Science.gov

Sample records for animal health information

  1. 75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Sheep 2011 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... intention to initiate an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System...-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Sheep 2011 Study....

  2. 76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Needs Assessments AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... National Animal Health Monitoring System needs assessments. DATES: We will consider all comments that we...-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Needs...

  3. 76 FR 9319 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Feedlot 2011 Study AGENCY... information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring Feedlot 2011 Study. DATES: We will... Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring...

  4. 78 FR 24153 - Notice of Emergency Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study AGENCY: Animal and... information collection for a National Animal Health Monitoring System Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study. OMB Number:...

  5. 78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Bison 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... intention to request approval of a new information collection for the National Animal Health Monitoring...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Bison 2014 Study. OMB Number: 0579-XXXX. Type of...

  6. 76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Swine 2012 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2012 Study. DATES: We will consider all comments that...

  7. 78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Cervid 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... intention to request approval of a new information collection for the National Animal Health Monitoring...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Cervid 2014 Study. OMB Number: 0579-XXXX. Type of...

  8. 76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations AGENCY: Animal and Plant... to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System. DATES: We will consider all comments that we... Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring...

  9. 75 FR 52504 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study AGENCY... National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study. DATES: We will consider all... Health Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study. OMB Number: 0579-xxxx. Type of...

  10. Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.

    PubMed

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research.

  11. 77 FR 44107 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... / Friday, July 27, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health... Animal Health Status AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations that govern the importation of animals and animal products...

  12. [Use of geographical information systems in parasitic diseases and the importance of animal health economics].

    PubMed

    Ciçek, Hasan; Ciçek, Hatice; Senkul, Cetin; Tandoğan, Murat

    2008-01-01

    In the world, economical losses due to the parasitic diseases reach enormous ratios in animal production. Both developed and developing countries set aside a considerable budget to control these parasitic diseases. This situation aids in the improvement of control methods of parasitic diseases. Also, it causes new ways of investigation that includes observation, evaluation and prevention of parasitic diseases. The Geographical Information System (GIS) has recently become one of the most common methods utilized to provide disease information technology with computer supported technology in many countries. The most important qualities of GIS are the formation of a powerful database, continual updating and rapid provision of coordination related to units. Many factors are evaluated at the same time by the system and also, results from analysis of data related to disease and their causes could reduce or prevent economical losses due to parasitic disease. In this study, possible uses of Geographical Information Systems against parasitic diseases and an approach in terms of animal health economics were presented.

  13. An expanded One Health model: integrating social science and One Health to inform study of the human-animal interface.

    PubMed

    Woldehanna, Sara; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Zoonotic disease emergence is not a purely biological process mediated only by ecologic factors; opportunities for transmission of zoonoses from animals to humans also depend on how people interact with animals. While exposure is conditioned by the type of animal and the location in which interactions occur, these in turn are influenced by human activity. The activities people engage in are determined by social as well as contextual factors including gender, age, socio-economic status, occupation, social norms, settlement patterns and livelihood systems, family and community dynamics, as well as national and global influences. This paper proposes an expanded "One Health" conceptual model for human-animal exposure that accounts for social as well as epidemiologic factors. The expanded model informed a new study approach to document the extent of human exposure to animals and explore the interplay of social and environmental factors that influence risk of transmission at the individual and community level. The approach includes a formative phase using qualitative and participatory methods, and a representative, random sample survey to quantify exposure to animals in a variety of settings. The paper discusses the different factors that were considered in developing the approach, including the range of animals asked about and the parameters of exposure that are included, as well as factors to be considered in local adaptation of the generic instruments. Illustrative results from research using this approach in Lao PDR are presented to demonstrate the effect of social factors on how people interact with animals. We believe that the expanded model can be similarly operationalized to explore the interactions of other social and policy-level determinants that may influence transmission of zoonoses. PMID:25464873

  14. An expanded One Health model: integrating social science and One Health to inform study of the human-animal interface.

    PubMed

    Woldehanna, Sara; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Zoonotic disease emergence is not a purely biological process mediated only by ecologic factors; opportunities for transmission of zoonoses from animals to humans also depend on how people interact with animals. While exposure is conditioned by the type of animal and the location in which interactions occur, these in turn are influenced by human activity. The activities people engage in are determined by social as well as contextual factors including gender, age, socio-economic status, occupation, social norms, settlement patterns and livelihood systems, family and community dynamics, as well as national and global influences. This paper proposes an expanded "One Health" conceptual model for human-animal exposure that accounts for social as well as epidemiologic factors. The expanded model informed a new study approach to document the extent of human exposure to animals and explore the interplay of social and environmental factors that influence risk of transmission at the individual and community level. The approach includes a formative phase using qualitative and participatory methods, and a representative, random sample survey to quantify exposure to animals in a variety of settings. The paper discusses the different factors that were considered in developing the approach, including the range of animals asked about and the parameters of exposure that are included, as well as factors to be considered in local adaptation of the generic instruments. Illustrative results from research using this approach in Lao PDR are presented to demonstrate the effect of social factors on how people interact with animals. We believe that the expanded model can be similarly operationalized to explore the interactions of other social and policy-level determinants that may influence transmission of zoonoses.

  15. [Biotechnology and animal health].

