22951344

  19. Frigatebird behaviour at the ocean-atmosphere interface: integrating animal behaviour with multi-satellite data.

    PubMed

    De Monte, Silvia; Cotté, Cedric; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Lévy, Marina; Le Corre, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-12-07

    Marine top predators such as seabirds are useful indicators of the integrated response of the marine ecosystem to environmental variability at different scales. Large-scale physical gradients constrain seabird habitat. Birds however respond behaviourally to physical heterogeneity at much smaller scales. Here, we use, for the first time, three-dimensional GPS tracking of a seabird, the great frigatebird (Fregata minor), in the Mozambique Channel. These data, which provide at the same time high-resolution vertical and horizontal positions, allow us to relate the behaviour of frigatebirds to the physical environment at the (sub-)mesoscale (10-100 km, days-weeks). Behavioural patterns are classified based on the birds' vertical displacement (e.g. fast/slow ascents and descents), and are overlaid on maps of physical properties of the ocean-atmosphere interface, obtained by a nonlinear analysis of multi-satellite data. We find that frigatebirds modify their behaviours concurrently to transport and thermal fronts. Our results suggest that the birds' co-occurrence with these structures is a consequence of their search not only for food (preferentially searched over thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. This is also supported by their relationship with mesoscale patterns of wind divergence. Our multi-disciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data, and aims to provide a mechanistic understanding of animals' habitat choice and of marine ecosystem responses to environmental change.

  20. Behavioural evidence for mental time travel in nonhuman animals.

    PubMed

    Suddendorf, Thomas; Corballis, Michael C

    2010-12-31

    If episodic memory is an adaptation, it must have evolved to benefit present or future survival and reproduction, rather than to provide an accurate record of the past per se. Recent research has documented various links between the ability to construct episodes of the past and imagine potential future episodes, and it has been argued that the former may be a design feature of the latter. Thus, claims about the existence of episodic memory in non-verbal organisms may be evaluated by examining behavioural evidence for foresight. Here we review recent data on foresight in animals and conclude that the evidence to suggest episodic memory so far is equivocal. We suggest specific experimental criteria that could provide stronger evidence. We maintain that there must be uniquely human traits for which there are no animal models and it remains possible that mental time travel depends on several such traits. Identification of what precisely is unique about the human capacity and what is not, can inform us about the nature and evolution of the human capacities.

  1. Animal social networks as substrate for cultural behavioural diversity.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Hal; Lusseau, David

    2012-02-07

    We used individual-based stochastic models to examine how social structure influences the diversity of socially learned behaviour within a non-human population. For continuous behavioural variables we modelled three forms of dyadic social learning, averaging the behavioural value of the two individuals, random transfer of information from one individual to the other, and directional transfer from the individual with highest behavioural value to the other. Learning had potential error. We also examined the transfer of categorical behaviour between individuals with random directionality and two forms of error, the adoption of a randomly chosen existing behavioural category or the innovation of a new type of behaviour. In populations without social structuring the diversity of culturally transmitted behaviour increased with learning error and population size. When the populations were structured socially either by making individuals members of permanent social units or by giving them overlapping ranges, behavioural diversity increased with network modularity under all scenarios, although the proportional increase varied considerably between continuous and categorical behaviour, with transmission mechanism, and population size. Although functions of the form e(c)¹(m)⁻(c)² + (c)³(Log(N)) predicted the mean increase in diversity with modularity (m) and population size (N), behavioural diversity could be highly unpredictable both between simulations with the same set of parameters, and within runs. Errors in social learning and social structuring generally promote behavioural diversity. Consequently, social learning may be considered to produce culture in populations whose social structure is sufficiently modular.

  2. Characterization of MicroRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a Neglected Blood Fluke of Human and Animal Health Significance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a “directed mutation” pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes. PMID:23071694

  3. Animal personality and state-behaviour feedbacks: a review and guide for empiricists.

    PubMed

    Sih, Andrew; Mathot, Kimberley J; Moirón, María; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wolf, Max; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2015-01-01

    An exciting area in behavioural ecology focuses on understanding why animals exhibit consistent among-individual differences in behaviour (animal personalities). Animal personality has been proposed to emerge as an adaptation to individual differences in state variables, leading to the question of why individuals differ consistently in state. Recent theory emphasizes the role that positive feedbacks between state and behaviour can play in producing consistent among-individual covariance between state and behaviour, hence state-dependent personality. We review the role of feedbacks in recent models of adaptive personalities, and provide guidelines for empirical testing of model assumptions and predictions. We discuss the importance of the mediating effects of ecology on these feedbacks, and provide a roadmap for including state-behaviour feedbacks in behavioural ecology research.

  4. Adding 'epi-' to behaviour genetics: implications for animal domestication.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    In this review, it is argued that greatly improved understanding of domestication may be gained from extending the field of behaviour genetics to also include epigenetics. Domestication offers an interesting framework of rapid evolutionary changes caused by well-defined selection pressures. Behaviour is an important phenotype in this context, as it represents the primary means of response to environmental challenges. An overview is provided of the evidence for genetic involvement in behavioural control and the presently used methods for finding so-called behaviour genes. This shows that evolutionary changes in behaviour are to a large extent correlated to changes in patterns of gene expression, which brings epigenetics into the focus. This area is concerned with the mechanisms controlling the timing and extent of gene expression, and a lot of focus has been placed on methylation of cytosine in promoter regions, usually associated with genetic downregulation. The review considers the available evidence that environmental input, for example stress, can modify methylation and other epigenetic marks and subsequently affect behaviour. Furthermore, several studies are reviewed, demonstrating that acquired epigenetic modifications can be inherited and cause trans-generational behaviour changes. In conclusion, epigenetics may signify a new paradigm in this respect, as it shows that genomic modifications can be caused by environmental signals, and random mutations in DNA sequence are therefore not the only sources of heritable genetic variation.

  5. Mathematical Model of Synchronization of Behaviour in the Group of N Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostálková, Iva

    2008-09-01

    The animals sharing common space often benefit from behavioural synchronization i.e. from making a behavioural switch at the same time. Each of N animals in the group has its individual ideal switch time. These points are usually not the same. Therefore for each animal there is the trade-off between the need to synchronize and the need to stick to the individually ideal time. In the present model we describe the synchronization of an animal in the group of N animals. The measure of synchronization is defined by the set of model parameters corresponding with maximum of individual benefit.

  6. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  7. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Handcock, Rebecca N; Swain, Dave L; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J; Patison, Kym P; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  8. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour–parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour–parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. PMID:27053751

  9. A systematic review of the emotional, behavioural and cognitive features exhibited by school-aged children experiencing neglect or emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Maguire, S A; Williams, B; Naughton, A M; Cowley, L E; Tempest, V; Mann, M K; Teague, M; Kemp, A M

    2015-09-01

    Interventions to minimize the long-term consequences of neglect or emotional abuse rely on prompt identification of these children. This systematic review of world literature (1947-2012) identifies features that children aged 5-14 years experiencing neglect or emotional abuse, as opposed to physical or sexual abuse, may exhibit. Searching 18 databases, utilizing over 100 keywords, supplemented by hand searching, 13,210 articles were identified and 111 underwent full critical appraisal by two independent trained reviewers. The 30 included studies highlighted behavioural features (15 studies), externalizing features being the most prominent (8/9 studies) and internalizing features noted in 4/6 studies. Four studies identified attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) associated features: impulsivity, inattention or hyperactivity. Child difficulties in initiating or developing friendships were noted in seven studies. Of 13 studies addressing emotional well-being, three highlighted low self-esteem, with a perception of external control (1), or depression (6) including suicidality (1). A negative internal working model of the mother increased the likelihood of depression (1). In assessing cognition or academic performance, lower general intelligence (3/4) and reduced literacy and numeracy (2) were reported, but no observable effect on memory (3). School-aged children presenting with poor academic performance, ADHD symptomatology or abnormal behaviours warrant assessment of neglect or emotional abuse as a potential underlying cause. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Causes, diagnosis, and animal behavioural therapy of feline house soiling].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, F

    2015-01-01

    Feline house soiling, i. e. urinating or defecating outside the litterbox, is the most common behavioural problem for which cat owners seek assistance from veterinarians. The reasons for feline house soiling are inappropriate toileting or urine marking. To identify the initiating cause(s) and maintaining factors, a comprehensive behavioural history is required. Urine marking may be caused by anxiety-evoking stuations or arousing events, whereas inappropriate toileting is mainly due to factors related to the litterbox. The treatment plan should initially focus on the pet's well-being. Therefore, it is important to improve the litterbox management to curtail the problem. The main approaches to resolve feline house soiling involve avoiding the cat's exposure to triggering stimuli, re-establishing regular litterbox use, and behavioural modification.

  11. PhenoWorld: addressing animal welfare in a new paradigm to house and assess rat behaviour.

    PubMed

    Castelhano-Carlos, Magda J; Baumans, Vera; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-02-01

    The use of animals is essential in biomedical research. The laboratory environment where the animals are housed has a major impact on them throughout their lives and influences the outcome of animal experiments. Therefore, there has been an increased effort in the refinement of laboratory housing conditions which is explicitly reflected in international regulations and recommendations. Since housing conditions affect behaviour and brain function as well as well-being, the validation of an animal model or paradigm to study the brain and central nervous system disorders is not complete without an evaluation of its implication on animal welfare. Here we discuss several aspects of animal welfare, comparing groups of six rats living in the PhenoWorld (PhW), a recently developed and validated paradigm for studying rodent behaviour, with standard-housed animals (in cages of six rats or pair-housed). In this study we present new data on home-cage behaviour showing that PhW animals have a clearer circadian pattern of sleep and social interaction. We conclude that, by promoting good basic health and functioning, together with the performance of natural behaviours, and maintaining animals' control over some of their environment but still keeping some physical and social challenges, the PhW stimulates positive affective states and higher motivation in rats, which might contribute to an increased welfare for animals living in the PhW.

  12. Owners’ Perceptions of Their Animal’s Behavioural Response to the Loss of an Animal Companion

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jessica K.; Waran, Natalie K.; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The loss of a companion animal is recognised as being associated with experiences of grief by the owner, but it is unclear how other animals in the household may be affected by such a loss. This paper investigates the behavioural responses of dogs and cats to the loss of an animal companion through owner-reported observations. There was consensus that behaviour changed as a result of loss including increased affectionate behaviour, territorial behaviour, and changes in food consumption and vocalisation. Abstract The loss of a companion animal is recognised as being associated with experiences of grief by the owner, but it is unclear how other animals in the household may be affected by such a loss. Our aim was to investigate companion animals’ behavioural responses to the loss of a companion through owner-report. A questionnaire was distributed via, and advertised within, publications produced by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) across Australia and New Zealand, and through a selection of veterinary clinics within New Zealand. A total of 279 viable surveys were returned pertaining to 159 dogs and 152 cats. The two most common classes of behavioural changes reported for both dogs and cats were affectionate behaviours (74% of dogs and 78% of cats) and territorial behaviours (60% of dogs and 63% of cats). Both dogs and cats were reported to demand more attention from their owners and/or display affiliative behaviour, as well as spend time seeking out the deceased’s favourite spot. Dogs were reported to reduce the volume (35%) and speed (31%) of food consumption and increase the amount of time spent sleeping (34%). Cats were reported to increase the frequency (43%) and volume (32%) of vocalisations following the death of a companion. The median duration of reported behavioural changes in both species was less than 6 months. There was consensus that the behaviour of companion animals changed in response to the loss of

  13. Progress in assessing animal welfare in relation to new legislation: opportunities for behavioural researchers.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Penny

    2014-08-30

    Recent revisions to international legislation and guidelines on the care and use of animals in research and testing emphasise the importance of minimising suffering and improving welfare. Achieving this requires effective systems for recognising, recording, analysing and assessing animal behaviour, in order to identify relevant indicators of pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm so that any suffering can be rapidly recognised and ameliorated. Behavioural researchers can assist by disseminating information on developments in techniques and approaches for recognising, observing, monitoring, analysing and interpreting behaviour, both within their own facilities and more widely. They can also help to facilitate better welfare assessment by continuing to develop systems for measuring behaviours - including indicators of positive welfare - while also ensuring that harms within behavioural research are minimised.

  14. Deriving Animal Behaviour from High-Frequency GPS: Tracking Cows in Open and Forested Habitat

    PubMed Central

    de Weerd, Nelleke; van Langevelde, Frank; van Oeveren, Herman; Nolet, Bart A.; Kölzsch, Andrea; Prins, Herbert H. T.; de Boer, W. Fred

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable classification method to infer behaviour from location data. Behavioural observations were carried out during tracking of cows (Bos Taurus) fitted with high-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers. Data were obtained in an open field and forested area, and movement metrics were calculated for 1 min, 12 s and 2 s intervals. We observed four behaviour types (Foraging, Lying, Standing and Walking). We subsequently used Classification and Regression Trees to classify the simultaneously obtained GPS data as these behaviour types, based on distances and turning angles between fixes. GPS data with a 1 min interval from the open field was classified correctly for more than 70% of the samples. Data from the 12 s and 2 s interval could not be classified successfully, emphasizing that the interval should be long enough for the behaviour to be defined by its characteristic movement metrics. Data obtained in the forested area were classified with a lower accuracy (57%) than the data from the open field, due to a larger positional error of GPS locations and differences in behavioural performance influenced by the habitat type. This demonstrates the importance of understanding the relationship between behaviour and movement metrics, derived from GNSS fixes at different frequencies and in different habitats, in order to successfully infer behaviour. When spatially accurate location data can be obtained, behaviour can be inferred from high-frequency GNSS fixes by calculating simple movement metrics and using easily interpretable decision trees. This allows for the combined study of animal behaviour and habitat use based on location data, and might make it possible to detect deviations

  15. Deriving Animal Behaviour from High-Frequency GPS: Tracking Cows in Open and Forested Habitat.

    PubMed

    de Weerd, Nelleke; van Langevelde, Frank; van Oeveren, Herman; Nolet, Bart A; Kölzsch, Andrea; Prins, Herbert H T; de Boer, W Fred

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable classification method to infer behaviour from location data. Behavioural observations were carried out during tracking of cows (Bos Taurus) fitted with high-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers. Data were obtained in an open field and forested area, and movement metrics were calculated for 1 min, 12 s and 2 s intervals. We observed four behaviour types (Foraging, Lying, Standing and Walking). We subsequently used Classification and Regression Trees to classify the simultaneously obtained GPS data as these behaviour types, based on distances and turning angles between fixes. GPS data with a 1 min interval from the open field was classified correctly for more than 70% of the samples. Data from the 12 s and 2 s interval could not be classified successfully, emphasizing that the interval should be long enough for the behaviour to be defined by its characteristic movement metrics. Data obtained in the forested area were classified with a lower accuracy (57%) than the data from the open field, due to a larger positional error of GPS locations and differences in behavioural performance influenced by the habitat type. This demonstrates the importance of understanding the relationship between behaviour and movement metrics, derived from GNSS fixes at different frequencies and in different habitats, in order to successfully infer behaviour. When spatially accurate location data can be obtained, behaviour can be inferred from high-frequency GNSS fixes by calculating simple movement metrics and using easily interpretable decision trees. This allows for the combined study of animal behaviour and habitat use based on location data, and might make it possible to detect deviations

  16. Prevalence of behaviour problems reported by owners of dogs purchased from an animal rescue shelter.

    PubMed

    Wells; Hepper

    2000-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence of behaviour problems exhibited by dogs within 4 weeks of acquisition from a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland. One thousand five hundred and forty-seven people who had purchased a dog from a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland were sent a postal questionnaire designed to collect information on the behaviours exhibited by their dog within the first month of acquisition. Five hundred and fifty-six people responded to the survey, representing a response rate of 37%. The majority of respondents (68.3%) reported that their dog exhibited a behaviour problem, the most common being fearfulness. Most of those respondents (89.7%) who returned their dog to the shelter did so because the animal exhibited behaviour that they considered undesirable. Male dogs showed more unacceptable behaviours than females, specifically inter-male aggression, sexual problems and straying tendencies. More stray dogs displayed undesirable behaviour than unwanteds, specifically straying tendencies. Puppies were less likely to exhibit unacceptable behaviours than juveniles or adults, particularly fearfulness, sexual problems and straying tendencies. More juvenile dogs showed excessive activity and excessive barking than puppies or adults. More adult dogs displayed aggression towards other dogs than juveniles or puppies. Findings indicate that dogs purchased from rescue shelters do exhibit behaviour problems that may lead to their return. The number of dogs admitted or returned to rescue shelters with behaviour problems may be reduced by raising public awareness regarding the value of behaviour therapy and introducing behaviour therapy schemes to rescue shelters.

  17. Scaling behaviour of lattice animals at the upper critical dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ferber, C.; Foster, D.; Hsu, H. P.; Kenna, R.

    2011-09-01

    We perform numerical simulations of the lattice-animal problem at the upper critical dimension d = 8 on hypercubic lattices in order to investigate logarithmic corrections to scaling there. Our stochastic sampling method is based on the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM), appropriate to linear polymers, and yields high statistics with animals comprised of up to 8000 sites. We estimate both the partition sums (number of different animals) and the radii of gyration. We re-verify the Parisi-Sourlas prediction for the leading exponents and compare the logarithmic-correction exponents to two partially differing sets of predictions from the literature. Finally, we propose, and test, a new Parisi-Sourlas-type scaling relation appropriate for the logarithmic-correction exponents.

  18. Animal-assisted therapy with children suffering from insecure attachment due to abuse and neglect: a method to lower the risk of intergenerational transmission of abuse?

    PubMed

    Parish-Plass, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Children suffering from insecure attachment due to severe abuse and/or neglect are often characterized by internal working models which, although perhaps adaptive within the original family situation, are inappropriate and maladaptive in other relationships and situations. Such children have a higher probability than the general population of becoming abusing or neglecting parents. Besides the usual goals of psychotherapy, an overall goal is to stop the cycle of abuse in which abused children may grow up to be abusing parents. Therapy with these children is complicated by their distrust in adults as well as difficulties in symbolization due to trauma during the preverbal stage. Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) provides avenues for circumventing these difficulties, as well as providing additional tools for reaching the inner world of the client. This article gives a brief background of the connection between insecure attachment and intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect as well as a brief overview of the principles of AAT in a play therapy setting. A rationale for the use of AAT as a unique therapy technique for children having suffered from abuse and neglect is followed by a number of clinical examples illustrating AAT.

  19. High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; Greenaway, Julie

    2011-01-01

    'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect 'animal personality' to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems.

  20. Animal behaviour: task differentiation by personality in spider groups.

    PubMed

    Grinsted, Lena; Bacon, Jonathan P

    2014-08-18

    In social animals, group efficiency is often assumed to increase with task differentiation, but this requires that individuals are better than generalists at the task they specialize in. A new study finds that individual Anelosimus studiosus spiders do predominantly perform the task they excel at, in line with their individual personality type, when they are placed in groups.

  1. High CO₂ and marine animal behaviour: potential mechanisms and ecological consequences.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; de la Haye, Kate; Munday, Philip L

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to pollution and environmental change can alter the behaviour of aquatic animals and here we review recent evidence that exposure to elevated CO₂ and reduced sea water pH alters the behaviour of tropical reef fish and hermit crabs. Three main routes through which behaviour might be altered are discussed; elevated metabolic load, 'info-disruption' and avoidance behaviour away from polluted locations. There is clear experimental evidence that exposure to high CO₂ disrupts the ability to find settlement sites and shelters, the ability to detect predators and the ability to detect prey and food. In marine vertebrates and marine crustaceans behavioural change appears to occur via info-disruption. In hermit crabs and other crustaceans impairment of performance capacities might also play a role. We discuss the implications for such behavioural changes in terms of potential impacts at the levels of population health and ecosystem services, and consider future directions for research.

  2. Animal behaviour: geomagnetic map used in sea-turtle navigation.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Kenneth J; Lohmann, Catherine M F; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Bagley, Dean A; Swing, Timothy

    2004-04-29

    Migratory animals capable of navigating to a specific destination, and of compensating for an artificial displacement into unfamiliar territory, are thought to have a compass for maintaining their direction of travel and a map sense that enables them to know their location relative to their destination. Compasses are based on environmental cues such as the stars, the Sun, skylight polarization and magnetism, but little is known about the sensory mechanism responsible for the map sense. Here we show that the green sea-turtle (Chelonia mydas) has a map that is at least partly based on geomagnetic cues.

  3. Maternal neglect: oxytocin, dopamine and the neurobiology of attachment.

    PubMed

    Strathearn, L

    2011-11-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. I provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, aiming to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified that contribute to maternal caregiving behaviour, focusing on the oxytocinergic and dopaminergic systems. Mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways contribute to the processing of infant-related sensory cues leading to a behavioural response. Oxytocin may activate the dopaminergic reward pathways in response to social cues. Human neuroimaging studies are summarised that demonstrate parallels between animal and human maternal caregiving responses in the brain. By comparing different patterns of human adult attachment, we gain a clearer understanding of how differences in maternal brain and endocrine responses may contribute to maternal neglect. For example, in insecure/dismissing attachment, which may be associated with emotional neglect, we see reduced activation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine reward system in response to infant face cues, as well as decreased peripheral oxytocin response to mother-infant contact. We are currently testing whether the administration of intranasal oxytocin, as part of a randomised placebo controlled trial, may reverse some of these neurological differences, and potentially augment psychosocial and behavioural interventions for maternal neglect.

  4. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Shanis; Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  5. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals

    PubMed Central

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J.; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A.; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment. PMID:25904671

  6. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals.

    PubMed

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-05-22

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment.

  7. Joint estimation over multiple individuals improves behavioural state inference from animal movement data

    PubMed Central

    Jonsen, Ian

    2016-01-01

    State-space models provide a powerful way to scale up inference of movement behaviours from individuals to populations when the inference is made across multiple individuals. Here, I show how a joint estimation approach that assumes individuals share identical movement parameters can lead to improved inference of behavioural states associated with different movement processes. I use simulated movement paths with known behavioural states to compare estimation error between nonhierarchical and joint estimation formulations of an otherwise identical state-space model. Behavioural state estimation error was strongly affected by the degree of similarity between movement patterns characterising the behavioural states, with less error when movements were strongly dissimilar between states. The joint estimation model improved behavioural state estimation relative to the nonhierarchical model for simulated data with heavy-tailed Argos location errors. When applied to Argos telemetry datasets from 10 Weddell seals, the nonhierarchical model estimated highly uncertain behavioural state switching probabilities for most individuals whereas the joint estimation model yielded substantially less uncertainty. The joint estimation model better resolved the behavioural state sequences across all seals. Hierarchical or joint estimation models should be the preferred choice for estimating behavioural states from animal movement data, especially when location data are error-prone. PMID:26853261

  8. [Environmental uncertainty and arousal/stress as the direct determinants of animal behaviour].

    PubMed

    Popov, S V

    2010-01-01

    A model of direct behavioural mechanisms is suggested. The suggestion is founded on the following prerequisites: the law of optimum arousal by Yerkes-Dodson; the data on animals' purposeful striving towards the optimum; and the data on effect of stimuli uncertainty (unpredictability and/or uncontrollability) on susceptibility to the stimuli. The key postulate of the model is animals' ability to affect the environment uncertainty with their behaviour and, hence, to change their susceptibility to various stimuli and optimize their stress/arousal level. This function of behaviour had never been discussed and seems to be rather important for proximal behavioural mechanisms and for forming direct motives of behaviour. Optimization of arousal level may be viewed as "universal benefit" at the level of direct behavioural mechanisms (similar to "joint genetic fitness" at the level of evolutional mechanisms). Within the model framework it is possible to take up some sophisticated aspects of ethology such as social relations forming, "begging for punishment", "zoo stereotypy", and so on. Among verifiable predictions that can be derived from its analysis, the following ones are worthwhile: (1) the stronger of two similar social relations cannot be more stressful than the weaker one; (2) the intensity of marking activity never increases as arousal/stress level decreases; (3) stress/arousal level of an animal having been experienced "zoo stereotypy" for a long time can never be higher than that of a conspecific individual showing the behaviour for the first time; (4) the rate of "begging for punishment" behaviour of an individual should positively correlate with environmental uncertainty; (5) arousal/stress level of an individual looking for novelty can never be higher than arousal/stress level of the same individual when avoiding novelty; (6) the striving of a specimen for displaying the behaviour promoting an increase in uncertainty can be suppressed by raising the

  9. Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M.; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Drewe, Julian A.; Nicol, Christine J.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2009-01-01

    While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilized in the field of animal welfare. Exceptions are beginning to emerge and share a common motivation to quantify ‘hidden’ aspects in the structure of the behaviour of an individual, or group of animals. Such analyses have the potential to quantify behavioural markers of pain and stress and quantify abnormal behaviour objectively. This review seeks to explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We outline four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization. The underlying principles, possible applications and limitations are described for: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We hope to encourage further application of analyses of behavioural organization by highlighting potential applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and increasing awareness of the scope for the development of new mathematical methods in this area. PMID:19740922

  10. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction.

  11. Neglect: a multisensory deficit?

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Stéphane; Brozzoli, Claudio; Farnè, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Neglect is a neurological syndrome characterised by a lack of conscious perception of events localised in the contralesional side of space. Here, we consider the possible multisensory nature of this disorder, critically reviewing the literature devoted to multisensory manifestations and processing in neglect. Although its most striking manifestations have been observed in the visual domain, a number of studies demonstrate that neglect can affect virtually any sensory modality, in particular touch and audition. Furthermore, a few recent studies have reported a correlation in severity between visual and non-visual neglect-related deficits evaluated in the same patients, providing some preliminary support for a multisensory conception of neglect. Sensory stimulation and sensorimotor adaptation techniques, aimed at alleviating neglect, have also been shown to affect several sensory modalities, including some that were not directly affected by the intervention. Finally, in some cases neglect can bias multisensory interactions known to occur in healthy individuals, leading to abnormal behaviour or uncovering multisensory compensation mechanisms. This evidence, together with neurophysiological and neuroimaging data revealing the multisensory role played by the areas that are most commonly damaged in neglect patients, seems to speak in favour of neglect as a multisensory disorder. However, since most previous studies were not conducted with the specific purpose of systematically investigating the multisensory nature of neglect, we conclude that more research is needed to appropriately assess this question, and suggest some methodological guidelines that we hope will help clarify this issue. At present, the conception of neglect as a multisensory disorder remains a promising working hypothesis that may help define the pathophysiology of this syndrome.

  12. Movement activity based classification of animal behaviour with an application to data from cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be 83%-94%, but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail.

  13. Movement Activity Based Classification of Animal Behaviour with an Application to Data from Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be , but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail. PMID:23185301

  14. Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour?

    PubMed

    Webster, Joanne P; Kaushik, Maya; Bristow, Greg C; McConkey, Glenn A

    2013-01-01

    We examine the role of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii as a manipulatory parasite and question what role study of infections in its natural intermediate rodent hosts and other secondary hosts, including humans, may elucidate in terms of the epidemiology, evolution and clinical applications of infection. In particular, we focus on the potential association between T. gondii and schizophrenia. We introduce the novel term 'T. gondii-rat manipulation-schizophrenia model' and propose how future behavioural research on this model should be performed from a biological, clinical and ethically appropriate perspective.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Joanne P.; Kaushik, Maya; Bristow, Greg C.; McConkey, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We examine the role of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii as a manipulatory parasite and question what role study of infections in its natural intermediate rodent hosts and other secondary hosts, including humans, may elucidate in terms of the epidemiology, evolution and clinical applications of infection. In particular, we focus on the potential association between T. gondii and schizophrenia. We introduce the novel term ‘T. gondii–rat manipulation–schizophrenia model’ and propose how future behavioural research on this model should be performed from a biological, clinical and ethically appropriate perspective. PMID:23225872

  16. Friends of friends: are indirect connections in social networks important to animal behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Friend of a friend relationships, or the indirect connections between people, influence our health, well-being, financial success and reproductive output. As with humans, social behaviours in other animals often occur within a broad interconnected network of social ties. Yet studies of animal social behaviour tend to focus on associations between pairs of individuals. With the increase in popularity of social network analysis, researchers have started to look beyond the dyad to examine the role of indirect connections in animal societies. Here, I provide an overview of the new knowledge that has been uncovered by these studies. I focus on research that has addressed both the causes of social behaviours, i.e. the cognitive and genetic basis of indirect connections, as well as their consequences, i.e. the impact of indirect connections on social cohesion, information transfer, cultural practices and fitness. From these studies, it is apparent that indirect connections play an important role in animal behaviour, although future research is needed to clarify their contribution. PMID:25937639

  17. Friends of friends: are indirect connections in social networks important to animal behaviour?

    PubMed

    Brent, Lauren J N

    2015-05-01

    Friend of a friend relationships, or the indirect connections between people, influence our health, well-being, financial success and reproductive output. As with humans, social behaviours in other animals often occur within a broad interconnected network of social ties. Yet studies of animal social behaviour tend to focus on associations between pairs of individuals. With the increase in popularity of social network analysis, researchers have started to look beyond the dyad to examine the role of indirect connections in animal societies. Here, I provide an overview of the new knowledge that has been uncovered by these studies. I focus on research that has addressed both the causes of social behaviours, i.e. the cognitive and genetic basis of indirect connections, as well as their consequences, i.e. the impact of indirect connections on social cohesion, information transfer, cultural practices and fitness. From these studies, it is apparent that indirect connections play an important role in animal behaviour, although future research is needed to clarify their contribution.

  18. Animal Behaviour Fieldwork: Introducing Psychology Students to the Process of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickins, Thomas E.; Donovan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development and running of a residential animal behaviour field trip. The trip has a number of elements that challenge and develop the students. First, this trip is open to students at levels two, three and M. This allows us to engineer a certain amount of peer assisted learning. Second, the students live together and…

  19. How plants manipulate the scatter-hoarding behaviour of seed-dispersing animals

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wall, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Some plants that are dispersed by scatter-hoarding animals appear to have evolved the ability to manipulate the behaviour of those animals to increase the likelihood that seeds and nuts will be stored and that a portion of those items will not be recovered. Plants have achieved this in at least four ways. First, by producing large, nutritious seeds and nuts that are attractive to animals and that stimulate hoarding behaviour. Second, by imposing handling costs that cause animals to hoard rather than to eat items immediately. These handling costs can take one of two forms: physical barriers (e.g. hard seed coats) that take time to remove and secondary chemicals (e.g. tannins) that impose metabolic costs. Third, by masting, where a population of plants synchronizes reproductive effort, producing large nut crops at intervals of several years. Mast crops not only satiate seed predators, but also increase the amount of seed dispersal because scatter-hoarding animals are not easily satiated during caching (causing animals to store more food than they can consume) but are satiated during cache recovery. And fourth, by producing seeds that do not emit strong odours so that buried seeds are less likely to be discovered. These, and perhaps other, traits have increased the relative success of plant species with seeds dispersed by scatter-hoarding animals. PMID:20156821

  20. Elder neglect.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, Tessa; LoFaso, Veronica M

    2014-11-01

    Because neglect is the most common form of elder abuse, identifying patients who are vulnerable to neglect allows clinicians to intervene early and potentially prevent situations that can escalate and lead to harm or even death. Health care workers have a unique opportunity to uncover these unfortunate situations and in many cases may be the only other contact isolated vulnerable patients have with the outside world. Responding appropriately and quickly when neglect is suspected and using a team approach can improve the health and well-being of older victims of neglect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to ‘knock out’ specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins’s work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a ‘well-done experiment,’ I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community’s knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well. PMID:26090739

  2. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole C

    2015-07-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to 'knock out' specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins's work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a 'well-done experiment,' I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community's knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well.

  3. Conceptual framework alignment between primary literature and education in animal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierema, Andrea Marie-Kryger

    In 1963, Tinbergen revolutionized the study of animal behaviour in his paper On aims and methods of ethology (Zeitschrift Tierpsycholgie, 20, 410-433) by revamping the conceptual framework of the discipline. His framework suggests an integration of four questions: causation, ontogeny, survival value, and evolution. The National Research Council Committee (U.S.) on Undergraduate Biology Education to Prepare Research Scientists for the 21st Century published BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003), which suggests alignment between current research and undergraduate education. Unfortunately, alignment has been rarely studied in college biology, especially for fundamental concepts. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to determine if the conceptual framework used by animal behaviour scientists, as presented in current primary literature, aligns with what students are exposed to in undergraduate biology education. After determining the most commonly listed textbooks from randomlyselected animal behaviour syllabi, four of the most popular textbooks, as well as the course descriptions provided in the collected syllabi, underwent content analysis in order to determine the extent that each of Tinbergen's four questions is being applied in education. Mainstream animal behaviour journal articles from 2013 were also assessed via content analysis in order to evaluate the current research framework. It was discovered that over 80% of the textbook text covered only two of Tinbergen's questions (survival value and causation). The other two questions, evolution and ontogeny, were rarely described in the text. A similar trend was found in journal articles. Therefore, alignment is occurring between primary literature and education, but neither aligns with the established conceptual framework of the discipline. According to course descriptions, many instructors intend to use an integrated

  4. N-dimensional animal energetic niches clarify behavioural options in a variable marine environment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rory P; McMahon, Clive R; Quintana, Flavio; Frere, Esteban; Scolaro, Alejandro; Hays, Graeme C; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2011-02-15

    Animals respond to environmental variation by exhibiting a number of different behaviours and/or rates of activity, which result in corresponding variation in energy expenditure. Successful animals generally maximize efficiency or rate of energy gain through foraging. Quantification of all features that modulate energy expenditure can theoretically be modelled as an animal energetic niche or power envelope; with total power being represented by the vertical axis and n-dimensional horizontal axes representing extents of processes that affect energy expenditure. Such an energetic niche could be used to assess the energetic consequences of animals adopting particular behaviours under various environmental conditions. This value of this approach was tested by constructing a simple mechanistic energetics model based on data collected from recording devices deployed on 41 free-living Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), foraging from four different colonies in Argentina and consequently catching four different types of prey. Energy expenditure was calculated as a function of total distance swum underwater (horizontal axis 1) and maximum depth reached (horizontal axis 2). The resultant power envelope was invariant, irrespective of colony location, but penguins from the different colonies tended to use different areas of the envelope. The different colony solutions appeared to represent particular behavioural options for exploiting the available prey and demonstrate how penguins respond to environmental circumstance (prey distribution), the energetic consequences that this has for them, and how this affects the balance of energy acquisition through foraging and expenditure strategy.

  5. Auditory neglect.

    PubMed Central

    De Renzi, E; Gentilini, M; Barbieri, C

    1989-01-01

    Auditory neglect was investigated in normal controls and in patients with a recent unilateral hemispheric lesion, by requiring them to detect the interruptions that occurred in one ear in a sound delivered through earphones either mono-aurally or binaurally. Control patients accurately detected interruptions. One left brain damaged (LBD) patient missed only once in the ipsilateral ear while seven of the 30 right brain damaged (RBD) patients missed more than one signal in the monoaural test and nine patients did the same in the binaural test. Omissions were always more marked in the left ear and in the binaural test with a significant ear by test interaction. The lesion of these patients was in the parietal lobe (five patients) and the thalamus (four patients). The relation of auditory neglect to auditory extinction was investigated and found to be equivocal, in that there were seven RBD patients who showed extinction, but not neglect and, more importantly, two patients who exhibited the opposite pattern, thus challenging the view that extinction is a minor form of neglect. Also visual and auditory neglect were not consistently correlated, the former being present in nine RBD patients without auditory neglect and the latter in two RBD patients without visual neglect. The finding that in some RBD patients with auditory neglect omissions also occurred, though with less frequency, in the right ear, points to a right hemisphere participation in the deployment of attention not only to the contralateral, but also to the ipsilateral space. PMID:2732732

  6. Neglect and Self-Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  7. Myiasis in pet animals in British Columbia: The potential of forensic entomology for determining duration of possible neglect

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Results of a survey of veterinarians in British Columbia included 25 past cases of myiasis and 10 active cases. Most respondents received at least 5 to 10 cases per year, with some as high as 30 per year. This study revealed some advantages and disadvantages of using forensic entomology in living animals. PMID:15646845

  8. Olfactory learning prevents MK-801-induced psychosis-like behaviour in an animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Naimark, Ari; Barkai, Edi; Michael, Matar A; Kozlovsky, Nitzan; Kaplan, Zeev; Cohen, Hagit

    2008-01-01

    There is mounting evidence to support the concept that education is associated with the formation of a functional reserve in the brain, a process that appears to provide some protection against certain aspects of severe central nervous system disorders. The goal of this study was to examine whether learning prevents psychosis-like behaviour in an animal model of schizophrenia. A series of behavioural tasks were used to assess olfactory learning-induced protection against the effects of NMDA channel blocker, MK801. This blocker caused sensory-motor disturbances, spatial learning acquisition deficit, and swimming strategy alterations in pseudo-trained and naive rats, but had a considerably lesser effect on trained rats. In sharp contrast, olfactory learning provided no protection against d-amphetamine application. Our data support the notion that learning-induced protection against schizophrenic behaviour is maintained by non-NMDA-mediated enhanced activation of local connections in the relevant cortical networks.

  9. Suicide among animals: clues from folklore that may prevent suicidal behaviour in human beings.

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Knowing the most likely reasons for suicide might increase the chances to identify the early signs of suicide. Folkloric tales on suicide among animals are a possible source of such information, since people probably explain animal suicide using the same reasons they would apply to their kin. Modern naturalistic studies ave found little evidence of self-harming conduct among nonhuman species. Nevertheless, mythological accounts often report suicidal behaviour among animals. Claudius Aelian's De natura animalium, a classic in its genre, written in the 2nd century AD, reports 21 cases of suicide among animals. In Aelian's tales, the severing of social ties emerges as an important motive for suicide, together with incest and rage caused by adultery. Paying attention to the mechanisms leading to suicide described in ancient mythology may help us understand unusual and uncommon motives for suicide and the reasons people feel suicidal.

  10. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M; Scottish Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Animals Scottish Spca

    2017-05-06

    Attachment to pets has an important role in children's social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life) and pets (such as humane treatment). This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  11. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Roxanne D.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life) and pets (such as humane treatment). This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood. PMID:28481256

  12. Mechanistic models of animal migration behaviour--their diversity, structure and use.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Silke; Klaassen, Marcel

    2013-05-01

    1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, including many taxonomic groups and modes of locomotion. Developing an understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes for this behaviour not only addresses fundamental ecological questions but has relevance to many other fields, for example in relation to the spread of emerging zoonotic diseases, the proliferation of invasive species, aeronautical safety as well as the conservation of migrants. 2. Theoretical methods can make important contributions to our understanding of migration, by allowing us to integrate findings on this complex behaviour, identify caveats in our understanding and to guide future empirical research efforts. Various mechanistic models exist to date, but their applications seem to be scattered and far from evenly distributed across taxonomic units. 3. Therefore, we provide an overview of the major mechanistic modelling approaches used in the study of migration behaviour and characterize their fundamental features, assumptions and limitations and discuss their typical data requirements both for model parameterization and for scrutinizing model predictions. 4. Furthermore, we review 155 studies that have used mechanistic models to study animal migration and analyse them with regard to the approaches used and the focal species, and also explore their contribution to advancing current knowledge within six broad migration ecology research themes. 5. This identifies important gaps in our present knowledge, which should be tackled in future research using existing and to-be developed theoretical approaches. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  13. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies.

  14. The Digestive Tract of Cephalopods: a Neglected Topic of Relevance to Animal Welfare in the Laboratory and Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, António V.; Almansa, Eduardo; Cooke, Gavan M.; Ponte, Giovanna; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of health and welfare of a cephalopod is essential whether it is in a research, aquaculture or public display. The inclusion of cephalopods in the European Union legislation (Directive 2010/63/EU) regulating the use of animals for scientific purposes has prompted detailed consideration and review of all aspects of the care and welfare of cephalopods in the laboratory but the information generated will be of utility in other settings. We overview a wide range of topics of relevance to cephalopod digestive tract physiology and their relationship to the health and welfare of these animals. Major topics reviewed include: (i) Feeding cephalopods in captivity which deals with live food and prepared diets, feeding frequency (ad libitum vs. intermittent) and the amount of food provided; (ii) The particular challenges in feeding hatchlings and paralarvae, as feeding and survival of paralarvae remain major bottlenecks for aquaculture e.g., Octopus vulgaris; (iii) Digestive tract parasites and ingested toxins are discussed not only from the perspective of the impact on digestive function and welfare but also as potential confounding factors in research studies; (iv) Food deprivation is sometimes necessary (e.g., prior to anesthesia and surgery, to investigate metabolic control) but what is the impact on a cephalopod, how can it be assessed and how does the duration relate to regulatory threshold and severity assessment? Reduced food intake is also reviewed in the context of setting humane end-points in experimental procedures; (v) A range of experimental procedures are reviewed for their potential impact on digestive tract function and welfare including anesthesia and surgery, pain and stress, drug administration and induced developmental abnormalities. The review concludes by making some specific recommendations regarding reporting of feeding data and identifies a number of areas for further investigation. The answer to many of the questions raised here will rely

  15. Enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides in domestic animals: pharmacological implications.

    PubMed

    Capece, Bettencourt P S; Virkel, Guillermo L; Lanusse, Carlos E

    2009-09-01

    Albendazole and fenbendazole are methylcarbamate benzimidazole anthelmintics extensively used to control gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals. These parent compounds are metabolised to albendazole sulfoxide and fenbendazole sulfoxide (oxfendazole), respectively. Both sulfoxide derivatives are anthelmintically active and are manufactured for use in animals. They metabolites have an asymmetric centre on their chemical structures and two enantiomeric forms of each sulfoxide have been identified in plasma, tissues of parasite location and within target helminths. Both the flavin-monooxygenase and cytochrome P450 systems are involved in the enantioselective biotransformation of these anthelmintic compounds in ruminant species. A relevant progress on the understanding of the relationship among enantioselective metabolism and systemic availability of each enantiomeric form has been achieved. This article reviews the current knowledge on the pharmacological implications of the enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole sulfoxide and oxfendazole in domestic animals.

