Science.gov

Sample records for animal detection system

  1. An Automated Motion Detection and Reward System for Animal Training

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brad; Lim, Audrey N; Heidbreder, Arnold F

    2015-01-01

    A variety of approaches has been used to minimize head movement during functional brain imaging studies in awake laboratory animals. Many laboratories expend substantial effort and time training animals to remain essentially motionless during such studies. We could not locate an “off-the-shelf” automated training system that suited our needs.  We developed a time- and labor-saving automated system to train animals to hold still for extended periods of time. The system uses a personal computer and modest external hardware to provide stimulus cues, monitor movement using commercial video surveillance components, and dispense rewards. A custom computer program automatically increases the motionless duration required for rewards based on performance during the training session but allows changes during sessions. This system was used to train cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for awake neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The automated system saved the trainer substantial time, presented stimuli and rewards in a highly consistent manner, and automatically documented training sessions. We have limited data to prove the training system's success, drawn from the automated records during training sessions, but we believe others may find it useful. The system can be adapted to a range of behavioral training/recording activities for research or commercial applications, and the software is freely available for non-commercial use. PMID:26798573

  2. An Automated Motion Detection and Reward System for Animal Training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brad; Lim, Audrey N; Heidbreder, Arnold F; Black, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    A variety of approaches has been used to minimize head movement during functional brain imaging studies in awake laboratory animals. Many laboratories expend substantial effort and time training animals to remain essentially motionless during such studies. We could not locate an "off-the-shelf" automated training system that suited our needs.  We developed a time- and labor-saving automated system to train animals to hold still for extended periods of time. The system uses a personal computer and modest external hardware to provide stimulus cues, monitor movement using commercial video surveillance components, and dispense rewards. A custom computer program automatically increases the motionless duration required for rewards based on performance during the training session but allows changes during sessions. This system was used to train cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for awake neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The automated system saved the trainer substantial time, presented stimuli and rewards in a highly consistent manner, and automatically documented training sessions. We have limited data to prove the training system's success, drawn from the automated records during training sessions, but we believe others may find it useful. The system can be adapted to a range of behavioral training/recording activities for research or commercial applications, and the software is freely available for non-commercial use. PMID:26798573

  3. Animal Detection Precedes Access to Scene Category

    PubMed Central

    Crouzet, Sébastien M.; Joubert, Olivier R.; Thorpe, Simon J.; Fabre-Thorpe, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    The processes underlying object recognition are fundamental for the understanding of visual perception. Humans can recognize many objects rapidly even in complex scenes, a task that still presents major challenges for computer vision systems. A common experimental demonstration of this ability is the rapid animal detection protocol, where human participants earliest responses to report the presence/absence of animals in natural scenes are observed at 250–270 ms latencies. One of the hypotheses to account for such speed is that people would not actually recognize an animal per se, but rather base their decision on global scene statistics. These global statistics (also referred to as spatial envelope or gist) have been shown to be computationally easy to process and could thus be used as a proxy for coarse object recognition. Here, using a saccadic choice task, which allows us to investigate a previously inaccessible temporal window of visual processing, we showed that animal – but not vehicle – detection clearly precedes scene categorization. This asynchrony is in addition validated by a late contextual modulation of animal detection, starting simultaneously with the availability of scene category. Interestingly, the advantage for animal over scene categorization is in opposition to the results of simulations using standard computational models. Taken together, these results challenge the idea that rapid animal detection might be based on early access of global scene statistics, and rather suggests a process based on the extraction of specific local complex features that might be hardwired in the visual system. PMID:23251545

  4. The nematode C. elegans - A model animal system for the detection of genetic and developmental lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Marshall, Tamara M.; Schubert, Wayne W.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation effects on cell reproduction, differentiation, and mutation in vivo are studied using the nematode C. elegans. The relationships between fluence/dose and response and quality factor and linear energy transfer are analyzed. The data reveal that there is a complex repair pathway in the nematode and that mutants can be used to direct the sensitivity of the system to specific mutagens/radiation types.

  5. Detecting metastasis of gastric carcinoma using high-resolution micro-CT system: in vivo small animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junting; Tian, Jie; Liang, Jimin; Li, Xiangsi; Yang, Xiang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yi; Zhou, Yuanfang; Wang, Xiaorui

    2011-03-01

    Immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence staining are used for identifying the characteristics of metastasis in traditional ways. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a useful tool for monitoring and longitudinal imaging of tumor in small animal in vivo. In present study, we evaluated the feasibility of the detection for metastasis of gastric carcinoma by high-resolution micro-CT system with omnipaque accumulative enhancement method in the organs. Firstly, a high-resolution micro-CT ZKKS-MCT-sharp micro-CT was developed by our research group and Guangzhou Zhongke Kaisheng Medical Technology Co., Ltd. Secondly, several gastric carcinoma models were established through inoculating 2x106 BGC-823 gastric carcinoma cells subcutaneously. Thirdly, micro-CT scanning was performed after accumulative enhancement method of intraperitoneal injection of omnipaque contrast agent containing 360 mg iodine with a concentration of 350 mg I/ml. Finally, we obtained high-resolution anatomical information of the metastasis in vivo in a BALB/c NuNu nude mouse, the 3D tumor architecture is revealed in exquisite detail at about 35 μm spatial resolution. In addition, the accurate shape and volume of the micrometastasis as small as 0.78 mm3 can be calculated with our software. Overall, our data suggest that this imaging approach and system could be used to enhance the understanding of tumor proliferation, metastasis and could be the basis for evaluating anti-tumor therapies.

  6. From tiger to panda: animal head detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2011-06-01

    Robust object detection has many important applications in real-world online photo processing. For example, both Google image search and MSN live image search have integrated human face detector to retrieve face or portrait photos. Inspired by the success of such face filtering approach, in this paper, we focus on another popular online photo category--animal, which is one of the top five categories in the MSN live image search query log. As a first attempt, we focus on the problem of animal head detection of a set of relatively large land animals that are popular on the internet, such as cat, tiger, panda, fox, and cheetah. First, we proposed a new set of gradient oriented feature, Haar of Oriented Gradients (HOOG), to effectively capture the shape and texture features on animal head. Then, we proposed two detection algorithms, namely Bruteforce detection and Deformable detection, to effectively exploit the shape feature and texture feature simultaneously. Experimental results on 14,379 well labeled animals images validate the superiority of the proposed approach. Additionally, we apply the animal head detector to improve the image search result through text based online photo search result filtering. PMID:21156394

  7. Space Launch System Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is ready to move forward with the development of the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new national capability for human exploration be...

  8. Detection of bovine central nervous system tissues in rendered animal by-products by one-step real-time reverse transcription PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Andrievskaia, Olga; Tangorra, Erin

    2014-12-01

    Contamination of rendered animal byproducts with central nervous system tissues (CNST) from animals with bovine spongiform encephalopathy is considered one of the vehicles of disease transmission. Removal from the animal feed chain of CNST originated from cattle of a specified age category, species-labeling of rendered meat products, and testing of rendered products for bovine CNST are tasks associated with the epidemiological control of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. A single-step TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT) PCR assay was developed and evaluated for specific detection of bovine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA, a biomarker of bovine CNST, in rendered animal by-products. An internal amplification control, mammalian b -actin mRNA, was coamplified in the duplex RRT-PCR assay to monitor amplification efficiency, normalize amplification signals, and avoid false-negative results. The functionality of the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR was assessed through analysis of laboratory-generated binary mixtures of bovine central nervous system (CNS) and muscle tissues treated under various thermal settings imitating industrial conditions. The assay was able to detect as low as 0.05 % (wt/wt) bovine brain tissue in binary mixtures heat treated at 110 to 130°C for 20 to 60 min. Further evaluation of the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR assay involved samples of industrial rendered products of various species origin and composition obtained from commercial sources and rendering plants. Low amounts of bovine GFAP mRNA were detected in several bovine-rendered products, which was in agreement with declared species composition. An accurate estimation of CNS tissue content in industrial-rendered products was complicated due to a wide range of temperature and time settings in rendering protocols. Nevertheless, the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR assay may be considered for bovine CNS tissue detection in rendered products in combination with other available tools (for example, animal age

  9. Core systems of geometry in animal minds.

    PubMed

    Spelke, Elizabeth S; Lee, Sang Ah

    2012-10-01

    Research on humans from birth to maturity converges with research on diverse animals to reveal foundational cognitive systems in human and animal minds. The present article focuses on two such systems of geometry. One system represents places in the navigable environment by recording the distance and direction of the navigator from surrounding, extended surfaces. The other system represents objects by detecting the shapes of small-scale forms. These two systems show common signatures across animals, suggesting that they evolved in distant ancestral species. As children master symbolic systems such as maps and language, they come productively to combine representations from the two core systems of geometry in uniquely human ways; these combinations may give rise to abstract geometric intuitions. Studies of the ontogenetic and phylogenetic sources of abstract geometry therefore are illuminating of both human and animal cognition. Research on animals brings simpler model systems and richer empirical methods to bear on the analysis of abstract concepts in human minds. In return, research on humans, relating core cognitive capacities to symbolic abilities, sheds light on the content of representations in animal minds. PMID:22927577

  10. Core systems of geometry in animal minds

    PubMed Central

    Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Lee, Sang Ah

    2012-01-01

    Research on humans from birth to maturity converges with research on diverse animals to reveal foundational cognitive systems in human and animal minds. The present article focuses on two such systems of geometry. One system represents places in the navigable environment by recording the distance and direction of the navigator from surrounding, extended surfaces. The other system represents objects by detecting the shapes of small-scale forms. These two systems show common signatures across animals, suggesting that they evolved in distant ancestral species. As children master symbolic systems such as maps and language, they come productively to combine representations from the two core systems of geometry in uniquely human ways; these combinations may give rise to abstract geometric intuitions. Studies of the ontogenetic and phylogenetic sources of abstract geometry therefore are illuminating of both human and animal cognition. Research on animals brings simpler model systems and richer empirical methods to bear on the analysis of abstract concepts in human minds. In return, research on humans, relating core cognitive capacities to symbolic abilities, sheds light on the content of representations in animal minds. PMID:22927577

  11. Extrapyramidal system neurotoxicity: animal models.

    PubMed

    Dorman, David

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system's extrapyramidal system provides involuntary motor control to the muscles of the head, neck, and limbs. Toxicants that affect the extrapyramidal system are generally clinically characterized by impaired motor control, which is usually the result of basal ganglionic dysfunction. A variety of extrapyramidal syndromes are recognized in humans and include Parkinson's disease, secondary parkinsonism, other degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia, and clinical syndromes that result in dystonia, dyskinesia, essential tremor, and other forms of tremor and chorea. This chapter briefly reviews the anatomy of the extrapyramidal system and discusses several naturally occurring and experimental models that target the mammalian (nonhuman) extrapyramidal system. Topics discussed include extrapyramidal syndromes associated with antipsychotic drugs, carbon monoxide, reserpine, cyanide, rotenone, paraquat, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and manganese. In most cases, animals are used as experimental models to improve our understanding of the toxicity and pathogenesis of these agents. Another agent discussed in this chapter, yellowstar thistle poisoning in horses, however, represents an important spontaneous cause of parkinsonism that naturally occurs in animals. The central focus of the chapter is on animal models, especially the concordance between clinical signs, neurochemical changes, and neuropathology between animals and people. PMID:26563791

  12. Improving Animal Disease Detection Through an Enhanced Passive Surveillance Platform.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chelsea Wright; Holmstrom, Lindsey; Biggers, Keith; Wall, James; Beckham, Tammy; Coats, Matthew; Korslund, John; Colby, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    The ability to rapidly detect and report infectious diseases of domestic animals and wildlife is paramount to reducing the size and duration of an outbreak. There is currently a need in the United States livestock industry for a centralized animal disease surveillance platform, capable of collecting, integrating, and analyzing multiple data streams with dissemination to end-users. Such a system would be disease agnostic and establish baseline information on animal health and disease prevalence; it would alert health officials to anomalies potentially indicative of emerging and/or transboundary disease outbreaks, changes in the status of endemic disease, or detection of other causative agents (eg, toxins). As a part of its mission to accelerate and develop countermeasures against the introduction of emerging and/or transboundary animal diseases into the United States, the Department of Homeland Security is leading and investing in the development of an enhanced passive surveillance platform capable of establishing animal health baselines over time and alerting health officials to potential infectious disease outbreaks or other health anomalies earlier, allowing for more rapid response, improved animal health, and increased economic security. PMID:27419928

  13. Comparative immune systems in animals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaochun; Tao, Xin; Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2014-02-01

    Animal immune systems can be classified into those of innate immunity and those of adaptive immunity. It is generally thought that the former are universal for all animals and depend on germline-encoded receptors that recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), whereas the latter are vertebrate specific and are mediated primarily by lymphocytes bearing a unique antigen receptor. However, novel adaptive or adaptive-like immunities have been found in invertebrates and jawless vertebrates, and extraordinarily complex innate immunities, created through huge expansions of many innate gene families, have recently been found in the cephalochordate amphioxus and the echinoderm sea urchin. These studies not only inspire immunologists to seek novel immune mechanisms in invertebrates but also raise questions about the origin and evolution of vertebrate immunities. PMID:25384142

  14. Automatic Detection of Animals in Mowing Operations Using Thermal Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Kim Arild; Villa-Henriksen, Andrés; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Green, Ole

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. This has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. Therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. In particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (Perdix perdix) or pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are vulnerable to farming operations in their breeding habitat, whereas in mammals, the natural instinct of e.g., leverets of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and fawns of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) to lay low and still in the vegetation to avoid predators increase their risk of being killed or injured in farming operations. Various methods and approaches have been used to reduce wildlife mortality resulting from farming operations. However, since wildlife-friendly farming often results in lower efficiency, attempts have been made to develop automatic systems capable of detecting wild animals in the crop. Here we assessed the suitability of thermal imaging in combination with digital image processing to automatically detect a chicken (Gallus domesticus) and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a grassland habitat. Throughout the different test scenarios, our study animals were detected with a high precision, although the most dense grass cover reduced the detection rate. We conclude that thermal imaging and digital imaging processing may be an important tool for the improvement of wildlife-friendly farming practices in the future. PMID:22969362

  15. Automatic detection of animals in mowing operations using thermal cameras.

    PubMed

    Steen, Kim Arild; Villa-Henriksen, Andrés; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Green, Ole

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. This has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. Therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. In particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (Perdix perdix) or pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are vulnerable to farming operations in their breeding habitat, whereas in mammals, the natural instinct of e.g., leverets of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and fawns of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) to lay low and still in the vegetation to avoid predators increase their risk of being killed or injured in farming operations. Various methods and approaches have been used to reduce wildlife mortality resulting from farming operations. However, since wildlife-friendly farming often results in lower efficiency, attempts have been made to develop automatic systems capable of detecting wild animals in the crop. Here we assessed the suitability of thermal imaging in combination with digital image processing to automatically detect a chicken (Gallus domesticus) and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a grassland habitat. Throughout the different test scenarios, our study animals were detected with a high precision, although the most dense grass cover reduced the detection rate. We conclude that thermal imaging and digital imaging processing may be an important tool for the improvement of wildlife-friendly farming practices in the future. PMID:22969362

  16. Animal biocalorimeter and waste management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, Heinz F. (Inventor); Trimailo, William R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A biocalorimeter and waste management system is provided for making metabolic heat release measurements of animals or humans in a calorimeter (enclosure) using ambient air as a low velocity source of ventilating air through the enclosure. A shroud forces ventilating air to pass over the enclosure from an end open to ambient air at the end of the enclosure opposite its ventilating air inlet end and closed around the inlet end of the enclosure in order to obviate the need for regulating ambient air temperature. Psychrometers for measuring dry- and wet-bulb temperature of ventilating air make it possible to account for the sensible and latent heat additions to the ventilating air. A waste removal system momentarily recirculates high velocity air in a closed circuit through the calorimeter wherein a sudden rise in moisture is detected in the ventilating air from the outlet.

  17. Machine vision detection of bonemeal in animal feed samples.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Herrman, Timothy; Swanson, Rand

    2010-06-01

    There is growing public concern about contaminants in food and feed products, and reflection-based machine vision systems can be used to develop automated quality control systems. An important risk factor in animal feed products is the presence of prohibited ruminant-derived bonemeal that may contain the BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) prion. Animal feed products are highly complex in composition and texture (i.e., vegetable products, mineral supplements, fish and chicken meal), and current contaminant detection systems rely heavily on labor-intensive microscopy. In this study, we developed a training data set comprising 3.65 million hyperspectral profiles of which 1.15 million were from bonemeal samples, 2.31 million from twelve other feed materials, and 0.19 million denoting light green background (bottom of Petri dishes holding feed materials). Hyperspectral profiles in 150 spectral bands between 419 and 892 nm were analyzed. The classification approach was based on a sequence of linear discriminant analyses (LDA) to gradually improve the classification accuracy of hyperspectral profiles (reduce level of false positives), which had been classified as bonemeal in previous LDAs. That is, all hyperspectral profiles classified as bonemeal in an initial LDA (31% of these were false positives) were used as input data in a second LDA with new discriminant functions. Hyperspectral profiles classified as bonemeal in LDA2 (false positives were equivalent to 16%) were used as input data in a third LDA. This approach was repeated twelve times, in which at each step hyperspectral profiles were eliminated if they were classified as feed material (not bonemeal). Four independent feed materials were experimentally contaminated with 0-25% (by weight) bonemeal and used for validation. The analysis presented here provides support for development of an automated machine vision to detect bonemeal contamination around the 1% (by weight) level and therefore constitutes an

  18. Olfactory Carbon Dioxide Detection by Insects and Other Animals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Walton

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a small, relatively inert, but highly volatile gas that not only gives beer its bubbles, but that also acts as one of the primary driving forces of anthropogenic climate change. While beer brewers experiment with the effects of CO2 on flavor and climate scientists are concerned with global changes to ambient CO2 levels that take place over the course of decades, many animal species are keenly aware of changes in CO2 concentration that occur much more rapidly and on a much more local scale. Although imperceptible to us, these small changes in CO2 concentration can indicate imminent danger, signal overcrowding, and point the way to food. Here I review several of these CO2-evoked behaviors and compare the systems insects, nematodes, and vertebrates use to detect environmental CO2. PMID:23456329

  19. Detecting, Tracking and Classifying Animals in Underwater Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, D. R.; Kerkez, I.; Oliver, D.; Cline, D. E.; Sherlock, R.; Robison, B.; Kuhnz, L.; Ranzato, M.; Perona, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) deploys remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) equipped with high resolution video equipment. This technology enables quantitative video transects (QVTs) to be obtained providing data at the scale of the individual organisms and their natural aggregation patterns. QVTs are a sophisticated means of sampling that has recently replaced conventional methodologies and significantly advanced studies in animal diversity, distribution and abundance. The method currently used to analyze QVTs, however, is labor intensive and costly, reducing the amount of data analyzed from the ROV dive and thus limiting marine ecological research. An automated program for detecting and classifying organisms in the video would address these concerns. Video frames are processed with a neuromorphic-selective attention algorithm, modeled after the human vision system. The candidate locations identified by this module are subject to a number of parameters that when combined with successful tracking determine whether detected events are deemed "interesting" or "boring". "Interesting" events are marked in the video frames. The interesting events undergo further processing with a Bayesian classifier utilizing a Gaussian mixture model to determine the abundance and distribution of a representative benthic species. Presented data details the comparison between automated detection of organisms and program classification of Rathbunaster californicus in video footage with professional annotations.

  20. Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Detected in MDR Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium animal isolates from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The presence of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella in food animals is concerning. To understand how antimicrobial resistance (AR) develops, the genetic elements responsible for MDR phenotypes in Salmonella animal isolates were investigated. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring...

  1. Portable modular detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, James S.; Singh, Anup; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Stamps, James F.

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  2. A systems approach to animal communication

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Andrew B.; Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Hauber, Mark E.; Hoke, Kim L.

    2016-01-01

    Why animal communication displays are so complex and how they have evolved are active foci of research with a long and rich history. Progress towards an evolutionary analysis of signal complexity, however, has been constrained by a lack of hypotheses to explain similarities and/or differences in signalling systems across taxa. To address this, we advocate incorporating a systems approach into studies of animal communication—an approach that includes comprehensive experimental designs and data collection in combination with the implementation of systems concepts and tools. A systems approach evaluates overall display architecture, including how components interact to alter function, and how function varies in different states of the system. We provide a brief overview of the current state of the field, including a focus on select studies that highlight the dynamic nature of animal signalling. We then introduce core concepts from systems biology (redundancy, degeneracy, pluripotentiality, and modularity) and discuss their relationships with system properties (e.g. robustness, flexibility, evolvability). We translate systems concepts into an animal communication framework and accentuate their utility through a case study. Finally, we demonstrate how consideration of the system-level organization of animal communication poses new practical research questions that will aid our understanding of how and why animal displays are so complex. PMID:26936240

  3. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  4. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  5. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Do Animal Communication Systems Have Phonemes?

    PubMed

    Bowling, Daniel L; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-10-01

    Biologists often ask whether animal communication systems make use of conceptual entities from linguistics, such as semantics or syntax. A new study of an Australian bird species argues that their communication system has phonemes, but we argue that imposing linguistic concepts obscures, rather than clarifyies, communicative function. PMID:26346993

  7. Innovative ventilation system for animal anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.R.; Smith, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    A unique ventilation system was designed and built to reduce formaldehyde fumes in the large animal anatomy lab at the Vet Medical Center at Cornell University. The laboratory includes four rooms totaling 5,500 ft{sup 2}. The main room has 2,300 ft{sup 2} and houses the laboratory where up to 60 students dissect as many as 12 horses at a time. Other rooms are a cold storage locker, an animal preparation room and a smaller lab for specialized instruction. The large animal anatomy laboratory has a history of air quality complaints despite a fairly high ventilation rate of over 10 air changes/hour. The horses are embalmed, creating a voluminous source of formaldehyde and phenol vapors. Budget constraints and increasingly stringent exposure limits for formaldehyde presented a great challenge to design a ventilation system that yields acceptable air quality. The design solution included two innovative elements: air-to-air heat recovery, and focused ventilation.

  8. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  9. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-26

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  10. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  11. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  12. Underwater laser detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Walid; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2015-02-01

    The conventional method used to detect an underwater target is by sending and receiving some form of acoustic energy. But the acoustic systems have limitations in the range resolution and accuracy; while, the potential benefits of a laserbased underwater target detection include high directionality, high response, and high range accuracy. Lasers operating in the blue-green region of the light spectrum(420 : 570nm)have a several applications in the area of detection and ranging of submersible targets due to minimum attenuation through water ( less than 0.1 m-1) and maximum laser reflection from estimated target (like mines or submarines) to provide a long range of detection. In this paper laser attenuation in water was measured experimentally by new simple method by using high resolution spectrometer. The laser echoes from different targets (metal, plastic, wood, and rubber) were detected using high resolution CCD camera; the position of detection camera was optimized to provide a high reflection laser from target and low backscattering noise from the water medium, digital image processing techniques were applied to detect and discriminate the echoes from the metal target and subtract the echoes from other objects. Extraction the image of target from the scattering noise is done by background subtraction and edge detection techniques. As a conclusion, we present a high response laser imaging system to detect and discriminate small size, like-mine underwater targets.

  13. Bro Intrusion Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Paxson, Vern; Campbell, Scott; leres, Craig; Lee, Jason

    2006-01-25

    Bro is a Unix-based Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Bro monitors network traffic and detects intrusion attempts based on the traffic characteristics and content. Bro detects intrusions by comparing network traffic against rules describing events that are deemed troublesome. These rules might describe activities (e.g., certain hosts connecting to certain services), what activities are worth alerting (e.g., attempts to a given number of different hosts constitutes a "scan"), or signatures describing known attacks or access to known vulnerabilities. If Bro detects something of interest, it can be instructed to either issue a log entry or initiate the execution of an operating system command. Bro targets high-speed (Gbps), high-volume intrusion detection. By judiciously leveraging packet filtering techniques, Bro is able to achieve the performance necessary to do so while running on commercially available PC hardware, and thus can serve as a cost effective means of monitoring a site’s Internet connection.

  14. Transgenic cell lines for detection of animal viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, P D

    1996-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic assays based on direct detection of viral antigen or nucleic acid are being used with increasing frequency in clinical virology laboratories. Virus culture, however, remains the only way to detect infectious virus and to analyze clinically relevant viral phenotypes, such as drug resistance. Growth of viruses in cell culture is labor intensive and time-consuming and requires the use of many different cell lines. Transgenic technology, together with increasing knowledge of the molecular pathways of virus replication, offers the possibility of using genetically modified cell lines to improve virus growth in cell culture and to facilitate detection of virus-infected cells. Genetically modifying cells so that they express a reporter gene only after infection with a specific virus can allow the detection of infectious virus by rapid and simple enzyme assays such as beta-galactosidase assays without the need for antibodies. Although transgenic cells have recently been successfully used for herpes simplex virus detection, much more work needs to be done to adapt this technology to other human viral pathogens such as cytomegalovirus and respiratory viruses. This review offers some strategies for applying this technology to a wide spectrum of animal viruses. PMID:8809463

  15. Portable pathogen detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Milanovich, Fred P.; Brown, Steve B.; Vendateswaran, Kodumudi; Simon, Jonathan N.

    2005-06-14

    A portable pathogen detection system that accomplishes on-site multiplex detection of targets in biological samples. The system includes: microbead specific reagents, incubation/mixing chambers, a disposable microbead capture substrate, and an optical measurement and decoding arrangement. The basis of this system is a highly flexible Liquid Array that utilizes optically encoded microbeads as the templates for biological assays. Target biological samples are optically labeled and captured on the microbeads, which are in turn captured on an ordered array or disordered array disposable capture substrate and then optically read.

  16. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  17. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  18. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

    2005-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  19. A multipinhole small animal SPECT system with submillimeter spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Tobias; Despres, Philippe; Barber, William C.; Shah, Kanai S.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2006-05-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an important technology for molecular imaging studies of small animals. In this arena, there is an increasing demand for high performance imaging systems that offer improved spatial resolution and detection efficiency. We have designed a multipinhole small animal imaging system based on position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) detectors with the goal of submillimeter spatial resolution and high detection efficiency, which will allow us to minimize the radiation dose to the animal and to shorten the time needed for the imaging study. Our design will use 8x24 mm{sup 2} PSAPD detector modules coupled to thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] scintillators, which can achieve an intrinsic spatial resolution of 0.5 mm at 140 keV. These detectors will be arranged in rings of 24 modules each; the animal is positioned in the center of the 9 stationary detector rings which capture projection data from the animal with a cylindrical tungsten multipinhole collimator. The animal is supported on a bed which can be rocked about the central axis to increase angular sampling of the object. In contrast to conventional SPECT pinhole systems, in our design each pinhole views only a portion of the object. However, the ensemble of projection data from all of the multipinhole detectors provide angular sampling that is sufficient to reconstruct tomographic data from the object. The performance of this multipinhole PSAPD imaging system was simulated using a ray tracing program that models the appropriate point spread functions and then was compared against the performance of a dual-headed pinhole SPECT system. The detection efficiency of both systems was simulated and projection data of a hot rod phantom were generated and reconstructed to assess spatial resolution. Appropriate Poisson noise was added to the data to simulate an acquisition time of 15 min and an activity of 18.5 MBq distributed in the phantom. Both sets of data

  20. The Roles of Mental Animations and External Animations in Understanding Mechanical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Kriz, Sarah; Cate, Christina

    2003-01-01

    The effects of computer animations and mental animation on people's mental models of a mechanical system are examined. In 3 experiments, students learned how a mechanical system works from various instructional treatments including viewing a static diagram of the machine, predicting motion from static diagrams, viewing computer animations, and…

  1. Rugged Video System For Inspecting Animal Burrows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triandafils, Dick; Maples, Art; Breininger, Dave

    1992-01-01

    Video system designed for examining interiors of burrows of gopher tortoises, 5 in. (13 cm) in diameter or greater, to depth of 18 ft. (about 5.5 m), includes video camera, video cassette recorder (VCR), television monitor, control unit, and power supply, all carried in backpack. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) poles used to maneuver camera into (and out of) burrows, stiff enough to push camera into burrow, but flexible enough to bend around curves. Adult tortoises and other burrow inhabitants observable, young tortoises and such small animals as mice obscured by sand or debris.

  2. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  3. Image animation for theme enhancement and change detection. [LANDSAT 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Animated displays are useful in enhancing subtle temporally related changes in scenes viewed by satellites capable of providing repetitive coverage. The detectability of fixed features is also improved through the help of the powerful visual integration process. To expedite the process of assembling and displaying well-registered, time-lapse sequences and to provide means for making quantitative measurements of radiances, displacements, and areas, an electronic satellite image analysis console was constructed. During the LANDSAT-1 program, this equipment was applied to the needs of a number of earth resource investigators with interests principally related to dynamic hydrology. The measurement of the areal extent of snow cover within defined drainage basins is discussed as a representative applications example.

  4. Animated pose templates for modeling and detecting human actions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Benjamin Z; Nie, Bruce X; Liu, Zicheng; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents animated pose templates (APTs) for detecting short-term, long-term, and contextual actions from cluttered scenes in videos. Each pose template consists of two components: 1) a shape template with deformable parts represented in an And-node whose appearances are represented by the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features, and 2) a motion template specifying the motion of the parts by the Histogram of Optical-Flows (HOF) features. A shape template may have more than one motion template represented by an Or-node. Therefore, each action is defined as a mixture (Or-node) of pose templates in an And-Or tree structure. While this pose template is suitable for detecting short-term action snippets in two to five frames, we extend it in two ways: 1) For long-term actions, we animate the pose templates by adding temporal constraints in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and 2) for contextual actions, we treat contextual objects as additional parts of the pose templates and add constraints that encode spatial correlations between parts. To train the model, we manually annotate part locations on several keyframes of each video and cluster them into pose templates using EM. This leaves the unknown parameters for our learning algorithm in two groups: 1) latent variables for the unannotated frames including pose-IDs and part locations, 2) model parameters shared by all training samples such as weights for HOG and HOF features, canonical part locations of each pose, coefficients penalizing pose-transition and part-deformation. To learn these parameters, we introduce a semi-supervised structural SVM algorithm that iterates between two steps: 1) learning (updating) model parameters using labeled data by solving a structural SVM optimization, and 2) imputing missing variables (i.e., detecting actions on unlabeled frames) with parameters learned from the previous step and progressively accepting high-score frames as newly labeled examples. This algorithm belongs to a

  5. Bro Intrusion Detection System

    2006-01-25

    Bro is a Unix-based Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Bro monitors network traffic and detects intrusion attempts based on the traffic characteristics and content. Bro detects intrusions by comparing network traffic against rules describing events that are deemed troublesome. These rules might describe activities (e.g., certain hosts connecting to certain services), what activities are worth alerting (e.g., attempts to a given number of different hosts constitutes a "scan"), or signatures describing known attacks or accessmore » to known vulnerabilities. If Bro detects something of interest, it can be instructed to either issue a log entry or initiate the execution of an operating system command. Bro targets high-speed (Gbps), high-volume intrusion detection. By judiciously leveraging packet filtering techniques, Bro is able to achieve the performance necessary to do so while running on commercially available PC hardware, and thus can serve as a cost effective means of monitoring a site’s Internet connection.« less

  6. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  7. SRS Computer Animation and Drive Train System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthun, Daniel; Schachner, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The spinning rocket simulator (SRS) is an ongoing project at Oral Roberts University. The goal of the SRS is to gather crucial data concerning a spinning rocket under thrust for the purpose of analysis and correction of the coning motion experienced by this type of spacecraft maneuver. The computer animation simulates a virtual, scale model of the component of the SRS that represents the spacecraft itself. This component is known as the (VSM), or virtual spacecraft model. During actual physical simulation, this component of the SRS will experience a coning. The goal of the animation is to cone the VSM within that range to accurately represent the motion of the actual simulator. The drive system of the SRS is the apparatus that turns the actual simulator. It consists of a drive motor, motor mount and chain to power the simulator into motion. The motor mount is adjustable and rigid for high torque application. A digital stepper motor controller actuates the main drive motor for linear acceleration. The chain transfers power from the motor to the simulator via sprockets on both ends.

  8. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.

    2006-02-01

    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  9. Ultrasonic Leak Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for detecting ultrasonic vibrations. such as those generated by a small leak in a pressurized container. vessel. pipe. or the like. comprises an ultrasonic transducer assembly and a processing circuit for converting transducer signals into an audio frequency range signal. The audio frequency range signal can be used to drive a pair of headphones worn by an operator. A diode rectifier based mixing circuit provides a simple, inexpensive way to mix the transducer signal with a square wave signal generated by an oscillator, and thereby generate the audio frequency signal. The sensitivity of the system is greatly increased through proper selection and matching of the system components. and the use of noise rejection filters and elements. In addition, a parabolic collecting horn is preferably employed which is mounted on the transducer assembly housing. The collecting horn increases sensitivity of the system by amplifying the received signals. and provides directionality which facilitates easier location of an ultrasonic vibration source.

  10. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  11. Gas Flow Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  12. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  13. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  14. Rapid Detection of Visually Provocative Animals by Preschool Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penkunas, Michael J.; Coss, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect dangerous animals rapidly in complex landscapes has been historically important during human evolution. Previous research has shown that snake images are more readily detected than images of benign animals. To provide a stringent test of superior snake detection in preschool children and adults, Experiment 1 consisted of two…

  15. Unified Mars detection system. [life detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. P.; Kok, B.; Radmer, R.; Johnson, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A life-detection system is described which is designed to detect and characterize possible Martian biota and to gather information about the chemical environment of Mars, especially the water and amino acid contents of the soil. The system is organized around a central mass spectrometer that can sensitively analyze trace gases from a variety of different experiments. Some biological assays and soil-chemistry tests that have been performed in the laboratory as typical experiment candidates for the system are discussed, including tests for soil-organism metabolism, measurements of soil carbon contents, and determinations of primary aliphatic amines (amino acids and protein) in soils. Two possible test strategies are outlined, and the operational concept of the detection system is illustrated. Detailed descriptions are given for the mass spectrometer, gas inlet, incubation box, test cell modules, seal drive mechanism, soil distribution assembly, and electronic control system.

  16. REMOTE SENSING FOR DETECTING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can
    pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

  17. Neonatal Jaundice Detection System.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Mustafa; Hardalaç, Fırat; Ural, Berkan; Karap, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common condition that occurs in newborn infants in the first week of life. Today, techniques used for detection are required blood samples and other clinical testing with special equipment. The aim of this study is creating a non-invasive system to control and to detect the jaundice periodically and helping doctors for early diagnosis. In this work, first, a patient group which is consisted from jaundiced babies and a control group which is consisted from healthy babies are prepared, then between 24 and 48 h after birth, 40 jaundiced and 40 healthy newborns are chosen. Second, advanced image processing techniques are used on the images which are taken with a standard smartphone and the color calibration card. Segmentation, pixel similarity and white balancing methods are used as image processing techniques and RGB values and pixels' important information are obtained exactly. Third, during feature extraction stage, with using colormap transformations and feature calculation, comparisons are done in RGB plane between color change values and the 8-color calibration card which is specially designed. Finally, in the bilirubin level estimation stage, kNN and SVR machine learning regressions are used on the dataset which are obtained from feature extraction. At the end of the process, when the control group is based on for comparisons, jaundice is succesfully detected for 40 jaundiced infants and the success rate is 85 %. Obtained bilirubin estimation results are consisted with bilirubin results which are obtained from the standard blood test and the compliance rate is 85 %. PMID:27229489

  18. A Time Domain Fluorescence Tomography System for Small Animal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Scott B.; Dunn, Andrew K.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the application of a time domain diffuse fluorescence tomography system for whole body small animal imaging. The key features of the system are the use of point excitation in free space using ultrashort laser pulses and noncontact detection using a gated, intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Mouse shaped epoxy phantoms, with embedded fluorescent inclusions, were used to verify the performance of a recently developed asymptotic lifetime-based tomography algorithm. The asymptotic algorithm is based on a multiexponential analysis of the decay portion of the data. The multiexponential model is shown to enable the use of a global analysis approach for a robust recovery of the lifetime components present within the imaging medium. The surface boundaries of the imaging volume were acquired using a photogrammetric camera integrated with the imaging system, and implemented in a Monte-Carlo model of photon propagation in tissue. The tomography results show that the asymptotic approach is able to separate axially located fluorescent inclusions centered at depths of 4 and 10 mm from the surface of the mouse phantom. The fluorescent inclusions had distinct lifetimes of 0.5 and 0.95 ns. The inclusions were nearly overlapping along the measurement axis and shown to be not resolvable using continuous wave (CW) methods. These results suggest the practical feasibility and advantages of a time domain approach for whole body small animal fluorescence molecular imaging, particularly with the use of lifetime as a contrast mechanism. PMID:18672432

  19. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or nearmore » surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift

  20. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Mohaghegh, Shahab D.

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise

  1. Animal Health and Welfare Issues Facing Organic Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Webster, Jim; Sutherland, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The demand for organically grown, animal derived produce is increasing due to a growing desire for consumer products that have minimal chemical inputs and high animal welfare standards. Evaluation of the scientific literature suggests that a major challenge facing organic animal production systems is the management and treatment of health-related issues. However, implementation of effective management practices can help organic animal producers achieve and maintain high standards of health and welfare, which is necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. Abstract The demand for organically-grown produce is increasing worldwide, with one of the drivers being an expectation among consumers that animals have been farmed to a high standard of animal welfare. This review evaluates whether this expectation is in fact being met, by describing the current level of science-based knowledge of animal health and welfare in organic systems. The primary welfare risk in organic production systems appears to be related to animal health. Organic farms use a combination of management practices, alternative and complementary remedies and convenional medicines to manage the health of their animals and in many cases these are at least as effective as management practices employed by non-organic producers. However, in contrast to non-organic systems, there is still a lack of scientifically evaluated, organically acceptable therapeutic treatments that organic animal producers can use when current management practices are not sufficient to maintain the health of their animals. The development of such treatments are necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. PMID:26479750

  2. RESTRAINING SYSTEM FOR PLETHYSMOGRAPHY IN SMALL ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A restraining technique for immobilizing awake guinea pigs and rats during physiological measurements is described. The basic device consists of an adjustable acrylic holder that supports the animal in a standing position while restricting movement of the four legs. The holder al...

  3. Incipient fire detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, Jr., William K.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for an incipient fire detection system that receives gaseous samples and measures the light absorption spectrum of the mixture of gases evolving from heated combustibles includes a detector for receiving gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy and determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples. The wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples are compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. The method includes receiving gaseous samples, subjecting the samples to light spectroscopy, determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples, comparing the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples to predetermined absorption wavelengths and generating a warning signal whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. In an alternate embodiment, the apparatus includes a series of channels fluidically connected to a plurality of remote locations. A pump is connected to the channels for drawing gaseous samples into the channels. A detector is connected to the channels for receiving the drawn gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy. The wavelengths of absorption are determined and compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths is provided. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths correspond.

  4. Transmission of systemic AA amyloidosis in animals.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Ishiguro, N; Higuchi, K

    2014-03-01

    Amyloidoses are a group of protein-misfolding disorders that are characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils in organs and/or tissues. In reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, serum AA (SAA) protein forms deposits in mice, domestic and wild animals, and humans that experience chronic inflammation. AA amyloid fibrils are abnormal β-sheet-rich forms of the serum precursor SAA, with conformational changes that promote fibril formation. Extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils causes disease in affected animals. Recent findings suggest that AA amyloidosis could be transmissible. Similar to the pathogenesis of transmissible prion diseases, amyloid fibrils induce a seeding-nucleation process that may lead to development of AA amyloidosis. We review studies of possible transmission in bovine, avian, mouse, and cheetah AA amyloidosis. PMID:24280941

  5. Effects of gravity perturbation on developing animal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malacinski, G. M.; Neff, A. W.

    Developing systems provide unique opportunities for analyzing the effects of microgravity on animals. Several unusual types of cells as well as various extraordinary cellular behavior patterns characterize the embryos of most animals. Those features have been exploited as test systems for space flight. The data from previous experiments are reviewed, and considerations for the design of future experiments are presented.

  6. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. PMID:26807698

  7. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  8. Detection of Anthocyanins/Anthocyanidins in Animal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols may contribute to the prevention of several degenerative diseases, including cancer. Anthocyanins have been shown to possess potential anticancer activity. The aim of this study was to determine anthocyanin bioavailability in lung tissue of mice fed a blueberry diet (5% w/w) for 10 days or a bolus dose (10 mg/mouse; po) of a native mixture of bilberry anthocyanidins. All five anthocyanidins present in the blueberry were detected in the lung tissue using improved methods. The effect of various solvents on the stability of anthocyanins and their recovery from the biomatrix was analyzed. Detection of anthocyanins and their metabolites was performed by UPLC and LC-MS. Although anthocyanins were not detected, cyanidin was detected by UPLC-PDA and other anthocyanidins were detected by LC-MS, following conversion to anthocyanidins and selective extraction in isoamyl alcohol. The results show that anthocyanins can be detected in lung tissue of blueberry-fed mice and thus are bioavailable beyond the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24650213

  9. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  10. Detection of virgin coconut oil adulteration with animal fats using quantitative cholesterol by GC × GC-TOF/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baocheng; Li, Peiwu; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiuping; Matthäus, Bertrand; Chen, Ran; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi

    2015-07-01

    A new method based on the cholesterol level was developed to detect the presence of animal fats in virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the sterols in VCO and animal fats was separated using conventional one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Compared with 1D GC, the GC×GC system could obtain a complete baseline separation of the sterol trimethylsilyl ethers derived from cholesterol and cholestanol, so that the cholesterol content in pure VCO and false VCO adulterated with animal fats could be accurately determined. Cholesterol, a main sterol found in animal fats, represented less than 5mg/kg of VCO. The study demonstrated that the determination of the cholesterol level in VCO could be used for reliable detection of the presence of lard, chicken fat, mutton tallow, beef tallow, or their mixture in VCO at a level as little as 0.25%. PMID:25704693

  11. A simple strategy for detecting moving objects during locomotion revealed by animal-robot interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, Francisco; Polidoro, Peter; Robie, Alice; Branson, Kristin; Perona, Pietro; Dickinson, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    An important role of visual systems is to detect nearby predators, prey and potential mates[1], which may be distinguished in part by their motion. When an animal is at rest, an object moving in any direction may easily be detected by motion-sensitive visual circuits[2, 3]. During locomotion, however, this strategy is compromised because the observer must detect a moving object within the pattern of optic flow created by its own motion through the stationary background. However, objects that move so as to create back-to-front (regressive) motion may be unambiguously distinguished from stationary objects because forward locomotion creates only front-to-back (progressive) optic flow. Thus, moving animals ought to exhibit an enhanced sensitivity to regressively moving objects. We explicitly tested this hypothesis by constructing a simple fly-sized robot that was programmed to interact with a real fly. Our measurements indicate that whereas walking female flies freeze in response to a regressively moving object, they ignore a progressively moving one. Regressive motion salience also explains observations of behaviors exhibited by pairs of walking flies. Because the assumptions underlying the regressive motion salience hypothesis are general, we suspect that the behavior we have observed in Drosophila may be widespread among eyed, motile organisms. PMID:22727703

  12. Animal-microbe interactions and the evolution of nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Eisthen, Heather L; Theis, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    Animals ubiquitously interact with environmental and symbiotic microbes, and the effects of these interactions on animal physiology are currently the subject of intense interest. Nevertheless, the influence of microbes on nervous system evolution has been largely ignored. We illustrate here how taking microbes into account might enrich our ideas about the evolution of nervous systems. For example, microbes are involved in animals' communicative, defensive, predatory and dispersal behaviours, and have likely influenced the evolution of chemo- and photosensory systems. In addition, we speculate that the need to regulate interactions with microbes at the epithelial surface may have contributed to the evolutionary internalization of the nervous system. PMID:26598731

  13. Detection of cardiomyopathy in an animal model using quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, K.; Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Brill, A.B.; Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Atkins, H.L.; Sole, M.J.