    PubMed

    Desmettre, P

    1993-06-01

    The development of the first vaccines for use in animals, by Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th Century, was an initial step in applying biotechnology to animal health. However, it is only much more recently that decisive progress has been made in finding applications for biotechnology, in both detecting and preventing infectious and parasitic diseases. This progress has shown the way to developing a range of procedures, the application of which will benefit the health of domestic and wild animals, enhance the well-being of companion animals, develop the performance of sporting animals and improve the productivity of farm animals, while also serving to protect human health. Such progress results from the increasingly rapid application of knowledge gained in the material and life sciences, all of which contribute to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Similarly, reagents and diagnostic techniques have been made more specific, sensitive, reproducible, rapid and robust by updating them through recent discoveries in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology (monoclonal antibodies, nucleic probes, deoxyribonucleic acid amplification and many more). The development of new vaccines which combine efficacy, duration of protection, innocuity, stability, multivalence and ease of use (subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines and anti-idiotype vaccines) has resulted from recent progress in immunology, immunochemistry, molecular biology and biochemistry. Finally, the availability of new anti-infective, anti-parasitic agents and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents (capable of stimulating the specific and non-specific defence mechanisms of the body) demonstrates that biotechnology is continuing to find new applications in the field of animal health. New diagnostic techniques, vaccines and therapeutic substances are the most immediate applications of knowledge which may, in the future, extend to the development of transgenic animals of revised

  16. 78 FR 27183 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... calf health from birth to weaning; Describe antibiotic use and residue prevention methods used to ensure milk and meat quality; and Estimate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns...

  17. World Organisation for Animal Health

    MedlinePlus

    World Organisation for Animal Health Home About us Presentation Director general office Biography Photos Strategic plan Our ... Food safety and animal welfare History General organisation World Assembly Council Headquarters OIE Regional Representations OIE Regional ...

  18. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  19. The OIE World Animal Health Information System: the role of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres in disease reporting.

    PubMed

    Ben Jebara, K

    2010-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is to ensure transparency in and knowledge of the world animal health situation. To achieve this objective, the OIE relies on its network of Member Countries, which is complemented by the activities of 221 Reference Laboratories (RLs) and Collaborating Centres. The RL mandate states that, in the case of positive results for diseases notifiable to the OIE, the laboratory should inform the OIE Delegate of the Member Country from which the samples originated and send a copy of the information to OIE Headquarters. However, since 2006 the OIE has received a lower than expected number of notifications from RLs, which implies eitherthat the majority of samples are sent to national laboratories or that some RLs are not fully complying with their mandate. The OIE sent a questionnaire to RLs in preparation for the Second Global Conference of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres (Paris, France, 21-23 June 2010). Two main factors emerged: the need for RLs to clarify their role and responsibilities in disease reporting and the need for an awareness campaign to sensitise national Veterinary Services to the importance of conducting more surveillance (and consequently of submitting samples to RLs) for all OIE-listed diseases. Reference laboratories indicated two main reasons for not sharing more data on positive samples with the OIE: i) a perceived contradiction between their mandate as OIE RLs and the standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) dealing with confidentiality; and ii) certain Member Countries or stakeholders asking RLs not to share positive results with the OIE, for political or economic reasons. The OIE has put forward proposals to help RLs resolve these problems in future. The use of ISO standards must be clarified and there must be improved communication between the OIE and its RLs. A lack of transparency about a significant disease event can

  20. The animal health foresight project.

    PubMed

    Willis, Norman G

    2007-01-01

    The Animal Health Foresight Project was co-sponsored by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). This study is the most recent of a series of four international workshops of the International Working Group on Animal Disposal Alternatives (IWADA), created to determine alternative options for effective disease control without mass animal destruction. The study employed foresight technology to stimulate new thinking using the future perspective tools of challenge questions and scenario development. A total of 43 Canadian and American participants from industry, academia, the public and government made their contributions over the duration of four meetings. The group developed and analysed eight pictures of possible futures. Ten conclusions were formulated. Fundamental to these conclusions was the recognition of a need for a conceptual change to the management of animal health, a new paradigm. This paradigm was a policy change to the management of risks rather than disease elimination, a change in the roles for the establishment of policy and a convergence of animal health and public health. The new paradigm was incorporated into a hierarchy of decision-making options, out of which five principles for alternatives to mass animal destruction were identified.

  1. [Animal Health Law-- the National Animal Health Act and the European Animal Health Law].

    PubMed

    Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Mettenleiter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Animal Health Act that replaces the Animal Disease Act, which is currently in force, creates a regulatory framework in order to not only, as has been the case so far, control animal diseases that had already broken out, but in order to already prevent in advance possible outbreaks of animal diseases by means of preventive measures. The instruments to this effect are described here. At European level, too, the idea of prevention is set to play a greater role in the future, with the draft EU legal instrument on animal health, that has to date only been discussed at Commission level, also contributing to a simplification and easier implementation by the persons subject to law by harmonising the currently fragmented Community law. It remains to be seen when the deliberations in the Council and European Parliament will begin.

  2. [Poultry husbandry and animal health].