  16. Mechanistic models of animal migration behaviour – their diversity, structure and use

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Silke; Klaassen, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Migration is a wide-spread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, including many taxonomic groups and modes of locomotion. Developing an understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes for this behaviour not only addresses fundamental ecological questions but has relevance to many other fields, e.g. in relation to the spread of emerging zoonotic diseases, the proliferation of invasive species, aeronautical safety as well as the conservation of migrants.Theoretical methods can make important contributions to our understanding of migration, by allowing us to integrate findings on this complex behaviour, identify caveats in our understanding and guide future empirical research efforts. Various mechanistic models exist to date but their applications seem to be scattered and far from evenly distributed across taxonomic units.Therefore, we provide an overview of the major mechanistic modelling approaches used in the study of migration behaviour and characterise their fundamental features, assumptions and limitations, and discuss their typical data requirements both for model parameterisation and for scrutinizing model predictions.Furthermore, we review 155 studies that have used mechanistic models to study animal migration and analyse them with regard to the approaches used, focal species and also explore their contribution of advancing current knowledge within six broad migration ecology research themes.This identifies important gaps in our present knowledge, which should be tackled in future research using existing and to-be developed theoretical approaches. PMID:23373515

  17. Behavioural effects of PNU-282987 and stress in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vicens, Paloma; Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Domingo, José L

    2017-01-01

    Cholinergic deficits play an important role in both cognitive and behavioural alterations in Alzheimer's disease. This study was aimed at evaluating the possible therapeutic role of PNU-282987 (PNU), an α7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor agonist, and the possible effects of stress in precipitating the onset of behavioural deficits in animals with susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease. B6C3-Tg mice with susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease and wild-type mice either with or without restraint stress received 0- or 1-mg/kg PNU. At 12 months old, mice were evaluated for activity levels, anxiety-like levels, and spatial learning and memory. Data did not show the effects of PNU on activity and anxiety-like behaviour. No effect of PNU on acquisition of a spatial learning task was detected, but a reversal of stress effects on retention in the Morris water maze was observed in transgenic mice. Further studies are needed in order to better understand the role of α7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor agonists in motor activity, anxiety, and spatial learning and memory and to develop more accurate pharmacological treatment of psychopathological diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  18. Habituation of exploratory behaviour in VPA rats: animal model of autism

    PubMed Central

    Senko, Tomáš; Štefánik, Peter; Talarovičová, Alžbeta; Kršková, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multifactorial aetiology, represented as impairment in social behaviour, communication and the occurrence of repetitive activities, which can be observed in the early life. The core features are frequently accompanied by other manifestations, including limited environmental exploration. The aim of the presented study, realised on an animal model of autism – VPA rats, i.e. animals prenatally affected with valproic acid on gestation day 12.5, was to investigate the habituation process of exploratory activity (manifested by a gradual decrease in the intensity of locomotor activity), which reflects the stage of the central nervous system. VPA rats were tested in open-field in three developmental periods – weaning (postnatal day 21 – PND 21), puberty (PND 42) and adulthood (PND 72). In each period of ontogenesis, the rapidity of habituation was evaluated by using the method of linear regression. Compared to controls, VPA rats showed a significant decrease in the intensity and an increase in the rapidity of exploratory activity habituation during puberty and adulthood. Our results indicate that the animal model of autism, i.e. VPA rats, showed disabilities in the development of the nervous system. These findings can help confirm not only the validity of this animal model of autism but can also help better understand neuronal changes in humans with autism. PMID:24678262

  19. Optimized hyper beamforming of linear antenna arrays using collective animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ram, Gopi; Mandal, Durbadal; Kar, Rajib; Ghoshal, Sakti Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A novel optimization technique which is developed on mimicking the collective animal behaviour (CAB) is applied for the optimal design of hyper beamforming of linear antenna arrays. Hyper beamforming is based on sum and difference beam patterns of the array, each raised to the power of a hyperbeam exponent parameter. The optimized hyperbeam is achieved by optimization of current excitation weights and uniform interelement spacing. As compared to conventional hyper beamforming of linear antenna array, real coded genetic algorithm (RGA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and differential evolution (DE) applied to the hyper beam of the same array can achieve reduction in sidelobe level (SLL) and same or less first null beam width (FNBW), keeping the same value of hyperbeam exponent. Again, further reductions of sidelobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) have been achieved by the proposed collective animal behaviour (CAB) algorithm. CAB finds near global optimal solution unlike RGA, PSO, and DE in the present problem. The above comparative optimization is illustrated through 10-, 14-, and 20-element linear antenna arrays to establish the optimization efficacy of CAB.

  20. Optimized Hyper Beamforming of Linear Antenna Arrays Using Collective Animal Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Gopi; Mandal, Durbadal; Kar, Rajib; Ghoshal, Sakti Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A novel optimization technique which is developed on mimicking the collective animal behaviour (CAB) is applied for the optimal design of hyper beamforming of linear antenna arrays. Hyper beamforming is based on sum and difference beam patterns of the array, each raised to the power of a hyperbeam exponent parameter. The optimized hyperbeam is achieved by optimization of current excitation weights and uniform interelement spacing. As compared to conventional hyper beamforming of linear antenna array, real coded genetic algorithm (RGA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and differential evolution (DE) applied to the hyper beam of the same array can achieve reduction in sidelobe level (SLL) and same or less first null beam width (FNBW), keeping the same value of hyperbeam exponent. Again, further reductions of sidelobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) have been achieved by the proposed collective animal behaviour (CAB) algorithm. CAB finds near global optimal solution unlike RGA, PSO, and DE in the present problem. The above comparative optimization is illustrated through 10-, 14-, and 20-element linear antenna arrays to establish the optimization efficacy of CAB. PMID:23970843

  1. Automated long-term tracking and social behavioural phenotyping of animal colonies within a semi-natural environment.

    PubMed

    Weissbrod, Aharon; Shapiro, Alexander; Vasserman, Genadiy; Edry, Liat; Dayan, Molly; Yitzhaky, Assif; Hertzberg, Libi; Feinerman, Ofer; Kimchi, Tali

    2013-01-01

    Social behaviour has a key role in animal survival across species, ranging from insects to primates and humans. However, the biological mechanisms driving natural interactions between multiple animals, over long-term periods, are poorly studied and remain elusive. Rigorous and objective quantification of behavioural parameters within a group poses a major challenge as it requires simultaneous monitoring of the positions of several individuals and comprehensive consideration of many complex factors. Automatic tracking and phenotyping of interacting animals could thus overcome the limitations of manual tracking methods. Here we report a broadly applicable system that automatically tracks the locations of multiple, uniquely identified animals, such as mice, within a semi-natural setting. The system combines video and radio frequency identified tracking data to obtain detailed behavioural profiles of both individuals and groups. We demonstrate the usefulness of these data in characterizing individual phenotypes, interactions between pairs and the collective social organization of groups.

  2. Neglected Bacterial Zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Chikeka, Ijeuru; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. While many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which a broad spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. Thus, this review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis, and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control. PMID:25964152

  3. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing the strength of behavioural plasticity and consistency across situations: animal personalities in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; Rundle, Simon D; Fryer, Adam

    2008-06-07

    Many phenotypic traits show plasticity but behaviour is often considered the 'most plastic' aspect of phenotype as it is likely to show the quickest response to temporal changes in conditions or 'situation'. However, it has also been noted that constraints on sensory acuity, cognitive structure and physiological capacities place limits on behavioural plasticity. Such limits to plasticity may generate consistent differences in behaviour between individuals from the same population. It has recently been suggested that these consistent differences in individual behaviour may be adaptive and the term 'animal personalities' has been used to describe them. In many cases, however, a degree of both behavioural plasticity and relative consistency is probable. To understand the possible functions of animal personalities, it is necessary to determine the relative strength of each tendency and this may be achieved by comparison of statistical effect sizes for tests of difference and concordance. Here, we describe a new statistical framework for making such comparisons and investigate cross-situational plasticity and consistency in the duration of startle responses in the European hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus, in the field and the laboratory. The effect sizes of tests for behavioural consistency were greater than for tests of behavioural plasticity, indicating for the first time the presence of animal personalities in a crustacean model.

  5. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    PubMed Central

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS ‘rapid fixing’ technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives. PMID:20566494

  6. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research.

    PubMed

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M; Fuller, Mark R; Kie, John G; Bates, Kirk K

    2010-07-27

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  7. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  8. A conceptual and practical guide to the behavioural evaluation of animal models of the symptomatology and therapy of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Benjamin K.; Singer, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic debilitating brain disorder characterized by a complex set of perceptual and behavioural symptoms that severely disrupt and undermine the patient’s psychological well-being and quality of life. Since the exact disease mechanisms remain essentially unknown, holistic animal models are indispensable tools for any serious investigation into the neurobiology of schizophrenia, including the search of remedies, prevention, and possible biological markers. This review provides some practical advice to those confronted with the task of evaluating their animal models for relevance to schizophrenia that inevitably involves behavioural tests with animals. To a novice, this challenge is not only a technical one, as it also entails attention to interpretative issues concerning validity and translational power. Here, we attempt to offer some guidance to help overcome these obstacles by drawing on our experience on diverse animal models of schizophrenia based on genetics, strain difference, brain lesions, pharmacological induction, and early life developmental manipulations. The review pays equal emphasis on the general (theoretical) considerations in experimental design and the illustration of the problematics related to test parameters and data analysis of selected exemplar behavioural tests. Finally, the individual difference of behavioural expression in relevant tests observed in wild type animals may offer an alternative approach to explore the mechanism of schizophrenia-related behavioural dysfunction at the molecular, cellular and structural levels that are of more immediate relevance to cell and tissue research. PMID:23579553

  9. Ketamine-induced changes in rat behaviour: a possible animal model of schizophrenia. Test of predictive validity.

    PubMed

    Becker, Axel; Grecksch, Gisela

    2004-12-01

    Previously, it was shown that subchronic application of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine (Ket) induces schizophrenia-related alterations, e.g. decreased non-aggressive behaviour in the social interaction test, which might be a useful animal model in the study of negative symptoms of this disease. In order to further evaluate the predictive validity of this model, the anxioloytic diazepam, the classic neuroleptic haloperidol and the atypical neuroleptics clozapine and risperidone were tested after acute and subchronic treatment. The experiments demonstrated that haloperidol did not normalise the behavioural effects of Ket. After acute administration, diazepam was ineffective in control animals but increased non-aggressive behaviour in Ket-treated animals. Similar effects were found in animals injected with either clozapine or risperidone. Twenty-four hours after discontinuation of subchronic treatment with both substances, there was an increase in the percentage of non-aggressive behaviour in the ketamine group and a decrease in the control animals. This decrease was explained in terms of withdrawal. Different effects in the control groups and the Ket groups were found when the test was performed 1 h after subchronic clozapine or risperidone treatment. The data suggest that atypical antipsychotic drugs (APD) effectively counteract Ket-induced alterations in social behaviour. Regarding false-positive effects by anxiolytic drugs without antipsychotic efficacy, this model may have some predictive validity for identifying anxiolytic effects of novel antipsychotic compounds.

  10. Can laboratory animals violate behavioural norms? Towards a preclinical model of conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Macrì, Simone; Zoratto, Francesca; Chiarotti, Flavia; Laviola, Giovanni

    2017-02-03

    Conduct disorder (CD), a disturbance characterised by excess rates of aggression - often associated with callousness, lack of empathy and shallow/deficient affect - is extremely prevalent (2-10%) in the juvenile population. CD symptoms are quantitative rather than qualitative in nature whereby, rather than exhibiting abnormal behaviours, CD patients indulge in normal behaviours at abnormal rates. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to CD aetiology, their precise contribution is yet to be determined. Experimental animal models may aid discriminating genetic vs. environmental effects and designing innovative therapeutic approaches. Here we discuss a theoretical framework potentially favouring the design of experimental models of CD. We suggest that the latter shall recapitulate the "norm violation" typical of the human disorder across the core domains involved in CD: aggression, callousness, empathy and emotionality. We first review how these domains have been operationalised in preclinical models; we then suggest that these experimental paradigms shall be combined with appropriate statistical tools to identify a subset of individuals consistently characterised by abnormal values in CD-relevant phenotypes.

  11. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber.

    PubMed

    Graf, Patricia M; Wilson, Rory P; Qasem, Lama; Hackländer, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology.

  12. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Patricia M.; Wilson, Rory P.; Qasem, Lama; Hackländer, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology. PMID:26317623

  13. Altered defaecatory behaviour and faecal incontinence in a video-tracked animal model of pudendal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Devane, L A; Lucking, E; Evers, J; Buffini, M; Scott, S M; Knowles, C H; O'Connell, P R; Jones, J F X

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to develop a behavioural animal model of faecal continence and assess the effect of retro-uterine balloon inflation (RBI) injury. RBI in the rat causes pudendal neuropathy, a risk factor for obstetric related faecal incontinence in humans. Video-tracking of healthy rats (n = 12) in a cage containing a latrine box was used to monitor their defaecatory behaviour index (DBI) over 2 weeks. The DBI (range 0-1) was devised by dividing the defaecation rate (pellets per hour) outside the latrine by that of the whole cage. A score of 0 indicates all pellets were deposited in the latrine. Subsequently, the effects of RBI (n = 19), sham surgery (n = 4) and colostomy (n = 2) were determined by monitoring the DBI for 2 weeks preoperatively and 3 weeks postoperatively. The DBI for healthy rats was 0.1 ± 0.03 with no significant change over 2 weeks (P = 0.71). In the RBI group, 13 of 19 rats (68%) showed no significant change in DBI postoperatively (0.08 ±  -0.05 vs 0.11 ±  -0.07) while in six rats the DBI increased from 0.16 ±  -0.09 to 0.46 ± 0.23. The negative control, sham surgery, did not significantly affect the DBI (0.09 ± 0.06 vs 0.08 ± 0.04, P = 0.14). The positive control, colostomy, increased the DBI from 0.26 ± 0.03 to 0.86 ± 0.08. This is the first study showing a quantifiable change in defaecatory behaviour following injury in an animal model. This model of pudendal neuropathy affects continence in 32% of rats and provides a basis for research on interventions for incontinence. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Associative theories of goal-directed behaviour: a case for animal-human translational models.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Sanne; Dickinson, Anthony

    2009-07-01

    Associative accounts of goal-directed action, developed in the fields of human ideomotor action and that of animal learning, can capture cognitive belief-desire psychology of human decision-making. Whereas outcome-response accounts can account for the fact that the thought of a goal can call to mind the action that has previously procured this goal, response-outcome accounts capture decision-making processes that start out with the consideration of possible response alternatives followed only in the second instance by evaluation of their consequences. We argue that while the outcome-response mechanism plays a crucial role in response priming effects, the response-outcome mechanism is particularly important for action selection on the basis of current needs and desires. We therefore develop an integrative account that encapsulates these two routes of action selection within the framework of the associative-cybernetic model. This model has the additional benefit of providing mechanisms for the incentive modulation of goal-directed action and for the development of behavioural autonomy, and therefore provides a promising account of the multi-faceted process of animal as well as human instrumental decision-making.

  15. Role of the gut microbiota in host appetite control: bacterial growth to animal feeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2017-01-01

    The life of all animals is dominated by alternating feelings of hunger and satiety - the main involuntary motivations for feeding-related behaviour. Gut bacteria depend fully on their host for providing the nutrients necessary for their growth. The intrinsic ability of bacteria to regulate their growth and to maintain their population within the gut suggests that gut bacteria can interfere with molecular pathways controlling energy balance in the host. The current model of appetite control is based mainly on gut-brain signalling and the animal's own needs to maintain energy homeostasis; an alternative model might also involve bacteria-host communications. Several bacterial components and metabolites have been shown to stimulate intestinal satiety pathways; at the same time, their production depends on bacterial growth cycles. This short-term bacterial growth-linked modulation of intestinal satiety can be coupled with long-term regulation of appetite, controlled by the neuropeptidergic circuitry in the hypothalamus. Indeed, several bacterial products are detected in the systemic circulation, which might act directly on hypothalamic neurons. This Review analyses the data relevant to possible involvement of the gut bacteria in the regulation of host appetite and proposes an integrative homeostatic model of appetite control that includes energy needs of both the host and its gut bacteria.

  16. Animal-assisted psychotherapy for young people with behavioural problems in residential care.

    PubMed

    Muela, Alexander; Balluerka, Nekane; Amiano, Nora; Caldentey, Miguel Angel; Aliri, Jone

    2017-07-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) programme on clinical symptoms, personal adjustment, and adaptive skills in a group of adolescents in residential care who had experienced childhood trauma and who presented mental health problems and difficulties adapting to the care home environment. The 87 participants (Mage  = 15.17, SD = 1.53) were divided into two groups: a treatment group (25 girls and 27 boys; Mage  = 15.00, SD = 1.55) and a control group (9 girls and 26 boys; Mage  = 15.42, SD = 1.50). The programme consisted of 34 sessions involving both group (23 sessions) and individual (11 sessions) AAP. The Behaviour Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate clinical and adaptive dimensions of behaviour and personality. The results indicated that, in comparison with controls, the young people who took part in the AAP programme reported a significant improvement on two measures of internalizing symptoms, namely, depression and sense of inadequacy. Although no significant differences were observed in relation to externalizing symptoms, the adolescents who received the AAP programme showed improved social skills in terms of their ability to interact satisfactorily with peers and adults in the care home environment, as well as a more positive attitude towards teachers at school. These results suggest that AAP may be a promising treatment for young people who have experienced childhood trauma and who subsequently find it difficult to adapt to the residential care setting. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence for face identity and face emotion processing in animals

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Andrew J; Fischer, Hanno; Leigh, Andrea E; Kendrick, Keith M

    2006-01-01

    Visual cues from faces provide important social information relating to individual identity, sexual attraction and emotional state. Behavioural and neurophysiological studies on both monkeys and sheep have shown that specialized skills and neural systems for processing these complex cues to guide behaviour have evolved in a number of mammals and are not present exclusively in humans. Indeed, there are remarkable similarities in the ways that faces are processed by the brain in humans and other mammalian species. While human studies with brain imaging and gross neurophysiological recording approaches have revealed global aspects of the face-processing network, they cannot investigate how information is encoded by specific neural networks. Single neuron electrophysiological recording approaches in both monkeys and sheep have, however, provided some insights into the neural encoding principles involved and, particularly, the presence of a remarkable degree of high-level encoding even at the level of a specific face. Recent developments that allow simultaneous recordings to be made from many hundreds of individual neurons are also beginning to reveal evidence for global aspects of a population-based code. This review will summarize what we have learned so far from these animal-based studies about the way the mammalian brain processes the faces and the emotions they can communicate, as well as associated capacities such as how identity and emotion cues are dissociated and how face imagery might be generated. It will also try to highlight what questions and advances in knowledge still challenge us in order to provide a complete understanding of just how brain networks perform this complex and important social recognition task. PMID:17118930

  18. Two learning tasks provide evidence for disrupted behavioural flexibility in an animal model of schizophrenia-like behaviour induced by acute MK-801: a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Lobellova, Veronika; Entlerova, Marie; Svojanovska, Barbora; Hatalova, Hana; Prokopova, Iva; Petrasek, Tomas; Vales, Karel; Kubik, Stepan; Fajnerova, Iveta; Stuchlik, Ales

    2013-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating illness. Exact causes of the disease remain elusive; however, neurodevelopmental changes in the brain glutamate system are recognized to play an important role. Several animal models of the disease are induced by a systemic blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. This study examined the animal model of schizophrenia-like behaviours induced by acute treatment with MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist. Behavioural flexibility is an ability to adapt to the changes in environment, and schizophrenia is often accompanied by its decrease. The study tested the effect of MK-801 on behavioural flexibility in an active place avoidance task and the Morris water maze (MWM). Flexibility was tested under reversal conditions, i.e., after changing the location of the target. Each spatial task addressed different functions; continuous coordinate-frame segregation was present in the active place avoidance and precise place representation in the MWM. Results showed that reversal was altered in both tasks by MK-801 at doses of 0.10-0.15 mgkg(-1). Some impairment was observed in the active place avoidance task at 0.08 mgkg(-1). Swimming towards a visible platform was impaired only by the highest dose (0.15 mgkg(-1)). The results demonstrate that a significant impairment of behavioural flexibility accompanies this acute animal model of schizophrenia-like behaviours, and that active place avoidance had higher sensitivity for such deficits than the MWM. This suggests the usefulness of the reversal paradigm in both tasks for examining novel drugs with antipsychotic and procognitive actions.

  19. A Team of Instructors' Use of Social Presence, Teaching Presence, and Attitudinal Dissonance Strategies: An Animal Behaviour and Welfare MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Watson, William R.; Janakiraman, Shamila; Richardson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This case study examined a team of instructors' use of social presence, teaching presence, and attitudinal dissonance in a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) on Animal Behaviour and Welfare (ABW), designed to facilitate attitudinal learning. The study reviewed a team of six instructors' use of social presence and teaching presence by applying the…

  20. Hormonal and behavioural abnormalities induced by stress in utero: an animal model for depression.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Darnaudery, M; Van Reeth, O

    2001-09-01

    Prenatal stress in rats can exert profound influence on the off spring's development, inducing abnormalities such as increased "anxiety", "emotionality" or "depression-like" behaviours.Prenatal stress has long-term effects on the development of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and forebrain cholinergic systems. These long-term neuroendocrinological effects are mediated, at least in part, by stress-induced maternal corticosterone increase during pregnancy and stress-induced maternal anxiety during the postnatal period. We have shown a significant phase advance in the circadian rhythms of corticosterone secretion and locomotor activity in prenatally-stressed (PNS) rats. When subjected to an abrupt shift in the light-dark(LD) cycle, PNS rats resynchronized their activity rhythm more slowly than control rats. In view of the data suggesting abnormalities in the circadian timing system in these animals, we have investigated the effects of prenatal stress on the sleep-wake cycle in adult male rats. PNS rats exhibited various changes in sleep-wake parameters, including a dramatic increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal stress can induce increased responses to stress and abnormal circadian rhythms and sleep in adult rats.Various clinical observations in humans suggest a possible pathophysiological link between depression and disturbances in circadian rhythmicity. Circadian abnormalities in depression can be related to those found in PNS rats. Interestingly, we have recently shown that the increased immobility in the forced swimming test observed in PNS rats can be corrected by chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine, or with melatonin or S23478, a melatonin agonist. Those results reinforce the idea of the usefulness of PNS rats as an appropriate animal model to study human depression and support a new antidepressant-like effect of melatonin and the melatonin agonist S23478.

  1. Using photographs to study animal social cognition and behaviour: Do capuchins' responses to photos reflect reality?

    PubMed

    Morton, F Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F; Prétôt, Laurent; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; O'Sullivan, Eoin; Stocker, Martina; D'Mello, Daniel; Wilson, Vanessa A D

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural responses to photos are often used to infer what animals understand about their social environment, but are rarely validated against the same stimuli in real life. If subjects' responses to photos do not reflect responses to the same live stimuli, it is difficult to conclude what happens in reality based on photo responses alone. We compared capuchins' responses to photos versus live stimuli in an identical scenario within research cubicles. Subjects had the opportunity to approach food placed in front of an alpha group member and, in a separate condition, photos depicting the same individual. Subjects' latencies to approach food when placed in front of the real alpha negatively correlated with time subjects spent in close proximity to the alpha in their main enclosure. We therefore predicted subjects' latencies to approach food in the presence of photos would positively correlate with their latencies to approach food in the presence of the real alpha inside the cubicles, but negatively correlate with time they spent in proximity to the alpha in their enclosure. Neither prediction was supported. While not necessarily surprising, we explain why these results should be an important reminder that care is needed when interpreting results from photo studies.

  2. Do colours affect 'normal' behaviour of laboratory and farm animals? Instantaneous change of behaviour by presentation of red in the Peach-F.

    PubMed

    Mebes, H D

    1979-06-01

    In spite of genetic and environmental standardisation in farm and laboratory animal science, a considerable amount of variation in the results of comparable experiments remains. This presumably depends upon the individual variability within a species, and upon differences of various species in their specific demands to the environment in captivity. Due to a discovery in the Southwest-African lovebird species Agapornis roseicollis, used as a conventional laboratory animal in bioacoustic research, the phenomenon of instantaneous fear expressed in a number of different displays in connection with the presence or presentation of red objects is described and compared to earlier observations of instantaneous phobias, aggressions, and preferences towards colours, in other bird species. Consequently it is suggested that investigation of the chromatophobe and chromatophile behaviour of typical laboratory and farm animals be undertaken to ensure the adequate design of lodging and experimental environments.

  3. Genetics of animal temperament: aggressive behaviour at mixing is genetically associated with the response to handling in pigs.

    PubMed

    D'Eath, R B; Roehe, R; Turner, S P; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B

    2009-11-01

    described by the concept of animal temperament (also known as coping styles, personality or behavioural syndromes), but this has rarely been demonstrated at the genetic level in farm animals. These findings may have practical implications for the development of breeding programmes aimed at altering animal temperament. Breeding to reduce aggression could result in some reduction in activity at weighing. This would have consequences for animal production, because pigs which are inactive at weighing take longer to move into and out of the weigh crate, and perhaps also for animal welfare.

  4. Integrative modelling of animal movement: incorporating in situ habitat and behavioural information for a migratory marine predator.

    PubMed

    Bestley, Sophie; Jonsen, Ian D; Hindell, Mark A; Guinet, Christophe; Charrassin, Jean-Benoît

    2013-01-07

    A fundamental goal in animal ecology is to quantify how environmental (and other) factors influence individual movement, as this is key to understanding responsiveness of populations to future change. However, quantitative interpretation of individual-based telemetry data is hampered by the complexity of, and error within, these multi-dimensional data. Here, we present an integrative hierarchical Bayesian state-space modelling approach where, for the first time, the mechanistic process model for the movement state of animals directly incorporates both environmental and other behavioural information, and observation and process model parameters are estimated within a single model. When applied to a migratory marine predator, the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), we find the switch from directed to resident movement state was associated with colder water temperatures, relatively short dive bottom time and rapid descent rates. The approach presented here can have widespread utility for quantifying movement-behaviour (diving or other)-environment relationships across species and systems.

  5. Red and processed meat consumption and purchasing behaviours and attitudes: impacts for human health, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Clonan, Angie; Wilson, Paul; Swift, Judy A; Leibovici, Didier G; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Higher intakes of red and processed meat are associated with poorer health outcomes and negative environmental impacts. Drawing upon a population survey the present paper investigates meat consumption behaviours, exploring perceived impacts for human health, animal welfare and the environment. Structured self-completion postal survey relating to red and processed meat, capturing data on attitudes, sustainable meat purchasing behaviour, red and processed meat intake, plus sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Urban and rural districts of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, UK, drawn from the electoral register. UK adults (n 842) aged 18-91 years, 497 females and 345 males, representing a 35·6 % response rate from 2500 randomly selected residents. Women were significantly more likely (P60 years) were more likely to hold positive attitudes towards animal welfare (P<0·01). Less than a fifth (18·4 %) of the sample agreed that the impact of climate change could be reduced by consuming less meat, dairy products and eggs. Positive attitudes towards animal welfare were associated with consuming less meat and a greater frequency of 'higher welfare' meat purchases. Human health and animal welfare are more common motivations to avoid red and processed meat than environmental sustainability. Policy makers, nutritionists and health professionals need to increase the public's awareness of the environmental impact of eating red and processed meat. A first step could be to ensure that dietary guidelines integrate the nutritional, animal welfare and environmental components of sustainable diets.

  6. Sensory-based conservation of seabirds: a review of management strategies and animal behaviours that facilitate success.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Megan R; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Gaskett, Anne C

    2016-11-02

    Sensory-based conservation harnesses species' natural communication and signalling behaviours to mitigate threats to wild populations. To evaluate this emerging field, we assess how sensory-based manipulations, sensory mode, and target taxa affect success. To facilitate broader, cross-species application of successful techniques, we test which behavioural and life-history traits correlate with positive conservation outcomes. We focus on seabirds, one of the world's most rapidly declining groups, whose philopatry, activity patterns, foraging, mate choice, and parental care behaviours all involve reliance on, and therefore strong selection for, sophisticated sensory physiology and accurate assessment of intra- and inter-species signals and cues in several sensory modes. We review the use of auditory, olfactory, and visual methods, especially for attracting seabirds to newly restored habitat or deterring birds from fishing boats and equipment. We found that more sensory-based conservation has been attempted with Procellariiformes (tube-nosed seabirds) and Charadriiformes (e.g. terns and gulls) than other orders, and that successful outcomes are more likely for Procellariiformes. Evolutionary and behavioural traits are likely to facilitate sensory-based techniques, such as social attraction to suitable habitat, across seabird species. More broadly, successful application of sensory-based conservation to other at-risk animal groups is likely to be associated with these behavioural and life-history traits: coloniality, philopatry, nocturnal, migratory, long-distance foraging, parental care, and pair bonds/monogamy.

  7. Recording the free-living behaviour of small-bodied, shallow-diving animals with data loggers.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Forman, Dan W; Harrington, Lauren A; Harrington, Andrew L; MacDonald, David W; Righton, David

    2007-01-01

    1. Time-depth data recorders (TDRs) have been widely used to explore the behaviour of relatively large, deep divers. However, little is known about the dive behaviour of small, shallow divers such as semi-aquatic mammals. 2. We used high-resolution TDRs to record the diving behaviour of American mink Mustela vison (weight of individuals 580-1275 g) in rivers in Oxfordshire (UK) between December 2005 and March 2006. 3. Dives to > 0.2 m were measured in all individuals (n = 6). Modal dive depth and duration were 0.3 m and 10 s, respectively, although dives up to 3 m and 60 s in duration were recorded. Dive duration increased with dive depth. 4. Temperature data recorded by TDRs covaried with diving behaviour: they were relatively cold (modal temperature 4-6 degrees C across individuals) when mink were diving and relatively warm (modal temperature 24-36 degrees C across individuals) when mink were not diving. 5. Individuals differed hugely in their use of rivers, reflecting foraging plasticity across both terrestrial and aquatic environments. For some individuals there was < 1 dive per day while for others there was > 100 dives per day. 6. We have shown it is now possible to record the diving behaviour of small free-living animals that only dive a few tens of centimetres, opening up the way for a new range of TDR studies on shallow diving species.

  8. Association of multicellular behaviour and drug resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from animals and humans in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eguale, Tadesse; Marshall, Joanna; Molla, Bayleyegn; Bhatiya, Aditi; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Engidawork, Ephrem; Asrat, Daniel; Gunn, John S

    2014-10-01

    To determine the association between multicellular behaviour, integron status and antibiotic resistance among 87 Ethiopian Salmonella enterica isolates of animal and human origin. Isolates were characterized for their biofilm forming ability, antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence and characteristics of a class 1 integron and Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). The majority of isolates grown at environmental temperatures (20°C) exhibited robust biofilm formation (72·4%) and displayed RDAR colony morphology on Congo red agar plates. The presence of a class 1 integron correlated with the extent of drug resistance and ability to exhibit multicellular behaviour. Although cellulose production and RDAR morphology correlated with increased multicellular behaviour, neither was required for biofilm formation. Contrary to previous reports, colony morphology was generally consistent within a serovar. No integrons were detected in isolates deficient for multicellular behaviour, indicating a potential role of bacterial community formation in transfer of genetic elements among environmental isolates. Infection by Salm. enterica is a major public health problem worldwide. The dominance of multidrug resistance and multicellular behaviour in Salmonella isolates of Ethiopian origin highlights a need for integrated surveillance and further detailed phenotypic and molecular studies of isolates from this region. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. A note on using a laser-based technique for recording of behaviour and location of free-ranging animals.

    PubMed

    Fehmi, J S.; Laca, E A.

    2001-03-29

    We developed a precise, remote (up to 300m) observation system to record animal location and behaviour that requires no animal handling or disruption of the normal environment. Our system, combining a survey laser and a laptop, also allows recording of observed animal behaviour from seconds to hours, with accuracy of 1m or better. Up to one individual per second can be located, which supports data collection of large numbers of animals not possible with other methods. The laser system was used to track a halter-broken heifer led in an arc beginning and ending about 50m from the laser with a maximum distance of about 150m. We recorded the location of the heifer at 35 points along the arc using the laser, a global positioning system (GPS), and a nylon tape. There was an average linear difference of 1.16m (S.D. 0.63) between the laser data and the GPS data. The laser was potentially more accurate than GPS for this application because the laser averaged only 0.21m (S.D. 0.24) linear difference from the tape. Tests of the laser to relocate points in the field to within 0.20m and 0.1 degrees, averaged 0.42m (S.D. 0.29) from the original points. Our technique allows precise location of behaviour and navigation to grazed sites, potentially revealing how animals interact with the resources they exploit and showing the effect of landscape spatial heterogeneity on foraging and habitat use patterns.

  10. Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2004-04-01

    Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum including the nucleus accumbens, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. The reward information is fed to brain structures involved in decision-making and organisation of behaviour, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possibly the parietal cortex. The neural coding of basic reward terms derived from formal theories puts the neurophysiological investigation of reward mechanisms on firm conceptual grounds and provides neural correlates for the function of rewards in learning, approach behaviour and decision-making.

  11. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.

  12. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    PubMed Central

    Njisane, Yonela Zifikile; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-01-01

    The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses. PMID:27608639

  13. Modulation of early stress-induced neurobiological changes: a review of behavioural and pharmacological interventions in animal models.

    PubMed

    Harrison, E L; Baune, B T

    2014-05-13

    Childhood adversity alters the predisposition to psychiatric disorders later in life. Those with psychiatric conditions and a history of early adversity exhibit a higher incidence of treatment resistance compared with individuals with no such history. Modulation of the influence early stress exerts over neurobiology may help to prevent the development of psychiatric disorders in some cases, while attenuating the extent of treatment resistance in those with established psychiatric disorders. This review aims to critically evaluate the ability of behavioural, environmental and pharmacologic interventions to modulate neurobiological changes induced by early stress in animal models. Databases were systematically searched to locate literature relevant to this review. Early adversity was defined as stress that resulted from manipulation of the mother-infant relationship. Analysis was restricted to animal models to enable characterisation of how a given intervention altered specific neurobiological changes induced by early stress. A wide variety of changes in neurobiology due to early stress are amenable to intervention. Behavioural interventions in childhood, exercise in adolescence and administration of epigenetic-modifying drugs throughout life appear to best modulate cellar and behavioural alterations induced by childhood adversity. Other pharmacotherapies, such as endocannabinoid system modulators, anti-inflammatories and antidepressants can also influence these neurobiological and behavioural changes that result from early stress, although findings are less consistent at present and require further investigation. Further work is required to examine the influence that behavioural interventions, exercise and epigenetic-modifying drugs exert over alterations that occur following childhood stress in human studies, before possible translational into clinical practice is possible.

  14. Communicating with "Neglected" Farmers on Regulatory Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Workshop recommendations resulting from an Animal and Plant Health Service (APHS) Seminar on ways of reaching "neglected" farmers and enlisting their support for the APHS regulatory programs are provided. The "neglected" farmer is identified as those low-income/minority group marginal farmers who cannot be reached by ordinary means, e.g., poor…

  15. Does the Animal Fun program improve social-emotional and behavioural outcomes in children aged 4-6 years?

    PubMed

    Piek, Jan P; Kane, Robert; Rigoli, Daniela; McLaren, Sue; Roberts, Clare M; Rooney, Rosanna; Jensen, Lynn; Dender, Alma; Packer, Tanya; Straker, Leon

    2015-10-01

    Animal Fun was designed to enhance motor and social development in young children. Its efficacy in improving motor skills was presented previously using a randomised controlled trial and a multivariate nested cohort design. Based on the Environmental Stress Hypothesis, it was argued that the program would also result in positive mental health outcomes, investigated in the current study. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83-6.17 years (M=5.42, SD=.30). Intervention and control groups were compared 6 months following intervention, and again in their first school year. Changes in teacher-rated prosocial behaviour and total difficulties were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and data analysed using Generalised Linear Mixed Models. There was a significant improvement in prosocial behaviour of children in the intervention group six months after initial testing, which remained at 18-month follow-up. Total difficulties decreased at 6 months for the intervention group, with no change at 18 months. This effect was present only for the hyperactivity/inattention subscale. The only significant change for the control group was an increase in hyperactivity/inattention scores from pre-intervention to 18-month follow-up. The Animal Fun program appears to be effective in improving social and behavioural outcomes.

  16. Behavioural comparison of human-animal (dog) and human-robot (AIBO) interactions.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, A; Kubinyi, E; Jonsson, G K; Magnusson, M S; Miklósi, A

    2006-07-01

    The behavioural analysis of human-robot interactions can help in developing socially interactive robots. The current study analyzes human-robot interaction with Theme software and the corresponding pattern detection algorithm. The method is based on the analysis of the temporal structure of the interactions by detecting T-patterns in the behaviour. We have compared humans' (children and adults) play behaviour interacting either with an AIBO or a living dog puppy. The analysis based on measuring latencies and frequencies of behavioural units suggested limited differences, e.g. the latency of humans touching the dog/AIBO was similar. In addition other differences could be accounted for by the limited abilities of the robot to interact with objects. Although the number of interactive T-patterns did not significantly differ among the groups but the partner's type (whether humans were playing with dog or AIBO) had a significant effect on the structure of the patterns. Both children and adults terminated T-patterns more frequently when playing with AIBO than when playing with the dog puppy, which suggest that the robot has a limited ability to engage in temporally structured behavioural interactions with humans. As other human studies suggest that the temporal complexity of the interaction is good measure of the partner's attitude, we suggest that more attention should be paid in the future to the robots' ability to engage in cooperative interaction with humans.

  17. Simultaneous use of different communication mechanisms leads to spatial sorting and unexpected collective behaviours in animal groups.

    PubMed

    Eftimie, Raluca

    2013-11-21

    Communication among individuals forms the basis of social interactions in every animal population. In general, communication is influenced by the physiological and psychological constraints of each individual, and in large aggregations this means differences in the reception and emission of communication signals. However, studies on the formation and movement of animal aggregations usually assume that all individuals communicate with neighbours in the same manner. Here, we take a new approach on animal aggregations and use a nonlocal mathematical model to investigate theoretically the simultaneous use of two communication mechanisms by different members of a population. We show that the use of multiple communication mechanisms can lead to behaviours that are not necessarily predicted by the behaviour of subpopulations that use only one communication mechanism. In particular, we show that while the use of one communication mechanism by the entire population leads to deterministic movement, the use of multiple communication mechanisms can lead in some cases to chaotic movement. Finally, we show that the use of multiple communication mechanisms leads to the sorting of individuals inside aggregations: individuals that are aware of the location and the movement direction of all their neighbours usually position themselves at the centre of the groups, while individuals that are aware of the location and the movement direction of only some neighbours position themselves at the edges of the groups.

  18. Self-Injurious Behaviour: Limbic Dysregulation and Stress Effects in an Animal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Kies, S. D.; Turner, C. A.; Wolfman, S.; Lewis, M. H.; Devine, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its expression is highly variable within, and between diagnostic categories. This raises questions about the factors that contribute to aetiology and expression of SIB. Expression of SIB is generally described in relation to social reinforcement. However,…

  19. Self-Injurious Behaviour: Limbic Dysregulation and Stress Effects in an Animal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Kies, S. D.; Turner, C. A.; Wolfman, S.; Lewis, M. H.; Devine, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its expression is highly variable within, and between diagnostic categories. This raises questions about the factors that contribute to aetiology and expression of SIB. Expression of SIB is generally described in relation to social reinforcement. However,…

  20. Dynamic performances of cattle transporting vehicle on Scandinavian roads and behavioural response of animals.

    PubMed

    Wikner, I; Gebresenbet, G; Tolo, E

    2003-03-01

    Driving performance, air quality in the vehicle, and handling during loading and unloading are the main factors, which could affect animal welfare. During transport of animals from farms to abattoirs, animals on the vehicle are subjected to vibrations in all directions. Performances of a typical vehicle for cattle transport have been studied under field commercial conditions. During the experiment, tri-axial vibrations on the vehicle, as well as velocity, slope and position were measured. The animals were video recorded for behavioral analyses. Geographical positions, speed and slope of roads were recorded using, GPS. Measurements were made with and without animals on the vehicle. The roads in the region are narrow almost everywhere, but rather plane and of good quality. Three road types were identified: straight and plain, curvy and graveled roads. Events such as sudden stops and curves were observed and noted. Vibration levels in tri-axial directions have been measured and analysed for different speeds and road types both when the vehicle was fully loaded and unloaded. There is a significant difference between the performances of the vehicle when loaded and unloaded. Very high vibrations values have been noted during the empty driving and these values were reduced by up to 9 times when the vehicle was loaded. Less vibrations amplitudes were observed and animals were calmer on ferry transport than on road transport. It has also been noted that animals prefer to stand perpendicular to the direction of vehicle's motion during transport.