    1988-10-01

    A fatty acid analog (15-p-iodophenyl)-3,3 dimethyl-pentadecanoic acid (DMIPP) was studied in cardiomyopathic (CM) and normal age-matched Syrian hamsters. Dual tracer quantitative wholebody autoradiography (QARG) with DMIPP and 2-(/sup 14/C(U))-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) or with FDG and /sup 201/Tl enabled comparison of the uptake of a fatty acid and a glucose analog with the blood flow. These comparisons were carried out at the onset and mid-stage of the disease before congestive failure developed. Groups of CM and normal animals were treated with verapamil from the age of 26 days, before the onset of the disease for 41 days. In CM hearts, areas of decreased DMIPP uptake were seen. These areas were much larger than the decrease in uptake of FDG or /sup 201/Tl. In early CM only minimal changes in FDG or /sup 201/Tl uptake were observed as compared to controls. Treatment of CM-prone animals with verapamil prevented any changes in DMIPP, FDG, or /sup 201/Tl uptake. DMIPP seems to be a more sensitive indicator of early cardiomyopathic changes as compared to /sup 201/Tl or FDG. The trial of DMIPP and SPECT in the diagnosis of human disease, as well as for monitoring the effects of drugs which may prevent it seems to be warranted.

  14. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissue using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular methodology is chosen ...

  15. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  16. Effects of gravity perturbation on developing animal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.; Neff, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of developing animal systems to analyze the effects of microgravity on animals is discussed. Some of the key features of developing systems, especially embryos, are reviewed and relevant space data are summarized. Issues to be addressed in the design of future space experiments are discussed. It is noted that an embryo which exhibits ground based gravity effects should be selected for use as a model system and individual variation in gravity response among batches of embryos should be taken into account.

  17. Farm animal well-being and intensive production systems.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J C

    1995-09-01

    Animal welfare, or well-being, is a social issue with ethical, scientific, political, and aesthetic properties. Answering questions about the welfare of animals requires scientific definition, assessment, solutions, and public acceptance. With respect to the actual well-being of the animal, most issues are centered on how the animal "feels" when managed within a specific level of confinement, during special agricultural practices (e.g., tail docking, beak trimming, etc.) and handling. Questions of this nature may require exploration of animal cognition, motivation, perception, and emotional states in addition to more commonly recognized indicators of well-being. Several general approaches have emerged for solving problems concerning animal well-being in intensive production systems: environmental, genetic, and therapeutic. Environmental approaches involve modifying existing systems to accommodate specific welfare concerns or development of alternative systems. Genetic approaches involve changing the behavioral and (or) physiological nature of the animal to reduce or eliminate behaviors that are undesirable within intensive system. Therapeutic approaches of a physical (tail docking, beak trimming) and physiological (drug and nutritional therapy) nature bring both concern and promise with regard to the reduction of confinement stress. Finally, the recent focus on commodity quality assurance programs may indirectly provide benefits for animal well-being. Although research in the area of animal well-being will provide important information for better animal management, handling, care, and the physical design of intensive production systems there is still some uncertainty regarding public acceptance. The aesthetics of modern intensive production systems may have as much to do with public acceptance as with science. PMID:8582867

  18. Protein detection system

    DOEpatents

    Fruetel, Julie A.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; McIlroy, Andrew

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  19. Signal detection methods for measurement of utility in animals1

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Anthony A.; Nevin, John A.

    1974-01-01

    Analytic methods of signal detection theory were employed to assess the utility of reinforcers. Four pigeons were trained to detect the presence or absence of a stimulus by pecking one of two side keys in a trial-by-trial choice paradigm. The relative rate of positive reinforcement for correct choices was varied to offset the biasing effects of electric shock for incorrect right side-key choices. The effects of relative rate of reinforcement on bias were similar at all shock intensities even though the subjects' sensitivity changed during the course of the experiment. The relative rate of reinforcement required to produce equal bias was calculated and plotted against shock intensity to generate utility functions. The relative rate of reinforcement necessary to offset the bias induced by shock was an increasing function of shock intensity. PMID:16811750

  20. The Change Detection Advantage for Animals: An Effect of Ancestral Priorities or Progeny of Experimental Design?

    PubMed Central

    Laeng, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The “animate monitoring” hypothesis proposes that humans are evolutionarily predisposed to recruit attention toward animals. Support for this has repeatedly been obtained through the change detection paradigm where animals are detected faster than artifacts. The present study shows that the advantage for animals does not stand up to more rigorous experimental controls. Experiment 1 used artificially generated change detection scenes and counterbalanced identical target objects across two sets of scenes. Results showed that detection performance is determined more by the surrounding scene than semantic category. Experiment 2 used photographs from the original studies and replaced the target animals with artifacts in the exact same locations, such that the surrounding scene was kept constant while manipulating the target category. Results replicated the original studies when photos were not manipulated but agreed with the findings of our first experiment in that the advantage shifted to the artifacts when object categories replaced each other in the original scenes. A third experiment used inverted and blurred images so as to disrupt high-level perception but failed to erase the advantage for animals. Hence, the present set of results questions whether the supposed attentional advantage for animals can be supported by evidence from the change detection paradigm. PMID:27433331

  1. Particle detection systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2010-05-11

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons and neutrons. In one implementation, a particle detection system employs a plurality of drift cells, which can be for example sealed gas-filled drift tubes, arranged on sides of a volume to be scanned to track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons. The drift cells can include a neutron sensitive medium to enable concurrent counting of neutrons. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold, uranium, plutonium, and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can concurrently detect any unshielded neutron sources occupying the volume from neutrons emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift cells can be used to also detect gamma rays. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  2. Animation of Dawn's Path Through the Solar System

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the path of NASA's Dawn spacecraft through the solar system, on its way to orbit the two most massive objects in the main asteroid belt. Dawn arrives at the protoplanet Vesta i...

  3. An image guided small animal stereotactic radiotherapy system.

    PubMed

    Sha, Hao; Udayakumar, Thirupandiyur S; Johnson, Perry B; Dogan, Nesrin; Pollack, Alan; Yang, Yidong

    2016-04-01

    Small animal radiotherapy studies should be performed preferably on irradiators capable of focal tumor irradiation and healthy tissue sparing. In this study, an image guided small animal arc radiation treatment system (iSMAART) was developed which can achieve highly precise radiation targeting through the utilization of onboard cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance. The iSMAART employs a unique imaging and radiation geometry where animals are positioned upright. It consists of a stationary x-ray tube, a stationary flat panel detector, and a rotatable and translational animal stage. System performance was evaluated in regards to imaging, image guidance, animal positioning, and radiation targeting using phantoms and tumor bearing animals. The onboard CBCT achieved good signal, contrast, and sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The iodine contrast CBCT accurately delineated orthotopic prostate tumors. Animal positioning was evaluated with ~0.3 mm vertical displacement along superior-inferior direction. The overall targeting precision was within 0.4 mm. Stereotactic radiation beams conformal to tumor targets can be precisely delivered from multiple angles surrounding the animal. The iSMAART allows radiobiology labs to utilize an image guided precision radiation technique that can focally irradiate tumors while sparing healthy tissues at an affordable cost. PMID:26958942

  4. An image guided small animal stereotactic radiotherapy system

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Hao; Udayakumar, Thirupandiyur S.; Johnson, Perry B.; Dogan, Nesrin; Pollack, Alan; Yang, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Small animal radiotherapy studies should be performed preferably on irradiators capable of focal tumor irradiation and healthy tissue sparing. In this study, an image guided small animal arc radiation treatment system (iSMAART) was developed which can achieve highly precise radiation targeting through the utilization of onboard cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance. The iSMAART employs a unique imaging and radiation geometry where animals are positioned upright. It consists of a stationary x-ray tube, a stationary flat panel detector, and a rotatable and translational animal stage. System performance was evaluated in regards to imaging, image guidance, animal positioning, and radiation targeting using phantoms and tumor bearing animals. The onboard CBCT achieved good signal, contrast, and sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The iodine contrast CBCT accurately delineated orthotopic prostate tumors. Animal positioning was evaluated with ∼0.3 mm vertical displacement along superior-inferior direction. The overall targeting precision was within 0.4 mm. Stereotactic radiation beams conformal to tumor targets can be precisely delivered from multiple angles surrounding the animal. The iSMAART allows radiobiology labs to utilize an image guided precision radiation technique that can focally irradiate tumors while sparing healthy tissues at an affordable cost. PMID:26958942

  5. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOEpatents

    Peurrung, Anthony J.; Stromswold, David C.

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  6. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  7. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  8. Centrifugal unbalance detection system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Reeves, George; Mets, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A system consisting of an accelerometer sensor attached to a centrifuge enclosure for sensing vibrations and outputting a signal in the form of a sine wave with an amplitude and frequency that is passed through a pre-amp to convert it to a voltage signal, a low pass filter for removing extraneous noise, an A/D converter and a processor and algorithm for operating on the signal, whereby the algorithm interprets the amplitude and frequency associated with the signal and once an amplitude threshold has been exceeded the algorithm begins to count cycles during a predetermined time period and if a given number of complete cycles exceeds the frequency threshold during the predetermined time period, the system shuts down the centrifuge.

  9. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Whited, R.C.

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in relatively thick semiconductor radiation detectors, such as HgI/sub 2/, which exhibit significant hole trapping. Two amplifiers are used: the first measures the charge collected and the second the contribution of the electrons to the charge collected. The outputs of the two amplifiers are utilized to unfold the total charge generated within the detector in response to a radiation event.

  10. Improved Pose Measurement and Tracking System for Motion Correction of Awake, Unrestrained Small Animal SPECT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Weisenberger, A G; Smith, M F

    2007-01-01

    An improved optical landmark-based pose measurement and tracking system has been developed to provide 3D animal pose data for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system for awake, unanesthetized, unrestrained laboratory animals. The six degree of freedom animal position and orientation measurement data are time synchronized with the SPECT list mode data to provide for motion correction after the scan and before reconstruction. The tracking system employs infrared (IR) markers placed on the animal's head along with synchronized, strobed IR LEDs to illuminate the reflectors and freeze motion while minimizing reflections. A new design trinocular stereo image acquisition system using IEEE 1394 CMOS cameras acquires images of the animal with markers contained within a transparent enclosure. The trinocular configuration provides improved accuracy, range of motion, and robustness over the binocular stereo used previously. Enhanced software detects obstructions, automatically segments the markers, rejects reflections, performs marker correspondence, and calculates the 3D pose of the animal's head using image data from three cameras. The new hardware design provides more compact camera positioning with enhanced animal viewing through the 360 degree SPECT scan. This system has been implemented on a commercial scanner and tested using live mice and has been shown to be more reliable with higher accuracy than the previous system. Experimental results showing the improved motion tracking results are given.

  11. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  12. Diversified transmission multichannel detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

    1984-07-03

    A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

  13. A passive integrated transponder system for tracking animal movements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boarman, W.I.; Beigel, M.L.; Goodlett, G.C.; Sazaki, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe an automated system that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to track movements of animals past specific locations. The system was designed to operate maintenance free for several months, be secure from vandalism and environmental damage, and record the identity, date, and time of passage of animals past a 2.4-m wide area. We used the system to monitor effectively the movements of 172 desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) through 2 storm drain culverts that pass beneath a state highway in the Mojave Desert, California. Four tortoises entered or passed through the culverts on 60 occasions. The system can be easily adapted to other species.

  14. Single-step PCR for detection of Brucella spp. from blood and milk of infected animals.

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Klevezas, D S; Martínez-Vázquez, I O; López-Merino, A; Martínez-Soriano, J P

    1995-01-01

    A versatile method for the extraction of Brucella DNA and PCR are presented as reliable tools for the detection of Brucella spp. from body fluids of infected animals. Two oligonucleotides homologous to regions of the gene encoding for an outer membrane protein (omp-2) were designed to detect the pathogen from milk and/or blood of infected goats, bovines, and human patients. The sensitivity of our test and its ability to detect the pathogen in samples from the field reveal a promising advance in the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals and humans. PMID:8586678

  15. Application of photostable quantum dots for indirect immunofluorescent detection of specific bacterial serotypes on small marine animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decho, Alan W.; Beckman, Erin M.; Chandler, G. Thomas; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2008-06-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence approach was developed using semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals to label and detect a specific bacterial serotype of the bacterial human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, attached to small marine animals (i.e. benthic harpacticoid copepods), which are suspected pathogen carriers. This photostable labeling method using nanotechnology will potentially allow specific serotypes of other bacterial pathogens to be detected with high sensitivity in a range of systems, and can be easily applied for sensitive detection to other Vibrio species such as Vibrio cholerae.

  16. Submitter and technician observations, and animal rabies detection in Massachusetts, 1992-2006.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingtai; Smole, Sandra; Hennigan, Dennis; Demaria, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    A relationship was detected between the submitter and technician observations and animal rabies detection in Massachusetts during 1992-2006 by logistic regression and Fisher exact testing. The results suggested that aggression (OR = 3.94, p < 0.0001), disorientation (OR = 1.17, p = 0.0006), paralysis (OR = 1.22, p = 0.041), unexplained wound (OR = 1.472, p < 0.0001), and found dead (OR = 1.16, p = 0.0089) were independently associated with positive rabies testing results at alpha 0.05 level adjusted by categorized animal species and type of animal. Fisher exact test confirmed the relationship between embedded porcupine quills and skunk spray of rabies-tested animals with positive rabies testing results. PMID:18047396

  17. Integrated multisensor perimeter detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, P. J.; Fretwell, P.; Barrett, D. J.; Faulkner, D. A.

    2007-10-01

    The report describes the results of a multi-year programme of research aimed at the development of an integrated multi-sensor perimeter detection system capable of being deployed at an operational site. The research was driven by end user requirements in protective security, particularly in threat detection and assessment, where effective capability was either not available or prohibitively expensive. Novel video analytics have been designed to provide robust detection of pedestrians in clutter while new radar detection and tracking algorithms provide wide area day/night surveillance. A modular integrated architecture based on commercially available components has been developed. A graphical user interface allows intuitive interaction and visualisation with the sensors. The fusion of video, radar and other sensor data provides the basis of a threat detection capability for real life conditions. The system was designed to be modular and extendable in order to accommodate future and legacy surveillance sensors. The current sensor mix includes stereoscopic video cameras, mmWave ground movement radar, CCTV and a commercially available perimeter detection cable. The paper outlines the development of the system and describes the lessons learnt after deployment in a pilot trial.

  18. Potential Application of Electronic Olfaction Systems in Feedstuffs Analysis and Animal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Olfaction Systems (EOSs) based on a variety of gas-sensing technologies have been developed to simulate in a simplified manner animal olfactory sensing systems. EOSs have been successfully applied to many applications and fields, including food technology and agriculture. Less information is available for EOS applications in the feed technology and animal nutrition sectors. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which are derived from both forages and concentrate ingredients of farm animal rations, are considered and described in this review as olfactory markers for feedstock quality and safety evaluation. EOS applications to detect VOCs from feedstuffs (as analytical matrices) are described, and some future scenarios are hypothesised. Furthermore, some EOS applications in animal feeding behaviour and organoleptic feed assessment are also described. PMID:24172280

  19. Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) quickly detect snakes but not spiders: Evolutionary origins of fear-relevant animals.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Koda, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Humans quickly detect the presence of evolutionary threats through visual perception. Many theorists have considered humans to be predisposed to respond to both snakes and spiders as evolutionarily fear-relevant stimuli. Evidence supports that human adults, children, and snake-naive monkeys all detect pictures of snakes among pictures of flowers more quickly than vice versa, but recent neurophysiological and behavioral studies suggest that spiders may, in fact, be processed similarly to nonthreat animals. The evidence of quick detection and rapid fear learning by primates is limited to snakes, and no such evidence exists for spiders, suggesting qualitative differences between fear of snakes and fear of spiders. Here, we show that snake-naive Japanese monkeys detect a single snake picture among 8 nonthreat animal pictures (koala) more quickly than vice versa; however, no such difference in detection was observed between spiders and pleasant animals. These robust differences between snakes and spiders are the most convincing evidence that the primate visual system is predisposed to pay attention to snakes but not spiders. These findings suggest that attentional bias toward snakes has an evolutionary basis but that bias toward spiders is more due to top-down, conceptually driven effects of emotion on attention capture. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078076

  20. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalacy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animals models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis.

  1. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  2. Static and Animated Presentations in Learning Dynamic Mechanical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Schneider, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how learners comprehend the functioning of a three-pulley system from a presentation on a computer screen. In the first experiment (N = 62) we tested the effect of static vs. animated presentations on comprehension. In the second experiment (N = 45), we tested the effect of user-control of an animated…

  3. Training Sessions Provide Working Knowledge of National Animal Identification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaze, J. Benton, Jr.; Ahola, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    One in-service and two train-the-trainer workshops were conducted by University of Idaho Extension faculty, Idaho State Department of Agriculture personnel, and allied industry representatives to increase Extension educators' knowledge and awareness of the National Animal Identification System (NAIS) and related topics. Training sessions included…

  4. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  5. Portable Microleak-Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin; Sikora, Joseph G.; Sankaran, Sankara N.

    2007-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a portable microleak-detection system that has been built especially for use in testing hydrogen tanks made of polymer-matrix composite materials. (As used here, microleak signifies a leak that is too small to be detectable by the simple soap-bubble technique.) The system can also be used to test for microleaks in tanks that are made of other materials and that contain gases other than hydrogen. Results of calibration tests have shown that measurement errors are less than 10 percent for leak rates ranging from 0.3 to 200 cm3/min. Like some other microleak-detection systems, this system includes a vacuum pump and associated plumbing for sampling the leaking gas, and a mass spectrometer for analyzing the molecular constituents of the gas. The system includes a flexible vacuum chamber that can be attached to the outer surface of a tank or other object of interest that is to be tested for leakage (hereafter denoted, simply, the test object). The gas used in a test can be the gas or vapor (e.g., hydrogen in the original application) to be contained by the test object. Alternatively, following common practice in leak testing, helium can be used as a test gas. In either case, the mass spectrometer can be used to verify that the gas measured by the system is the test gas rather than a different gas and, hence, that the leak is indeed from the test object.

  6. Application of statistical process control charts to monitor changes in animal production systems.

    PubMed

    De Vries, A; Reneau, J K

    2010-04-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) is a method of monitoring, controlling, and improving a process through statistical analysis. An important SPC tool is the control chart, which can be used to detect changes in production processes, including animal production systems, with a statistical level of confidence. This paper introduces the philosophy and types of control charts, design and performance issues, and provides a review of control chart applications in animal production systems found in the literature from 1977 to 2009. Primarily Shewhart and cumulative sum control charts have been described in animal production systems, with examples found in poultry, swine, dairy, and beef production systems. Examples include monitoring of growth, disease incidence, water intake, milk production, and reproductive performance. Most applications describe charting outcome variables, but more examples of control charts applied to input variables are needed, such as compliance to protocols, feeding practice, diet composition, and environmental factors. Common challenges for applications in animal production systems are the identification of the best statistical model for the common cause variability, grouping of data, selection of type of control chart, the cost of false alarms and lack of signals, and difficulty identifying the special causes when a change is signaled. Nevertheless, carefully constructed control charts are powerful methods to monitor animal production systems. Control charts might also supplement randomized controlled trials. PMID:20081080

  7. PCR detection and quantitation of predominant anaerobic bacteria in human and animal fecal samples

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rong-Fu; Cao, Wei-Wen; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1996-04-01

    PCR procedures based on 16S rRNA genen sequence specific for 12 anaerobic bacteria that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed and used for quantitative detection of these species in human feces and animal feces. The reported PCR procedure including the fecal sample preparation method is simplified and rapid and eliminates the DNA isolation steps.

  8. Tape Cassette Bacteria Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of an automatic bacteria detection system with a zero-g capability and based on the filter-capsule approach is described. This system is intended for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in a spacecraft. The principle of detection is based on measuring the increase in chemiluminescence produced by the action of bacterial porphyrins (i.e., catalase, cytochromes, etc.) on a luminol-hydrogen peroxide mixture. Since viable as well as nonviable organisms initiate this luminescence, viable organisms are detected by comparing the signal of an incubated water sample with an unincubated control. Higher signals for the former indicate the presence of viable organisms. System features include disposable sealed sterile capsules, each containing a filter membrane, for processing discrete water samples and a tape transport for moving these capsules through a processing sequence which involves sample concentration, nutrient addition, incubation, a 4 Molar Urea wash and reaction with luminol-hydrogen peroxide in front of a photomultiplier tube. Liquids are introduced by means of a syringe needle which pierces a rubber septum contained in the wall of the capsule. Detection thresholds obtained with this unit towards E. coli and S. marcescens assuming a 400 ml water sample are indicated.

  9. Food for thought: food systems, livestock futures and animal health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Global food security, livestock production and animal health are inextricably bound. However, our focus on the future tends to disaggregate food and health into largely separate domains. Indeed, much foresight work is either food systems or health-based with little overlap in terms of predictions or narratives. Work on animal health is no exception. Part of the problem is the fundamental misunderstanding of the role, nature and impact of the modern futures tool kit. Here, I outline three key issues in futures research ranging from methodological confusion over the application of scenarios to the failure to effectively integrate multiple methodologies to the gap between the need for more evidence and power and control over futures processes. At its core, however, a better understanding of the narrative and worldview framing much of the futures work in animal health is required to enhance the value and impact of such exercises. PMID:23988197

  10. Fiber optic hydrogen detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark D.

    1999-12-01

    Commercial and military launch vehicles are designed to use hydrogen as the main propellant, which is very volatile, extremely flammable, and highly explosive. Current detection systems uses Teflon transfer tubes at a large number of vehicle locations through which gas samples are drawn and the stream analyzed by a mass spectrometer. A concern with this approach is the high cost of the system. Also, the current system does not provide leak location and is not in real-time. This system is very complex and cumbersome for production and ground support measurement personnel. The fiber optic micromirror sensor under development for cryogenic environment relies on a reversible chemical interaction causing a change in reflectivity of a thin film of coated Palladium. The magnitude of the reflectivity change is correlated to hydrogen concentration. The sensor uses only a tiny light beam, with no electricity whatsoever at the sensor, leading to devices that is intrinsically safe from explosive ignition. The sensor, extremely small in size and weight detects, hydrogen concentration using a passive element consisting of chemically reactive microcoatings deposited on the surface of a glass microlens, which is then bonded to an optical fiber. The system uses a multiplexing technique with a fiber optic driver-receiver consisting of a modulated LED source that is launched into the sensor, and a photodiode detector that synchronously measures the reflected signal. The system incorporates a microprocessor (or PC) to perform the data analysis and storage, as well as trending and set alarm function. As it is a low cost system with a fast response, many more detection sensors can be used that will be extremely helpful in determining leak location for safety of crew and vehicles during launch operations.

  11. a Uav-Based ROE Deer Fawn Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  12. NASA Workshop on Animal Gravity-Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The opportunity for space flight has brought about the need for well-planned research programs that recognize the significance of space flight as a scientific research tool for advancing knowledge of life on Earth, and that utilize each flight opportunity to its fullest. For the first time in history, gravity can be almost completely eliminated. Thus, studies can be undertaken that will help to elucidate the importance of gravity to the normal functioning of living organisms, and to determine the effects microgravity may have on an organism. This workshop was convened to organize a plan for space research on animal gravity-sensing systems and the role that gravity plays in the development and normal functioning of these systems. Scientists working in the field of animal gravity-sensing systems use a wide variety of organisms in their research. The workshop presentations dealt with topics which ranged from the indirect gravity receptor of the water flea, Daphnia (whose antennal setae apparently act as current-sensing receptors as the animal moves up and down in water), through specialized statocyst structures found in jellyfish and gastropods, to the more complex vestibular systems that are characteristic of amphibians, avians, and mammals.

  13. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  14. Detecting transition in agricultural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, P. J.; Coiner, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural phenomena has been largely concentrated on analysis of agriculture at the field level. Concern has been to identify crop status, crop condition, and crop distribution, all of which are spatially analyzed on a field-by-field basis. A more general level of abstraction is the agricultural system, or the complex of crops and other land cover that differentiate various agricultural economies. The paper reports on a methodology to assist in the analysis of the landscape elements of agricultural systems with Landsat digital data. The methodology involves tracing periods of photosynthetic activity for a fixed area. Change from one agricultural system to another is detected through shifts in the intensity and periodicity of photosynthetic activity as recorded in the radiometric return to Landsat. The Landsat-derived radiometric indicator of photosynthetic activity appears to provide the ability to differentiate agricultural systems from each other as well as from conterminous natural vegetation.

  15. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  16. Detection of pathogenic Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis using water filtration, animal and bait testing.

    PubMed

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Feldman, Sanford H; Heffron, Meghan; Hammond, Meagan; Ruehling, Margaret P Roth; Grayson, Kristine L; Mitchell, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can be challenging to detect at endangered amphibian reintroduction sites. Pre-release Bd detection can be confounded by imperfect animal sampling and the absence of animals. In Study 1, we used historical Bd-positive sites, to concurrently evaluate water filtrates and mouth bar (tadpoles) or skin swab (caudates) samples for Bd using molecular beacon realtime PCR. In Study 2, during a natural outbreak, we used PCR to detect Bd from zoospore-attracting keratin baits (three avian, three snake species). In Study 1, no captured animals (n=116) exhibited clinical signs, although 10.6% were positive, representing three of seven species sampled. In contrast, 5.4% of water filters (n=56) were Bd-positive. In Study 2, after short incubation times, a single duck down feather tested Bd-positive. In conclusion, Bd was detected in asymptomatic amphibians and water filtrate at two sites, and from water only, at two other sites. With continued refinement, semi-quantitative Bd water filtrate screening could better define zoospore-specific disease risk, allowing better characterization of the free-living phase of the organism's life cycle. Finally, these results suggest wild aquatic birds (e.g., waterfowl) should be systematically explored as a means of Bd spread. Since large numbers of aquatic birds migrate, even low Bd transfer rates could be a significant means for disease dissemination. PMID:25231013

  17. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Tsuji, Osahiko; Hanyu, Aki; Okada, Seiji; Yasuda, Akimasa; Fukano, Takashi; Akazawa, Chihiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Imamura, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Okano, Hirotaka James; and others

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  18. Compact CT/SPECT Small-Animal Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Kastis, George A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Peterson, Todd E.; Barber, H. Bradford; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a dual-modality CT/SPECT imaging system for small-animal imaging applications. The X-ray system comprises a commercially available micro-focus X-ray tube and a CCD-based X-ray camera. X-ray transmission measurements are performed based on cone-beam geometry. Individual projections are acquired by rotating the animal about a vertical axis in front of the CCD detector. A high-resolution CT image is obtained after reconstruction using an ordered subsets-expectation maximization (OS-EM) reconstruction algorithm. The SPECT system utilizes a compact semiconductor camera module previously developed in our group. The module is mounted perpendicular to the X-ray tube/CCD combination. It consists of a 64×64 pixellated CdZnTe detector and a parallel-hole tungsten collimator. The field of view is 1 square inch. Planar projections for SPECT reconstruction are obtained by rotating the animal in front of the detector. Gamma-ray and X-ray images are presented of phantoms and mice. Procedures for merging the anatomical and functional images are discussed. PMID:26538684

  19. Early animal evolution and the origins of nervous systems

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of early nervous systems is hazardous because we lack good criteria for determining homology between the systems of distant taxa; the timing of the evolutionary events is contested, and thus the relevant ecological and geological settings for them are also unclear. Here I argue that no simple approach will resolve the first issue, but that it remains likely that animals evolved relatively late, and that their nervous systems thus arose during the late Ediacaran, in a context provided by the changing planktonic and benthic environments of the time. The early trace fossil provides the most concrete evidence for early behavioural diversification, but it cannot simply be translated into increasing nervous system complexity: behavioural complexity does not map on a one-to-one basis onto nervous system complexity, both because of possible limitations to behaviour caused by the environment and because we know that even organisms without nervous systems are capable of relatively complex behaviour. PMID:26554037

  20. Early animal evolution and the origins of nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Budd, Graham E

    2015-12-19

    Understanding the evolution of early nervous systems is hazardous because we lack good criteria for determining homology between the systems of distant taxa; the timing of the evolutionary events is contested, and thus the relevant ecological and geological settings for them are also unclear. Here I argue that no simple approach will resolve the first issue, but that it remains likely that animals evolved relatively late, and that their nervous systems thus arose during the late Ediacaran, in a context provided by the changing planktonic and benthic environments of the time. The early trace fossil provides the most concrete evidence for early behavioural diversification, but it cannot simply be translated into increasing nervous system complexity: behavioural complexity does not map on a one-to-one basis onto nervous system complexity, both because of possible limitations to behaviour caused by the environment and because we know that even organisms without nervous systems are capable of relatively complex behaviour. PMID:26554037

  1. Compensated intruder-detection systems

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, David R.; Miller, William R.

    1984-01-01

    Intruder-detection systems in which intruder-induced signals are transmitted through a medium also receive spurious signals induced by changes in a climatic condition affecting the medium. To combat this, signals received from the detection medium are converted to a first signal. The system also provides a reference signal proportional to climate-induced changes in the medium. The first signal and the reference signal are combined for generating therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the climatic changes in the medium. An alarm is energized if the output signal exceeds a preselected value. In one embodiment, an acoustic cable is coupled to a fence to generate a first electrical signal proportional to movements thereof. False alarms resulting from wind-induced movements of the fence (detection medium) are eliminated by providing an anemometer-driven voltage generator to provide a reference voltage proportional to the velocity of wind incident on the fence. An analog divider receives the first electrical signal and the reference signal as its numerator and denominator inputs, respectively, and generates therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the wind-induced movements in the fence.

  2. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  3. The importance of animal cognition in agricultural animal production systems: an overview.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S E; Stricklin, W R

    1991-12-01

    To describe and then fulfill agricultural animals' needs, we must learn more about their fundamental psychological and behavioral processes. How does this animal feel? Is that animal suffering? Will we ever be able to know these things? Scientists specializing in animal cognition say that there are numerous problems but that they can be overcome. Recognition by scientists of the notion of animal awareness has been increasing in recent years, because of the work of Griffin and others. Feeling, thinking, remembering, and imagining are cognitive processes that are factors in the economic and humane production of agricultural animals. It has been observed that the animal welfare debate depends on two controversial questions: Do animals have subjective feelings? If they do, can we find indicators that reveal them? Here, indirect behavioral analysis approaches must be taken. Moreover, the linear additivity of several stressor effects on a variety of animal traits suggests that some single phenomenon is acting as a "clearinghouse" for many or all of the stresses acting on an animal at any given time, and this phenomenon might be psychological stress. Specific situations animals may encounter in agricultural production settings are discussed with respect to the animals' subjective feelings. PMID:1808193

  4. Fish detection and classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidd, Richard A.; Wilder, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Marine biologists traditionally determine the presence and quantities of different types of fish by dragging nets across the bottom, and examining their contents. This method, although accurate, kills the collected fish, damages their habitat, and consumes large quantities of resources. This paper presents an alternative, a machine vision system capable of determining the presence of fish species. Illumination presents a unique problem in this environment, and the design of an effective illumination system is discussed. The related issues of object orientation and measurement are also discussed and resolved. Capturing images of fish in murky water also presents challenges. An adaptive thresholding technique is required to appropriately segment the fish from the background in these images. Mode detection, and histogram analysis are useful tools in determining these localized thresholds. It is anticipated that this system, created in conjunction with the Rutgers Institute for Marine and Coastal Science, will effectively classify fish in the estuarine environment.

  5. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber.

  6. Liquid Hybridization and Solid Phase Detection: A Highly Sensitive and Accurate Strategy for MicroRNA Detection in Plants and Animals.

    PubMed

    Li, Fosheng; Mei, Lanju; Zhan, Cheng; Mao, Qiang; Yao, Min; Wang, Shenghua; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in nearly every aspect of biology, including physiological, biochemical, developmental and pathological processes. Therefore, a highly sensitive and accurate method of detection of miRNAs has great potential in research on theory and application, such as the clinical approach to medicine, animal and plant production, as well as stress response. Here, we report a strategic method to detect miRNAs from multicellular organisms, which mainly includes liquid hybridization and solid phase detection (LHSPD); it has been verified in various species and is much more sensitive than traditional biotin-labeled Northern blots. By using this strategy and chemiluminescent detection with digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled or biotin-labeled oligonucleotide probes, as low as 0.01-0.25 fmol [for DIG-CDP Star (disodium2-chloro-5-(4-methoxyspiro{1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-(5'-chloro)tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decan}-4-yl)phenyl phosphate) system], 0.005-0.1 fmol (for biotin-CDP Star system), or 0.05-0.5 fmol (for biotin-luminol system) of miRNA can be detected and one-base difference can be distinguished between miRNA sequences. Moreover, LHSPD performed very well in the quantitative analysis of miRNAs, and the whole process can be completed within about 9 h. The strategy of LHSPD provides an effective solution for rapid, accurate, and sensitive detection and quantitative analysis of miRNAs in plants and animals. PMID:27598139

  7. Validation of qPCR Methods for the Detection of Mycobacterium in New World Animal Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Housman, Genevieve; Malukiewicz, Joanna; Boere, Vanner; Grativol, Adriana D.; Pereira, Luiz Cezar M.; Silva, Ita de Oliveira e; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R.; Truman, Richard; Stone, Anne C.

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens that cause leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) and tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, MTBC) continue to impact modern human populations. Therefore, methods able to survey mycobacterial infection in potential animal hosts are necessary for proper evaluation of human exposure threats. Here we tested for mycobacterial-specific single- and multi-copy loci using qPCR. In a trial study in which armadillos were artificially infected with M. leprae, these techniques were specific and sensitive to pathogen detection, while more traditional ELISAs were only specific. These assays were then employed in a case study to detect M. leprae as well as MTBC in wild marmosets. All marmosets were negative for M. leprae DNA, but 14 were positive for the mycobacterial rpoB gene assay. Targeted capture and sequencing of rpoB and other MTBC genes validated the presence of mycobacterial DNA in these samples and revealed that qPCR is useful for identifying mycobacterial-infected animal hosts. PMID:26571269

  8. Validation of qPCR Methods for the Detection of Mycobacterium in New World Animal Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Housman, Genevieve; Malukiewicz, Joanna; Boere, Vanner; Grativol, Adriana D; Pereira, Luiz Cezar M; Silva, Ita de Oliveira; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R; Truman, Richard; Stone, Anne C

    2015-11-01

    Zoonotic pathogens that cause leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) and tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, MTBC) continue to impact modern human populations. Therefore, methods able to survey mycobacterial infection in potential animal hosts are necessary for proper evaluation of human exposure threats. Here we tested for mycobacterial-specific single- and multi-copy loci using qPCR. In a trial study in which armadillos were artificially infected with M. leprae, these techniques were specific and sensitive to pathogen detection, while more traditional ELISAs were only specific. These assays were then employed in a case study to detect M. leprae as well as MTBC in wild marmosets. All marmosets were negative for M. leprae DNA, but 14 were positive for the mycobacterial rpoB gene assay. Targeted capture and sequencing of rpoB and other MTBC genes validated the presence of mycobacterial DNA in these samples and revealed that qPCR is useful for identifying mycobacterial-infected animal hosts. PMID:26571269

  9. Development of a combined microSPECT/CT system for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingshan

    Modern advances in the biomedical sciences have placed increased attention on small animals such as mice and rats as models of human biology and disease in biological research and pharmaceutical development. Their small size and fast breeding rate, their physiologic similarity to human, and, more importantly, the availability of sophisticated genetic manipulations, all have made mice and rats the laboratory mammals of choice in these experimental studies. However, the increased use of small animals in biomedical research also calls for new instruments that can measure the anatomic and metabolic information noninvasively with adequate spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity to facilitate these studies. This dissertation describes the engineering development of a combined single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) system dedicated for small animals imaging. The system aims to obtain both the anatomic and metabolic images with submillimeter spatial resolution in a way that the data can be correlated to provide improved image quality and to offer more complete biological evaluation for biomedical studies involving small animals. The project requires development of complete microSPECT and microCT subsystems. Both subsystems are configured with a shared gantry and animal bed with integrated instrumentation for data acquisition and system control. The microCT employs a microfocus X-ray tube and a CCD-based detector for low noise, high resolution imaging. The microSPECT utilizes three semiconductor detectors coupled with pinhole collimators. A significant contribution of this dissertation project is the development of iterative algorithms with geometrical compensation that allows radionuclide images to be reconstructed at submillimeter spatial resolution, but with significantly higher detection efficiency than conventional methods. Both subsystems are capable of helical scans, offering lengthened field of view and improved

  10. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  11. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  12. Molecular detection and typing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from milk samples of dairy animals.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Prabhdeep; Filia, G; Singh, S V; Patil, P K; Sandhu, K S

    2010-06-01

    Genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is important for precise classification of bacterium and for understanding the molecular epidemiology. The present study reports detection and typing of the MAP from milk. On the basis of clinical signs of diarrhea and/or weakness, the dairy animals suspected for Johne's disease were screened by Ziehl-Neelsen staining of fecal samples. The milk samples from 13 selected animals were processed for DNA extraction and direct IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MAP identified by IS900 PCR was genotyped using IS1311 PCR-restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). IS900 milk PCR revealed 30.8% animals positive for MAP, including 40% of the moderate and 50% of the heavy fecal shedders. All infected animals showed Bison type MAP in IS1311 PCR-REA. IS900 PCR can be used for screening of milk for MAP; however, the method needs to be evaluated for subclinical cases. IS1311 PCR-REA results indicated the predominance of Bison type MAP in the dairy animals of this region. PMID:20082257

  13. Detection of Dientamoeba fragilis in animal faeces using species specific real time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Chan, Douglas; Barratt, Joel; Roberts, Tamalee; Phillips, Owen; Šlapeta, Jan; Ryan, Una; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2016-08-30

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a potentially pathogenic, enteric, protozoan parasite with a worldwide distribution. While clinical case reports and prevalence studies appear regularly in the scientific literature, little attention has been paid to this parasite's biology, life cycle, host range, and possible transmission routes. Overall, these aspects of Dientamoeba biology remain poorly understood at best. In this study, a total of 420 animal samples, collected from Australia, were surveyed for the presence of Dientamoeba fragilis using PCR. Several PCR assays were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Two previously published PCR methods demonstrated cross reactivity with other trichomonads commonly found in animal samples. Only one assay exhibited excellent specificity. Using this assay D. fragilis was detected from one dog and one cat sample. This is the first report of D. fragilis from these animals and highlights the role companion animals may play in D. fragilis transmission. This study demonstrated that some published D. fragilis molecular assays cross react with other closely related trichomonads and consequently are not suitable for animal prevalence studies. PMID:27523936

  14. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated. PMID:27496621

  15. Detection and quantification of Leishmania infantum in naturally and experimentally infected animal samples.

    PubMed

    Losada-Barragán, Monica; Cavalcanti, Amanda; Umaña-Pérez, Adriana; Porrozzi, Renato; Cuervo-Escobar, Sergio; Vallejo, Andrés Felipe; Sánchez-Gómez, Myriam; Cuervo, Patricia

    2016-08-15

    Leishmania infantum is one of the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and can be fatal if it is not properly treated. Although several PCR works are intended to detect L. infantum, in silico analysis of available primers and/or primer-probes reveals potential cross species amplification. Here, a TaqMan-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for specific detection and quantitation of L. infantum in tissue samples from experimentally or naturally infected animals, mice or dogs, respectively. For this assay, primers and probes were designed for the kinetoplast minicircle DNA of L. infantum. The qPCR assay achieved a detection limit of 0.01pg of parasite DNA, and allowed specific amplification of L. infantum in both asymptomatic and symptomatic naturally infected dogs with inter-assay variation coefficients between 0.05-0.11. There was no cross amplification with dog DNA or with L. braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica or Trypanosoma cruzi. In addition, our assay detected a significantly higher parasite load in symptomatic than in the asymptomatic animals (p<0.0001). We believe this approach will be a valuable tool for the specific detection of L. infantum in regions of sympatric transmission of VL-causing parasites. PMID:27514885

  16. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  17. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  18. Definition of animal breeding goals for sustainable production systems.

    PubMed

    Olesen, I; Groen, A F; Gjerde, B

    2000-03-01

    What we do is determined by the way we "view" a complex issue and what sample of issues or events we choose to deal with. In this paper, a model based on a communal, cultural, or people-centered worldview, informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology, is considered. Definitions and interpretations of sustainable agriculture are reviewed. Common elements in published definitions of sustainable agriculture and animal production among those who seek long-term and equitable solutions for food production are resource efficiency, profitability, productivity, environmental soundness, biodiversity, social viability, and ethical aspects. Possible characteristics of future sustainable production systems and further development are presented. The impact of these characteristics on animal breeding goals is reviewed. The need for long-term biologically, ecologically, and sociologically sound breeding goals is emphasized, because animal breeding determined only by short-term market forces leads to unwanted side effects. Hence, a procedure for defining animal breeding goals with ethical priorities and weighing of market and non-market values is suggested. Implementation of non-market as well as market economic trait values in the aggregate genotype, as suggested, may allow for breeding programs that contribute to sustainable production systems. Examples of breeding goals in salmon, cattle, and pigs are given, and the resulting genetic responses are evaluated with respect to economic profit (or costs) and other criteria of sustainability. Important prerequisites for breeding programs for sustainable production are appropriate governmental policies, awareness of our way of thinking, and a more communal worldview informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology. PMID:10764063

  19. Method for the detection of desmethylbromethalin in animal tissue samples for the determination of bromethalin exposure.