    PubMed

    Neumann, U

    2003-08-01

    Close interactions are existing between poultry husbandry and poultry health. The more housing systems and the environment of the animals can be controlled, the less the general risk of disorders in poultry flocks--especially of diseases which are caused by the introduction of microoganisms. Resulting deterimental effects will affect not only the animals themselves, but also pose a risk indirectly for humans via food originating from animals under production. Also, by keeping the risk of infections as low as possible, the use of therapeutics can be avoided. This will reduce the risk of residues in food of animal origin. In summary, with all probability open poultry husbandry systems, especially those including free range systems pose increased risks for poultry health and consequently for the quality of food originating from poultry production. At least, those systems require highest standards of biosecurity, defined as management, location, farm layout, cleaning and desinfection incl. pest control programs, immunization and specific veterinary monitoring concepts to prevent infections.

  3. Health implications of animal hoarding.

    PubMed

    2002-05-01

    Animal hoarding is a poorly understood phenomenon, the public health implications of which are not well documented. In this study, professionals dealing with hoarding cases submitted 71 case report forms. The hoarders' residences were characterized by extreme clutter and poor sanitation that impaired ability to maintain functional households. Appliances and utilities were frequently nonfunctional, and animal excrement sometimes accumulated to the extent that the homes were unfit for human habitation. The majority of cases satisfied criteria for adult self-neglect, and dependent elderly people, children, or disabled individuals were present in many of the residences. Animal hoarding may be a sentinel for a range of medical, social, and economic problems. More research addressing the causes and features of animal hoarding is needed to shed light on appropriate interventions.

  4. Links among human health, animal health, and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Conti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In the face of growing world human and animal populations and rapid environmental change, the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health are becoming more evident. Because animals and humans have shared risk to health from changing environments, it seems logical to expand the perspective of public health beyond a single species to detect and manage emerging public health threats. Mitigating the effects of climate change, emerging pathogens, toxicant releases, and changes in the built environment requires a retooling of global public health resources and capabilities across multiple species. Furthermore, human and animal health professionals must overcome specific barriers to interprofessional collaboration to implement needed health strategies. This review outlines the relationships between human, animal, and ecosystem health and the public health challenges and opportunities that these links present.

  5. National Health Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... About ODPHP Dietary Guidelines Physical Activity Guidelines Health Literacy and Communication Health Care Quality and Patient Safety Healthy People healthfinder health.gov About ODPHP National Health Information Center National Health Information Center The National Health ...

  6. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  7. 77 FR 77003 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Disease Traceability Information Systems... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to strengthen its animal disease prevention and response... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the animal disease traceability data systems, contact Mr....

  8. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Cancer.gov

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  9. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health

  10. 76 FR 34031 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of... Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention...

  11. Use of information on disease diagnoses from databases for animal health economic, welfare and food safety purposes: strengths and limitations of recordings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many animal health, welfare and food safety databases include data on clinical and test-based disease diagnoses. However, the circumstances and constraints for establishing the diagnoses vary considerably among databases. Therefore results based on different databases are difficult to compare and compilation of data in order to perform meta-analysis is almost impossible. Nevertheless, diagnostic information collected either routinely or in research projects is valuable in cross comparisons between databases, but there is a need for improved transparency and documentation of the data and the performance characteristics of tests used to establish diagnoses. The objective of this paper is to outline the circumstances and constraints for recording of disease diagnoses in different types of databases, and to discuss these in the context of disease diagnoses when using them for additional purposes, including research. Finally some limitations and recommendations for use of data and for recording of diagnostic information in the future are given. It is concluded that many research questions have such a specific objective that investigators need to collect their own data. However, there are also examples, where a minimal amount of extra information or continued validation could make sufficient improvement of secondary data to be used for other purposes. Regardless, researchers should always carefully evaluate the opportunities and constraints when they decide to use secondary data. If the data in the existing databases are not sufficiently valid, researchers may have to collect their own data, but improved recording of diagnostic data may improve the usefulness of secondary diagnostic data in the future. PMID:21999520

  12. Working together to safeguard animal health.

    PubMed

    Gibbens, Nigel

    2016-02-13

    Nigel Gibbens, the UK's Chief Veterinary Officer, gives an update on some of the areas of animal health and welfare of particular interest to government and considers how farmers, vets and government can work together to control and respond to animal disease. PMID:26868238

  13. Animal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?

    PubMed

    Nicks, B; Vandenheede, M

    2014-04-01

    The concepts of 'health' and 'welfare', whether applied to humans or animals, are increasingly becoming linked. But are they really indissociable, or even synonymous? Although human health is generally defined as a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, animal health is still considered as simply the absence of disease. However, recent advances in scientific knowledge are forcing us to revise our ideas about the mental complexity of animals and to recognise their ability to feel emotions and to have needs and a degree of consciousness. The precise objective of animal welfare science is to study their mental states and their ability to adapt to domestication. Pending a global application of this concept of health, including mental health, to animals as well as to humans, the idea of welfare remains an important element in addition to traditional health concerns. More generally, this linkage fuels the ethical debate about the ways in which people use animals, prompting society to change its stance on some aspects of the issue.

  14. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  15. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  16. 76 FR 315 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ..., monitor, control, or eradicate animal diseases of national importance. In doing so, the Committee will.... Tentative topics for discussion at the upcoming meeting include: Animal disease traceability. Aquaculture... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health;...

  17. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Focus Animal Health Animal Welfare Biotechnology Business Services Civil Rights Emergency Response Imports & Exports International Services Plant ... Focus Animal Health Animal Welfare Biotechnology Business Services Civil Rights Emergency Response Imports & Exports International Services Plant ...