  1. Behavioural and physiological reactions of cattle in a commercial abattoir: relationships with organisational aspects of the abattoir and animal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Cécile; Deiss, Véronique; Tannugi, Carole Cohen; Terlouw, E M Claudia

    2011-05-01

    Behavioural, physiological and metabolic reactions of cattle to handling and slaughter procedures were evaluated in a commercial abattoir, from arrival until slaughter. Different genders or breeds were not subjected to the same procedures due to abattoir equipment or organisational aspects of the abattoir. Reactions to similar slaughter procedures varied according to animal characteristics and could have consequences for subsequent handling procedures. Factors that appeared to cause handling problems and vocalisation were excessive pressure during restraint, and distractions in the corridor such as noise, darkness, seeing people and activity. Post-mortem muscle metabolism depended on slaughter procedures. Following stunning or halal slaughter, some animals showed head rising movements despite the abolition of the corneal reflex, suggesting that head rising is not always indicative of consciousness. Overall, this study presents concrete data on how different types of cattle may react to slaughter procedures with a direct interest for the abattoir itself but also for scientific purposes.

  2. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-26

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects.We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model.Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males.

  3. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects. We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model. Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males. PMID:26678032

  4. Cognitive Enrichment in Piglet Rearing: An Approach to Enhance Animal Welfare and to Reduce Aggressive Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rauterberg, Sally; Viazzi, Stefano; Oczak, Maciej; Bahr, Claudia; Guarino, Marcella; Vranken, Erik; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    It is known that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. For this reason, a new method of cognitive environmental enrichment was experimented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between a sound given by an electronic feeder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of 8 days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in resident-intruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during 8 days of training and the interest of the piglets increased within training days (P < 0.05). In the resident-intruder test, 79.5% of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7% versus 93.1%) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. We conclude that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in resident-intruder situations. PMID:24198969

  5. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  6. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  7. Attention to neglect.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2007-03-15

    Patients with spatial neglect fail to attend to stimuli in the contralesional visual world. He et al. used fMRI to reveal how disrupted functional connectivity, independent of task-evoked activation, in ventral and dorsal attentional networks may explain behavioral impairment in neglect and recovery from acute neglect.

  8. Social behaviour of dogs encountering AIBO, an animal-like robot in a neutral and in a feeding situation.

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Miklósi, Adám; Kaplan, Frédéric; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos

    2004-03-31

    The use of animal-like autonomous robots might offer new possibilities in the study of animal interactions, if the subject recognises it as a social partner. In this paper we investigate whether AIBO, a dog-like robot of the Sony Corp. can be used for this purpose. Twenty-four adult and sixteen 4-5 months old pet dogs were tested in two situations where subjects encountered one of four different test-partners: (1) a remote controlled car; (2) an AIBO robot; (3) AIBO with a puppy-scented furry cover; and (4) a 2-month-old puppy. In the neutral situation the dog could interact freely with one of the partners for 1 min in a closed arena in the presence of its owner. In the feeding situation the encounters were started while the dog was eating food. Our results show that age and context influence the social behaviour of dogs. Further, we have found that although both age groups differentiated the living and non-living test-partners for some extent, the furry AIBO evoked significantly increased responses in comparison to the car. These experiments show the first steps towards the application of robots in behavioural studies, notwithstanding that at present AIBO's limited ability to move constrains its effectiveness as social partner for dogs.

  9. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Howard, B J; Sanzharova, N; Fesenko, E

    2015-04-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1-3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated.

  10. Behavioural defences in animals against pathogens and parasites: parallels with the pillars of medicine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    No other theme in animal biology seems to be more central than the concept of employing strategies to survive and successfully reproduce. In nature, controlling or avoiding pathogens and parasites is an essential fitness strategy because of the ever-present disease-causing organisms. The disease-control strategies discussed here are: physical avoidance and removal of pathogens and parasites; quarantine or peripheralization of conspecifics that could be carrying potential pathogens; herbal medicine, animal style, to prevent or treat an infection; potentiation of the immune system; and care of sick or injured group members. These strategies are seen as also encompassing the pillars of human medicine: (i) quarantine; (ii) immune-boosting vaccinations; (iii) use of medicinal products; and (iv) caring or nursing. In contrast to animals, in humans, the disease-control strategies have been consolidated into a consistent and extensive medical system. A hypothesis that explains some of this difference between animals and humans is that humans are sick more often than animals. This increase in sickness in humans leading to an extensive, cognitively driven medical system is attributed to an evolutionary dietary transition from mostly natural vegetation to a meat-based diet, with an increase in health-eroding free radicals and a dietary reduction of free-radical-scavenging antioxidants. PMID:22042917

  11. A new behavioural apparatus to reduce animal numbers in multiple types of spontaneous object recognition paradigms in rats.

    PubMed

    Ameen-Ali, K E; Eacott, M J; Easton, A

    2012-10-15

    Standard object recognition procedures assess animals' memory through their spontaneous exploration of novel objects or novel configurations of objects with other aspects of their environment. Such tasks are widely used in memory research, but also in pharmaceutical companies screening new drug treatments. However, behaviour in these tasks may be driven by influences other than novelty such as stress from handling which can subsequently influence performance. This extra-experimental variance means that large numbers of animals are required to maintain power. In addition, accumulation of data is time consuming as animals typically perform only one trial per day. The present study aimed to explore how effectively recognition memory could be tested with a new continual trials apparatus which allows for multiple trials within a session and reduced handling stress through combining features of delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition tasks. In this apparatus Lister hooded rats displayed performance significantly above chance levels in object recognition tasks (Experiments 1 and 2) and in tasks of object-location (Experiment 3) and object-in-context memory (Experiment 4) with data from only five animals or fewer per experimental group. The findings indicated that the results were comparable to those of previous reports in the literature and maintained statistical power whilst using less than a third of the number of animals typically used in spontaneous recognition paradigms. Overall, the results highlight the potential benefit of the continual trials apparatus to reduce the number of animals used in recognition memory tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Patient neglect in healthcare institutions: a systematic review and conceptual model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient neglect is an issue of increasing public concern in Europe and North America, yet remains poorly understood. This is the first systematic review on the nature, frequency and causes of patient neglect as distinct from patient safety topics such as medical error. Method The Pubmed, Science Direct, and Medline databases were searched in order to identify research studies investigating patient neglect. Ten articles and four government reports met the inclusion criteria of reporting primary data on the occurrence or causes of patient neglect. Qualitative and quantitative data extraction investigated (1) the definition of patient neglect, (2) the forms of behaviour associated with neglect, (3) the reported frequency of neglect, and (4) the causes of neglect. Results Patient neglect is found to have two aspects. First, procedure neglect, which refers to failures of healthcare staff to achieve objective standards of care. Second, caring neglect, which refers to behaviours that lead patients and observers to believe that staff have uncaring attitudes. The perceived frequency of neglectful behaviour varies by observer. Patients and their family members are more likely to report neglect than healthcare staff, and nurses are more likely to report on the neglectful behaviours of other nurses than on their own behaviour. The causes of patient neglect frequently relate to organisational factors (e.g. high workloads that constrain the behaviours of healthcare staff, burnout), and the relationship between carers and patients. Conclusion A social psychology-based conceptual model is developed to explain the occurrence and nature of patient neglect. This model will facilitate investigations of i) differences between patients and healthcare staff in how they perceive neglect, ii) the association with patient neglect and health outcomes, iii) the relative importance of system and organisational factors in causing neglect, and iv) the design of interventions and

  13. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna].

  14. Perinatal Influences of Valproate on Brain and Behaviour: An Animal Model for Autism.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Peter; Ellenbroek, Bart A

    Valproic acid or valproate (VPA) is an anti-convulsant and mood stabiliser effective in treating epilepsy and bipolar disorders. Although in adults VPA is well tolerated and safe, there is convincing evidence that it has teratogenic properties, ranging from mild neurodevelopmental changes to severe congenital malformations. In particular, studies involving humans and other animals have shown that prenatal exposure to VPA can induce developmental abnormalities reminiscent of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this chapter, we discuss the connection between VPA and ASD, evaluate the VPA animal model of ASD, and describe the possible molecular mechanisms underlying VPA's teratogenic properties.

  15. Love thy neighbour: automatic animal behavioural classification of acceleration data using the K-nearest neighbour algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bidder, Owen R; Campbell, Hamish A; Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Urgé, Patricia; Walker, James; Cai, Yuzhi; Gao, Lianli; Quintana, Flavio; Wilson, Rory P

    2014-01-01

    Researchers hoping to elucidate the behaviour of species that aren't readily observed are able to do so using biotelemetry methods. Accelerometers in particular are proving particularly effective and have been used on terrestrial, aquatic and volant species with success. In the past, behavioural modes were detected in accelerometer data through manual inspection, but with developments in technology, modern accelerometers now record at frequencies that make this impractical. In light of this, some researchers have suggested the use of various machine learning approaches as a means to classify accelerometer data automatically. We feel uptake of this approach by the scientific community is inhibited for two reasons; 1) Most machine learning algorithms require selection of summary statistics which obscure the decision mechanisms by which classifications are arrived, and 2) they are difficult to implement without appreciable computational skill. We present a method which allows researchers to classify accelerometer data into behavioural classes automatically using a primitive machine learning algorithm, k-nearest neighbour (KNN). Raw acceleration data may be used in KNN without selection of summary statistics, and it is easily implemented using the freeware program R. The method is evaluated by detecting 5 behavioural modes in 8 species, with examples of quadrupedal, bipedal and volant species. Accuracy and Precision were found to be comparable with other, more complex methods. In order to assist in the application of this method, the script required to run KNN analysis in R is provided. We envisage that the KNN method may be coupled with methods for investigating animal position, such as GPS telemetry or dead-reckoning, in order to implement an integrated approach to movement ecology research.

  16. Recent advances in bio-logging science: Technologies and methods for understanding animal behaviour and physiology and their environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, K.; Lea, M.-A.; Patterson, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    The deployment of an ever-evolving array of animal-borne telemetry and data logging devices is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movement, behaviour and physiology of a variety species and the complex, and often highly dynamic, environments they use and respond to. The rapid rate at which new technologies, improvements to current technologies and new analytical techniques are being developed has meant that movements, behaviour and physiological processes are being quantified at finer spatial and temporal scales than ever before. The Fourth International Symposium on Bio-logging Science, held on 14-18 March in Hobart, Australia, brought together scientists across multiple disciplines to discuss the latest innovations in technology, applications and analytical techniques in bio-logging science, building on research presented at three previous conferences. Here we present an update on the state of bio-logging research and provide some views on the future of this field of research. Papers were grouped into five theme areas: (i) Southern Ocean ecosystems; (ii) fishery and biodiversity management applications; (iii) from individuals to populations—inferences of population dynamics from individuals; (iv) conservation biology and (v) habitat modelling. Papers reflected wider uptake of newer technologies, with a greater proportion of studies utilising accelerometry and incorporating advances in statistical modelling of behaviour and habitats, especially via state space modelling methods. Environmental data collected by tags at increasing accuracies are now having wider application beyond the bio-logging community, providing important oceanographic data from regions difficult to sample using traditional methodologies. Partnerships between multiple organisations are also now enabling regional assessments of species movements, behaviour and physiology at population scales and will continue to be important for applying bio-logging technologies to species

  17. Love Thy Neighbour: Automatic Animal Behavioural Classification of Acceleration Data Using the K-Nearest Neighbour Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Bidder, Owen R.; Campbell, Hamish A.; Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Urgé, Patricia; Walker, James; Cai, Yuzhi; Gao, Lianli; Quintana, Flavio; Wilson, Rory P.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers hoping to elucidate the behaviour of species that aren’t readily observed are able to do so using biotelemetry methods. Accelerometers in particular are proving particularly effective and have been used on terrestrial, aquatic and volant species with success. In the past, behavioural modes were detected in accelerometer data through manual inspection, but with developments in technology, modern accelerometers now record at frequencies that make this impractical. In light of this, some researchers have suggested the use of various machine learning approaches as a means to classify accelerometer data automatically. We feel uptake of this approach by the scientific community is inhibited for two reasons; 1) Most machine learning algorithms require selection of summary statistics which obscure the decision mechanisms by which classifications are arrived, and 2) they are difficult to implement without appreciable computational skill. We present a method which allows researchers to classify accelerometer data into behavioural classes automatically using a primitive machine learning algorithm, k-nearest neighbour (KNN). Raw acceleration data may be used in KNN without selection of summary statistics, and it is easily implemented using the freeware program R. The method is evaluated by detecting 5 behavioural modes in 8 species, with examples of quadrupedal, bipedal and volant species. Accuracy and Precision were found to be comparable with other, more complex methods. In order to assist in the application of this method, the script required to run KNN analysis in R is provided. We envisage that the KNN method may be coupled with methods for investigating animal position, such as GPS telemetry or dead-reckoning, in order to implement an integrated approach to movement ecology research. PMID:24586354

  18. Recovery from visuospatial neglect in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, T.; Lewis, S.; Gray, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the natural recovery of visuospatial neglect in stroke patients and the distribution of errors made on cancellation tests using a standardised neuropsychological test battery.
METHOD—A prospective study of acute (< seven days) patients with right hemispheric stroke. Patients identified with visuospatial neglect were followed up for three months with monthly clinical and neuropsychological testing
RESULTS—There were 66 patients with acute right hemispheric stroke assessed of whom 27 (40.9%) had evidence of visuospatial neglect. Patients with neglect, on admission, had a mean behavioural inattention test (BIT) score of 56.3, range 10-126 (normal>129). Three of the subtests identified errors being made in both the right and left hemispaces. During follow up, recovery occurred across both hemispaces, maximal in the right hemispace. Recovery from visuospatial neglect was associated with improvement in function as assessed by the Barthel score. At the end of the study period only six (31.5%) patients had persisting evidence of neglect. On admission the best predictor of recovery of visuospatial neglect was the line cancellation test (Spearman's rank correlation r=−0.4217, p=0.028).
CONCLUSION—The demonstration of errors in both hemispaces has implications for the theory that neglect is a lateralised attentional problem and is important to recognise in planning the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

 PMID:9576556

  19. Neglected and endemic zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-01-01

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented—often with very simple technologies—could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public–private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses. PMID:19687045

  20. Mechanisms underlying neglect recovery after prism adaptation.

    PubMed

    Serino, Andrea; Angeli, Valentina; Frassinetti, Francesca; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) has been demonstrated to be effective in improving hemispatial neglect. However not all patients seem to benefit from this procedure. Thus, the objective of the present work is to provide behavioural and neuroanatomical predictors of recovery by exploring the reorganization of low-order visuo-motor behaviour and high-order visuo-spatial representation induced by PA. To this end, 16 neglect patients (experimental group) were submitted to a PA treatment for 10 daily sessions. Neglect and oculo-motor responses were assessed before the treatment, 1 week, 1 and 3 months after the treatment. Eight control patients, who received general cognitive stimulation, were submitted to the same tests at the same time interval. The results showed that experimental patients obtained, as a consequence of PA, a long lasting neglect recovery, a reorganization of low-order visuo-motor behaviour during and after prism exposure (error reduction and after-effect, respectively) and a leftward deviation of oculo-motor responses. Importantly, the level of error reduction obtained in the first week of treatment was predictive of neglect recovery and the amelioration of oculo-motor responses, and the degree of eye movement deviation was positively related to neglect amelioration. Finally, the study of patients' neuroanatomical data showed that severe occipital lesions were associated with a lack of error reduction, poor neglect recovery and reduced oculo-motor system amelioration. In conclusion, the present results suggest that low-order visuo-motor reorganization induced by PA promotes a resetting of the oculo-motor system leading to an improvement in high-order visuo-spatial representation able to ameliorate neglect.

  1. Dopamine phenotype and behaviour in animal models: in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Davide; Ruocco, Lucia A; Sadile, Adolfo G

    2003-11-01

    The phenotypic expression of behaviour is the outcome of interacting neuronal networks and is modulated by different subcortical systems. In the present paper the role of a major subcortical neurochemical system, dopamine (DA), is reviewed. In particular, knockout (KO) technology has given an overwhelming insight into the effects of specific component of the dopaminergic system. Therefore, the behavioural profile of dopamine transporter (DAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), DA and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP 32), and D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine receptors knockouts (and their combination) is reviewed.TH, D1, D2, D4 KO mice exhibit decreased locomotor activity, perhaps due to decreased motivational level. D3 KO and DAT KO mice show an increase in basal and novelty-induced activity respectively. It is possible that the increased dopamine levels in DAT KO mice enhance motivation. These observations support the hyperDA hypothesis in hyperactive phenotypes. Moreover, they suggest that the inhibitory effect of psychostimulant drugs, such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder may be the outcome of an altered balance between auto- and hetero-receptors. However, since KO technology is hampered by blockade of the target at early stages of development, some alternatives have been proposed, such as inducible mutagenesis and inhibitory small RNAs conveyed to target by viral vectors in adulthood.

  2. Beneficial anti-Parkinson effects of camel milk in Chlorpromazineinduced animal model: Behavioural and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Humera; Najam, Rahela; Mirza, Talat; Sikandar, Bushra

    2016-09-01

    Potential roles of natural products have been identified for preventing or treating various diseases. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of camel milk in an animal model of Parkinson's disease and compare it with standard treatment (levodopa + carbidopa combination). 40 Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 gram were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I was kept on water and served as normal control, group II served as negative control, treated with chlorpromazine (5mg/kg i.p.), group III was given camel milk (33ml/kg p.o) and group IV the standard combination of levodopa + carbidopa (100+10mg/kg) respectively, 30 minutes after chlorpromazine treatment. All animals were subjected to the drugs treatment for 30 days. Catalepsy was assessed by Bar test on day 21 and day 30 at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes interval. On 30th day animals were sacrificed and whole brains were examined for histopathological changes. The results revealed highly significant (p<0.001) anti-cataleptic effect of camel milk on day 21 and 30 in comparison to chlorpromazine. When compared with standard therapy, the results showed that anti-Parkinson's activity of camel milk was significant (p<0.01) on day 21. However, the difference in activity was non-significant on day 30. Histopathology of the brain showed that administration of camel milk reveals intact architecture with mild degenerative changes than chlorpromazine and levodopa + carbidopa treated animals. In conclusion, camel milk possesses anti-Parkinson's activity. However, its long term efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated clinically.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mood Stabilizers Alter Behavioural and Energy Metabolism Parameters in Animals Subjected to an Animal Model of Mania Induced by Fenproporex.

    PubMed

    Cancelier, Kizzy; Gomes, Lara M; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Teixeira, Letícia J; Rebelo, Joyce; Mota, Isabella T; Arent, Camila O; Mariot, Edemilson; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Quevedo, João; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2017-08-01

    Studies have shown that changes in energy metabolism are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). It was suggested that omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids have beneficial properties in the central nervous system and that this fatty acid plays an important role in energy metabolism. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the effect of ω3 fatty acids alone and in combination with lithium (Li) or valproate (VPA) on behaviour and parameters of energy metabolism in an animal model of mania induced by fenproporex. Our results showed that co-administration of ω3 fatty acids and Li was able to prevent and reverse the increase in locomotor and exploratory activity induced by fenproporex. The combination of ω3 fatty acids with VPA was only able to prevent the fenproporex-induced hyperactivity. For the energy metabolism parameters, our results showed that the administration of Fen for the reversal or prevention protocol inhibited the activities of succinate dehydrogenase, complex II and complex IV in the hippocampus. However, hippocampal creatine kinase (CK) activity was decreased only for the reversal protocol. The ω3 fatty acids, alone and in combination with VPA or Li, prevented and reversed the decrease in complex II, IV and succinate dehydrogenase activity, whereas the decrease in CK activity was only reversed after the co-administration of ω3 fatty acids and VPA. In conclusion, our results showed that the ω3 fatty acids combined with VPA or Li were able to prevent and reverse manic-like hyperactivity and the inhibition of energy metabolism in the hippocampus, suggesting that ω3 fatty acids may play an important role in the modulation of behavioural parameters and energy metabolism.

  4. Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones. They had been highly prevalent in Korea but are mostly disappearing at present through systematic and sustainable control activity. The successful experience of STH control enables Korean experts to develop many programs of NTD control in developing countries. Several programs of both official development aid and non-governmental organizations are now targeting NTDs. Most NTDs are low in health priority compared to their health threats because they are chronic, insidious, and of low mortality. No one, including the victims, raised priority of NTD control with a loud voice in the endemic field of the diseases. After the millennium development goals declared disease control over the world, NTDs are becoming less neglected globally. Even with limited resources, beginning a sustainable national program is the key for the control and elimination of NTDs. No more neglect, especially no more self-neglect, can eliminate diseases and upgrade quality of life of the neglected people. PMID:26617444

  5. Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones. They had been highly prevalent in Korea but are mostly disappearing at present through systematic and sustainable control activity. The successful experience of STH control enables Korean experts to develop many programs of NTD control in developing countries. Several programs of both official development aid and non-governmental organizations are now targeting NTDs. Most NTDs are low in health priority compared to their health threats because they are chronic, insidious, and of low mortality. No one, including the victims, raised priority of NTD control with a loud voice in the endemic field of the diseases. After the millennium development goals declared disease control over the world, NTDs are becoming less neglected globally. Even with limited resources, beginning a sustainable national program is the key for the control and elimination of NTDs. No more neglect, especially no more self-neglect, can eliminate diseases and upgrade quality of life of the neglected people.

  6. Behavioural effects of near-term acute fetal hypoxia in a small precocial animal, the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus).

    PubMed

    Ireland, Zoe; Dickinson, Hayley; Fleiss, Bobbi; Hutton, Lisa C; Walker, David W

    2010-01-01

    We have previously developed a model of near-term intra-uterine hypoxia producing significant neonatal mortality (37%) in a small laboratory animal - the spiny mouse - which has precocial offspring at birth. The aim of the present study was to determine if this insult resulted in the appearance of behavioural abnormalities in those offspring which survived the hypoxic delivery. Behavioural tests assessed gait (using footprint patterns), motor coordination and balance on an accelerating rotarod, and spontaneous locomotion and exploration in an open field. We found that the near-term acute hypoxic episode produced a mild neurological deficit in the early postnatal period. In comparison to vaginally delivered controls, hypoxia pups were able to remain on the accelerating rotarod for significantly shorter durations on postnatal days 1-2, and in the open field they travelled significantly shorter distances, jumped less, and spent a greater percentage of time stationary on postnatal days 5 and 15. No changes were observed in gait. Unlike some rodent models of cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia, macroscopic examination of the brain on postnatal day 5 showed no gross cystic lesions, oedema or infarct. Future studies should be directed at identifying hypoxia-induced alterations in the function of specific brain regions, and assessing if maternal administration of neuroprotective agents can prevent against hypoxia-induced neurological deficits and brain damage that occur at birth.

  7. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were collected from the Dutch market. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS and its concentration was higher in free ranging animals like cows and sheep. The detected levels of PFOS in the liver samples were very low (up to 4.5 ng g(-1) ww). To further study the kinetic behaviour in foraging animals, samples from a study in which sheep were fed with grass obtained from a river floodplain, were examined. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS in the contaminated grass pellets, showing a level of about 0.5 μg kg(-1). Young blackhead sheep were fed with either clean or contaminated grass for a period up to 112 days. A time-dependent increase in liver PFOS concentrations was observed from 2.4 to 10.9 ng g(-1) ww after 8 and 112 days respectively. A time-dependent depuration was observed in livers of animals switched to clean grass after 56 days of exposure, from 9.2 to 4.7 ng g(-1) ww after 64 and 112 days respectively. The percentage of PFOS ingested from the grass and retained in the liver was estimated to be 12% at day 56, and decreased gradually to 6% after 56 days on clean grass, showing that the decrease in levels is not only caused by an increase in liver weight. Levels detected in commercial livers but also those in the sheep study would not lead to exceedance of the current TDI for PFOS set by EFSA. Therefore, it can be assumed that they do not present a risk for human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Religion and medical neglect.

    PubMed

    Sinal, Sara H; Cabinum-Foeller, Elaine; Socolar, Rebecca

    2008-07-01

    This is a literature review of religion-associated medical neglect of children. It attempts to document the most common denominations involved in religion-associated medical neglect. There is a discussion of the history of religious exemptions to medical care and health risks to children as a result of religious exemption. Suggestions are made for the clinician regarding recognition and management of religion-associated medical neglect in children.

  9. Prose reading in neglect.

    PubMed

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  10. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: 3. Transfer to muscle.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-03-01

    Over 150 publications reporting studies conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide transfer coefficients (F(f)) to the muscle of domestic animals from experiments using chronic administration, often for long timescales in large scale experiments. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews. The values derived have been compared with expected values reported by the IAEA's Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) where possible. The information presented here has been used in the current updating of parameters recommended for environmental assessments by the IAEA. Many of the reported values are for Sr due to the Mayak accident and Cs due to the Chernobyl accident. Nevertheless, the reported data for a wide range of radionuclides, in particular for Ru, Sb, and Zn markedly improve the extent of available data.

  11. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 2. Transfer to milk.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N; Barnett, C L

    2007-01-01

    An overview of original information available from Russian language papers on radionuclide transfer to milk is provided. Most of the data presented have not been taken into account in international reviews. The transfer coefficient (F(m)) values for radioactive isotopes of strontium, caesium and iodine are in good agreement with those previously published. The Russian language data, often based on experiments with many animals, constitute a considerable increase to the available data for many less well-studied radionuclides. In some instances, the Russian language data suggest changes in recommended values (e.g. Zr and Ru). The information presented here substantially increases the amount of available data on radionuclide transfer to milk and will be included in the current revision of the IAEA TRS Handbook of parameter values for radionuclide transfer.

  12. Animal behaviour learning environment: software to facilitate learning in canine and feline behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, P D; Della Torre, P K; Evans, D L

    2003-01-01

    Interactive software has been developed on CD-ROM to facilitate learning of problem formulation, diagnostic methodology, and therapeutic options in dog and cat behavior problems. Students working in small groups are presented with a signalment, a case history, and brief description of the problem behavior as perceived by the client. Students then navigate through the case history by asking the client questions from an icon-driven question pad. Animated video responses to the questions are provided. Students are then required to rate the significance of the questions and answers with respect to the development of the unwelcome behavior. Links to online self-assessments and to resource materials about causation and treatment options are provided to assist students in their decision-making process. The activity concludes with a software-generated e-mail submission that includes the recorded history, diagnosis, and recommended treatment for assessment purposes.

  13. Red blood cell deformability and aggregation behaviour in different animal species.

    PubMed

    Plasenzotti, R; Stoiber, B; Posch, M; Windberger, U

    2004-01-01

    Comparative animal studies showed the wide variation of whole blood and plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte aggregation among mammalian species. Whole blood viscosity and red blood cell aggregation is influenced by red cell fluidity. To evaluate differences in erythrocyte deformability in mammals, three species were investigated, whose erythrocytes have a different aggregation property: horse, as a species with high, dog with medium, and sheep with almost unmeasurable aggregation tendency. Erythrocyte deformability was tested ektacytometrically (Elongation Index [EI], LORCA, Mechatronics, Hoorn, Netherlands) at shear stresses from 0.30 to 53.06 Pa. Equine erythrocytes showed EI-values from 0.047 at low shear stress to 0.541 at high shear stress. The EI from dog's erythrocytes ranged from 0.035 to 0.595. Sheep's erythrocytes had an EI of 0.005 at low and 0.400 at high shear stress. Although it might be presumed from the aggregation property that horse had the highest EI among the three species, the EI of canine erythrocytes exceeded the value in horses by 10% at high shear stress. Further, equine erythrocytes started to deform at higher shear stresses (1.69 Pa) than did canine and ovine cells, whose EI increased continuously with increasing shear stress. At moderate shear stress (1-5 Pa) deformability was even higher in the sheep than in the horse. However, at shear stresses higher than 5.34 Pa, equine red cell elongation clearly exceeded the values of sheep. We conclude that erythrocyte elongation is different between the animal species, not clearly linked with the aggregation property, and that the degree of deformability at various shear stresses is species-specific.

  14. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals.

  15. Duloxetine and 8-OH-DPAT, but not fluoxetine, reduce depression-like behaviour in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Doods, Henri; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ceci, Angelo

    2016-04-21

    The current study assessed whether antidepressant and/or antinociceptive drugs, duloxetine, fluoxetine as well as (±)-8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino] tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), are able to reverse depression-like behaviour in animals with chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats was selected as neuropathic pain model. Mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour were evaluated 4 weeks after surgery by "electronic algometer" and forced swimming test (FST), which measured the time of immobility, and active behaviours climbing and swimming. The selective noradrenergic and serotonergic uptake blocker duloxetine (20mg/kg) and the selective 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.5mg/kg) significantly reversed both mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour in CCI animals. Duloxetine significantly reversed depression-like behaviour in CCI rats by increasing the time of climbing and swimming, while 8-OH-DPAT attenuated depression-like behaviour mainly by increasing the time of swimming. However, the selective serotonergic uptake blocker fluoxetine (20mg/kg) failed to attenuate mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour, possibly due to confounding pro-nociceptive actions at 5-HT3 receptors. These data suggest to target noradrenergic and 5-HT1A receptors for treatment of chronic pain and its comorbidity depression.

  16. Expression Profiling of a Genetic Animal Model of Depression Reveals Novel Molecular Pathways Underlying Depressive-Like Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Blaveri, Ekaterini; Kelly, Fiona; Mallei, Alessandra; Harris, Kriss; Taylor, Adam; Reid, Juliet; Razzoli, Maria; Carboni, Lucia; Piubelli, Chiara; Musazzi, Laura; Racagni, Girogio; Mathé, Aleksander; Popoli, Maurizio; Domenici, Enrico; Bates, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Background The Flinders model is a validated genetic rat model of depression that exhibits a number of behavioural, neurochemical and pharmacological features consistent with those observed in human depression. Principal Findings In this study we have used genome-wide microarray expression profiling of the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex of Flinders Depression Sensitive (FSL) and control Flinders Depression Resistant (FRL) lines to understand molecular basis for the differences between the two lines. We profiled two independent cohorts of Flinders animals derived from the same colony six months apart, each cohort statistically powered to allow independent as well as combined analysis. Using this approach, we were able to validate using real-time-PCR a core set of gene expression differences that showed statistical significance in each of the temporally distinct cohorts, representing consistently maintained features of the model. Small but statistically significant increases were confirmed for cholinergic (chrm2, chrna7) and serotonergic receptors (Htr1a, Htr2a) in FSL rats consistent with known neurochemical changes in the model. Much larger gene changes were validated in a number of novel genes as exemplified by TMEM176A, which showed 35-fold enrichment in the cortex and 30-fold enrichment in hippocampus of FRL animals relative to FSL. Conclusions These data provide significant insights into the molecular differences underlying the Flinders model, and have potential relevance to broader depression research. PMID:20830301

  17. Neglected and Delinquent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatino, David A.

    This report summarizes the mass of information dealing with delinquent and neglected children. The first chapter discusses characteristics that identify neglected and delinquent youth with an emphasis on social and emotional maladjustment. The second chapter reviews cultural and environmental factors related to delinquency. The author investigates…

  18. The psychobiology of neglect.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, Michael D

    2005-05-01

    Child neglect, the most prevalent form of child maltreatment, is associated with adverse psychological and educational outcomes. It is hypothesized that these outcomes may be caused by adverse brain development. However, there are very few published cross-sectional studies and no prospective studies that examine the neurodevelopmental consequences of neglect. In this article, the author comprehensively outlines the issues involved in the psychobiological research of child neglect. Pre-clinical and clinical studies will be reviewed. Throughout the article, suggestions for future research opportunities and novel ways to address methodological difficulties inherent in this field of study are offered. The results of recent neuroimaging studies of maltreated children may provide a basis for understanding the early effects of neglect on childhood brain development. The author is comprehensively examining these issues as part of the Federal Child Neglect Consortium.

  19. Reward, context, and human behaviour.

    PubMed

    Blaukopf, Clare L; DiGirolamo, Gregory J

    2007-05-29

    Animal models of reward processing have revealed an extensive network of brain areas that process different aspects of reward, from expectation and prediction to calculation of relative value. These results have been confirmed and extended in human neuroimaging to encompass secondary rewards more unique to humans, such as money. The majority of the extant literature covers the brain areas associated with rewards whilst neglecting analysis of the actual behaviours that these rewards generate. This review strives to redress this imbalance by illustrating the importance of looking at the behavioural outcome of rewards and the context in which they are produced. Following a brief review of the literature of reward-related activity in the brain, we examine the effect of reward context on actions. These studies reveal how the presence of reward vs. reward and punishment, or being conscious vs. unconscious of reward-related actions, differentially influence behaviour. The latter finding is of particular importance given the extent to which animal models are used in understanding the reward systems of the human mind. It is clear that further studies are needed to learn about the human reaction to reward in its entirety, including any distinctions between conscious and unconscious behaviours. We propose that studies of reward entail a measure of the animal's (human or nonhuman) knowledge of the reward and knowledge of its own behavioural outcome to achieve that reward.

  20. Diagonal spatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Mark, V.; Heilman, K.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether stroke patients with diagonal neglect on cancellation may show diagonal neglect on line bisection, and hence to indicate whether diagonal neglect may be related solely to the type of test used or whether instead it may reflect a fundamental spatial disorder.
METHODS—Nine patients with subacute right hemispheric stroke who neglected targets primarily in the near left direction on line cancellation bisected diagonal lines of two opposing orientations: near left to far right and far left to near right. The errors were assessed to determine whether line orientation significantly affected bisection error.
RESULTS—Eight patients had significant bisection errors. One of these showed no effect of line orientation on error, consistent with lateral neglect. The remaining seven patients had a line orientation effect, indicating a net diagonal spatial bias. For the group, cancellation errors were significantly correlated with the line orientation effect on bisection errors.
CONCLUSIONS—A significant diagonal bias on two tests of spatial attention may appear in stroke patients, although the directions of the biases may differ within individual patients. None the less, diagonal neglect may be a fundamental spatial attentional disturbance of right hemispheric stroke. Greater severity of stroke deficit as indicated by cancellation error score may be associated with a greater degree of diagonal neglect on line bisection.

 PMID:9728947

  1. Upper Secondary and First-Year University Students' Explanations of Animal Behaviour: To What Extent Are Tinbergen's Four Questions about Causation, Ontogeny, Function and Evolution, Represented?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinxten, Rianne; Desclée, Mathieu; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In 1963, the Nobel Prize-winning ethologist Niko Tinbergen proposed a framework for the scientific study of animal behaviour by outlining four questions that should be answered to have a complete understanding: causation, ontogeny, function and evolution. At present, Tinbergen's framework is still considered the best way to guide animal…

  2. Upper Secondary and First-Year University Students' Explanations of Animal Behaviour: To What Extent Are Tinbergen's Four Questions about Causation, Ontogeny, Function and Evolution, Represented?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinxten, Rianne; Desclée, Mathieu; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In 1963, the Nobel Prize-winning ethologist Niko Tinbergen proposed a framework for the scientific study of animal behaviour by outlining four questions that should be answered to have a complete understanding: causation, ontogeny, function and evolution. At present, Tinbergen's framework is still considered the best way to guide animal…

  3. Advocacy and child neglect.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Scott D

    2014-11-01

    Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to intervene in the lives of children to identify and to prevent neglect. While it remains important to care for individual patients affected by neglect, the ecological model of child neglect requires intervention at the parent, family, community, and societal levels. Pediatricians can improve the outcomes for children by advocating for policies and interventions at each level. Effective advocacy principally requires the willingness to tackle broader issues beyond individual clinical care. Working with local, state, and national organizations, pediatricians can contribute a unified voice to promote evidence-based policies and programs that improve the well-being of children.

  4. Behaviour of CD11b-Positive Cells in an Animal Model of Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularisation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Heiduschka, Peter; Alex, Anne F; Niekämper, Daniel; Eter, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Immune cells, e.g. microglial cells of the retina, appear to be involved in pathological processes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to immunohistochemically check the expression of various factors and cytokines by CD11b-positive (CD11b+) immune cells in an animal model of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). We used the animal model of laser-induced CNV in mice. Eyes were isolated at 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after laser treatment. Cryosections were prepared and checked immunohistochemically for the presence of different growth factors and cytokines on microglial cells and other immune cells identified by CD11b immunoreactivity. We found that the number of CD11b+ cells at the laser spots increased dramatically 4 days after laser treatment, the majority of them entering the laser spot most probably by migration. CD11b+ cells in the laser spot were positive for a variety of pro-angiogenic factors, such as PDGF-β, FGF-1, FGF-2, and TGF-β1. They were also positive for some inflammatory cytokines, in particular TNF-α, IL-6, and CXCL1. In non-treated retinas, CD11b+ cells showed almost no immunoreactivity for these proteins. Microglial cells, macrophages, and other CD11b+ cells may promote the neovascularisation in the laser spot and show a moderate inflammatory behaviour. Immunoreactivity for most of these molecules was found to decrease during the time of observation. Modulation of immune cell activity may thus be a tool to reduce the extent of CNV. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Preventing Abuse and Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Whether or not you've experienced domestic or child abuse personally, you probably know that it can have ... and Neglect - The Essentials Latest Content Signs of Child Abuse August 5, 2017 @ 10:21 PM | 4 Min ...

  6. The Directive 2010/63/EU on animal experimentation may skew the conclusions of pharmacological and behavioural studies.

    PubMed

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    All laboratory animals shall be provided some form of environmental enrichment (EE) in the nearest future (Directive 2010/63/EU). Displacing standard housing with EE entails the possibility that data obtained under traditional housing may be reconsidered. Specifically, while EE often contrasts the abnormalities of consolidated disease models, it also indirectly demonstrates that their validity depends on housing conditions. We mimicked a situation in which the consequences of a novel pharmacological compound were addressed before and after the adoption of the Directive. We sub-chronically exposed standard- or EE-reared adolescent CD1 mice (postnatal days 23-33) to the synthetic compound JWH-018, and evaluated its short- and long-term potential cannabinoid properties on: weight gain, locomotion, analgesia, motor coordination, body temperature, brain metabolism ((1)H MRI/MRS), anxiety- and depressive-related behaviours. While several parameters are modulated by JWH-018 independently of housing, other effects are environmentally mediated. The transition from standard housing to EE shall be carefully monitored.

  7. Neglected tropical diseases, neglected data sources, and neglected issues.

    PubMed

    Singer, Burton H; Ryff, Carol D

    2007-11-07

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a so-called neglected tropical disease, currently overshadowed by higher-profile efforts to address malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Despite recent successes in arresting transmission, some 40 million people who already have the disease have been largely neglected. This study aims to increase understanding of how this vulnerable, neglected group can be helped. We used purposive sampling to select 60 men and women with filarial lymphoedema (45 with filarial elephantiasis and 15 men with filarial hydrocoele) from the south of Sri Lanka in 2004-2005. Participants were selected to give a balance of men and women and poor and nonpoor, and a range of stages of the disease. Participants' experiences and the consequences of their disease for the household were explored with in-depth qualitative, semistructured interviews. LF was extremely debilitating to participants over long periods of time. The stigma attached to the condition caused social isolation and emotional distress, and delayed diagnosis and treatment, resulting in undue advancement of the disease. Free treatment services at government clinics were avoided because the participants' condition would be identifiable in public. Loss of income due to the condition was reported by all households in the sample, not just the poorest. Households that were already on low incomes were pushed into near destitution, from which it was almost impossible to escape. Affected members of low-income households also had less opportunity to obtain appropriate treatment from distant clinics, and had living and working conditions that made hygiene and compliance difficult. This highly vulnerable category of patients has low visibility, thus becoming marginalized and forgotten. With an estimated 300,000 total cases of elephantiasis and/or oedema in Sri Lanka, and around 300,000 men with filarial hydrocoele, the affected households will need help and support for many years to come. These individuals

  8. Dissociated perceptual-sensory and exploratory-motor neglect.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G T; Bolton, A K; Price, B H; Weintraub, S

    1992-01-01

    A patient with a right sided parietal lobe infarction manifested left sided sensory extinction in the visual, auditory, and tactile modalities but had only mild exploratory-motor neglect. In contrast, another patient with a right frontal haemorrhage demonstrated only left sided exploratory-motor hemispatial neglect. Tasks that combined perceptual and exploratory features elicited varying degrees of neglect in each patient. These two cases with dissociated neglect behaviour lend further evidence for behavioural specialisation within components of a cortical network for directed attention: sensory-representational aspects mediated primarily by the parietal component, motor-exploratory primarily by the frontal component. These cases also highlight the need to include and distinguish among several different measures of neglect in the clinical investigation of patients with hemispatial inattention. Images PMID:1527542

  9. Child neglect: assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  10. Animal behaviour: pigtailed police.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R

    2005-06-07

    A recent study of pigtailed macaques shows that most effective policing interventions in conflict situations are by socially powerful group-members, who sustain relatively low costs by intervening. Questions arise about the ontogenetic and phylogenetic emergence of policing individuals.

  11. Three-dimensional computer graphic animations for studying social approach behaviour in medaka fish: Effects of systematic manipulation of morphological and motion cues.