    PubMed

    Filigenzi, Michael S; Bautista, Adrienne C; Aston, Linda S; Poppenga, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Bromethalin, a potent neurotoxin, is widely available for use as a rodenticide. As access to other rodenticides is reduced due to regulatory pressure, the use of bromethalin is likely to increase with a concomitant increase in poisonings in nontarget animals. Analytical methods for the detection of bromethalin residues in animals suspected to have been exposed to this rodenticide are needed to support post-mortem diagnosis of toxicosis. This paper describes a novel method for the analysis of desmethylbromethalin (DMB), bromethalin's toxic metabolite, in tissue samples such as liver, brain, and adipose. Samples were extracted with 5% ethanol in ethyl acetate, and an aliquot of the extract was evaporated dry, reconstituted, and analyzed by reverse phase ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometer utilized electrospray ionization in negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring. This method was qualitatively validated at a level of 1.0 ng/g in liver tissue. The quantitative potential of the method was also evaluated, and a method detection limit of 0.35 ng/g wet weight was determined in fat tissue. DMB was detected in tissue samples from animals suspected to have been poisoned by this compound. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other methods reported for analysis of DMB in tissue samples using LC-MS/MS. PMID:25688571

  20. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ding, Xuan; Dutta, Debaditya; Singh, Vijay P.; Kim, Kang

    2014-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using US-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5-14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13-24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n = 10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n = 10) with low fat content (4.8 ± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ˜3 s and ˜9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively, to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (-0.065 ± 0.079%) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those measured in control livers (-0.124 ± 0

  1. Explosives detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  2. Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ulvila, Jacob W.; Gaffney, John E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive method for evaluating intrusion detection systems (IDSs). It integrates and extends ROC (receiver operating characteristic) and cost analysis methods to provide an expected cost metric. Results are given for determining the optimal operation of an IDS based on this expected cost metric. Results are given for the operation of a single IDS and for a combination of two IDSs. The method is illustrated for: 1) determining the best operating point for a single and double IDS based on the costs of mistakes and the hostility of the operating environment as represented in the prior probability of intrusion and 2) evaluating single and double IDSs on the basis of expected cost. A method is also described for representing a compound IDS as an equivalent single IDS. Results are presented from the point of view of a system administrator, but they apply equally to designers of IDSs.

  3. Recent advances in microfluidic detection systems

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher A; Duong, Cindy T; Grimley, Alix; Roper, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous detection methods available for methods are being put to use for detection on these miniaturized systems, with the analyte of interest driving the choice of detection method. In this article, we summarize microfluidic 2 years. More focus is given to unconventional approaches to detection routes and novel strategies for performing high-sensitivity detection. PMID:20414455

  4. Metagenomic Detection of Viruses in Aerosol Samples from Workers in Animal Slaughterhouses

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Richard J.; Leblanc-Maridor, Mily; Wang, Jing; Ren, Xiaoyun; Moore, Nicole E.; Brooks, Collin R.; Peacey, Matthew; Douwes, Jeroen; McLean, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Published studies have shown that workers in animal slaughterhouses are at a higher risk of lung cancers as compared to the general population. No specific causal agents have been identified, and exposures to several chemicals have been examined and found to be unrelated. Evidence suggests a biological aetiology as the risk is highest for workers who are exposed to live animals or to biological material containing animal faeces, urine or blood. To investigate possible biological exposures in animal slaughterhouses, we used a metagenomic approach to characterise the profile of organisms present within an aerosol sample. An assessment of aerosol exposures for individual workers was achieved by the collection of personal samples that represent the inhalable fraction of dust/bioaerosol in workplace air in both cattle and sheep slaughterhouses. Two sets of nine personal aerosol samples were pooled for the cattle processing and sheep processing areas respectively, with a total of 332,677,346 sequence reads and 250,144,492 sequence reads of 85 bp in length produced for each. Eukaryotic genome sequence was found in both sampling locations, and bovine, ovine and human sequences were common. Sequences from WU polyomavirus and human papillomavirus 120 were detected in the metagenomic dataset from the cattle processing area, and these sequences were confirmed as being present in the original personal aerosol samples. This study presents the first metagenomic description of personal aerosol exposure and this methodology could be applied to a variety of environments. Also, the detection of two candidate viruses warrants further investigation in the setting of occupational exposures in animal slaughterhouses. PMID:23967289

  5. Real-time Awake Animal Motion Tracking System for SPECT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Lee, Seung Joon; Weisenberger, A G; Stolin, A; McKisson, J; Smith, M F

    2008-01-01

    Enhancements have been made in the development of a real-time optical pose measurement and tracking system that provides 3D position and orientation data for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system for awake, unanesthetized, unrestrained small animals. Three optical cameras with infrared (IR) illumination view the head movements of an animal enclosed in a transparent burrow. Markers placed on the head provide landmark points for image segmentation. Strobed IR LED s are synchronized to the cameras and illuminate the markers to prevent motion blur for each set of images. The system using the three cameras automatically segments the markers, detects missing data, rejects false reflections, performs trinocular marker correspondence, and calculates the 3D pose of the animal s head. Improvements have been made in methods for segmentation, tracking, and 3D calculation to give higher speed and more accurate measurements during a scan. The optical hardware has been installed within a Siemens MicroCAT II small animal scanner at Johns Hopkins without requiring functional changes to the scanner operation. The system has undergone testing using both phantoms and live mice and has been characterized in terms of speed, accuracy, robustness, and reliability. Experimental data showing these motion tracking results are given.

  6. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products. PMID:27109117

  7. An Ethanol Vapor Chamber System for Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Jiang, Lihong; Du, Hongying; Mason, Graeme F.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol vapor chambers have been utilized widely in alcohol research since their introduction in 1971, and implementations of these systems are now available commercially. Here, we present a modification of the chamber that can be built at lower cost and greater simplicity of operation. The six-chamber system for rats has multiple air pumps. Ethanol vapor levels are adjusted with the air flow rate, ethanol drip rate, and dilution with room air, without a heater or fans. Ethanol vapor concentrations are measured with a breathalyzer, using room air to dilute the vapor chamber output into the range of the breathalyzer. Multiple pumps provide backup to ensure animal survival in the case of failure of the primary air pump. Tests in animals demonstrated comfortable and stable elevation of blood ethanol, with tight control of the ethanol vapor concentrations and the ability to select from a broad range of levels. The ethanol vapor measurement was rapid and efficient. The parts cost was a few thousand U.S. dollars. This vapor chamber system features low cost, ease of use, and convenient and inexpensive measurement of ethanol vapor concentrations. The lack of a heater and electrical components that could come into contact with ethanol in our case facilitated institutional approval. PMID:22575431

  8. An ethanol vapor chamber system for small animals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Jiang, Lihong; Du, Hongying; Mason, Graeme F

    2012-06-30

    Ethanol vapor chambers have been utilized widely in alcohol research since their introduction in 1971, and implementations of these systems are now available commercially. Here, we present a modification of the chamber that can be built at lower cost and greater simplicity of operation. The six-chamber system for rats has multiple air pumps. Ethanol vapor levels are adjusted with the air flow rate, ethanol drip rate, and dilution with room air, without a heater or fans. Ethanol vapor concentrations are measured with a breathalyzer, using room air to dilute the vapor chamber output into the range of the breathalyzer. Multiple pumps provide backup to ensure animal survival in the case of failure of the primary air pump. Tests in animals demonstrated comfortable and stable elevation of blood ethanol, with tight control of the ethanol vapor concentrations and the ability to select from a broad range of levels. The ethanol vapor measurement was rapid and efficient. The parts cost was a few thousand U.S. dollars. This vapor chamber system features low cost, ease of use, and convenient and inexpensive measurement of ethanol vapor concentrations. The lack of a heater and electrical components that could come into contact with ethanol in our case facilitated institutional approval. PMID:22575431

  9. Detection and identification of Malassezia species in domestic animals and aquatic birds by PCR-RFLP

    PubMed Central

    Zia, M.; Mirhendi, H.; Toghyani, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at detection and species-level identification of the Malassezia yeasts in domestic animals and aquatic birds by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Samples were collected using tape strips and swabs from 471 animals including 97 horses, 102 cattle, 105 sheep, 20 camels, 60 dogs, 30 cats, 1 hamster, 1 squirrel, 50 aquatic birds and 5 turkeys. Tape-strip samples were examined by direct microscopy. All samples were inoculated on modified Leeming and Notman agar medium. DNA extracted from the yeast colonies was amplified by PCR using primers specific for 26S rDNA. RFLP of the PCR products was performed using Hin6I enzyme, and PCR and RFLP products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Malassezia yeasts were detected at the following frequencies: 15.46% in horses, 12.74% in cattle, 12.38% in sheep, 28.33% in dogs, 26.66% in cats and 26% in aquatic birds. Eighty colonies of 6 species were isolated: Malassezia globosa 41.25%, Malassezia furfur 22.5%, Malassezia restricta 15%, Malassezia sympodialis 15%, Malassezia pachydermatis 5% and Malassezia slooffiae 1.25%. Therefore different lipophilic Malassezia species are found in a wide diversity of animals and aquatic birds. PCR-RFLP is a suitable technique for identification of different Malassezia species. PMID:27175148

  10. Detection and identification of Malassezia species in domestic animals and aquatic birds by PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Zia, M; Mirhendi, H; Toghyani, M

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at detection and species-level identification of the Malassezia yeasts in domestic animals and aquatic birds by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Samples were collected using tape strips and swabs from 471 animals including 97 horses, 102 cattle, 105 sheep, 20 camels, 60 dogs, 30 cats, 1 hamster, 1 squirrel, 50 aquatic birds and 5 turkeys. Tape-strip samples were examined by direct microscopy. All samples were inoculated on modified Leeming and Notman agar medium. DNA extracted from the yeast colonies was amplified by PCR using primers specific for 26S rDNA. RFLP of the PCR products was performed using Hin6I enzyme, and PCR and RFLP products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Malassezia yeasts were detected at the following frequencies: 15.46% in horses, 12.74% in cattle, 12.38% in sheep, 28.33% in dogs, 26.66% in cats and 26% in aquatic birds. Eighty colonies of 6 species were isolated: Malassezia globosa 41.25%, Malassezia furfur 22.5%, Malassezia restricta 15%, Malassezia sympodialis 15%, Malassezia pachydermatis 5% and Malassezia slooffiae 1.25%. Therefore different lipophilic Malassezia species are found in a wide diversity of animals and aquatic birds. PCR-RFLP is a suitable technique for identification of different Malassezia species. PMID:27175148

  11. A Portable Infrasonic Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Lawrenson, Christopher C.; Masterman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    During last couple of years, NASA Langley has designed and developed a portable infrasonic detection system which can be used to make useful infrasound measurements at a location where it was not possible previously. The system comprises an electret condenser microphone, having a 3-inch membrane diameter, and a small, compact windscreen. Electret-based technology offers the lowest possible background noise, because Johnson noise generated in the supporting electronics (preamplifier) is minimized. The microphone features a high membrane compliance with a large backchamber volume, a prepolarized backplane and a high impedance preamplifier located inside the backchamber. The windscreen, based on the high transmission coefficient of infrasound through matter, is made of a material having a low acoustic impedance and sufficiently thick wall to insure structural stability. Close-cell polyurethane foam has been found to serve the purpose well. In the proposed test, test parameters will be sensitivity, background noise, signal fidelity (harmonic distortion), and temporal stability. The design and results of the compact system, based upon laboratory and field experiments, will be presented.

  12. Photoelectric detection system. [manufacturing automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.; Schansman, R. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A photoelectric beam system for the detection of the arrival of an object at a discrete station wherein artificial light, natural light, or no light may be present is described. A signal generator turns on and off a signal light at a selected frequency. When the object in question arrives on station, ambient light is blocked by the object, and the light from the signal light is reflected onto a photoelectric sensor which has a delayed electrical output but is of the frequency of the signal light. Outputs from both the signal source and the photoelectric sensor are fed to inputs of an exclusively OR detector which provides as an output the difference between them. The difference signal is a small width pulse occurring at the frequency of the signal source. By filter means, this signal is distinguished from those responsive to sunlight, darkness, or 120 Hz artificial light. In this fashion, the presence of an object is positively established.

  13. Planetary system detection by POINTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The final report and semiannual reports 1, 2, and 3 in response to the study of 'Planetary System Detection by POINTS' is presented. The grant covered the period from 15 Jun. 1988 through 31 Dec. 1989. The work during that period comprised the further development and refinement of the POINTS concept. The status of the POINTS development at the end of the Grant period was described by Reasenberg in a paper given at the JPL Workshop on Space Interferometry, 12-13 Mar. 1990, and distributed as CfA Preprint 3138. That paper, 'POINTS: a Small Astrometric Interferometer,' follows as Appendix-A. Our proposal P2276-7-09, dated July 1990, included a more detailed description of the state of the development of POINTS at the end of the tenure of Grant NAGW-1355. That proposal, which resulted in Grant NAGW-2497, is included by reference.

  14. [Animals (Animalia) in system of organisms. 2. Phylogenetic understanding of animals].

    PubMed

    Shatalkin, A I

    2005-01-01

    may be through different and crossed classifications. Inside the given category of groups it is possible to distinguish: (2.1) Level of the organization (grade) described by the differences on the levels of organization: for example prokaryotic and eukaryotic levels of the organization. Eukaryotes can be divided into unicellular (Protoctista, Protista) and multicelluar (tissue-specific-Histonia) forms. (2.2) Types of the organization distinguishing groups of one level: for example, amoedoid type (Sarcodina), naked (Gymnamoebia), and testate (Testacea) amoebas. (2.3) Taxonomic groups as set-theoretical approximations of taxa. (2.4) Groups of the mixed nature. For example, Haeckel has recognized Protophyta and Protozoa describing the unicellular level of the organization inside plants and animals accordingly. Protozoa in Cavalier-Smith's system (2002, 2004) is also an example of groups of the mixed nature. PMID:16245570

  15. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  16. Non-invasive detection of animal nerve impulses with an atomic magnetometer operating near quantum limited sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kasper; Budvytyte, Rima; Thomas, Rodrigo A.; Wang, Tian; Fuchs, Annette M.; Balabas, Mikhail V.; Vasilakis, Georgios; Mosgaard, Lars D.; Stærkind, Hans C.; Müller, Jörg H.; Heimburg, Thomas; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic fields generated by human and animal organs, such as the heart, brain and nervous system carry information useful for biological and medical purposes. These magnetic fields are most commonly detected using cryogenically-cooled superconducting magnetometers. Here we present the first detection of action potentials from an animal nerve using an optical atomic magnetometer. Using an optimal design we are able to achieve the sensitivity dominated by the quantum shot noise of light and quantum projection noise of atomic spins. Such sensitivity allows us to measure the nerve impulse with a miniature room-temperature sensor which is a critical advantage for biomedical applications. Positioning the sensor at a distance of a few millimeters from the nerve, corresponding to the distance between the skin and nerves in biological studies, we detect the magnetic field generated by an action potential of a frog sciatic nerve. From the magnetic field measurements we determine the activity of the nerve and the temporal shape of the nerve impulse. This work opens new ways towards implementing optical magnetometers as practical devices for medical diagnostics.

  17. Non-invasive detection of animal nerve impulses with an atomic magnetometer operating near quantum limited sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kasper; Budvytyte, Rima; Thomas, Rodrigo A; Wang, Tian; Fuchs, Annette M; Balabas, Mikhail V; Vasilakis, Georgios; Mosgaard, Lars D; Stærkind, Hans C; Müller, Jörg H; Heimburg, Thomas; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Polzik, Eugene S

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields generated by human and animal organs, such as the heart, brain and nervous system carry information useful for biological and medical purposes. These magnetic fields are most commonly detected using cryogenically-cooled superconducting magnetometers. Here we present the first detection of action potentials from an animal nerve using an optical atomic magnetometer. Using an optimal design we are able to achieve the sensitivity dominated by the quantum shot noise of light and quantum projection noise of atomic spins. Such sensitivity allows us to measure the nerve impulse with a miniature room-temperature sensor which is a critical advantage for biomedical applications. Positioning the sensor at a distance of a few millimeters from the nerve, corresponding to the distance between the skin and nerves in biological studies, we detect the magnetic field generated by an action potential of a frog sciatic nerve. From the magnetic field measurements we determine the activity of the nerve and the temporal shape of the nerve impulse. This work opens new ways towards implementing optical magnetometers as practical devices for medical diagnostics. PMID:27417378

  18. Non-invasive detection of animal nerve impulses with an atomic magnetometer operating near quantum limited sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kasper; Budvytyte, Rima; Thomas, Rodrigo A.; Wang, Tian; Fuchs, Annette M.; Balabas, Mikhail V.; Vasilakis, Georgios; Mosgaard, Lars D.; Stærkind, Hans C.; Müller, Jörg H.; Heimburg, Thomas; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields generated by human and animal organs, such as the heart, brain and nervous system carry information useful for biological and medical purposes. These magnetic fields are most commonly detected using cryogenically-cooled superconducting magnetometers. Here we present the first detection of action potentials from an animal nerve using an optical atomic magnetometer. Using an optimal design we are able to achieve the sensitivity dominated by the quantum shot noise of light and quantum projection noise of atomic spins. Such sensitivity allows us to measure the nerve impulse with a miniature room-temperature sensor which is a critical advantage for biomedical applications. Positioning the sensor at a distance of a few millimeters from the nerve, corresponding to the distance between the skin and nerves in biological studies, we detect the magnetic field generated by an action potential of a frog sciatic nerve. From the magnetic field measurements we determine the activity of the nerve and the temporal shape of the nerve impulse. This work opens new ways towards implementing optical magnetometers as practical devices for medical diagnostics. PMID:27417378

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Prüller, Sandra; Rensch, Ulrike; Meemken, Diana; Kaspar, Heike; Kopp, Peter A.; Klein, Günter; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1–2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147), blaOXA-2, (n = 4), strA and strB (n = 17), sul1 (n = 10), sul2 (n = 73), dfrA7 (n = 3) and tet(A) (n = 8) were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes. PMID:26275219

  20. Evidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.

    PubMed

    Saegerman, Claude; Humblet, Marie-France; Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Zanella, Gina; Martinelle, Ludovic

    2012-03-01

    If diseases of food-producing animals or zoonoses (re-)emerge, early clinical decision making is of major importance. In this particular condition, it is difficult to apply a classic evidence-based veterinary medicine process, because of a lack of available published data. A method based on the partition of field clinical observations (evidences) could be developed as an interesting alternative approach. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to improve the early clinical detection in two cases of emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and bluetongue due to the serotype 8-virus in cattle. PMID:22374122

  1. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  2. Development of a triple modality small animal planar imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Weisenberger, Z. Lee, S. Majewski, B. Kross, V. Popov, B. Welch, R. Wojcik, C. Zorn

    2006-02-01

    Recently small animal research utilizing nuclear medicine based imaging has been combined with structural anatomical imaging from x-ray radiography providing a powerful tool for animal researchers. The addition of a third modality is the goal of our instrumentation development. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and Case Western Reserve University have been collaborating on the development of a planar imaging system which in addition to radiopharmaceutical based functional imaging and x-ray radiography structural imaging also allows for the in vivo bioluminescence imaging thus providing another functional imaging modality. For the gamma camera we use is a Hamamatsu position sensitive photomultiplier tube coupled to a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillator array with individual crystal elements 1 mm × 1 mm × 5 mm in size and a 0.25 mm septum between each element. The gamma camera has a 10 cm diameter active area and can be used for 125I, 99mT and 111In radionuclide imaging. To acquire anatomical information we are using a Rad-Icon Shad-o-Box X-ray detector that provides a field of view of 5 cm × 10 cm. The x-ray source is a Source-Ray compact x-ray generator. We are using a Princeton Instruments cooled CCD based detector for the imaging of the bio-distribution of bioluminescence. All three imaging instruments will be integrated into a single light tight / x-ray tight enclosure.

  3. Method and apparatus for animal positioning in imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjioannou, Arion-Xenofon; Stout, David B.; Silverman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for imaging an animal includes a first mounting surface, a bed sized to support the animal and releasably secured to or integral with the first mounting surface. The apparatus also includes a plurality of straps, each having a first end in a fixed position relative to the bed and a second end for tightening around a limb of the animal. A method for in-vivo imaging of an animal includes providing an animal that has limbs, providing a first mounting surface, and providing a bed removably secured to or integral with the mounting surface and sized to support the animal as well as being coupled to a plurality of straps. The method also includes placing the animal on the bed between the plurality of straps and tightening at least two of the plurality of straps around at least two of the limbs such that the animal is substantially secured in place relative to the bed.

  4. A method to detect transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression in intact animals

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R.; Jastreboff, M.M.; Chiu, Chang Fang; Ito, Etsuro; Bertino, J.R. )

    1988-01-01

    A rapid procedure is described for assaying chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme activity in intact animals following transfection of the RSV CAT plasmid into mouse bone marrow cells by electroporation. The reconstituted mice were injected with ({sup 14}C)chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extracts of 24-h urine samples were analyzed by TLC autoradiography for the excretion of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites. CAT expression in vivo can be detected by the presence of acetylated {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites in the urine within 1 week after bone marrow transplantation and, under the conditions described, these metabolites can be detected for at least 3 months. CAT expression in intact mice as monitored by the urine assay correlates with the CAT expression in the hematopoietic tissues assayed in vitro. This method offers a quick mode of screening for introduced CAT gene expression in vivo without sacrificing the mice.

  5. Comparison of two detector systems for cone beam CT small animal imaging - a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Shaw, Chris C.; Liu, Xinming; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Wang, Tianpeng; Chen, Lingyun; Tu, Shu-Ju; Kappadath, S. Cheenu; Lai, Chao-Jen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To compare two detector systems - one based on the charge-coupled device (CCD) and image amplifier, the other based on a-Si/CsI flat panel, for cone beam computed-tomography (CT) imaging of small animals. A high resolution, high framing rate detector system for the cone beam CT imaging of small animals was developed. The system consists of a 2048×3072×12 bit CCD optically coupled to an image amplifier and an x-ray phosphor screen. The CCD has an intrinsic pixel size of 12 μm but the effective pixel size can be adjusted through the magnification adjustment of the optical coupling systems. The system is used in conjunction with an x-ray source and a rotating stage for holding and rotating the scanned object in the cone beam CT imaging experiments. The advantages of the system include but are not limited to the ability to adjust the effective pixel size and to achieve extremely high spatial resolution and temporal resolution. However, the need to use optical coupling compromises the detective quanta efficiency (DQE) of the system. In this paper, the imaging characteristics of the system were presented and compared with those of an a-Si/CsI flat-panel detector system. PMID:18160972

  6. A simple integrated system for electrophysiologic recordings in animals

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Bernard J.; Miller, Neil R.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Flower, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    This technical note describes a modification to a fundus camera that permits simultaneous recording of pattern electroretinograms (pERGs) and pattern visual evoked potentials (pVEPs). The modification consists of placing an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) in the split-viewer pathway of a fundus camera, in a plane conjugate to the subject’s pupil. In this way, a focused image of the OLED can be delivered to a precisely known location on the retina. The advantage of using an OLED is that it can achieve high luminance while maintaining high contrast, and with minimal degradation over time. This system is particularly useful for animal studies, especially when precise retinal positioning is required. PMID:19137347

  7. Comprehending emergent systems phenomena through direct-manipulation animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Priscilla Abel

    This study seeks to understand the type of interaction mode that best supports learning and comprehension of emergent systems phenomena. Given that the literature has established that students hold robust misconceptions of such phenomena, this study investigates the influence of using three types of interaction; speed-manipulation animation (SMN), post-manipulation animation (PMA) and direct-manipulation animation (DMA) for increasing comprehension and testing transfer of the phenomena, by looking at the effect of simultaneous interaction of haptic and visual channels on long term and working memories when seeking to comprehend emergent phenomena. The questions asked were: (1) Does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool (i.e., SMA, PMA or DMA), improve students' mental model construction of systems, thus increasing comprehension of this scientific concept? And (2) does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, give the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which can then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios? In an empirical study undergraduate and graduate students were asked to participate in one of three experimental conditions: SMA, PMA, or DMA. The results of the study found that it was the participants of the SMA treatment condition that had the most improvement in post-test scores. Students' understanding of the phenomena increased most when they used a dynamic model with few interactive elements (i.e., start, stop, and speed) that allowed for real time visualization of one's interaction on the phenomena. Furthermore, no indication was found that the learning of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, gave the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which could then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios

  8. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis to detect terrestrial animal protein in fish meal.

    PubMed

    Bellagamba, Federica; Valfrè, Franco; Panseri, Sara; Moretti, Vittorio M

    2003-04-01

    The recent European bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis has focused attention on the importance of adopting stringent control measures to avoid the risk of the diffusion of mad cow disease through meat meal-based animal feedstuffs. Potential adulteration of such feedstuffs with bone particles from terrestrial animals is determined by microscopic examination by law before the release of these feedstuffs for free circulation in the European Community. This study describes a DNA monitoring method to examine fish meal for contamination with mammalian and poultry products. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on the nucleotide sequence variation in the 12S ribosomal RNA gene of mitochondrial DNA was developed and evaluated. Three species-specific primer pairs were designed for the identification of ruminant, pig, and poultry DNA. The specificity of the primers used in the PCR was tested by comparison with DNA samples for several vertebrate species and confirmed. The PCR specifically detected mammalian and poultry adulteration in fish meals containing 0.125% beef, 0.125% sheep, 0.125% pig, 0.125% chicken, and 0.5% goat. A multiplex PCR assay for ruminant and pig adulteration was optimized and had a detection limit of 0.25%. PMID:12696697

  9. Rapid Microfluidic Assay for the Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin in Animal Sera

    PubMed Central

    Babrak, Lmar; Lin, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.; McGarvey, Jeffery; Hnasko, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Potent Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) represent a threat to public health and safety. Botulism is a disease caused by BoNT intoxication that results in muscle paralysis that can be fatal. Sensitive assays capable of detecting BoNTs from different substrates and settings are essential to limit foodborne contamination and morbidity. In this report, we describe a rapid 96-well microfluidic double sandwich immunoassay for the sensitive detection of BoNT-A from animal sera. This BoNT microfluidic assay requires only 5 μL of serum, provides results in 75 min using a standard fluorescence microplate reader and generates minimal hazardous waste. The assay has a <30 pg·mL−1 limit of detection (LOD) of BoNT-A from spiked human serum. This sensitive microfluidic BoNT-A assay offers a fast and simplified workflow suitable for the detection of BoNT-A from serum samples of limited volume in most laboratory settings. PMID:26742073

  10. Rapid Microfluidic Assay for the Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin in Animal Sera.

    PubMed

    Babrak, Lmar; Lin, Alice; Stanker, Larry H; McGarvey, Jeffery; Hnasko, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Potent Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) represent a threat to public health and safety. Botulism is a disease caused by BoNT intoxication that results in muscle paralysis that can be fatal. Sensitive assays capable of detecting BoNTs from different substrates and settings are essential to limit foodborne contamination and morbidity. In this report, we describe a rapid 96-well microfluidic double sandwich immunoassay for the sensitive detection of BoNT-A from animal sera. This BoNT microfluidic assay requires only 5 μL of serum, provides results in 75 min using a standard fluorescence microplate reader and generates minimal hazardous waste. The assay has a <30 pg·mL(-1) limit of detection (LOD) of BoNT-A from spiked human serum. This sensitive microfluidic BoNT-A assay offers a fast and simplified workflow suitable for the detection of BoNT-A from serum samples of limited volume in most laboratory settings. PMID:26742073

  11. Animation of multi-flexible body systems and its use in control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juengst, Carl; Stahlberg, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Animation can greatly assist the structural dynamicist and control system analyst with better understanding of how multi-flexible body systems behave. For multi-flexible body systems, the structural characteristics (mode frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) change, sometimes dramatically with large angles of rotation between bodies. With computer animation, the analyst can visualize these changes and how the system responds to active control forces and torques. A characterization of the type of system we wish to animate is presented. The lack of clear understanding of the above effects was a key element leading to the development of a multi-flexible body animation software package. The resulting animation software is described in some detail here, followed by its application to the control system analyst. Other applications of this software can be determined on an individual need basis. A number of software products are currently available that make the high-speed rendering of rigid body mechanical system simulation possible. However, such options are not available for use in rendering flexible body mechanical system simulations. The desire for a high-speed flexible body visualization tool led to the development of the Flexible Or Rigid Mechanical System (FORMS) software. This software was developed at the Center for Simulation and Design Optimization of Mechanical Systems at the University of Iowa. FORMS provides interactive high-speed rendering of flexible and/or rigid body mechanical system simulations, and combines geometry and motion information to produce animated output. FORMS is designed to be both portable and flexible, and supports a number of different user interfaces and graphical display devices. Additional features have been added to FORMS that allow special visualization results related to the nature of the flexible body geometric representations.

  12. Development of automatic movement analysis system for a small laboratory animal using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Satoshi; Kawasue, Kikuhito; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2013-03-01

    Activity analysis in a small laboratory animal is an effective procedure for various bioscience fields. The simplest way to obtain animal activity data is just observation and recording manually, even though this is labor intensive and rather subjective. In order to analyze animal movement automatically and objectivity, expensive equipment is usually needed. In the present study, we develop animal activity analysis system by means of a template matching method with video recorded movements in laboratory animal at a low cost.

  13. CAXSS: an intelligent threat-detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feather, Thomas; Guan, Ling; Lee-Kwen, Adrian; Paranjape, Raman B.

    1993-04-01

    Array Systems Computing Inc. (ASC) is developing a prototype Computer Assisted X-ray Screening System (CAXSS) which uses state-of-the-art image processing and computer vision technology to detect threats seen in x-ray images of passenger carry-on luggage at national and international airports. This system is successful in detecting weapons including guns, knives, grenades, aerosol cans, etc. Currently, bomb detection is also being implemented; preliminary results using this bomb detector are promising.

  14. Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

    2013-08-01

    Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry. PMID:22726305

  15. System calibration and image reconstruction for a new small-animal SPECT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chun

    A novel small-animal SPECT imager, FastSPECT II, was recently developed at the Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging. FastSPECT II consists of two rings of eight modular scintillation cameras and list-mode data-acquisition electronics that enable stationary and dynamic imaging studies. The instrument is equipped with exchangeable aperture assemblies and adjustable camera positions for selections of magnifications, pinhole sizes, and fields of view (FOVs). The purpose of SPECT imaging is to recover the radiotracer distribution in the object from the measured image data. Accurate knowledge of the imaging system matrix (referred to as H) is essential for image reconstruction. To assure that all of the system physics is contained in the matrix, experimental calibration methods for the individual cameras and the whole imaging system were developed and carefully performed. The average spatial resolution over the FOV of FastSPECT II in its low-magnification (2.4X) configuration is around 2.4 mm, computed from the Fourier crosstalk matrix. The system sensitivity measured with a 99mTc point source at the center of the FOV is about 267 cps/MBq. The system detectability was evaluated by computing the ideal-observer performance on SKE/BKE (signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly) detection tasks. To reduce the system-calibration time and achieve finer reconstruction grids, two schemes for interpolating H were implemented and compared: these are centroid interpolation with Gaussian fitting and Fourier interpolation. Reconstructed phantom and mouse-cardiac images demonstrated the effectiveness of the H-matrix interpolation. Tomographic reconstruction can be formulated as a linear inverse problem and solved using statistical-estimation techniques. Several iterative reconstruction algorithms were introduced, including maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) and its ordered-subsets (OS) version, and some least-squares (LS) and weighted-least-squares (WLS) algorithms such

  16. Implementation and assessment of an animal management system for small-animal micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, David W.; Detombe, Sarah A.; Chiodo, Chris; Fricke, Stanley T.; Drangova, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Advances in laboratory imaging systems for CT, SPECT, MRI, and PET facilitate routine micro-imaging during pre-clinical investigations. Challenges still arise when dealing with immune-compromised animals, biohazardous agents, and multi-modality imaging. These challenges can be overcome with an appropriate animal management system (AMS), with the capability for supporting and monitoring a rat or mouse during micro-imaging. We report the implementation and assessment of a new AMS system for mice (PRA-3000 / AHS-2750, ASI Instruments, Warren MI), designed to be compatible with a commercial micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging system (eXplore speCZT, GE Healthcare, London ON). The AMS was assessed under the following criteria: 1) compatibility with the imaging system (i.e. artifact generation, geometric dimensions); 2) compatibility with live animals (i.e. positioning, temperature regulation, anesthetic supply); 3) monitoring capabilities (i.e. rectal temperature, respiratory and cardiac monitoring); 4) stability of co-registration; and 5) containment. Micro-CT scans performed using a standardized live-animal protocol (90 kVp, 40 mA, 900 views, 16 ms per view) exhibited low noise (+/-19 HU) and acceptable artifact from high-density components within the AMS (e.g. ECG pad contacts). Live mice were imaged repeatedly (with removal and replacement of the AMS) and spatial registration was found to be stable to within +/-0.07 mm. All animals tolerated enclosure within the AMS for extended periods (i.e. > one hour) without distress, based on continuous recordings of rectal temperature, ECG waveform and respiratory rate. A sealed AMS system extends the capability of a conventional micro-imaging system to include immune-compromised and biosafety level 2 mouse-imaging protocols.

  17. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  18. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    DOEpatents

    Annala, Wayne C.

    1989-01-01

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  19. Phylogenetic detection of numerous gene duplications shared by animals, fungi and plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene duplication is considered a major driving force for evolution of genetic novelty, thereby facilitating functional divergence and organismal diversity, including the process of speciation. Animals, fungi and plants are major eukaryotic kingdoms and the divergences between them are some of the most significant evolutionary events. Although gene duplications in each lineage have been studied extensively in various contexts, the extent of gene duplication prior to the split of plants and animals/fungi is not clear. Results Here, we have studied gene duplications in early eukaryotes by phylogenetic relative dating. We have reconstructed gene families (with one or more orthogroups) with members from both animals/fungi and plants by using two different clustering strategies. Extensive phylogenetic analyses of the gene families show that, among nearly 2,600 orthogroups identified, at least 300 of them still retain duplication that occurred before the divergence of the three kingdoms. We further found evidence that such duplications were also detected in some highly divergent protists, suggesting that these duplication events occurred in the ancestors of most major extant eukaryotic groups. Conclusions Our phylogenetic analyses show that numerous gene duplications happened at the early stage of eukaryotic evolution, probably before the separation of known major eukaryotic lineages. We discuss the implication of our results in the contexts of different models of eukaryotic phylogeny. One possible explanation for the large number of gene duplication events is one or more large-scale duplications, possibly whole genome or segmental duplication(s), which provides a genomic basis for the successful radiation of early eukaryotes. PMID:20370904

  20. First detection of an ignored parasite, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, in different animal hosts in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abu-Akkada, Somaia S; Ashmawy, Karam I; Dweir, Amira W

    2015-03-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts. The present study investigated the prevalence of E. cuniculi in different animal hosts from different provinces of Egypt (Alexandria, Behera, and Assuit) using serological (IFAT and ELISA) and molecular (PCR) assays. A total of 324 serum and 274 urine samples were collected from seven different species of animals (cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goat, rabbit, dog, and rat). The results of serological examination confirmed the occurrence of antibodies against E. cuniculi in 38.9 % (126 out of 324) of the examined animals. The significant (P < 0.01) highest positivity was observed in goats (67 %) followed by buffaloes, rabbits, dogs, rat, and cattle (46.42, 41, 40, 36.2, and 28.1 %, respectively), while the least was recorded in sheep (9 %). Behera province showed the highest (P < 0.01) infection rate (40.68 %) followed by Alexandria and Assuit (39.2 and 22.73 %, respectively). The infection rate was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in females (45.34 %) than that in males (30.47 %). Positive cases were observed in all age categories. The highest infection rate (64.66 %) was recorded in the age group 1-5 years and the least was recorded in the age group <1 year (34.85 %).On the other hand, only five positive out of 274 urine samples (1.82 %) were detected by PCR. Our study provides a wide database on prevalence and epidemiology of an ignored parasite (E. cuniculi) for the first time in Egypt. PMID:25547075

  1. Airborne change detection system for the detection of route mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, Thomas P.; Jackson, Larry; Yeshnik, Mark; Petty, Thomas E.

    2003-09-01

    The US Army is interested in technologies that will enable it to maintain the free flow of traffic along routes such as Main Supply Routes (MSRs). Mines emplaced in the road by enemy forces under cover of darkness represent a major threat to maintaining a rapid Operational Tempo (OPTEMPO) along such routes. One technique that shows promise for detecting enemy mining activity is Airborne Change Detection, which allows an operator to detect suspicious day-to-day changes in and around the road that may be indicative of enemy mining. This paper presents an Airborne Change Detection that is currently under development at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The system has been tested using a longwave infrared (LWIR) sensor on a vertical take-off and landing unmanned aerial vehicle (VTOL UAV) and a midwave infrared (MWIR) sensor on a fixed wing aircraft. The system is described and results of the various tests conducted to date are presented.

  2. Animals and the invention of the Phanerozoic Earth system.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2011-02-01

    Animals do not just occupy the modern biosphere, they permeate its structure and define how it works. Their unique combination of organ-grade multicellularity, motility and heterotrophic habit makes them powerful geobiological agents, imposing myriad feedbacks on nutrient cycling, productivity and environment. Most significantly, animals have 'engineered' the biosphere over evolutionary time, forcing the diversification of, for example, phytoplankton, land plants, trophic structure, large body size, bioturbation, biomineralization and indeed the evolutionary process itself. This review surveys how animals contribute to the modern world and provides a basis for reconstructing ancient ecosystems. Earlier, less animal-influenced biospheres worked quite differently from the one currently occupied, with the Ediacaran-Cambrian radiation of organ-grade animals marking a fundamental shift in macroecological and macroevolutionary expression. PMID:21190752

  3. Spatiotemporal activity patterns detected from single cell measurements from behaving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Alessandro E. P.; Tetko, Igor V.

    1999-03-01

    Precise temporal patterning of activity within and between neurons has been predicted on theoretical grounds, and found in the spike trains of neurons recorded from anesthetized and conscious animals, in association with sensor stimuli and particular phases of task performance. However, the functional significance of such patterning in the generation of behavior has not been confirmed. We recorded from multiple single neurons in regions of rat auditory cortex during the waiting period of a Go/NoGo task. During this time the animal waited for an auditory signal with high cognitive load. Of note is the fact that neural activity during the period analyzed was essentially stationary, with no event related variability in firing. Detected patterns therefore provide a measure of brain state that could not be addressed by standard methods relying on analysis of changes in mean discharge rate. The possibility is discussed that some patterns might reflect a preset bias to a particular response, formed in the waiting period. Others patterns might reflect a state of prior preparation of appropriate neural assemblies for analyzing a signal that is expected but of unknown behavioral valence.

  4. Detecting tau in serum of transgenic animal models after tau immunotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    d'Abramo, Cristina; Acker, Christopher M; Schachter, Joel B; Terracina, Giuseppe; Wang, Xiaohai; Forest, Stefanie K; Davies, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the attempt to elucidate if the "peripheral sink hypothesis" could be a potential mechanism of action for tau removal in passive immunotherapy experiments, we have examined tau levels in serum of chronically injected JNPL3 and Tg4510 transgenic animals. Measurement of tau in serum of mice treated with tau antibodies is challenging because of the antibody interference in sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. To address this issue, we have developed a heat-treatment protocol at acidic pH to remove interfering molecules from serum, with excellent recovery of tau. The present data show that pan-tau and conformational antibodies do increase tau in mouse sera. However, these concentrations in serum do not consistently correlate with reductions of tau pathology in brain, suggesting that large elevations of tau species measured in serum are not predictive of efficacy. Here, we describe a reliable method to detect tau in serum of transgenic animals that have undergone tau immunotherapy. Levels of tau in human serum are less than the sensitivity of current assays, although artifactual signals are common. The method may be useful in similarly treated humans, a situation in which false positive signals are likely. PMID:26508157

  5. Detection of small trace molecules in human and animal exhalation by tunable diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Kouznetsov, Andrian I.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Galagan, Marina E.

    1995-09-01

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is proposed for content measurements of trace gases like CO, CO2, NH3, CH4, NO, NO2 in human and animal's exhalation. High sensitivity and wide dynamic range of the method ensure fast detection of these gases at ppb level and within the accuracy better than 10%. One-expiration sample is enough to reach these parameters. There is no need for any preliminary preparation of tested samples. Some pairs of the gases, for instance, CO and CO2, NH3, and CO2, and CO and N2O, can be measured simultaneously by one laser providing complex studies. The high sensitive gas analysis could provide necessary background to the noninvasive diagnostics in a wide variety of medical problems. Perspectives of the TDLS methods in application to medicine diagnostics are demonstrated by the first results of exhalation tests.