  18. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium.

  19. Your Health Information Rights

    MedlinePlus

    ... complaint with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office for Civil Rights or your State's Attorneys General Office. Are State ... Rights . Protect Patients’ Health Information and Their Privacy Rights The US Dept. of Health and Human Services has just released the latest version of ...

  20. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics.

  1. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics. PMID:27344143

  2. [Role of vaccination in animal health].

    PubMed

    Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    According to the IFAH, veterinary vaccines currently account for 26% of the global market in veterinary medicines, reflecting the importance of vaccines in animal health, as well as the number of wild and domesticated target species, and the monospecific nature of most vaccines. Multispecies vaccines include tetanus and rabies. In 2010, the number of food-producing animals was estimated to be roughly 20 billion and is rising gradually. Fowl currently represent the main food species. Veterinary vaccination has allowed the eradication of rinderpest, as officially declared last year (2011), jointly by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Rinderpest was a real scourge, and was only the second viral disease to be totally eradicated (after human smallpox). One characteristic of veterinary vaccination is the DIVA approach, "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals". The DIVA strategy is especially interesting for regulated control of diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and classical swine fever. DIVA vaccination requires prior serological testing. Vaccination is also used for wild animals such as foxes (rabies) and wild boars (classical swine fever). "In ovo" vaccination of fowl on day 18 of the incubation period is used to prevent Marek's disease for instance, and double vaccination (vector and insert) to prevent both Marek's disease and Gumboro's disease in fowl. Animal vaccination can also help to protect human health, as illustrated by fowl vaccination against salmonellosis. PMID:23472348

  3. Current status of regulating biotechnology-derived animals in Canada: animal health and food safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, H P S; Evans, B R

    2007-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are 'novel' organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. It is a challenge for the developers to prove the safety of the products of biotechnology-derived animals and also for regulators to regulate this increasingly powerful technology with limited background information. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those posing an unacceptable risk. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should be able to ensure high standards for human and animal health, a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement, and maintenance of genetic diversity. This review proposes a regulatory regime that is based on scientific risk based assessment and approval of products or by-products of biotechnology-derived animals and its application in context to Canadian regulations.

  4. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  5. 76 FR 28910 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 71, 77, 78, and 90 Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. In this document, we provide a new date...

  6. 75 FR 52709 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Animals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Animals and Poultry, Animal and Poultry Products, Certain Animal Embryos, Semen, and Zoological Animals AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  7. Health Information Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of health information technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 14 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 6 units specific to the occupation of emergency medical technician. The following…

  8. 'Next-Generation' Surveillance: An Epidemiologists' Perspective on the Use of Molecular Information in Food Safety and Animal Health Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Muellner, P; Stärk, K D C; Dufour, S; Zadoks, R N

    2016-08-01

    Advances in the availability and affordability of molecular and genomic data are transforming human health care. Surveillance aimed at supporting and improving food safety and animal health is likely to undergo a similar transformation. We propose a definition of 'molecular surveillance' in this context and argue that molecular data are an adjunct to rather than a substitute for sound epidemiological study and surveillance design. Specific considerations with regard to sample collection are raised, as is the importance of the relation between the molecular clock speed of genetic markers and the spatiotemporal scale of the surveillance activity, which can be control- or strategy-focused. Development of standards for study design and assessment of molecular surveillance system attributes is needed, together with development of an interdisciplinary skills base covering both molecular and epidemiological principles. PMID:26537766

  9. Information in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeda, Tadashi A.

    The report stresses the fact that while there is unity in the continuum of medicine, information in health care is markedly different from information in medical education and research. This difference is described as an anomaly in that it appears to deviate in excess of normal variation from needs common to research and education. In substance,…

  10. Health information services technologies.

    PubMed

    McCracken, S B

    1996-01-01

    Increasing demands for provider profiling have led to the growth of health information services units within payers and health plans. An important decision faced by these groups is whether to buy or build the information infrastructure necessary to support the activities of the department. The article offers an overview of a system that was collaboratively designed and built by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Iowa and the Dartmouth Medical School. A case study illustrating the flexibility of the information system in adapting ambulatory care groups to the fee-for-service payer industry is reviewed. PMID:10154373

  11. 76 FR 57682 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... prevent, conduct surveillance on, monitor, control, or eradicate animal diseases of national importance... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 71, 77, 78, and 90 Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  12. 76 FR 63210 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ..., or eradicate animal diseases of national importance. In doing so, the Committee will consider public... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 71, 77, 78, and 90 Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  13. Health Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Artz, David R

    2015-06-01

    This article provides surgical pathologists an overview of health information systems (HISs): what they are, what they do, and how such systems relate to the practice of surgical pathology. Much of this article is dedicated to the electronic medical record. Information, in how it is captured, transmitted, and conveyed, drives the effectiveness of such electronic medical record functionalities. So critical is information from pathology in integrated clinical care that surgical pathologists are becoming gatekeepers of not only tissue but also information. Better understanding of HISs can empower surgical pathologists to become stakeholders who have an impact on the future direction of quality integrated clinical care.