    PubMed

    Nakayasu, Tomohiro; Yasugi, Masaki; Shiraishi, Soma; Uchida, Seiichi; Watanabe, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    We studied social approach behaviour in medaka fish using three-dimensional computer graphic (3DCG) animations based on the morphological features and motion characteristics obtained from real fish. This is the first study which used 3DCG animations and examined the relative effects of morphological and motion cues on social approach behaviour in medaka. Various visual stimuli, e.g., lack of motion, lack of colour, alternation in shape, lack of locomotion, lack of body motion, and normal virtual fish in which all four features (colour, shape, locomotion, and body motion) were reconstructed, were created and presented to fish using a computer display. Medaka fish presented with normal virtual fish spent a long time in proximity to the display, whereas time spent near the display was decreased in other groups when compared with normal virtual medaka group. The results suggested that the naturalness of visual cues contributes to the induction of social approach behaviour. Differential effects between body motion and locomotion were also detected. 3DCG animations can be a useful tool to study the mechanisms of visual processing and social behaviour in medaka.

  12. Three-dimensional computer graphic animations for studying social approach behaviour in medaka fish: Effects of systematic manipulation of morphological and motion cues

    PubMed Central

    Nakayasu, Tomohiro; Yasugi, Masaki; Shiraishi, Soma; Uchida, Seiichi; Watanabe, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    We studied social approach behaviour in medaka fish using three-dimensional computer graphic (3DCG) animations based on the morphological features and motion characteristics obtained from real fish. This is the first study which used 3DCG animations and examined the relative effects of morphological and motion cues on social approach behaviour in medaka. Various visual stimuli, e.g., lack of motion, lack of colour, alternation in shape, lack of locomotion, lack of body motion, and normal virtual fish in which all four features (colour, shape, locomotion, and body motion) were reconstructed, were created and presented to fish using a computer display. Medaka fish presented with normal virtual fish spent a long time in proximity to the display, whereas time spent near the display was decreased in other groups when compared with normal virtual medaka group. The results suggested that the naturalness of visual cues contributes to the induction of social approach behaviour. Differential effects between body motion and locomotion were also detected. 3DCG animations can be a useful tool to study the mechanisms of visual processing and social behaviour in medaka. PMID:28399163

  13. Cognitive and neural correlates of depression-like behaviour in socially defeated mice: an animal model of depression with cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Guo, Ming; Garza, Jacob; Rendon, Samantha; Sun, Xue-Li; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Xin-Yun

    2011-04-01

    Human depression is associated with cognitive deficits. It is critical to have valid animal models in order to investigate mechanisms and treatment strategies for these associated conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the association of cognitive dysfunction with depression-like behaviour in an animal model of depression and investigate the neural circuits underlying the behaviour. Mice that were exposed to social defeat for 14 d developed depression-like behaviour, i.e. anhedonia and social avoidance as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and decreased social interaction. The assessment of cognitive performance of defeated mice demonstrated impaired working memory in the T-maze continuous alternation task and enhanced fear memory in the contextual and cued fear-conditioning tests. In contrast, reference learning and memory in the Morris water maze test were intact in defeated mice. Neuronal activation following chronic social defeat was investigated by c-fosin-situ hybridization. Defeated mice exhibited preferential neural activity in the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, hippocampal formation, septum, amygdala, and hypothalamic nuclei. Taken together, our results suggest that the chronic social defeat mouse model could serve as a valid animal model to study depression with cognitive impairments. The patterns of neuronal activation provide a neural basis for social defeat-induced changes in behaviour.

  14. The effect of animal health compensation on 'positive' behaviours towards exotic disease reporting and implementing biosecurity: A review, a synthesis and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Andrew Peter; Moxey, Andrew Paul; Vosough Ahmadi, Bouda; Borthwick, Fiona Ann

    2015-11-01

    With an increasing burden on public sector budgets, increased responsibility and cost sharing mechanisms for animal diseases are being considered. To achieve this, fiscal and non-fiscal intervention policies need to be designed such that they consistently promote positive disease risk management practices by animal keepers. This paper presents a review of the available evidence towards whether and how the level and type of funding mechanism affects change within biosecurity behaviours and the frequency of disease reporting. A Nuffield Health Ladder of Interventions approach is proposed as a way to frame the debate surrounding both current compensation mechanisms and how it is expected to change behaviour. Results of the review reveal a division between economic modelling approaches, which implicitly assume a causal link between payments and positive behaviours, and socio-geographic approaches which tend to ignore the influence of compensation mechanisms on influencing behaviours. Generally, economic studies suggest less than full compensation rates will encourage positive behaviours, but the non-economic literature indicate significant variation in response to compensation reflecting heterogeneity of livestock keepers in terms of their values, goals, risk attitudes, size of operation, animal species and production chain characteristics. This may be of encouragement to Western Governments seeking to shift cost burdens as it may induce greater targeting of non-fiscal mechanisms, or suggest more novel ways to augment current compensation mechanisms to both increase responsibility sharing and reduce this cost burden. This review suggests that a range of regulatory, fiscal and nudging policies are required to achieve socially optimal results with respect to positive behaviour change. However, the lack of directly available evidence which proves these causal links may hinder progress towards this optimal mixture of choice and non-choice based interventions.

  15. Space re-exploration in hemispatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Parton, Andrew; Malhotra, Paresh; Nachev, Parashkev; Ames, Diane; Ball, Joanna; Chataway, Jeremy; Husain, Masud

    2006-05-29

    Exploration of the space around us is a fundamental part of human behaviour. When it breaks down there is an important opportunity to understand its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that many right-hemisphere patients with left neglect re-explore rightward locations, failing to keep track of them during search. Importantly, such re-exploration occurred despite leftward stimuli being indistinguishable in peripheral vision, so it is unlikely to result from implicit processing of neglected targets. Revisits generally occurred after visits to other targets and are therefore not immediate perseverations. Finally, manipulating the visual salience of found targets altered the degree of neglect, but not revisit rates. Space exploration appears to be modulated both by the ability to keep track of spatial locations and by stimulus salience.

  16. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent—based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus–response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  17. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology.

    PubMed

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-05-05

    Human behaviour is context-dependent-based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus-response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Neuropeptide S alters anxiety, but not depression-like behaviour in Flinders Sensitive Line rats: a genetic animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Gregers; Finger, Beate C; Elfving, Betina; Keller, Kirsten; Liebenberg, Nico; Fischer, Christina W; Singewald, Nicolas; Slattery, David A; Neumann, Inga D; Mathé, Aleksander A

    2012-04-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) have been implicated in the mediation of anxiolytic-like behaviour in rodents. However, little knowledge is available regarding the NPS system in depression-related behaviours, and whether NPS also exerts anxiolytic effects in an animal model of psychopathology. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize the effects of NPS on depression- and anxiety-related parameters, using male and female rats in a well-validated animal model of depression: the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We found that FSL showed greater immobility in the forced swim test (FST) than FRL, confirming their phenotype. However, NPS did not affect depression-related behaviour in any rat line. No significant differences in baseline anxiety levels between the FSL and FRL strains were observed, but FSL and FRL rats displayed less anxiety-like behaviour compared to SD rats. NPS decreased anxiety-like behaviour on the elevated plus-maze in all strains. The expression of the NPSR in the amygdala, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and hippocampus was equal in all male strains, although a trend towards reduced expression within the amygdala was observed in FSL rats compared to SD rats. In conclusion, NPS had a marked anxiolytic effect in FSL, FRL and SD rats, but did not modify the depression-related behaviour in any strain, in spite of the significant differences in innate level between the strains. These findings suggest that NPS specifically modifies anxiety behaviour but cannot overcome/reverse a genetically mediated depression phenotype.

  19. The Neglect of Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockett, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that schooling neglects virtue through the dominant quest for right answers. This is not only intellectually disreputable in presuming the correctness of what is taught, but it undermines the development of necessary intellectual virtues, such as open-mindedness, impartiality, and accuracy in the school curriculum, and it fails…

  20. Reaching the Neglected 95%

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoSchiavo, Frank M.; Shatz, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors' comments focus on why American psychologists have become overreliant on American samples, and they provide alternative suggestions for broadening the scope…

  1. The Neglect of Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockett, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that schooling neglects virtue through the dominant quest for right answers. This is not only intellectually disreputable in presuming the correctness of what is taught, but it undermines the development of necessary intellectual virtues, such as open-mindedness, impartiality, and accuracy in the school curriculum, and it fails…

  2. Canada: The Neglected Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutan, Gerard F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Canada as a neglected area of political study. Suggests the inclusion of Canada in the comparative politics curriculum because it offers rich comparative opportunities with its cultural pluralism, parliamentary system, and authentic federalism. Lists associations and funding sources for Canadian studies and recommends several textbooks.…

  3. Canada: The Neglected Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutan, Gerard F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Canada as a neglected area of political study. Suggests the inclusion of Canada in the comparative politics curriculum because it offers rich comparative opportunities with its cultural pluralism, parliamentary system, and authentic federalism. Lists associations and funding sources for Canadian studies and recommends several textbooks.…

  4. Reaching the Neglected 95%

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoSchiavo, Frank M.; Shatz, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors' comments focus on why American psychologists have become overreliant on American samples, and they provide alternative suggestions for broadening the scope…

  5. Rehabilitation of spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Riestra, Alonso R; Barrett, A M

    2013-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a frequent cause of disability associated with high costs and duration of hospital stay, increased family burden, and requirements for skilled chronic care. This condition is disproportionately more frequent with right than left hemispheric injury and it is characterized by perceptual, representational, and behavioral deficits involving or directed towards the left hemispace or the left hemibody. Spatial dysfunction is conceptualized into two major components: the perceptual/representational "where" component that results mainly from injury to posterior brain regions and the premotor/intentional "aiming" component that results mostly from damage to anterior brain regions. Additionally, deficits in arousal, vigilance, affective symptoms, and disorders of emotional communication may compound the clinical manifestations of spatial neglect. Evidence-based sources that evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatments for neglect are, unfortunately, unable to provide a unified consensus for the efficacy of a given treatment approach. The reasons for this failure are related to internal inconsistencies defining appropriate criteria for treatment success and lack of characterization of neglect mechanisms and considerations of patient characteristics related to treatment failure. In this chapter we advocate the use of visual scanning, limb activation therapy, and "general treatment" because we believe that they are appropriately supported by different sources and they may be useful for experimental trials and standardized clinical care. We advocate an integrative approach that takes advantage of the same rehabilitation strategy or task to treat different perceptual, representational, and premotor components of neglect. A variety of therapies that may be familiar to the rehabilitation team may be useful as long as they are applied in a systematized program and are based on good clinical judgment. Information regarding adjuvant pharmacological

  6. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    PubMed Central

    Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

  7. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

  8. Neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Feasey, Nick; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Mabey, David C W; Solomon, Anthony W

    2010-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are infectious diseases that principally impact the world's poorest people. They have been neglected for decades, initially as part of a general disregard for the developing world, and more recently due to the intensity of focus on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Primary research and review articles were selected for inclusion using searches of PubMed and our existing collections. There have been recent notable successes in NTD control. Dracunculiasis is approaching eradication. Leprosy and onchocerciasis are in decline. There are ambitious plans to eliminate trachoma and lymphatic filariasis. Investment in NTD control has high rates of economic return. Although there are proven strategies to control several NTDs, these diseases continue to cause a massive burden of morbidity. There is urgent need for more basic and operational research, drug and vaccine development, and greater prioritization by governments and international agencies.

  9. [Stereo microscope, neglected tool].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Stereoscopes, in author opinion, are neglected tools in modern biology. This article shortly describes technical and application capabilities of the present stereomicroscopes. The two main types of stereomicroscope construction are depicted: Greenough microscope and Common Main Objective microscope. The technological breakthrough, asymmetrical optical design of stereomicroscopes, the Fusion Optics, is presented too. Because of very wide offer of a stereomicroscope platforms, illumination systems, software and imaging systems, the article contains also very useful factors to consider when selecting a stereomicroscope.

  10. Increased anxiety-like behaviour and altered GABAergic system in the amygdala and cerebellum of VPA rats - An animal model of autism.

    PubMed

    Olexová, Lucia; Štefánik, Peter; Kršková, Lucia

    2016-08-26

    Anxiety is one of the associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. According to the literature, increases in anxiety are accompanied by GABAergic system deregulation. The aim of our study, performed using an animal model of autism in the form of rats prenatally treated with valproic acid (VPA rats), was to investigate changes in anxiety-like behaviour and the gene expression of molecules that control levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. Anxiety-like behaviours were investigated using zone preferences in the open field test. The levels of the 65 and 67kDa enzymes of l-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNAs and type 1 GABA transporter (GAT1) were evaluated in the amygdala, as well as GABA producing enzymes in the cortex layer of the cerebellum. Our research showed that adult VPA rats spent less time in the inner zone of the testing chamber and more time in the outer zone of the testing chamber in the open field test. We also found that adult VPA rats had increased expression of GAT1 in the amygdala, as well as decreased levels of GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA in the cerebellum compared to control animals. These findings support the existence of a relationship between increased anxiety-like behaviour and changes in the regulation of the GABAergic system in VPA rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drawing perseveration in neglect: effects of target density.

    PubMed

    Pia, Lorenzo; Ricci, Raffaella; Gindri, Patrizia; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In cancellation tasks, patients with unilateral spatial neglect typically fail to mark targets within the side of the sheet contralateral to the side of the lesion (contralesional). Moreover, they can show a perseverative behaviour, which consists in repeatedly cancelling stimuli, mainly in the side of the display ipsilateral to the side of the lesion (ipsilesional). We investigated in 13 right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect and perseverative behaviour whether and how different densities of horizontal targets modulated omission and perseverative errors. We found that the density of targets modulated the patients' distribution of neglect (area of omission), but not its extent, as indexed by the percentage of omissions. Specifically, the area of omissions tightened when target density increased leftwards. On the other hand, target density did not affect the distribution of perseverative behaviour (area of perseveration), as well as its extent, as indexed by the percentage of perseverations. Correlation analyses showed that both the extent and the distribution of omissions were positively correlated to clinical measures of spatial neglect. Conversely, perseverations did not show such a correlation. These findings support the view that two different pathological mechanisms might be involved in left spatial neglect and in ipsilesional perseverative behaviour. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  12. The long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure during pre-adolescence on depressive-like behaviour in a genetic animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Moné; Harvey, Brian H; Cockeran, Marike; Brink, Christiaan B

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant and drug of abuse, commonly used early in life, including in childhood and adolescence. Adverse effects include psychosis, anxiety and mood disorders, as well as increased risk of developing a mental disorder later in life. The current study investigated the long-term effects of chronic METH exposure during pre-adolescence in stress-sensitive Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats (genetic model of depression) and control Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. METH or vehicle control was administered twice daily from post-natal day 19 (PostND19) to PostND34, followed by behavioural testing at either PostND35 (early effects) or long-lasting after withdrawal at PostND60 (early adulthood). Animals were evaluated for depressive-like behaviour, locomotor activity, social interaction and object recognition memory. METH reduced depressive-like behaviour in both FSL and FRL rats at PostND35, but enhanced this behaviour at PostND60. METH also reduced locomotor activity on PostND35 in both FSL and FRL rats, but without effect at PostND60. Furthermore, METH significantly lowered social interaction behaviour (staying together) in both FRL and FSL rats at PostND35 and PostND60, whereas self-grooming time was significantly reduced only at PostND35. METH treatment enhanced exploration of the familiar vs. novel object in the novel object recognition test (nORT) in FSL and FRL rats on PostND35 and PostND60, indicative of reduced cognitive performance. Thus, early-life METH exposure induce social and cognitive deficits. Lastly, early-life exposure to METH may result in acute antidepressant-like effects immediately after chronic exposure, whereas long-term effects after withdrawal are depressogenic. Data also supports a role for genetic predisposition as with FSL rats.

  13. Semiology of neglect: An update.

    PubMed

    Rode, G; Pagliari, C; Huchon, L; Rossetti, Y; Pisella, L

    2017-06-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a common disabling condition following brain damage to the right hemisphere. Generally, it involves behavioral bias directed ipsilaterally to the damaged hemisphere and loss of spatial awareness for the contralesional side. In this syndrome, several clinical subtypes were identified. The objective of this article is to provide a nosological analysis of the recent data from the literature on the different subtypes of neglect (visual, auditory, somatosensory, motor, egocentric, allocentric and representational neglect), associated ipsilesional and contralesional productive manifestations and their anatomical lesion correlates. These different anatomical-clinical subtypes can be associated or dissociated. They reflect the heterogeneity of this unilateral neglect syndrome that cannot be approached or interpreted in a single manner. We propose that these subtypes result from different underlying deficits: exogenous attentional deficit (visual, auditory neglect); representational deficit (personal neglect, representational neglect, hyperschematia); shift of the egocentric reference frame (egocentric neglect); attentional deficit between objects and within objects (allocentric neglect), endogenous attentional deficit (representational neglect) and transsaccadic working memory or spatial remapping deficit (ipsilesional productive manifestations). Taking into account the different facets of the unilateral neglect syndrome should promote the development of more targeted cognitive rehabilitation protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Muehlbauer, Melissa; Crane, Patricia A

    2006-11-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a critical health care issue that must be brought to the attention of health care providers and older adults' family members. Adults older than 65 who live at home or in long-term care facilities may be at risk for abuse. Nurses should be aware of the causes, screening questions, symptoms of abuse, and resources in the community. Armed with information and a better understanding about the issue, nurses can minimize the devastating effects of abuse on older adults and their families.

  15. Animal models of autism with a particular focus on the neural basis of changes in social behaviour: an update article.

    PubMed

    Olexová, Lucia; Talarovičová, Alžbeta; Lewis-Evans, Ben; Borbélyová, Veronika; Kršková, Lucia

    2012-12-01

    Research on autism has been gaining more and more attention. However, its aetiology is not entirely known and several factors are thought to contribute to the development of this neurodevelopmental disorder. These potential contributing factors range from genetic heritability to environmental effects. A significant number of reviews have already been published on different aspects of autism research as well as focusing on using animal models to help expand current knowledge around its aetiology. However, the diverse range of symptoms and possible causes of autism have resulted in as equally wide variety of animal models of autism. In this update article we focus only on the animal models with neurobehavioural characteristics of social deficit related to autism and present an overview of the animal models with alterations in brain regions, neurotransmitters, or hormones that are involved in a decrease in sociability.

  16. SPATIAL NEGLECT AND ATTENTION NETWORKS

    PubMed Central

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere injuries to ventral fronto-parietal cortex. We propose that neglect reflects deficits in the coding of saliency, control of spatial attention, and representation within an egocentric frame of reference, in conjunction with non-spatial deficits of reorienting, target detection, and arousal/vigilance. In contrast to theories that link spatial neglect to structural damage of specific brain regions, we argue that neglect is better explained by the physiological dysfunction of distributed cortical networks. The ventral lesions in right parietal, temporal, and frontal cortex that cause neglect directly impair non-spatial functions and hypoactivate the right hemisphere, inducing abnormalities in task-evoked activity and functional connectivity of a dorsal frontal-parietal network that controls spatial attention. The anatomy and right hemisphere dominance of neglect follows from the anatomy and laterality of the ventral regions that interact with the dorsal attention network. PMID:21692662

  17. Effect of animal-borne camera and flash on the diving behaviour of the female Antarctic fur seal ( Arctocephalus gazella)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaslip, Susan G.; Hooker, Sascha K.

    2008-09-01

    Studies have documented effects of drag created by data-logging units attached to seals, but the effect of visual stimuli from such units has not been investigated. We evaluated potential effects of camera attachment including near-infrared flash operation by comparing the diving behaviour of 15 female Antarctic fur seals ( Arctocephalus gazella) with cameras and 10 seals without cameras. Irrespective of the presence of the camera or flash, all seals exhibited an expected diel dive pattern with shallower, shorter dives, less time at the bottom of a dive, and slower ascent and descent rates at night following krill vertical migration. We also observed a previously unreported foraging trip dive pattern with faster ascents and descents near the end of trips. With cameras present, dive duration and bottom time increased and ascents were slower. During flash operation, dive duration increased and bottom time remained constant throughout the day contrary to the expected diel trend. Also during flash operation, bottom time was shorter at the beginning of a foraging trip and dives were deeper, with longer duration and bottom time later in the trip. We were unable to conclude whether the flash emission spectrum overlapped with the visual sensitivity of seals and Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) since visual sensitivity data for seals and krill at longer wavelengths were not available. It is possible that the flash was bright enough for the seals or krill to detect; however, although there was a change in diving behaviour observed during flash operation this behaviour was within the range of values normally observed for these seals and should not cause ethical concern.

  18. More Ideas for Monitoring Biological Experiments with the BBC Computer: Absorption Spectra, Yeast Growth, Enzyme Reactions and Animal Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presented are five ideas for A-level biology experiments using a laboratory computer interface. Topics investigated include photosynthesis, yeast growth, animal movements, pulse rates, and oxygen consumption and production by organisms. Includes instructions specific to the BBC computer system. (CW)

  19. More Ideas for Monitoring Biological Experiments with the BBC Computer: Absorption Spectra, Yeast Growth, Enzyme Reactions and Animal Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presented are five ideas for A-level biology experiments using a laboratory computer interface. Topics investigated include photosynthesis, yeast growth, animal movements, pulse rates, and oxygen consumption and production by organisms. Includes instructions specific to the BBC computer system. (CW)

  20. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  1. Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  2. Development of automatic surveillance of animal behaviour and welfare using image analysis and machine learned segmentation technique.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, M; Herlin, A H; Ardö, H; Guzhva, O; Åström, K; Bergsten, C

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the feasibility to extract the proportion of pigs located in different areas of a pig pen by advanced image analysis technique is explored and discussed for possible applications. For example, pigs generally locate themselves in the wet dunging area at high ambient temperatures in order to avoid heat stress, as wetting the body surface is the major path to dissipate the heat by evaporation. Thus, the portion of pigs in the dunging area and resting area, respectively, could be used as an indicator of failure of controlling the climate in the pig environment as pigs are not supposed to rest in the dunging area. The computer vision methodology utilizes a learning based segmentation approach using several features extracted from the image. The learning based approach applied is based on extended state-of-the-art features in combination with a structured prediction framework based on a logistic regression solver using elastic net regularization. In addition, the method is able to produce a probability per pixel rather than form a hard decision. This overcomes some of the limitations found in a setup using grey-scale information only. The pig pen is a difficult imaging environment because of challenging lighting conditions like shadows, poor lighting and poor contrast between pig and background. In order to test practical conditions, a pen containing nine young pigs was filmed from a top view perspective by an Axis M3006 camera with a resolution of 640 × 480 in three, 10-min sessions under different lighting conditions. The results indicate that a learning based method improves, in comparison with greyscale methods, the possibility to reliable identify proportions of pigs in different areas of the pen. Pigs with a changed behaviour (location) in the pen may indicate changed climate conditions. Changed individual behaviour may also indicate inferior health or acute illness.

  3. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The power of associative learning and the ontogeny of optimal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Enquist, Magnus; Lind, Johan; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Behaving efficiently (optimally or near-optimally) is central to animals' adaptation to their environment. Much evolutionary biology assumes, implicitly or explicitly, that optimal behavioural strategies are genetically inherited, yet the behaviour of many animals depends crucially on learning. The question of how learning contributes to optimal behaviour is largely open. Here we propose an associative learning model that can learn optimal behaviour in a wide variety of ecologically relevant circumstances. The model learns through chaining, a term introduced by Skinner to indicate learning of behaviour sequences by linking together shorter sequences or single behaviours. Our model formalizes the concept of conditioned reinforcement (the learning process that underlies chaining) and is closely related to optimization algorithms from machine learning. Our analysis dispels the common belief that associative learning is too limited to produce 'intelligent' behaviour such as tool use, social learning, self-control or expectations of the future. Furthermore, the model readily accounts for both instinctual and learned aspects of behaviour, clarifying how genetic evolution and individual learning complement each other, and bridging a long-standing divide between ethology and psychology. We conclude that associative learning, supported by genetic predispositions and including the oft-neglected phenomenon of conditioned reinforcement, may suffice to explain the ontogeny of optimal behaviour in most, if not all, non-human animals. Our results establish associative learning as a more powerful optimizing mechanism than acknowledged by current opinion.

  5. The power of associative learning and the ontogeny of optimal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Enquist, Magnus; Lind, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Behaving efficiently (optimally or near-optimally) is central to animals' adaptation to their environment. Much evolutionary biology assumes, implicitly or explicitly, that optimal behavioural strategies are genetically inherited, yet the behaviour of many animals depends crucially on learning. The question of how learning contributes to optimal behaviour is largely open. Here we propose an associative learning model that can learn optimal behaviour in a wide variety of ecologically relevant circumstances. The model learns through chaining, a term introduced by Skinner to indicate learning of behaviour sequences by linking together shorter sequences or single behaviours. Our model formalizes the concept of conditioned reinforcement (the learning process that underlies chaining) and is closely related to optimization algorithms from machine learning. Our analysis dispels the common belief that associative learning is too limited to produce ‘intelligent’ behaviour such as tool use, social learning, self-control or expectations of the future. Furthermore, the model readily accounts for both instinctual and learned aspects of behaviour, clarifying how genetic evolution and individual learning complement each other, and bridging a long-standing divide between ethology and psychology. We conclude that associative learning, supported by genetic predispositions and including the oft-neglected phenomenon of conditioned reinforcement, may suffice to explain the ontogeny of optimal behaviour in most, if not all, non-human animals. Our results establish associative learning as a more powerful optimizing mechanism than acknowledged by current opinion. PMID:28018662

  6. Defining the Unknown-Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggiolo, Carla E.

    Child neglect typically involves a failure on the part of parents, guardians or other responsible parties to provide for the child's basic needs, such as food, shelter, medical care, education opportunities, or protection and supervision. Intended to help teachers recognize the symptoms of child neglect in their students, this article discusses…

  7. Auditory neglect and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Neglect is a neurologic disorder, typically associated with lesions of the right hemisphere, in which patients are biased towards their ipsilesional - usually right - side of space while awareness for their contralesional - usually left - side is reduced or absent. Neglect is a multimodal disorder that often includes deficits in the auditory domain. Classically, auditory extinction, in which left-sided sounds that are correctly perceived in isolation are not detected in the presence of synchronous right-sided stimulation, has been considered the primary sign of auditory neglect. However, auditory extinction can also be observed after unilateral auditory cortex lesions and is thus not specific for neglect. Recent research has shown that patients with neglect are also impaired in maintaining sustained attention, on both sides, a fact that is reflected by an impairment of auditory target detection in continuous stimulation conditions. Perhaps the most impressive auditory symptom in full-blown neglect is alloacusis, in which patients mislocalize left-sided sound sources to their right, although even patients with less severe neglect still often show disturbance of auditory spatial perception, most commonly a lateralization bias towards the right. We discuss how these various disorders may be explained by a single model of neglect and review emerging interventions for patient rehabilitation.

  8. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  9. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  10. The Neglected Majority--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Dale Parnell's "The Neglected Majority" is one of the most influential works by a community college leader in the history of the community college movement. This essay explores the impact of "The Neglected Majority" since publication in 1985 and includes an interview with Parnell that assesses his perspective of the nearly 20 years following his…

  11. Neglected tropical disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Brown, Ami Shah

    2009-06-01

    The neglected tropical diseases or 'NTDs' represent the most common infections of the world's one billion poorest people. Unlike the better known acute or emerging infections, the NTDs are generally chronic and disabling (and often disfiguring) conditions. The long-term disability they cause has been revealed as a major reason why poor people in developing countries cannot escape the poverty trap. Because NTDs are associated with poverty, vaccines against these conditions are sometimes referred to as antipoverty vaccines. However, despite their global public health and economic importance, such vaccines have largely been ignored by industry and today are predominantly being produced through the activities of non-profit product development partnerships (PDPs). The Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative based at the Sabin Vaccine Institute is one such PDP developing two antipoverty vaccines for hookworm and schistosomiasis, respectively. It has been proposed to combine these vaccines in order to target polyparasitic co-infections leading to severe anemia. Ultimately, to ensure global access of a multivalent anthelminthic vaccine, it may be linked to deworming programs through vaccine-linked chemotherapy. This would be an important step towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals for sustainable poverty reduction by 2015.

  12. Neglected hangman fracture

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sudhir Kumar; Aggarwal, Rishi Anil; Nemade, Pradip Sharad; Bhoale, Sunil Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Acute management of hangman fracture is well described; however the surgical management of neglected hangman fracture has not been described in literature. We report the surgical management of an untreated hangman's fracture. A 30-year-old male had fallen from a tree 12 weeks back. Patient presented with cervical myelopathy and restricted neck movements. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed fracture of pars interarticularis of axis with Grade III C2-C3 spondylolisthesis with localized kyphosis of 33°. Gentle reduction under general anesthesia (GA) failed to improve the alignment. Patient was operated in three stages in a single setting. In Stage I, release of contracted anterior structures and C2-C3 discectomy was done in supine position followed by C2-C3 posterior fixation and fusion in Stage II. C2-C3 interbody bone grafting and anterior plating completed the third stage. C2-C3 interbody fusion was seen at 5 months and a CT scan at 18 months postoperative confirmed fusion and maintenance of alignment. The satisfactory outcome in our patient leads us to believe that anterior-posterior-anterior is the appropriate surgical approach for treatment of such patients. PMID:26692701

  13. Hypoglycemia: The neglected complication

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Jagat Jyoti; Venkataraman, Subramanium; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Shaikh, Shehla; Saboo, Banshi; Das, Ashok Kumar; Ramachandran, Ambady

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is an important complication of glucose-lowering therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Attempts made at intensive glycemic control invariably increases the risk of hypoglycemia. A six-fold increase in deaths due to diabetes has been attributed to patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia in comparison to those not experiencing severe hypoglycemia Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia can lead to impairment of the counter-regulatory system with the potential for development of hypoglycemia unawareness. The short- and long-term complications of diabetes related hypoglycemia include precipitation of acute cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, neurocognitive dysfunction, retinal cell death and loss of vision in addition to health-related quality of life issues pertaining to sleep, driving, employment, recreational activities involving exercise and travel. There is an urgent need to examine the clinical spectrum and burden of hypoglycemia so that adequate control measures can be implemented against this neglected life-threatening complication. Early recognition of hypoglycemia risk factors, self-monitoring of blood glucose, selection of appropriate treatment regimens with minimal or no risk of hypoglycemia and appropriate educational programs for healthcare professionals and patients with diabetes are the major ways forward to maintain good glycemic control, minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and thereby prevent long-term complications. PMID:24083163

  14. Applying One Health to behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bower, Caroline

    2014-11-08

    The British Veterinary Behaviour Association and the Association of Pet Behaviour Counsellors held a meeting last month to highlight the One Health principle with regard to the behaviour of people and animals, particularly pets. Caroline Bower reports. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Introductory keynote. The state of the art in animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Alleva, Enrico; Scattoni, Maria Luisa

    2004-01-01

    This issue of Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità critically evaluates the progression in the ethical relationship between humans and animals (i.e., between biomedical researchers and laboratory animals). The main goal of this publication is in fact to provide a basis for an in-depth discussion of highly debated topics in the contemporary bioethics of animal experimentation, with particular focus on ethological issues and the question of minimal sample size and its contribution to reducing the number of experimental animals. The ethological issues addressed in this publication cover all behavioural patterns specifically moulded by the phylogenetic and ontogenetical history of a given species, a perspective that is often neglected when discussing the promotion of animal welfare.

  16. Maternal Neglect: Oxytocin, Dopamine and the Neurobiology of Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Strathearn, Lane

    2011-01-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, in order to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified which contribute to maternal caregiving behavior, focusing on the oxytocinergic and dopaminergic systems. Mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways contribute to the processing of infant-related sensory cues leading to a behavioral response. Oxytocin may activate the dopaminergic reward pathways in response to social cues. Human neuroimaging studies are summarized which demonstrate parallels between animal and human maternal caregiving responses in the brain. By comparing different patterns of human adult attachment, we gain a clearer understanding of how differences in maternal brain and endocrine responses may contribute to maternal neglect. For example, in insecure/dismissing attachment, which may be associated with emotional neglect, we see reduced activation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine reward system in response to infant face cues, as well as decreased peripheral oxytocin response to mother-infant contact. We are currently testing whether administration of intranasal oxytocin, as part of a randomized placebo controlled trial, may reverse some of these neurological differences, and potentially augment psychosocial and behavioral interventions for maternal neglect. PMID:21951160

  17. Child physical abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited.

  18. Intersectoral approaches to neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Ault, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    The neglected diseases are a diverse group of communicable diseases that affect principally the world's poorest people. They are linked to poverty, as both a cause and a consequence of same, and affect community security and family productivity. The neglected diseases cause acute and chronic illness, disability, and sometimes death, and they may carry stigma for those infected. Current interventions for neglected diseases emphasize the health sector, but to achieve sustainability and simultaneously combat poverty, an intersectoral approach to their prevention and control is needed. This chapter outlines some concepts for an intersectoral approach, including interventions from the nutrition and food security, education, and environmental sectors.

  19. Weak rappers rock more: hermit crabs assess their own agonistic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Elizabeth; Briffa, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Fighting animals use a variety of information sources to make strategic decisions. A neglected potential source of information is an individual's own performance during a fight. Surprisingly, this possibility has yet to be incorporated into the large body of theory concerning the evolution of aggressive behaviour. Here, by experimentally dampening the impact of their shell rapping behaviour, we test for the possibility that attacking hermit crabs monitor their own fight performance. Attackers with dampened raps did not show a reduction in the number of raps used. By contrast, they showed an increased frequency of a less intense agonistic behaviour, shell rocking. This change in behaviour, in attackers that are forced to rap weakly, indicates that they assess their own agonistic behaviour. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-01-01

    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.

  1. Bisecting or not bisecting: this is the neglect question. Line bisection performance in the diagnosis of neglect in right brain-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Guariglia, Paola; Matano, Alessandro; Piccardi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we analysed the bisecting behaviour of 287 chronic right brain-damaged patients by taking into account the presence and severity of extrapersonal and/or personal neglect diagnosed with the hemineglect battery. We also analysed right brain-damaged patients who had (or did not have) neglect according to their line bisection performance. Our results showed that performance of the line bisection task correlates with performance of cancellation tasks, reading and perceptual tasks, but not with the presence of personal neglect. Personal neglect seems to be unrelated to line bisection behaviour. Indeed, patients affected by extrapersonal and personal neglect do not show more severe neglect in line bisection than patients with only extrapersonal neglect. Furthermore, we observed that 20.56% of the patients were considered affected or not by neglect on the line bisection task compared with the other spatial tasks of the hemineglect battery. We conclude that using a battery with multiple tests is the only way to guarantee a reliable diagnosis and effectively plan for rehabilitative training.

  2. Bisecting or Not Bisecting: This Is the Neglect Question. Line Bisection Performance in the Diagnosis of Neglect in Right Brain-Damaged Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guariglia, Paola; Matano, Alessandro; Piccardi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we analysed the bisecting behaviour of 287 chronic right brain-damaged patients by taking into account the presence and severity of extrapersonal and/or personal neglect diagnosed with the hemineglect battery. We also analysed right brain-damaged patients who had (or did not have) neglect according to their line bisection performance. Our results showed that performance of the line bisection task correlates with performance of cancellation tasks, reading and perceptual tasks, but not with the presence of personal neglect. Personal neglect seems to be unrelated to line bisection behaviour. Indeed, patients affected by extrapersonal and personal neglect do not show more severe neglect in line bisection than patients with only extrapersonal neglect. Furthermore, we observed that 20.56% of the patients were considered affected or not by neglect on the line bisection task compared with the other spatial tasks of the hemineglect battery. We conclude that using a battery with multiple tests is the only way to guarantee a reliable diagnosis and effectively plan for rehabilitative training. PMID:24937472

  3. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Review Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  4. Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Jane Thomas

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

  5. Parietal and frontal eye field neglect in the rat.

    PubMed

    Crowne, D P; Richardson, C M; Dawson, K A

    1986-12-01

    Rats were given unilateral aspiration lesions of parietal, medial frontal, or dorsolateral frontal (motor) cortex and then tested for visual, auditory and tactile neglect, and for circling. All medial frontal lesion animals showed contralateral neglect in each modality and circled ipsiversively. The parietal lesion rats initially displayed contralateral visual and auditory neglect as severe as that in the medial frontal group. Three weeks after the lesions, the parietal group had a smaller residual deficit on the visual test than the medial frontal group. In the first week, parietal animals responded less than the medial frontals to stroking the vibrissae but were more responsive to mild pinching of a toe contralateral to the lesion side. In striking contrast to the medial frontal animals, the parietal group circled strongly to the contralateral side. No rat with a motor cortex lesion neglected or circled preferentially. Like medial frontal cortex, unilateral parietal lesions also produce neglect and circling, but there are important features distinguishing unilateral lesion effects in these two regions.

  6. The neglect of our children.

    PubMed

    Helfer, R E

    1990-08-01

    When we consider all the manifestations of the effects of not meeting the basic needs of our children, we can feel nothing short of alarm and concern. The scope of the problem of child neglect, when the responsibility for this neglect is expanded beyond that of the parents or guardians, extends to inadequate health care, poor education, the ineffectiveness of the law, inadequate housing, and other adversities resulting from our social selection policies.

  7. Harnessing Motivation to Alleviate Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A.

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation. PMID:23761744

  8. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect.

    PubMed

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  9. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive Processes Associated with Child Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildyard, Kathryn; Wolfe, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare neglectful and non-neglectful mothers on information processing tasks related to child emotions, behaviors, the caregiving relationship, and recall of child-related information. Method: A natural group design was used. Neglectful mothers (N = 34) were chosen from active, chronic caseloads; non-neglectful comparison mothers (N…

  11. Hemispatial neglect, balance and eye-movement control.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Paresh; Coulthard, Elizabeth; Husain, Masud

    2006-02-01

    Disorders of spatial awareness and balance following stroke are common but often under-diagnosed. They lead to poor outcome and frequently coexist. Here we focus on recent progress in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying these disorders and potential therapeutic advances. Right-hemisphere networks are important for both spatial attention and postural awareness. Neglect patients show multiple oculomotor impairments including reduced saccade amplitude and difficulty retaining spatial locations across saccades. There has been controversy regarding the brain regions associated with neglect, although most studies show the right inferior parietal lobe to be crucial and new imaging modalities have provided insight into neglect caused by subcortical stroke. The 'pusher syndrome' is a poorly understood balance disorder where patients push towards their paretic side, resulting in falls. It may involve impairment of subjective verticality but experimental studies have reported diverse findings. Advances in treatment for neglect include the successful use of prism adaptation and pilot data suggesting noradrenergic stimulation may improve search in selected patients. New experimental techniques have provided insight into the debilitating disorders of spatial and postural awareness that often follow stroke. There are currently no widely used therapies for neglect but both new behavioural techniques and pharmacological methods are promising.

  12. Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern.

  13. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control.

  14. Electrostimulation mapping of spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Dufor, Olivier; Lauwers-Cances, Valérie; Boukhatem, Leila; Brauge, David; Draper, Louisa; Lotterie, Jean-Albert; Démonet, Jean-François

    2011-12-01

    Cortical and subcortical electrostimulation mapping during awake brain surgery for tumor removal is usually used to minimize deficits. To use electrostimulation to study neuronal substrates involved in spatial awareness in humans. Spatial neglect was studied using a line bisection task in combination with electrostimulation mapping of the right hemisphere in 50 cases. Stimulation sites were identified with Talairach coordinates. The behavioral effects induced by stimulation, especially eye movements and deviations from the median, were quantified and compared with preoperative data and a control group. Composite and highly individualized spatial neglect maps were generated. Both rightward and leftward deviations were induced, sometimes in the same patient but for different stimulation sites. Group analysis showed that specific and reproducible line deviations were induced by stimulation of discrete cortical areas located in the posterior part of the right superior and middle temporal gyri, inferior parietal lobe, and inferior postcentral and inferior frontal gyri (P < .05). Fiber tracking identified stimulated subcortical areas important to spare as sections of fronto-occipital and superior longitudinal II fascicles. According to preoperative and postoperative neglect battery tests, the specificity and sensitivity of intraoperative line bisection tests were 94% and 83%, respectively. In humans, discrete cortical areas that are variable in location between individuals but mainly located within the right posterior Sylvian fissure sustain visuospatial attention specifically toward the contralateral or ipsilateral space direction. Line bisection mapping was found to be a reliable method for minimizing spatial neglect caused by brain tumor surgery.