  6. Relating Approach-to-Target and Detection Tasks in Animal Psychoacoustics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Psychophysical experiments seek to measure the limits of perception. While straightforward in humans, in animals they are time consuming. Choosing an appropriate task and interpreting measurements can be challenging. We investigated the localization of high-frequency auditory signals in noise using an “approach-to-target” task in ferrets, how task performance should be interpreted in terms of perception, and how the measurements relate to other types of tasks. To establish their general ability to localize, animals were first trained to discriminate broadband noise from 12 locations. Subsequently we tested their ability to discriminate between band-limited targets at 2 or 3 more widely spaced locations, in a continuous background noise. The ability to discriminate between 3 possible locations (−90°, 0°, 90°) of a 10-kHz pure tone decreased gradually over a wide range (>30 dB) of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Location discrimination ability was better for wide band noise targets (0.5 and 2 octave). These results were consistent with localization ability limiting performance for pure tones. Discrimination of pure tones at 2 locations (−90/left, 90/right) was robust at positive SNRs, yielding psychometric functions which fell steeply at negative SNRs. Thresholds for discrimination were similar to previous tone-in-noise thresholds measured in ferrets using a yes/no task. Thus, using an approach-to-target task, sound “localization” in noise can reflect detectability or the ability to localize, depending on the stimulus configuration. Signal-detection-theory-based models were able to account for the results when discriminating between pure tones from 2- and 3-source locations. PMID:27196623

  7. Relating approach-to-target and detection tasks in animal psychoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Sollini, Joseph; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Sumner, Christian J

    2016-08-01

    Psychophysical experiments seek to measure the limits of perception. While straightforward in humans, in animals they are time consuming. Choosing an appropriate task and interpreting measurements can be challenging. We investigated the localization of high-frequency auditory signals in noise using an "approach-to-target" task in ferrets, how task performance should be interpreted in terms of perception, and how the measurements relate to other types of tasks. To establish their general ability to localize, animals were first trained to discriminate broadband noise from 12 locations. Subsequently we tested their ability to discriminate between band-limited targets at 2 or 3 more widely spaced locations, in a continuous background noise. The ability to discriminate between 3 possible locations (-90°, 0°, 90°) of a 10-kHz pure tone decreased gradually over a wide range (>30 dB) of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Location discrimination ability was better for wide band noise targets (0.5 and 2 octave). These results were consistent with localization ability limiting performance for pure tones. Discrimination of pure tones at 2 locations (-90/left, 90/right) was robust at positive SNRs, yielding psychometric functions which fell steeply at negative SNRs. Thresholds for discrimination were similar to previous tone-in-noise thresholds measured in ferrets using a yes/no task. Thus, using an approach-to-target task, sound "localization" in noise can reflect detectability or the ability to localize, depending on the stimulus configuration. Signal-detection-theory-based models were able to account for the results when discriminating between pure tones from 2- and 3-source locations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27196623

  8. An isolated working heart system for large animal models.

    PubMed

    Schechter, Matthew A; Southerland, Kevin W; Feger, Bryan J; Linder, Dean; Ali, Ayyaz A; Njoroge, Linda; Milano, Carmelo A; Bowles, Dawn E

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in the late 19(th) century, the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus, and the subsequent development of the working heart model, have been invaluable tools for studying cardiovascular function and disease(1-15). Although the Langendorff heart preparation can be used for any mammalian heart, most studies involving this apparatus use small animal models (e.g., mouse, rat, and rabbit) due to the increased complexity of systems for larger mammals(1,3,11). One major difficulty is ensuring a constant coronary perfusion pressure over a range of different heart sizes - a key component of any experiment utilizing this device(1,11). By replacing the classic hydrostatic afterload column with a centrifugal pump, the Langendorff working heart apparatus described below allows for easy adjustment and tight regulation of perfusion pressures, meaning the same set-up can be used for various species or heart sizes. Furthermore, this configuration can also seamlessly switch between constant pressure or constant flow during reperfusion, depending on the user's preferences. The open nature of this setup, despite making temperature regulation more difficult than other designs, allows for easy collection of effluent and ventricular pressure-volume data. PMID:24962492

  9. Thermal systems for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Marco; Del Vecchio, Luca; Esposito, Salvatore; Balsi, Marco; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents new techniques of landmine detection and localization using thermal methods. Described methods use both dynamical and static analysis. The work is based on datasets obtained from the Humanitarian Demining Laboratory of Università La Sapienza di Roma, Italy.

  10. Forward Obstacle Detection System by Stereo Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Saneyoshi, Keiji

    Forward obstacle detection is needed to prevent car accidents. We have developed forward obstacle detection system which has good detectability and the accuracy of distance only by using stereo vision. The system runs in real time by using a stereo processing system based on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Road surfaces are detected and the space to drive can be limited. A smoothing filter is also used. Owing to these, the accuracy of distance is improved. In the experiments, this system could detect forward obstacles 100 m away. Its error of distance up to 80 m was less than 1.5 m. It could immediately detect cutting-in objects.

  11. Toward detecting deception in intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Johnson, Gregory, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Contemporary decision makers often must choose a course of action using knowledge from several sources. Knowledge may be provided from many diverse sources including electronic sources such as knowledge-based diagnostic or decision support systems or through data mining techniques. As the decision maker becomes more dependent on these electronic information sources, detecting deceptive information from these sources becomes vital to making a correct, or at least more informed, decision. This applies to unintentional disinformation as well as intentional misinformation. Our ongoing research focuses on employing models of deception and deception detection from the fields of psychology and cognitive science to these systems as well as implementing deception detection algorithms for probabilistic intelligent systems. The deception detection algorithms are used to detect, classify and correct attempts at deception. Algorithms for detecting unexpected information rely upon a prediction algorithm from the collaborative filtering domain to predict agent responses in a multi-agent system.

  12. Hydrogen Fire Detection System Features Sharp Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, C. S.

    1966-01-01

    Hydrogen fire detection system discovers fires by detecting the flickering ultraviolet radiation emitted by the OH molecule, a short-lived intermediate combustion product found in hydrogen-air flames. In a space application, the system discriminates against false signals from sunlight and rocket engine exhaust plume radiation.

  13. Automatic real-time pair-feeding system for animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Connolly, J. P.; Hitchman, M. J.; Humbert, J. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A pair feeding method and apparatus are provided for experimental animals wherein the amount of food consumed is immediately delivered to a normal or control animal so that there is a qualitative, quantitative and chronological correctness in the pair feeding of the two animals. This feeding mechanism delivers precisely measured amounts of food to a feeder. Circuitry is provided between master and slave feeders so that there is virtually no chance of a malfunction of the feeding apparatus, causing erratic results. Recording equipment is also provided so that an hourly record is kept of food delivery.

  14. Detection of Airborne Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Inside and Downwind of a Swine Building, and in Animal Feed: Potential Occupational, Animal Health, and Environmental Implications.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Dwight D; Smith, Tara C; Hanson, Blake M; Wardyn, Shylo E; Donham, Kelley J

    2016-01-01

    Aerosolized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was sampled inside and downwind of a swine facility. Animal feed was sampled before and after entry into the swine facility. Aerosolized particles were detected using an optical particle counter for real-time measurement and with an Andersen sampler to detect viable MRSA. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on samples collected. Viable MRSA organisms isolated inside the swine facility were primarily associated with particles >5 µm, and those isolated downwind from the swine facility were associated with particles <5 µm. MRSA isolates included spa types t008, t034, and t5706 and were resistant to methicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, and erythromycin. Animal feed both before and after entry into the swine facility tested positive for viable MRSA. These isolates were of similar spa types as the airborne MRSA organisms. Air samples collected after power washing with a biocide inside the swine facility resulted in no viable MRSA organisms detected. This pilot study showed that the ecology of MRSA is complex. Additional studies are warranted on the maximum distance that viable MRSA can be emitted outside the facility, and the possibility that animal feed may be a source of contamination. PMID:26808288

  15. Characterization of a rotating slat collimator system dedicated to small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, F.; Bekaert, V.; El Bitar, Z.; Wurtz, J.; Steibel, J.; Brasse, D.

    2011-03-01

    Some current investigations based on small animal models are dedicated to functional cerebral imaging. They represent a fundamental tool to understand the mechanisms involved in neurodegenerative diseases. In the radiopharmaceutical development approach, the main challenge is to measure the radioactivity distribution in the brain of a subject with good temporal and spatial resolutions. Classical SPECT systems mainly use parallel hole or pinhole collimators. In this paper we investigate the use of a rotating slat collimator system for small animal brain imaging. The proposed prototype consists of a 64-channel multi-anode photomultiplier tube (H8804, Hamamatsu Corp.) coupled to a YAP:Ce crystal highly segmented into 32 strips of 0.575 × 18.4 × 10 mm3. The parameters of the rotating slat collimator are optimized using GATE Monte Carlo simulations. The performance of the proposed prototype in terms of spatial resolution, detection efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio is compared to that obtained with a gamma camera equipped with a parallel hole collimator. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that a spatial resolution of 1.54 mm can be achieved with a detection efficiency of 0.012% for a source located at 20 mm, corresponding to the position of the brain in the prototype field of view.

  16. Geometric Algorithms for Modeling, Motion, and Animation (GAMMA): Collision Detection Videos from the University of North Carolina GAMMA Research Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    Collision detection has been a fundamental problem in computer animation, physically-based modeling, geometric modeling, and robotics. In these applications, interactions between moving objects are modeled by dynamic constraints and contact analysis. The objects' motions are constrained by various interactions, including collisions. A virtual environment, like a walkthrough, creates a computer-generated world, filled with virtual objects. Such an environment should give the user a feeling of presence, which includes making the images of both the user and the surrounding objects feel solid. For example, the objects should not pass through each other, and things should move as expected when pushed, pulled or grasped. Such actions require accurate collision detection, if they are to achieve any degree of realism. However, there may be hundreds, even thousands of objects in the virtual world, so a naive algorithm could take a long time just to check for possible collisions as the user moves. This is not acceptable for virtual environments, where the issues of interactivity impose fundamental constraints on the system. A fast and interactive collision detection algorithm is a fundamental component of a complex virtual environment. Physically based modeling simulations depend highly on the physical interaction between objects in a scene. Complex physics engines require fast, accurate, and robust proximity queries to maintain a realistic simulation at interactive rates. We couple our proximity query research with physically based modeling to ensure that our packages provide the capabilities of today's physics engines.[Copied from http://www.cs.unc.edu/~geom/collide/index.shtml

  17. Path segmentation for beginners: an overview of current methods for detecting changes in animal movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Edelhoff, Hendrik; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution movement data has led to the development of numerous methods for studying changes in animal movement behavior. Path segmentation methods provide basics for detecting movement changes and the behavioral mechanisms driving them. However, available path segmentation methods differ vastly with respect to underlying statistical assumptions and output produced. Consequently, it is currently difficult for researchers new to path segmentation to gain an overview of the different methods, and choose one that is appropriate for their data and research questions. Here, we provide an overview of different methods for segmenting movement paths according to potential changes in underlying behavior. To structure our overview, we outline three broad types of research questions that are commonly addressed through path segmentation: 1) the quantitative description of movement patterns, 2) the detection of significant change-points, and 3) the identification of underlying processes or 'hidden states'. We discuss advantages and limitations of different approaches for addressing these research questions using path-level movement data, and present general guidelines for choosing methods based on data characteristics and questions. Our overview illustrates the large diversity of available path segmentation approaches, highlights the need for studies that compare the utility of different methods, and identifies opportunities for future developments in path-level data analysis. PMID:27595001

  18. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor. PMID:26720879

  19. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  20. Pyrosequencing detects human and animal pathogenic taxa in the grapevine endosphere

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Sohail; Bulgari, Daniela; Bergna, Alessandro; Pancher, Michael; Quaglino, Fabio; Casati, Paola; Campisano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Generally, plants are not considered as hosts for human and animal pathogens (HAP). The recent produce-associated outbreaks of food-borne diseases have drawn attention toward significant deficiencies in our understanding of the ecology of HAP, and their potential for interkingdom transfer. To examine the association of microorganisms classified as HAP with plants, we surveyed the presence and distribution of HAP bacterial taxa (henceforth HAPT, for brevity's sake) in the endosphere of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) both in the plant stems and leaves. An enrichment protocol was used on leaves to detect taxa with very low abundance in undisturbed tissues. We used pyrosequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA gene. We identified several HAPT, and focused on four genera (Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Burkholderia). The majority of the bacterial sequences in the genus Propionibacterium, from grapevine leaf and stem, were identified as P. acnes. Clostridia were detected in leaves and stems, but their number was much higher in leaves after enrichment. HAPT were indentified both in leaves and wood of grapevines. This depicts the ability of these taxa to be internalized within plant tissues and maintain their population levels in a variety of environments. Our analysis highlighted the presence of HAPT in the grapevine endosphere and unexpected occurrence of these bacterial taxa in this atypical environment. PMID:25071740

  1. [Sensitivity of animals to central nervous system stimulants in hypokinesia].

    PubMed

    Kolemeeva, L Ia; Shashkov, V S; Egorov, B B

    1977-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on 1150 non-inbred white male rats weighing 200+/-50 g. The animals were housed in small cages for 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Control rats remained normally active. The experimental and control animals were given a typical diet. On the above days the rats were injected intraperitoneally with central nervous stimulants--caffeine, phenamine and strychnine. Changes in the animal sensitivity to the stimulants were measured with respect to the alterating of LD16, LD50 and LD54 in test animals as compared with the controls and in regards to the emergence and duration of behavioural reactions: adynamics (caffeine), stereotype behavior (phenamine) and convulsions (strychnine). The greatest changes in the animal sensitivity were noted in response to phenamine. A significant increase in the sensitivity to caffeine was found on the 5, 15 and 45th experimental days and to strychnine only on the 5 and 45th days. Convulsions in response to strychnine were recorded in experimental animals earlier than in the controls and their duration was dependent on the doses injected. Adynamics in response to caffeine developed in experimental rats later than in the controls (on the 15th day) and its duration changed cyclically. Stereotype behavior in response to phenamine showed cyclic pattern and its duration in experimental rats was shorter than in the controls. PMID:15162

  2. Detection of Helicobacter felis in a cat with gastric disease in laboratory animal facility

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho; Kang, Won-Guk

    2016-01-01

    A 3-month-old male cat in the animal facility was presented for investigation of anorexia and occasional vomiting. We collected the specimens from gastroscopic biopsy and stool collection. The gastroscopic biopsy specimens were tested using a rapid urease test, CLO Helicobacter-detection kits. Stool specimens were gathered and evaluated using the commercially available SD Bioline H. pylori Ag kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Genomic DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens of the cat were extracted and submitted to the consensus PCR to amplify Helicobacter rpoB gene. Then the DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens were conducted a multiplex species-specific PCR to amplify urease B gene for H. heilmannii, H. pylori and H. felis. As the results, the rapid urease test with gastroscopic biopsy was revealed positive reaction. The result of H. pylori Stool Ag assay was one red line, negative for H. pylori. The gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimen were positive reactions by the consensus PCR reaction using the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-coding gene (rpoB) to detect Helicobacter species. By multiplex species-specific PCR with gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens, no amplification products corresponding to either H. heilmannii or H. pylori were detected, but the specimens tested were positive for H. felis. This case was confirmed as gastroenteric disease induced by H. felis infection. On our knowledge, this is a very rare report about H. felis-induced gastroenteric disease in cat and may provide a valuable data on the study of feline Helicobacter infection. PMID:27382381

  3. TV system for detection of latent fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Ban, Xianfu; Liu, Shaowu; Ding, Zhenfang

    1993-04-01

    A fingerprint is reliable evidence for recognizing criminals in detecting cases. There are many conventional chemical and physical methods in detecting fingerprints. In this paper, a newly developed portable TV system for detecting a latent fingerprint is described. This system is suited for field reconnaissance of cases as well as for laboratory testing. It can display a latent fingerprint, which is hard to identify and even cannot be displayed by conventional methods, and it can detect prints or stamps which are faded, altered, or falsified, etc.

  4. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.90 Animal and other test... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160... as raw data. (h) Bedding used in animal cages or pens shall not interfere with the purpose or...

  5. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.90 Animal and other test... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160... as raw data. (h) Bedding used in animal cages or pens shall not interfere with the purpose or...

  6. Epidemiological study of Q fever in humans, ruminant animals, and ticks in Cyprus using a geographical information system.

    PubMed

    Psaroulaki, A; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Loukaides, F; Soteriades, E; Konstantinidis, A; Papastergiou, P; Ioannidou, M C; Tselentis, Y

    2006-09-01

    A cross-sectional study of Q fever was conducted in a representative sample of the human and animal population in Cyprus in order to assess the seroprevalence of Q fever and the prevalence of related risk factors. A total of 583 human and 974 ruminant animal serum samples were collected and tested for the detection of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii phase II antigen using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. One hundred forty-one ticks were collected from the infested animals examined; the polymerase chain reaction and the shell-vial technique were used to detect and isolate C. burnetii. Standardized questionnaires were used to obtain information concerning inhabitants and their animals. A geographical information system was used to identify high-risk regions. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against C. burnetii phase II antigen was estimated at 52.7% for humans, 48.2% for goats, 18.9% for sheep, and 24% for bovines. C. burnetii was detected in 11 (7.8%) ticks. Using the geographical information system, two villages were identified as high-risk regions on the basis of high seroprevalence rates of IgG antibodies in humans and animals. Risk factors related to Q fever seropositivity were identified by logistic regression analysis and included age, residence, occupation, use of manure in the garden, ownership of animals (especially goats), and the presence of tick-infested or aborting animals. Q fever poses an occupational hazard to humans living in close contact with sheep and/or goats. In parallel, ticks should be considered an important aspect in the epidemiology of Q fever and should be further studied to better elucidate their role. PMID:16915398

  7. Automatic Emboli Detection System for the Artificial Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steifer, T.; Lewandowski, M.; Karwat, P.; Gawlikowski, M.

    In spite of the progress in material engineering and ventricular assist devices construction, thromboembolism remains the most crucial problem in mechanical heart supporting systems. Therefore, the ability to monitor the patient's blood for clot formation should be considered an important factor in development of heart supporting systems. The well-known methods for automatic embolus detection are based on the monitoring of the ultrasound Doppler signal. A working system utilizing ultrasound Doppler is being developed for the purpose of flow estimation and emboli detection in the clinical artificial heart ReligaHeart EXT. Thesystem will be based on the existing dual channel multi-gate Doppler device with RF digital processing. A specially developed clamp-on cannula probe, equipped with 2 - 4 MHz piezoceramic transducers, enables easy system setup. We present the issuesrelated to the development of automatic emboli detection via Doppler measurements. We consider several algorithms for the flow estimation and emboli detection. We discuss their efficiency and confront them with the requirements of our experimental setup. Theoretical considerations are then met with preliminary experimental findings from a) flow studies with blood mimicking fluid and b) in-vitro flow studies with animal blood. Finally, we discuss some more methodological issues - we consider several possible approaches to the problem of verification of the accuracy of the detection system.

  8. Modeling And Detecting Anomalies In Scada Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Nils; Wolthusen, Stephen

    The detection of attacks and intrusions based on anomalies is hampered by the limits of specificity underlying the detection techniques. However, in the case of many critical infrastructure systems, domain-specific knowledge and models can impose constraints that potentially reduce error rates. At the same time, attackers can use their knowledge of system behavior to mask their manipulations, causing adverse effects to observed only after a significant period of time. This paper describes elementary statistical techniques that can be applied to detect anomalies in critical infrastructure networks. A SCADA system employed in liquefied natural gas (LNG) production is used as a case study.

  9. Inertial navigation sensor integrated obstacle detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhanu, Bir (Inventor); Roberts, Barry A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system that incorporates inertial sensor information into optical flow computations to detect obstacles and to provide alternative navigational paths free from obstacles. The system is a maximally passive obstacle detection system that makes selective use of an active sensor. The active detection typically utilizes a laser. Passive sensor suite includes binocular stereo, motion stereo and variable fields-of-view. Optical flow computations involve extraction, derotation and matching of interest points from sequential frames of imagery, for range interpolation of the sensed scene, which in turn provides obstacle information for purposes of safe navigation.

  10. Voice activity detection for speaker verification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Filip

    2008-01-01

    Complex algorithm for speech activity detection was presented in this article. It is based on speech enhancement, features extraction and final detection algorithm. The first one was published in ETSI standard as a module of "Advanced front-end feature extraction algorithm" in distributed speech recognition system. It consists of two main parts, noise estimatiom and Wiener filtering. For the final detection modified linear prediction coefficients and spectral entropy features are extracted form denoised signal.

  11. Driver fatigue detection system based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Fu liang; Song, Lixin

    2012-01-01

    To detect driver fatigue states effectively and in real time, a driver fatigue detection system was built, which take ICETEK-DM6347 module as system core, near-infrared LED as light source, and CCD camera as picture gathering device. An improved PER-NORFACE detection method combined several simple and efficient image processing algorithms was proposed, which based on principle of PERCLOS method and take the human face location as the main detection target. To ensure the ability of real-time processing, the algorithms on the DM6437 DaVinci processor were optimized. Experiments show that the system could complete the driver fatigue states detection accurately and in real time.

  12. Rapid and Specific Detection of Salmonella spp. in Animal Feed Samples by PCR after Culture Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Löfström, Charlotta; Knutsson, Rickard; Axelsson, Charlotta Engdahl; Rådström, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in these feed samples compared to DyNAzyme II, FastStart Taq, Platinum Taq, Pwo, rTth, Taq, and Tfl. The specificity of the Tth assay was confirmed by testing 101 Salmonella and 43 non-Salmonella strains isolated from feed and food samples. A sample preparation method based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water and DNA amplification with Tth DNA polymerase was developed. The probability of detecting small numbers of salmonellae in feed, in the presence of natural background flora, was accurately determined and found to follow a logistic regression model. From this model, the probability of detecting 1 CFU per 25 g of feed in artificially contaminated soy samples was calculated and found to be 0.81. The PCR protocol was evaluated on 155 naturally contaminated feed samples and compared to an established culture-based method, NMKL-71. Eight percent of the samples were positive by PCR, compared with 3% with the conventional method. The reasons for the differences in sensitivity are discussed. Use of this method in the routine analysis of animal feed samples would improve safety in the food chain. PMID:14711627

  13. An Intelligent Recommendation System for Animation Scriptwriters' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shang-Te; Chang, Ting-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Producing an animation requires extensive labor, time, and money. Experienced directors and screenwriters are required to design scenes using standard props and actors in position. This study structurally analyzes the script and defines scenes, characters, positions, dialogue, etc., according to their dramatic attributes. These are entered into a…

  14. Remote Laboratory and Animal Behaviour: An Interactive Open Field System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Lorenzo; Ratti, Giovannino

    2007-01-01

    Remote laboratories can provide distant learners with practical acquisitions which would otherwise remain precluded. Our proposal here is a remote laboratory on a behavioural test (open field test), with the aim of introducing learners to the observation and analysis of stereotyped behaviour in animals. A real-time video of a mouse in an…

  15. Designing an Algorithm Animation System To Support Instructional Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton-Taylor, Ashley George; Kraemer, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    The authors are conducting a study of instructors teaching data structure and algorithm topics, with a focus on the use of diagrams and tracing. The results of this study are being used to inform the design of the Support Kit for Animation (SKA). This article describes a preliminary version of SKA, and possible usage scenarios. (Author/AEF)

  16. Multisensor cargo bay fire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Brian L.; Anderson, Kaare J.; Renken, Christopher H.; Socha, David M.; Miller, Mark S.

    2004-08-01

    Current aircraft cargo bay fire detection systems are generally based on smoke detection. Smoke detectors in modern aircraft are predominately photoelectric particle detectors that reliably detect smoke, but also detect dust, fog, and most other small particles. False alarms caused by these contaminants can be very costly to the airlines because they can cause flights to be diverted needlessly. To minimize these expenses, a new approach to cargo bay fire detection is needed. This paper describes a novel fire detection system developed by the Goodrich Advanced Sensors Technical Center. The system uses multiple sensors of different technologies to provide a way of discriminating between real fire events and false triggers. The system uses infrared imaging along with multiple, distributed chemical sensors and smoke detectors, all feeding data to a digital signal processor. The processor merges data from the chemical sensors, smoke detectors, and processed images to determine if a fire (or potential fire) is present. Decision algorithms look at all this data in real-time and make the final decision about whether a fire is present. In the paper, we present a short background of the problem we are solving, the reasons for choosing the technologies used, the design of the system, the signal processing methods and results from extensive system testing. We will also show that multiple sensing technologies are crucial to reducing false alarms in such systems.

  17. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  18. Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously. 

  19. RADIATION DETECTING AND TELEMETERING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Richards, H.K.

    1959-12-15

    A system is presented for measuring ionizing radiation at several remote stations and transmitting the measured information by radio to a central station. At each remote station a signal proportioned to the counting rate is applied across an electrical condenser made of ferroelectric material. The voltage across the condenser will vary as a function of the incident radiation and the capacitance of the condenser will vary accordingly. This change in capacitance is used to change the frequency of a crystalcontrolled oscillator. The output of the oscillator is coupled to an antenna for transmitting a signal proportional to the incident radiation.

  20. Detection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Wild Animals and Ixodidae Ticks in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Hur, Moon-Suk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Jeong, Soo-Myoung; Shin, Nam-Shik; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus reported to be endemic to central-northeastern China, southern Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). To investigate SFTSV infections, we collected serum samples and ticks from wild animals. Using serum samples and ticks, SFTSV-specific genes were amplified by one-step RT-PCR and nested PCR and sequenced. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to analyze virus-specific antibody levels in wild animals. Serum samples were collected from a total of 91 animals: 21 Korean water deer (KWD), 3 Siberian roe deer, 5 gorals, 7 raccoon dogs, 54 wild boars (WBs), and 1 carrion crow. The SFTSV infection rate in wild animals was 3.30% (3 of 91 animals: 1 KWD and 2 WBs). The seropositive rate was 6.59% (6 of 91 animals: 5 KWD and 1 WB). A total of 891 ticks (3 species) were collected from 65 wild animals (9 species). Of the attached tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis (74.86%) was the most abundant, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (20.20%) and Ixodes nipponensis (4.94%). The average minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in ticks was 4.98%. The MIRs of H. longicornis, H. flava, and I. nipponensis were 4.51%, 2.22%, and 22.73%, respectively. The MIRs of larvae, nymphs, and adult ticks were 0.68%, 6.88%, and 5.53%, respectively. In addition, the MIRs of fed and unfed ticks were 4.67% and 4.96%, respectively. We detected a low SFTSV infection rate in wild animals, no differences in SFTSV infection rate with respect to bloodsucking in ticks, and SFTSV infection for all developmental stages of ticks. This is the first report describing the detection of SFTSV in wild animals in the ROK. PMID:27043361

  1. Multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Gavin H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated inspection system for detecting digestive contaminants on food items as they are being processed for consumption includes a conveyor for transporting the food items, a light sealed enclosure which surrounds a portion of the conveyor, with a light source and a multispectral or hyperspectral digital imaging camera disposed within the enclosure. Operation of the conveyor, light source and camera are controlled by a central computer unit. Light reflected by the food items within the enclosure is detected in predetermined wavelength bands, and detected intensity values are analyzed to detect the presence of digestive contamination.

  2. A modularized infrared light matrix system with high resolution for measuring animal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Young, M S; Li, Y C; Lin, M T

    1993-03-01

    The current study provides a new modularized infrared light matrix system (about $200 cost) which is designed to measure the horizontal gross or fine movements, vertical motion, clockwise or anticlockwise turnings, freezing time, and total distance traveled in rats. The system records the sequences of animal's activity in a computer-aided system with a resolution of 0.2 s in time or 1.6 cm in space, and permanently stores all the resulting data in file. The behavioral apparatus was tested for its sensitivity and usability by amphetamine-injected rats. It was found that intraperitoneal administration of amphetamine (1.25-2.50 mg/kg), but not normal saline, produced a dose-related increase in either the horizontal gross or fine movements, vertical motion, clockwise or anticlockwise turnings, or total distance traveled. However, amphetamine injections produced a dose-related decrease in freezing time. Apparently, most of the amphetamine-induced responses obtained by other detecting apparatus can be reproduced easily by the present apparatus. The current detection system possesses the following advantages: a) high resolution, b) high expansion potential, and c) precise and simplified algorithms for behavioral parameter analysis. PMID:8451322

  3. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  4. Molecular Detection and Identification of Zoonotic Microsporidia Spore in Fecal Samples of Some Animals with Close-Contact to Human

    PubMed Central

    ASKARI, Zeinab; MIRJALALI, Hamed; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabih; SHOJAEI, Saeideh; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia species are obligatory intracellular agents that can infect all major animal groups including mammals, birds, fishes and insects. Whereas worldwide human infection reports are increasing, the cognition of sources of infection particularly zoonotic transmission could be helpful. We aimed to detect zoonotic microsporidia spore in fecal samples from some animals with close – contact to human. Methods: Overall, 142 fecal samples were collected from animals with closed-contact to human, during 2012-2013. Trichrome – blue staining were performed and DNA was then extracted from samples, identified positive, microscopically. Nested PCR was also carried out with primers targeting SSU rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced. Results: From 142 stool samples, microsporidia spores have been observed microscopically in 15 (10.56%) samples. En. cuniculi was found in the faces of 3 (15%) small white mice and 1 (10%) laboratory rabbits(totally 2.81%). Moreover, E. bieneusi was detected in 3 (10%) samples of sheep, 2 (5.12%) cattle, 1 (10%) rabbit, 3 (11.53%) cats and 2 (11.76%) ownership dogs (totally 7.74%). Phylogenetic analysis showed interesting data. This is the first study in Iran, which identified E. bieneusi and En. Cuniculi in fecal samples of laboratory animals with close – contact to human as well as domesticated animal and analyzed them in phylogenetic tree. Conclusion: E. bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidia species in animals. Our results can also alert us about potentially zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis. PMID:26622293

  5. Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Gencorp Aerojet Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System was developed through the cooperation of industry, academia, and the Government. Although the original purpose of the system was to detect leaks in the main engine of the space shuttle while on the launch pad, it also has significant commercial potential in applications for which there are no existing commercial systems. With high sensitivity, the system can detect hydrogen leaks at low concentrations in inert environments. The sensors are integrated with hardware and software to form a complete system. Several of these systems have already been purchased for use on the Ford Motor Company assembly line for natural gas vehicles. This system to detect trace hydrogen gas leaks from pressurized systems consists of a microprocessor-based control unit that operates a network of sensors. The sensors can be deployed around pipes, connectors, flanges, and tanks of pressurized systems where leaks may occur. The control unit monitors the sensors and provides the operator with a visual representation of the magnitude and locations of the leak as a function of time. The system can be customized to fit the user's needs; for example, it can monitor and display the condition of the flanges and fittings associated with the tank of a natural gas vehicle.

  6. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  7. A resistive heating system for homeothermic maintenance in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Kersemans, Veerle; Gilchrist, Stuart; Allen, Philip D.; Beech, John S.; Kinchesh, Paul; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Smart, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop an MR-compatible resistive heater for temperature maintenance of anaesthetized animals. Materials and Methods An MR-compatible resistive electrical heater was formed from a tightly-wound twisted pair wire, interfaced to a homeothermic maintenance controller. Fat-suppressed images and localized spectra were acquired with the twisted pair heater and a near-identical single strand heater during operation at maximum power. Data were also acquired in the absence of heating to demonstrate the insensitivity of MR to distortions arising from the passage of current through the heater elements. The efficacy of temperature maintenance was examined by measuring rectal temperature immediately following induction of general anesthesia and throughout and after the acquisition of a heater artifact-prone image series. Results Images and spectra acquired in the presence and absence of DC current through the twisted pair heater were identical whereas the passage of current through the single strand wire created field shifts and lineshape distortions. Temperature that is lost during anesthesia induction was recovered within approximately 10–20 minutes of induction, and a stable temperature is reached as the animal's temperature approaches the set target. Conclusion The twisted pair wire heater does not interfere with MR image quality and maintains adequate thermal input to the animal to maintain body temperature. PMID:25863135

  8. Detection probability of EBPSK-MODEM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yu; Wu, Lenan

    2016-07-01

    Since the impacting filter-based receiver is able to transform phase modulation into amplitude peak, a simple threshold decision can detect the Extend-Binary Phase Shift Keying (EBPSK) modulated ranging signal in noise environment. In this paper, an analysis of the EBPSK-MODEM system output gives the probability density function for EBPSK modulated signals plus noise. The equation of detection probability (pd) for fluctuating and non-fluctuating targets has been deduced. Also, a comparison of the pd for the EBPSK-MODEM system and pulse radar receiver is made, and some results are plotted. Moreover, the probability curves of such system with several modulation parameters are analysed. When modulation parameter is not smaller than 6, the detection performance of EBPSK-MODEM system is more excellent than traditional radar system. In addition to theoretical considerations, computer simulations are provided for illustrating the performance.

  9. Detection of asymptomatic initial herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in animals immunized with subunit HSV glycoprotein vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, D I; Ashley, R L; Stanberry, L R; Myers, M G

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine efficacy will require methods to detect asymptomatic acquisition of HSV infection and to assess the risk of recurrences in these patients. HSV-infected vaccinees should develop antibodies to HSV polypeptides not included in subunit vaccines. Sera from 57 HSV glycoprotein-vaccinated guinea pigs that had asymptomatic initial infections after genital HSV type 2 challenge were collected after vaccination but before HSV challenge and again 30 days after HSV challenge to determine the antibody response to HSV polypeptides. Antibodies to nonvaccine HSV polypeptides were detected in sera collected after viral challenge from 32 (56%) of these 57 animals. Twenty-six (81%) of the 32 animals with detectable antibody developed recurrent disease; however, recurrences also developed in 11 (44%) of the remaining 25 that did not show detectable antibody to nonvaccine HSV polypeptides. The magnitude of vaginal viral shedding during the initial disease period following challenge was significantly lower in animals that did not develop antibody to nonvaccine polypeptides compared with those that did develop antibody (area under the viral shedding curve, 5.2 +/- 3.2 versus 18.1 +/- 5.8; P less than 0.0001) . These data suggest that detection of antibody to nonvaccine HSV polypeptides will identify the majority (70%) of initially asymptomatic vaccinees that develop recurrent disease but that latency can be established even with markedly reduced levels of viral replication that did not induce a detectable antibody response. Images PMID:2153698

  10. Windshear detection and avoidance - Airborne systems survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1990-01-01

    Functional requirements for airborne windshear detection and warning systems are discussed in terms of the threat posed to civil aircraft operations. A preliminary set of performance criteria for predictive windshear detection and warning systems is defined. Candidate airborne remote sensor technologies based on microwave Doppler radar, Doppler laser radar (lidar), and infrared radiometric techniques are discussed in the context of overall system requirements, and the performance of each sensor is assessed for representative microburst environments and ground clutter conditions. Preliminary simulation results demonstrate that all three sensors show potential for detecting windshear, and provide adequate warning time to allow flight crews to avoid the affected area or escape from the encounter. Radar simulation and analysis show that by using bin-to-bin automatic gain control, clutter filtering, limited detection range, and suitable antenna tilt management, windshear from wet microbursts can be accurately detected. Although a performance improvement can be obtained at higher radar frequency, the baseline X-band system also detected the presence of windshear hazard for a dry microburst. Simulation results of end-to-end performance for competing coherent lidar systems are presented.

  11. A Comparison of Rural and Urban Indian Children's Visual Detection of Threatening and Nonthreatening Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penkunas, Michael J.; Coss, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that young children preferentially attend to snakes, spiders, and lions compared with nondangerous species, but these results have yet to be replicated in populations that actually experience dangerous animals in nature. This multi-site study investigated the visual-detection biases of southern Indian children towards two…

  12. [A new system using NMR technology for measurement of body composition in experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun; Furutoh, Kenichi; Nishikibe, Masaru

    2004-04-01

    Measurement of body composition (fat mass) is an important item in pathophysiological and pharmacological studies using small animals (mice) in the fields of obesity and diabetes. The existing methods are, however, difficult, time consuming, and require a shielding facility. Now a novel system using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was developed for measurement of body composition in small animals (mice) that provides noninvasive and rapid measurement without anesthetics; we introduced and evaluated this system and tried another application of this system. First, we validated this system using canola oil, soft tissues (adipose and skeletal muscle), and various kinds of rodent chows. Accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of this system were demonstrated to be equal to those in standard chemical methods. A strong positive correlation (y=x) between the results of NMR and chemical methods was found. Secondly, we evaluated accuracy and assay range of the NMR method using live mice that were fasted overnight or fed high fat diet (HFD). In fasted mice, a small but quantitative decrease of fat mass (5.1% from 9.1%) was detected. Total decrease of fat and lean mass (5.0 g) in fasted mice was equivalent to the decrease of body weight (5.0 g). In mice fed the HFD, increase of fat mass with relative decrease of lean mass were qualitatively detected in a time-dependent manner. We would like to emphasize that operation of the system was actually easy and measurements were accomplished in a short time (1 minute). Thirdly, we tried to use the NMR system for determination of hepatic fat contents using mice fasted or treated with a PPARgamma agonist; our results showed a quantitative increase in fat by fasting or in decrease in fat by the drug treatment. The changes of fat contents determined by the NMR method were well correlated with the changes in triglyceride and total cholesterol values obtained by the biochemical assays. In conclusion, body composition data

  13. Understanding Mechanical Systems Through Computer Animation and Kinematic Imagery. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Patricia A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    One purpose of this research is to develop models of cognitive processes in understanding mechanical systems. A particular focus was on the processes in mentally animating the representation of a mechanical system, and the contribution of animation graphics in comprehension. Several studies, involving eye fixations, verbal protocols, and process…

  14. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 792.90 Section 792.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.90 Animal and other test system care. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 792... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.90 Animal and other test system care. (a) There shall be standard operating procedures for the...

  16. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 792... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.90 Animal and other test system care. (a) There shall be standard operating procedures for the...

  17. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160.90 Section 160.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.90 Animal and other test system care. (a) There shall be...

  18. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160.90 Section 160.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.90 Animal and other test system care. (a) There shall be...

  19. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160.90 Section 160.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.90 Animal and other test system care. (a) There shall be...

  20. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 792.90 Section 792.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.90 Animal and other test system care. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 792.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Animal and other test system care. 792.90 Section 792.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.90 Animal and other test system care. (a)...

  2. Force protection demining system (FPDS) detection subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachery, Karen N.; Schultz, Gregory M.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2005-06-01

    This study describes the U.S. Army Force Protection Demining System (FPDS); a remotely-operated, multisensor platform developed for reliable detection and neutralization of both anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines. The ongoing development of the prototype multisensor detection subsystem is presented, which integrates an advanced electromagnetic pulsed-induction array and ground penetrating synthetic aperture radar array on a single standoff platform. The FPDS detection subsystem is mounted on a robotic rubber-tracked vehicle and incorporates an accurate and precise navigation/positioning module making it well suited for operation in varied and irregular terrains. Detection sensors are optimally configured to minimize interference without loss in sensitivity or performance. Mine lane test data acquired from the prototype sensors are processed to extract signal- and image-based features for automatic target recognition. Preliminary results using optimal feature and classifier selection indicate the potential of the system to achieve high probabilities of detection while minimizing false alarms. The FPDS detection software system also exploits modern multi-sensor data fusion algorithms to provide real-time detection and discrimination information to the user.

  3. A system for distributed intrusion detection

    SciTech Connect

    Snapp, S.R.; Brentano, J.; Dias, G.V.; Goan, T.L.; Heberlein, L.T.; Ho, Che-Lin; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B. . Div. of Computer Science); Grance, T. ); Mansur, D.L.; Pon, K.L. ); Smaha, S.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The study of providing security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because the network is the medium over which most attacks or intrusions on computer systems are launched. One approach to solving this problem is the intrusion-detection concept, whose basic premise is that not only abandoning the existing and huge infrastructure of possibly-insecure computer and network systems is impossible, but also replacing them by totally-secure systems may not be feasible or cost effective. Previous work on intrusion-detection systems were performed on stand-alone hosts and on a broadcast local area network (LAN) environment. The focus of our present research is to extend our network intrusion-detection concept from the LAN environment to arbitarily wider areas with the network topology being arbitrary as well. The generalized distributed environment is heterogeneous, i.e., the network nodes can be hosts or servers from different vendors, or some of them could be LAN managers, like our previous work, a network security monitor (NSM), as well. The proposed architecture for this distributed intrusion-detection system consists of the following components: a host manager in each host; a LAN manager for monitoring each LAN in the system; and a central manager which is placed at a single secure location and which receives reports from various host and LAN managers to process these reports, correlate them, and detect intrusions. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  4. An infrared motion detector system for lossless real-time monitoring of animal preference tests.

    PubMed

    Pogány, A; Heszberger, J; Szurovecz, Zita; Vincze, E; Székely, T

    2014-12-01

    Automated behavioural observations are routinely used in many fields of biology, including ethology, behavioural ecology and physiology. When preferences for certain resources are investigated, the focus is often on simple response variables, such as duration and frequency of visits to choice chambers. Here we present an automated motion detector system that use passive infrared sensors to eliminate many drawbacks of currently existing methods. Signals from the sensors are processed by a custom-built interface, and after unnecessary data is filtered by a computer software, the total time and frequency of the subject's visits to each of the choice chambers are calculated. We validate the detector system by monitoring (using the system) and in the same time video recording mating preferences of zebra finches in a four-way choice apparatus. Manual scoring of the video recordings showed very high consistency with data from the detector system both for time and for frequency of visits. Furthermore, the validation revealed that if we used micro-switches or light barriers, the most commonly applied automatic detection techniques, this would have resulted in approximately 22% less information compared to our lossless system. The system provides a low-cost alternative for monitoring animal movements, and we discuss its further applicability. PMID:25475978

  5. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography.

    PubMed

    Darne, Chinmay D; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C; Smith, Anne M; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2012-12-21

    The work presented herein describes the system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens micro positron emission tomography/computed tomography (microPET/CT) commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 µM IRDye800CW and ⁶⁸Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. Three-dimensional mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP₃) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate the FDPM approach. Finally, the PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The obtained results validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging. PMID:23171509

  6. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darne, Chinmay D.; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Smith, Anne M.; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2012-12-01

    The work presented herein describes the system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens micro positron emission tomography/computed tomography (microPET/CT) commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 µM IRDye800CW and 68Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. Three-dimensional mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP3) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate the FDPM approach. Finally, the PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The obtained results validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging.

  7. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Darne, Chinmay D.; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Smith, Anne M.; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2012-01-01

    The work presented herein describes system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens microPET/CT commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 μM IRDye800CW and 68Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. 3-D mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP3) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate FDPM approach. Finally, PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The results obtained validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging. PMID:23171509

  8. Capacitive system detects and locates fluid leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Electronic monitoring system automatically detects and locates minute leaks in seams of large fluid storage tanks and pipelines covered with thermal insulation. The system uses a capacitive tape-sensing element that is adhesively bonded over seams where fluid leaks are likely to occur.

  9. Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor DIAL Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; DeYoung, Russell J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The remote sensing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique is a powerful method to perform such measurement from aircraft and space. This thesis describes a new advanced detection system, which incorporates major improvements regarding sensitivity and size. These improvements include a low noise advanced avalanche photodiode detector, a custom analog circuit, a 14-bit digitizer, a microcontroller for on board averaging and finally a fast computer interface. This thesis describes the design and validation of this new water vapor DIAL detection system which was integrated onto a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with minimal weight and power consumption. Comparing its measurements to an existing DIAL system for aerosol and water vapor profiling validated the detection system.

  10. A cable detection lidar system for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, Benoist; Capbern, Alain; Defour, Martin; Fertala, Remi

    1992-01-01

    Helicopters in low-level flight are endangered by power lines or telephone wires, especially when flying at night and under poor visibility conditions. In order to prevent 'wire strike', Thomson has developed a lidar system consisting of a pulsed diode laser emitting in the near infrared region (lambda = 0.9 microns). The HOWARD (Helicopter Obstacle Warning and Detection) System utilizes a high repetition rate diode laser (PRE = 20 KHz) along with counter-rotating prisms for laser beam deflection with a total field of view of 30 degrees. This system was successfully field tested in 1991. HOWARD can detect one inch wires at ranges up to 200 meters. We are presently in the process of developing a flyable compact lidar system capable of detection ranges in the order of 400 meters.