  14. Climate change and animal health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, P; Coetzer, J A W

    2008-08-01

    Climate change is expected to have direct and indirect impacts on African livestock. Direct impacts include increased ambient temperature, floods and droughts. Indirect impacts are the result of reduced availability of water and forage and changes in the environment that promote the spread of contagious diseases through increased contact between animals, or increased survival or availability of the agent or its intermediate host. The distribution and prevalence of vector-borne diseases may be the most significant effect of climate change. The potential vulnerability of the livestock industry will depend on its ability to adapt to such changes. Enhancing this adaptive capacity presents a practical way of coping with climate change. Adaptive capacity could be increased by enabling the African livestock owner to cope better with animal health problems through appropriate policy measures and institutional support. Developing an effective and sustainable animal health service, associated surveillance and emergency preparedness systems and sustainable disease control and prevention programmes is perhaps the most important strategy for dealing with climate change in many African countries.

  15. [Desertification and animal health in the Sahel].

    PubMed

    Blajan, L

    1991-09-01

    This article reviews the causes of desertification proposed by various authors. For a long time, overgrazing of pastures in the Sahel was considered responsible for rapid degradation of the soil. Consequently, the owners of livestock have been accused of enlarging their flocks, and animal husbandry services of involuntary complicity, since their action has reduced the occurrence of epizootics which used to decimate the flocks. The underlying causes of overstocking of pastures and of desertification are in fact multiple and intertwined: population pressure, drought, changes in land ownership systems, social changes. For this reason, the problems of animal production cannot be treated in isolation, and strategies devised by numerous organisations for combating desertification are taking into account the different causes of a situation which can be described, without exaggeration, as a catastrophe. So far there has been no consensus on a given strategy, and results seem to be disappointing, perhaps because the resources have been inadequate, and the schemes have not been supported by the populations involved. Moreover, projects conceived on a global and theoretical basis may not cater for the diversity of actual situations. In contrast, animal health actions, by their concrete nature, directly involve nomadic and sedentary owners of animals and motivate the populations. They remain an indispensable factor in the development of livestock husbandry and its necessary integration with agriculture where both activities can coexist. They are also a preliminary step to intensification in pastoral zones, which makes better management of forage resources possible. PMID:1782419

  16. Connecting for health literacy: health information partners.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Karyn L; Muhammad, Abdul-Ali; Downey, Stacey; Kind, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a community-based health information partnership to address health literacy and health information inequalities in marginalized communities. Public health, medical, literacy, and library practitioners promote health literacy through outreach, training, and professional development activities in community settings. They create learning environments for people to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to better understand health information and health policy so they can make decisions concerning personal and community health. Outreach activities focus on visits to neighborhood health centers, health fairs, health exhibits at union meetings and conferences; training programs involve hands-on, peer-led computer classes for people living with HIV and for the general public; and professional development programs connect librarians, health providers, public health workers, and literacy teachers in joint planning and learning. Several learners currently participate in and lead community health education programs and HIV advocacy. The coalition's strength develops from strongly shared objectives, an absence of territoriality, and a core active leadership group.

  17. Internet Use for Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Services Utilization > Internet use for Health Information Internet use for Health Information Narrative Due in part to the growth in high-speed broadband, wireless networks, and mobile ...

  18. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  19. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  20. Nitrite in feed: from animal health to human health.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Cottrill, Bruce; van Peteghem, Carlos; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  1. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  2. Nitrite in feed: from animal health to human health.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Cottrill, Bruce; van Peteghem, Carlos; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  3. A framework for the animal health risk analysis of biotechnology-derived animals: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Moreau, P I; Jordan, L T

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the framework used by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency to assess the risks to animal health associated with biotechnology-derived animals and their products. In Canada the risks to animal health associated with biotechnology-derived animals are one consideration among several other regulatory concerns (e.g. human health, the environment). The risk analysis process begins with hazard identification, includes a risk assessment for each hazard, and concludes with risk management and risk communication.

  4. Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

    1999-01-01

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

  5. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  6. Science to support aquatic animal health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  7. Science to Support Aquatic Animal Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  8. 21 CFR 501.2 - Information panel of package for animal food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information panel of package for animal food. 501.2 Section 501.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions §...

  9. 21 CFR 501.2 - Information panel of package for animal food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information panel of package for animal food. 501.2 Section 501.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions §...

  10. 21 CFR 501.2 - Information panel of package for animal food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information panel of package for animal food. 501.2 Section 501.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions §...

  11. 21 CFR 501.2 - Information panel of package for animal food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information panel of package for animal food. 501.2 Section 501.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions §...

  12. 21 CFR 501.2 - Information panel of package for animal food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information panel of package for animal food. 501.2 Section 501.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions §...

  13. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  14. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  15. Industrial Food Animal Production and Community Health.

    PubMed

    Casey, Joan A; Kim, Brent F; Larsen, Jesper; Price, Lance B; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-09-01

    Industrial food animal production (IFAP) is a source of environmental microbial and chemical hazards. A growing body of literature suggests that populations living near these operations and manure-applied crop fields are at elevated risk for several health outcomes. We reviewed the literature published since 2000 and identified four health outcomes consistently and positively associated with living near IFAP: respiratory outcomes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Q fever, and stress/mood. We found moderate evidence of an association of IFAP with quality of life and limited evidence of an association with cognitive impairment, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus, birth outcomes, and hypertension. Distance-based exposure metrics were used by 17/33 studies reviewed. Future work should investigate exposure through drinking water and must improve exposure assessment with direct environmental sampling, modeling, and high-resolution DNA typing methods. Investigators should not limit study to high-profile pathogens like MRSA but include a broader range of pathogens, as well as other disease outcomes.