  15. Repeated lysergic acid diethylamide in an animal model of depression: Normalisation of learning behaviour and hippocampal serotonin 5-HT2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Höllt, Volker; Grecksch, Gisela

    2014-06-01

    A re-balance of postsynaptic serotonin (5-HT) receptor signalling, with an increase in 5-HT1A and a decrease in 5-HT2A signalling, is a final common pathway multiple antidepressants share. Given that the 5-HT1A/2A agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), when repeatedly applied, selectively downregulates 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT1A receptors, one might expect LSD to similarly re-balance the postsynaptic 5-HT signalling. Challenging this idea, we use an animal model of depression specifically responding to repeated antidepressant treatment (olfactory bulbectomy), and test the antidepressant-like properties of repeated LSD treatment (0.13 mg/kg/d, 11 d). In line with former findings, we observe that bulbectomised rats show marked deficits in active avoidance learning. These deficits, similarly as we earlier noted with imipramine, are largely reversed by repeated LSD administration. Additionally, bulbectomised rats exhibit distinct anomalies of monoamine receptor signalling in hippocampus and/or frontal cortex; from these, only the hippocampal decrease in 5-HT2 related [(35)S]-GTP-gamma-S binding is normalised by LSD. Importantly, the sham-operated rats do not profit from LSD, and exhibit reduced hippocampal 5-HT2 signalling. As behavioural deficits after bulbectomy respond to agents classified as antidepressants only, we conclude that the effect of LSD in this model can be considered antidepressant-like, and discuss it in terms of a re-balance of hippocampal 5-HT2/5-HT1A signalling. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Psychosocial determinants of nutritional neglect in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Mehnaz, Aisha; Shah, Nusrat; Mala, Ashfaq; Rai, Krishan; Arif, Fehmina; Munnawar, Uzma; Raj, Rakesh; Tariq, Abida; Yasin, Shahnaz

    2014-05-01

    To determine the demographic features and psycho-social and economic determinants of nutritional neglect in order to suggest interventional strategies. Cross-sectional, observational study. Department of Paediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), from January 2009 to December 2010. All children suffering from nutritional neglect suggested by weight and height less than the third centile for age, and their mothers were recruited in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling. A team comprising of paediatrician, psychologist, medical social worker and social motivator interviewed the mothers and children suffering from nutritional neglect. Information about demographic, social, economic and psychological factors was obtained. The results were analyzed and described as frequency distribution and percentage. A total of 658 children suffering from nutritional neglect were inducted. Around 75% of children were below 5 years of age, 51% were females. Other determinants of nutritional neglect were, large family size (family of > 5 members (84%), young mother (60%), uneducated parents (67% father and 77% mothers being illiterate), low income (77% earning less than Rs. 7000/month), addiction (23%), tobacco smoking (50%) and non-nutritive substance use (51%). Psychological indicators identified in mothers were depression (70%), anxiety (73%), helplessness (70%), displaced aggression (50%) and insecurity (36%). Psychological factors identified in children as a secondary outcome were aggression (80%), rebellious behaviour (75%), lack of confidence (70%), lack of social interaction (70%) and paranoid tendencies (60%). Psycho-social and economic factors are important determinants of neglect. A holistic approach and intervention at multiple levels is required to address these issues.

  17. Covariation neglect among novice investors.

    PubMed

    Hedesström, Ted Martin; Svedsäter, Henrik; Gärling, Tommy

    2006-09-01

    In 4 experiments, undergraduates made hypothetical investment choices. In Experiment 1, participants paid more attention to the volatility of individual assets than to the volatility of aggregated portfolios. The results of Experiment 2 show that most participants diversified even when this increased risk because of covariation between the returns of individual assets. In Experiment 3, nearly half of those who seemingly attempted to minimize risk diversified even when this increased risk. These results indicate that novice investors neglect covariation when diversifying across investment alternatives. Experiment 4 established that naive diversification follows from motivation to minimize risk and showed that covariation neglect was not significantly reduced by informing participants about how covariation affects portfolio risk but was reduced by making participants systematically calculate aggregate returns for diversified portfolios. In order to counteract naive diversification, novice investors need to be better informed about the rationale underlying recommendations to diversify.

  18. Management of neglected acetabular fractures.

    PubMed

    Veerappa, L A; Tripathy, S K; Sen, R K

    2015-08-01

    Management of neglected acetabular fractures is a difficult task. Osteosynthesis in such cases may not be an ideal solution because of the femoral head damage due to pressure by the fractured acetabular edge, avascular necrosis, difficulty in mobilizing the fragments due to callus formation, difficulty in indirect reduction of the fracture fragments and macerated acetabular fragments all contributing to inadequate fracture reduction. Majority of such fractures are now treated with total hip replacement. While treating such fractures with THR, problems associated with neglected acetabular fractures such as fracture non-union, hip dislocation, protrusio, cavitary bone defect or peripheral bone defect must be considered. 3D computed tomography scan provides a clear view about the acetabular and periacetabular bony anatomy. Impaction grafting and antiprotrusio cage or ring with a cemented acetabular cup can address most of the hip protrusio and cavitary bone defects. Segmental bone defect needs cortical strut-bone graft fixation and subsequent implantation of a cemented or uncemented acetabular cup implantation. Fracture non-union needs approximate reduction and fixation with plates followed by bone grafting and implantation of an acetabular cup. Despite these efforts, the outcome of THR in neglected acetabular fracture is considerable worse than after conventional hip replacement.

  19. Cognitive maps in imagery neglect.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Liana; Ranieri, Giulia; Nemmi, Federico; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-04-01

    Patients with imagery neglect (RI+) show peculiar difficulties in orienting themselves in the environment. Navigational impairments could be due to a deficit in creating or using a mental representation of the environment (Guariglia, Piccardi, Iaria, Nico, & Pizzamiglio, 2005) or, according to the BBB model (Burgess, Becker, King, & O'Keefe, 2001), to a specific deficit in a mechanism that transforms an allocentric representation into an egocentric one and vice versa. Previous studies, however, do not allow discerning between a deficit in forming or in using a cognitive map, taking no notice of the fact that these are two different abilities underlain by different neuroanatomical areas, which could be independently impaired. Furthermore, the BBB model has never been verified in a population of brain-damaged patients. Therefore, we administered two tasks that separately assess the ability to create and use a cognitive map of the environment to 28 right brain-damaged patients (4 patients with imagery neglect and 4 patients with perceptual neglect) and 11 healthy participants. RI+ patients showed no specific deficit in creating or using a cognitive map, but failed to transform an egocentric representation of the environment into an allocentric one and vice versa, as predicted by the BBB model.

  20. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  1. Child Neglect: State of Knowledge. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polansky, Norman A.; And Others

    The discussion of child neglect considers the following topics: definition, prevalence, etiology, identification and case finding, sequelae, prevention, and treatment. The differences between child neglect and child abuse and between the legal and professional definitions of child neglect are pointed out, and an operational definition is provided.…

  2. Types of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prepare Your Application Draft Specific Aims Outline Your Experiments Know Your Audience Write Your Research Plan Plan ... Applications Requesting Prior Clinical Trial Planning Application Vertebrate Animals Research Animals Involvement Codes Select Agents NIAID Select ...

  3. Profile of Neglect: A Survey of the State of Knowledge of Child Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polansky, Norman A.; And Others

    Reviewed is recent literature and research on child neglect. Covered are the following topics (and sub-topics in parentheses): (1) definition of neglect (distinguishing neglect from abuse, legal vs. professional definitions, operational definition); (2) prevalence of neglect; etiology (economics, cultural values and child caring, breakdown of the…

  4. The relationship between visuospatial and representational neglect.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeo, P; D'Erme, P; Gainotti, G

    1994-09-01

    Using a quantitative measure, we analyzed the relationship between visuospatial and representational neglect in right- and left-brain-damaged patients and found signs of representational neglect only in right-brain-damaged patients. Although representational neglect was always associated with visuospatial neglect, suggesting that the two forms share a common underlying mechanism, the most frequent finding in right-brain--damaged patients was that of visuospatial neglect in isolation. A strong influence of the phenomenon of attentional attraction toward space ipsilateral to the lesion in visuospatial, as opposed to imaginal, tasks can account for this finding.

  5. Emotion Knowledge in Young Neglected Children

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Margaret W.; Bennett, David S.; Carpenter, Kim; Lewis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Young neglected children may be at risk for emotion knowledge deficits. Children with histories of neglect or with no maltreatment were initially seen at age 4 and again 1 year later to assess their emotion knowledge. Higher IQ was associated with better emotion knowledge, but neglected children had consistently poorer emotion knowledge over time compared to non-neglected children after controlling for IQ. Because both neglected status and IQ may contribute to deficits in emotional knowledge, both should be assessed when evaluating these children to appropriately design and pace emotion knowledge interventions. PMID:18299632

  6. Child, neglect and oral health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ≥7), 85 intermediate values (1 ≤ dmf-t ≥ 6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t = 0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n = 29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n = 28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p = 0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p = 0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p = 0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p = 0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p = 0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

  7. Child neglect identification: The health visitor's role.

    PubMed

    Akehurst, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Child neglect is a significant public health issue, with impact often persisting into adulthood. However, neglect is not easily identifiable and may go undetected for many years. This library-based literature review critically analyses the research to uncover effective practices to aid neglect identification. The literature identifies that professionals may observe particular risk factors in a child's life that make neglect more probable. Additionally, children who suffer neglect, and parents who neglect their children, may display signs that practitioners can be alert to. However, a number of barriers exist that make identification difficult. The literature highlights that health visitors have a significant role to play in identifying neglect. Final conclusions relate to the need for professional supervision, use of assessment tools and frameworks, multi-agency training, and timely interventions to safeguard children.

  8. Child abuse and neglect and the brain--a review.

    PubMed

    Glaser, D

    2000-01-01

    Developmental psychology and the study of behaviour and emotion have tended to be considered in parallel to the study of neurobiological processes. This review explores the effects of child abuse and neglect on the brain, excluding nonaccidental injury that causes gross physical trauma to the brain. It commences with a background summary of the nature, context, and some deleterious effects of omission and commission within child maltreatment. There is no post-maltreatment syndrome, outcomes varying with many factors including nature, duration, and interpersonal context of the maltreatment as well as the nature of later intervention. There then follows a section on environmental influences on brain development, demonstrating the dependence of the orderly process of neurodevelopment on the child's environment. Ontogenesis, or the development of the self through self-determination, proceeds in the context of the nature-nurture interaction. As a prelude to reviewing the neurobiology of child abuse and neglect, the next section is concerned with bridging the mind and the brain. Here, neurobiological processes, including cellular, biochemical, and neurophysiological processes, are examined alongside their behavioural, cognitive, and emotional equivalents and vice versa. Child maltreatment is a potent source of stress and the stress response is therefore discussed in some detail. Evidence is outlined for the buffering effects of a secure attachment on the stress response. The section dealing with actual effects on the brain of child abuse and neglect discusses manifestations of the stress response including dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and parasympathetic and catecholamine responses. Recent evidence about reduction in brain volume following child abuse and neglect is also outlined. Some biochemical, functional, and structural changes in the brain that are not reflections of the stress response are observed following child maltreatment. The

  9. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse.

  10. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 1: the ongoing neglect in the neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel D; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2010-10-21

    Centuries of scientific advances and developments in biomedical sciences have brought us a long way to understanding and managing disease processes, by reducing them to simplified cause-effect models. For most of the infectious diseases known today, we have the methods and technology to identify the causative agent, understand the mechanism by which pathology is induced and develop the treatment (drugs, vaccines, medical or surgical procedures) to cure, manage or control.Disease, however, occurs within a context of lives fraught with complexity. For any given infectious disease, who gets it, when, why, the duration, the severity, the outcome, the sequelae, are bound by a complex interplay of factors related as much to the individual as it is to the physical, social, cultural, political and economic environments. Furthermore each of these factors is in a dynamic state of change, evolving over time as they interact with each other. Simple solutions to infectious diseases are therefore rarely sustainable solutions. Sustainability would require the development of interdisciplinary sciences that allow us to acknowledge, understand and address these complexities as they occur, rather than rely solely on a form of science based on reducing the management of disease to simple paradigms.In this review we examine the current global health responses to the 'neglected' tropical diseases, which have been prioritised on the basis of an acknowledgment of the complexity of the poverty-disease cycle. However research and interventions for neglected tropical diseases, largely neglect the social and ecological contextual, factors that make these diseases persist in the target populations, continuing instead to focus on the simple biomedical interventions. We highlight the gaps in the approaches and explore the potential of enhanced interdisciplinary work in the development of long term solutions to disease control.

  11. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 1: the ongoing neglect in the neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Centuries of scientific advances and developments in biomedical sciences have brought us a long way to understanding and managing disease processes, by reducing them to simplified cause-effect models. For most of the infectious diseases known today, we have the methods and technology to identify the causative agent, understand the mechanism by which pathology is induced and develop the treatment (drugs, vaccines, medical or surgical procedures) to cure, manage or control. Disease, however, occurs within a context of lives fraught with complexity. For any given infectious disease, who gets it, when, why, the duration, the severity, the outcome, the sequelae, are bound by a complex interplay of factors related as much to the individual as it is to the physical, social, cultural, political and economic environments. Furthermore each of these factors is in a dynamic state of change, evolving over time as they interact with each other. Simple solutions to infectious diseases are therefore rarely sustainable solutions. Sustainability would require the development of interdisciplinary sciences that allow us to acknowledge, understand and address these complexities as they occur, rather than rely solely on a form of science based on reducing the management of disease to simple paradigms. In this review we examine the current global health responses to the 'neglected' tropical diseases, which have been prioritised on the basis of an acknowledgment of the complexity of the poverty-disease cycle. However research and interventions for neglected tropical diseases, largely neglect the social and ecological contextual, factors that make these diseases persist in the target populations, continuing instead to focus on the simple biomedical interventions. We highlight the gaps in the approaches and explore the potential of enhanced interdisciplinary work in the development of long term solutions to disease control. PMID:20961461

  12. The Prognosis of Allocentric and Egocentric Neglect: Evidence from Clinical Scans

    PubMed Central

    Chechlacz, Magdalena; Rotshtein, Pia; Roberts, Katherine L.; Bickerton, Wai-Ling; Lau, Johnny K. L.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the neuroanatomical substrates of sub-acute and chronic visuospatial deficits associated with different aspects of unilateral neglect using computed tomography scans acquired as part of routine clinical diagnosis. Voxel-wise statistical analyses were conducted on a group of 160 stroke patients scanned at a sub-acute stage. Lesion-deficit relationships were assessed across the whole brain, separately for grey and white matter. We assessed lesions that were associated with behavioural performance (i) at a sub-acute stage (within 3 months of the stroke) and (ii) at a chronic stage (after 9 months post stroke). Allocentric and egocentric neglect symptoms at the sub-acute stage were associated with lesions to dissociated regions within the frontal lobe, amongst other regions. However the frontal lesions were not associated with neglect at the chronic stage. On the other hand, lesions in the angular gyrus were associated with persistent allocentric neglect. In contrast, lesions within the superior temporal gyrus extending into the supramarginal gyrus, as well as lesions within the basal ganglia and insula, were associated with persistent egocentric neglect. Damage within the temporo-parietal junction was associated with both types of neglect at the sub-acute stage and 9 months later. Furthermore, white matter disconnections resulting from damage along the superior longitudinal fasciculus were associated with both types of neglect and critically related to both sub-acute and chronic deficits. Finally, there was a significant difference in the lesion volume between patients who recovered from neglect and patients with chronic deficits. The findings presented provide evidence that (i) the lesion location and lesion size can be used to successfully predict the outcome of neglect based on clinical CT scans, (ii) lesion location alone can serve as a critical predictor for persistent neglect symptoms, (iii) wide spread lesions are associated with neglect symptoms

  13. Self-neglect and neglect of vulnerable older adults: reexamination of etiology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; Kim, Jinseok; Asseff, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Using assessment and investigation data from the reported APS cases in Texas, this study examines the types of elder self-neglect and neglect, including medical neglect. It then examines the association between self-neglect and neglect and individual economic resources as well as health care and social service programs for the poor. The findings show that elder self-neglect/neglect is, in large part, attributable to frail older adults' and their families' lack of resources to pay for essential goods and services and the inadequate healthcare and other formal support programs for the older adults and their caregivers. This inadequate public policy coverage, rather than individual and intrafamily risk factors per se, needs to be considered as a significant cause of elder self-neglect/neglect.

  14. The role of care neglect and supervisory neglect in childhood obesity in a disadvantaged sample.

    PubMed

    Knutson, John F; Taber, Sarah M; Murray, Amanda J; Valles, Nizete-Ly; Koeppl, Gina

    2010-06-01

    Assess the roles of care neglect and supervisory neglect, and the moderating influence of child age on childhood obesity. Study Design Child BMI, parental care neglect, and supervisory neglect were assessed in an ethnically diverse sample of 571 young children from two Midwestern States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to assess the influence of both forms of neglect and the moderating role of age. Fifteen percent of the children were overweight and 16.3% were obese. Care neglect significantly correlated with child BMI for younger but not older children, while supervisory neglect significantly correlated with child BMI for older but not younger children. The impact of two types of neglect on obesity varied across age, highlighting the importance of differentiating between types of neglectful parenting when addressing the high rate of childhood obesity in disadvantaged children.

  15. The Role of Care Neglect and Supervisory Neglect in Childhood Obesity in a Disadvantaged Sample

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Sarah M.; Murray, Amanda J.; Valles, Nizete-Ly; Koeppl, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Objective Assess the roles of care neglect and supervisory neglect, and the moderating influence of child age on childhood obesity. Study Design Child BMI, parental care neglect, and supervisory neglect were assessed in an ethnically diverse sample of 571 young children from two Midwestern States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to assess the influence of both forms of neglect and the moderating role of age. Results Fifteen percent of the children were overweight and 16.3% were obese. Care neglect significantly correlated with child BMI for younger but not older children, while supervisory neglect significantly correlated with child BMI for older but not younger children. Conclusions The impact of two types of neglect on obesity varied across age, highlighting the importance of differentiating between types of neglectful parenting when addressing the high rate of childhood obesity in disadvantaged children. PMID:19996153

  16. Imitation as behaviour parsing.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, R W

    2003-01-01

    Non-human great apes appear to be able to acquire elaborate skills partly by imitation, raising the possibility of the transfer of skill by imitation in animals that have only rudimentary mentalizing capacities: in contrast to the frequent assumption that imitation depends on prior understanding of others' intentions. Attempts to understand the apes' behaviour have led to the development of a purely mechanistic model of imitation, the 'behaviour parsing' model, in which the statistical regularities that are inevitable in planned behaviour are used to decipher the organization of another agent's behaviour, and thence to imitate parts of it. Behaviour can thereby be understood statistically in terms of its correlations (circumstances of use, effects on the environment) without understanding of intentions or the everyday physics of cause-and-effect. Thus, imitation of complex, novel behaviour may not require mentalizing, but conversely behaviour parsing may be a necessary preliminary to attributing intention and cause. PMID:12689378

  17. The anatomy of spatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Karnath, Hans-Otto; Rorden, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Neglect is often perceived as a “heterogeneous collection of symptoms” with controversial anatomical correlates. However, a clear framework for core and satellite symptoms exists. Here we review the literature when viewed from the perspective of these different syndromes, and find clear pattern of anatomical injury. Specifically, the combined symptoms of biased gaze direction and search – with no awareness of these symptoms – is seen following structural damage to (particularly right hemisphere) perisylvian regions. Object centered deficits such as biased line bisection are due to more posterior (and possibly inferior) injury. Finally, extinction is associated with damage to the temporo-parietal junction. Further, we describe key choices that must be made to parse the spatial and attentional syndromes that result from right hemisphere injury, including the investigation of both acute and chronic injury as well as the use of functional and structural modalities. PMID:21756924

  18. Target repurposing for neglected diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pollastri, Michael P; Campbell, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases are an enormous burden to global health and since drug discovery is costly, those infectious diseases that affect the developing world are often not pursued by commercial drug-discovery efforts. Therefore, pragmatic means by which new therapeutics can be discovered are needed. One such approach is target repurposing, where pathogen targets are matched with homologous human targets that have been pursued for drug discovery for other indications. In many cases, the medicinal chemistry, structural biology and biochemistry knowledge around these human targets can be directly repurposed to launch and accelerate new drug-discovery efforts against the pathogen targets. This article describes the overarching strategy of target repurposing as a tool for initiating and prosecuting neglected disease drug-discovery programs, highlighting this approach with three case studies. PMID:21859304

  19. The Predictive Nature of Pseudoneglect for Visual Neglect: Evidence from Parietal Theta Burst Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Varnava, Alice; Dervinis, Martynas; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Following parietal damage most patients with visual neglect bisect horizontal lines significantly away from the true centre. Neurologically intact individuals also misbisect lines; a phenomenon referred to as ‘pseudoneglect’. In this study we examined the relationship between neglect and pseudoneglect by testing how patterns of pre-existing visuospatial asymmetry predict asymmetry caused by parietal interference. Twenty-four participants completed line bisection and Landmark tasks before receiving continuous theta burst stimulation to the left or right angular gyrus. Results showed that a pre-existing pattern of left pseudoneglect (i.e. right bias), but not right pseudoneglect, predicts left neglect-like behaviour during line bisection following right parietal cTBS. This correlation is consistent with the view that neglect and pseudoneglect arise via a common or linked neural mechanism. PMID:23823975

  20. Object-based neglect in number processing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Zinsberger, Daniela; Zauner, Harald; Wood, Guilherme; Willmes, Klaus; Haider, Christine; Gassner, Alfred; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-23

    Recent evidence suggests that neglect patients seem to have particular problems representing relatively smaller numbers corresponding to the left part of the mental number line. However, while this indicates space-based neglect for representational number space little is known about whether and --if so --how object-based neglect influences number processing.To evaluate influences of object-based neglect in numerical cognition, a group of neglect patients and two control groups had to compare two-digit numbers to an internally represented standard. Conceptualizing two-digit numbers as objects of which the left part (i.e., the tens digit should be specifically neglected) we were able to evaluate object-based neglect for number magnitude processing.Object-based neglect was indicated by a larger unit-decade compatibility effect actually reflecting impaired processing of the leftward tens digits. Additionally, faster processing of within- as compared to between-decade items provided further evidence suggesting particular difficulties in integrating tens and units into the place-value structure of the Arabic number system.In summary, the present study indicates that, in addition to the spatial representation of number magnitude, also the processing of place-value information of multi-digit numbers seems specifically impaired in neglect patients.

  1. Ipsilesional 'where' with contralesional 'what' neglect.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jay Cheol; Ahn, Sunyoung; Kim, Sunghee; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2012-01-01

    Whereas contralesional spatial neglect is usually caused by right temporo-parietal lesions, ipsilesional spatial neglect is induced primarily by right frontal lesions. This report describes a 73-year-old woman with a right inferior parietal lesion who on 'where' tasks (line bisection and midline pointing) demonstrated ipsilesional neglect, but on 'what' tests (gap vs. no-gap detection cancellation and clothing tape removal) demonstrated contralesional neglect. This 'what' and 'where' directional dissociation provides evidence for independent 'what' and 'where' attentional networks; however, the reason this parietal lesion causes this contralesional vs. ipsilesional spatial attentional 'what' and 'where' dichotomy remains to be determined.

  2. Elder Self-Neglect: Education is Needed.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Yvonne OʼConnell

    2015-09-01

    Self-neglect is characterized by poor hygiene, unsanitary living conditions, and inattention to basic and healthcare needs. Adequate education for healthcare professionals is vital to help them recognize the phenomenon of self-neglect. Interventions to assist clients who self-neglect may help to improve their quality of life and reduce their risk of declining health status. This article provides information on what is known about the scope and prevalence of self-neglect, implications for home care clinicians, and suggestions for promoting educational opportunities for home care clinicians.

  3. Acute neglect rehabilitation using repetitive prism adaptation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nys, G M S; de Haan, E H F; Kunneman, A; de Kort, P L M; Dijkerman, H C

    2008-01-01

    At present, prism adaptation is probably the most promising rehabilitation procedure for hemi-neglect. However, randomised controlled trials are lacking and no data are available on the effectiveness of prism adaptation in the treatment of acute neglect. We followed sixteen neglect patients using a randomised controlled design in which six patients received four-day-in-a-row placebo treatment (CG) and ten patients received four-day-in-a row experimental treatment with 10 degrees rightward deviating prisms (EG) during their stay on the stroke unit. We examined whether patients in the EG improved faster than the CG by administering three neglect tasks (Schenkenberg Line Bisection, Letter Cancellation, Gainotti Scene Copying) immediately before and after each treatment. Second, we examined whether patients in the EG demonstrated a better long-term outcome at one month post-treatment (Behavioural Inattention Test). Patients in the EG improved faster on spatial tasks (line bisection, cancellation) than the CG but not on visuo-construction. Patients in the EG showed no differences with the CG in neglect outcome at one month post-treatment. Four consecutive prism sessions produced beneficial effects in patients with acute neglect. However, prism effects were either short-term, or placebo treatment with repeated pointing and/or repeated neglect testing was more helpful than we anticipated. Our results emphasize the importance of a placebo condition and a follow-up in rehabilitation studies.

  4. Towards a Definition of Serendipity in Information Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Naresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Serendipitous or accidental discovery of information has often been neglected in information behaviour models, which tend to focus on information seeking, a more goal-directed behaviour. Method: This theoretical paper seeks to map the conceptual space of serendipity in information behaviour and to arrive at a definition. This is done…

  5. Reading compounds in neglect dyslexia: the headedness effect.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Carlo; Arcara, Giorgio; Facchini, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Ferraro, Marco; Passarini, Laura; Pilosio, Cristina; Vigato, Giovanna; Mondini, Sara

    2011-09-01

    Reading compound words was studied in neglect dyslexia in order to assess the influence of 'headedness'. The 'head' of a compound is the component that determines the grammatical category, the syntactic (e.g., the gender) and the semantic properties of the compound as a whole. For example, in the word 'blackberry'berry is the compound's head. The question was addressed of whether or not the privileged status of the head constituent influences processing and determines behavioural patterns in the breakdown of spatial attention in neglect. Italian right-headed (e.g. capobanda, band leader) and left-headed compounds (e.g. astronave, spaceship) were administered to 18 participants affected by neglect dyslexia. Left-headed compounds were read better than right-headed compounds. This result was not due to factors such as frequency, familiarity, age of acquisition or imageability, since these effects were controlled. It is suggested that attention is captured by the head component after implicit reading of the whole word. The head would require a relatively lighter processing load than the modifier and benefit from top-down facilitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  7. Scabies: new future for a neglected disease.

    PubMed

    Walton, Shelley F; Holt, Deborah C; Currie, Bart J; Kemp, David J

    2004-01-01

    Scabies is a disease of global proportions in both human and animal populations, resulting from infestation of the skin with the "itch" mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy the intensely itching lesions engender significant morbidity primarily due to secondary sepsis and post-infective complications. Some patients experience an extreme form of the disease, crusted scabies, in which many hundreds of mites may infest the skin causin severe crusting and hyperkeratosis. Overcrowded living conditions and poverty have been identified as significant confounding factors in transmission of the mite in humans. Control is hindered by difficulties with diagnosis, the cost of treatment, evidence for emerging resistance and lack of effective vaccines. Historically research on scabies has been extremely limited because of the difficulty in obtaining sufficient quantities of the organism. Recent molecular approaches have enabled considerable advances in the study of population genetics and transmission dynamics of S. scabiei. However, the most exciting and promising development is the potential exploitation of newly available data from S. scabiei cDNA libraries and EST projects. Ultimately this knowledge may aid early identification of disease, novel forms of chemotherapy, vaccine development and new treatment possibilities for this important but neglected parasite.

  8. Jenny Harris: 'we have been guilty of neglecting dental neglect', an interview by Ruth Doherty.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jenny

    2012-08-01

    Whilst at this year's British Dental Conference and Exhibition in Manchester, paediatric dentistry consultant, Jenny Harris spoke to the BDJ about neglecting dental neglect, managing paediatric patients and the GDP's role in child protection.

  9. Behavioural profile of Wistar rats with unilateral striatal lesion by quinolinic acid (animal model of Huntington disease) post-injection of apomorphine and exposure to static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Giorgetto, Carolina; Silva, Elaine Cristina Mazzei; Kitabatake, Takae Tamy; Bertolino, Guilherme; de Araujo, João Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    We analysed the motor behaviour of Wistar rats after 7 days lesion in the left striatum, injected with apomorphine (APO) and stimulated by a continuous magnetic field of 3,200 Gauss. For the behaviour assessment, we utilised the activity cage test and the rotarod test. Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control, sham, sham magnetic, lesion, and stimulated South and North Poles. After the experiments, coronal sections of the striatum were taken and stained with Nissl for analysis of the lesion. In the activity cage test for distance (F = 3.19), time of activity (F = 5.46) and crossings (F = 3.31) in all groups, except for the North Pole-stimulated group, we observed a significant increase in these behaviours when compared to the control group. Considering the number of counterclockwise turns, we observed a significant increase in the lesion in the South and North Pole stimulation groups compared with the control group. Highlighting the minor number of counterclockwise turns observed in the North Pole-stimulated group in relation to the South Pole-stimulated and Lesion groups (F = 16.01). The rotarod test revealed a decrease in the time spent in this apparatus for the Lesion group when compared to all other groups (F = 5.46). The morphometric analysis showed a reduction in the number of neurons in the Lesion group in relation to all other groups (F = 5.13). Thus, the results suggest that the static magnetic field north and south promoted a distinct behavioural profile and morphological preservation after 7 days of lesion with quinolinic acid associated with APO.

  10. Inhibition of stress-induced hepatic tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase exhibits antidepressant activity in an animal model of depressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Sinead M; Fagan, Eimear M; Waldron, Ann-Marie; O'Byrne, Jordan; Connor, Thomas J; Harkin, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The role of hepatic tryptophan 2,3 dioxygenase (TDO) was assessed in the provocation of stress-induced depression-related behaviour in the rat. TDO drives tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) and leads to the production of neuroactive metabolites including kynurenine. A single 2 h period of restraint stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats provoked an increase in circulating concentrations of the glucocorticoid corticosterone and induction of hepatic TDO expression and activity. Repeated exposure to stress (10 d of 2 h restraint each day) provoked an increase in immobility in the forced swimming test (FST) indicative of depression-related behaviour. Immobility was accompanied by an increase in the circulating corticosterone concentrations, expression and activity of hepatic TDO and increase in the expression of TDO in the cerebral cortex. Increased TDO activity was associated with raised circulating kynurenine concentrations and a reduction in circulating tryptophan concentrations indicative of KP activation. Co-treatment with the TDO inhibitor allopurinol (20 mg/kg, i.p.), attenuated the chronic stress-related increase in immobility in the FST and the accompanying increase in circulating kynurenine concentrations. These findings indicate that stress-induced corticosterone and consequent activation of hepatic TDO, tryptophan metabolism and production of kynurenine provoke a depression-related behavioural phenotype. Inhibition of stress-related hepatic TDO activity promotes antidepressant activity. TDO may therefore represent a promising target for the treatment of depression associated with stress-related disorders in which there is evidence for KP activation.

  11. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  12. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs.

    PubMed

    Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minjoo; Yuk, Huijoon; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kang, Bokyu; Song, Daesub

    2016-07-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health.

  13. Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Réale, Denis; Reader, Simon M; Sol, Daniel; McDougall, Peter T; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2007-05-01

    Temperament describes the idea that individual behavioural differences are repeatable over time and across situations. This common phenomenon covers numerous traits, such as aggressiveness, avoidance of novelty, willingness to take risks, exploration, and sociality. The study of temperament is central to animal psychology, behavioural genetics, pharmacology, and animal husbandry, but relatively few studies have examined the ecology and evolution of temperament traits. This situation is surprising, given that temperament is likely to exert an important influence on many aspects of animal ecology and evolution, and that individual variation in temperament appears to be pervasive amongst animal species. Possible explanations for this neglect of temperament include a perceived irrelevance, an insufficient understanding of the link between temperament traits and fitness, and a lack of coherence in terminology with similar traits often given different names, or different traits given the same name. We propose that temperament can and should be studied within an evolutionary ecology framework and provide a terminology that could be used as a working tool for ecological studies of temperament. Our terminology includes five major temperament trait categories: shyness-boldness, exploration-avoidance, activity, sociability and aggressiveness. This terminology does not make inferences regarding underlying dispositions or psychological processes, which may have restrained ecologists and evolutionary biologists from working on these traits. We present extensive literature reviews that demonstrate that temperament traits are heritable, and linked to fitness and to several other traits of importance to ecology and evolution. Furthermore, we describe ecologically relevant measurement methods and point to several ecological and evolutionary topics that would benefit from considering temperament, such as phenotypic plasticity, conservation biology, population sampling, and invasion

  14. Neglecting Neglect: Some Thoughts about Children Who Have Lacked Good Input, and Are "Undrawn" and "Unenjoyed"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at emotional neglect in the early years of life, and postulates some probable long-term sequelae of such neglect. It argues that there is a continuum of neglect; ranging from the severest form, as seen in institutional orphanages, to milder variations. A range of theoretical and research traditions, including developmental…

  15. Empathy and Child Neglect: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paul, Joaquin; Guibert, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present an explanatory theory-based model of child neglect. This model does not address neglectful behaviors of parents with mental retardation, alcohol or drug abuse, or severe mental health problems. In this model parental behavior aimed to satisfy a child's need is considered a helping behavior and, as a consequence, child neglect…

  16. Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildyard, Kathryn L.; Wolfe, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of child neglect on three developmental periods: infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults. The severe cognitive and academic deficits, the social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and the internalizing problems of neglected children relative to physically…

  17. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  18. MANPOWER IN THE NEGLECTED LANGUAGES, FALL 1962.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARMON, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT ON THE STUDY OF "NEGLECTED" LANGUAGES IN UNITED STATES COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN 1962-63 SHOWED THAT THE NEGLECT WAS DIMINISHING WITH ENROLLMENTS OF ABOUT 17,000 STUDENTS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES, EXCLUDING THE "BIG FIVE" (FRENCH, GERMAN, ITALIAN, RUSSIAN, AND SPANISH). IN 168 COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE…

  19. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  20. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  1. Neurocysticercosis: A disease of neglect

    PubMed Central

    Mewara, Abhishek; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a neglected tropical disease caused by larval forms of the parasite Taenia solium lodging in central nervous system (CNS). There is a huge morbidity and debilitation due to CNS manifestations of NCC in developing and underdeveloped regions of the globe, mainly Asian, African and Latin American countries. It is the cause of epilepsy in about 1% of the population of endemic countries and is the underlying etiology in about 15-50% persons with epilepsy, depending upon the geographical region. There is no perfect diagnostic method and the diagnosis relies on a combination of clinical, radio-imaging, immunologic and epidemiologic data. Treatment includes anti-parasitic treatment by cysticidal drugs and management of associated symptoms and complications. The disease is eradicable and control depends on an integrated and coordinated involvement of international bodies like the World Health Organization along with scientific institutions and political and administrative strata of the endemic countries to provide the essential tools such as adequate sanitation, live-stock management, health education and improved socio-economic conditions. PMID:24470993

  2. Trypanosomatid parasites causing neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, K; Honek, J; Cadmus, C M C v C; Efferth, T

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic diseases such as Kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis), Chagas disease human (American trypanosomiasis) and African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) are affecting more than 27 million people worldwide. They are categorized amongst the most important neglected diseases causing approximately 150,000 deaths annually. As no vaccination is available, treatment is solely dependent on chemotherapeutic drugs. This review provides a comprehensive insight into the treatment of Kala azar, Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness. In addition to established drugs, novel small molecule- based therapeutic approaches are discussed. Drugs currently used for the treatment of Kala azar include pentavalent antimonials, Amphotericin B, Miltefosine, and Paromomycin. Liposomal formulations such as AmBisome provide promising alternatives. Furthermore, antiproliferative compounds might open new avenues in Kala azar treatment. Regarding Chagas disease, chemotherapy is based on two drugs, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole. However, sequencing of T. cruzi genome in the year 2005 raises a hope for new drug targets. Proteases, sterols and sialic acids are potential promising drug targets. Suramin, Pentamidine, Melarsporol and Eflornithine are well-established drugs to treat African sleeping sickness. New treatment options include combination therapy of Eflornithine and Nifurtimox, a Chagas disease therapeutic.. However, all approved chemotherapeutic compounds for trypanosomatid diseases suffer from high toxicity. Further, increasing resistance limits their efficacy and compliance.

  3. Prisms and neglect: what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Newport, Roger; Schenk, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Since Rossetti et al. (1998) reported that prism adaptation (PA) can lead to a substantial reduction of neglect symptoms PA has become a hot topic in neglect-research. More than 280 articles have been published in this area. Not all of those studies investigated the therapeutic potential of this technique, many studies examined the responsiveness to PA as a way to subdivide neglect into separate subsyndromes, other studies focussed on the process of PA itself in an effort to illuminate its underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this article we will review research in all of these three areas to determine whether and to what extent research on PA in neglect patients has fulfilled its promise as a new way to improve the treatment of neglect, enhance our understanding of this complex syndrome and provide new insights into the neurobiology of sensorimotor learning.

  4. Disruptions to number bisection after brain injury: Neglecting parts of the Mental Number Line or working memory impairments?

    PubMed

    Storer, Lauren; Demeyere, Nele

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying consistent directional number bisection bias in a chronic neuropsychological sample, not selected based on behaviour or lesion definitions. Patients completed a test battery that included measures of number bisection, line bisection, verbal working memory, visual-spatial working memory, egocentric neglect and allocentric neglect. Neither the neglect nor working memory measures were found to significantly correlate with number bisection. Furthermore, when outlier patients with very distinct number bisection biases were compared to patients who did not show any number bisection difficulties, no differences were found between the two groups on any of the other behavioural measures. We conclude that number bisection difficulties are not consistently based on any single deficit, be it neglect or working memory, and biases in number bisection should not be assumed to directly reflect problems in either of these areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A neglected aspect of conscience: awareness of implicit attitudes.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Chloë

    2014-01-01

    The conception of conscience that dominates discussions in bioethics focuses narrowly on private regulation of behaviour resulting from explicit attitudes. It neglects to mention implicit attitudes and the role of social feedback in becoming aware of one's implicit attitudes. But if conscience is a way of ensuring that a person's behaviour is in line with her moral values, it must be responsive to all aspects of the mind that influence behaviour. There is a wealth of recent psychological work demonstrating the influence of implicit attitudes on behaviour. A necessary part of having a well-functioning conscience must thus be awareness and regulation of one's implicit attitudes in addition to one's explicit attitudes; this cannot be done by an individual in isolation. On my revised conception of conscience, heeding social feedback, being emotionally self-aware and engaging in self-monitoring are important for the possession of a well-functioning conscience. Health professionals may need specific training to help them develop and maintain a well-functioning conscience, which should involve cultivation of awareness of implicit attitudes, emphasis on social feedback and techniques to enable better control over them.

  6. Anthropogenic extinction of top carnivores and interspecific animal behaviour: implications of the rapid decoupling of a web involving wolves, bears, moose and ravens.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J

    1999-01-01

    The recent extinction of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) by humans from 95-99% of the contiguous USA and Mexico in less than 100 years has resulted in dramatically altered and expanded prey communities. Such rampant ecological change and putative ecological instability has not occurred in North American northern boreal zones. This geographical variation in the loss of large carnivores as a consequence of anthropogenic disturbance offers opportunities for examining the potential consequences of extinction on subtle but important ecological patterns involving behaviour and interspecific ecological interactions. In Alaska, where scavengers and large carnivores are associated with carcasses, field experiments involving sound playback simulations have demonstrated that at least one prey species, moose (Alces alces), is sensitive to the vocalizations of ravens (Corvus corax) and may rely on their cues to avoid predation. However, a similar relationship is absent on a predator-free island in Alaska's Cook Inlet and at two sites in the Jackson Hole region of the Rocky Mountains (USA) where grizzly bears and wolves have been extinct for 50-70 years. While prior study of birds and mammals has demonstrated that prey may retain predator recognition capabilities for thousands of years even after predation as a selective force has been relaxed, the results presented here establish that a desensitization in interspecific responsiveness can also occur in less than ten generations. These results affirm (i) a rapid decoupling in behaviour involving prey and scavengers as a consequence of anthropogenic-caused predator-prey disequilibriums, and (ii) subtle, community-level modifications in terrestrial ecosystems where large carnivores no longer exist. If knowledge about ecological and behavioural processes in extant systems is to be enhanced, the potential effects of recently extinct carnivores must be incorporated into current programmes. PMID:10629976

  7. Anthropogenic extinction of top carnivores and interspecific animal behaviour: implications of the rapid decoupling of a web involving wolves, bears, moose and ravens.

    PubMed

    Berger, J

    1999-11-22

    The recent extinction of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) by humans from 95-99% of the contiguous USA and Mexico in less than 100 years has resulted in dramatically altered and expanded prey communities. Such rampant ecological change and putative ecological instability has not occurred in North American northern boreal zones. This geographical variation in the loss of large carnivores as a consequence of anthropogenic disturbance offers opportunities for examining the potential consequences of extinction on subtle but important ecological patterns involving behaviour and interspecific ecological interactions. In Alaska, where scavengers and large carnivores are associated with carcasses, field experiments involving sound playback simulations have demonstrated that at least one prey species, moose (Alces alces), is sensitive to the vocalizations of ravens (Corvus corax) and may rely on their cues to avoid predation. However, a similar relationship is absent on a predator-free island in Alaska's Cook Inlet and at two sites in the Jackson Hole region of the Rocky Mountains (USA) where grizzly bears and wolves have been extinct for 50-70 years. While prior study of birds and mammals has demonstrated that prey may retain predator recognition capabilities for thousands of years even after predation as a selective force has been relaxed, the results presented here establish that a desensitization in interspecific responsiveness can also occur in less than ten generations. These results affirm (i) a rapid decoupling in behaviour involving prey and scavengers as a consequence of anthropogenic-caused predator-prey disequilibriums, and (ii) subtle, community-level modifications in terrestrial ecosystems where large carnivores no longer exist. If knowledge about ecological and behavioural processes in extant systems is to be enhanced, the potential effects of recently extinct carnivores must be incorporated into current programmes.