  11. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  12. Fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography and nuclear imaging system for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, I.-Chih; Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay; Rasmussen, John C.; Zhu, Banghe; Azhdarinia, Ali; Yan, Shikui; Smith, Anne M.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2012-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence is an alternative modality for molecular imaging that has been demonstrated in animals and recently in humans. Fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography (FEOT) using continuous wave or frequency domain photon migration techniques could be used to provide quantitative molecular imaging in vivo if it could be validated against "gold-standard," nuclear imaging modalities, using dual-labeled imaging agents. Unfortunately, developed FEOT systems are not suitable for incorporation with CT/PET/SPECT scanners because they utilize benchtop devices and require a large footprint. In this work, we developed a miniaturized fluorescence imaging system installed in the gantry of the Siemens Inveon PET/CT scanner to enable NIR transillumination measurements. The system consists of a CCD camera equipped with NIR sensitive intensifier, a diode laser controlled by a single board compact controller, a 2-axis galvanometer, and RF circuit modules for homodyne detection of the phase and amplitude of fluorescence signals. The performance of the FEOT system was tested and characterized. A mouse-shaped solid phantom of uniform optical properties with a fluorescent inclusion was scanned using CT, and NIR fluorescence images at several projections were collected. The method of high-order approximation to the radioactive transfer equation was then used to reconstruct the optical images. Dual-labeled agents were also used on a tumor bearing mouse to validate the results of the FEOT against PET/CT image. The results showed that the location of the fluorophore obtained from the FEOT matches the location of tumor obtained from the PET/CT images. Besides validation of FEOT, this hybrid system could allow multimodal molecular imaging (FEOT/PET/CT) for small animal imaging.

  13. DETECTION OF INTRINSIC VANCOMYCIN RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCI IN ANIMAL AND HUMAN FECES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in animal and human fecal samples. Fecal samples from 14 animal species and humans were analyzed by quantitative culture for enterococci and VRE. Over 800 VRE isolates were characterize...

  14. A SEMI-AUTOMATED APPROACH FOR DETECTING AND LOCATING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS OVER REGIONAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can
    pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

  15. Rapid and routine detection of melamine in animal feed and food by FT-Raman technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of melamine contaminated animal feed ingredients on food safety and animal health has become a major public concern in the past 2 years. As the part of Food Protection Plan, US federal agencies, such as USDA/FSIS and FDA, and other organizations have established the GC-MS and LC-MS/MS pro...

  16. An efficient genotyping method for genome-modified animals and human cells generated with CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Yajie; Yu, Shanshan; Lu, Lu; Ding, Mingqin; Cheng, Jing; Song, Guoxu; Gao, Xing; Yao, Liangming; Fan, Dongdong; Meng, Shu; Zhang, Xuewen; Hu, Shengdi; Tian, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The rapid generation of various species and strains of laboratory animals using CRISPR/Cas9 technology has dramatically accelerated the interrogation of gene function in vivo. So far, the dominant approach for genotyping of genome-modified animals has been the T7E1 endonuclease cleavage assay. Here, we present a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-based (PAGE) method to genotype mice harboring different types of indel mutations. We developed 6 strains of genome-modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 system, and utilized this approach to genotype mice from F0 to F2 generation, which included single and multiplexed genome-modified mice. We also determined the maximal detection sensitivity for detecting mosaic DNA using PAGE-based assay as 0.5%. We further applied PAGE-based genotyping approach to detect CRISPR/Cas9-mediated on- and off-target effect in human 293T and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Thus, PAGE-based genotyping approach meets the rapidly increasing demand for genotyping of the fast-growing number of genome-modified animals and human cell lines created using CRISPR/Cas9 system or other nuclease systems such as TALEN or ZFN. PMID:25236476

  17. Coal-shale interface detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. A.; Hudgins, J. L.; Morris, P. W.; Reid, H., Jr.; Zimmerman, J. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detection system for use with coal cutting equipment consists of a reciprocating hammer on which an accelerometer is mounted to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. A pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface. The outputs of the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  18. Distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sonjian

    2013-05-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySenseTM) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySenseTM system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  19. Distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian

    2013-05-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySensTM) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySenseTM system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  20. Automated macromolecular crystal detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Allen T.; Segelke, Brent; Rupp, Bernard; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-06-05

    An automated macromolecular method and system for detecting crystals in two-dimensional images, such as light microscopy images obtained from an array of crystallization screens. Edges are detected from the images by identifying local maxima of a phase congruency-based function associated with each image. The detected edges are segmented into discrete line segments, which are subsequently geometrically evaluated with respect to each other to identify any crystal-like qualities such as, for example, parallel lines, facing each other, similarity in length, and relative proximity. And from the evaluation a determination is made as to whether crystals are present in each image.

  1. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tania, U. T.; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ibrahimy, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate.

  2. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Wegerich, Stephan

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component has degraded.

  3. Can disordered radical pair systems provide a basis for a magnetic compass in animals?

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Erin; Ritz, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    A proposed mechanism for magnetic compasses in animals is that systems of radical pairs transduce magnetic field information to the nervous system. One can show that perfectly ordered arrays of radical pairs are sensitive to the direction of the external magnetic field and can thus operate, in principle, as a magnetic compass. Here, we investigate how disorder, inherent in biological cells, affects the ability of radical pair systems to provide directional information. We consider biologically inspired geometrical arrangements of ensembles of radical pairs with increasing amounts of disorder and calculate the effect of changing the direction of the external magnetic field on the rate of chemical signal production by radical pair systems. Using a previously established signal transduction model, we estimate the minimum number of receptors necessary to allow for detection of the change in chemical signal owing to changes in magnetic field direction. We quantify the required increase in the number of receptors to compensate for the signal attenuation through increased disorder. We find radical-pair-based compass systems to be relatively robust against disorder, suggesting several scenarios as to how a compass structure can be realized in a biological cell. PMID:19906676

  4. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  5. Optoelectronic system for NO2 detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielecki, Zbigniew; Pregowski, Piotr; Wojtas, Jacek

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents application of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopic (CEAS) techniques with blue laser diodes-based system for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) detection. CES technique bases on integration of the light from a resonator. Since the integrated intensity is proportional to the decay time, the experimental signal can be related to the absorption process. The minimum detectable concentration of the absorber for a specific transition is inversely proportional to the effective sample-path length, and directly proportional to the minimum intensity fluctuation detected by a receiving system. In the presented system, the blue laser diode was mounted in a temperature-controlled housing. The light transmitted through the cavity was focused onto a PMT of H5783-03 type. The detector signal enters a lock-in amplifier and next a computer with a 16-bit data acquisition board.

  6. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bornn, Luke; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  7. Fault detection and diagnosis of HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, C.Y.; Xiao, Y.; Ruther, C.J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) system for building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Model-based fault detection is based on the strategy of determining the difference or the residuals between the normal and the existing patterns. Their approach was to attack the problem on many levels of abstraction: from the signal level, controller programming level, and system component, all the way up to the information and knowledge processing level. The various issues of real implementation of the system and the processing of real-time on-line data in actual systems of campus buildings using the proven technology and off-the-shelf commercial tools are discussed. The research was based on input and output points and software control programs found in typical direct digital control systems used for variable-air-volume air handlers and VAV cooling and hot water reheat terminal units.

  8. System for detection of hazardous events

    DOEpatents

    Kulesz, James J.; Worley, Brian A.

    2006-05-23

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies, includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. Each controller is programmed to query its adjacent nodes to assess the status of the adjacent nodes and the communication links.

  9. System For Detection Of Hazardous Events

    DOEpatents

    Kulesz, James J [Oak Ridge, TN; Worley, Brian A [Knoxville, TN

    2005-08-16

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies, includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. Each controller is programmed to query its adjacent nodes to assess the status of the adjacent nodes and the communication links.

  10. Position Sensitive Detection System for Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coello, E. A.; Favela, F.; Curiel, Q.; Chavez, E; Huerta, A.; Varela, A.; Shapira, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The position sensitive detection system presented in this work employs the Anger logic algorithm to determine the position of the light spark produced by the passage of charged particles on a 170 x 170 x 10 mm3 scintillator material (PILOT-U). The detection system consists of a matrix of nine photomultipliers, covering a fraction of the back area of the scintillators. Tests made with a non-collimated alpha particle source together with a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the data, suggest an intrinsic position resolution of up to 6 mm is achieved.

  11. System for particle concentration and detection

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Whaley, Josh A.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tran, Huu M.; Maurer, Scott M.; Munslow, William D.

    2013-03-19

    A new microfluidic system comprising an automated prototype insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) triggering microfluidic device for pathogen monitoring that can eventually be run outside the laboratory in a real world environment has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of automated trapping and detection of particles. The system broadly comprised an aerosol collector for collecting air-borne particles, an iDEP chip within which to temporarily trap the collected particles and a laser and fluorescence detector with which to induce a fluorescence signal and detect a change in that signal as particles are trapped within the iDEP chip.

  12. Idaho Explosives Detection System: Development and Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Ann E. Egger; Paul J. Petersen

    2007-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying bulk explosives into military bases. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of sodium iodide (NaI) detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A computer connects to the system by Ethernet and is able to control the system remotely. The system was developed to detect bulk explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. In 2004, a full-scale prototype IEDS system was built for testing and continued development. System performance was successfully tested using different types of real explosives with a variety of cargo at the INL from November 2005 through February 2006. Recently, the first deployable prototype system was constructed and shipped to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio and will be in operation by March 2007. The capability of passively detecting radiological material within a delivery truck has also been added.

  13. A novel and sensitive fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of fluoroquinolones in animal-derived foods using upconversion nanoparticles as labels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gaoshuang; Sheng, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xuening; Wang, Shuo

    2015-11-01

    A novel fluorescence immunoassay to detect fluoroquinolones in animal-derived foods was developed for the first time by use of upconversion nanoparticles as signal-probe labels. The bioassay system was established by the use of coating-antigen-modified polystyrene particles as immune-sensing probes for separation and anti-norfloxacin monoclonal antibody conjugated with carboxyl-functionalized NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles which were prepared via a pyrolysis method and a subsequent ligand exchange process as fluorescent-signal probes (emission intensity recorded at 542 nm with excitation at 980 nm). Under optimized conditions, detection of fluoroquinolones was performed easily. The detection limit of this fluorescence immunoassay for norfloxacin, for example, was 10 pg mL(-1), within a wide linear range of 10 pg mL(-1) to 10 ng mL(-1) (R (2)  = 0.9959). For specificity analysis, the data obtained indicate this method could be applied in broad-spectrum detection of fluoroquinolones. The recoveries of norfloxacin-spiked animal-derived foods ranged from 82.37 to 132.22 %, with coefficients of variation of 0.24-25.06 %. The extraction procedure was rapid and simple, especially for milk samples, which could be analyzed directly without any pretreatment. In addition, the results obtained with the method were in good agreement with those obtained with commercial ELISA kits. The fluorescence immunoassay was more sensitive, especially with regard to the detection limit in milk samples (0.01 ng mL(-1) for norfloxacin): it was 50-fold more sensitive than commercial ELISA kits (0.5 ng mL(-1) for norfloxacin). The results show the proposed fluorescence immunoassay was facile, sensitive, and interference free, and is an alternative method for the quantitative detection of fluoroquinolone residues in animal-derived foods. PMID:26337749

  14. Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol in Animal Urine Using Immunomagnetic Bead Treatment and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Su, Xiao-Ou; Wang, Shi; Zhao, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Combining surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of aggregated graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle hybrids with immunomagnetic bead sample preparation method, a highly sensitive strategy to determine the clenbuterol content in animal urine was developed. Based on a linear calibration curve of the SERS characteristic peak intensity of clenbuterol at Δv = 1474 cm−1 versus the spiked clenbuterol concentration in the range of 0.5–20 ng·mL−1, the quantity of clenbuterol in real animal urine samples can be determined and matches well with those determined by LC-MS/MS, while the detection time is significantly reduced to 15 min/sample. The limits of detection and quantification in the urine are 0.5 ng·mL−1 and 1 ng·mL−1, respectively, and the recovery clenbuterol rates are 82.8–92.4% with coefficients of variation <9.4%. The day-to-day variation of the detection is less than 6.41%, and the shelving life of the SERS substrates is no less than 4 weeks. All these indicate that this proposed SERS detection protocol for clenbuterol is reproducible, reliable, and can be easily developed for the routine monitoring of the illicit use of clenbuterol in animal farming. PMID:27599754

  15. Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol in Animal Urine Using Immunomagnetic Bead Treatment and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Su, Xiao-Ou; Wang, Shi; Zhao, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Combining surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of aggregated graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle hybrids with immunomagnetic bead sample preparation method, a highly sensitive strategy to determine the clenbuterol content in animal urine was developed. Based on a linear calibration curve of the SERS characteristic peak intensity of clenbuterol at Δv = 1474 cm(-1) versus the spiked clenbuterol concentration in the range of 0.5-20 ng·mL(-1), the quantity of clenbuterol in real animal urine samples can be determined and matches well with those determined by LC-MS/MS, while the detection time is significantly reduced to 15 min/sample. The limits of detection and quantification in the urine are 0.5 ng·mL(-1) and 1 ng·mL(-1), respectively, and the recovery clenbuterol rates are 82.8-92.4% with coefficients of variation <9.4%. The day-to-day variation of the detection is less than 6.41%, and the shelving life of the SERS substrates is no less than 4 weeks. All these indicate that this proposed SERS detection protocol for clenbuterol is reproducible, reliable, and can be easily developed for the routine monitoring of the illicit use of clenbuterol in animal farming. PMID:27599754

  16. DETECTING AND MITIGATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FECAL PATHOGENS ORIGINATING FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS: REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a review of literature regarding the potential impact of fecal pathogens originating from animal agriculture in the United States. Livestock production and dairy operations continue their trend toward larger and more concentrated facilities. These operations ...

  17. MOAB: a spatially explicit, individual-based expert system for creating animal foraging models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.; Finn, John T.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the development, structure, and corroboration process of a simulation model of animal behavior (MOAB). MOAB can create spatially explicit, individual-based animal foraging models. Users can create or replicate heterogeneous landscape patterns, and place resources and individual animals of a goven species on that landscape to simultaneously simulate the foraging behavior of multiple species. The heuristic rules for animal behavior are maintained in a user-modifiable expert system. MOAB can be used to explore hypotheses concerning the influence of landscape patttern on animal movement and foraging behavior. A red fox (Vulpes vulpes L.) foraging and nest predation model was created to test MOAB's capabilities. Foxes were simulated for 30-day periods using both expert system and random movement rules. Home range size, territory formation and other available simulation studies. A striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis L.) model also was developed. The expert system model proved superior to stochastic in respect to territory formation, general movement patterns and home range size.

  18. Agroterrorism targeting livestock: a review with a focus on early detection systems.

    PubMed

    Elbers, Armin; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    Agroterrorism targeting livestock can be described as the intentional introduction of an animal disease agent against livestock with the purpose of causing economic damage, disrupting socioeconomic stability of a country, and creating panic and distress. This type of terrorism can be alluring to terrorists because animal disease agents are easily available. This review addresses the vulnerabilities of the livestock industry to agroterrorism. However, we also show that early detection systems have recently been developed for agroterrorism and deliberate spread of animal pathogens in livestock, including an agroterrorism intelligence cycle, syndromic surveillance programs, and computer-based clinical decision support systems that can be used for early detection of notifiable animal diseases. The development of DIVA-vaccines in the past 10 to 15 years has created, in principle, an excellent response instrument to counter intentional animal disease outbreaks. These developments have made our animal agriculture less vulnerable to agroterrorism. But we cannot relax; there are still many challenges, in particular with respect to integration of first line of defense, law enforcement, and early detection systems for animal diseases. PMID:23971814

  19. Performance Evaluation of Hyperspectral Chemical Detection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truslow, Eric

    Remote sensing of chemical vapor plumes is a difficult but important task with many military and civilian applications. Hyperspectral sensors operating in the long wave infrared (LWIR) regime have well demonstrated detection capabilities. However, the identification of a plume's chemical constituents, based on a chemical library, is a multiple hypothesis-testing problem that standard detection metrics do not fully describe. Our approach partitions and weights a confusion matrix to develop both the standard detection metrics and an identification metric based on the Dice index. Using the developed metrics, we demonstrate that using a detector bank followed by an identifier can achieve superior performance relative to either algorithm individually. Performance of the cascaded system relies on the first pass reliably detecting the plume. However, detection performance is severely hampered by the inclusion of plume pixels in estimates of background quantities. We demonstrate that this problem, known as contamination, can be mitigated by iteratively applying a spatial filter to the detected pixels. Multiple detection and filtering passes can remove nearly all contamination from the background estimates, a vast improvement over single-pass techniques.

  20. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  1. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  2. Development of a MicroCT-Based Image-Guided Conformal Radiotherapy System for Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hu; Rodriguez, Manuel; van den Haak, Fred; Nelson, Geoffrey; Jogani, Rahil; Xu, Jiali; Zhu, Xinzhi; Xian, Yongjiang; Tran, Phuoc T.; Felsher, Dean W.; Keall, Paul J.; Graves, Edward E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The need for clinically-relevant radiation therapy technology for the treatment of preclinical models of disease has spurred the development of a variety of dedicated platforms for small animal irradiation. Our group has taken the approach of adding the ability to deliver conformal radiotherapy to an existing 120 kVp micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanner. Methods A GE eXplore RS120 microCT scanner was modified by the addition of a two-dimensional subject translation stage and a variable aperture collimator. Quality assurance protocols for these devices, including measurement of translation stage positioning accuracy, collimator aperture accuracy, and collimator alignment with the x-ray beam, were devised. Use of this system for image-guided radiotherapy was assessed by irradiation of a solid water phantom as well as of two mice bearing spontaneous MYC-induced lung tumors. Radiation damage was assessed ex vivo by immunohistochemical detection of γH2AX foci. Results The positioning error of the translation stage was found to be less than 0.05 mm, while after alignment of the collimator with the x-ray axis through adjustment of its displacement and rotation, the collimator aperture error was less than 0.1 mm measured at isocenter. CT image-guided treatment of a solid water phantom demonstrated target localization accuracy to within 0.1 mm. γH2AX foci were detected within irradiated lung tumors in mice, with contralateral lung tissue displaying background staining. Conclusions Addition of radiotherapy functionality to a microCT scanner is an effective means of introducing image-guided radiation treatments into the preclinical setting. This approach has been shown to facilitate small animal conformal radiotherapy while leveraging existing technology. PMID:20395069

  3. Materiel requirements for airborne minefield detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, Karl A.; Huegle, Helmut

    1997-07-01

    Within the concept study, Material Requirements for an airborne minefield detection systems (AMiDS) the following topics were investigated: (i) concept concerning airborne minefield detection technique sand equipment, (ii) verification analysis of the AMiDS requirements using simulation models and (iii) application concept of AMiDS with regard o tactics and military operations. In a first approach the problems concerning unmanned airborne minefield detection techniques within a well-defined area were considered. The complexity of unmanned airborne minefield detection is a result of the following parameters: mine types, mine deployment methods, tactical requirements, topography, weather conditions, and the size of the area to be searched. In order to perform the analysis, a simulation model was developed to analyze the usability of the proposed remote controlled air carriers. The basic flight patterns for the proposed air carriers, as well as the preparation efforts of military operations and benefits of such a system during combat support missions were investigated. The results of the conceptual study showed that a proposed remote controlled helicopter drone could meet the stated German MOD scanning requirements of mine barriers. Fixed wing air carriers were at a definite disadvantage because of their inherently large turning loops. By implementing a mine detection system like AMiDS minefields can be reconnoitered before an attack. It is therefore possible either to plan, how the minefields can be circumvented or where precisely breaching lanes through the mine barriers are to be cleared for the advancing force.

  4. LOTUS 1-2-3-BASED SYSTEM FOR RECORDING AND MAINTAINING BODY WEIGHT OF LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Body weight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of body weight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...

  5. Systems Biology in Animal Breeding: Identifying relationships among markers, genes, and phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Breeding and Genetics Symposium titled “Systems Biology in Animal Breeding: Identifying relationships among markers, genes, and phenotypes” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 201...

  6. Design and simulation of a high-resolution stationary SPECT system for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekman, Freek J.; Vastenhouw, Brendan

    2004-10-01

    Exciting new SPECT systems can be created by combining pinhole imaging with compact high-resolution gamma cameras. These new systems are able to solve the problem of the limited sensitivity-resolution trade-off that hampers contemporary small animal SPECT. The design presented here (U-SPECT-III) uses a set of detectors placed in a polygonal configuration and a cylindrical collimator that contains 135 pinholes arranged in nine rings. Each ring contains 15 gold pinhole apertures that focus on the centre of the cylinder. A non-overlapping projection is acquired via each pinhole. Consequently, when a mouse brain is placed in the central field-of-view, each voxel in the cerebrum can be observed via 130 to 135 different pinholes simultaneously. A method for high-resolution scintillation detection is described that eliminates the depth-of-interaction problem encountered with pinhole cameras, and is expected to provide intrinsic detector resolutions better than 150 µm. By means of simulations U-SPECT-III is compared to a simulated dual pinhole SPECT (DP-SPECT) system with a pixelated array consisting of 2.0 × 2.0 mm NaI crystals. Analytic calculations indicate that the proposed U-SPECT-III system yields an almost four times higher linear and about sixty times higher volumetric system resolution than DP-SPECT, when the systems are compared at matching system sensitivity. In addition, it should be possible to achieve a 15 up to 30 times higher sensitivity with U-SPECT-III when the systems are compared at equal resolution. Simulated images of a digital mouse-brain phantom show much more detail with U-SPECT-III than with DP-SPECT. In a resolution phantom, 0.3 mm diameter cold rods are clearly visible with U-SPECT-III, whereas with DP-SPECT the smallest visible rods are about 0.6-0.8 mm. Furthermore, with U-SPECT-III, the image deformations outside the central plane of reconstruction that hamper conventional pinhole SPECT are strongly suppressed. Simulation results indicate

  7. Immunity-Based Aircraft Fault Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, D.; KrishnaKumar, K.; Wong, D.; Berry, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the study reported in this paper, we have developed and applied an Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for aircraft fault detection, as an extension to a previous work on intelligent flight control (IFC). Though the prior studies had established the benefits of IFC, one area of weakness that needed to be strengthened was the control dead band induced by commanding a failed surface. Since the IFC approach uses fault accommodation with no detection, the dead band, although it reduces over time due to learning, is present and causes degradation in handling qualities. If the failure can be identified, this dead band can be further A ed to ensure rapid fault accommodation and better handling qualities. The paper describes the application of an immunity-based approach that can detect a broad spectrum of known and unforeseen failures. The approach incorporates the knowledge of the normal operational behavior of the aircraft from sensory data, and probabilistically generates a set of pattern detectors that can detect any abnormalities (including faults) in the behavior pattern indicating unsafe in-flight operation. We developed a tool called MILD (Multi-level Immune Learning Detection) based on a real-valued negative selection algorithm that can generate a small number of specialized detectors (as signatures of known failure conditions) and a larger set of generalized detectors for unknown (or possible) fault conditions. Once the fault is detected and identified, an adaptive control system would use this detection information to stabilize the aircraft by utilizing available resources (control surfaces). We experimented with data sets collected under normal and various simulated failure conditions using a piloted motion-base simulation facility. The reported results are from a collection of test cases that reflect the performance of the proposed immunity-based fault detection algorithm.

  8. System identification of perilymphatic fistula in an animal model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, C. 3rd; Casselbrant, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    An acute animal model has been developed in the chinchilla for the study of perilymphatic fistulas. Micropunctures were made in three sites to simulate bony, round window, and oval window fistulas. The eye movements in response to pressure applied to the external auditory canal were recorded after micropuncture induction and in preoperative controls. The main pressure stimulus was a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) that rapidly changed between plus and minus 200 mm of water. The PRBS stimulus, with its wide frequency bandwidth, produced responses clearly above the preoperative baseline in 78 percent of the runs. The response was better between 0.5 and 3.3 Hz than it was below 0.5 Hz. The direction of horizontal eye movement was toward the side of the fistula with positive pressure applied in 92 percent of the runs. Vertical eye movements were also observed. The ratio of vertical eye displacement to horizontal eye displacement depended upon the site of the micropuncture induction. Thus, such a ratio measurement may be clinically useful in the noninvasive localization of perilymphatic fistulas in humans.

  9. DCE Bio Detection System Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Michael A.; Batishko, Charles R.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Dunham, Glen C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2007-12-01

    The DCE (DNA Capture Element) Bio-Detection System (Biohound) was conceived, designed, built and tested by PNNL under a MIPR for the US Air Force under the technical direction of Dr. Johnathan Kiel and his team at Brooks City Base in San Antonio Texas. The project was directed toward building a measurement device to take advantage of a unique aptamer based assay developed by the Air Force for detecting biological agents. The assay uses narrow band quantum dots fluorophores, high efficiency fluorescence quenchers, magnetic micro-beads beads and selected aptamers to perform high specificity, high sensitivity detection of targeted biological materials in minutes. This final report summarizes and documents the final configuration of the system delivered to the Air Force in December 2008

  10. A Web Based Cardiovascular Disease Detection System.

    PubMed

    Alshraideh, Hussam; Otoom, Mwaffaq; Al-Araida, Aseel; Bawaneh, Haneen; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the most catastrophic and life threatening health issue nowadays. Early detection of CVD is an important solution to reduce its devastating effects on health. In this paper, an efficient CVD detection algorithm is identified. The algorithm uses patient demographic data as inputs, along with several ECG signal features extracted automatically through signal processing techniques. Cross-validation results show a 98.29 % accuracy for the decision tree classification algorithm. The algorithm has been integrated into a web based system that can be used at anytime by patients to check their heart health status. At one end of the system is the ECG sensor attached to the patient's body, while at the other end is the detection algorithm. Communication between the two ends is done through an Android application. PMID:26293754

  11. WAHIS-Wild and its interface: the OIE worldwide monitoring system for wild animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Jebara, Karim Ben

    2016-06-30

    Wild animal diseases are a global growing concern, given the threat that they pose to animal health and their zoonotic potential. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) was among the first organisations to recognise the importance of having a comprehensive knowledge of the disease situation in wild animals, collecting information on wildlife diseases worldwide since 1993, when for the first time an annual questionnaire was distribute by OIE to members Countries in order to collect qualitative and quantitative data on selected diseases in wild animals. Starting with 2008 until 2012 an updated version of questionnaire was circulated to allow for identifying wildlife species by their Latin name and by their common names in the 3 OIE official languages (English, French, and Spanish). This specific functionality was then implemented in the World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) in 2012, when this information was made available to the public through WAHIS-Wild Interface. PMID:27393871

  12. Animal models for the study of the effects of spaceflight on the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    2003-10-01

    Animal models have been used to determine the effects of spaceflight on the immune system. Rats and rhesus monkeys have been the primary animals used for actual space flight studies, but mice have also been utilized for studies in ground-based models. The primary ground based model used has been hindlimb unloading of rodents, which is similar to the chronic bed-rest model for humans. A variety of immune responses have been shown to be modified when animals are hindlimb unloaded. These results parallel those observed when animals are flown in space. In general, immune responses are depressed in animals maintained in the hindlimb unloading model or flown in space. These results raise the possibility that spaceflight could result in decreased resistance to infection in animals.

  13. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  14. Towards an Automated Acoustic Detection System for Free Ranging Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Hensman, Sean; Stoeger, Angela S.

    2015-01-01

    The human-elephant conflict is one of the most serious conservation problems in Asia and Africa today. The involuntary confrontation of humans and elephants claims the lives of many animals and humans every year. A promising approach to alleviate this conflict is the development of an acoustic early warning system. Such a system requires the robust automated detection of elephant vocalizations under unconstrained field conditions. Today, no system exists that fulfills these requirements. In this paper, we present a method for the automated detection of elephant vocalizations that is robust to the diverse noise sources present in the field. We evaluate the method on a dataset recorded under natural field conditions to simulate a real-world scenario. The proposed method outperformed existing approaches and robustly and accurately detected elephants. It thus can form the basis for a future automated early warning system for elephants. Furthermore, the method may be a useful tool for scientists in bioacoustics for the study of wildlife recordings. PMID:25983398

  15. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  16. Detection of abrupt changes in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the basic ideas associated with the detection of abrupt changes in dynamic systems are presented. Multiple filter-based techniques and residual-based method and the multiple model and generalized likelihood ratio methods are considered. Issues such as the effect of unknown onset time on algorithm complexity and structure and robustness to model uncertainty are discussed.

  17. Portable light detection system for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, R. L.; Carpenter, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    System can be used to detect "ready" light on automatic cooking device, to tell if lights are on for visitors, or to tell whether it is daylight or dark outside. Device is actuated like flashlight. Light impinging on photo cell activates transistor which energizes buzzer to indicate presence of light.

  18. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard. PMID:26304443

  19. Landmine detection by 3D GPR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Yokota, Yuya; Takahashi, Kazunori; Grasmueck, Mark

    2012-06-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for detection of small buried objects such as landmine and UXO, conducted demonstration tests by using the 3DGPR system, which is a GPR system combined with high accuracy positing system using a commercial laser positioning system (iGPS). iGPS can provide absolute and better than centimetre precise x,y,z coordinates to multiple mine sensors at the same time. The developed " 3DGPR" system is efficient and capable of high-resolution 3D shallow subsurface scanning of larger areas (25 m2 to thousands of square meters) with irregular topography . Field test by using a 500MHz GPR system equipped with 3DGPR system was conducted. PMN-2 and Type-72 mine models have been buried at the depth of 5-20cm in sand. We could demonstrate that the 3DGPR can visualize each of these buried land mines very clearly.

  20. Towed Twin-Fuselage Glider Launch System (CGI Animation)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The towed glider is an element of the novel rocket-launching concept of the Towed Glider Air-Launch System (TGALS). The TGALS demonstration’s goal is to provide proof-of-concept of a towed, airborn...

  1. Telocytes in female reproductive system (human and animal).

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovych, Veronika; Walocha, Jerzy A; Gil, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a newly discovered type of cell with numerous functions. They have been found in a large variety of organs: heart (endo-, myo-, epi- and pericardium, myocardial sleeves, heart valves); digestive tract and annex glands (oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, liver, gallbladder, salivary gland, exocrine pancreas); respiratory system (trachea and lungs); urinary system (kidney, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra); female reproductive system (uterus, Fallopian tube, placenta, mammary gland); vasculature (blood vessels, thoracic duct); serous membranes (mesentery and pleura); and other organs (skeletal muscle, meninges and choroid plexus, neuromuscular spindles, fascia lata, skin, eye, prostate, bone marrow). Likewise, TCs are widely distributed in vertebrates (fish, reptiles, birds, mammals, including human). This review summarizes particular features of TCs in the female reproductive system, emphasizing their involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:27060783

  2. Report of the FELASA Working Group on evaluation of quality systems for animal units.

    PubMed

    Howard, B; van Herck, H; Guillen, J; Bacon, B; Joffe, R; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M

    2004-04-01

    This report compares and considers the merits of existing, internationally available quality management systems suitable for implementation in experimental animal facilities. These are: the Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines, ISO 9000:2000 (International Organization for Standardization) and AAALAC International (Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International). Good laboratory practice (GLP) is a legal requirement for institutions undertaking non-clinical health and environmental studies for the purpose of registering or licensing for use and which have to be 'GLP-compliant'. GLP guidelines are often only relevant for and obtainable by those institutions. ISO is primarily an external business standard, which provides a management tool to master and optimize a business activity; it aims to implement and enhance 'customer satisfaction'. AAALAC is primarily a peer-reviewed system of accreditation which evaluates the organization and procedures in programmes of animal care and use to ensure the appropriate use of animals, safeguard animal well-being (ensuring state-of-the-art housing, management, procedural techniques, etc.) as well as the management of health and safety of staff. Management needs to determine, on the basis of a facility's specific goals, whether benefits would arise from the introduction of a quality system and, if so, which system is most appropriate. The successful introduction of a quality system confers peer-recognition against an independent standard, thereby providing assurance of standards of animal care and use, improving the quality of animal studies, and contributing to the three Rs-reduction, refinement and replacement. PMID:15070450

  3. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and...) Each fire detection system must be divided into zones to limit the area covered by any particular...

  4. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and...) Each fire detection system must be divided into zones to limit the area covered by any particular...

  5. Production costs and animal welfare for four stylized hog production systems.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Lacey; Norwood, F Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is arguably the most contentious issue facing the hog industry. Animal advocacy groups influence the regulation of hog farms and induce some consumers to demand more humane pork products. Hog producers are understandably reluctant to improve animal well being unless the premium they extract exceeds the corresponding increase in cost. To better understand the relationship between animal welfare and production costs under different farm systems, this study investigates 4 stylized hog production systems. The results show that increasing animal welfare for all hogs in the United States will increase retail pork prices by a maximum of 2% for a small welfare increase and 5% for a large welfare increase. The cost of banning gestation crates measured by this study is lower than the consumer willingness-to-pay from other studies. PMID:21191844

  6. Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia: results from an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghlan, Lezlee; Utzinger, Urs; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Heintzelmann, Doug; Zuluaga, Andres F.; Brookner, Carrie; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Gimenez-Conti, Irma; Follen, Michele

    2000-12-01

    Using the hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, we explore which fluorescence excitation wavelengths are useful for the detection of neoplasia. 42 hamsters were treated with DMBA to induce carcinogenesis, and 20 control animals were treated only with mineral oil. Fluorescence excitation emission matrices were measured from the cheek pouches of the hamsters weekly. Results showed increased fluorescence near 350-370 nm and 410 nm excitation and decreased fluorescence near 450-470 nm excitation with neoplasia. The optimal diagnostic excitation wavelengths identified using this model - 350-370 nm excitation and 400-450 nm excitation - are similar to those identified for detection of human oral cavity neoplasia.

  7. Experimental task-based optimization of a four-camera variable-pinhole small-animal SPECT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.

    2005-04-01

    We have previously utilized lumpy object models and simulated imaging systems in conjunction with the ideal observer to compute figures of merit for hardware optimization. In this paper, we describe the development of methods and phantoms necessary to validate or experimentally carry out these optimizations. Our study was conducted on a four-camera small-animal SPECT system that employs interchangeable pinhole plates to operate under a variety of pinhole configurations and magnifications (representing optimizable system parameters). We developed a small-animal phantom capable of producing random backgrounds for each image sequence. The task chosen for the study was the detection of a 2mm diameter sphere within the phantom-generated random background. A total of 138 projection images were used, half of which included the signal. As our observer, we employed the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) with Laguerre-Gauss channels. The signal-to-noise (SNR) of this observer was used to compare different system configurations. Results indicate agreement between experimental and simulated data with higher detectability rates found for multiple-camera, multiple-pinhole, and high-magnification systems, although it was found that mixtures of magnifications often outperform systems employing a single magnification. This work will serve as a basis for future studies pertaining to system hardware optimization.

  8. Quantitative analysis of L-SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Tasneem; Tahtali, Murat; Pickering, Mark R.

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of a newly proposed L-SPECT system for small animal brain imaging. The L-SPECT system consists of an array of 100 × 100 micro range diameter pinholes. The proposed detector module has a 48 mm by 48 mm active area and the system is based on a pixelated array of NaI crystals (10×10×10 mm elements) coupled with an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). The performance of this system was evaluated with pinhole radii of 50 μm, 60 μm and 100 μm. Monte Carlo simulation studies using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) software package validate the performance of this novel dual head L-SPECT system where a geometric mouse phantom is used to investigate its performance. All SPECT data were obtained using 120 projection views from 0° to 360° with a 3° step. Slices were reconstructed using conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. We have evaluated the quality of the images in terms of spatial resolution (FWHM) based on line spread function, the system sensitivity, the point source response function and the image quality. The sensitivity of our newly proposed L- SPECT system was about 4500 cps/μCi at 6 cm along with excellent full width at half-maximum (FWHM) using 50 μm pinhole aperture at several radii of rotation. The analysis results show the combination of excellent spatial resolution and high detection efficiency over an energy range between 20-160 keV. The results demonstrate that SPECT imaging using a pixelated L-SPECT detector module is applicable in a quantitative study of mouse brain imaging.

  9. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  10. APDS: The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Hindson, B; Makarewicz, A; Setlur, U; Henderer, B; McBride, M; Dzenitis, J

    2004-10-04

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic-acid based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for seven days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported.

  11. APDS: the autonomous pathogen detection system.

    PubMed

    Hindson, Benjamin J; Makarewicz, Anthony J; Setlur, Ujwal S; Henderer, Bruce D; McBride, Mary T; Dzenitis, John M

    2005-04-15

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic acid-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for 7 days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported. PMID:15741059

  12. Laser Schlieren System Detects Sounds Of Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy P.; Alwar, A. Vijayaragavan

    1990-01-01

    Hostile environments monitored safely and noninvasively. Modified laser schlieren system acts as microphone to detect sounds of leaks remotely. Sensitive to acoustical frequencies above audible range and especially suited for monitoring leaks of high-pressure steam from boilers or chemical vapors from processing equipment. Does not require placement of delicate equipment in harsh environment monitored, and no contact needed with boiler or other unit being monitored. Detects sound waves via variation of index of refraction of air at acoustical frequencies. Used to monitor sound frequencies beyond range of human hearing.

  13. Portable chemical detection system with intergrated preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Hannum, David W.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2005-12-27

    A portable system for the detection of chemical particles such as explosive residue utilizes a metal fiber substrate that may either be swiped over a subject or placed in a holder in a collection module which can shoot a jet of gas at the subject to dislodge residue, and then draw the air containing the residue into the substrate. The holder is then placed in a detection module, which resistively heats the substrate to evolve the particles, and provides a gas flow to move the particles to a miniature detector in the module.

  14. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-12-07

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  15. The Mount Rainier Lahar Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A. B.; Murray, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    To mitigate the risk of unheralded lahars from Mount Rainier, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pierce County, Washington, installed a lahar-detection system on the Puyallup and Carbon rivers that originate on Mount Rainier's western slopes. The system, installed in 1998, is designed to automatically detect the passage of lahars large enough to potentially affect populated areas downstream (approximate volume threshold 40 million cubic meters), while ignoring small lahars, earthquakes, extreme weather and floods. Along each river valley upstream, arrays of independent lahar-monitoring stations equipped with geophones and short tripwires telemeter data to a pair of redundant computer base stations located in and near Tacoma at existing public safety facilities that are staffed around the clock. Monitored data consist of ground-vibration levels, tripwire status, and transmissions at regular intervals. The base stations automatically evaluate these data to determine if a dangerous lahar is passing through the station array. The detection algorithm requires significant ground vibration to occur at those stations in the array that are above the anticipated level of inundation, while lower level `deadman' stations, inundated by the flow, experience tripwire breakage or are destroyed. Once a base station detects a lahar, it alerts staff who execute a call-down of public-safety officials and schools, initiating evacuation of areas potentially at risk. Because the system's risk-mitigation task imposes high standards of reliability on all components, it has been under test for several years. To date, the system has operated reliably and without false alarms, including during the nearby M6.8 Nisqually Earthquake on February 28, 2001. The system is being turned over to Pierce County, and activated as part of their lahar warning system.

  16. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in systemic aspergillosis

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, M.H.

    1980-06-01

    Because of difficulties in antemortem diagnosis of systemic aspergillosis, a radioimmunoassay to an Aspergillus fumigatus carbohydrate was developed and evaluated in patients with mycotic or bacterial infections. Antigenemia was detected in sera obtained antemortem from four of seven patients with systemic aspergillosis and in pleural fluid from an Aspergillus empyema but not in control sera or pleural fluid from 43 patients or 27 normal donors. When characterized with reference to onset of disease, antigenemia was an early sign of infection. This study shows the usefulness of the Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay for early, specific immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis.

  17. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmore » degraded.« less

  18. ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water may undergo a number of changes in the distribution system, making the quality of the water at the customer's tap different from the quality of the water that leaves the treatment plant. Such changes in quality may be caused by chemical or biological variations or by a loss...

  19. New systems for treatment of manure from confined animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New swine waste management systems developed in North Carolina to replace the anaerobic lagoons need to meet the strict performance standards of an environmentally superior technology (EST). These technologies must be able to substantially remove nutrients, heavy metals, emissions of ammonia, odors,...

  20. SPECT-CT system for small animal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Weisenberger; Randolph Wojcik; E.L. Bradley; Paul Brewer; Stanislaw Majewski; Jianguo Qian; Amoreena Ranck; Arunava Saha; Mark Smith; Robert Welsh

    2003-02-01

    The Detector Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) and the Biology, Physics, and Applied Sciences Departments at the College of William and Mary are collaborating on the development of a miniature dual modality SPECT-CT system for mouse imaging. The detector heads of the SPECT sub-system are designed to be capable of imaging the gamma- and X-ray emissions (28-35 keV) of the radioactive isotope iodine-125 (I-125). Two different sets of I-125 imaging detectors are configured on a gantry that has an open-barrel type design. One set of detector heads is based on the 1-in square Hamamatsu R5900-M64 position sensitive photomultiplier tube coupled to crystal scintillator arrays. The other detector heads configured on the gantry are two 5-in diameter Hamamatsu R3292-based compact gamma cameras. The X-ray radiographic projections are obtained using a LIXI Inc. model LF-85-503-OS X-ray imaging system that has an active area of 5.5 cm in diameter. The open-barrel shaped gantry facilitates the positioning of various mini gamma-ray imaging detectors and the X-ray system. The data acquisition and gantry control is interfaced through a Macintosh G3 workstation. Preliminary SPECT reconstruction results using the R5900 based detector are presented.

  1. SPECT-CT System for Small Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Weisenberger; R. Wojcik; E.L. Bradley; P. Brewer; S. Majewski; J. Qian; A. Ranck; M.S. Saha; K. Smith; M.F. Smith; R.E. Welsh

    2001-11-01

    The Detector Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) and the Biology, Physics and Applied Sciences Departments at the College of William and Mary are collaborating on the development of a miniature dual modality SPECT-CT system for mouse imaging. The detector heads of the SPECT sub-system are capable of imaging the gamma- and x-ray emissions (28-35 keV) of the radioactive isotope iodine-125 (I-125). Two different sets of I-125 imaging detectors are configured on a gantry which has an open-barrel type design. One set of detector heads is based on the 1 inch square Hamamatsu R5900-M64 position sensitive photomultiplier tube coupled to crystal scintillator arrays. The other detector heads configured on the gantry are two 5-inch diameter Hamamatsu R3292-based compact gamma cameras. The x-ray radiographic projections will be obtained using a LIXI Inc. model LF-85-503-OS x-ray imaging system that has an active area of 5.5 cm in diameter. The open-barrel shaped gantry facilitates the positioning of various mini gamma-ray imaging detectors and the x-ray system. The data acquisition and gantry control is interfaced through a Macintosh G3 workstation. SPECT reconstruction results using the R5900 based detector are presented.