  16. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental

  17. Consumer Health Information: A Prognosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fecher, Ellen

    1985-01-01

    This essay focuses on types of health information the public is seeking and sources for obtaining health data. Discussion of librarian's role in providing health information covers legal entanglements, reference interview, collections and services provided by academic health science libraries, hospital libraries, and public libraries, and future…

  18. General public health considerations for responding to animal hoarding cases.

    PubMed

    Castrodale, Louisa; Bellay, Yvonne M; Brown, Catherine M; Cantor, Fredric L; Gibbins, John D; Headrick, Marcia L; Leslie, Mira J; MacMahon, Kathleen; O'Quin, Jeanette M; Patronek, Gary J; Silva, Rodrigo A; Wright, James C; Yu, Diana T

    2010-03-01

    Animal hoarding is an under-recognized problem that exists in most communities and adversely impacts the health, welfare, and safety of humans, animals, and the environment. These guidelines address public health and worker safety concerns in handling situations where animal hoarding or other dense concentrations of animals have caused unhealthy and unsafe conditions. Because animal hoarding situations are often complex, a full response is likely to be prolonged and require a cross-jurisdictional multiagency effort. Each animal hoarding case has unique circumstances related to the types and numbers of animals involved, the physical structure(s) where they are being kept, and the health status of the animals, among other factors that must be taken into account in planning a response. Some general public health considerations and associated recommendations for personal protective equipment use are presented that apply to all cases, however.

  19. Rural Health Information Hub

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am I Rural? Economic ... toolkits like the Services Integration Toolkit in the Rural Community Health Gateway . Finding Statistics & Data Learn how to ...

  20. Health Information Needs of Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To understand the views of men and service providers concerning the health information needs of men. Design: A men's health programme was implemented aimed at developing new health information resources designed for use by local organizations with men in socially disadvantaged groups. Research was carried out at the scoping stage…

  1. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S; Kline, Joel N; Avery, Rachel; Bønløkke, Jakob H; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Dosman, James A; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A

    2007-02-01

    Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782

  2. Health Effects of Airborne Exposures from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S.; Kline, Joel N.; Avery, Rachel; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Dosman, James A.; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R.; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782

  3. 77 FR 30993 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., livestock disease management and traceability strategies, prioritizing animal health imperatives, and other...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  4. [Animal- assisted therapy in health care facilities].

    PubMed

    Jofré M, Leonor

    2005-09-01

    Animal-assisted therapy is a novel interventional program with important benefits in the management of patients with chronic diseases and prolonged hospitalization. The relationship between animals and patients facilitates adaptation to a new, stressing hospital environment, helps in diminishing anxiety, stress, pain and blood pressure and increases mobility and muscular strength. This therapy can be developed by pets themselves or by specially trained animals. Dogs are the most frequently used animals because of their training and sociability skills. Patients and animals participating in these programs require special care in order to avoid transmission of infectious diseases associated with pets, hypersensitivity and accidents during their visits. Implementation of animal - assisted therapy in care centers requires a permanent revision of suggested guidelines and program objectives. PMID:16077894

  5. 78 FR 32234 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection: Public Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Collection: Public Health Information System--Animal Disposition Reporting AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... meat, poultry, exotic animal, and rabbit slaughter for the Public Health Information System--Animal... Information System-- Animal Disposition Reporting. Type of Request: Extension of an approved...

  6. [Exotic animals in the animal business and husbandry: poultry in view of welfare and health].

    PubMed

    Vinke, C M; Spruijt, B M

    1999-09-01

    The market for exotic animals is very diverse. Because it is often not known what happens to the animals during their capture, transport, and storage, in 1997 we carried out a study on the health and welfare of these animals. During the course of this study we controlled the transport of exotic animals and visited several dealers and owners. Many of the health problems of these animals can be related to the accumulation of stressors that the animals experience during the trade process. Examples of these stressors are physical injury, overcrowding, dehydration, and long journeys. Transport in itself is an important emotional stressor. Health problems caused by stress, which can lead to premature death, often become apparent only after the animal has been sold as pet.

  7. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  8. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  9. Animal health and the trade in aquatic animals within and to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Daelman, W

    1996-06-01

    The creation of a single European market has significantly extended the scope of veterinary animal and public health legislation. This extension includes aquatic animals, and a comprehensive set of directives and decisions has been developed to ensure free circulation of aquaculture animals and their products, while guaranteeing a high level of animal health. At the same time, and in the same context, other directives have been adopted which organise checks on animals and products within and to the European Union (EU), as well as accompanying financial measures. Animal health legislation for the movement of aquaculture animals is also based on a number of principles, including the following: --the definition of important pathogens and their hosts --zoning (regionalisation)--the obligation for EU Member States to move animals only from areas or farms with high health status to and between areas and farms with equal or lower health status--the prescription of a testing regime to improve animal health status in zones or farms. In addition, disease control prescriptions have been established or are being considered for adoption. These include the establishment of national and EU reference laboratories, as well as the application of contingency plans and the measures to be taken in the event of a disease outbreak. PMID:8890390