  8. Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues

    PubMed Central

    Heukelbach, Jorg

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) are a heterogeneous category of infectious diseases in which parasite–host interactions are confined to the upper layer of the skin. The six major EPSD are scabies, pediculosis (capitis, corporis and pubis), tungiasis and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. We summarize the current knowledge on EPSD and show that these diseases are widespread, polyparasitism is common, and significant primary and secondary morbidity occurs. We show that poverty favours the presence of animal reservoirs, ensures ongoing transmission, facilitates atypical methods of spreading infectious agents and increases the chances of exposure. This results in an extraordinarily high prevalence and intensity of infestation of EPSD in resource-poor populations. Stigma, lack of access to health care and deficient behaviour in seeking health care are the reasons why EPSD frequently progress untreated and why in resource-poor populations severe morbidity is common. The ongoing uncontrolled urbanization in many developing countries makes it likely that EPSD will remain the overriding parasitic diseases for people living in extreme poverty. We advocate integrating control of EPSD into intervention measures directed against other neglected diseases such as filariasis and intestinal helminthiases. PMID:19274368

  9. The medial habenula: still neglected

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Humsini; Carter, Asasia Q.; Baldwin, Philip R.; Molfese, David L.; Salas, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The habenula is a small, bilateral brain structure located at the dorsal end of the diencephalon. This structure sends projections to the dopaminergic striatum and receives inputs from the limbic forebrain, making the habenula a unique modulator of cross-talk between these brain regions. Despite strong interest in the habenula during the seventies and eighties (Herkenham and Nauta, 1977; Beckstead, 1979; Beckstead et al., 1979; Herkenham and Nauta, 1979; Caldecott-Hazard et al., 1988), interest waned due to lack of a clearly identifiable functional role. Following Matsumoto and Hikosaka's seminal work on the lateral habenula as a predictor of negative reward in monkeys, the habenula has undergone a resurgence of scientific interest. Matsumoto and Hikosaka demonstrated an increase in habenular neuron firing when monkeys did not receive an expected juice reward (Matsumoto and Hikosaka, 2007). Studies have shown that increased habenular activity inactivates dopaminergic cells in the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus (RMTg) through GABAergic mechanisms (Jhou et al., 2009a,b). Additional studies link habenular activity to the regulation of serotonin and norepinephrine, suggesting the habenula modulates multiple brain systems (Strecker and Rosengren, 1989; Amat et al., 2001). These discoveries ushered in a series of new studies that have refocused attention on the lateral habenula and the importance of this small brain structure (Bianco and Wilson, 2009; Jhou et al., 2009a; Matsumoto and Hikosaka, 2009; Sartorius et al., 2010; Savitz et al., 2011). Recently, Geisler and Trimble reviewed this renewed interest in: The Lateral Habenula: No Longer Neglected (Geisler and Trimble, 2008). While the lateral habenula (LHb) has been extensively studied, the anatomically and histochemically distinct medial habenula (MHb) remains largely understudied. This short review argues that the MHb is functionally important and should be studied more aggressively. PMID:24478666

  10. Current Pipelines for Neglected Diseases

    PubMed Central

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  11. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  12. Elder self-neglect: research and practice

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi

    2017-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is a global public health and human rights issue that threatens older people’s health and safety. It commonly refers to refusal or failure to provide oneself with care and protection in areas of food, water, clothing, hygiene, medication, living environments, and safety precautions. While prevalent, the status of self-neglecting individuals remains largely unclear, in particular within community-dwelling populations. By reviewing the epidemiology of elder self-neglect (definition, prevalence, risk factors, and consequences) to date, the present paper identifies key research gaps such as methodological inconsistency in case identification and measurement, and study designs that are inadequate to determine risk factors of self-neglect. More importantly, in light of the rapidly growing older population, relevant stakeholders (researchers, healthcare providers, social service providers, legal professionals, community organizations, and policymakers) must be prepared for an expected increasing number of self-neglect cases and enlarging scope of the problem. Hence, in this article, I present an overview regarding the management issues of elderly self-neglect related to the detection, assessment, reporting and referral, and decision-making capacity. Based on the current literature, the paper is aimed to explore the present knowledge and challenges, and how they can pave the way for solutions to self-neglect research, practice, and policy. PMID:28652717

  13. [Unilateral spatial and motor neglect in children].

    PubMed

    Laurent-Vannier, A; Pradat-Diehl, P; Chevignard, M; Abada, G

    2001-04-01

    Although unilateral spatial neglect is well documented in adults after a cerebral damage, the description in children is rare and no motor neglect has yet been reported. We report four children age range from three to thirteen years old, in patients in a rehabilitation department. A cancellation task "the Teddy bear test" was used to assess spatial neglect in children. The children were presented a page containing line drawings of usual objects, including fifteen Teddy bears. The children were asked to cross out each Teddy bear. These four children omitted five to eleven teddy bears located on the left space, whereas children of the controlled group never omitted more than one Teddy bear. The four children also exhibited neglect in drawings, and during daily life activities. Moreover, one of them had a motor neglect with no more defects of strength and an under-utilization of his left side. Spatial unilateral neglect and motor neglect should be systematically investigated in children after a cerebral damage, and should be considered during rehabilitation.

  14. Spatial and motor neglect in children.

    PubMed

    Laurent-Vannier, A; Pradat-Diehl, P; Chevignard, M; Abada, G; De Agostini, M

    2003-01-28

    To determine if unilateral spatial neglect can be found in very young children with acquired brain lesions. A retrospective study was carried out over a 10-year period in a pediatric rehabilitation department specializing in acquired brain lesions. Twelve cases were selected involving children aged 7 months to 14 years. Neglect was assessed by behavior observation for all children and, depending on age, by drawing, copying, reading, writing, and arithmetic tasks. Seven patients underwent the experimental "Teddy Bear" cancellation task, specially adapted to children. All children exhibited spatial and motor neglect in daily activities. In addition, children who were over 2 years of age made lateralized omissions in paper and pencil tasks as well as in the "Teddy Bear" cancellation task. Nine of the 12 children exhibited left spatial and motor neglect, whereas the other three, all of whom were very young (under 4 years), exhibited right spatial neglect. In three cases, cortical lesions were restricted to one lobe, either the parietal, frontal, or temporal. In eight children, lesions extended over more than one lobe, and one child sustained only subcortical lesions. Unilateral spatial and motor neglect occurs even in very young children. Right spatial neglect described in very young children may be related to the development of hemispheric specialization.

  15. Behavioural social choice: a status report.

    PubMed

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R

    2009-03-27

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  16. Behavioural social choice: a status report

    PubMed Central

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Cavagnaro, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research. PMID:19073478

  17. Dental neglect among children in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Deepa; Shanmugaavel, Arunachalam Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    Child dental neglect is the failure of a parent or guardian to meet the child's basic oral health needs such that the child enjoys adequate function and freedom from pain and infection, where reasonable resources are available to family or caregiver. The aim of the study is to evaluate the phenomenon of dental neglect among children in Chennai and to associate dental neglect with oral health status of children aged 3-12 years. This is a cross-sectional study involving 478 pairs of parents and children. Dental neglect scale and a questionnaire were used to assess the dental neglect score among parents of the children involved in the study. Oral health status of children was clinically assessed using oral hygiene index, decayed, extracted, filled teeth (def(t)), pulp, ulcers, fistula, abscess (pufa), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT), PUFA as per the World Health Organization criteria and pufa/PUFA index. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used appropriately for statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20.0. A significant higher dental neglect score was reported among the parents who reside in the suburban location (P < 0.001), whose educational qualification was secondary (P < 0.001) and who have not availed any dental service for >3 years (P = 0.001). A significant higher DMFT (P = 0.003), deft (P = 0 < 0.001), pufa (P = 0.011), and debris index (P = 0.002) scores were seen in the higher dental neglect group. Child dental neglect is seen among the parents whose educational qualification was secondary, who reside in the suburban location, and who have not utilized the dental services for more than 3 years in Chennai. This dental neglect results in poorer oral health of children.

  18. Tocopherol in Elder Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid soluble antioxidant required for the preservation of cell membranes. Since the association between tocopherol and cognitive impairment in older adults has been described, we explored the possibility of its role in elder self-neglect. OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine whether serum tocopherol levels are associated with elder self-neglect, and (2) to assess the association of serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function in elder self-neglect. METHODS: Serum tocopherol levels were measured in a cohort of 67 self-neglecting elders and 67 matched controls, recruited for the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas. Pearson s correlation tests were performed to assess bivariate associations between serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function. RESULTS: Mean serum alpha-tocopherol levels were 10.8 +/- 4.7 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 13.0 +/- 4.9 ug/mL in control group (p = 0.006, unpaired student s t-test). None of the participants from either group had alpha-tocopherol level lower than the reference range. Mean serum gamma-tocopherol levels were 2.0 +/- 1.0 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 2.0 +/- 1.1 in control group (p=0.83). Proportion of the elders with gamma-tocopherol level lower than the reference range were 4.5% (3/66) in self-neglect group and 10.4% (7/67) in control group (p=0.32, Fisher s Exact Test). Among the self-neglecting elders, no association was found between serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Test (CDT) scores (r =-0.42, p=0.75 for MMSE; r=0.08, p=0.54 for CDT). No association was found between serum gamma-tocopherol levels and the MMSE or the CDT (r=-0.12, p=0.35 for MMSE; r=0.05, p=0.68 for CDT). CONCLUSION: In our sample, neither alpha-tocopherol nor gamma-tocopherol appears to have a role in pathophysiology of elder

  19. Ipsilateral neglect during intracarotid amobarbital test.

    PubMed

    Na, D L; Adair, J C; Kim, G M; Seo, D W; Hong, S B; Heilman, K M

    1998-07-01

    Neglect usually occurs in the space contralateral to brain injury. Recent studies describe ipsilateral neglect (IN) whereby patients with right hemisphere injury misbisect lines to the left of midpoint. IN usually develops after contralateral neglect (CN) resolves. We observed whether IN occurs during intracarotid amobarbital infusion. After clinical testing but before resolution of barbiturate effect, 20 right-handed subjects bisected lines until baseline performance returned. More than half (12 of 20) showed transient CN. IN occurred in 40% (8 of 20) of patients, always during the recovery stage of anesthesia, and most frequently followed initial CN.

  20. Tocopherol in Elder Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid soluble antioxidant required for the preservation of cell membranes. Since the association between tocopherol and cognitive impairment in older adults has been described, we explored the possibility of its role in elder self-neglect. OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine whether serum tocopherol levels are associated with elder self-neglect, and (2) to assess the association of serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function in elder self-neglect. METHODS: Serum tocopherol levels were measured in a cohort of 67 self-neglecting elders and 67 matched controls, recruited for the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas. Pearson s correlation tests were performed to assess bivariate associations between serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function. RESULTS: Mean serum alpha-tocopherol levels were 10.8 +/- 4.7 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 13.0 +/- 4.9 ug/mL in control group (p = 0.006, unpaired student s t-test). None of the participants from either group had alpha-tocopherol level lower than the reference range. Mean serum gamma-tocopherol levels were 2.0 +/- 1.0 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 2.0 +/- 1.1 in control group (p=0.83). Proportion of the elders with gamma-tocopherol level lower than the reference range were 4.5% (3/66) in self-neglect group and 10.4% (7/67) in control group (p=0.32, Fisher s Exact Test). Among the self-neglecting elders, no association was found between serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Test (CDT) scores (r =-0.42, p=0.75 for MMSE; r=0.08, p=0.54 for CDT). No association was found between serum gamma-tocopherol levels and the MMSE or the CDT (r=-0.12, p=0.35 for MMSE; r=0.05, p=0.68 for CDT). CONCLUSION: In our sample, neither alpha-tocopherol nor gamma-tocopherol appears to have a role in pathophysiology of elder

  1. Animal transportation networks

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  2. Antidepressant & anxiolytic activities of N-(pyridin-3-yl) quinoxalin-2-carboxamide: A novel serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist in behavioural animal models

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Dilip Kumar; Devadoss, Thangraj; Modak, Neha; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Alteration in the serotonin leads to the psychological illness, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorders and migraines. The objective of the current study was to investigate the antidepressant and anxiolytic activities of N-(pyridin-3-yl) quinoxalin-2-carboxamide (QCF-21), a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist in preclinical models of depression and anxiety. Methods: Antidepressant activity was evaluated in preliminary tests such as forced swim and tail suspension tests (FST & TST). Anti-anxiety effect of QCF-21 was investigated by employing elevated plus maze (EPM), light/dark and hole board tests. Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) in rats was used as chronic model of depression. Mechanistic test of QCF-21 was evaluated by reserpine-induced hypothermia and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head-twitch response. Results: The dose-response study revealed an initial antidepressant-like effect of QCF-21(0.25-1 mg/kg, i.p.) in the FST and TST and anxiolytic-like effect in EPM, light and dark and hole board tests. QCF-21 potentiated the 5-HTP-induced head-twitches response in mice and reversed reserpine-induced hypothermia in rats. QCF-21 significantly reversed the behavioural anomalies post-OBX in rats. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings indicate the potential antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of QCF-21 at low doses in rodent behavioural models of depression and anxiety. Further studies need to be done to understand the underlying mechanism. PMID:28256473

  3. Parenting in Animals.

    PubMed

    Bales, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    The study of parenting in animals has allowed us to come to a better understanding of the neural and physiological mechanisms that underlie mammalian parental behavior. The long-term effects of parenting (and parental abuse or neglect) on offspring, and the neurobiological changes that underlie those changes, have also been best studied in animal models. Our greater experimental control and ability to directly manipulate neural and hormonal systems, as well as the environment of the subjects, will ensure that animal models remain important in the study of parenting; while in the future, the great variety of parental caregiving systems displayed by animals should be more thoroughly explored. Most importantly, cross-talk between animal and human subjects research should be promoted.

  4. Connecting behaviour and performance: the evolution of biting behaviour and bite performance in bats.

    PubMed

    Santana, S E; Dumont, E R

    2009-11-01

    Variation in behaviour, performance and ecology are traditionally associated with variation in morphology. A neglected part of this ecomorphological paradigm is the interaction between behaviour and performance, the ability to carry out tasks that impact fitness. Here we investigate the relationship between biting behaviour and performance (bite force) among 20 species of ecologically diverse bats. We studied the patterns of evolution of plasticity in biting behaviour and bite force, and reconstructed ancestral states for behaviour and its plasticity. Both behavioural and performance plasticity exhibited accelerating evolution over time, and periods of rapid evolution coincided with major dietary shifts from insect-feeding to plant-feeding. We found a significant, positive correlation between behavioural plasticity and bite force. Bats modulated their performance by changing their biting behaviour to maximize bite force when feeding on hard foods. The ancestor of phyllostomids was likely a generalist characterized by high behavioural plasticity, a condition that also evolved in specialized frugivores and potentially contributed to their diversification.

  5. Neglect of Solid State Chemistry Scored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    At a recent symposium concerning the teaching of solid state chemistry in the classroom, many educators indicated that important areas of solid state chemistry were being neglected in college curricula. (RH)

  6. Space representation in unilateral spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Chedru, F

    1976-11-01

    Patients with unilateral brain lesions were given a task requiring exploration of space with the hand in order to assess the visual dependency of unilateral spatial neglect. The task was carried out both without visual control and under visual control. Performances were compared with that of normal subjects. Results were :(1) patients with right brain damage with no visual field defect demonstrated left-sided neglect only when the exploration was not controlled visually; (2) patients with left and right brain damage with visual field defect demonstrated contralateral neglect only when the exploration was under visual guidance. The performance of the patients with right brain damage without visual field defect in not clearly understood. The other results suggest that inner spatial representation remains intact in most cases of spatial neglect. The role of parietal lobe damage in the development of this visually induced phenomenon is hypothesised. The dominant position of vision among the senses is indicated.

  7. Observational measure of elder self-neglect.

    PubMed

    Iris, Madelyn; Conrad, Kendon J; Ridings, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve measurement of elder self-neglect by testing the psychometric properties of the Elder Self-Neglect Assessment (ESNA). Social workers, case managers, and adult protective services providers from 13 Illinois agencies completed a 77-item assessment for 215 clients suffering from self neglect. Analyses used Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches to test for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation, resulting in a 62-item assessment. The ESNA met Rasch fit criteria with good internal consistency, item reliability, and construct validity. A 25-item short form also met Rasch criteria. A hierarchy of items associated with severity of abuse was produced by frequency of occurrence. ESNA indicators of self-neglect align into two broad categories: behavioral characteristics and environmental factors, which must be accounted for in a comprehensive evaluation. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention.

  8. Central command: control of cardiac sympathetic and vagal efferent nerve activity and the arterial baroreflex during spontaneous motor behaviour in animals.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    Feedforward control by higher brain centres (termed central command) plays a role in the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system during exercise. Over the past 20 years, workers in our laboratory have used the precollicular-premammillary decerebrate animal model to identify the neural circuitry involved in the CNS control of cardiac autonomic outflow and arterial baroreflex function. Contrary to the traditional idea that vagal withdrawal at the onset of exercise causes the increase in heart rate, central command did not decrease cardiac vagal efferent nerve activity but did allow cardiac sympathetic efferent nerve activity to produce cardiac acceleration. In addition, central command-evoked inhibition of the aortic baroreceptor-heart rate reflex blunted the baroreflex-mediated bradycardia elicited by aortic nerve stimulation, further increasing the heart rate at the onset of exercise. Spontaneous motor activity and associated cardiovascular responses disappeared in animals decerebrated at the midcollicular level. These findings indicate that the brain region including the caudal diencephalon and extending to the rostral mesencephalon may play a role in generating central command. Bicuculline microinjected into the midbrain ventral tegmental area of decerebrate rats produced a long-lasting repetitive activation of renal sympathetic nerve activity that was synchronized with the motor nerve discharge. When lidocaine was microinjected into the ventral tegmental area, the spontaneous motor activity and associated cardiovascular responses ceased. From these findings, we conclude that cerebral cortical outputs trigger activation of neural circuits within the caudal brain, including the ventral tegmental area, which causes central command to augment cardiac sympathetic outflow at the onset of exercise in decerebrate animal models.

  9. Neglect dyslexia: a matter of "good looking".

    PubMed

    Primativo, Silvia; Arduino, Lisa S; De Luca, Maria; Daini, Roberta; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2013-09-01

    Brain-damaged patients with right-sided unilateral spatial neglect (USN) often make left-sided errors in reading single words or pseudowords (neglect dyslexia, ND). We propose that both left neglect and low fixation accuracy account for reading errors in neglect dyslexia. Eye movements were recorded in USN patients with (ND+) and without (ND-) neglect dyslexia and in a matched control group of right brain-damaged patients without neglect (USN-). Unlike ND- and controls, ND+ patients showed left lateralized omission errors and a distorted eye movement pattern in both a reading aloud task and a non-verbal saccadic task. During reading, the total number of fixations was larger in these patients independent of visual hemispace, and most fixations were inaccurate. Similarly, in the saccadic task only ND+ patients were unable to reach the moving dot. A third experiment addressed the nature of the left lateralization in reading error distribution by simulating neglect dyslexia in ND- patients. ND- and USN- patients had to perform a speeded reading-at-threshold task that did not allow for eye movements. When stimulus exploration was prevented, ND- patients, but not controls, produced a pattern of errors similar to that of ND+ with unlimited exposure time (e.g., left-sided errors). We conclude that neglect dyslexia reading errors may arise in USN patients as a consequence of an additional and independent deficit unrelated to the orthographic material. In particular, the presence of an altered oculo-motor pattern, preventing the automatic execution of the fine saccadic eye movements involved in reading, uncovers, in USN patients, the attentional bias also in reading single centrally presented words.

  10. Ipsilesional Neglect: Behavioral and Anatomical Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetti, Daniela L.; Goedert, Kelly M.; Foundas, Anne L.; Barrett, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The sparse existing research on ipsilesional neglect supports an association of this disorder with damage to the right frontal and subcortical brain networks. It is believed that dysfunction in these networks may result in primarily “aiming”, motor-intentional spatial errors. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether frontal-subcortical circuits are indeed commonly affected in ipsilesional neglect and to determine the relative presence of “aiming”, motor-intentional versus “where”, perceptual-attentional spatial errors in these individuals. Methods We identified 12 participants with ipsilesional neglect based on a computerized line bisection task and used the line bisection data to quantify participants' perceptual-attentional and motor-intentional errors. We were able to discriminate between these two biases using the algebraic solutions for two separate equations, one for “aiming” and one for “where” biases. Lesion mapping was conducted for all participants using MRICroN® software; lesion checklist and overlap analysis were created from these images. Results A greater percentage of participants with ipsilesional neglect had frontal/subcortical damage (83%) compared to the expected percentage (27%) observed in published patient samples with contralesional neglect. We observed the greatest area of lesion overlap in frontal lobe white matter pathways. Nevertheless, participants with ipsilesional neglect made primarily “where” rather than “aiming” spatial errors. Conclusion Our data confirms previous research suggesting that ipsilesional neglect may result from lesions to the right frontal-subcortical networks. Furthermore, in our group, ipsilesional neglect was also strongly associated with primarily “where”, perceptual-attentional bias, and less so with “aiming” motor-intentional spatial bias. PMID:25180980

  11. How neglect and punitiveness influence emotion knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P; Lewis, Michael

    2010-06-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of discipline strategies (nonviolent, physically punitive, and psychological aggression), as well as neglectful parenting. Fifteen of the children were identified as neglected by Child Protective Services (CPS) reports; 27 children had no record of CPS involvement and served as the comparison group. There were no differences between the neglect and comparison groups in the demographic factors of gender, age, home language, minority status, or public assistance, nor on IQ. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling showed that neglect significantly predicted emotion knowledge. The addition of IQ contributed a significant amount of additional variance to the model and maintained the fit. Adding parental punitiveness in the final stage contributed little additional variance and did not significantly improve the fit. Thus, deficits in children's emotion knowledge may be due primarily to lower IQ or neglect. IQ was unrelated to speed of emotion recognition. Punitiveness did not directly contribute to emotion knowledge deficits but appeared in exploratory analysis to be related to speed of emotion recognition.

  12. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children’s emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children’s mothers completed the Parent–Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of discipline strategies (nonviolent, physically punitive, and psychological aggression), as well as neglectful parenting. Fifteen of the children were identified as neglected by Child Protective Services (CPS) reports; 27 children had no record of CPS involvement and served as the comparison group. There were no differences between the neglect and comparison groups in the demographic factors of gender, age, home language, minority status, or public assistance, nor on IQ. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling showed that neglect significantly predicted emotion knowledge. The addition of IQ contributed a significant amount of additional variance to the model and maintained the fit. Adding parental punitiveness in the final stage contributed little additional variance and did not significantly improve the fit. Thus, deficits in children’s emotion knowledge may be due primarily to lower IQ or neglect. IQ was unrelated to speed of emotion recognition. Punitiveness did not directly contribute to emotion knowledge deficits but appeared in exploratory analysis to be related to speed of emotion recognition. PMID:20099078

  13. Prodrugs for the treatment of neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man Chin; Ferreira, Elizabeth Igne; Santos, Jean Leandro; Giarolla, Jeanine; Rando, Daniela Gonçales; Almeida, Adélia Emília; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Menegon, Renato Farina; Blau, Lorena

    2007-03-19

    Recently, World Health Organization (WHO) and Medicins San Frontieres (MSF) proposed a classification of diseases as global, neglected and extremely neglected. Global diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular and mental (CNS) diseases represent the targets of the majority of the R&D efforts of pharmaceutical companies. Neglected diseases affect millions of people in the world yet existing drug therapy is limited and often inappropriate. Furthermore, extremely neglected diseases affect people living under miserable conditions who barely have access to the bare necessities for survival. Most of these diseases are excluded from the goals of the R&D programs in the pharmaceutical industry and therefore fall outside the pharmaceutical market. About 14 million people,mainly in developing countries, die each year from infectious diseases. From 1975 to 1999,1393 new drugs were approved yet only 1% were for the treatment of neglected diseases[3]. These numbers have not changed until now, so in those countries there is an urgent need for the design and synthesis of new drugs and in this area the prodrug approach is a very interesting field. It provides, among other effects, activity improvements and toxicity decreases for current and new drugs, improving market availability. It is worth noting that it is essential in drug design to save time and money, and prodrug approaches can be considered of high interest in this respect. The present review covers 20 years of research on the design of prodrugs for the treatment of neglected and extremely neglected diseases such as Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis), malaria, sickle cell disease, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis.

  14. Novel Insights in the Rehabilitation of Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Fasotti, Luciano; van Kessel, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation, or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalization to (un)trained tasks, lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuospatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into four categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich, and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of treatments

  15. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes.

    PubMed

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions.

  16. Neglect dyslexia: frequency, association with other hemispatial neglects, and lesion localization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Eun-Joo; Seo, Sang Won; Choi, Kyung Mook; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Heilman, Kenneth M; Na, Duk L

    2009-02-01

    Patients with right hemisphere injury often omit or misread words on the left side of a page or the beginning letters of single words (neglect dyslexia). Our study involving a large sample of acute right hemisphere stroke investigated (1) the frequency of neglect dyslexia (ND), (2) the association between ND and other types of contralesional hemispatial neglect (CN), (3) the effect of visual field defect (VFD) on ND, and (4) the anatomical substrates for ND. Participants were 138 consecutive patients with right hemisphere stroke who underwent a neglect test battery including a test for ND. ND was considered present if the patient misread or omitted the left portion of the word in three or more of the 25 target words. CN was noted in 80/138 (58.0%) patients while ND was found in 31/138 (22.5%) patients. Of the 80 patients with CN, the frequency of neglect based on ND test was only 37.5% while the frequency of neglect based on other neglect tasks ranged from 51.3% to 86.3%. The severity of neglect was a significant predictor for ND. VFD was also a significant predictor for the occurrence of ND but this effect disappeared when the severity of neglect was controlled. Patients with CN had lesions in the superior and middle temporal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, and posterior insular cortex; patients with ND had additional lesions in the lingual and fusiform gyri. In summary, ND was dissociated from other types of neglect and was most often associated with severe neglect. VFD contributed to the occurrence of ND. ND resulted from lesions of temporoparietal junction areas (inferior parietal/superior temporal gyri) combined with those of lingual/fusiform gyri.

  17. Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Averós, X; Brossard, L; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Edwards, S A; Meunier-Salaün, M C

    2012-08-01

    A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P < 0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P < 0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P < 0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P < 0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P < 0.05) and floor space allowance (P < 0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P < 0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P < 0.05), higher ingestion rates (P < 0.001) and higher ADFI (P < 0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P < 0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P < 0.01), the ingestion rate (P < 0.001) and FCR (P < 0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex

  18. Neurobiology of suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pjevac, Milica; Pregelj, Peter

    2012-10-01

    It is known that suicidal behaviour has multiple causes. If triggers could be mainly attributed to environmental factors, predisposition could be associated with early stressors on one side such as childhood adversities and genetic predisposition. No convincing animal model of suicide has been produced to date. The study of endophenotypes has been proposed as a good strategy to overcome the methodological difficulties. However, research in suicidal behaviours using endophenotypes entrails important methodological problems. Further, serotoninergic system was studied in patients with suicidal behaviour primary due to its involvement of serotonin in impulsive-aggressive behaviour, which has been shown to be a major risk factor in suicidal behaviour. Not only on the level of neurotransmitters but also the regulation of neurotropic factors could be impaired in suicide victims. Multiple lines of evidence including studies of levels of BDNF in blood cells and plasma of suicidal patients, postmortem brain studies in suicidal subjects with or without depression, and genetic association studies linking BDNF to suicide suggest that suicidal behaviour may be associated with a decrease in BDNF functioning. It seems that especially specific gene variants regulating the serotoninergic system and other neuronal systems involved in stress response are associated with suicidal behaviour. Most genetic studies on suicidal behaviour have considered a small set of functional polymorphisms relevant mostly to monoaminergic neurotransmission. However, genes and epigenetic mechanisms involved in regulation of other factors such as BDNF seem to be even more relevant for further research.

  19. Neglect's perspective on the Ponzo illusion.

    PubMed

    Sedda, A; Ferrè, E R; Striemer, C L; Bottini, G

    2013-06-01

    Visual illusions have been used to explore implicit perception in neglect. Previous studies have highlighted differences between length and surface illusion perception in neglect, but much less is known about depth illusion perception. In the Ponzo illusion (a classic depth illusion), two converging oblique lines modulate the perceived length of two horizontal lines. In the current study, we presented modified versions of the Ponzo illusion in which only one of the converging oblique lines was presented (alternatively the right or the left one). This manipulation allowed us to explore (1) how acute patients with neglect process depth illusions, and (2) whether awareness of both converging lines is necessary for the full effect of the illusion. To examine these questions, we had participants (i.e. healthy controls, patients with neglect and right brain-damaged patients) to make a perceptual judgment regarding the perceived length of the upper versus lower horizontal line within the Ponzo frame in four conditions: (1) the classic Ponzo illusion, (2) a "modified left" Ponzo illusion with a single oblique line on the left, (3) a "modified right" Ponzo illusion with a single oblique line on the right and (4) a control condition with parallel lines. The results indicated that all participants perceived the canonical Ponzo illusion and the modified right illusion. Critically, patients with neglect did not perceive the modified left illusion. In addition, for neglect patients, there was no difference in the strength of the perceived illusion when comparing the canonical illusion with the modified right illusion. Importantly, single case analysis revealed a high degree of variability in the neglect group that seemed to be linked with the amount of damage to occipital areas. Overall our results indicate that: (1) the classic Ponzo illusion might be perceived in neglect patients based solely on perception of the right side of the stimulus configuration, and (2) differences

  20. Collagen type I from bovine bone. Effect of animal age, bone anatomy and drying methodology on extraction yield, self-assembly, thermal behaviour and electrokinetic potential.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Sayd, Thierry; Chambon, Christophe; Anton, Marc; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2017-04-01

    Natural collagen is easily available from animal tissues such as bones. Main limitations reported in the use of natural collagen are heterogeneity and loss of integrity during recovery. However, its natural complexity, functionality and bioactivity still remain to be achieved through synthetic and recombinant ways. Variability of physicochemical properties of collagen extracted from bovine bone by acetic acid was then investigated taking into account endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous: bovine's bones age (4 and 7 years) and anatomy (femur and tibia); exogenous: thermal treatments (spray-drying and lyophilisation). Scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopy (EDS, FTIR, UV/Vis and CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), centesimal composition, mass spectrometry, amino acids and zeta-potential analysis were used for the purpose. Age correlated negatively with yield of recovery and positively with minerals and proteoglycans content. Comparing the anatomy, higher yields were found for tibias, and higher stability of tibias collagen in solution was noticed. Whatever the age and the anatomy, collagens were able to renature and to self-assemble into tri-dimensional structures. Nonetheless thermal stability and kinetics of renaturation were different. Variability of natural collagen with bone age and anatomy, and drying methodology, may be a crucial advantage to conceive tailor-made applications in either the biological or technical sector.

  1. Medical implications of elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi

    2005-05-01

    Recognition of elder abuse and neglect among health care professionals has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Each year, millions of elderly persons suffer as the result of abuse and neglect. Their quality of life is severely jeopardized in the form of worsened functional status and progressive dependency, poorly rated self-health, feelings of helplessness, and from the vicious cycle of social isolation, stress and further psychologic decline. Other medical implications of abuse and neglect include higher health systems use in the form of frequent ER visits, higher hospitalization, and higher nursing home placement; most importantly, it is an independent predictor for higher mortality. Physicians are well situated in detecting and reporting suspected cases and taking care of the frail elders who are victims of abuse and neglect, but there are barriers on the individual level, and there is a broader need for system change. Through education, training, and reinforcement, there are strategies to get health care professionals more involved and provide effective management protocols and guidelines for us to advocate for our patients in the current epidemic of elder abuse and neglect.

  2. Spatial attention systems in spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2015-08-01

    It has been established that processes relating to 'spatial attention' are implemented at cortical level by goal-directed (top-down) and stimulus-driven (bottom-up) networks. Spatial neglect in brain-damaged individuals has been interpreted as a distinguished exemplar for a disturbance of these processes. The present paper elaborates this assumption. Functioning of the two attentional networks seem to dissociate in spatial neglect; behavioral studies of patients' orienting and exploration behavior point to a disturbed stimulus-driven but preserved goal-directed attention system. When a target suddenly appears somewhere in space, neglect patients demonstrate disturbed detection and orienting if it is located in contralesional direction. In contrast, if neglect patients explore a scene with voluntarily, top-down controlled shifts of spatial attention, they perform movements that are oriented into all spatial directions without any direction-specific disturbances. The paper thus argues that not the top-down control of spatial attention itself, rather a body-related matrix on top of which this process is executed, seems affected. In that sense, the traditional role of spatial neglect as a stroke model for 'spatial attention' requires adjustment. Beyond its insights into the human stimulus-driven attentional system, the disorder most notably provides vistas in how our brain encodes topographical information and organizes spatially oriented action - including the top-down control of spatial attention - in relation to body position.

  3. Neglected Thoraco Lumbar Traumatic Spine Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Kavin; Sharma, Vijay; Gupta, Babita; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To outline the etiology, complications and management difficulties encountered in the management of neglected thoracolumbar spine injuries. Overview of Literature The English literature describes overlooked diagnosis as the most common cause of neglected spine injuries. However, the reasons differ in developing or under-developed nations. Moreover, there is scarcity of literature about the neglected spinal injuries. Methods Patients presenting with thoracolumbar traumatic injuries who had not received any form of treatment for more than three weeks were included in the study. The demographic details, operative procedure performed and complications encountered, along with American Spinal Injury Association grade and spinal cord independence measure score recorded on the history sheets were noted. The data were analyzed. Results Forty patients were included in the study. Inadequate treatment at the first contact hospital (45%) followed by late presentation (38%) and missed injury (17%) were the major etiological factors for the neglected traumatic injuries in the thoracolumbar spine. The most common complications seen in the management of these cases were pressure sores (58%), back pain (57%), urinary tract infection (42%) and residual kyphotic deformity (42%). Conclusions Management of neglected thoracolumbar injuries is challenging. The delay in presentation should not prevent spine surgeon in proceeding with operative intervention as good results can be expected. PMID:27559447

  4. Goal neglect and knowledge chunking in the construction of novel behaviour☆

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Apoorva; Duncan, John

    2014-01-01

    Task complexity is critical in cognitive efficiency and fluid intelligence. To examine functional limits in task complexity, we examine the phenomenon of goal neglect, where participants with low fluid intelligence fail to follow task rules that they otherwise understand. Though neglect is known to increase with task complexity, here we show that – in contrast to previous accounts – the critical factor is not the total complexity of all task rules. Instead, when the space of task requirements can be divided into separate sub-parts, neglect is controlled by the complexity of each component part. The data also show that neglect develops and stabilizes over the first few performance trials, i.e. as instructions are first used to generate behaviour. In all complex behaviour, a critical process is combination of task events with retrieved task requirements to create focused attentional episodes dealing with each decision in turn. In large part, we suggest, fluid intelligence may reflect this process of converting complex requirements into effective attentional episodes. PMID:24141034

  5. Modelling the differential effects of prisms on perception and action in neglect.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven; Danckert, James; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Damage to the right parietal cortex often leads to a syndrome known as unilateral neglect in which the patient fails to attend or respond to stimuli in left space. Recent work attempting to rehabilitate the disorder has made use of rightward-shifting prisms that displace visual input further rightward. After a brief period of adaptation to prisms, many of the symptoms of neglect show improvements that can last for hours or longer, depending on the adaptation procedure. Recent work has shown, however, that differential effects of prisms can be observed on actions (which are typically improved) and perceptual biases (which often remain unchanged). Here, we present a computational model capable of explaining some basic symptoms of neglect (line bisection behaviour), the effects of prism adaptation in both healthy controls and neglect patients and the observed dissociation between action and perception following prisms. The results of our simulations support recent contentions that prisms primarily influence behaviours normally thought to be controlled by the dorsal stream.

  6. Spatial attention and neglect: parietal, frontal and cingulate contributions to the mental representation and attentional targeting of salient extrapersonal events.

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, M M

    1999-01-01

    The syndrome of contralesional neglect reflects a lateralized disruption of spatial attention. In the human, the left hemisphere shifts attention predominantly in the contralateral hemispace and in a contraversive direction whereas the right hemisphere distributes attention more evenly, in both hemispaces and both directions. As a consequence of this asymmetry, severe contralesional neglect occurs almost exclusively after right hemisphere lesions. Patients with left neglect experience a loss of salience in the mental representation and conscious perception of the left side and display a reluctance to direct orientating and exploratory behaviours to the left. Neglect is distributed according to egocentric, allocentric, world-centred, and object-centred frames of reference. Neglected events can continue to exert an implicit influence on behaviour, indicating that the attentional filtering occurs at the level of an internalized representation rather than at the level of peripheral sensory input. The unilateral neglect syndrome is caused by a dysfunction of a large-scale neurocognitive network, the cortical epicentres of which are located in posterior parietal cortex, the frontal eye fields, and the cingulate gyrus. This network coordinates all aspects of spatial attention, regardless of the modality of input or output. It helps to compile a mental representation of extrapersonal events in terms of their motivational salience, and to generate 'kinetic strategies' so that the attentional focus can shift from one target to another. PMID:10466154

  7. The development of animal personality: relevance, concepts and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Judy; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies of animal personality have focused on its proximate causation and its ecological and evolutionary significance, but have mostly ignored questions about its development, although an understanding of the latter is highly relevant to these other questions. One possible reason for this neglect is confusion about many of the concepts and terms that are necessary to study the development of animal personality. Here, we provide a framework for studying personality development that focuses on the properties of animal personality, and considers how and why these properties may change over time. We specifically focus on three dimensions of personality: (1) contextual generality at a given age or time, (2) temporal consistency in behavioural traits and in relationships between traits, and (3) the effects of genes and experience on the development of personality at a given age or life stage. We advocate using a new approach, contextual reaction norms, to study the contextual generality of personality traits at the level of groups, individuals and genotypes, show how concepts and terms borrowed from the literature on personality development in humans can be used to study temporal changes in personality at the level of groups and individuals, and demonstrate how classical developmental reaction norms can provide insights into the ways that genes and experiential factors interact across ontogeny to affect the expression of personality traits. In addition, we discuss how correlations between the effects of genes and experience on personality development can arise as a function of individuals' control over their own environment, via niche-picking or niche-construction. Using this framework, we discuss several widely held assumptions about animal personality development that still await validation, identify neglected methodological issues, and describe a number of promising new avenues for future research.

  8. Neglect Dyslexia: Frequency, Association with Other Hemispatial Neglects, and Lesion Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Eun-Joo; Seo, Sang Won; Choi, Kyung Mook; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Na, Duk L.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with right hemisphere injury often omit or misread words on the left side of a page or the beginning letters of single words (neglect dyslexia). Our study involving a large sample of acute right hemisphere stroke investigated (1) the frequency of neglect dyslexia (ND), (2) the association between ND and other types of contralesional…

  9. Understanding Communities of Neglectful Parents: Child Caregiving Networks and Child Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditti, Martha G.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on family social networks and the community of caregivers of neglected children. If neglect is part of family functioning, who watches over the children? Using a case study approach, this study researched 12 children and their parents. Several concepts, such as multiple caregiving and kin keepers, revealed that study children…

  10. Error types and error positions in neglect dyslexia: comparative analyses in neglect patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Weinzierl, Christiane; Kerkhoff, Georg; van Eimeren, Lucia; Keller, Ingo; Stenneken, Prisca

    2012-10-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect frequently involves a lateralised reading disorder, neglect dyslexia (ND). Reading of single words in ND is characterised by left-sided omissions and substitutions of letters. However, it is unclear whether the distribution of error types and positions within a word shows a unique pattern of ND when directly compared to healthy controls. This question has been difficult to answer so far, given the usually low number of reading errors in healthy controls. Therefore, the present study compared single word reading of 18 patients with left-sided neglect, due to right-hemisphere stroke, and 11 age-matched healthy controls, and adjusted individual task difficulty (by varying stimulus presentation times in participants) in order to reach approximately equal error rates between neglect patients and controls. Results showed that, while both omission and substitution errors were frequently produced in neglect patients and controls, only omissions appeared neglect-specific when task difficulty was adapted between groups. Analyses of individual letter positions within words revealed that the spatial distribution of reading errors in the neglect dyslexic patients followed an almost linear increase from the end to the beginning of the word (right-to-left-gradient). Both, the gradient in error positions and the predominance of omission errors presented a neglect-specific pattern. Consistent with current models of visual word processing, these findings suggest that ND reflects sublexical, visuospatial attentional mechanisms in letter string encoding.