  2. Establishment of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection and differentiation of canine distemper virus infected and vaccinated animals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-Fei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Tian, Jin; Jiang, Yi-Tong; Zhang, Xiao-Zhan; Chai, Hong-Liang; Yang, Tian-Kuo; Yin, Xiu-Chen; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Liu, Ming; Hua, Yu-Ping; Qu, Lian-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Although widespread vaccination against canine distemper virus (CDV) has been conducted for many decades, several canine distemper outbreaks in vaccinated animals have been reported frequently. In order to detect and differentiate the wild-type and vaccine strains of the CDV from the vaccinated animals, a novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method was developed. A set of four primers-two internal and two external-were designed to target the H gene for the specific detection of wild-type CDV variants. The CDV-H RT-LAMP assay rapidly amplified the target gene, within 60 min, using a water bath held at a constant temperature of 65°C. The assay was 100-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, with a detection limit of 10(-1)TCID50ml(-1). The system showed a preference for wild-type CDV, and exhibited less sensitivity to canine parvovirus, canine adenovirus type 1 and type 2, canine coronavirus, and canine parainfluenza virus. The assay was validated using 102 clinical samples obtained from vaccinated dog farms, and the results were comparable to a multiplex nested RT-PCR assay. The specific CDV-H RT-LAMP assay provides a simple, rapid, and sensitive tool for the detection of canines infected with wild-type CDV from canines vaccinated with attenuated vaccine. PMID:25769803

  3. A reference system for animal biometrics: application to the northern leopard frog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrovska-Delacretaz, D.; Edwards, A.; Chiasson, J.; Chollet, G.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Reference systems and public databases are available for human biometrics, but to our knowledge nothing is available for animal biometrics. This is surprising because animals are not required to give their agreement to be in a database. This paper proposes a reference system and database for the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Both are available for reproducible experiments. Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given.

  4. ChR2 transgenic animals in peripheral sensory system: Sensing light as various sensations.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Since the introduction of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to neuroscience, optogenetics technology was developed, making it possible to activate specific neurons or circuits with spatial and temporal precision. Various ChR2 transgenic animal models have been generated and are playing important roles in revealing the mechanisms of neural activities, mapping neural circuits, controlling the behaviors of animals as well as exploring new strategy for treating the neurological diseases in both central and peripheral nervous system. An animal including humans senses environments through Aristotle's five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch). Usually, each sense is associated with a kind of sensory organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin). Is it possible that one could hear light, smell light, taste light and touch light? When ChR2 is targeted to different peripheral sensory neurons by viral vectors or generating ChR2 transgenic animals, the animals can sense the light as various sensations such as hearing, touch, pain, smell and taste. In this review, we focus on ChR2 transgenic animals in the peripheral nervous system. Firstly the working principle of ChR2 as an optogenetic actuator is simply described. Then the current transgenic animal lines where ChR2 was expressed in peripheral sensory neurons are presented and the findings obtained by these animal models are reviewed. PMID:26903290

  5. A Laboratory Exercise for Ecology Teaching: The Use of Photographs in Detecting Dispersion Patterns in Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenton, G. M.

    1975-01-01

    Photographs of a beetle, Catamerus rugosus, were taken at different stages in its life cycle. Students were asked to relate these to real life and carry out a statistical analysis to determine the degree of dispersion of animals. Results demonstrate a change in dispersion throughout the life cycle. (Author/EB)

  6. Enhanced detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in animal tissues using a semi-nested probe-based real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro; Ferreira, Ana S; Amaro, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Cunha, Mónica V; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis has been tackled for decades by costly eradication programs in most developed countries, involving the laboratory testing of tissue samples from allegedly infected animals for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) members, namely Mycobacterium bovis. Definitive diagnosis is usually achieved by bacteriological culture, which may take up to 6-12 weeks, during which the suspect animal carcass and herd are under sanitary arrest. In this work, a user-friendly DNA extraction protocol adapted for tissues was coupled with an IS6110-targeted semi-nested duplex real-time PCR assay to enhance the direct detection of MTC bacteria in animal specimens, reducing the time to achieve a diagnosis and, thus, potentially limiting the herd restriction period. The duplex use of a novel β-actin gene targeted probe, with complementary targets in most mammals, allowed the assessment of amplification inhibitors in the tissue samples. The assay was evaluated with a group of 128 fresh tissue specimens collected from bovines, wild boars, deer and foxes. Mycobacterium bovis was cultured from 57 of these samples. Overall, the full test performance corresponds to a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 98.2% (CIP95% 89.4-99.9%) and 88.7% (CIP95% 78.5-94.7%), respectively. An observed kappa coefficient was estimated in 0.859 (CI P95% 0.771-0.948) for the overall agreement between the semi-nested PCR assay and the bacteriological culture. Considering only bovine samples (n = 69), the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were estimated in 100% (CIP95% 84.0-100%) and 97.7% (CIP95% 86.2-99.9%), respectively. Eight negative culture samples exhibiting TB-like lesions were detected by the semi-nested real-time PCR, thus emphasizing the increased potential of this molecular approach to detect MTC-infected animal tissues. This novel IS6110-targeted assay allows the fast detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in animal specimens with very high sensitivity and

  7. Detecting Anomalous Insiders in Collaborative Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Nyemba, Steve; Malin, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative information systems (CISs) are deployed within a diverse array of environments that manage sensitive information. Current security mechanisms detect insider threats, but they are ill-suited to monitor systems in which users function in dynamic teams. In this paper, we introduce the community anomaly detection system (CADS), an unsupervised learning framework to detect insider threats based on the access logs of collaborative environments. The framework is based on the observation that typical CIS users tend to form community structures based on the subjects accessed (e.g., patients’ records viewed by healthcare providers). CADS consists of two components: 1) relational pattern extraction, which derives community structures and 2) anomaly prediction, which leverages a statistical model to determine when users have sufficiently deviated from communities. We further extend CADS into MetaCADS to account for the semantics of subjects (e.g., patients’ diagnoses). To empirically evaluate the framework, we perform an assessment with three months of access logs from a real electronic health record (EHR) system in a large medical center. The results illustrate our models exhibit significant performance gains over state-of-the-art competitors. When the number of illicit users is low, MetaCADS is the best model, but as the number grows, commonly accessed semantics lead to hiding in a crowd, such that CADS is more prudent. PMID:24489520

  8. An Automated Flying-Insect-Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An automated flying-insect-detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect's wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real-time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically displayed. All AFIDS data are pre-processed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LABVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation.

  9. Tsunami Detection Systems for International Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Results are presented regarding the first commercially available, fully operational, tsunami detection system to have passed stringent U.S. government testing requirements and to have successfully demonstrated its ability to detect an actual tsunami at sea. Spurred by the devastation of the December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami that killed more than 230,000 people, the private sector actively supported the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's (IOC"s) efforts to develop a tsunami warning system and mitigation plan for the Indian Ocean region. As each country in the region developed its requirements, SAIC recognized that many of these underdeveloped countries would need significant technical assistance to fully execute their plans. With the original focus on data fusion, consequence assessment tools, and warning center architecture, it was quickly realized that the cornerstone of any tsunami warning system would be reliable tsunami detection buoys that could meet very stringent operational standards. Our goal was to leverage extensive experience in underwater surveillance and oceanographic sensing to produce an enhanced and reliable deep water sensor that could meet emerging international requirements. Like the NOAA Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of Tsunamis (DART TM ) buoy, the SAIC Tsunami Buoy (STB) system consists of three subsystems: a surfaccommunications buoy subsystem, a bottom pressure recorder subsystem, and a buoy mooring subsystem. With the operational success that DART has demonstrated, SAIC decided to build and test to the same high standards. The tsunami detection buoy system measures small changes in the depth of the deep ocean caused by tsunami waves as they propagate past the sensor. This is accomplished by using an extremely sensitive bottom pressure sensor/recorder to measure very small changes in pressure as the waves move past the buoy system. The bottom pressure recorder component includes a processor with algorithms that

  10. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  11. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-08-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design.

  12. Gaseous hydrogen leakage optical fibre detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouillet, Alain; Veillas, Colette; Sigronde, E.; Gagnaire, Henri; Clement, Michel

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen has been intensively used in aerospace applications during the past forty years and is of great interest for fuel cells technologies and future automotive applications. Following upon major explosive risks due to the use of hydrogen in air, previous studies were carried out in our laboratory in order to develop optical fiber sensors for the detection of hydrogen leakage. This communication is aimed towards a prototype optical fiber system designed for the detection of gaseous hydrogen leakage near the conecting flanges of the liquid hydrogen pipes on the test bench of the engine Vulcain of the rocket ARIANE V. Depending on the configuration, the prototype sensor provides a two-level alarm signal and the detection of gaseous hydrogen leakage is possible for concentrations lower than the lower explosive limit in air (between 0.1 and 4%) with alarm response times lower than 10 seconds in a wide range of temperatures between -35°C and 300°C. The sensing principle based on palladium-hydrogen interaction is presented as well as the detection system composed of an optical fiber probe and an optoelectronic device.

  13. Small animal imaging using a flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPD-CBCT) imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, David L.; Ning, Ruola; Yu, Yong; Lu, Xianghua; Wood, Ronald W.; Reeder, Jay E.; Johnson, Aimee M.

    2005-04-01

    Flat panel detector-based cone beam CT (FPD-CBCT) imaging system prototypes have been constructed based on modified clinical CT scanners (a modified GE 8800 CT system and a modified GE HighSpeed Advantage (HSA) spiral CT system) each with a Varian PaxScan 2520 imager. The functions of the electromechanical and radiographic subsystems of the CT system were controlled through specially made hardware, software and data acquisition modules to perform animal cone beam CT studies. Small animal (mouse) imaging studies were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of an optimized CBCT imaging system to have the capability to perform longitudinal studies to monitor the progression of cancerous tumors or the efficacy of treatments. Radiographic parameters were optimized for fast (~10 second) scans of live mice to produce good reconstructed image quality with dose levels low enough to avoid any detectable radiation treatment to the animals. Specifically, organs in the pelvic region were clearly imaged and contrast studies showed the feasibility to visualize small vasculature and space-filling bladder tumors. In addition, prostate and mammary tumors were monitored in volume growth studies.

  14. [Distribution of the different patterns of aging over the system of animal world].

    PubMed

    Popov, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Since the system of animal world reflects evolutionary trends, an analysis of distribution of patterns of aging over this system provides information on the causes of the formation of differences among them. In this paper the system of the main animal groups in form of a table is presented, and the distribution of patterns demonstrating minimum and maximum of aging is discussed. Meanwhile the colonial animals are considered as a "minimum of aging", the animals demonstrating drastic self-liquidation after reproduction are considered as a "maximum of aging" (the most well-known example is the pink salmon). It is shown, that as far as the degree of difference from the simplest ancestor increases in process of evolution, the increase of the manifestations of aging takes place. Slow aging of relatively simple organisms cannot be a direct source of measures to prevent aging of complex ones. PMID:21957572

  15. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  16. Systems biology: a new tool for farm animal science.

    PubMed

    Hollung, Kristin; Timperio, Anna M; Olivan, Mamen; Kemp, Caroline; Coto-Montes, Ana; Sierra, Veronica; Zolla, Lello

    2014-03-01

    It is rapidly emerging that the tender meat phenotype is affected by an enormous amount of variables, not only tied to genetics (livestock breeding selection), but also to extrinsic factors, such as feeding conditions, physical activity, rearing environment, administration of hormonal growth promotants, pre-slaughter handling and stress. Proteomics has been widely accepted by meat scientists over the last years and is now commonly used to shed light on the postmortem processes involved in meat tenderization. This review discusses the latest findings with the use of proteomics and systems biology to study the different biochemical pathways postmortem aiming at understanding the concerted action of different molecular mechanisms responsible for meat quality. The conversion of muscle to meat postmortem can be described as a sequence of events involving molecular pathways controlled by a complex interplay of many factors. Among the different pathways emerging are the influence of apoptosis and lately also the role of autophagy in muscle postmortem development. This review thus, focus on how systems-wide integrated investigations (metabolomics, transcriptomics, interactomics, phosphoproteomics, mathematical modeling), which have emerged as complementary tools to proteomics, have helped establishing a few milestones in our understanding of the events leading from muscle to meat conversion. PMID:24555891

  17. Detection of group C rotavirus antigens and antibodies in animals and humans by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed Central

    Tsunemitsu, H; Jiang, B; Saif, L J

    1992-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed to detect group (gp) C rotavirus antigens and antibodies. Both assays were confirmed to be specific for gp C rotavirus by using serogroup A, B, and C rotaviruses; hyperimmune antisera to these serogroups of rotaviruses; and paired serum specimens from animals infected with gp C rotaviruses. The ELISA for antigen detection reacted not only with porcine gp C rotaviruses but also with human and bovine gp C rotaviruses. Following experimental challenge of gnotobiotic pigs with porcine gp C rotavirus, the virus was found by ELISA in all diarrheic feces. A high prevalence of antibodies to gp C rotaviruses was detected in sera from adult pigs (93 to 97%) and cattle (47 to 56%) in the United States and Japan. However, no antibody to gp C rotavirus was detected in the sera (n = 20) of adult horses in the United States. In human sera from Hokkaido, Japan, 3% of children and 13% of adults possessed antibody to gp C rotaviruses. These results suggest that the ELISA that we developed may be useful for surveying gp C rotavirus infections in animals and humans. On the basis of serology, gp C rotavirus infections are common in pigs and cattle in the United States and Japan, but they occur at lower levels in humans from the Hokkaido area of Japan. PMID:1323577

  18. Upconversion Nanoparticles and Monodispersed Magnetic Polystyrene Microsphere Based Fluorescence Immunoassay for the Detection of Sulfaquinoxaline in Animal-Derived Foods.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gaoshuang; Sheng, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Junping; Wu, Xuening; Wang, Shuo

    2016-05-18

    A novel fluorescence immunoassay for detecting sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) in animal-derived foods was developed using NaYF4:Yb/Tm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) conjugated with antibodies as fluorescence signal probes, and monodisperse magnetic polystyrene microspheres (MMPMs) modified with coating antigen as immune-sensing capture probes for trapping and separating the signal probes. Based on a competitive immunoassay format, the detection limit of the proposed method for detecting SQX was 0.1 μg L(-1) in buffer and 0.5 μg kg(-1) in food samples. The recoveries of SQX in spiked samples ranged from 69.80 to 133.00%, with coefficients of variation of 0.24-25.06%. The extraction procedure was fast, simple, and environmentally friendly, requiring no organic solvents. In particular, milk samples can be analyzed directly after simple dilution. This method has appealing properties, such as sensitive fluorescence response, a simple and fast extraction procedure, and environmental friendliness, and could be applied to detecting SQX in animal-derived foods. PMID:27134048

  19. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples. PMID:21548621

  20. Single and multiplexed immunoassays for the chemiluminescent imaging detection of animal glues in historical paint cross-sections.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, G; Dolci, L S; Guardigli, M; Zangheri, M; Prati, S; Mazzeo, R; Roda, A

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of the organic components in a complex, multilayered paint structure is fundamental for studying painting techniques and for authentication and restoration purposes. Proteinaceous materials, such as animal glue, are of particular importance since they are widely used as binders, adhesives and for gilding. Even though proteins are usually detected by chromatographic and proteomic techniques, immunological methods represent an alternative powerful approach to protein analysis thanks to the high specificity of antigen-antibody reactions. Our previous studies demonstrated that ovalbumin and casein could be localized in paint cross-sections with high sensitivity and good spatial resolution (i.e. within the single painting layers) by using chemiluminescent (CL) immunochemical microscope imaging. In the present research work, we describe for the first time the immunolocalization of collagen (the main protein of animal glue) in paint cross-sections by CL imaging microscopy. Two different analytical protocols have been developed, allowing either the detection of collagen or the simultaneous detection of collagen and ovalbumin in the same paint sample. The assays were used to detect collagen and ovalbumin in cross-sections from model samples and historical paintings (a wall painting dated to 1773-1774 and a painted wood panel of the Renaissance period) in order to achieve information on paint techniques and past restoration interventions. PMID:23064674

  1. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    PubMed Central

    Aliane, Nourdine; Fernandez, Javier; Mata, Mario; Bemposta, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR) for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations. PMID:25421737

  2. A Pilot System for Environmental Monitoring Through Domestic Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabe, Calvin W.; Sawyer, John; Martin, Wayne

    1971-01-01

    A pilot system for environmental monitoring is in its early phases of development in Northern California. It is based upon the existing nation wide Federal-State Market Cattle Testing (14CT) program for brucellosis in cattle. This latter program depends upon the collection of blood program at the time of identified cattle. As the cattle Population of California is broadly distributed throughout the state, we intend to utilize these blood samples to biologically monitor the distribution and intensity of selected environmental pollutants. In a 2-year preliminary trial, the feasibility of retrieving, utilizing for a purpose similar to this, and tracing back to their geographic areas of origin of MCT samples have been demonstrated.

  3. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  4. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees’ performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  5. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees' performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  6. An Automated Flying-Insect Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

    2007-01-01

    An automated flying-insect detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland-security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect s wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing-beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically. All AFIDS data are preprocessed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LabVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al-GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing-beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation. Preliminary data indicate that AFIDS has

  7. Detection of clusters of Salmonella in animals in Ontario from 1991 to 2001

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The temporal patterns of Salmonella serovars isolated from animals in Ontario by 2 major laboratories between 1991 and 2001 were identified. Overall, the number of isolates remained relatively stable and the more frequent isolates were dominant, as in earlier surveys. However, the temporal patterns of specific isolates and the serovars isolated differed depending on the laboratory, species of animal, and reason for obtaining the culture (monitoring versus diagnostic sample). A number of temporal clusters were identified, but their dates of occurrence differed by laboratory. Whereas the laboratories serve an essential role for diagnosis and monitoring, the summary information should be interpreted cautiously. The importance of additional information, such as demographic source, specimen type, and appropriate denominator, when interpreting the data is discussed. PMID:16048012

  8. System and method for detecting gas

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Oscar Ken; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Miller, Jacob Andrew

    2010-03-16

    A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

  9. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  10. Microwave System for Detecting Ice on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Philip J.; Glynn, Dennis P., Jr.; Joseph, John C.

    2004-01-01

    A microwave-based system has been developed as a means of detecting ice on aircraft surfaces, with enough sensitivity to provide a warning before the ice accretes to a dangerous thickness. The system can measure the thickness of ice from a few mils (1 mil = 0.0254 mm) to about 1/4 in. (.6 mm) and can distinguish among (1) ice, (2) water (or deicing fluid), and (3) a mixture of ice and water (or deicing fluid). Sensors have been ruggedized to withstand the rain erosion environment.

  11. Research of laser ignition detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng; Zhao, Dong; Xu, Qie; Ai, Xin

    2010-10-01

    Laser ignition is an important means of detonation but the accuracy and security is requested strictly. Based on the above, two points were considered in the design: achieve ignition-Fiber-optical health monitoring in the condition of low-intensity light (ensure the safety of gunpowder); observant the explosive imaging. In the paper, the laser ignition equipment was designed with optical detection and inner optical imaging system for the real-time monitoring to the optical fiber and the process of ignition. This design greatly improved the reliability and the safety of laser ignition system and provided the guarantee for usage and industrialization.

  12. [The need for research to support the emergence of alternative animal health systems].

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Bonnet, P; Renard, J F

    2004-04-01

    Animal diseases remain one of the main problems for livestock production in terms of trade development, poverty reduction and public health. Animal health systems are complex because of the diversity of the parties involved and because of various changes in the delivery of veterinary services, such as the redefinition of the roles of the public and private sectors. It is, therefore, often difficult to assess the global performance of animal health systems and sub-systems in terms of their medical, economic and social effectiveness. In addition, the necessary reliability of the health information obtained leads to certification of the status of regions and countries with regard to epizootics, which requires a high degree of standardisation and conformity with international norms. An assessment therefore needs to be made of the advantages of alternative systems compared with conventional systems. An animal health system should be seen as a whole, and when assessing its overall performance several things must be taken into account, e.g. the markets for products and the sometimes contradictory interests of all the different parties involved. There are, therefore, many research needs and avenues to be pursued, including: the methods, data and tools required for assessing the effectiveness of systems, including a definition of what constitutes a reliable indicator; the factors that determine the health of a herd; having a clearer idea of what will affect herd health will make it possible to map risk indicators and animal health care needs; the design and management of realistic and harmonised animal health information systems whose indicators provide reliable measurements of health; the function, organisation and effectiveness of participative surveillance approaches; the definition and effectiveness of animal health contracts, such as health mandates between the State and private veterinarians; the function and role of livestock auxiliaries; the establishment of

  13. The oxytocin system in drug discovery for autism: Animal models and novel therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Meera E.; Young, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Animal models and behavioral paradigms are critical for elucidating the neural mechanism involved in complex behaviors, including social cognition. Both genotype and phenotype based models have implicated the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) in the regulation of social behavior. Based on the findings in animal models, alteration of the OT system has been hypothesized to play a role in the social deficits associated with autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders. While the evidence linking the peptide to the etiology of the disorder is not yet conclusive, evidence from multiple animal models suggest modulation of the OT system may be a viable strategy for the pharmacological treatment of social deficits. In this review, we will discuss how animal models have been utilized to understand the role of OT in social cognition and how those findings can be applied to the conceptualization and treatment of the social impairments in ASD. Animal models with genetic alterations of the OT system, like the OT, OT receptor and CD38 knock-out mice, and those with phenotypic variation in social behavior, like BTBR inbred mice and prairie voles, coupled with behavioral paradigms with face and construct validity may prove to have predictive validity for identifying the most efficacious methods of stimulating the OT system to enhance social cognition in humans. The widespread use of strong animal models of social cognition has the potential yield pharmacological, interventions for the treatment social impairments psychiatric disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22206823

  14. The oxytocin system in drug discovery for autism: animal models and novel therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Modi, Meera E; Young, Larry J

    2012-03-01

    Animal models and behavioral paradigms are critical for elucidating the neural mechanism involved in complex behaviors, including social cognition. Both genotype and phenotype based models have implicated the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) in the regulation of social behavior. Based on the findings in animal models, alteration of the OT system has been hypothesized to play a role in the social deficits associated with autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders. While the evidence linking the peptide to the etiology of the disorder is not yet conclusive, evidence from multiple animal models suggest modulation of the OT system may be a viable strategy for the pharmacological treatment of social deficits. In this review, we will discuss how animal models have been utilized to understand the role of OT in social cognition and how those findings can be applied to the conceptualization and treatment of the social impairments in ASD. Animal models with genetic alterations of the OT system, like the OT, OT receptor and CD38 knock-out mice, and those with phenotypic variation in social behavior, like BTBR inbred mice and prairie voles, coupled with behavioral paradigms with face and construct validity may prove to have predictive validity for identifying the most efficacious methods of stimulating the OT system to enhance social cognition in humans. The widespread use of strong animal models of social cognition has the potential yield pharmacological, interventions for the treatment social impairments psychiatric disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22206823

  15. Design and in vivo evaluation of a robotized needle insertion system for small animals.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Laurent; Bour, Gaetan; Martel, Fernand; Nicolau, Stephane; Gangloff, Jacques; Egly, Jean-Marc; Bayle, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The development of imaging devices adapted to small animals has opened the way to image-guided procedures in biomedical research. In this paper, we focus on automated procedures to study the effects of the recurrent administration of substances to the same animal over time. A dedicated system and the associated workflow have been designed to percutaneously position a needle into the abdominal organs of mice. Every step of the procedure has been automated: the camera calibration, the needle access planning, the robotized needle positioning, and the respiratory-gated needle insertion. Specific devices have been developed for the registration, the animal binding under anesthesia, and the skin puncture. Among the presented results, the system accuracy is particularly emphasized, both in vitro using gelose phantoms and in vivo by injecting substances into various abdominal organs. The study shows that robotic assistance could be routinely used in biomedical research laboratories to improve existing procedures, allowing automated accurate treatments and limited animal sacrifices. PMID:23475327

  16. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. They are using a Schlumberger neutron generator for the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel, in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics for the detection of very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. They have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The results to data are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference.

  17. Global ionospheric flare detection system (GIFDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Daniela; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens; Mayer, Christoph; Valladares, Cesar; Heber, Bernd

    2016-02-01

    The Global Ionospheric Flare Detection System (GIFDS) is currently under development at the German Aerospace Center as a ground based detector for continuous monitoring of the solar flare activity in order to provide real time warnings on solar X-ray events. GIFDS is using Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio transmissions in the northern hemisphere which respond to enhanced ionization in the bottomside ionosphere caused by X-ray flares. Since solar flares can only be detected during daytime, VLF receivers have to be installed around the globe to guarantee continuous records at the dayside sector. GIFDS consists of a network of Perseus SDR (Software Defined Radio) receivers equipped with a MiniWhip antenna each. Reliable detection of solar flares is ensured by recording multiple frequency channels ranging from 0 to 500 kHz. The applicability of the system is demonstrated in a first analysis by comparing VLF measurements with GOES's (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) X-ray flux data. The high potential of GIFDS for a permanent monitoring of solar flares in near real time is discussed.

  18. Advanced kick detection systems improve HPHT operations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, T.W.R.; Hendriks, P.; Surewaard, J.H.G.

    1995-09-01

    Many high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) wells are often characterized by the small margins that can exist between pore pressure and formation strength. Therefore, it is not surprising that kicks are far more likely to occur in HPHT wells and that a greater risk of internal blowout exists. The development and application of advanced kick detection systems for HPHT wells can help manage risks and improve drilling efficiency. Such systems enable earlier well shut-in, minimizing both the influx volume and the subsequent well bore pressures. This in turn lowers the risk, time and cost required for well control operations. Carefully considered application of these systems can also justify favorable economic benefits by optimization of the HPHT preliminary casing design. Minimizing kick volume can be important for the critical HPHT hole sections, where a reduced operating margin between pore pressure and fracture gradient exists, defining small design kick tolerance limits to permit safe drilling ahead to reach specified objectives. Kick detection for HPHT wells equivalent to less than 5 bbl of gas influx are often necessary to adequately minimize the risk of internal blowout and obtain the same levels of safety which are applied to conventional wells. This paper reviews these systems for both on-shore and off-shore operations.

  19. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and... alarm and an audible alarm in the pilothouse or at a normally manned control station for the system....

  20. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and... alarm and an audible alarm in the pilothouse or at a normally manned control station for the system....

  1. Real-time animation software for customized training to use motor prosthetic systems.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, Rahman; Loeb, Gerald E

    2012-03-01

    Research on control of human movement and development of tools for restoration and rehabilitation of movement after spinal cord injury and amputation can benefit greatly from software tools for creating precisely timed animation sequences of human movement. Despite their ability to create sophisticated animation and high quality rendering, existing animation software are not adapted for application to neural prostheses and rehabilitation of human movement. We have developed a software tool known as MSMS (MusculoSkeletal Modeling Software) that can be used to develop models of human or prosthetic limbs and the objects with which they interact and to animate their movement using motion data from a variety of offline and online sources. The motion data can be read from a motion file containing synthesized motion data or recordings from a motion capture system. Alternatively, motion data can be streamed online from a real-time motion capture system, a physics-based simulation program, or any program that can produce real-time motion data. Further, animation sequences of daily life activities can be constructed using the intuitive user interface of Microsoft's PowerPoint software. The latter allows expert and nonexpert users alike to assemble primitive movements into a complex motion sequence with precise timing by simply arranging the order of the slides and editing their properties in PowerPoint. The resulting motion sequence can be played back in an open-loop manner for demonstration and training or in closed-loop virtual reality environments where the timing and speed of animation depends on user inputs. These versatile animation utilities can be used in any application that requires precisely timed animations but they are particularly suited for research and rehabilitation of movement disorders. MSMS's modeling and animation tools are routinely used in a number of research laboratories around the country to study the control of movement and to develop and test

  2. Arc burst pattern analysis fault detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting an arcing fault on a power line carrying a load current. Parameters indicative of power flow and possible fault events on the line, such as voltage and load current, are monitored and analyzed for an arc burst pattern exhibited by arcing faults in a power system. These arcing faults are detected by identifying bursts of each half-cycle of the fundamental current. Bursts occurring at or near a voltage peak indicate arcing on that phase. Once a faulted phase line is identified, a comparison of the current and voltage reveals whether the fault is located in a downstream direction of power flow toward customers, or upstream toward a generation station. If the fault is located downstream, the line is de-energized, and if located upstream, the line may remain energized to prevent unnecessary power outages.

  3. Optical imaging module for astigmatic detection system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Min; Cheng, Chung-Hsiang; Molnar, Gabor; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Hwu, En-Te

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an optical imaging module design for an astigmatic detection system (ADS) is presented. The module is based on a commercial optical pickup unit (OPU) and it contains a coaxial illuminant for illuminating a specimen. Furthermore, the imaging module facilitates viewing the specimen and the detection laser spot of the ADS with a lateral resolution of approximately 1 μm without requiring the removal of an element of the OPU. Two polarizers and one infrared filter are used to eliminate stray laser light in the OPU and stray light produced by the illuminant. Imaging modules designed for digital versatile disks (DVDs) and Blu-ray DVDs were demonstrated. Furthermore, the module can be used for imaging a small cantilever with approximate dimensions of 2 μm (width) × 5 μm (length), and therefore, it has the potential to be used in high-speed atomic force microscopy. PMID:27250434

  4. System and method for anomaly detection

    DOEpatents

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  5. Automated Microbiological Detection/Identification System

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, C.; Jones, P. W.; Gibson, S.; Lanham, J.; Meyer, M.; Vannest, R.; Charles, R.

    1977-01-01

    An automated, computerized system, the AutoMicrobic System, has been developed for the detection, enumeration, and identification of bacteria and yeasts in clinical specimens. The biological basis for the system resides in lyophilized, highly selective and specific media enclosed in wells of a disposable plastic cuvette; introduction of a suitable specimen rehydrates and inoculates the media in the wells. An automated optical system monitors, and the computer interprets, changes in the media, with enumeration and identification results automatically obtained in 13 h. Sixteen different selective media were developed and tested with a variety of seeded (simulated) and clinical specimens. The AutoMicrobic System has been extensively tested with urine specimens, using a urine test kit (Identi-Pak) that contains selective media for Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella-Enterobacter species, Serratia species, Citrobacter freundii, group D enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts (Candida species and Torulopsis glabrata). The system has been tested with 3,370 seeded urine specimens and 1,486 clinical urines. Agreement with simultaneous conventional (manual) cultures, at levels of 70,000 colony-forming units per ml (or more), was 92% or better for seeded specimens; clinical specimens yielded results of 93% or better for all organisms except P. aeruginosa, where agreement was 86%. System expansion in progress includes antibiotic susceptibility testing and compatibility with most types of clinical specimens. Images PMID:334798

  6. Supersensitive SQUID/magnetostrictor detecting system

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashkin, Aleksander I; Zherikhina, L N; Tskhovrebov, Andrei M; Izmailov, G N

    2012-12-31

    It is shown that using the state-of-the-art quantum interferometer (SQUID) with the resolution 10{sup -6} {Phi}{sub 0} Hz{sup -1/2} = 2.07 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -21} Wb Hz{sup -1/2}, coupled to a magnetostrictor, playing the role of tensomagnetic transducer, it is possible to construct a system for detecting pressure variations with the ultimate sensitivity of 10{sup -13} Pa Hz{sup -1/2} and for measuring specific elongation with the sensitivity of 10{sup -24} Hz{sup -1/2}. The analysis of physical grounds of the inverse magnetostriction effect demonstrates concrete ways to essentially higher efficiency of tensomagnetic conversion. The estimates performed demonstrate the possibility of using the SQUID/magnetostrictor system as a detector of gravitational waves. Other possibilities of using this system for solving both fundamental and applied problems are also considered. (experimental techniques)

  7. Coherent detection in optical fiber systems.

    PubMed

    Ip, Ezra; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Barros, Daniel J F; Kahn, Joseph M

    2008-01-21

    The drive for higher performance in optical fiber systems has renewed interest in coherent detection. We review detection methods, including noncoherent, differentially coherent, and coherent detection, as well as a hybrid method. We compare modulation methods encoding information in various degrees of freedom (DOF). Polarization-multiplexed quadrature-amplitude modulation maximizes spectral efficiency and power efficiency, by utilizing all four available DOF, the two field quadratures in the two polarizations. Dual-polarization homodyne or heterodyne downconversion are linear processes that can fully recover the received signal field in these four DOF. When downconverted signals are sampled at the Nyquist rate, compensation of transmission impairments can be performed using digital signal processing (DSP). Linear impairments, including chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion, can be compensated quasi-exactly using finite impulse response filters. Some nonlinear impairments, such as intra-channel four-wave mixing and nonlinear phase noise, can be compensated partially. Carrier phase recovery can be performed using feedforward methods, even when phase-locked loops may fail due to delay constraints. DSP-based compensation enables a receiver to adapt to time-varying impairments, and facilitates use of advanced forward-error-correction codes. We discuss both single- and multi-carrier system implementations. For a given modulation format, using coherent detection, they offer fundamentally the same spectral efficiency and power efficiency, but may differ in practice, because of different impairments and implementation details. With anticipated advances in analog-to-digital converters and integrated circuit technology, DSP-based coherent receivers at bit rates up to 100 Gbit/s should become practical within the next few years. PMID:18542153

  8. Near-infrared microscopic methods for the detection and quantification of processed by-products of animal origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, O.; Fernández Pierna, J. A.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.

    2010-04-01

    Since the BSE crisis, researches concern mainly the detection, identification, and quantification of meat and bone meal with an important focus on the development of new analytical methods. Microscopic based spectroscopy methods (NIR microscopy - NIRM or/and NIR hyperspectral imaging) have been proposed as complementary methods to the official method; the optical microscopy. NIR spectroscopy offers the advantage of being rapid, accurate and independent of human analyst skills. The combination of an NIR detector and a microscope or a camera allows the collection of high quality spectra for small feed particles having a size larger than 50 μm. Several studies undertaken have demonstrated the clear potential of NIR microscopic methods for the detection of animal particles in both raw and sediment fractions. Samples are sieved and only the gross fraction (superior than 250 μm) is investigated. Proposed methodologies have been developed to assure, with an acceptable level of confidence (95%), the detection of at least one animal particle when a feed sample is adulterated at a level of 0.1%. NIRM and NIR hyperspectral imaging are running under accreditation ISO 17025 since 2005 at CRA-W. A quantitative NIRM approach has been developed in order to fulfill the new requirements of the European commission policies. The capacities of NIRM method have been improved; only the raw fraction is analyzed, both the gross and the fine fractions of the samples are considered, and the acquisition parameters are optimized (the aperture, the gap, and the composition of the animal feed). A mapping method for a faster collection of spectra is also developed. The aim of this work is to show the new advances in the analytical methods developed in the frame of the feed ban applied in Europe.

  9. Proteomic analysis for early neurodegenerative biomarker detection in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Vincenzetti, Silvia; Nasuti, Cinzia; Fedeli, Donatella; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Pucciarelli, Stefania; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2016-02-01

    The exposure to xenobiotics in the early stages of life represents the most important component in the etiology of many neurodegenerative disorders. Proteomic analysis of plasma and brain samples from early life treated animal model was performed in order to identify early biomarkers of neurodegeneration. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified four proteins in the plasma of adolescent rats that deviated from the control group. Low expression levels of transthyretin and plasma transferrin, and the absence of long-chain fatty acid transport 1 were measured. On the other hand, the same proteomic approach was done on striatum of an adult rat model of neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase and voltage-dependent anion channel were under expressed, while mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase, myelin basic protein and ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40 were absent in striatum of animal model compared to control group. Data show that early biomarkers for the diagnosis of neurodegeneration can be obtained by proteomic analysis, starting from adolescent age and the results highlight the time frame for the onset of neurodegeneration due to early exposure to xenobiotics. PMID:26631339

  10. Detection of carotenoids present in blood of various animal species using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaqat, Maryam; Younus, Ayesha; Saleem, Muhammad; Rashid, Imaad; Yaseen, Maria; Jabeen, Saher

    Raman spectroscopy is simple stable powerful diagnostic tool for body fluids, tissues and other biomolecules. Human blood possesses different kind of carotenoids that play a key role for protecting the cells from damaging by different viral and bacterial diseases. Carotenoids are antioxidative components which are capable to overcome the attack of different free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids are not prepared by human body, therefore it is recommended to eat carotenoids enrich vegetable foods. No standard data is available on the concentration of useful carotenoids component in non-vegetable consumed items. In present research work, Raman spectroscopy is used to compare various blood components like plasma, serum, carotenoids present in blood of different animal species like goat, sheep, cow and buffalo consumed by human. Especially beta carotene is investigated. The Raman shift ranges from 600-1700 cm-1 for samples. Different characteristic peaks of the blood components are found which are not characterized before in animal samples. Doctrate Student in Photonics Deparatment of Electrical Engineering.

  11. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study. PMID:25466683

  12. Small animal optoacoustic tomography system for molecular imaging of contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Richard; Liopo, Anton; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-03-01

    We developed a new and improved Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-3D for preclinical research applications in small animal models. The advancements include (i) a new stabilized imaging module with a more homogeneous illumination of the mouse yielding a better spatial resolution (<0.2 mm) and (ii) a new low noise amplifier incorporated into the ultrasonic probe and providing the noise equivalent pressure around 2 Pa resulting in increased signal-to-noise ratio and the optical absorption sensitivity of about 0.15 cm-1. We also improved scan time and the image reconstruction times. This prototype has been commercialized for a number of biomedical research applications, such as imaging vascularization and measuring hemoglobin / oxyhemoglobin distribution in the organs as well as imaging exogenous or endogenous optoacoustic contrast agents. As examples, we present in vivo experiments using phantoms and mice with and without tumor injected with contrast agents with indocyanine green (ICG). LOIS-3D was capable of detecting ~1-2 pmole of the ICG, in tissues with relatively low blood content. With its high sensitivity and excellent spatial resolution LOIS-3D is an advanced alternative to fluorescence and bioluminescence based modalities for molecular imaging in live mice.

  13. Bathroom watching using a breath detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, Tomofumi; Nakajima, Masato

    2004-10-01

    Recently, domestic accidents have been increasing in Japan. These kinds of accidents occur in private areas such as bedrooms, toilets and bathrooms, and tend to be found too late. Accidents, particularly those occurring in the bathroom, can often result in death. Many systems which have been proposed or which are in use are designed to detect body motion in the bathroom, and determine that a bather has suddenly taken ill when movement ceases. However, the relaxed posture of a person bathing is actually very similar to that of a person who has passed out. It is therefore very difficult to differentiate between the two postures. We have developed a watching system for bathrooms. The new feature of this system lies in its ability to detect a person"s breathing by using an FG vision sensor. From the experiment, it was found that the false alarm rate is expected to reach less than 0.0001% when waiting time is set to 36.8 seconds.

  14. Detection of damage in axial (membrane) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Baker, W.E.; Farrar, C.R.; Rhee, W.H.

    1998-12-31

    In a recent paper, two methods of damage identification (Modified Damage Index and Change-in-Flexibility) were applied to detection of damage in an 8-DOF vibrating system. The goal of the work was to detect damage (reduction in stiffness of one or more of the elements) as well as to locate the particular damaged elements (S). However, the investigation was limited to numerical simulations only. In this paper, a physical, spring-mass model of a similar, degenerate 8-DOF system (7 normal modes plus a rigid-body mode) was constructed. Experiments were then performed and the modal properties of the system were determined in undamaged and damaged states. Excitation was provided either by an impact hammer or by an electromechanical shaker. Damage was induced by replacing one of the springs with a spring of lower stiffness. The Modified Damage Index method clearly isolated the location of damage for a variety of damage locations and levels of damage. The Change-in-Flexibility method, however, was found to be less reliable. The ability of the method to locate damage depended strongly on location and the level of damage as well as the number of modes included.

  15. 75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) proposes to add a new Privacy Act system of records to its inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, and invites public comment on this new records system. The system of records being proposed is the National Animal Health Laboratory Network. This notice is necessary to meet the requirements of the Privacy Act to......

  16. WCEDS: A waveform correlation event detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.J.; Beiriger, J.I.; Trujillo, J.R.; Withers, M.M.; Aster, R.C.; Astiz, L.; Shearer, P.M.

    1995-08-01

    We have developed a working prototype of a grid-based global event detection system based on waveform correlation. The algorithm comes from a long-period detector but we have recast it in a full matrix formulation which can reduce the number of multiplications needed by better than two orders of magnitude for realistic monitoring scenarios. The reduction is made possible by eliminating redundant multiplications in the original formulation. All unique correlations for a given origin time are stored in a correlation matrix (C) which is formed by a full matrix product of a Master Image matrix (M) and a data matrix (D). The detector value at each grid point is calculated by following a different summation path through the correlation matrix. Master Images can be derived either empirically or synthetically. Our testing has used synthetic Master Images because their influence on the detector is easier to understand. We tested the system using the matrix formulation with continuous data from the IRIS (Incorporate Research Institutes for Seismology) broadband global network to monitor a 2 degree evenly spaced surface grid with a time discretization of 1 sps; we successfully detected the largest event in a two hour segment from October 1993. The output at the correct gridpoint was at least 33% larger than at adjacent grid points, and the output at the correct gridpoint at the correct origin time was more than 500% larger than the output at the same gridpoint immediately before or after. Analysis of the C matrix for the origin time of the event demonstrates that there are many significant ``false`` correlations of observed phases with incorrect predicted phases. These false correlations dull the sensitivity of the detector and so must be dealt with if our system is to attain detection thresholds consistent with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

  17. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  18. Detection of human and animal sources of pollution by microbial and chemical methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-indicator approach comprising Enterococcus, bacterial source tracking (BST), and sterol analysis was tested for pollution source identification. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water sites tested. Enterococcus faecium was the dominant species in aged litter samples from p...

  19. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible. PMID:26991032

  20. Applied Behavior Analysis Is Ideal for the Development of a Land Mine Detection Technology Using Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient…

  1. Rapid microfluidic assay for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in animal sera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potent botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) represent a threat to public health and safety. Botulism is a disease caused by BoNT intoxication that results in muscle paralysis that can be fatal. Sensitive assays capable of detecting BoNTs from different substrates and settings are essential to limit f...