  10. Information Scaffolding: Application to Technical Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Catherine Claire

    2010-01-01

    Information Scaffolding is a user-centered approach to information design; a method devised to aid "everyday" authors in information composition. Information Scaffolding places a premium on audience-centered documents by emphasizing the information needs and motivations of a multimedia document's intended audience. The aim of this…

  11. Improving animal health for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Andy

    2014-11-29

    Animals are vital to ensuring food security for individuals, families and communities in countries around the world. In this, the latest article in Veterinary Record's series promoting One Health, Andy Stringer, director of veterinary programmes at the Society for the Protection of Animals Abroad, discusses how improving animal health, particularly of poultry and working equids, has the potential to reduce poverty and promote food security and sustainable livelihoods in low-income countries. PMID:25431381

  12. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  13. Evaluating Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... information reviewed before it is posted? Be skeptical. Things that sound too good to be true often are. You want current, unbiased information based on research. NIH: National Library of Medicine

  14. Issues and special features of animal health research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes. PMID:21864344

  15. Issues and special features of animal health research.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Béringue, Vincent; Coulon, Jean-Baptiste; Fourichon, Christine; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Krebs, Stéphane; Rainard, Pascal; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Torny, Didier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Zientara, Stephan; Zundel, Etienne; Pineau, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare.Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context.Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents.The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes. PMID:21864344

  16. Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Garrett, E S; dos Santos, C L; Jahncke, M L

    1997-01-01

    Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animal health, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture.

  17. Health information seeking in the information society.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abir; Bawden, David

    2012-09-01

    This article is the second student contribution to the Dissertations into Practice feature. It reports on a study that investigated the everyday health information-seeking practices of a small group of the 'general public' and the implications for information-seeking theory and health information provision. The first student article, about the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in a hospital library, was very different, and the two articles illustrate the broad spectrum of possible subjects for the Dissertations into Practice feature. This study was conducted in summer 2011 by Abir Mukherjee for his MSc dissertation in the Library and Information Sciences programme at City University London. Further information and copies of the full dissertation may be obtained from Abir Mukherjee or David Bawden. AM. PMID:22925387

  18. Health information seeking in the information society.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abir; Bawden, David

    2012-09-01

    This article is the second student contribution to the Dissertations into Practice feature. It reports on a study that investigated the everyday health information-seeking practices of a small group of the 'general public' and the implications for information-seeking theory and health information provision. The first student article, about the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in a hospital library, was very different, and the two articles illustrate the broad spectrum of possible subjects for the Dissertations into Practice feature. This study was conducted in summer 2011 by Abir Mukherjee for his MSc dissertation in the Library and Information Sciences programme at City University London. Further information and copies of the full dissertation may be obtained from Abir Mukherjee or David Bawden. AM.

  19. Managing animal health from an aquaculture perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is the production of aquatic animals for food. The aquaculture industry is a rapidly expanding segment of U. S. agriculture and NOAA estimated the industry was worth $1.2 billion in 2011. Disease related losses in aquaculture either by decreased performance and/or mortality is estimate...

  20. 75 FR 15673 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Export Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Export Health Certificate for Animal Products AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of approval of an information collection; comment request. SUMMARY:...

  1. Science, politics and animal health policy: epidemiology in action.

    PubMed

    Hueston, W D

    2003-07-30

    Public policy decisions underlie society's response to current animal health issues ranging from emerging diseases and public health threats to food safety concerns and sustainable animal agriculture strategies. Despite strong calls for "science-based" decisions, animal health policy most commonly emerges at the interface of science and politics. Too often scientists' disdain for politics limits their involvement in formulating policy. By contrast, epidemiologists are ideally qualified to bring scientific skills to complex policy issues through analytical, macro-epidemiological approaches that consider the economic, legal, and cultural context of policy issues as well as the biological and medical aspects. Risk analysis provides a systematic approach to evaluating animal health issues and comparing policy options. Capturing these opportunities for applied epidemiology requires an understanding of the policy-making process as well as the basic principles of epidemiology. Furthermore, epidemiology training programs must incorporate communications skill building and experiential learning opportunities in a team environment.

  2. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    PubMed

    Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians.

  3. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  4. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  5. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  6. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  7. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  8. Health Information Economy: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. Methods: This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Results: Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. Conclusion: According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science. PMID:26153182

  9. Food for thought: food systems, livestock futures and animal health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Global food security, livestock production and animal health are inextricably bound. However, our focus on the future tends to disaggregate food and health into largely separate domains. Indeed, much foresight work is either food systems or health-based with little overlap in terms of predictions or narratives. Work on animal health is no exception. Part of the problem is the fundamental misunderstanding of the role, nature and impact of the modern futures tool kit. Here, I outline three key issues in futures research ranging from methodological confusion over the application of scenarios to the failure to effectively integrate multiple methodologies to the gap between the need for more evidence and power and control over futures processes. At its core, however, a better understanding of the narrative and worldview framing much of the futures work in animal health is required to enhance the value and impact of such exercises. PMID:23988197