  11. Error Types and Error Positions in Neglect Dyslexia: Comparative Analyses in Neglect Patients and Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinzierl, Christiane; Kerkhoff, Georg; van Eimeren, Lucia; Keller, Ingo; Stenneken, Prisca

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect frequently involves a lateralised reading disorder, neglect dyslexia (ND). Reading of single words in ND is characterised by left-sided omissions and substitutions of letters. However, it is unclear whether the distribution of error types and positions within a word shows a unique pattern of ND when directly compared to…

  12. Working toward a conceptual definition of child neglect.

    PubMed

    Tang, Connie M

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of child neglect has been nebulous due to limited research on child neglect and the meshing of child neglect with child abuse. There are disagreements among neglect researchers about several important issues, such as whether to frame child neglect as a child's unmet needs or as omissions in parental behavior. It has therefore been difficult to develop a standard conceptual definition of child neglect. In this article, a conceptual definition of child neglect is proposed. The definition's stand on a few important issues is discussed. Finally, how the conceptual definition can guide the formulation of operational definitions for both research and practice is described.

  13. Neglected Children, Shame-Proneness, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed. PMID:20724372

  14. Elder abuse and neglect: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gorbien, Martin J; Eisenstein, Amy R

    2005-05-01

    The dramatic growth of the American elderly population has great implications for our health care system. The "demographic imperative" that has fueled the awareness of the needs of older adults has a major impact on issues related to social welfare, justice, and economics. There are 45 million people over the age of 60 and 3 million over the age of 85. Those over age 85 represent the fastest growing segment of the elderly population. With this trend comes a segment of the population that is at risk for abuse, neglect, or self-neglect. We are challenged to be aware of the many faces of elder mistreatment and to understand it in the broader context of domestic violence. All health care professionals working with older adults need to become familiar with the recognition, treatment, and prevention of elder abuse and neglect.

  15. Recognizing and reporting elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Halphen, John M; Varas, Grace M; Sadowsky, June M

    2009-07-01

    Elder abuse (physical, sexual, or psychological) and neglect (by caretakers or self-neglect) are major public health problems. Most cases are not identified by clinicians and reported to the appropriate government agencies. There are some barriers to clinician identification and reporting of cases of elder abuse or neglect. These barriers mainly result from a lack of clinician education and comfort regarding this topic. We propose that clinician understanding of the phenomenon of elder mistreatment, familiarity with a simple approach to screening and identification of cases, awareness of risk factors and warning signs, and awareness of appropriate interventions will help to eliminate these barriers and result in clinicians properly fulfilling their duty to help protect their most vulnerable elderly patients.

  16. Implicit representation and explicit detection of features in patients with hemispatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Van Vleet, Thomas M; Robertson, Lynn C

    2009-07-01

    Despite profound inattention to the side of space opposite a brain lesion in patients with unilateral neglect, priming studies demonstrate that undetected stimuli are capable of influencing subsequent behaviour. However, the nature of implicit processing of neglected stimuli is poorly understood. In the current study, we examined implicit processing in five patients with neglect using both visual search and priming methods. A psychophysical staircase method varying time of presentation was first used to establish a high (75%) and low (25%) detection probability for targets in both a feature and a conjunction search array. The arrays were then used in a priming task to examine how a difference in the level of overt detection of a feature or a conjunction presented in neglected space influenced subsequent discrimination speed to a single probe presented at fixation. The results showed that priming effects with feature primes were independent of their explicit detection rates (high versus low), but priming effects with conjunction primes reflected the pattern of explicit detection. These findings are discussed as they relate to availability versus accessibility of neglected stimuli.

  17. Disease behaviours of sows naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Forkman, Björn

    2017-02-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium lodging in the central nervous system. Both humans and pigs can get NCC. The impact of the disease in pigs has so far been little explored. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of NCC on social and feeding behaviours as well as the pattern of activity as indicators of reduced welfare in naturally infected sows. In total 13 T. solium naturally infected and 15 non-infected control sows were videotaped for 2 consecutive weeks using close circuit television cameras at research facilities at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. Videos were analysed at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the 2 week recording period. For each time point, videos were analysed during feeding, while the enrichment was provided, and by recording every half an hour the sows' behaviours performed over the course of a whole day. Sows with NCC spent significantly less time at the feeding trough, especially during the second half of the feeding period. Infected sows were also more passive e.g. lying and standing still significantly more during a whole day period and showed social isolation compared to non-infected control sows by performing behaviours more distant to their nearest neighbour. Results of this study indicated that NCC changed the behaviour of infected sows. The behavioural changes are indicative of decreased welfare. Efforts to reinforce the animal welfare aspect are needed as this has so far been neglected.

  18. Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K; Mukunth, R; Srivastava, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU) femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the “Pubmed” search with the keywords “NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture.” A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a) treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG), (b) closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c) open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d) miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective), classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu's staging) neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90% cases

  19. Treatment of the neglected Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Nicholas J

    2012-04-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are best managed acutely. Neglected Achilles tendon ruptures are debilitating injuries and the increased complexity of the situation must be appreciated. Surgical management is recommended, and only in the poorest surgical candidate is conservative treatment entertained. Numerous treatment algorithms and surgical techniques have been described. A V-Y advancement flap and flexor halluces longus tendon transfer have been found to be reliable and achieve good clinical outcomes for defects ranging from 2 cm to 8 cm. This article focuses on the treatment options for the neglected Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Recognizing and responding to medical neglect.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Carole

    2007-12-01

    A caregiver may fail to recognize or respond to a child's medical needs for a variety of reasons. An effective response by a health care professional to medical neglect requires a comprehensive assessment of the child's needs, the parents' resources, the parents' efforts to provide for the needs of the child, and options for ensuring optimal health for the child. Such an assessment requires clear, 2-way communication between the family and the health care professional. Physicians should consider the least intrusive options for managing cases of medical neglect that ensure the health and safety of the child.

  1. Animal tool-use.

    PubMed

    Seed, Amanda; Byrne, Richard

    2010-12-07

    The sight of an animal making and using a tool captivates scientists and laymen alike, perhaps because it forces us to question some of our ideas about human uniqueness. Does the animal know how the tool works? Did it anticipate the need for the tool and make it in advance? To some, this fascination with tools seems arbitrary and anthropocentric; after all, animals engage in many other complex activities, like nest building, and we know that complex behaviour need not be cognitively demanding. But tool-using behaviour can also provide a powerful window into the minds of living animals, and help us to learn what capacities we share with them - and what might have changed to allow for the incontrovertibly unique levels of technology shown by modern humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface-layer (S-layer) of human and animal Clostridium difficile strains and their behaviour in adherence to epithelial cells and intestinal colonization.

    PubMed

    Spigaglia, Patrizia; Barketi-Klai, Amira; Collignon, Anne; Mastrantonio, Paola; Barbanti, Fabrizio; Rupnik, Maja; Janezic, Sandra; Kansau, Imad

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is a frequent cause of severe, recurrent post-antibiotic diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The surface layer (S-layer) is the predominant outer surface component of C. difficile which is involved in pathogen-host interactions critical to pathogenesis. In this study, we characterized the S-layer protein A (SlpA) of animal and human strains belonging to different PCR-ribotypes (PR) and compared the in vitro adherence and in vivo colonization properties of strains showing different SlpA variants. Since each SlpA variant has been recently associated with an S-layer cassette, we were able to deduce the cassette for each of our strains. In this study, an identity of 99-100 % was found among the SlpA of isolates belonging to PR 012, 014/020, 045 and 078. One exception was the SlpA of a poultry isolate, PR 014/020, which showed 99 % identity with that of strain 0160, another PR 014/020 which contains an S-layer cassette 6. Interestingly, this cassette has also been found in a PR 018 strain, an emerging virulent type currently predominant in Italy. Five other SlpA variants (v014/020a-e) were identified in strains PR 014/020. In vitro adherence assays and in vivo colonization experiments were performed on five PR 014/020 strains: human 1064 (v014/020e), human 4684/08 (v014/020b), human IT1106 (v078a), poultry P30 (v014/020d) and poultry PB90 (v014/020b) strains. Adhesion assays indicate that C. difficile strains vary in their capacity to adhere to cells in culture and that adhesion seems to be independent of the SlpA variant. Colonization properties were assessed in vivo using a dixenic mouse model of colonization. The kinetics of faecal shedding and caecal colonization were similar when human 4684/08 (v014/020b) strain was compared with human 1064 (v014/020e) and poultry PB90 (v014/020b) strain. In contrast, poultry P30 (v014/020d) strain outcompeted both human 4684/08 (v014/020b) and IT1106 (v078a) strains and its adherence to caeca at day 7 was

  3. Semantic category effects modulate visual priming in neglect patients.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Maria P; Marzi, Tessa; Forni, Marco; Righi, Stefania; Franceschini, Rossella; Peru, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies indicate that extinguished stimuli can still be unconsciously processed, leading to implicit priming effects. Here we investigated whether these implicit effects might be modulated by the semantic nature of the stimuli. Five neglect patients and ten controls performed an identification task of items belonging to living and non-living categories. In the study phase photographs of animals and artifacts were presented either to the left visual field (LVF) or to the right visual field (RVF). In the identification phase, each stimulus was displayed centrally and was revealed in a sequence of frames where the item was represented by an increasingly less and less filtered image up to a complete version. The results showed that lateralized stimuli differentially affected controls' and neglect patients' memory retrieval. In controls memory traces from the study phase served as efficient primes, thereby reducing the amount of information necessary for the identification of both stimulus categories. Moreover, hemispheric differences emerged with an advantage of the RVF/left hemisphere for artifact items, while no difference was found for living things. Neglect patients showed a priming effect for artifact items presented either to the RVF/left hemisphere or LVF/right hemisphere, as well as for living items presented to the RVF/left hemisphere, but not for living items presented to the LVF/right hemisphere. The priming effect observed for extinguished artifacts is consistent with the evidence of the existence of a specific mechanism destined to analyze, in an automatic and implicit fashion, motor-relevant information of manipulable objects and tools, which are important for identification process. Results are discussed in relation to current models of organization of conceptual knowledge within the framework of different processes performed by the two hemispheres.

  4. Attention to the neglected: prospects for research on child neglect for the next decade.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Maholmes, Valerie

    2013-02-01

    In 1997, the National Institutes of Health within the United States Department of Health and Human Services reviewed the state of its research on child abuse and neglect (US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 1997). The findings suggested that although neglect was the most frequent type of child maltreatment, research studies were lacking. Through an unprecedented partnership across federal funding agencies for research on child neglect, research was encouraged in several areas. Over the past fifteen years, consortia of researchers have continued to increase our knowledge of child neglect and to shape the field. Nonetheless, challenges for research on child neglect remain, including the changing demographics of the nation and health disparities. Evidenced-based early interventions and treatments may be an opportunity for prevention of child neglect and improving child welfare services, particularly in an era of health care reform. Developmental researchers across the translational pipeline are encouraged to integrate child neglect research in future studies to inform prevention, treatment and policy efforts for the improved health and well-being of children, families and communities.

  5. Defining child neglect based on child protective services data.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Pitts, Steven C; Litrownik, Alan J; Cox, Christine E; Runyan, Desmond; Black, Maureen M

    2005-05-01

    To compare neglect defined by Child Protective Services official codes with neglect defined by a review of CPS narrative data, and to examine the validity of the different neglect measures using children's functioning at age 8 years. Data are from 740 children participating in a consortium of longitudinal studies on child abuse and neglect; 481 had at least one CPS report prior to age 8. CPS records were reviewed to ascertain both broad CPS types of neglect as well as specific subtypes of neglect using a modified version of the Maltreatment Classification System (MMCS). Frequencies of, and correlations among, the types and subtypes of neglect were examined. The validity of the neglect measures was evaluated by examining their relationships with children's functioning at age 8. The CPS neglect types and MMCS subtypes were moderately correlated, as were the MMCS subtypes of neglect. In general, neglect was only modestly associated with children's functioning at age 8 (r2=1-4%), with few differences between the CPS neglect types and the MMCS subtypes. There were significant associations with children's total and externalizing behavior problems, impaired socialization, and impaired daily living skills. Among the specific subtypes, neglect of children's medical needs was related to externalizing behavior problems, impaired socialization, and impaired daily living skills. Neglect of children's hygiene needs was related to impaired socialization. The moderate correlations among CPS and MMCS types and subtypes of neglect and their similar associations with children's functioning suggest that the considerable effort involved in coding neglect subtypes from CPS narrative data may yield limited incremental knowledge regarding the types of neglect children experience and their sequelae. However, the MMCS does offer useful descriptive information on the nature of neglect children experience, and may guide future research and practice on optimal ways to conceptualize neglect.

  6. Diogenes syndrome: the self-neglect elderly.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ortiz, C A

    2001-01-01

    Diogenes syndrome (DS) is characterized by severe self-neglect, domestic squalor, social withdrawal, syllogomania, and refusal of help that may be precipitated by stressful events. Secondary DS is related to mental disorders. Its management includes day care center and community care.

  7. Multi-Target Drugs for Neglected Diseases.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Luciana; Filho, Francisco J B M; de Moura, Ricardo O; Ribeiro, Frederico F; Ishiki, Hamilton; da Silva, Marcelo S; Filho, José M B; Scotti, Marcus T

    2016-05-30

    Diseases perceived as neglected tropical infections are generally caused by parasites which reach poor, underserved populations (primarily infrastructure), cause serious damage to health, and many deaths. AIDS and tuberculosis, (although not classified as neglected by WHO), are discriminated against infections which cause great social damage. The drugs currently used to treat these diseases do not have the desired effectiveness, enable the emergence of resistant strains, and in most cases are difficult to obtain. Few pharmaceutical companies are investing in new drug research for neglected diseases, for lack of financial return. This review reports the major neglected diseases, AIDS, tuberculosis, their targets, and research on multi-target drugs. The studies for new drugs against these infections involve in silico methods, synthesis, structural determinations, analytical analysis and other experimental assays. A new single compound, forecasting possible pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions becomes a simpler process; it is also believed that these drugs are safer and more efficient, since they act with synergism on different targets. It occurs but the emergence of new resistant strains and side effects. Multi-target drugs represent a new alternative to find new lead compounds. A ligand that targets two or more receivers may be seen as a potential drug, combating infection by different routes.

  8. The Neglected Majority--20th Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    It is the 20th anniversary of the release of Dale Parnell's landmark book "The Neglected Majority". In this book, Parnell pointed out that for too long America's educational system has focused on the highest and lowest achievers. He made the case that most of those students in the middle two high school quartiles neither prepare for nor aspire to…

  9. Child Abuse and Neglect. Data Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…

  10. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  11. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  12. Elder Abuse and Neglect: The Illinois Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.

    This document outlines the ideas of the Illinois Department of Aging on the implementation and management of the Elder Abuse and Neglect Intervention Program. These topics are addressed in order to provide a basis for discussion of key elements of the proposed program and serve as a guide in the development of rules, policies, and procedures for…

  13. Social capital, family violence, and neglect.

    PubMed

    Zolotor, Adam J; Runyan, Desmond K

    2006-06-01

    Social capital includes collective efficacy, psychological sense of community, neighborhood cohesion, and parental investment in the child. It has been shown to be associated with a variety of health and welfare outcomes and may be useful in understanding and preventing parenting behaviors on the continuum of child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this research was to evaluate low social capital as a risk factor for harsh physical punishment, neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. This study is an analysis of cross-sectional telephone survey data of mothers in North and South Carolina (n = 1435). We constructed a 4-point social capital index reflecting survey responses to items ascertaining neighborhood characteristics, willingness to take personal action, the presence of 2 adults in the household, and regular religious service participation. We assessed the relationship of social capital to inventories of self-reported parenting behaviors and in-home violence. In adjusted analysis, we found that each 1 point increase in a 4-point social capital index was associated with a 30% reduction in the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. There was no relationship between social capital and harsh physical punishment. This study demonstrates that increasing social capital decreases the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence but not harsh physical punishment. This supports further investigation into developing social capital as a resource for families.

  14. U.S. Books Abroad: Neglected Ambassadors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Curtis G.

    Emphasizing that books are keys to cultural development, catalysts to trade, and unparalleled (but "neglected") ambassadors of American culture, this report points out the need for a new international outlook on the part of the entire United States publishing community. The report calls for a renewed cooperative approach, which would bring…

  15. Elder Abuse and Neglect: The Illinois Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.

    This document outlines the ideas of the Illinois Department of Aging on the implementation and management of the Elder Abuse and Neglect Intervention Program. These topics are addressed in order to provide a basis for discussion of key elements of the proposed program and serve as a guide in the development of rules, policies, and procedures for…

  16. Child Abuse and Neglect in American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Ronald S.

    Child abuse and neglect among American Indians is a political as well as a clinical problem, as the victims belong to one cultural group and health professionls who detect maltreatment generally belong to another. Reluctance to diagnose and report child abuse, although universal, is probably more significant in Indian communities for several…

  17. Observations of Select Neglected Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Darren

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of four neglected doubles in the USNO Northern list, set I1 were measured using a 105mm refractor and the Celestron/Baader 12.5mm Microguide eyepiece.All Observations were made at the Brookside Astronomical Observatory (BAO), Edmonton, AB Canada: 53.492°N, 113.569°W, elev. 660m.

  18. Interdisciplinary Education in Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venters, Maurine; ten Bensel, Robert

    1977-01-01

    A structured graduate interdisciplinary course on child abuse and neglect is offered to students in various types of professional training at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health. It also encourages communication among students from law, medicine, social work, education, and other fields. (Author/LBH)

  19. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  20. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  1. Using Virtual Reality to Rehabilitate Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Sedda, A.; Borghese, N. A.; Ronchetti, M.; Mainetti, R.; Pasotti, F.; Beretta, G.; Bottini, G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Virtual Reality (VR) platforms gained a lot of attention in the rehabilitation field due to their ability to engage patients and the opportunity they offer to use real world scenarios. As neglect is characterized by an impairment in exploring space that greatly affects daily living, VR could be a powerful tool compared to classical paper and pencil tasks and computer training. Nevertheless, available platforms are costly and obstructive. Here we describe a low cost platform for neglect rehabilitation, that using consumer equipments allows the patient to train at home in an intensive fashion. Method: We tested the platform on IB, a chronic neglect patient, who did not benefit from classical rehabilitation. Results: Our results show that IB improved both in terms of neglect and attention. Importantly, these ameliorations lasted at a follow up evaluation 5 months after the last treatment session and generalized to everyday life activities. Conclusions: VR platforms built using equipment technology and following theoretical principles on brain functioning may induce greater ameliorations in visuo-spatial deficits than classical paradigms possibly thanks to the real world scenarios in association with the “visual feedback” of the patient’s own body operating in the virtual environment. PMID:22713415

  2. Child Abuse and Neglect Thesaurus, May, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herner and Co., Washington, DC.

    The thesaurus contains approximately 4,000 terms used in indexing material for the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. It is explained that the descriptor compilation was first developed in 1975 from existing thesauri and dictionaries. Descriptors are arranged in alphabetic, permuted and group displays, and listings include references to…

  3. Child Abuse and Neglect Legal Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talan, Teri N.; And Others

    This handbook was written by the Child Advocate Association in an attempt to clarify the laws and legal procedures governing child abuse and neglect. While some of the legal material is technical and is included to provide practical assistance to attorneys, the bulk of the material is intended for social workers, police, and school and medical…

  4. Neglected Areas in Evaluating Writing Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keech, Catharine Lucas

    The heavy concentration of time and funds to measure writing performance is the major reason other areas deserving scrutiny are so often neglected by evaluators. Three failings typical of the field of writing assessment as it is conducted for the purpose of program evaluation are: (1) a failure to view writing as a multiple construct; (2) a…

  5. The Neglected Tools Can Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Mac M.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the resources and techniques available to the classroom teacher of English as a second or foreign language, none are more neglected than audiovisual aids. Properly planned, constructed, and employed, such aids can help not only to improve the overall language program but also to enhance the classroom atmosphere and to ensure greater student…

  6. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  7. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  8. Quo vadis venomics? A roadmap to neglected venomous invertebrates.

    PubMed

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I; Jenner, Ronald A

    2014-12-19

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.

  9. Giardia and Cryptosporidium join the 'Neglected Diseases Initiative'.

    PubMed

    Savioli, L; Smith, H; Thompson, A

    2006-05-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are ubiquitous enteric protozoan pathogens that infect humans, domestic animals and wildlife worldwide. Both pathogens are significant causes of diarrhea and nutritional disorders in institutional and community settings. They are also significant waterborne pathogens. In developing regions of the world, Giardia and Cryptosporidium constitute part of the complex group of parasitic, bacterial and viral diseases that impair the ability to achieve full potential and impair development and socio-economic improvements. All diseases included in the WHO Neglected Diseases Initiative have a common link with poverty and, as the current view is to take a comprehensive approach to all these diseases, both Giardia and Cryptosporidium were included in 2004. Our current state of knowledge of Giardia and Cryptosporidium is summarized here, and some important questions are raised that need to be addressed if control strategies are to be effective.

  10. Split-brain patients neglect left personal space during right-handed gestures.

    PubMed

    Lausberg, Hedda; Kita, Sotaro; Zaidel, Eran; Ptito, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Since some patients with right hemisphere damage or with spontaneous callosal disconnection neglect the left half of space, it has been suggested that the left cerebral hemisphere predominantly attends to the right half of space. However, clinical investigations of patients having undergone surgical callosal section have not shown neglect when the hemispheres are tested separately. These observations question the validity of theoretical models that propose a left hemispheric specialisation for attending to the right half of space. The present study aims to investigate neglect and the use of space by either hand in gestural demonstrations in three split-brain patients as compared to five patients with partial callosotomy and 11 healthy subjects. Subjects were asked to demonstrate with precise gestures and without speaking the content of animated scenes with two moving objects. The results show that in the absence of primary perceptual or representational neglect, split-brain patients neglect left personal space in right-handed gestural demonstrations. Since this neglect of left personal space cannot be explained by directional or spatial akinesia, it is suggested that it originates at the conceptual level, where the spatial coordinates for right-hand gestures are planned. The present findings are at odds with the position that the separate left hemisphere possesses adequate mechanisms for acting in both halves of space and neglect results from right hemisphere suppression of this potential. Rather, the results provide support for theoretical models that consider the left hemisphere as specialised for processing the right half of space during the execution of descriptive gestures.

  11. Non-accidental burns in children--are we neglecting neglect?

    PubMed

    Chester, Darren L; Jose, Rajive Mathew; Aldlyami, Ehab; King, Helen; Moiemen, Naiem S

    2006-03-01

    Although many studies have described burn abuse in detail, burns that have occurred as a result of neglect have been studied to a much lesser degree. A retrospective study of 440 hospitalised paediatric burns patients during 2000-2002 inclusive was performed. A multidisciplinary team investigation of suspicious cases was used. This included a home assessment. There were 41 cases of neglect (9.3%) and 395 cases of accidental burning (89.8%). Parental drug abuse, single parent families, delay to presentation and a lack of first aid were statistically more prevalent in the "neglect" group than in the "accidental" group. Children in the "neglect" group were also statistically more likely to have deeper burns and require skin grafting. 82.9% of children whose burns were deemed to be due to neglect had a previous entry on the child protection register. 48.8% were transferred into foster care. This study shows that burning by neglect is far more prevalent than abuse. We advocate a multidisciplinary investigation coupled with the use of home assessments to aid diagnosis. It may be possible to target preventative strategies on the children with the above risk factors.

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying the evolvability of behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of nervous systems alters the evolvability of behaviour. Complex nervous systems are phylogenetically constrained; nevertheless particular species-specific behaviours have repeatedly evolved, suggesting a predisposition towards those behaviours. Independently evolved behaviours in animals that share a common neural architecture are generally produced by homologous neural structures, homologous neural pathways and even in the case of some invertebrates, homologous identified neurons. Such parallel evolution has been documented in the chromatic sensitivity of visual systems, motor behaviours and complex social behaviours such as pair-bonding. The appearance of homoplasious behaviours produced by homologous neural substrates suggests that there might be features of these nervous systems that favoured the repeated evolution of particular behaviours. Neuromodulation may be one such feature because it allows anatomically defined neural circuitry to be re-purposed. The developmental, genetic and physiological mechanisms that contribute to nervous system complexity may also bias the evolution of behaviour, thereby affecting the evolvability of species-specific behaviour. PMID:21690127

  13. Neural mechanisms underlying the evolvability of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Katz, Paul S

    2011-07-27

    The complexity of nervous systems alters the evolvability of behaviour. Complex nervous systems are phylogenetically constrained; nevertheless particular species-specific behaviours have repeatedly evolved, suggesting a predisposition towards those behaviours. Independently evolved behaviours in animals that share a common neural architecture are generally produced by homologous neural structures, homologous neural pathways and even in the case of some invertebrates, homologous identified neurons. Such parallel evolution has been documented in the chromatic sensitivity of visual systems, motor behaviours and complex social behaviours such as pair-bonding. The appearance of homoplasious behaviours produced by homologous neural substrates suggests that there might be features of these nervous systems that favoured the repeated evolution of particular behaviours. Neuromodulation may be one such feature because it allows anatomically defined neural circuitry to be re-purposed. The developmental, genetic and physiological mechanisms that contribute to nervous system complexity may also bias the evolution of behaviour, thereby affecting the evolvability of species-specific behaviour.

  14. Cephalopod consciousness: behavioural evidence.

    PubMed

    Mather, Jennifer A

    2008-03-01

    Behavioural evidence suggests that cephalopod molluscs may have a form of primary consciousness. First, the linkage of brain to behaviour seen in lateralization, sleep and through a developmental context is similar to that of mammals and birds. Second, cephalopods, especially octopuses, are heavily dependent on learning in response to both visual and tactile cues, and may have domain generality and form simple concepts. Third, these animals are aware of their position, both within themselves and in larger space, including having a working memory of foraging areas in the recent past. Thus if using a 'global workspace' which evaluates memory input and focuses attention is the criterion, cephalopods appear to have primary consciousness.

  15. Naming rotated pictures and the riddle of object-centred neglect.

    PubMed

    Cubelli, R; Speri, V

    2001-04-01

    In this study eight patients with left neglect were asked to name chimerical pictures of objects and animals with different spatial orientation: standard upright position, rotated 180 degrees, rotated 90 degrees to the right, and rotated 90 degrees to the left. All patients showed the typical pattern of egocentric neglect. They omitted the left part of the normally upright pictures and the right part of the inverted stimuli, now falling in the left space. When the pictures were tilted 90 degrees to the right, they reported the two component objects with the same level of accuracy. However, at variance with egocentric neglect, when the chimerical pictures were rotated 90 degrees to the left, the patients omitted the left half of the stimulus more often than the right half. We propose that since in the latter condition the less informative lower part of the pictures was available in the non-neglected space, the patients mentally rotated the perceived stimulus and aligned it with its upright orientation before naming its component parts. In our interpretation, the mental orientation and normalisation of rotated stimuli might underlie all the reported evidence of object-centred neglect for non-orthographic stimuli.

  16. Synchronization of fronto-parietal beta and theta networks as a signature of visual awareness in neglect.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Heide, Wolfgang; Grumbt, Michael; Schürmann, Martin

    2017-02-01

    In the neglect syndrome, the perceptual deficit for contra-lesional hemi-space is increasingly viewed as a dysfunction of fronto-parietal cortical networks, the disruption of which has been described in neuroanatomical and hemodynamic studies. Here we exploit the superior temporal resolution of electroencephalography (EEG) to study dynamic transient connectivity of fronto-parietal circuits at early stages of visual perception in neglect. As reflected by inter-regional phase synchronization in a full-field attention task, two functionally distinct fronto-parietal networks, in beta (15-25Hz) and theta (4-8Hz) frequency bands, were related to stimulus discrimination within the first 200 ms of visual processing. Neglect pathology was specifically associated with significant suppressions of both beta and theta networks engaging right parietal regions. These connectivity abnormalities occurred in a pattern that was distinctly different from what was observed in right-hemisphere lesion patients without neglect. Also, both beta and theta abnormalities contributed additively to visual awareness decrease, quantified in the Behavioural Inattention Test. These results provide evidence for the impairment of fast dynamic fronto-parietal interactions during early stages of visual processing in neglect pathology. Also, they reveal that different modes of fronto-parietal dysfunction contribute independently to deficits in visual awareness at the behavioural level.

  17. Animal behaviour: monarchs catch a cold.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2013-03-18

    The spectacular migration of the Monarch from northeastern America to its overwintering grounds in Mexico requires the butterfly to set its time-compensated compass south in the autumn, then north in the spring for its return home. The stimulus responsible for compass resetting has been identified as a reduction in temperature.

  18. Animal Behaviour: Friendship Enhances Trust in Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Silk, Joan

    2016-01-25

    Individuals that participate in exchanges with delayed rewards can be exploited if their partners don't reciprocate. In humans, friendships are built on trust, and trust enhances cooperation. New evidence suggests that close social bonds also enhance trust in chimpanzees.

  19. Physical abuse and neglect of children.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Bennett, Susan

    2007-06-02

    Child maltreatment includes physical abuse and neglect, and happens in all countries and cultures. Child maltreatment usually results from interactions between several risk factors (such as parental depression, stress, and social isolation). Physicians can incorporate methods to screen for risk factors into their usual appointments with the family. Detection of physical abuse is dependent on the doctor's ability to recognise suspicious injuries, such as bruising, bite marks, burns, bone fractures, or trauma to the head or abdomen. Neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the USA. It can be caused by insufficient parental knowledge; intentional negligence is rare. Suspected cases of child abuse should be well documented and reported to the appropriate public agency which should assess the situation and help to protect the child.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from neglected meningocele

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abrar A.; Raswan, Uday K.; Malik, Nayil K.; Ramzan, Altaf U.; Lone, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Background: A neural tube defect (NTD) is a common congenital anomaly with an incidence of 6.57–8.21 per 1000 live births. Patients usually present early because of obvious swelling or due to neurological deficit. However, neglecting the obvious cystic swelling on the back till its transformation into malignant tumor is rare. Case Description: We describe a case of malignant transformation of meningocele in a 60-year-old man. Magnetic resonance imaging showed sacral meningocele. Neurological examination revealed intact motor and sensory examination with normal bladder and bowel function. There were no signs of meningitis and hydrocephalus. Excision was done and biopsy revealed it as squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Meningocele should be treated early and possibility of malignant change should be kept in mind in neglected cases presenting in adulthood. PMID:28194302

  1. Visual neglect during intracarotid amobarbital testing.

    PubMed

    Spiers, P A; Schomer, D L; Blume, H W; Kleefield, J; O'Reilly, G; Weintraub, S; Osborne-Shaefer, P; Mesulam, M M

    1990-10-01

    The unilateral suppression of hemispheric function by sodium amobarbital may result in hemispatial visual neglect, as measured by performance on a random letter cancellation task. Our study not only investigates this hypothesis but also attempts to identify more precisely the anatomic locus of control for directed attention to extrapersonal space by correlating scanning performance with EEG activity. Forty-eight consecutive patients with epilepsy underwent preoperative intracarotid amobarbital tests. The results indicated that disruption of scanning and contralateral neglect occurred only after right-hemisphere suppression and seemed specifically related to changes in right frontal lobe EEG activity. This pattern of performance held not only for right-handed subjects, but also for those who were left-handed, and even for those who had right-hemisphere language dominance.

  2. Medicolegal aspects of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Richard D; Bross, Donald C

    2002-04-01

    Neurosurgeons that see children and care for those with traumatic injury are highly likely to see cases of child abuse and neglect. That fact makes it inevitable that they will encounter the legal system. It is hoped that this article has demystified the legal process and systems that one encounters in day-to-day practice. Avoiding the diagnosis of abuse because of lack of knowledge or phobia of the legal system is hazardous to the health and well-being of children.

  3. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data System Glossary Listen < Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  4. Acts of Omission: An Overview of Child Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... reviews definitions and strategies for assessing neglect, presents lessons learned about prevention and intervention, and suggests sources of ... reviews definitions and strategies for assessing neglect, presents lessons learned about prevention and intervention, and suggests sources of ...

  5. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  6. Is space representation distorted in neglect?

    PubMed

    Karnath, H O; Ferber, S

    1999-01-01

    It has been argued that neglect of contralateral stimuli following brain damage might be associated with either a compressed or an anisometric neural representation of space along the earth-horizontal axis. Two different models have been put forward. One model proposes a uniform compression of subjective space, while the other envisages an expansion on one side of space and a compression on the other. We tested these models by determining neglect patients' perception of spatial distances in the horizontal plane. The models differ concerning the expected degree of under- vs overestimation of distances in the left and right hemispace. In the first experiment, patients were asked to position ten red LEDs equidistantly along a semicircle, which was located horizontally in front of them at eye level. A second experiment compared the patients' subjective perception of short, medium and long distances extending into left and right hemispace. We found no evidence for any compression or expansion, nor for anisometry along the earth-horizontal axis. These findings argue against a distortion of subjective space along the horizontal axis in patients with neglect which could account for their failure to orient towards and to explore the contralesional parts of space.

  7. Child abuse and neglect: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Gert; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Banaschak, Sibylle; Brosig, Burkhard; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-04-01

    The findings of studies on the frequency of violence against children imply that many cases go undetected. Selective literature review based on a search of different databases for publications on all types of violence against children, except sexual abuse. The physical abuse of children can involve blunt trauma, thermal injury, and the so-called shaking trauma syndrome (STS). Physical and psychological child neglect have very serious long-term effects. It can be difficult to draw a clear distinction of child abuse and neglect on the one hand, and acceptable behavior on the other, because of the varying social acceptance of certain child-raising practices. Münchhausen's syndrome by proxy (MSbP) is a rare, special type of child abuse. At the beginning of the 21(st) century, well-established normative structures are in place to protect children against abuse and neglect, and the available help from social organizations can also have a preventive effect. Further improvements will depend on interdisciplinary coordination and better training of specialists in all of the involved disciplines.

  8. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Bethony, Jeffrey M; Cole, Rhea N; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Hotez, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world's poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  10. Socioeconomic aspects of neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Conteh, Lesong; Engels, Thomas; Molyneux, David H

    2010-01-16

    Although many examples of highly cost-effective interventions to control neglected tropical diseases exist, our understanding of the full economic effect that these diseases have on individuals, households, and nations needs to be improved to target interventions more effectively and equitably. We review data for the effect of neglected tropical diseases on a population's health and economy. We also present evidence on the costs, cost-effectiveness, and financing of strategies to monitor, control, or reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. We explore the potential for economies of scale and scope in terms of the costs and benefits of successfully delivering large-scale and integrated interventions. The low cost of neglected tropical disease control is driven by four factors: the commitment of pharmaceutical companies to provide free drugs; the scale of programmes; the opportunities for synergising delivery modes; and the often non-remunerated volunteer contribution of communities and teachers in drug distribution. Finally, we make suggestions for future economic research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  12. Equine learning behaviour.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack; Arkins, Sean

    2007-09-01

    Scientists and equestrians continually seek to achieve a clearer understanding of equine learning behaviour and its implications for training. Behavioural and learning processes in the horse are likely to influence not only equine athletic success but also the usefulness of the horse as a domesticated species. However given the status and commercial importance of the animal, equine learning behaviour has received only limited investigation. Indeed most experimental studies on equine cognitive function to date have addressed behaviour, learning and conceptualization processes at a moderately basic cognitive level compared to studies in other species. It is however, likely that the horses with the greatest ability to learn and form/understand concepts are those, which are better equipped to succeed in terms of the human-horse relationship and the contemporary training environment. Within equitation generally, interpretation of the behavioural processes and training of the desired responses in the horse are normally attempted using negative reinforcement strategies. On the other hand, experimental designs to actually induce and/or measure equine learning rely almost exclusively on primary positive reinforcement regimes. Employing two such different approaches may complicate interpretation and lead to difficulties in identifying problematic or undesirable behaviours in the horse. The visual system provides the horse with direct access to immediate environmental stimuli that affect behaviour but vision in the horse is of yet not fully investigated or understood. Further investigations of the equine visual system will benefit our understanding of equine perception, cognitive function and the subsequent link with learning and training. More detailed comparative investigations of feral or free-ranging and domestic horses may provide useful evidence of attention, stress and motivational issues affecting behavioural and learning processes in the horse. The challenge for

  13. Is treatment under general anaesthesia associated with dental neglect and dental disability among caries active preschool children?

    PubMed

    Kvist, T; Zedrén-Sunemo, J; Graca, E; Dahllöf, G

    2014-10-01

    To study if treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) is associated with dental neglect or dental disability. This was a retrospective study. Dental records of all children in the age 0-6 years who underwent GA at a specialist paediatric dentistry clinic during 2006-2011 were studied with regard to decayed-missed-filled teeth, traumatic injuries, emergency visits, behaviour management problems and the history of attendance. The final sample consisted of 134 children. Matched controls were selected among recall patients who had not received treatment under GA. Fishers exact test or Pearson Chi-square test analysed response distribution and comparisons between groups, and for multivariate analyses, logistic regression was used. The results show that children treated under GA had significantly higher caries prevalence, apical periodontitis and infections due to pulpal necrosis. Dental neglect as well as dental disability was significantly more prevalent in the GA group compared to the control group. In a multivariate analysis with dental neglect as independent factor, dental disability was the only significant factor (p = 0.006). Children treated under general anaesthesia were significantly more often diagnosed with both dental neglect and dental disability. Dental disability was the only factor significantly related to dental neglect. There is a need for improved documentation in the dental records to better identify dental neglect and dental disability, and also a continued training of dentists regarding child protection.

  14. Incorporating animal spatial memory in step selection functions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Santos, Luiz Gustavo R; Forester, James D; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Tomas, Walfrido M; Fernandez, Fernando A S

    2016-03-01

    Memory is among the most important and neglected forces that shapes animal movement patterns. Research on the movement-memory interface is crucial to understand how animals use spatial learning to navigate across space because memory-based navigation is directly linked to animals' space use and home range behaviour; however, because memory cannot be measured directly, it is difficult to account for. Here, we incorporated spatial memory into step selection functions (SSF) to understand how resource selection and spatial memory affect space use of feral hogs (Sus scrofa). We used Biased Random Bridge kernel estimates linked to residence time as a surrogate for memory and tested four conceptually different dynamic maps of spatial memory. We applied this memory-based SSF to a data set of hog relocations to evaluate the importance of land cover type, time of day and spatial memory on the animals' space use. Our approach has shown how the incorporation of spatial memory into animal movement models can improve estimates of habitat selection. Memory-based SSF provided a feasible way to gain insight into how animals use spatial learning to guide their movement decisions. We found that while hogs selected forested areas and water bodies and avoided grasslands during the day (primarily at noon), they had a strong tendency to select previously visited areas, mainly those held in recent memory. Beyond actively updating their memory with recent experiences, hogs were able to discriminate among spatial memories encoded at different circadian phases of their activity. Even though hogs are thought to have long memory retention, they likely relied on recent experiences because the local food resources are quickly depleted and slowly renewed, yielding an uncertain spatial distribution of resources.

  15. 1978 Annual Review of Child Abuse and Neglect Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary Porter; Klaus, Susan L.

    The review of research on child abuse and neglect presents brief abstracts of studies collected by the Clearinghouse of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Material is organized into five subject areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): definition of abuse and neglect; incidence (national and selected geographic estimates);…

  16. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act,...

  17. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act,...

  18. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act,...

  19. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act,...

  20. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act,...

  1. Perceptions and Attitudes of Mothers about Child Neglect in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Selda; Tasar, Aysin; Ozkan, Secil; Yeltekin, Sevinc; Cakir, Bahar Cuhac; Akbaba, Sevil; Sahin, Figen; Camurdan, Aysu Duyan; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and attitudes about child neglect of a group of mothers, in Ankara, Turkey, and to determine the factors affecting perception and attitudes of these mothers about child neglect. A questionnaire consisting of 15 scenarios about perception of child neglect and 12 behavioral descriptions about…

  2. Family Structure and Dynamics in Neglectful Families: Implications for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudin, James M., Jr.

    To identify remedial and preventive interventions that target dysfunctional processes in the family, this study compared the structure and processes of neglectful and non-neglectful families. A sample of 102 neglectful families was identified and recruited from the caseloads of protective service workers in Georgia. A comparison group of 103…

  3. Child Neglect: A Guide for Intervention. The User Manual Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudin, James M., Jr.