  2. How long is enough to detect terrestrial animals? Estimating the minimum trapping effort on camera traps

    PubMed Central

    Si, Xingfeng; Kays, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps is an important wildlife inventory tool for estimating species diversity at a site. Knowing what minimum trapping effort is needed to detect target species is also important to designing efficient studies, considering both the number of camera locations, and survey length. Here, we take advantage of a two-year camera trapping dataset from a small (24-ha) study plot in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, eastern China to estimate the minimum trapping effort actually needed to sample the wildlife community. We also evaluated the relative value of adding new camera sites or running cameras for a longer period at one site. The full dataset includes 1727 independent photographs captured during 13,824 camera days, documenting 10 resident terrestrial species of birds and mammals. Our rarefaction analysis shows that a minimum of 931 camera days would be needed to detect the resident species sufficiently in the plot, and c. 8700 camera days to detect all 10 resident species. In terms of detecting a diversity of species, the optimal sampling period for one camera site was c. 40, or long enough to record about 20 independent photographs. Our analysis of evaluating the increasing number of additional camera sites shows that rotating cameras to new sites would be more efficient for measuring species richness than leaving cameras at fewer sites for a longer period. PMID:24868493

  3. How long is enough to detect terrestrial animals? Estimating the minimum trapping effort on camera traps.

    PubMed

    Si, Xingfeng; Kays, Roland; Ding, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps is an important wildlife inventory tool for estimating species diversity at a site. Knowing what minimum trapping effort is needed to detect target species is also important to designing efficient studies, considering both the number of camera locations, and survey length. Here, we take advantage of a two-year camera trapping dataset from a small (24-ha) study plot in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, eastern China to estimate the minimum trapping effort actually needed to sample the wildlife community. We also evaluated the relative value of adding new camera sites or running cameras for a longer period at one site. The full dataset includes 1727 independent photographs captured during 13,824 camera days, documenting 10 resident terrestrial species of birds and mammals. Our rarefaction analysis shows that a minimum of 931 camera days would be needed to detect the resident species sufficiently in the plot, and c. 8700 camera days to detect all 10 resident species. In terms of detecting a diversity of species, the optimal sampling period for one camera site was c. 40, or long enough to record about 20 independent photographs. Our analysis of evaluating the increasing number of additional camera sites shows that rotating cameras to new sites would be more efficient for measuring species richness than leaving cameras at fewer sites for a longer period. PMID:24868493

  4. Systems and methods for detecting and processing

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Michael M.; Yoshimura, Ann S.

    2006-03-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provides systems and method for detecting. Sensing modules are provided in communication with one or more detectors. In some embodiments, detectors are provided that are sensitive to chemical, biological, or radiological agents. Embodiments of sensing modules include processing capabilities to analyze, perform computations on, and/or run models to predict or interpret data received from one or more detectors. Embodiments of sensing modules form various network configurations with one another and/or with one or more data aggregation devices. Some embodiments of sensing modules include power management functionalities.

  5. Autonomous system for pathogen detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgrader, Philip; Benett, William J.; Bergman, Werner; Langlois, Richard G.; Mariella, Raymond P., Jr.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Miles, Robin R.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi; Long, Gary; Nelson, William

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world's leading, proven assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: (1) collect samples form aerosols, water, or surface; (2) perform sample preparation prior to the assays; (3) incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; (4) transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; (5) perform the assays; (6) interpret and report the result of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantify of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity and specificity of the assay must be combined with no false alarms. Today, we have assays that can, in under 30 minutes, detect and identify simulants for BW agents at concentrations of a few hundred colony- forming units per ml of solution. If the bio-aerosol sampler of this system collects 1000 1/min and concentrates the respirable particles into 1 ml of solution with 70 percent processing efficiency over a period of 5 minutes, then this translates to a detection/ID capability of under 0.1 agent- containing particle/liter of air.

  6. Autonomous system for pathogen detection and identification

    SciTech Connect

    Belgrader, P.; Benett, W.; Bergman, W.; Langlois, R.; Mariella, R.; Milanovich, F.; Miles, R.; Venkateswaran, K.; Long, G.; Nelson, W.

    1998-09-24

    This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world' s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity and specificity of the assay must be combined with no false alarms. Today, we have assays that can, in under 30 minutes, detect and identify simulants for BW agents at concentrations of a few hundred colony-forming units per ml of solution. If the bio-aerosol sampler of this system collects 1000 Ymin and concentrates the respirable particles into 1 ml of solution with 70% processing efficiency over a period of 5 minutes, then this translates to a detection/ID capability of under 0.1 agent-containing particle/liter of air.

  7. An Automated Visual Event Detection System for Cabled Observatory Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, D. R.; Cline, D. E.; Mariette, J.

    2007-12-01

    The permanent presence of underwater cameras on oceanic cabled observatories, such as the Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea (VENUS) and Eye-In-The-Sea (EITS) on Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS), will generate valuable data that can move forward the boundaries of understanding the underwater world. However, sightings of underwater animal activities are rare, resulting in the recording of many hours of video with relatively few events of interest. The burden of video management and analysis often requires reducing the amount of video recorded and later analyzed. Sometimes enough human resources do not exist to analyze the video; the strains on human attention needed to analyze video demand an automated way to assist in video analysis. Towards this end, an Automated Visual Event Detection System (AVED) is in development at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) to address the problem of analyzing cabled observatory video. Here we describe the overall design of the system to process video data and enable science users to analyze the results. We present our results analyzing video from the VENUS observatory and test data from EITS deployments. This automated system for detecting visual events includes a collection of custom and open source software that can be run three ways: through a Web Service, through a Condor managed pool of AVED enabled compute servers, or locally on a single computer. The collection of software also includes a graphical user interface to preview or edit detected results and to setup processing options. To optimize the compute-intensive AVED algorithms, a parallel program has been implemented for high-data rate applications like the EITS instrument on MARS.

  8. An environmental chamber system for prolonged metabolic studies on small animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. P.; Huston, L. J.; Simmons, J. B., II; Clarkson, D. P.; Martz, W. W.; Schatte, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of metabolic adaptation to marginally stressful environments requires both precise regulation of a variety of atmospheric factors for extended periods of time and the capacity to employ sensitive parameters in an undisturbed subject. This paper describes a metabolic chamber system which can simultaneously maintain groups of small animals in two completely separate closed environments having different pressures, temperatures and gas compositions for an indefinite period. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, food and water consumption and animal activity cycles can be continuously monitored and quantified 24 h per day while the animals are in an unrestrained state. Each chamber can be serviced and the animals handled, injected and sacrificed without subjecting them to barometric stress. Several unique electrical and mechanical components allow semi-automated data collection on a continuous basis for indefinite periods of time.

  9. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1993-01-01

    The System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failures as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient conditions. This task assignment originally specified developing a platform for executing the algorithm during hot fire tests at Technology Test Bed (TTB) and installing the SAFD algorithm on that platform. Two units were built and installed in the Hardware Simulation Lab and at the TTB in December 1991. Since that time, the task primarily entailed improvement and maintenance of the systems, additional testing to prove the feasibility of the algorithm, and support of hot fire testing. This document addresses the work done since the last report of June 1992. The work on the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection during this period included improving the platform and the algorithm, testing the algorithm against previous test data and in the Hardware Simulation Lab, installing other algorithms on the system, providing support for operations at the Technology Test Bed, and providing routine maintenance.

  10. Use of peroxidase-labelled antigen for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in human and animal sera.

    PubMed

    Eiffert, H; Lotter, H; Thomssen, R

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a modified ELISA for the detection of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) antibodies based on a peroxidase enzyme labelled antigen (ELAT). Microtiter plates were coated with antigen of Bb. The immunoglobulins of the serum samples were bound to the antigen and specific antibodies were detected by an enzyme labelled antigen. The test principle facilitates the recognition of specific antibodies in different collectives of human and animal sera. We performed epidemiological studies with the ELAT on 231 sera from mothers in maternity wards (9.5% positive), 219 patient sera sent to the Bb routine diagnostics (15% positive) and 230 sera from forestry workers (21.3% positive). We further investigated sera from red deer from South Lower Saxony which remained 55% Bb-antibody positive; deer were 37% and fallow deer were 29% positive. PMID:2028231

  11. Innovative Drugs to Treat Depression: Did Animal Models Fail to Be Predictive or Did Clinical Trials Fail to Detect Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A careful analysis of the literature reveals that both statements are true. Indeed, in some cases, clinical efficacy has been predicted on the basis of inappropriate animal models, although the contrary is also true, as some clinical trials have not targeted the appropriate dose or clinical population. On the one hand, refinement of animal models requires using species that have better homological validity, designing models that rely on experimental manipulations inducing pathological features, and trying to model subtypes of depression. On the other hand, clinical research should consider carefully the results from preclinical studies, in order to study these compounds at the correct dose, in the appropriate psychiatric nosological entity or symptomatology, in relevant subpopulations of patients characterized by specific biomarkers. To achieve these goals, translational research has to strengthen the dialogue between basic and clinical science. PMID:24345817

  12. Innovative drugs to treat depression: did animal models fail to be predictive or did clinical trials fail to detect effects?

    PubMed

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A careful analysis of the literature reveals that both statements are true. Indeed, in some cases, clinical efficacy has been predicted on the basis of inappropriate animal models, although the contrary is also true, as some clinical trials have not targeted the appropriate dose or clinical population. On the one hand, refinement of animal models requires using species that have better homological validity, designing models that rely on experimental manipulations inducing pathological features, and trying to model subtypes of depression. On the other hand, clinical research should consider carefully the results from preclinical studies, in order to study these compounds at the correct dose, in the appropriate psychiatric nosological entity or symptomatology, in relevant subpopulations of patients characterized by specific biomarkers. To achieve these goals, translational research has to strengthen the dialogue between basic and clinical science. PMID:24345817

  13. Comparison of bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Sting, Reinhard; Runge, Martin; Eisenberg, Tobias; Braune, Silke; Müller, Wolfgang; Otto, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Detection of the zoonotic pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (EF tularensis) in wild animals with culture techniques as well as polymerase chain reaction were compared and discussed on the basis of the investigation of 60 animals. The samples originated from 55 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus), two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and one each from a wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a European beaver (Castor fiber), and a lemur (Lemur catta). When comparing the growth of 28 F. tularensis isolates on the cysteine blood agar and the modified Martin-Lewis-agar used in this study, cultivation was successful for 26 isolates on both media, but for two isolates only on the cysteine blood agar. Out of 43 carcasses 19 tested positive in bacteriological culture and PCR. Two culture positive samples of tonsils originating from foxes could not be confirmed by PCR, although PCR was positive in 22 samples that missed growth of F. tularensis. Comparative studies on cultural detection of E. tularensis were performed on samples of 16 hares from lung, spleen, liver and gut and in one case with a peritoneal swab. In at least one of these localizations cultivation of the pathogen was successful. Detection rate was reduced to 94% (15 of 16 hares) considering only the results of the cultures of the lungs and spleens. For a sensitive and rapid detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, the PCR is a suitable method thereby avoiding hazardous multiplying of the pathogen. However, cultivation of F. tularensis is often a prerequisite for further studies on antibiotic resistance patterns of the pathogen, molecular epidemiological and pathological analyses of tularaemia. PMID:23901583

  14. Mammographic computer-aided detection systems.

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    While mammography is regarded as the best means available to screen for breast cancer, reading mammograms is a tedious, error-prone task. Given the repetitiveness of the process and the fact that less than 1% of mammograms in the average screening population contain cancer, it's no wonder that a significant number of breast cancers--about 28%--are missed by radiologists. The fact that human error is such a significant obstacle makes mammography screening an ideal application for computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. CAD systems serve as a "second pair of eyes" to ensure that radiologists don't miss a suspect area on an image. They analyze patterns on a digitized mammographic image, identify regions that may contain an abnormality indicating cancer, and mark these regions. The marks are then inspected and classified by a radiologist. But CAD systems provide no diagnosis of any kind--it's up to the radiologist to analyze the marked area and decide if it shows cancer. In this Evaluation, we describe the challenges posed by screening mammography, the operating principles and overall efficacy of CAD systems, and the characteristics to consider when purchasing a system. We also compare the performance of two commercially available systems, iCAD's MammoReader and R2's ImageChecker. Because the two systems offer comparable sensitivity, our judgments are based on other performance characteristics, including their ease of use, the number of false marks they produce, the degree to which they can integrate with hospital information systems, and their processing speed. PMID:12760158

  15. A polarization system for persistent chemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Appelhans, Leah; Couphos, Eric; Embree, Todd; Finnegan, Patrick; Goldstein, Dennis; Karelitz, David; LaCasse, Charles; Luk, Ting S.; Mahamat, Adoum; Massey, Lee; Tanbakuchi, Anthony; Washburn, Cody; Vigil, Steven

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development of a prototype polarization tag based system for detecting chemical vapors. The system primarily consists of two components, a chemically sensitive tag that experiences a change in its optical polarization properties when exposed to a specific chemical of interest, and an optical imaging polarimeter that is used to measure the polarization properties of the tags. Although the system concept could be extended to other chemicals, for the initial system prototype presented here the tags were developed to be sensitive to hydrogen fluoride (HF) vapors. HF is used in many industrial processes but is highly toxic and thus monitoring for its presence and concentration is often of interest for personnel and environmental safety. The tags are periodic multilayer structures that are produced using standard photolithographic processes. The polarimetric imager has been designed to measure the degree of linear polarization reflected from the tags in the short wave infrared. By monitoring the change in the reflected polarization signature from the tags, the polarimeter can be used to determine if the tag was exposed to HF gas. In this paper, a review of the system development effort and preliminary test results are presented and discussed, as well as our plan for future work.

  16. Method and system for detecting explosives

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  17. Threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocoy, Edward H.; Pierowicz, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Calspan SRL Corporation is currently developing an on- vehicle threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance (ICA) as part of its ICA program with the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Crash scenarios were previously defined and an on-board radar sensor was designed. This paper describes recent efforts that include the development of a simulation of a multitarget tracker and collision avoidance algorithm used to predict system performance in a variety of target configurations in the various ICA crash scenarios. In addition, a current headway radar was mounted on the Calspan Instrumented Vehicle and in-traffic data were recorded for two limited crash scenarios. Warning functions were developed through the simulation and applied to the recorded data.

  18. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. PMID:23583920

  19. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  20. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  1. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  2. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  3. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  4. Applied Behavior Analysis Is Ideal for the Development of a Land Mine Detection Technology Using Animals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B. M

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient detection technologies. Remote explosive scent tracing (REST) using trained dogs has the potential to be one such technology. However, details regarding how best to train, test, and deploy dogs in this role have never been made publicly available. This article describes how the key characteristics of applied behavior analysis, as described by Baer, Wolf and Risley (1968, 1987), served as important objectives for the research and development of the behavioral technology component of REST while the author worked in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532731

  5. Applied behavior analysis is ideal for the development of a land mine detection technology using animals.

    PubMed

    Jones, B M

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient detection technologies. Remote explosive scent tracing (REST) using trained dogs has the potential to be one such technology. However, details regarding how best to train, test, and deploy dogs in this role have never been made publicly available. This article describes how the key characteristics of applied behavior analysis, as described by Baer, Wolf and Risley (1968, 1987), served as important objectives for the research and development of the behavioral technology component of REST while the author worked in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532731

  6. Doppler-corrected differential detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Doppler in a communication system operating with a multiple differential phase-shift-keyed format (MDPSK) creates an adverse phase shift in an incoming signal. An open loop frequency estimation is derived from a Doppler-contaminated incoming signal. Based upon the recognition that, whereas the change in phase of the received signal over a full symbol contains both the differentially encoded data and the Doppler induced phase shift, the same change in phase over half a symbol (within a given symbol interval) contains only the Doppler induced phase shift, and the Doppler effect can be estimated and removed from the incoming signal. Doppler correction occurs prior to the receiver's final output of decoded data. A multiphase system can operate with two samplings per symbol interval at no penalty in signal-to-noise ratio provided that an ideal low pass pre-detection filter is employed, and two samples, at 1/4 and 3/4 of the symbol interval T sub s, are taken and summed together prior to incoming signal data detection.

  7. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Steven A.; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  8. DETECTION OF GIARDIA MURIS AND GIARDIA LAMBLIA CYSTS BY IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE IN ANIMAL TISSUES AND FECAL SAMPLES SUBJECTED TO CYCLES OF FREEZING AND THAWING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of freezing and thawing on the detection of selected Giardia spp. cysts were investigated using immunofluorescence, bright field microscopy, and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM). iardia muris cysts were obtained from either animal carcasses, fecal pellet...

  9. The influence of gravity on the process of development of animal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.; Neff, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of animal systems is described in terms of a series of overlapping phases: pattern specification; differentiation; growth; and aging. The extent to which altered (micro) gravity (g) affects those phases is briefly reviewed for several animal systems. As a model, amphibian egg/early embryo is described. Recent data derived from clinostat protocols indicates that microgravity simulation alters early pattern specification (dorsal/ventral polarity) but does not adversely influence subsequent morphogenesis. Possible explanations for the absence of catastrophic microgravity effects on amphibian embryogenesis are discussed.

  10. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  11. Determination of sulfonamide residues in the tissues of food animals using automated precolumn derivatization and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Craig D C; Sweet, Jason C; Munro, Roger

    2004-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfadoxine, sulfaethoxypyridazine, sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline, and sulfathiazole residues in the muscle, liver, and kidney of food animals using sulfapyridine as internal standard is reported. Tissues are extracted using a modified version of AOAC Official Method 983.31 (Sulfonamide Residues in Animal Tissues). The sample extract is reconstituted in pH 3.0 buffer-acetonitrile (60 + 40) and filtered into an autosampler vial. Using a programmable autosampler of a liquid chromatograph, a portion of the sample is derivatized precolumn with fluorescamine. The sulfonamide derivatives are separated by liquid chromatography using a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.02M phosphoric acid-acetonitrile (60.5 + 39.5) and detected by fluorescence (excitation, 405 nm; emission, 495 nm). The method was applied to swine and cattle muscle, liver, and kidney; sheep and horse muscle and kidney; and chicken muscle and liver. The mean values for samples fortified with sulfonamides at levels between 0.05 and 0.2 microg/g agreed within 96-99% of spiked levels, with coefficients of variation ranging from 4-10%. The limit of detection (LOD) for all sulfonamides was 0.01 microg/g, with the exception of sulfaquinoxaline, for which the LOD was 0.015 microg/g. PMID:15493686

  12. A multi-channel telemetry system for brain microstimulation in freely roaming animals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shaohua; Talwar, Sanjiv K; Hawley, Emerson S; Li, Lei; Chapin, John K

    2004-02-15

    A system is described that enables an experimenter to remotely deliver electrical pulse train stimuli to multiple different locations in the brains of freely moving rats. The system consists of two separate components: a transmitter base station that is controlled by a PC operator, and a receiver-microprocessor integrated pack worn on the back of the animals and which connects to suitably implanted brain locations. The backpack is small and light so that small animal subjects can easily carry it. Under remote command from the PC the backpack can be configured to provide biphasic pulse trains of arbitrarily specified parameters. A feature of the system is that it generates precise brain-stimulation behavioral effects using the direct constant-voltage TTL output of the backpack microprocessor. The system performs with high fidelity even in complex environments over a distance of about 300 m. Rat self-stimulation tests showed that this system produced the same behavioral responses as a conventional constant-current stimulator. This system enables a variety of multi-channel brain stimulation experiments in freely moving animals. We have employed it to develop a new animal behavior model ("virtual" conditioning) for the neurophysiological study of spatial learning, in which a rat can be accurately guided to navigate various terrains. PMID:14757345

  13. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1992-07-01

    This task specified developing the hardware and software necessary to implement the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm, developed under Technology Test Bed (TTB) Task 21, on the TTB engine stand. This effort involved building two units; one unit to be installed in the Block II Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Hardware Simulation Lab (HSL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and one unit to be installed at the TTB engine stand. Rocketdyne personnel from the HSL performed the task. The SAFD algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failure as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient condition.

  14. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1992-01-01

    This task specified developing the hardware and software necessary to implement the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm, developed under Technology Test Bed (TTB) Task 21, on the TTB engine stand. This effort involved building two units; one unit to be installed in the Block II Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Hardware Simulation Lab (HSL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and one unit to be installed at the TTB engine stand. Rocketdyne personnel from the HSL performed the task. The SAFD algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failure as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient condition.

  15. Use of electronic noses for detection of odour from animal production facilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Nimmermark, S

    2001-01-01

    In the field of controlling livestock and poultry odours in the internal and external environment and in derived food products, one main obstacle is how to measure the odour in a suitable way. Olfactometry and a human panel have been used in most studies of farm odour until now. Alternatives like electronic noses are interesting considering disadvantages for olfactometry regarding cost and labour requirement. An electronic device can produce an almost instant response which is useful in many applications. Studies have shown detection of farm odour for some electronic noses and also response to odour concentrations. Other studies have shown very high odour threshold values compared to human noses. Electronic noses with a large number of sensors have been developed since a base was formed in the 1950s. The fast progress in data processing and sensor development in the latest years have made the electronic noses interesting for a large number of industrial applications in the food processing industry, as well as in other areas. Materials like manure produce a complex mixture of odorous compounds and the interaction between these creates a unique odour where no specific dominating and characterising compound seems to exist. Related to swine farms almost 200 different odorous compounds have been reported. The electronic noses can, depending on the sensitivity of its sensors, detect some compounds at lower levels than the human nose, while other compounds offensive to a human nose cannot be detected. Proper function of the electronic noses with sensitivity for the odorous gases in the application must be followed by satisfying properties regarding ageing, temperature stability, humidity and other environmental factors. PMID:11762481

  16. Quench detection system for twin coils HTS SMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badel, A.; Tixador, P.; Simiand, G.; Exchaw, O.

    2010-10-01

    The quench detection and protection system is a critical element in superconducting magnets. After a short summary of the quench detection and protection issues in HTS magnets, an original detection system is presented. The main feature of this system is an active protection of the detection electronics during the discharges, making it possible to use standard electronics even if the discharge voltage is very high. The design of the detection system is therefore easier and it can be made very sensitive. An implementation example is presented for a twin coil HTS SMES prototype, showing the improvements when compared to classical detection systems during operation.

  17. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    PubMed

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed. PMID:20804980

  18. Estimating farm-gate ammonia emissions from major animal production systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Zhu, Gaodi; Roelcke, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production in China are an important contributor to the global NH3 budget. In this study, by estimating total nitrogen (N) intake based on herd structures and excreted N, a mass balance model was used to estimate NH3 losses from animal housing and manure storage facilities of dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broiler and layer productions within animal farm gate and their corresponding NH3 emission intensities on the basis of animal products, N and protein in animal products. In 2009, NH3 emissions from pigs, layers, beef and dairy cattle and broiler production systems in China were 1.23, 0.52, 0.24, 0.21 and 0.09 million tons, respectively. The NH3 emission intensities were 26.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of pork, 28.1 g NH3-N kg-1 of layer eggs, 39.4 g NH3-N kg-1 of beef meat, 6.0 g NH3-N kg-1 of dairy milk and 4.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of chicken meat, or 1260 (pigs), 1514 (layers), 1297 (beef), 1107 (dairy) and 123 g NH3-N (broilers) kg-1 N in animal products. Of the sectors of NH3 emission, manure storage facilities and farmyard manure (FYM) in animal housing were the major contributors to the total NH3 emissions except for layers; housing emissions from slurry were also major contributors for dairy and pig production.

  19. Design of an advanced positron emission tomography detector system and algorithms for imaging small animal models of human disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudray, Angela Marie Klohs

    Detecting, quantifying and visualizing biochemical mechanism in a living system without perturbing function is the goal of the instrument and algorithms designed in this thesis. Biochemical mechanisms of cells have long been known to be dependent on the signals they receive from their environment. Studying biological processes of cells in-vitro can vastly distort their function, since you are removing them from their natural chemical signaling environment. Mice have become the biological system of choice for various areas of biomedical research due to their genetic and physiological similarities with humans, the relatively low cost of their care, and their quick breeding cycle. Drug development and efficacy assessment along with disease detection, management, and mechanism research all have benefited from the use of small animal models of human disease. A high resolution, high sensitivity, three-dimensional (3D) positioning positron emission tomography (PET) detector system was designed through device characterization and Monte Carlo simulation. Position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) were characterized in various packaging configurations; coupled to various configurations of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystals. Forty novelly packaged final design devices were constructed and characterized, each providing characteristics superior to commercially available scintillation detectors used in small animal imaging systems: ˜1mm crystal identification, 14-15% of 511 keV energy resolution, and averaging 1.9 to 5.6 ns coincidence time resolution. A closed-cornered box-shaped detector configuration was found to provide optimal photon sensitivity (˜10.5% in the central plane) using dual LSO-PSAPD scintillation detector modules and Monte Carlo simulation. Standard figures of merit were used to determine optimal system acquisition parameters. A realistic model for constituent devices was developed for understanding the signals reported by the

  20. Marine Animal Alert System -- Task 2.1.5.3: Development of Monitoring Technologies -- FY 2011 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Copping, Andrea E.

    2011-09-30

    The Marine Animal Alert System (MAAS) in development by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is focused on providing elements of compliance monitoring to support deployment of marine hydrokinetic energy devices. An initial focus is prototype tidal turbines to be deployed in Puget Sound in Washington State. The MAAS will help manage the risk of injury or mortality to marine animals from blade strike or contact with tidal turbines. In particular, development has focused on detection, classification, and localization of listed Southern Resident killer whales within 200 m of prototype turbines using both active and passive acoustic approaches. At the close of FY 2011, a passive acoustic system consisting of a pair of four-element star arrays and parallel processing of eight channels of acoustic receptions has been designed and built. Field tests of the prototype system are scheduled for the fourth quarter of calendar year 2011. Field deployment and testing of the passive acoustic prototype is scheduled for the first quarter of FY 2012. The design of an active acoustic system that could be built using commercially available off-the-shelf components from active acoustic system vendors is also in the final stages of design and specification.

  1. Comparison of diagnostic techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal samples

    PubMed Central

    Mirhashemi, Marzieh Ezzaty; Zintl, Annetta; Grant, Tim; Lucy, Frances E.; Mulcahy, Grace; De Waal, Theo

    2015-01-01

    While a large number of laboratory methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples are now available, their efficacy for identifying asymptomatic cases of cryptosporidiosis is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine a reliable screening test for epidemiological studies in livestock. In addition, three molecular tests were compared to identify Cryptosporidium species responsible for the infection in cattle, sheep and horses. A variety of diagnostic tests including microscopic (Kinyoun's staining), immunological (Direct Fluorescence Antibody tests or DFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and molecular methods (nested PCR) were compared to assess their ability to detect Cryptosporidium in cattle, horse and sheep faecal samples. The results indicate that the sensitivity and specificity of each test is highly dependent on the input samples; while Kinyoun's and DFAT proved to be reliable screening tools for cattle samples, DFAT and PCR analysis (targeted at the 18S rRNA gene fragment) were more sensitive for screening sheep and horse samples. Finally different PCR primer sets targeted at the same region resulted in the preferential amplification of certain Cryptosporidium species when multiple species were present in the sample. Therefore, for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in the event of asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis, the combination of different 18S rRNA nested PCR primer sets is recommended for further epidemiological applications and also tracking the sources of infection. PMID:25662435

  2. Development of a novel genetically modified bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for detection of fluoroquinolones in animal-derived foods.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guyue; Dong, Xiaobing; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Wang, Xu; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Qu, Wei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2014-12-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQNs) are broad-spectrum antibacterial agents widely used in animal husbandry and aquaculture. The residues and antimicrobial resistance of such antibiotics are a major public health concern. To realize multianalyte detection of FQN residues, a genetically modified bacterium, Escherichia coli pK12 harboring plasmid pRecAlux3, was constructed in this study to develop a bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for the detection of FQNs in animal-derived foods. This assay was based on the principle of induction of an SOS response by FQNs via inducing the recA-promoter-fused luciferase reporter gene existing on the plasmid pRecAlux3. E. coli pK12 was able to recognize 11 FQNs: difloxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, norfloxacin, danofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin. This method could be applied to 11 edible tissues, including milk, fish muscle, and the muscles, livers, and kidneys of cattle, chickens, and pigs, with a very simple and rapid sample extraction procedure using only phosphate-buffered saline. The limits of detection of the FQNs were between 12.5 and 100 μg kg(-1), all of which were lower than the maximum residue limits. Most of the recoveries of the FQNs were in the range from 60 to 120 %, and the interassay coefficients of variation were less than 30 %. This method, confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography, is reliable and can be used as both a screening test and a semiquantitative assay, when the identity of a single type of FQN is known. PMID:25354889

  3. Advanced Water Vapor Lidar Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    1998-01-01

    In the present water vapor lidar system, the detected signal is sent over long cables to a waveform digitizer in a CAMAC crate. This has the disadvantage of transmitting analog signals for a relatively long distance, which is subjected to pickup noise, leading to a decrease in the signal to noise ratio. Generally, errors in the measurement of water vapor with the DIAL method arise from both random and systematic sources. Systematic errors in DIAL measurements are caused by both atmospheric and instrumentation effects. The selection of the on-line alexandrite laser with a narrow linewidth, suitable intensity and high spectral purity, and its operation at the center of the water vapor lines, ensures minimum influence in the DIAL measurement that are caused by the laser spectral distribution and avoid system overloads. Random errors are caused by noise in the detected signal. Variability of the photon statistics in the lidar return signal, noise resulting from detector dark current, and noise in the background signal are the main sources of random error. This type of error can be minimized by maximizing the signal to noise ratio. The increase in the signal to noise ratio can be achieved by several ways. One way is to increase the laser pulse energy, by increasing its amplitude or the pulse repetition rate. Another way, is to use a detector system with higher quantum efficiency and lower noise, on the other hand, the selection of a narrow band optical filter that rejects most of the day background light and retains high optical efficiency is an important issue. Following acquisition of the lidar data, we minimize random errors in the DIAL measurement by averaging the data, but this will result in the reduction of the vertical and horizontal resolutions. Thus, a trade off is necessary to achieve a balance between the spatial resolution and the measurement precision. Therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to increase the signal to noise ratio by a factor of

  4. Wireless Falling Detection System Based on Community.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Wu, Yanqi; Zhang, Bobo; Li, Zhiyang; He, Nongyue; Li, Song

    2015-06-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer the aches or pains from the accidental falls, and both the physiology and psychology of patients would subject to a long-term disturbance, especially when the emergency treatment was not given timely and properly. Although many methods and devices have been developed creatively and shown their efficiency in experiments, few of them are suitable for commercial applications routinely. Here, we design a wearable falling detector as a mobile terminal, and utilize the wireless technology to transfer and monitor the activity data of the host in a relatively small community. With the help of the accelerometer sensor and the Google Mapping service, information of the location and the activity data will be send to the remote server for the downstream processing. The experimental result has shown that SA (Sum-vector of all axes) value of 2.5 g is the threshold value to distinguish the falling from other activities. A three-stage detection algorithm was adopted to increase the accuracy of the real alarm, and the accuracy rate of our system was more than 95%. With the further improvement, the falling detecting device which is low-cost, accurate and user-friendly would become more and more common in everyday life. PMID:26369050

  5. On the Use of a Simple Physical System Analogy to Study Robustness Features in Animal Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Sadoul, Bastien; Martin, Olivier; Prunet, Patrick; Friggens, Nicolas C.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental perturbations can affect the health, welfare, and fitness of animals. Being able to characterize and phenotype adaptive capacity is therefore of growing scientific concern in animal ecology and in animal production sciences. Terms borrowed from physics are commonly used to describe adaptive responses of animals facing an environmental perturbation, but no quantitative characterization of these responses has been made. Modeling the dynamic responses to an acute challenge was used in this study to facilitate the characterization of adaptive capacity and therefore robustness. A simple model based on a spring and damper was developed to simulate the dynamic responses of animals facing an acute challenge. The parameters characterizing the spring and the damper can be interpreted in terms of stiffness and resistance to the change of the system. The model was tested on physiological and behavioral responses of rainbow trout facing an acute confinement challenge. The model has proven to properly fit the different responses measured in this study and to quantitatively describe the different temporal patterns for each statistical individual in the study. It provides therefore a new way to explicitly describe, analyze and compare responses of individuals facing an acute perturbation. This study suggests that such physical models may be usefully applied to characterize robustness in many other biological systems. PMID:26322508

  6. [Dynamics of the antismallpox antibodies detectable in the passive hemagglutination reaction with various animal immunization schemes].

    PubMed

    Matsevich, G R; Shelukhina, E M; Konikova, R E; Marennikova, S S

    1975-10-01

    Dynamics of accumulation and preservation of antibodies detectable in the PHAT (PHAT-AT) was studied on rabbits and guinea pigs with the use of various doses of the living inactivated virus and their combination in comparison with the virus-neutralizing antibodies, antihemagglutinins and precipitins. Accumulation of the virus-neutralizing antibodies did not coincide in time with the curve of the PHAT-AT accumulation; the titres of the virus-neutralizing antibodies were higher than the PHAT-AT titres. At the same time the percentage of seroconversions determined by PHAT was equal to 100 and the PHAT-AT level directly depended on the immunizing dose, the time of administration and the type of the antigen. On the basis of the data obtained PHAT could be recommended as a test for the assessment of the immunological efficacy of the smallpox vaccinations. PMID:1082220

  7. SU-E-U-02: The Development of a Practical Ultrasonic System for Cross-Sectional Imaging of Small Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Kamp, J; Malyarenko, E; Chen, D; Wydra, A; Maev, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of developing a practical medium frequency ultrasound tomography method for small animal imaging. The ability to produce cross-sectional or full body images of a live small animal using a low-cost tabletop ultrasound scanner without any special license would be very beneficial to long term biological studies, where repeated scanning is often required over an extended period of time. Methods: The cross sectional images were produced by compounding multiple B-scans of a laboratory phantom or an animal acquired at different projection angles. Two imaging systems were used to test the concept. The first system included a programmable 64-channel phased array controller driving a 128-channel, 5–10 MHz linear probe to produce 143 B-Mode projections of the spinning object. The second system designed and manufactured in house, produced 64 or 128 B-Mode projections with a single unfocused 8 MHz transducer scanning with a 0.116 mm step size. Results: The phased array system provided good penetration through the phantoms/mice (with the exception of the lungs) and allowed to acquire data in a very short time. The cross-sectional images have enough resolution and dynamic range to detect both high- and low-contrast organs. The single transducer system takes longer to scan, and the data require more sophisticated processing. To date, our images allow seeing details as small as 1–2 mm in the phantoms and in small animals, with the contrast mostly due to highly reflecting bones and air inclusions. Conclusion: The work indicates that very detailed and anatomically correct images can be created by relatively simple and inexpensive means. With more advanced algorithms and improved system design, scan time can be reduced considerably, enabling high-resolution full 3D imaging. This will allow for quick and easy scans that can help monitor tumor growth and/or regression without contributing any dose to the animal. The authors would like to acknowledge

  8. Method and system for turbomachinery surge detection

    DOEpatents

    Faymon, David K.; Mays, Darrell C.; Xiong, Yufei

    2004-11-23

    A method and system for surge detection within a gas turbine engine, comprises: measuring the compressor discharge pressure (CDP) of the gas turbine over a period of time; determining a time derivative (CDP.sub.D ) of the measured (CDP) correcting the CDP.sub.D for altitude, (CDP.sub.DCOR); estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2 ; estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR ; and determining a short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change (CDP.sub.roc) based upon the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR and the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2. The method and system then compares the short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change with a pre-determined threshold (CDP.sub.proc) and signals an output when CDP.sub.roc >CDP.sub.proc. The method and system provides a signal of a surge within the gas turbine engine when CDP.sub.roc remains>CDP.sub.proc for pre-determined period of time.

  9. Automatic system for detecting pornographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kevin I. C.; Chen, Tung-Shou; Ho, Jun-Der

    2002-09-01

    Due to the dramatic growth of network and multimedia technology, people can more easily get variant information by using Internet. Unfortunately, it also makes the diffusion of illegal and harmful content much easier. So, it becomes an important topic for the Internet society to protect and safeguard Internet users from these content that may be encountered while surfing on the Net, especially children. Among these content, porno graphs cause more serious harm. Therefore, in this study, we propose an automatic system to detect still colour porno graphs. Starting from this result, we plan to develop an automatic system to search porno graphs or to filter porno graphs. Almost all the porno graphs possess one common characteristic that is the ratio of the size of skin region and non-skin region is high. Based on this characteristic, our system first converts the colour space from RGB colour space to HSV colour space so as to segment all the possible skin-colour regions from scene background. We also apply the texture analysis on the selected skin-colour regions to separate the skin regions from non-skin regions. Then, we try to group the adjacent pixels located in skin regions. If the ratio is over a given threshold, we can tell if the given image is a possible porno graph. Based on our experiment, less than 10% of non-porno graphs are classified as pornography, and over 80% of the most harmful porno graphs are classified correctly.

  10. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  11. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  12. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  13. Nucleic acid detection systems for enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rotbart, H A

    1991-01-01

    The enteroviruses comprise nearly 70 human pathogens responsible for a wide array of diseases including poliomyelitis, meningitis, myocarditis, and neonatal sepsis. Current diagnostic tests for the enteroviruses are limited in their use by the slow growth, or failure to grow, of certain serotypes in culture, the antigenic diversity among the serotypes, and the low titer of virus in certain clinical specimens. Within the past 6 years, applications of molecular cloning techniques, in vitro transcription vectors, automated nucleic acid synthesis, and the polymerase chain reaction have resulted in significant progress toward nucleic acid-based detection systems for the enteroviruses that take advantage of conserved genomic sequences across many, if not all, serotypes. Similar approaches to the study of enteroviral pathogenesis have already produced dramatic advances in our understanding of how these important viruses cause their diverse clinical spectra. PMID:1649002

  14. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... through 154.1015. (k) Each flammable gas detection system must have enough flame arrestors for all gas... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... through 154.1015. (k) Each flammable gas detection system must have enough flame arrestors for all gas... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... through 154.1015. (k) Each flammable gas detection system must have enough flame arrestors for all gas... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... through 154.1015. (k) Each flammable gas detection system must have enough flame arrestors for all gas... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... through 154.1015. (k) Each flammable gas detection system must have enough flame arrestors for all gas... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  19. Chapter 5: Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in animal production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this publication is to develop methods to quantify greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from U.S. agriculture and forestry. This chapter provides guidance for reporting GHG emissions from animal production systems. In particular, it focuses on methods for estimating emissions from beef cat...

  20. Augmenting Instructional Animations with a Body Analogy to Help Children Learn about Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Pouw, Wim T J L; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether augmenting instructional animations with a body analogy (BA) would improve 10- to 13-year-old children's learning about class-1 levers. Children with a lower level of general math skill who learned with an instructional animation that provided a BA of the physical system, showed higher accuracy on a lever problem-solving reaction time task than children studying the instructional animation without this BA. Additionally, learning with a BA led to a higher speed-accuracy trade-off during the transfer task for children with a lower math skill, which provided additional evidence that especially this group is likely to be affected by learning with a BA. However, overall accuracy and solving speed on the transfer task was not affected by learning with or without this BA. These results suggest that providing children with a BA during animation study provides a stepping-stone for understanding mechanical principles of a physical system, which may prove useful for instructional designers. Yet, because the BA does not seem effective for all children, nor for all tasks, the degree of effectiveness of body analogies should be studied further. Future research, we conclude, should be more sensitive to the necessary degree of analogous mapping between the body and physical systems, and whether this mapping is effective for reasoning about more complex instantiations of such physical systems. PMID:27375538

  1. What's Inside Bodies? Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    This paper describes a study of young children's understanding of what is on the inside of animals--skeletons and other organ systems. The study uses 2-D drawings based on the idea that a drawing is the representational model and is the outward expression of the mental model. The 617 drawings made by participants in the study were awarded one of…

  2. Augmenting Instructional Animations with a Body Analogy to Help Children Learn about Physical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether augmenting instructional animations with a body analogy (BA) would improve 10- to 13-year-old children’s learning about class-1 levers. Children with a lower level of general math skill who learned with an instructional animation that provided a BA of the physical system, showed higher accuracy on a lever problem-solving reaction time task than children studying the instructional animation without this BA. Additionally, learning with a BA led to a higher speed–accuracy trade-off during the transfer task for children with a lower math skill, which provided additional evidence that especially this group is likely to be affected by learning with a BA. However, overall accuracy and solving speed on the transfer task was not affected by learning with or without this BA. These results suggest that providing children with a BA during animation study provides a stepping-stone for understanding mechanical principles of a physical system, which may prove useful for instructional designers. Yet, because the BA does not seem effective for all children, nor for all tasks, the degree of effectiveness of body analogies should be studied further. Future research, we conclude, should be more sensitive to the necessary degree of analogous mapping between the body and physical systems, and whether this mapping is effective for reasoning about more complex instantiations of such physical systems. PMID:27375538

  3. Improvements in animal productivity and health with a total aerobic manure management system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management using second generation technology on air and water quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health. The technology is a lower cost, second generation treatment system develop...

  4. Efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrolysis system for power production from animal manures: chicken litter; swine solids; and swine solids blended with rye grass. Eight to 19 liters of dried manures were used as feedstocks for the skid-mounted pyrolysis ste...

  5. Use of Gamagrass as Hay or Silage in animal Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of native grasses to improve wildlife habitat is receiving consideration by conservation and wildlife interests. The potential use of native grasses in animal production systems, and particularly as conserved forage, has received little attention. Two experiments in each of 2 yr were condu...

  6. Courseware Development with Animated Pedagogical Agents in Learning System to Improve Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Kai-Yi; Hong, Zeng-Wei; Huang, Yueh-Min; Shen, Wei-Wei; Lin, Jim-Min

    2016-01-01

    The addition of animated pedagogical agents (APAs) in computer-assisted learning (CAL) systems could successfully enhance students' learning motivation and engagement in learning activities. Conventionally, the APA incorporated multimedia materials are constructed through the cooperation of teachers and software programmers. However, the thinking…

  7. Modelling, Simulation, Animation, and Real-Time Control (Mosart) for a Class of Electromechanical Systems: A System-Theoretic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Armando A.; Metzger, Richard P.; Cifdaloz, Oguzhan; Dhirasakdanon, Thanate; Welfert, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive modelling, simulation, animation, and real-time control (MoSART) environment for a class of 'cart-pendulum' electromechanical systems that may be used to enhance learning within differential equations and linear algebra classes. The environment is useful for conveying fundamental mathematical/systems concepts…

  8. Comparison of ELISA and PCR vis-à-vis cultural methods for detecting Aeromonas spp. in foods of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Arora, S; Agarwal, R K; Bist, B

    2006-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the best method of the most commonly used methods for detection of aeromonads in foods of animal origin. With this objective an OMP based indirect plate ELISA and a duplex-PCR using primers targeting aerolysin gene and 16S rRNA gene and yielding amplicons of 252 bp and 599 bp, respectively, were standardized. The standardized protocols and the conventional cultural method were then compared for their respective sensitivities and specificities for detecting aeromonads from chicken and milk samples. Both the standardized assays were found to be highly specific for Aeromonas. The efficiency of the standardized indirect-ELISA and duplex-PCR protocols was assessed by artificial inoculation studies with varying concentrations of Aeromonas cells inoculated in chicken and milk samples followed by enrichment in Alkaline Peptone Water supplemented with 10 mg/ml cephalothin (APW-C) for 12 h. The results revealed that indirect-ELISA was able to detect a minimum of 10(3) cells/ml or g of Aeromonas cells in spiked milk and chicken samples, respectively. Whereas, duplex-PCR and cultural method were able to detect as low as 1 cell/ml or g of Aeromonas cells in spiked milk and chicken samples. The developed assays were also tested for their efficiency to detect Aeromonas spp. in naturally contaminated milk and chicken samples. Out of a total 50 milk samples screened for presence of Aeromonas by the three methods viz., indirect-ELISA, duplex-PCR and cultural method only 1 (2%) turned out to be positive showing positive results by all three methods. Similarly, 50 samples of chicken were tested by all three methods. Three samples (6%) turned out to be positive and here again by all the three methods. PMID:16216375

  9. Design and experiment of a neural signal detection using a FES driving system.

    PubMed

    Zonghao, Huang; Zhigong, Wang; Xiaoying, Lu; Wenyuan, Li; Xiaoyan, Shen; Xintai, Zhao; Shushan, Xie; Haixian, Pan; Cunliang, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The channel bridging, signal regenerating, and functional rebuilding of injured nerves is one of the most important issues in life science research. In recent years, some progresses in the research area have been made in repairing injured nerves with microelectronic neural bridge. Based on the previous work, this paper presents a neural signal detection and functional electrical stimulation (FES) driving system with using high performance operational amplifiers, which has been realized. The experimental results show that the designed system meets requirements. In animal experiments, sciatic nerve signal detection, regeneration and function rebuilding between two toads have been accomplished successfully by using the designed system. PMID:21096372

  10. An automated robot arm system for small animal tissue biopsy under dual-image modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. H.; Wu, T. H.; Lin, M. H.; Yang, C. C.; Guo, W. Y.; Wang, Z. J.; Chen, C. L.; Lee, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor cell biology in vivo is one of the most important goals of molecular imaging. Imaging procedures could be inter-subject performed repeatedly at different investigating stages; thereby need not sacrifice small animals during the entire study period. Thus, the ultimate goal of this study was to design a stereotactic image-guided system for small animals and integrated it with an automatic robot arm for in vivo tissue biopsy analysis. The system was composed of three main parts, including one small animal stereotactic frame, one imaging-fusion software and an automatic robot arm system. The system has been thoroughly evaluated with three components; the robot position accuracy was 0.05±0.02 mm, the image registration accuracy was 0.37±0.18 mm and the system integration was satisfactorily within 1.20±0.39 mm of error. From these results, the system demonstrated sufficient accuracy to guide the micro-injector from the planned delivery routes into practice. The entire system accuracy was limited by the image fusion and orientation procedures, due to its nature of the blurred PET imaging obtained from the small objects. The primary improvement is to acquire as higher resolution as possible the fused imaging for localizing the targets in the future.

  11. Tylosin detection in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with enzymatic hydrolysis of the tylosin urea adduct.

    PubMed

    Van Poucke, Christof; Dumoulin, Fréderic; De Keyser, Kirsten; Elliott, Chris; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2004-05-19

    When the use of tylosin as a feed additive was forbidden by Council Regulation 2821/98, the necessity of a chemical confirmation method for the monitoring of the ban was created. Recently a method was developed for the detection of tylosin in animal feed by means of LC-MS/MS. During the validation high deviating values for the decision limit, detection capability, and repeatability for tylosin in cattle feed were observed, and the presence of urea and the formation of a tylosin urea adduct (TUA) were suggested as possible explanations. In this study two hydrolysis approaches for the TUA adduct were compared, namely, a chemical hydrolysis and an enzymatic hydrolysis with urease. The latter yielded a more complete hydrolysis of urea and was used for further validation. The recovery increased by approximately 15-25% depending on the amount of urea present in the feed (0.5-2%). The decision limit and detection capability were hardly influenced by the enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:15137817

  12. Systems Approaches to Animal Disease Surveillance and Resource Allocation: Methodological Frameworks for Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Karl M.; Denwood, Matthew J.; Stott, Alistair W.; Mellor, Dominic J.; Reid, Stuart W. J.; Gunn, George J.

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions. PMID:24348922

  13. Reasoning visualization in expert systems - The applicability of algorithm animation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selig, William J.; Johannes, James D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research into providing a means for users to flexibly create visualizations of the reasoning processes of forward-chaining rule-based expert systems using algorithm animation techniques. Levels of reasoning are described in order to identify the information necessary from the expert system development environment for these visualizations. A dual-process visualization environment is presented consisting of: (1) a version of CLIPS modified for the identified information access requirements; and (2) VISOR, an algorithm animation-based system for creating visualizations of arbitrary complexity which can be triggered by 'interesting event' messages from the running expert-system application. This is followed by examples from several visualizations performed during the scope of this work.

  14. A programmable closed-loop recording and stimulating wireless system for behaving small laboratory animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angotzi, Gian Nicola; Boi, Fabio; Zordan, Stefano; Bonfanti, Andrea; Vato, Alessandro

    2014-08-01

    A portable 16-channels microcontroller-based wireless system for a bi-directional interaction with the central nervous system is presented in this work. The device is designed to be used with freely behaving small laboratory animals and allows recording of spontaneous and evoked neural activity wirelessly transmitted and stored on a personal computer. Biphasic current stimuli with programmable duration, frequency and amplitude may be triggered in real-time on the basis of the recorded neural activity as well as by the animal behavior within a specifically designed experimental setup. An intuitive graphical user interface was developed to configure and to monitor the whole system. The system was successfully tested through bench tests and in vivo measurements on behaving rats chronically implanted with multi-channels microwire arrays.

  15. A programmable closed-loop recording and stimulating wireless system for behaving small laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Angotzi, Gian Nicola; Boi, Fabio; Zordan, Stefano; Bonfanti, Andrea; Vato, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    A portable 16-channels microcontroller-based wireless system for a bi-directional interaction with the central nervous system is presented in this work. The device is designed to be used with freely behaving small laboratory animals and allows recording of spontaneous and evoked neural activity wirelessly transmitted and stored on a personal computer. Biphasic current stimuli with programmable duration, frequency and amplitude may be triggered in real-time on the basis of the recorded neural activity as well as by the animal behavior within a specifically designed experimental setup. An intuitive graphical user interface was developed to configure and to monitor the whole system. The system was successfully tested through bench tests and in vivo measurements on behaving rats chronically implanted with multi-channels microwire arrays. PMID:25096831

  16. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Dzenitis, J

    2004-09-22

    Shaped like a mailbox on wheels, it's been called a bioterrorism ''smoke detector.'' It can be found in transportation hubs such as airports and subways, and it may be coming to a location near you. Formally known as the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, or APDS, this latest tool in the war on bioterrorism was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to continuously sniff the air for airborne pathogens and toxins such as anthrax or plague. The APDS is the modern day equivalent of the canaries miners took underground with them to test for deadly carbon dioxide gas. But this canary can test for numerous bacteria, viruses, and toxins simultaneously, report results every hour, and confirm positive samples and guard against false positive results by using two different tests. The fully automated system collects and prepares air samples around the clock, does the analysis, and interprets the results. It requires no servicing or human intervention for an entire week. Unlike its feathered counterpart, when an APDS unit encounters something deadly in the air, that's when it begins singing, quietly. The APDS unit transmits a silent alert and sends detailed data to public health authorities, who can order evacuation and begin treatment of anyone exposed to toxic or biological agents. It is the latest in a series of biodefense detectors developed at DOE/NNSA national laboratories. The manual predecessor to APDS, called BASIS (for Biological Aerosol Sentry and Information System), was developed jointly by Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. That system was modified to become BioWatch, the Department of Homeland Security's biological urban monitoring program. A related laboratory instrument, the Handheld Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA), was first tested successfully at LLNL in September 1997. Successful partnering with private industry has been a key factor in the rapid advancement and deployment of biodefense instruments such as these

  17. Technical aspects concerning the detection of animal waste nutrient content via its electrical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bietresato, Marco; Sartori, Luigi

    2013-03-01

    The variables influencing corrosion of three metals (galvanised steel, stainless steel, brass) usable for a manure nutrient probe were examined, identifying the best material for field applications. The nutrients in 18 liquid manures were then estimated through the voltage drop between the terminals of a prototype probe. Response Surface Modelling gave the regression functions relating each investigated response only to the statistically-significant factors. After 168h in the manure, it was determined that: stainless steel was the most suitable material for very close electrodes (mass: -1.8% at 15mm), brass can be used with any inter-electrode distance (mass: -13.0% maximum at 35mm). The prototype probe gave reliable estimates (R(2)⩾0.744) of Ntot, Namm, Ptot, Ktot when dry matter and temperature were also accounted for in the regression analysis. Not considering dry matter but just electronically-detectable quantities (temperature, voltage drop), the estimates were only reliable (R(2)⩾0.656) above 20°C. PMID:23395765

  18. High Resolution, High Sensitivity Detectors for Molecular Imaging of Small Animals and Tumor Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliozzi, M. L.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Cusanno, F.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Lucentini, M.; Santavenere, F.; Veneroni, P.; Schillaci, O.; Simonetti, G.; Majewsky, S.; Cinti, M. N.; de Vincentis, G.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Scopinaro, F.

    2006-04-01

    Imaging techniques with radionuclides provide very sensitive measures of a wide range of specific processes underying disease in the body. Detection of very small tumors with high specificity is therefore possible but the tecnique requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. We present the first simulations, performed by means of GEANT4 code, of breast tumors, imaged by different configurations of a compact discrete gamma camera, in order to optimize the performances of dedicated detectors for these tasks. Simulated planar images from 6 to 10 mm diameter tumors, placed at 5 mm from the collimator, were generated for NaI scintillator pixel sizes of 1.0×1.0 and 1.2×1.2 mm2, hexagonal hole Pb collimators with hole size of 1.5 and 1.9 mm. The generated photons have been sampled by two modelled Hamamatsu H8500 and H9500 PMT. Tumor to background uptake ratio from 1:6 to 1:12 has been considered. The preliminary results in terms of spatial resolution and SNR show a slightly better performance of the high efficiency collimator, larger crystal size and H9500 combination.

  19. Microbiomes: unifying animal and plant systems through the lens of community ecology theory.

    PubMed

    Christian, Natalie; Whitaker, Briana K; Clay, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The field of microbiome research is arguably one of the fastest growing in biology. Bacteria feature prominently in studies on animal health, but fungi appear to be the more prominent functional symbionts for plants. Despite the similarities in the ecological organization and evolutionary importance of animal-bacterial and plant-fungal microbiomes, there is a general failure across disciplines to integrate the advances made in each system. Researchers studying bacterial symbionts in animals benefit from greater access to efficient sequencing pipelines and taxonomic reference databases, perhaps due to high medical and veterinary interest. However, researchers studying plant-fungal symbionts benefit from the relative tractability of fungi under laboratory conditions and ease of cultivation. Thus each system has strengths to offer, but both suffer from the lack of a common conceptual framework. We argue that community ecology best illuminates complex species interactions across space and time. In this synthesis we compare and contrast the animal-bacterial and plant-fungal microbiomes using six core theories in community ecology (i.e., succession, community assembly, metacommunities, multi-trophic interactions, disturbance, restoration). The examples and questions raised are meant to spark discussion amongst biologists and lead to the integration of these two systems, as well as more informative, manipulatory experiments on microbiomes research. PMID:26441846

  20. Microbiomes: unifying animal and plant systems through the lens of community ecology theory

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Natalie; Whitaker, Briana K.; Clay, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The field of microbiome research is arguably one of the fastest growing in biology. Bacteria feature prominently in studies on animal health, but fungi appear to be the more prominent functional symbionts for plants. Despite the similarities in the ecological organization and evolutionary importance of animal-bacterial and plant–fungal microbiomes, there is a general failure across disciplines to integrate the advances made in each system. Researchers studying bacterial symbionts in animals benefit from greater access to efficient sequencing pipelines and taxonomic reference databases, perhaps due to high medical and veterinary interest. However, researchers studying plant–fungal symbionts benefit from the relative tractability of fungi under laboratory conditions and ease of cultivation. Thus each system has strengths to offer, but both suffer from the lack of a common conceptual framework. We argue that community ecology best illuminates complex species interactions across space and time. In this synthesis we compare and contrast the animal-bacterial and plant–fungal microbiomes using six core theories in community ecology (i.e., succession, community assembly, metacommunities, multi-trophic interactions, disturbance, restoration). The examples and questions raised are meant to spark discussion amongst biologists and lead to the integration of these two systems, as well as more informative, manipulatory experiments on microbiomes research. PMID:26441846

  1. Chaotic system detection of weak seismic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Yang, B. J.; Badal, J.; Zhao, X. P.; Lin, H. B.; Li, R. L.

    2009-09-01

    When the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio is less than -3 dB or even 0 dB, seismic events are generally difficult to identify from a common shot record. To overcome this type of problem we present a method to detect weak seismic signals based on the oscillations described by a chaotic dynamic system in phase space. The basic idea is that a non-linear chaotic oscillator is strongly immune to noise. Such a dynamic system is less influenced by noise, but it is more sensitive to periodic signals, changing from a chaotic state to a large-scale periodic phase state when excited by a weak signal. With the purpose of checking the possible contamination of the signal by noise, we have performed a numerical experiment with an oscillator controlled by the Duffing-Holmes equation, taking a distorted Ricker wavelet sequence as input signal. In doing so, we prove that the oscillator system is able to reach a large-scale periodic phase state in a strong noise environment. In the case of a common shot record with low S/N ratio, the onsets reflected from a same interface are similar to one other and can be put on a single trace with a common reference time and the periodicity of the so-generated signal follows as a consequence of moveout at a particular scanning velocity. This operation, which is called `horizontal dynamic correction' and leads to a nearly periodic signal, is implemented on synthetic wavelet sequences taking various sampling arrival times and scanning velocities. Thereafter, two tests, both in a noisy ambient of -3.7 dB, are done using a chaotic oscillator: the first demonstrates the capability of the method to really detect a weak seismic signal; the second takes care of the fundamental weakness of the dynamic correction coming from the use of a particular scanning velocity, which is investigated from the effect caused by near-surface lateral velocity variation on the periodicity of the reconstructed seismic signal. Finally, we have developed an application of the

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. Materials & Methods The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. Results A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use. PMID:23825733

  3. Human-animal bonds II: the role of pets in family systems and family therapy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Froma

    2009-12-01

    The vast majority of pet owners regard their companion animals as family members, yet the role of pets in family systems and family therapy has received little attention in research, training, and practice. This article first notes the benefits of family pets and their importance for resilience. It then examines their role in couple and family processes and their involvement in relational dynamics and tensions. Next, it addresses bereavement in the loss of a cherished pet, influences complicating grief, and facilitation of mourning and adaptation. Finally, it explores the ways that clients' pets and the use of therapists' companion animals in animal-assisted therapy can inform and enrich couple and family therapy as valuable resources in healing. PMID:19930434

  4. Feasibility of OCT to detect radiation-induced esophageal damage in small animal models (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelvehgaran, Pouya; Alderliesten, Tanja; Salguero, Javier; Borst, Gerben; Song, Ji-Ying; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; de Boer, Johannes F.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van Herk, Marcel B.

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer survival is poor and radiotherapy patients often suffer serious treatment side effects. The esophagus is particularly sensitive leading to reduced food intake or even fistula formation. Only few direct techniques exist to measure radiation-induced esophageal damage, for which knowledge is needed to improve the balance between risk of tumor recurrence and complications. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a minimally-invasive imaging technique that obtains cross-sectional, high-resolution (1-10µm) images and is capable of scanning the esophageal wall up to 2-3mm depth. In this study we investigated the feasibility of OCT to detect esophageal radiation damage in mice. In total 30 mice were included in 4 study groups (1 main and 3 control groups). Mice underwent cone-beam CT imaging for initial setup assessment and dose planning followed by single-fraction dose delivery of 4, 10, 16, and 20Gy on 5mm spots, spaced 10mm apart. Mice were repeatedly imaged using OCT: pre-irradiation and up to 3 months post-irradiation. The control groups received either OCT only, irradiation only, or were sham-operated. We used histopathology as gold standard for radiation-induced damage diagnosis. The study showed edema in both the main and OCT-only groups. Furthermore, radiation-induced damage was primarily found in the highest dose region (distal esophagus). Based on the histopathology reports we were able to identify the radiation-induced damage in the OCT images as a change in tissue scattering related to the type of induced damage. This finding indicates the feasibility and thereby the potentially promising role of OCT in radiation-induced esophageal damage assessment.

  5. Real-time multiplex PCR assays for reliable detection of Clostridium perfringens toxin genes in animal isolates.

    PubMed

    Albini, S; Brodard, I; Jaussi, A; Wollschlaeger, N; Frey, J; Miserez, R; Abril, C

    2008-02-01

    Typing of Clostridium perfringens strains by PCR-based determination of toxin genes proved to be a reliable method for diagnosis of enterotoxaemia in various animal species. We report the establishment and validation of three real-time fluorogenic (TaqMan) multiplex PCRs for the detection of C. perfringens alpha-, beta-, beta2-, epsilon-, entero- and iota-toxin genes. The composition of the PCRs was chosen with regard to robustness of the assays and in order to increase sensitivity compared to the conventional simplex PCRs. The combination of probe dyes selected for the real-time assays (FAM/TAMRA, Cy-5/BHQ-2 and VIC/TAMRA) as well as the designation of the chromosome-borne alpha-toxin as internal positive control allowed the creation of highly specific and sensitive, as well as time and cost effective PCRs. One hundred and three strains of C. perfringens isolated in Switzerland derived from clinical or suspected cases of enterotoxaemia in 10 different animal species were tested. The toxin genotypes were in agreement in both the conventional PCRs and the newly designed multiplex PCRs. Furthermore, the real-time PCR carried out as simplex allows to quantitate the copy numbers of plasmid-borne toxin genes in relation to the chromosomally located alpha-toxin gene. PMID:17855025

  6. Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect five common Gram-negative bacteria of aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Tsai, M-A; Ho, P-Y; Wang, P-C; E, Y-J; Liaw, L-L; Chen, S-C

    2012-07-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) technique was developed as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool for identifying five major Gram-negative bacilli -Vibrio vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Chryseobacterium meningosepticum and Edwardsiella tarda- that cause major diseases in cultured aquatic animals in Taiwan. The expected amplicons for V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, A. hydrophila, C. meningosepticum and E. tarda were 410, 368, 685, 180 and 230bp, respectively. The assay was shown to be specific for the target pathogens. The sensitivities of detection were estimated to be 20.5fg∼200pg of genomic DNA or 10(2) ∼10(4) colony-forming units (cfu) of bacterial isolates when adopted as PCR templates. The m-PCR was capable of simultaneously amplifying target fragments from bacterial genome DNA mixed with the DNA extracted from viscera and tissues taken from fish without affecting the performance of the method. PMID:22571515

  7. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  8. Integration of the TDWR and LLWAS wind shear detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornman, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Operational demonstrations of a prototype TDWR/LLWAS (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar/Low Level Wind shear Alarm System) integrated wind shear detection system were conducted. The integration of wind shear detection systems is needed to provide end-users with a single, consensus source of information. A properly implemented integrated system provides wind shear warnings of a higher quality than stand-alone LLWAS or TDWR systems. The algorithmic concept used to generate the TDWR/LLWAS integrated products and several case studies are discussed, indicating the viability and potential of integrated wind shear detection systems. Implications for integrating ground and airborne wind shear detection systems are briefly examined.

  9. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  10. PCR detection of DNAs of animal origin in feed by primers based on sequences of short and long interspersed repetitive elements.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Kiyoshi; Enishi, Osamu; Amari, Masahiro; Mitsumori, Makoto; Kajikawa, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Mitsunori; Yanai, Satoshi; Matsui, Hiroki; Yasue, Hiroshi; Mitsuhashi, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Mitsuto

    2002-10-01

    PCR primers for the detection of materials derived from ruminants, pigs, and chickens were newly designed on the basis of sequences of the Art2 short interspersed repetitive element (SINE), PRE-1 SINE, and CR1 long interspersed repetitive element (LINE), respectively. These primers amplified the SINE or LINE from total DNA extracted from the target animals and from test feed containing commercial meat and bone meal (MBM). With the primers, detection of Art2, PRE-1, or CR1 in test feed at concentrations of 0.01% MBM or less was possible. This method was suitable for the detection of microcontamination of feed by animal materials. PMID:12450143

  11. A small animal holding fixture system with positional reproducibility for longitudinal multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokuryo, Daisuke; Kimura, Yuichi; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga; Kawamura, Kazunori; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Kanno, Iwao; Aoki, Ichio

    2010-07-01

    This study presents a combined small animal holding fixture system, termed a 'bridge capsule', which provides for small animal re-fixation with positional reproducibility. This system comprises separate holding fixtures for the head and lower body and a connecting part to a gas anesthesia system. A mouse is fixed in place by the combination of a head fixture with a movable part made from polyacetal resin, a lower body fixture made from vinyl-silicone and a holder for the legs and tail. For re-fixation, a similar posture could be maintained by the same holding fixtures and a constant distance between the head and lower body fixtures is maintained. Artifacts caused by the bridge capsule system were not observed on magnetic resonance (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. The average position differences of the spinal column and the iliac body before and after re-fixation for the same modality were approximately 1.1 mm. The difference between the MRI and PET images was approximately 1.8 mm for the lower body fixture after image registration using fiducial markers. This system would be useful for longitudinal, repeated and multimodal imaging experiments requiring similar animal postures.

  12. The immunogenicity and protection effect of the BPL-inactivated CA16 vaccine in different animal systems

    PubMed Central

    Qi An, Wen; Guo Su, Zhi; Wen Pan, Ruo; Ping Yang, Bao; Chao Zhang, Yong; Shi, Liang; Li, Qing

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of a β-propiolactone (BPL)-inactivated coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) vaccine, using three immunogenicity evaluation and two animal challenge systems. A CA16 virus strain, named 419, was used as the production strain. Another CA16 strain, named 1131, was isolated and used as the challenge strain in intracerebral inoculation of neonatal mice for the calculation of median lethal dose (LD50). In the passive and maternal antibody-protection challenge systems, all results indicated that the vaccine could protect mouse pups from lethal challenge with the CA16 virus. In the immunogenicity systems, three types of animal (mouse, rat, and cynomolgus monkey), were immunized with the 419/CA16 vaccine. The dose–effect relationship and the antibody-generation routine were described. The CA16 vaccine induced a more potent serum antibody effect in rat than in mouse. The serum antibody titer was detectable more than 63 days after the initial vaccination. We also identified tools to evaluate the effect of the BPL-inactivated CA16 vaccine. PMID:24401488

  13. Development of Fall Detection System Using Ultrasound Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Takuya; Abe, Takehiko; Kimura, Haruhiko

    This paper proposes a sensing system for detecting bather's fall. The fall detection system uses ultrasound sensors installed on the ceiling of bathroom to measure the distance between sensor and a bather. The merits of utilizing ultrasound sensor are easy installation and easy use. Moreover the apparatus has an advantage of enhancing the privacy of bathers and having robustness against humidity. In order to detect bather's fall, the proposed system uses the following two methods: status detection and behavior detection. The function of status detection is to estimate bather's postures such as standing and sitting by monitoring the highest part of bather's body. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to grasp the speed of bather's vertical movement by monitoring the change of distance between sensor and the bather. The system estimates the occurrence of bather's fall when the distance changes suddenly. As a result of experiment with some subjects, the system was possible to detect bather's falling behavior with high accuracy.

  14. Forty research issues for the redesign of animal production systems in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Dumont, B; González-García, E; Thomas, M; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Ducrot, C; Dourmad, J Y; Tichit, M

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology offers a scientific and operational framework for redesigning animal production systems (APS) so that they better cope with the coming challenges. Grounded in the stimulation and valorization of natural processes to reduce inputs and pollutions in agroecosystems, it opens a challenging research agenda for the animal science community. In this paper, we identify key research issues that define this agenda. We first stress the need to assess animal robustness by measurable traits, to analyze trade-offs between production and adaptation traits at within-breed and between-breed level, and to better understand how group selection, epigenetics and animal learning shape performance. Second, we propose research on the nutritive value of alternative feed resources, including the environmental impacts of producing these resources and their associated non-provisioning services. Third, we look at how the design of APS based on agroecological principles valorizes interactions between system components and promotes biological diversity at multiple scales to increase system resilience. Addressing such challenges requires a collection of theories and models (concept-knowledge theory, viability theory, companion modeling, etc.). Acknowledging the ecology of contexts and analyzing the rationales behind traditional small-scale systems will increase our understanding of mechanisms contributing to the success or failure of agroecological practices and systems. Fourth, the large-scale development of agroecological products will require analysis of resistance to change among farmers and other actors in the food chain. Certifications and market-based incentives could be an important lever for the expansion of agroecological alternatives in APS. Finally, we question the suitability of current agriculture extension services and public funding mechanisms for scaling-up agroecological practices and systems. PMID:24871266

  15. Optical methods and integrated systems for brain imaging in awake, untethered animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, Kartikeya

    Imaging is a powerful tool for biomedical research offering non-contact and minimally or non-invasive means of investigating at multiple scales---from single molecules to large populations of cells. Imaging in awake, behaving animals is an emerging field that offers the additional advantage of being able to study physiological processes and structures in a more natural state than what is possible in tissue slices or even in anesthetized animals. To date, most imaging in awake animals has used optical fiber bundles or electrical cables to transfer signals to traditional imaging-system components. However, the fibers or cables tether the animal and greatly limit the kind and duration of animal behavior that can be studied using imaging methods. This work involves three distinct yet related approaches to fulfill the goal of imaging in unanesthetized, unrestrained animals---optical techniques for functional and structural imaging, development of novel photodetectors and the design of miniaturized imaging systems. I hypothesized that the flow within vessels might act as a contrast-enhancing agent and improve the visualization of vascular architecture using laser speckle imaging. When imaging rodent cerebral vasculature I saw a two to four fold increase in the contrast-to-noise ratios and was able to visualize 10--30% more vascular features over reflectance techniques. I designed a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) photodetector array that was comparable in sensitivity and noise performance to cooled CCD sensors, able to image fluorescence from a single cell, while running at faster frame rates. Next, I designed an imaging system weighing under 6 grams and occupying less than 4 cm3. The system incorporated multispectral illumination, adjustable focusing optics and the high-sensitivity CMOS imager. I was able to implement a variety of optical modalities with the system and performed reflectance, fluorescence, spectroscopic and laser speckle imaging with my

  16. 46 CFR 76.05-1 - Fire detecting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire detecting systems. 76.05-1 Section 76.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-1 Fire detecting systems....

  17. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so requires by an amendment to an aircraft...

  18. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so requires by an amendment to an aircraft...

  19. Potential Uses of Anthropogenic Noise as a Source of Information in Animal Sensory and Communication Systems.

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Amanda; Deecke, Volker; Götz, Thomas; Janik, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Although current research on the impact of anthropogenic noise has focused on the detrimental effects, there is a range of ways by which animals could benefit from increased noise levels. Here we discuss two potential uses of anthropogenic noise. First, local variations in the ambient-noise field could be used to perceive objects and navigate within an environment. Second, introduced sound cues could be used as a signal for prey detection or orientation and navigation. Although the disadvantages of noise pollution will likely outweigh any positive effects, it is important to acknowledge that such changes may benefit some species. PMID:26611074

  20. Magnetic microparticle-based multimer detection system for the detection of prion oligomers in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kuntaek; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Byoungsub; Segarra, Christiane; Kang, Sungmin; Ju, Youngran; Schmerr, Mary Jo; Coste, Joliette; Kim, Sang Yun; Yokoyama, Takashi; An, Seong Soo A

    2015-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are zoonotic fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans. TSEs are commonly known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease in cervids, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in humans. The putative transmissible agents are infectious prion proteins (PrPSc), which are formed by the conversion of the normal prion protein on the glycoprotein cell surface in the presence of other PrPSc. Reports of the transmission of TSEs through blood raised considerable concern about the safety of blood and blood products. To address this issue, many laboratories attempted to develop a sensitive and accurate blood diagnostic test to detect PrPSc. Previously, we reported that, compared to normal controls, the multimer detection system (MDS) was more efficient in detecting PrPSc in infected hamster brain homogenate, mouse plasma spiked with purified PrPSc from scrapie mouse brain, and scrapie-infected hamster plasmas. MDS differentiates prion multimers from the cellular monomer through the multimeric expression of epitopes on prion multimers, in contrast to the monomeric form. In this study, MDS detected PrPSc in plasma samples from scrapie-infected sheep expressing clinical symptoms, demonstrating 100% sensitivity and specificity in these samples. Plasma samples from asymptomatic lambs at the preclinical stage (8-month-old naturally infected offspring of scrapie-infected parents expressing a highly susceptible genotype) tested positive with 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In the first of two coded analyses using clinical scrapie-infected sheep and normal healthy samples, MDS successfully identified all but one of the clinical samples with 92% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Similar results were obtained in the second coded analysis using preclinical samples. MDS again successfully identified all but one of the samples with 87% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The

  1. Magnetic microparticle-based multimer detection system for the detection of prion oligomers in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kuntaek; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Byoungsub; Segarra, Christiane; Kang, Sungmin; Ju, Youngran; Schmerr, Mary Jo; Coste, Joliette; Kim, Sang Yun; Yokoyama, Takashi; An, Seong Soo A

    2015-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are zoonotic fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans. TSEs are commonly known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease in cervids, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The putative transmissible agents are infectious prion proteins (PrP(Sc)), which are formed by the conversion of the normal prion protein on the glycoprotein cell surface in the presence of other PrP(Sc). Reports of the transmission of TSEs through blood raised considerable concern about the safety of blood and blood products. To address this issue, many laboratories attempted to develop a sensitive and accurate blood diagnostic test to detect PrP(Sc). Previously, we reported that, compared to normal controls, the multimer detection system (MDS) was more efficient in detecting PrP(Sc) in infected hamster brain homogenate, mouse plasma spiked with purified PrP(Sc) from scrapie mouse brain, and scrapie-infected hamster plasmas. MDS differentiates prion multimers from the cellular monomer through the multimeric expression of epitopes on prion multimers, in contrast to the monomeric form. In this study, MDS detected PrP(Sc) in plasma samples from scrapie-infected sheep expressing clinical symptoms, demonstrating 100% sensitivity and specificity in these samples. Plasma samples from asymptomatic lambs at the preclinical stage (8-month-old naturally infected offspring of scrapie-infected parents expressing a highly susceptible genotype) tested positive with 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In the first of two coded analyses using clinical scrapie-infected sheep and normal healthy samples, MDS successfully identified all but one of the clinical samples with 92% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Similar results were obtained in the second coded analysis using preclinical samples. MDS again successfully identified all but one of the samples with 87% sensitivity and 100

  2. BacT/Alert: an automated colorimetric microbial detection system.

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, T C; Wilson, M L; Turner, J E; DiGuiseppi, J L; Willert, M; Mirrett, S; Reller, L B

    1990-01-01

    BacT/Alert (Organon Teknika Corp., Durham, N.C.) is an automated microbial detection system based on the colorimetric detection of CO2 produced by growing microorganisms. Results of an evaluation of the media, sensor, detection system, and detection algorithm indicate that the system reliably grows and detects a wide variety of bacteria and fungi. Results of a limited pilot clinical trial with a prototype research instrument indicate that the system is comparable to the radiometric BACTEC 460 system in its ability to grow and detect microorganisms in blood. On the basis of these initial findings, large-scale clinical trials comparing BacT/Alert with other commercial microbial detection systems appear warranted. PMID:2116451

  3. Analyzing and Detecting Problems in Systems of Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Christopher; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Many software systems are evolving complex system of systems (SoS) for which inter-system communication is mission-critical. Evidence indicates that transmission failures and performance issues are not uncommon occurrences. In a NASA-supported Software Assurance Research Program (SARP) project, we are researching a new approach addressing such problems. In this paper, we are presenting an approach for analyzing inter-system communications with the goal to uncover both transmission errors and performance problems. Our approach consists of a visualization and an evaluation component. While the visualization of the observed communication aims to facilitate understanding, the evaluation component automatically checks the conformance of an observed communication (actual) to a desired one (planned). The actual and the planned are represented as sequence diagrams. The evaluation algorithm checks the conformance of the actual to the planned diagram. We have applied our approach to the communication of aerospace systems and were successful in detecting and resolving even subtle and long existing transmission problems.

  4. Detection of low-virulent classical swine fever virus in blood of experimentally infected animals: comparison of different methods.

    PubMed

    Kaden, V; Steyer, H; Strebelow, G; Lange, E; Hübert, P; Steinhagen, P

    1999-12-01

    The effectiveness of virus isolation, commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and flow cytometry in detection of a low-virulent classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in blood in the early period of infection was evaluated. Domestic pigs at the age of 6-8 weeks and young wild boars were inoculated with a low-virulent field isolate of CSFV originating from a wild boar. This virus induced serious clinical reaction in only one pig which was naturally infected with Pasteurella multocida. Nine of 13 infected domestic pigs showed viremia. All infected weanling pigs were found viraemic by virus isolation on day 6 post infection (p.i.) but virus-free by RT-PCR. The flow cytometry was apparently not as sensitive as the virus isolation. Two young wild boars infected with the virus were viremic only for the first 2 days p.i. Virus isolation and RT-PCR were of similar sensitivity. Three different commercial antigen ELISAs used were not able to detect viral antigen in any animal. PMID:10825927

  5. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ercan, Tuncay

    2008-01-01

    Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  6. UCD-SPI: Un-Collimated Detector Single-Photon Imaging System for Small Animal and Plant Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Katherine Leigh

    Medical imaging systems using single gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes implement collimators in order to form images. However, a tradeoff in sensitivity is inherent in the use of collimators, and modern preclinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems detect a very small fraction of emitted gamma-rays (<0.3%). We have built a collimator-less system, which can reach sensitivity of 40% for 99mTc imaging, while still producing images of sufficient spatial resolution for certain applications in "thin" objects such as mice, small plants, and well plates used for in vitro experiments. This flexible geometry un-collimated detector single-photon imaging (UCD-SPI) system consists of two large (5 cm x 10 cm), thin (3 mm and 5 mm), closely spaced, pixelated scintillation detectors of either NaI(Tl), CsI(Na), or BGO. The detectors are read out by two adjacent Hamamatsu H8500 multichannel photomultiplier tubes. The detector heads enable the interchange of scintillation detectors of different materials and thicknesses to optimize performance for a wide range of gamma-ray energies and imaging subjects. The detectors are horizontally oriented for animal imaging, and for plant imaging the system is rotated on its side to orient the detectors vertically. While this un-collimated detector system is unable to approach the sub-mm spatial resolution obtained by the most advanced preclinical pinhole SPECT systems, the high sensitivity could enable significant and new use in molecular imaging applications which do not require good spatial resolution- for example, screening applications for drug development (small animals), for material transport and sequestration studies for phytoremediation (plants), or for counting radiolabeled cells in vitro (well plates).

  7. A classic model animal in the 21st century: recent lessons from the leech nervous system.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    The medicinal leech (genus Hirudo) is a classic model animal in systems neuroscience. The leech has been central to many integrative studies that establish how properties of neurons and their interconnections give rise to the functioning of the animal at the behavioral level. Leeches exhibit several discrete behaviors (such as crawling, swimming and feeding) that are each relatively simple. Importantly, these behaviors can all be studied - at least at a basal level - in the isolated nervous system. The leech nervous system is particularly amenable to such studies because of its distributed nature; sensory processing and generation of behavior occur to a large degree in iterated segmental ganglia that each contain only ∼400 neurons. Furthermore, the neurons are relatively large and are arranged with stereotyped topography on the surface of the ganglion, which greatly facilitates their identification and accessibility. This Commentary provides an overview of recent work on the leech nervous system, with particular focus on circuits that underlie leech behavior. Studies that combine the unique features of the leech with modern optical and genetic techniques are also discussed. Thus, this Commentary aims to explain the continued appeal of the leech as an experimental animal in the 21st century. PMID:26538172

  8. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  9. Human-induced changes in animal populations and distributions, and the subsequent effects on fluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, David R.

    2006-09-01

    Humans have profoundly altered hydrological pathways and fluvial systems through their near-extirpation of native populations of animal species that strongly influenced hydrology and removal of surface sediment, and through the introduction of now-feral populations of animals that bring to bear a suite of different geomorphic effects on the fluvial system. In the category of effects of extirpation, examples are offered through an examination of the geomorphic effects and former spatial extent of beavers, bison, prairie dogs, and grizzly bears. Beavers entrapped hundreds of billions of cubic meters of sediment in North American stream systems prior to European contact. Individual bison wallows, that numbered in the range of 100 million wallows, each displaced up to 23 m 3 of sediment. Burrowing by prairie dogs displaced more than 5000 kg and possibly up to 67,500 kg of sediment per hectare. In the category of feral populations, the roles of feral rabbits, burros and horses, and pigs are highlighted. Much work remains to adequately quantify the geomorphic effects animals have on fluvial systems, but the influence is undeniable.

  10. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research.

    PubMed

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M; Fuller, Mark R; Kie, John G; Bates, Kirk K

    2010-07-27

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives. PMID:20566494

  11. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    PubMed Central

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS ‘rapid fixing’ technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives. PMID:20566494

  12. Liquid breathing trials and animal studies with a demand-regulated liquid breathing system.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, G D; Shaffer, T H; Dubin, S E

    1975-01-01

    Experimental results of in vivo animal tests conducted on a demand-regulated liquid breathing system are presented. When a liquid replaces gas as the medium in which oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported, several problems not typical in gas respiration occur. The increased mass and viscosity of a liquid as compared with a gas necessitate some means of mechanical assistance. The lower diffusion rates of gases in liquids as compared with gas rates places several constraints on the design of a mechanically assisted liquid breathing system. The liquid breathing system reported in this study has been designed to be demand-regulated, i.e., the animal has control over cycling the pumps which mechanically assist the circulation of an oxygenated liquid to and from the lungs. This system consists of a gas-operated diaphragm pump, demand controller, liquid regenerator with heater and gas scrubber, and ancillary equipment. A demand controller is described which obtains a control signal from an esophageal balloon catheter in the animal and governs operation of the pneumatically driven diaphragm pump. PMID:1055284

  13. Detecting Planets Outside The Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, Steven H.; Terrile, Richard J.; Ftaclas, Christ; Gatewood, George

    1993-01-01

    Report describes proposed Astrometric Imaging Telescope, used to detect planets in orbit around distant stars. Includes executive summary and statement of scientific objectives of Astrometric Imaging Telescope program.

  14. Life Detection System DTIVA for Monitoring Parameter in Fossilization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Garcia-Descalzo, L.; Cockell, C. S.; Schwendner, P.; Rettberg, P.; Beblo-Vranesevic, K.; Bohmeier, M.; Rabbow, E.; Westall, F.; Gaboyer, F.; Walter, N.; Moissl-Eichinger, M.; Perras, A.; Amils, R.; Malki, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Monaghan, E.; Marteinsson, V.; Vannier, P.

    2016-05-01

    Using Life Detection System LDS we followed the physicochemical parameter in a growth culture under fossilization/mineralization-induced process with the objectives of biomarkers detection. Biomarkers study is crucial for the search for life on Mars.

  15. Columnar transmitter based wireless power delivery system for implantable device in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sung Eun; Jun, Sang Bum; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    A wireless power delivery system is developed to deliver electrical power to the neuroprosthetic devices that are implanted into animals freely moving inside the cage. The wireless powering cage is designed for long-term animal experiments without cumbersome wires for power supply or the replacement of batteries. In the present study, we propose a novel wireless power transmission system using resonator-based inductive links to increase power efficiency and to minimize the efficiency variations. A columnar transmitter coil is proposed to provide lateral uniformity of power efficiency. Using this columnar transmitter coil, only 7.2% efficiency fluctuation occurs from the maximum transmission efficiency of 25.9%. A flexible polymer-based planar type receiver coil is fabricated and assembled with a neural stimulator and an electrode. Using the designed columnar transmitter coil, the implantable device successfully operates while it moves freely inside the cage. PMID:24110073

  16. Evaluating Detection and Diagnostic Decision Support Systems for Bioterrorism Response

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vandana; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Smith, Wendy M.; Szeto, Herbert; Schleinitz, Mark D.; Owens, Douglas K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. We performed a systematic review by searching relevant databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and Web sites for reports of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems that could be used during bioterrorism responses. We reviewed over 24,000 citations and identified 55 detection systems and 23 diagnostic decision support systems. Only 35 systems have been evaluated: 4 reported both sensitivity and specificity, 13 were compared to a reference standard, and 31 were evaluated for their timeliness. Most evaluations of detection systems and some evaluations of diagnostic systems for bioterrorism responses are critically deficient. Because false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised. We describe a framework for the design of future evaluations of such systems. PMID:15078604

  17. The architecture of a network level intrusion detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.; Maccabe, A.; Servilla, M.

    1990-08-15

    This paper presents the preliminary architecture of a network level intrusion detection system. The proposed system will monitor base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, and time), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  18. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Doyle, Robert T.; Grubisha, Desiree S.; Rahman, Salma

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  19. Analysis of Citrinin in Cereals, Red Yeast Rice Dietary Supplement, and Animal Feed by Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and LC with Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Marley, Elaine; Brown, Phyllis; Leeman, Dave; Donnelly, Carol

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of citrinin in various cereals (wheat, oats, maize, rice, and rye and multigrain breakfast cereal), red yeast rice (dietary supplement and traditional medicine), distillers dried grain with solubles, and barley (animal feed) was carried out using a citrinin immunoaffinity column (IAC) for sample cleanup before LC analysis with fluorescence detection (LC-fluorescence). To establish method performance characteristics, wheat was spiked with citrinin at levels of 10-200 μg/kg, whereas red yeast rice was spiked at levels of 100-3000 μg/kg. Methanol-water (75 + 25, v/v) was used for the extraction of cereals and animal feed, and extraction was with 100% methanol for red yeast rice. Cleanup used a commercial citrinin IAC, followed by LC-fluorescence (λex, 330 nm; λem, 500 nm). Recoveries ranged from 80 to 110%, with r from 0.7 to 4.3%. The LOQ for citrinin in both wheat and red yeast rice was 10 μg/kg, with an LOD of 3 μg/kg. Satisfactory performance was demonstrated in a proficiency testing exercise for a sample of maize contaminated with both citrinin and ochratoxin A. It was concluded that the commercial citrinin IAC was capable of providing an efficient and effective cleanup of complex food and feed matrixes to enable citrinin to be reliably determined with the specific LC-fluorescence system used. PMID:27328902

  20. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830