    This manual provides a state-of-the art review of child neglect in the United States, its nature, causes, and the implications of that knowledge for preventive and remedial intervention. After an introduction, the first chapter considers the definition of neglect including types of neglect, the withholding of medically indicated treatment from…

  4. Defining Child Neglect Based on Child Protective Services Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, H.; Pitts, S.C.; Litrownik, A.J.; Cox, C.E.; Runyan, D.; Black, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives:: To compare neglect defined by Child Protective Services official codes with neglect defined by a review of CPS narrative data, and to examine the validity of the different neglect measures using children's functioning at age 8 years. Methods:: Data are from 740 children participating in a consortium of longitudinal studies on child…

  5. Educational neglect: Understanding 20 years of child welfare trends.

    PubMed

    Van Wert, Melissa; Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2017-05-18

    Educational neglect is an understudied phenomenon that is difficult to define and also to address. While it is clear that attending to children's academic needs is important to child development, few studies focus on educational neglect and therefore little is known about its associated risk factors and the outcomes following this form of maltreatment. The purpose of this research was to (a) determine the rate at which child welfare service providers investigate educational neglect in Canada and identify any trends in rates over time, (b) better understand educational neglect and its distinction from other types of neglect and truancy, and (c) understand how child welfare services respond to allegations of educational neglect. Data from five cycles of the Ontario Incidence Studies of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect were examined. A trend analysis was conducted followed by a mixed-method examination of educational neglect investigations. Results indicate that rates of investigated educational neglect in Ontario have been consistently low over time. However, these investigations are significantly more likely to be substantiated and to be transferred to ongoing child welfare services compared to investigations of other subtypes of neglect. Educational neglect investigations involving younger children are more likely to note risk factors for caregivers whereas those involving adolescents are more likely to note functioning issues for youth. The findings are discussed in relation to international trends in educational neglect and policy and practice implications are explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of child abuse and neglect on children's nonverbal behaviors. It was hypothesized that abused and neglected children would be less active nonverbally than would control group children. Eight abused and neglected children, aged one through three years, were videotaped interacting with their caregivers in…

  7. The Effect of Syntax on Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the…

  8. Is "Object-Centred Neglect" a Homogeneous Entity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainotti, Guido; Ciaraffa, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The nature of object-centred (allocentric) neglect and the possibility of dissociating it from egocentric (subject-centred) forms of neglect are controversial. Originally, allocentric neglect was described by and in patients who reproduced all the elements of a multi-object scene, but left unfinished the left side of one or more of them. More…

  9. The Effect of Syntax on Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the…

  10. Perceptions and Attitudes of Mothers about Child Neglect in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Selda; Tasar, Aysin; Ozkan, Secil; Yeltekin, Sevinc; Cakir, Bahar Cuhac; Akbaba, Sevil; Sahin, Figen; Camurdan, Aysu Duyan; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and attitudes about child neglect of a group of mothers, in Ankara, Turkey, and to determine the factors affecting perception and attitudes of these mothers about child neglect. A questionnaire consisting of 15 scenarios about perception of child neglect and 12 behavioral descriptions about…

  11. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  12. Oviposition behaviour of Phlebotomus argentipes - A laboratory-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Rama, Aarti; Kesari, Shreekant; Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Das, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    The breeding habitat of sandflies is a little studied and poorly understood phenomenon. More importantly, oviposition behaviour is a largely neglected aspect of sandfly biology and this knowledge gap further undermines our understanding of the biology of sandflies. Pheromones released by the eggs play an important role in identifying good sites for oviposition by female insects. Several recent studies have examined the oviposition pheromone. The present study provides a preliminary report on the oviposition behaviour of Phlebotomus argentipes, the only vector of kala-azar (or visceral leishmaniasis) on the Indian sub-continent. Sandflies prefer to oviposit their eggs on surfaces that contain organic substances, especially substances with an odour of decaying animal products and the remains of conspecific eggs. The results presented here suggest that the odour released by the organic substances of old sandfly colony remains that contain dead flies, old unhatched eggs, larval food containing vertebrate faeces, frass and other organic matter serves as an attractant for the ovipositing females of P. argentipes and hence greatly increases the number of oviposited eggs compared to eggs deposited in controlled oviposition pots. This result will be helpful in maintaining an efficient colony of P. argentipes and may be a promising tool for monitoring and controlling the target insect as part of a synergistic approach. PMID:24141963

  13. Growth failure associated with early neglect: pilot comparison of neglected US children and international adoptees.

    PubMed

    Miller, Bradley S; Spratt, Eve G; Himes, John H; Condon, Doreen; Summer, Andrea; Papa, Carrie E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2015-01-01

    The long-lasting impact of different neglectful environments on growth in children is not well studied. Three groups of children, 3-10 years old, were recruited (n=60): previously institutionalized international adoptees living in stable home environments for at least 2 years (IA; n=15), children with a history of neglect born in the USA (USN; n=17), and controls (n=28). Children underwent physical examination, anthropometry, and collection of serum for growth parameters. Mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) were different (p<0.05). Age-adjusted head circumference (HC) was significantly smaller (p<0.05) in IAs. Insulin growth factor (IGF-1), a marker of growth hormone action, was higher in US neglected children. IGF-1 adjusted for age and weight SDS were different (p<0.05) between control and US neglect groups. The degree of growth failure in height and HC in IAs was more severe than neglected US children. These findings may reflect differences between the impact of chronic and intermittent deprivation on the growth hormone system.

  14. An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them.

  15. 25 CFR 11.446 - Cruelty to animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cruelty to animals. 11.446 Section 11.446 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.446 Cruelty to animals. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she purposely or recklessly: (a) Subjects any animal in his or her custody to cruel neglect; or (b) Subjects any...

  16. 25 CFR 11.446 - Cruelty to animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cruelty to animals. 11.446 Section 11.446 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.446 Cruelty to animals. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she purposely or recklessly: (a) Subjects any animal in his or her custody to cruel neglect; or (b) Subjects any...

  17. 25 CFR 11.446 - Cruelty to animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cruelty to animals. 11.446 Section 11.446 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.446 Cruelty to animals. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she purposely or recklessly: (a) Subjects any animal in his or her custody to cruel neglect; or (b) Subjects any...

  18. 25 CFR 11.446 - Cruelty to animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cruelty to animals. 11.446 Section 11.446 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.446 Cruelty to animals. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she purposely or recklessly: (a) Subjects any animal in his or her custody to cruel neglect; or (b) Subjects any...

  19. 25 CFR 11.446 - Cruelty to animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cruelty to animals. 11.446 Section 11.446 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.446 Cruelty to animals. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she purposely or recklessly: (a) Subjects any animal in his or her custody to cruel neglect; or (b) Subjects any...

  20. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  1. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  2. Neurological sequelae and long-term behavioural assessment of rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Modo, M; Stroemer, R P; Tang, E; Veizovic, T; Sowniski, P; Hodges, H

    2000-12-15

    Animal models of stroke, notably transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), are used to assess the efficacy of pharmacological and transplant treatments. Long-term studies (>1 month) of the functional effects of treatments in animal models are required to predict treatments likely to improve dysfunctions associated with stroke damage. These pre-clinical studies require (1) optimum post-operative care to ensure long-term survival, (2) methods for assignment of rats to groups with equivalent impairments to reduce variability and enhance detection of treatment effects, and (3) behavioural tests that detect long-term stable deficits. For long-term functional assessment, a battery of behavioural tests sensitive to a range of deficits observed after MCAo was developed. The bilateral asymmetry test evaluated the time course of sensory neglect. Deficits of motor integration were examined in the footfault test, and motor bias was assessed by pharmacological stimulation of rotation. The water maze was used to detect long-term deficits in spatial information processing. Long-term differences between control and MCAo animals in this battery of tests indicate that the protocol provides an efficient assessment suitable for evaluating treatment outcomes in pre-clinical studies of stroke, and that the post-operative care procedure and method of assignment to groups were effective.

  3. Exploring self-neglect in older adults: preliminary findings of the self-neglect severity scale and next steps.

    PubMed

    Kelly, P Adam; Dyer, Carmel B; Pavlik, Valory; Doody, Rachelle; Jogerst, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    Despite the public health implications of self-neglect, no tool exists for characterizing this condition. Self-neglecters often have no caregivers or surrogates to interview regarding the neglect and are often too cognitively impaired to provide valid self-reports. In response to this need, researchers from the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas (CREST) collaborated with other experts in the field of elder self-neglect to design the Self-neglect Severity Scale (SSS). The SSS assesses three domains of self-neglect (hygiene, functioning, and environment) and relies on observational ratings assigned by trained observers. After pilot testing and revision, the SSS was field tested in the homes of subjects who had been reported to and substantiated by Texas Adult Protective Services (APS) as self-neglecting and compared with results of subjects recruited from a local geriatric clinic who were reported to APS but had no history of self-neglect. The first field test demonstrated that the SSS could distinguish elderly self-neglecters from community dwellers who do not self-neglect. The SSS exhibited adequate scale reliability (Cronbach alpha) and correlation with case status. Interrater reliability also appeared adequate, although sensitivity and specificity fell below the conventional acceptable range. Future methods are proposed for refining the SSS to improve its use as the benchmark for identifying elder self-neglect.

  4. Exploring Self-neglect in Older Adults: Preliminary Findings of the Self-Neglect Severity Scale and Next Steps

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, P. Adam; Dyer, Carmel B.; Pavlik, Valory; Doody, Rachelle; Jogerst, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Despite the public health implications of self-neglect, no tool exists for characterizing this condition. Self-neglecters often have no caregivers or surrogates to interview regarding the neglect, and are often too cognitively impaired to provide valid self-reports. In response to this need, researchers from the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas (CREST), collaborated with other experts in the field of elder self-neglect to design the Self-neglect Severity Scale (SSS). The SSS assesses three domains of self-neglect: hygiene, functioning, and environment and relies on observational ratings assigned by trained observers. Following pilot testing and revision, the SSS was field tested in the homes of subjects who had been reported to and substantiated by Texas Adult Protective Services (APS) as self-neglecting, and compared to subjects recruited from a local geriatric clinic who were reported to APS and who had no history of self-neglect. The first field test demonstrated that the SSS could distinguish elder self-neglecters from community dwellers that do not self-neglect. The SSS exhibited adequate scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) and correlation with case status. Interrater reliability also appeared adequate although sensitivity and specificity fell below the conventional acceptable range. Future methods are proposed for refining the SSS to improve its use as the benchmark for identifying elder self-neglect. PMID:19016968

  5. All they need is love? Helping children to recover from neglect and abuse.

    PubMed

    Rees, Corinne A

    2011-10-01

    Inadequately remedied abuse and neglect has costly implications for children's physical and emotional health, behaviour, growth and development. It is relevant to major physical and psychological causes of adult morbidity and mortality, involvement in crime as victim and perpetrator and parenting difficulties, but not inevitably so. Resilience varies, and its promotion is a professional priority. Achieving recovery is a complex therapeutic task, often extending over years, not simply a matter of providing new parents. Neurobiology increasingly explains why this is so. Effective safeguarding means keeping long-term responsibilities in mind throughout. Balancing risks and benefits of intervention requires consideration of the implications of the quality of relationships which neglect and abuse reflect. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of recovery, and paediatricians' roles in achieving it.

  6. Impact of dynamic bottom-up features and top-down control on the visual exploration of moving real-world scenes in hemispatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Machner, Björn; Dorr, Michael; Sprenger, Andreas; von der Gablentz, Janina; Heide, Wolfgang; Barth, Erhardt; Helmchen, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Patients with hemispatial neglect are severely impaired in orienting their attention to contralesional hemispace. Although motion is one of the strongest attentional cues in humans, it is still unknown how neglect patients visually explore their moving real-world environment. We therefore recorded eye movements at bedside in 19 patients with hemispatial neglect following acute right hemisphere stroke, 14 right-brain damaged patients without neglect and 21 healthy control subjects. Videos of naturalistic real-world scenes were presented first in a free viewing condition together with static images, and subsequently in a visual search condition. We analyzed number and amplitude of saccades, fixation durations and horizontal fixation distributions. Novel computational tools allowed us to assess the impact of different scene features (static and dynamic contrast, colour, brightness) on patients' gaze. Independent of the different stimulus conditions, neglect patients showed decreased numbers of fixations in contralesional hemispace (ipsilesional fixation bias) and increased fixation durations in ipsilesional hemispace (disengagement deficit). However, in videos left-hemifield fixations of neglect patients landed on regions with particularly high dynamic contrast. Furthermore, dynamic scenes with few salient objects led to a significant reduction of the pathological ipsilesional fixation bias. In visual search, moving targets in the neglected hemifield were more frequently detected than stationary ones. The top-down influence (search instruction) could neither reduce the ipsilesional fixation bias nor the impact of bottom-up features. Our results provide evidence for a strong impact of dynamic bottom-up features on neglect patients' scanning behaviour. They support the neglect model of an attentional priority map in the brain being imbalanced towards ipsilesional hemispace, which can be counterbalanced by strong contralateral motion cues. Taking into account the lack of

  7. Acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Schöner, Michael G; Simon, Ralph; Schöner, Caroline R

    2016-08-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread and well-studied in animals but has been neglected in other organisms such as plants. However, there is growing evidence for acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions. While knowledge about active acoustic signalling in plants (i.e. active sound production) is still in its infancy, research on passive acoustic signalling (i.e. reflection of animal sounds) revealed that bat-dependent plants have adapted to the bats' echolocation systems by providing acoustic reflectors to attract their animal partners. Understanding the proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes of acoustic communication will shed light on an underestimated dimension of information transfer between plants and animals.

  8. Personal neglect-a disorder of body representation?

    PubMed

    Baas, Ulrike; de Haan, Bianca; Grässli, Tanja; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Mueri, René; Perrig, Walter J; Wurtz, Pascal; Gutbrod, Klemens

    2011-04-01

    The cognitive mechanisms underlying personal neglect are not well known. One theory postulates that personal neglect is due to a disorder of contralesional body representation. In the present study, we have investigated whether personal neglect is best explained by impairments in the representation of the contralesional side of the body, in particular, or a dysfunction of the mental representation of the contralesional space in general. For this, 22 patients with right hemisphere cerebral lesions (7 with personal neglect, 15 without personal neglect) and 13 healthy controls have been studied using two experimental tasks measuring representation of the body and extrapersonal space. In the tasks, photographs of left and right hands as well as left and right rear-view mirrors presented from the front and the back had to be judged as left or right. Our results show that patients with personal neglect made more errors when asked to judge stimuli of left hands and left rear-view mirrors than either patients without personal neglect or healthy controls. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that errors in interpreting left hands were the best predictor of personal neglect, while other variables such as extrapersonal neglect, somatosensory or motor impairments, or deficits in left extrapersonal space representation had no predictive value of personal neglect. These findings suggest that deficient body representation is the major mechanism underlying personal neglect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Disentangling the neuroanatomical correlates of perseveration from unilateral spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Jonathan T; DuBois, Jeffery C; Newhart, Melissa; Hillis, Argye E

    2013-01-01

    Perseverative behavior, manifest as re-cancelling or re-visiting targets, is distinct from spatial neglect. Perseveration is thought to reflect frontal or parietal lobe dysfunction, but the neuroanatomical correlates remain poorly defined and the interplay between neglect and perseveration is incompletely understood. We enrolled 87 consecutive patients with diffusion-weighted, perfusion-weighted imaging, and spatial neglect testing within 24 hours of right hemisphere ischemic stroke. The degrees of spatial neglect and perseveration were analyzed. Perseveration was apparent in 46% (40/87) of the patients; 28% (24/87) showed perseveration only; 18% (16/87) showed both perseveration and neglect; and 3% (3/87) showed neglect only. Perseverative behaviors occur in an inverted "U" shape: little neglect was associated with few perseverations; moderate neglect with high perseverations; and in severe neglect targets may not enter consciousness and perseverative responses decrease. Brodmann areas of dysfunction, and the caudate and putament, were assessed and volumetrically measured. In this study, the caudate and putamen were not associated with perseveration. After controlling for neglect, and volume of dysfunctional tissue, only Brodmann area 46 was associated with perseveration. Our results further support the notion that perseveration and neglect are distinct entities; while they often co-occur, acute dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ischemia is associated with perseveration specifically.

  10. Example Elaboration as a Neglected Instructional Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Girill, T R

    2001-07-18

    Over the last decade an unfolding cognitive-psychology research program on how learners use examples to develop effective problem solving expertise has yielded well-established empirical findings. Chi et al., Renkl, Reimann, and Neubert (in various papers) have confirmed statistically significant differences in how good and poor learners inferentially elaborate (self explain) example steps as they study. Such example elaboration is highly relevant to software documentation and training, yet largely neglected in the current literature. This paper summarizes the neglected research on example use and puts its neglect in a disciplinary perspective. The author then shows that differences in support for example elaboration in commercial software documentation reveal previously over looked usability issues. These issues involve example summaries, using goals and goal structures to reinforce example elaborations, and prompting readers to recognize the role of example parts. Secondly, I show how these same example elaboration techniques can build cognitive maturity among underperforming high school students who study technical writing. Principle based elaborations, condition elaborations, and role recognition of example steps all have their place in innovative, high school level, technical writing exercises, and all promote far transfer problem solving. Finally, I use these studies to clarify the constructivist debate over what writers and readers contribute to text meaning. I argue that writers can influence how readers elaborate on examples, and that because of the great empirical differences in example study effectiveness (and reader choices) writers should do what they can (through within text design features) to encourage readers to elaborate examples in the most successful ways. Example elaboration is a uniquely effective way to learn from worked technical examples. This paper summarizes years of research that clarifies example elaboration. I then show how example

  11. Eurytrematosis: An emerging and neglected disease in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schwertz, Claiton Ismael; Lucca, Neuber Jose; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Baska, Piotr; Bonetto, Gustavo; Gabriel, Mateus Eloir; Centofanti, Fábio; Mendes, Ricardo Evandro

    2015-01-01

    The trematodes of the genus Eurytrema are low pathogenic pancreatic parasites, but can be related to a decrease in cattle productive performance and eventually death. Parasitized animals develop chronic interstitial pancreatitis and may show a productive performance drop and emaciation. Human infection by Eurytrema sp. has already been reported in other countries as an incidental finding during autopsy or routine tests, but the parasite has not been found in humans in Brazil. However, it is possible that a large number of people could be infected, since parasitological tests have low sensitivity and the parasite is neglected as a pathogen for humans and even animals. Attempts to control and treat Eurytrematosis have generally presented low effectiveness. With the aim to control the disease and provide more information regarding its pathogenicity, our research group is developing a number of studies about Eurytrema spp. We hope to determine the damage in productivity, as well as, establish an efficient protocol for treatment and control of Eurytrematosis based on immunoprophylaxis and antiparasitical drug therapy. PMID:26309817

  12. The worst combinations of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Ney, P G; Fung, T; Wickett, A R

    1994-09-01

    We have studied the impact of various kinds of abuse and neglect on the child's perception of himself and his future. We found, when considering physical abuse, physical neglect, verbal abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, that less than 5% of these mistreatments occurred in isolation. Since the vast majority of mistreated children are subject to more than one kind of abuse or neglect, it was important to delineate which combinations have the greatest effect. We found that a combination of physical neglect, physical abuse, and verbal abuse had the greatest impact on children, affecting such things as their enjoyment of living and hopes for the future. An early age of onset for verbal abuse and emotional neglect was significantly associated with greater severity and frequency of mistreatment. Neglect appears to be a precursor to abuse in many cases.

  13. Unilateral neglect and perceptual parsing: a large-group study.

    PubMed

    Neppi-Mòdona, Marco; Savazzi, Silvia; Ricci, Raffaella; Genero, Rosanna; Berruti, Giuseppina; Pepi, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    Array-centred and subarray-centred neglect were disambiguated in a group of 116 patients with left neglect by means of a modified version of the Albert test in which the central column of segments was deleted so as to create two separate sets of targets grouped by proximity. The results indicated that neglect was more frequent in array- than subarray-centred coordinates and that, in a minority of cases, neglect co-occurred in both coordinate-systems. The two types of neglect were functionally but not anatomically dissociated. Presence of visual field defects was not prevalent in one type of neglect with respect to the other. These data contribute further evidence to previous single-case and small-group studies by showing that neglect can occur in single or multiple reference frames simultaneously, in agreement with current neuropsychological, neurophysiological and computational concepts of space representation.

  14. Parental Refusal of Childhood Vaccines and Medical Neglect Laws.

    PubMed

    Parasidis, Efthimios; Opel, Douglas J

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relation of vaccine refusal and medical neglect under child welfare laws. We used the Westlaw legal database to search court opinions from 1905 to 2016 and identified cases in which vaccine refusal was the sole or a primary reason in a neglect proceeding. We also delineated if religious or philosophical exemptions from required school immunizations were available at the time of adjudication. Our search yielded 9 cases from 5 states. Most courts (7 of 9) considered vaccine refusal to constitute neglect. In the 4 cases decided in jurisdictions that permitted religious exemptions, courts either found that vaccine refusal did not constitute neglect or considered it neglect only in the absence of a sincere religious objection to vaccination. Some states have a legal precedent for considering parental vaccine refusal as medical neglect, but this is based on a small number of cases. Each state should clarify whether, under its laws, vaccine refusal constitutes medical neglect.

  15. Dissociating perceptual and motor effects of prism adaptation in neglect.

    PubMed

    Striemer, Christopher L; Danckert, James

    2010-04-21

    Prism adaptation reduces some symptoms of neglect; however the mechanisms underlying such changes are poorly understood. We suggest that prisms influence neglect by acting on dorsal stream circuits subserving visuomotor control, with little influence on perceptual aspects of neglect. We examined prism adaptation in three neglect patients and a group of healthy controls on line bisection and landmark tasks. Neglect patients showed a dramatic reduction in the rightward bias for line bisection, but absolutely no change in their leftward bias on the landmark task, which is a perceptual equivalent to bisection. However, in controls, prisms produced 'neglect-like' deficits on both the line bisection and landmark tasks. These data suggest that prisms influence visually guided actions more so than perception in neglect.

  16. Shape matters: animal colour patterns as signals of individual quality

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Colour patterns (e.g. irregular, spotted or barred forms) are widespread in the animal kingdom, yet their potential role as signals of quality has been mostly neglected. However, a review of the published literature reveals that pattern itself (irrespective of its size or colour intensity) is a promising signal of individual quality across species of many different taxa. We propose at least four main pathways whereby patterns may reliably reflect individual quality: (i) as conventional signals of status, (ii) as indices of developmental homeostasis, (iii) by amplifying cues of somatic integrity and (iv) by amplifying individual investment in maintenance activities. Methodological constraints have traditionally hampered research on the signalling potential of colour patterns. To overcome this, we report a series of tools (e.g. colour adjacency and pattern regularity analyses, Fourier and granularity approaches, fractal geometry, geometric morphometrics) that allow objective quantification of pattern variability. We discuss how information provided by these methods should consider the visual system of the model species and behavioural responses to pattern metrics, in order to allow biologically meaningful conclusions. Finally, we propose future challenges in this research area that will require a multidisciplinary approach, bringing together inputs from genetics, physiology, behavioural ecology and evolutionary-developmental biology. PMID:28228513

  17. Shape matters: animal colour patterns as signals of individual quality.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Jovani, Roger; Stevens, Martin

    2017-02-22

    Colour patterns (e.g. irregular, spotted or barred forms) are widespread in the animal kingdom, yet their potential role as signals of quality has been mostly neglected. However, a review of the published literature reveals that pattern itself (irrespective of its size or colour intensity) is a promising signal of individual quality across species of many different taxa. We propose at least four main pathways whereby patterns may reliably reflect individual quality: (i) as conventional signals of status, (ii) as indices of developmental homeostasis, (iii) by amplifying cues of somatic integrity and (iv) by amplifying individual investment in maintenance activities. Methodological constraints have traditionally hampered research on the signalling potential of colour patterns. To overcome this, we report a series of tools (e.g. colour adjacency and pattern regularity analyses, Fourier and granularity approaches, fractal geometry, geometric morphometrics) that allow objective quantification of pattern variability. We discuss how information provided by these methods should consider the visual system of the model species and behavioural responses to pattern metrics, in order to allow biologically meaningful conclusions. Finally, we propose future challenges in this research area that will require a multidisciplinary approach, bringing together inputs from genetics, physiology, behavioural ecology and evolutionary-developmental biology.

  18. Declarative memory in abused and neglected infants.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Carol L; Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J; Toth, Sheree L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    To summarize, all children interacted with the experimenter and actively participated in the imitation task. There was evidence of improvement in performance from baseline to recall as would be expected with attention to, and memory for, the actions that were modeled by the experimenter. All participants evidenced a decrease in performance as the difficulty of the task increased, as would be expected. When the maltreated children were compared to the nonmaltreated children in a 2-group design, there was no statistically significant difference in performance. However, when the maltreated group was divided into two subtypes of either neglected or abused, and performance was compared in a 3-group design, it was revealed that the neglected children experienced deficits in performance relative to abused children. For production of target actions, the neglected children's performance trended toward significance when compared to the nonmaltreated children's performance. However, there was no significant difference between the performance of the abused children and the nonmaltreated children for either production of target actions or productions of ordered pairs. The children in this longitudinal study were assessed previously at 12 months of age in a mother-child play situation (Valentino et al., 2006). Interactions during structured play between mother and child were evaluated for maternal directives and child responses. Interestingly, the difference in social interactions that was most reliable was the finding that the abused children imitated their mothers more often than did the nonmaltreated children. There was no difference between the imitative behaviors of the neglected children and the abused or nonmaltreated children. The researchers note that by imitating their mothers, the abused children might be attempting to prevent further abusive incidents. Limit setting behaviors of the mothers in response to child initiations were positively related to the children

  19. Neglect: failure to thrive and obesity.

    PubMed

    Harper, Nancy S

    2014-10-01

    Medical providers need to monitor growth at every visit. Weight status is influenced by genetics, medical conditions, socioeconomic status, and family environment. Screening for food security and psychosocial risk factors is an integral tool to identify families at risk for nutritional deficits and child maltreatment. Nutritional rehabilitation is best accomplished in an outpatient, multidisciplinary setting. Medical neglect should be considered in failure to thrive and obesity when there is a serious risk of harm from identified medical complications, additional or worsening medical complications occurring despite a multidisciplinary approach, and/or non-adherence with the treatment plan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Somatization and somatic symptom presentation in cancer: a neglected area.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Caruso, Rosangela; Nanni, Maria Giulia

    2013-02-01

    Abstract The recognition of somatization process in cancer patients is a challenging and neglected area, for the extreme difficulty in differentiating and assessing the psycho(patho)logical components from those biologically determined and related to cancer and cancer treatment, as well as for the scarce usefulness of rigid categorical DSM criteria. However, several dimensions of somatization (and the interconnected concept of abnormal illness behaviour) have been shown to be diagnosable in cancer patients and to negatively influence coping and quality of life outcomes. An integration of the formal DSM-ICD nosology with a system specifically taking into account the patients' emotional responses to cancer and cancer treatment, such as the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR), is suggested. More data on some specific symptom dimensions, including pain, fatigue and sexual disorders, are needed to examine their possible psychological components. More research is also needed regarding the association of somatization with personality traits (e.g. type D distressed personality, alexithymia), developmental dimensions (e.g. attachment), and cultural issues (e.g. culturally mediated attributional styles to somatic symptoms). Also, the impact and effectiveness of specific therapeutic intervention in 'somatizing' cancer patients is necessary.

  1. Lateral specialization in unilateral spatial neglect: a cognitive robotics model.

    PubMed

    Conti, Daniela; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo; Di Nuovo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental results of an embodied cognitive robotic approach for modelling the human cognitive deficit known as unilateral spatial neglect (USN). To this end, we introduce an artificial neural network architecture designed and trained to control the spatial attentional focus of the iCub robotic platform. Like the human brain, the architecture is divided into two hemispheres and it incorporates bio-inspired plasticity mechanisms, which allow the development of the phenomenon of the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. In this study, we validate the model by replicating a previous experiment with human patients affected by the USN and numerical results show that the robot mimics the behaviours previously exhibited by humans. We also simulated recovery after the damage to compare the performance of each of the two hemispheres as additional validation of the model. Finally, we highlight some possible advantages of modelling cognitive dysfunctions of the human brain by means of robotic platforms, which can supplement traditional approaches for studying spatial impairments in humans.

  2. Mouse behavioural analysis in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    van Meer, Peter; Raber, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Molecular techniques allowing in vivo modulation of gene expression have provided unique opportunities and challenges for behavioural studies aimed at understanding the function of particular genes or biological systems under physiological or pathological conditions. Although various animal models are available, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has unique features and is therefore a preferred animal model. The mouse shares a remarkable genetic resemblance and aspects of behaviour with humans. In this review, first we describe common mouse models for behavioural analyses. As both genetic and environmental factors influence behavioural performance and need to be carefully evaluated in behavioural experiments, considerations for designing and interpretations of these experiments are subsequently discussed. Finally, common behavioural tests used to assess brain function are reviewed, and it is illustrated how behavioural tests are used to increase our understanding of the role of histaminergic neurotransmission in brain function. PMID:16035954

  3. Contralateral somatosensory neglect in unrestrained rats after lesion of the parietal cortex of the left hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Holm, S; Mogensen, J

    1993-01-01

    Three groups of rats were studied: a sham operated control group and two groups in which the parietal "association" cortex had been ablated in the left and right hemispheres respectively. Twenty-four hours and 8 days postoperatively the animals were subjected to a test in which their responsiveness to lateralized somatosensory stimuli was measured while the rats were left unrestrained. Additionally, an activity cage locomotion test followed immediately upon both tests of somatosensory responsiveness. Twenty-four hours postoperatively the animals in which the parietal cortex of the left hemisphere had been ablated demonstrated a significant contralateral neglect of somatosensory stimuli while the group in which the right parietal cortex had been ablated only exhibited a non-significant tendency to a contralateral neglect. While the activity cage test did not reveal an overall difference in the activity level of the three groups the latency to initiate locomotion in the activity cage was found to be significantly decreased in both ablated groups. Eight days postoperatively both ablated groups appeared fully recovered. It is concluded that ablations of the parietal "association" cortex of the rat are associated with a syndrome of contralateral somatosensory neglect that can even be demonstrated if the animals are left unrestrained during testing.

  4. Neglecting the mental health of prisoners.

    PubMed

    Edgar, K; Rickford, D

    2009-01-01

    From first contact with the police to release from prison, people with mental ill health who come into conflict with the law often find that their mental health needs are neglected while they are under the authority of the criminal justice system. In 2008, the Prison Reform Trust surveyed independent monitoring boards in England and Wales, asking them to comment on mental health care. Topics included the adequacy of court diversion schemes, assessments carried out in prison reception units, and preparations to ensure continuity of care upon release. The responses documented some of the consequences of neglect in prisons in England and Wales. Over half of the boards felt that they frequently saw prisoners who were too ill to be in prison. Boards also expressed concerns about assessment processes in prison reception areas, which were by no means adequate to identify mental health problems. A number of boards stated that, too often, people with severe mental illnesses are held in segregation units, where they endure an impoverished regime. The boards observed that many prisons lack any means of identifying people who have learning disabilities, and often their disabilities restrict their capacity to engage fully with the regime.

  5. R&D incentives for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Neglected diseases are typically characterized as those for which adequate drug treatment is lacking, and the potential return on effort in research and development (R&D), to produce new therapies, is too small for companies to invest significant resources in the field. In recent years various incentives schemes to stimulate R&D by pharmaceutical firms have been considered. Broadly speaking, these can be classified either as 'push' or 'pull' programs. Hybrid options, that include push and pull incentives, have also become increasingly popular. Supporters and critics of these various incentive schemes have argued in favor of their relative merits and limitations, although the view that no mechanism is a perfect fit for all situations appears to be widely held. For this reason, the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches has been important for policy decisions, but is dispersed in a variety of sources. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the economic determinants behind R&D investments for neglected diseases by comparing the relative strength of different incentive schemes within a simple economic model, based on the assumption of profit maximizing firms. The analysis suggests that co-funded push programs are generally more efficient than pure pull programs. However, by setting appropriate intermediate goals hybrid incentive schemes could further improve efficiency.

  6. Chemistry and pharmacology of neglected helminthic diseases.

    PubMed

    Müllner, A; Helfer, A; Kotlyar, D; Oswald, J; Efferth, T

    2011-01-01

    Neglected helminthic diseases cause many social, economic and health care challenges in developing countries. The high number of patients suffering from these parasitic infections and the lack of sufficient treatment options represent severe problems. Research on new drugs and therapies to meet this urgent requirement has to be intensified. This review focuses on infections caused by four helminthic parasites, which have been declared as neglected diseases by the World Health Organization: namely drancunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchoceriasis, and schistosomiasis. They show a considerable overlap in their world-wide prevalence and treatment strategies. Nevertheless, treatment is not without complications. The most efficient lymphatic filariasis drug, diethylcarbamazine, causes severe adverse effects in onchocerciasis patients and completely fails in the treatment of drancunculiasis. In this review, we discuss these incongruities at the molecular and cellular level. Furthermore, established or investigational drug combination regimens are highlighted. In the past years, progress has been made in the area of schistosomiasis and onchocerciasis. The molecular biology of underlying mechanisms, signalling pathways and related targets affected by drug therapy are discussed in detail. Finally, successful treatment strategies and remaining future challenges are summarized.

  7. Unilateral neglect is not unilateral: evidence for additional neglect of extreme right space.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Andrew W; Jordan, Joanne L; Sullivan, Carol-Anne

    2006-08-01

    Six patients with visuospatial neglect following right hemisphere lesions were given three tasks that assessed performance in areas of space ranging from extreme left to extreme right. A line bisection task required the patients to detect and bisect lines of four different lengths at seven left-right spatial locations, a number report task required the patients to name 11 two-digit numbers in a left-right array, and a tiling task required patients to place small black tiles over the black squares of a grid that stretched from 65 degrees left to 65 degrees right. Performance was compared with that of 20 age-matched controls. The patients showed the characteristic signs of left-side neglect in left space, extending to the central midline. Performance was relatively normal in centre-right space but all 6 patients showed signs of neglect of extreme right space (60 degrees to the right of the midline and beyond). We propose that neglect is best characterised as a bilateral, asymmetrical compression of experienced space in which the constriction extends further from the left than from the right but nevertheless affects both sides of space.

  8. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development.

  9. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  10. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  11. The Dental Neglect Scale in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coolidge, Trilby; Heima, Masahiro; Johnson, Elissa K; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-05

    Dental neglect has been found to be related to poor oral health, a tendency not to have had routine check-ups, and a longer period of time since the last dental appointment in samples of children and adults. The Dental Neglect Scale (DNS) has been found to be a valid measure of dental neglect in samples of children and adults, and may be valid for adolescents as well. We administered the DNS to a sample of adolescents and report on the relationships between the DNS and oral health status, whether or not the adolescent has been to the dentist recently for routine check-ups, and whether or not the adolescent currently goes to a dentist. We also report the internal and test-retest reliabilities of the DNS in this sample, as well as the results of an exploratory factor analysis. One hundred seventeen adolescents from seven youth groups in the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area (Washington State, U.S.) completed the DNS and indicated whether they currently go to a dentist, while parents indicated whether the adolescent had a check-up in the previous three years. Adolescents also received a dental screening. Sixty six adolescents completed the questionnaire twice. T-tests were used to compare DNS scores of adolescents who have visible caries or not, adolescents who have had a check-up in the past three years or not, and adolescents who currently go to a dentist or not. Internal reliability was measured by Cronbach's alpha, and test-rest reliability was measured by intra-class correlation. Factor analysis (Varimax rotation) was used to examine the factor structure. In each comparison, significantly higher DNS scores were observed in adolescents with visible caries, who have not had a check-up in the past three years, or who do not go to a dentist (all p values < 0.05). The test-retest reliability of the DNS was high (ICC = 0.81), and its internal reliability was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.60). Factor analysis yielded two factors, characterized by home care and

  12. Child neglect in Army families: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Carol S; McCarroll, James E; Feerick, Margaret; McKibben, Jodi; Cozza, Stephen; Ursano, Robert J

    2011-12-01

    Military families include 2.9 million people, with approximately 40% of all service members having at least one child. Rates of child neglect in this population have increased in recent years, but little is known about the characteristics of the neglect. To better identify targets for intervention, it is necessary that we refine our understanding of child neglect in the military. In this review, we examine definitions of child neglect and the specific definitions used by the U.S. Army. We identify domains of neglect and caregiver behaviors and affiliated. We suggest that this approach can inform prevention efforts within the Institute of Medicine's framework for preventive interventions. Understanding risk and protective factors in the military family are important to interventions for child neglect in military families.

  13. Assessing capacity in suspected cases of self-neglect

    PubMed Central

    NAIK, AANAND D.; LAI, JAMES M.; KUNIK, MARK E.; DYER, CARMEL B.

    2010-01-01

    Self-neglect is a serious and burgeoning public health challenge representing the most common problem faced by Adult Protective Services agencies. Among older adults who are vulnerable to self-neglect, the capacity to make decisions may remain intact. However, the capacity to identify and extract oneself from harmful situations, circumstances, or relationships may be diminished. A key ethical and clinical branch point in identifying older adults at risk for self-neglect involves determining whether the individual can both make and implement decisions regarding personal needs, health, and safety. The Articulate Demonstrate method is a practical and efficient way to screen capacity in the setting of suspected self-neglect. Once self-neglect has been identified, common clinical interventions can be targeted to the diagnosed deficits that foster vulnerability to neglect in older adults. PMID:18312020

  14. Assessing capacity in suspected cases of self-neglect.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aanand D; Lai, James M; Kunik, Mark E; Dyer, Carmel B

    2008-02-01

    Self-neglect is a serious and burgeoning public health challenge representing the most common problem faced by Adult Protective Services agencies. Among older adults who are vulnerable to self-neglect, the capacity to make decisions may remain intact. However, the capacity to identify and extract oneself from harmful situations, circumstances, or relationships may be diminished. A key ethical and clinical branch point in identifying older adults at risk for self-neglect involves determining whether the individual can both make and implement decisions regarding personal needs, health, and safety. The Articulate --> Demonstrate method is a practical and efficient way to screen capacity in the setting of suspected self-neglect. Once self-neglect has been identified, common clinical interventions can be targeted to the diagnosed deficits that foster vulnerability to neglect in older adults.

  15. Elder abuse and neglect in an urban chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A; Gorbien, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in an urban Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed in a major urban medical center in NanJing, China. A total of 412 participants completed the survey and 145 (35%) participants screened positive for elder abuse and neglect. The mean age of the victims was 69 years and 59% were male. Caregiver neglect was the most common form of abuse, followed by financial exploitation, psychological abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and abandonment. Thirty-six percent of the victims suffered multiple forms of abuse and neglect. In the logistical regression analyses of the data, female gender, lower education and lower income were demographic risk factors associated with elder abuse and neglect. A better understanding of these and additional risk factors associated with elder abuse and neglect in older Chinese people is needed.

  16. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    PubMed

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future.

  17. Sulfoximines: a neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lücking, Ulrich

    2013-09-02

    Innovation has frequently been described as the key to drug discovery. However, in the daily routine, medicinal chemists often tend to stick to the functional groups and structural elements they know and love. Blockbuster cancer drug Velcade (bortezomib), for example, was rejected by more than 50 companies, supposedly because of its unusual boronic acid function (as often repeated: "only a moron would put boron in a drug!"). Similarly, in the discovery process of the pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394, the unconventional proposal to introduce a sulfoximine group into the lead series also led to sneers and raised eyebrows, since sulfoximines have seldom been used in medicinal chemistry. However, it was the introduction of the sulfoximine group that finally allowed the fundamental issues of the project to be overcome, culminating in the identification of the clinical sulfoximine pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394. This Minireview provides an overview of a widely neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry--the sulfoximine group.

  18. Neglected Respiratory Toxicity Caused by Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Christian; Roig, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    When a patient with lung cancer presents non-specific respiratory symptoms there are many diagnostic options. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment in many stages of lung cancer and its toxicity is well known. The main priority is to prevent life-threatening diseases such as lung infection, which can be treated successfully if a prompt, accurate diagnosis is given. Drug-induced pulmonary disease must be avoided at all costs but it is also important to avoid side-effects of drugs which do not directly interfere with respiratory physiology but may impair gas exchange. This review highlights the risks and characteristics of non-cytostatic-induced lung toxicity caused by agents that have been commonly used to treat cancer in recent decades. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of this neglected non-chemotherapy-induced lung toxicity in cancer patients, since early withdrawal of the offending drug is mandatory. PMID:19340316

  19. Priority setting and the 'neglected' tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Canning, David

    2006-06-01

    In this paper David Canning argues that interventions against 'neglected' tropical diseases should be thought of as investments in human capital and form an integral part of global poverty reduction. He argues that overall burden of disease should not be the criterion for priority setting; if the goal is to maximize health benefits from a fixed health budget then cost-effective interventions should be prioritized. Whilst many people find objectionable the assignment of a monetary value to health, a cost-benefit approach, combining health and economic benefits, would allow the health sector to present arguments to policy makers, based on the rate of return on investment. Since many health interventions in low-income countries have exceptionally high rankings in terms of cost-benefit ratios, this should result in large flows from other sectors to the health sector.

  20. Slum health: Diseases of neglected populations

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Lee W; Ko, Albert I; Unger, Alon; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2007-01-01

    Background Urban slums, like refugee communities, comprise a social cluster that engenders a distinct set of health problems. With 1 billion people currently estimated to live in such communities, this neglected population has become a major reservoir for a wide spectrum of health conditions that the formal health sector must deal with. Discussion Unlike what occurs with refugee populations, the formal health sector becomes aware of the health problems of slum populations relatively late in the course of their illnesses. As such, the formal health sector inevitably deals with the severe and end-stage complications of these diseases at a substantially greater cost than what it costs to manage non-slum community populations. Because of the informal nature of slum settlements, and cultural, social, and behavioral factors unique to the slum populations, little is known about the spectrum, burden, and determinants of illnesses in these communities that give rise to these complications, especially of those diseases that are chronic but preventable. In this article, we discuss observations made in one slum community of 58,000 people in Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil, to highlight the existence of a spectrum and burden of chronic illnesses not likely to be detected by the formal sector health services until they result in complications or death. Lack of health-related data from slums could lead to inappropriate and unrealistic allocation of health care resources by the public and private providers. Similar misassumptions and misallocations are likely to exist in other nations with large urban slum populations. Summary Continued neglect of ever-expanding urban slum populations in the world could inevitably lead to greater expenditure and diversion of health care resources to the management of end-stage complications of diseases that are preventable. A new approach to health assessment and characterization of social-cluster determinants of health in urban slums