  10. Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale. PMID:22446060

  11. Containment and competition: transgenic animals in the One Health agenda.

    PubMed

    Lezaun, Javier; Porter, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    The development of the One World, One Health agenda coincides in time with the appearance of a different model for the management of human-animal relations: the genetic manipulation of animal species in order to curtail their ability as carriers of human pathogens. In this paper we examine two examples of this emergent transgenic approach to disease control: the development of transgenic chickens incapable of shedding avian flu viruses, and the creation of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to dengue or malaria infection. Our analysis elaborates three distinctions between the One World, One Health agenda and its transgenic counterpoint. The first concerns the conceptualization of outbreaks and the forms of surveillance that support disease control efforts. The second addresses the nature of the interspecies interface, and the relative role of humans and animals in preventing pathogen transmission. The third axis of comparison considers the proprietary dimensions of transgenic animals and their implications for the assumed public health ethos of One Health programs. We argue that the fundamental difference between these two approaches to infectious disease control can be summarized as one between strategies of containment and strategies of competition. While One World, One Health programs seek to establish an equilibrium in the human-animal interface in order to contain the circulation of pathogens across species, transgenic strategies deliberately trigger a new ecological dynamic by introducing novel animal varieties designed to out-compete pathogen-carrying hosts and vectors. In other words, while One World, One Health policies focus on introducing measures of inter-species containment, transgenic approaches derive their prophylactic benefit from provoking new cycles of intra-species competition between GM animals and their wild-type counterparts. The coexistence of these divergent health protection strategies, we suggest, helps to elucidate enduring tensions and

  12. Containment and competition: transgenic animals in the One Health agenda.

    PubMed

    Lezaun, Javier; Porter, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    The development of the One World, One Health agenda coincides in time with the appearance of a different model for the management of human-animal relations: the genetic manipulation of animal species in order to curtail their ability as carriers of human pathogens. In this paper we examine two examples of this emergent transgenic approach to disease control: the development of transgenic chickens incapable of shedding avian flu viruses, and the creation of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to dengue or malaria infection. Our analysis elaborates three distinctions between the One World, One Health agenda and its transgenic counterpoint. The first concerns the conceptualization of outbreaks and the forms of surveillance that support disease control efforts. The second addresses the nature of the interspecies interface, and the relative role of humans and animals in preventing pathogen transmission. The third axis of comparison considers the proprietary dimensions of transgenic animals and their implications for the assumed public health ethos of One Health programs. We argue that the fundamental difference between these two approaches to infectious disease control can be summarized as one between strategies of containment and strategies of competition. While One World, One Health programs seek to establish an equilibrium in the human-animal interface in order to contain the circulation of pathogens across species, transgenic strategies deliberately trigger a new ecological dynamic by introducing novel animal varieties designed to out-compete pathogen-carrying hosts and vectors. In other words, while One World, One Health policies focus on introducing measures of inter-species containment, transgenic approaches derive their prophylactic benefit from provoking new cycles of intra-species competition between GM animals and their wild-type counterparts. The coexistence of these divergent health protection strategies, we suggest, helps to elucidate enduring tensions and

  13. Producing patient-avatar identification in animation video information on spinal anesthesia by different narrative strategies.

    PubMed

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Vesterby, Martin; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup

    2016-06-01

    Visual approaches to health information reduce complexity and may bridge challenges in health literacy. But the mechanisms and meanings of using animated video in communication with patients undergoing surgery are not well described. By comparing two versions of a two-dimensional animated video on spinal anesthesia, this study tested the patient-avatar identification within two different narrative models. To explore the perspectives of total hip arthroplasty, we employed qualitative methods of interviews and ethnographic observation. The animated presentation of the spinal anesthesia procedure was immediately recognized by all participants as reflecting their experience of the procedure independent of the narrative form. The avatar gender did not affect this identification. We found no preference for either narrative form. This study supports the potential of animation video in health informatics as a didactic model for qualifying patient behavior. Animation video creates a high degree of identification that may work to reduce pre-surgical anxiety.

  14. Producing patient-avatar identification in animation video information on spinal anesthesia by different narrative strategies.

    PubMed

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Vesterby, Martin; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup

    2016-06-01

    Visual approaches to health information reduce complexity and may bridge challenges in health literacy. But the mechanisms and meanings of using animated video in communication with patients undergoing surgery are not well described. By comparing two versions of a two-dimensional animated video on spinal anesthesia, this study tested the patient-avatar identification within two different narrative models. To explore the perspectives of total hip arthroplasty, we employed qualitative methods of interviews and ethnographic observation. The animated presentation of the spinal anesthesia procedure was immediately recognized by all participants as reflecting their experience of the procedure independent of the narrative form. The avatar gender did not affect this identification. We found no preference for either narrative form. This study supports the potential of animation video in health informatics as a didactic model for qualifying patient behavior. Animation video creates a high degree of identification that may work to reduce pre-surgical anxiety. PMID:25538108

  15. World Organisation for Animal Health: strengthening Veterinary Services for effective One Health collaboration.

    PubMed

    Corning, S

    2014-08-01

    To effectively reduce health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interface, a One Health strategy is crucially important to create strong national and regional animal health systems that are well coordinated with strong public health systems. Animal diseases, particularly those caused by new and emerging zoonotic pathogens, must be effectively controlled at their source to reduce their potentially devastating impact upon both animal and human health. As the international organisation responsible for developing standards, guidelines and recommendations for animal health, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) plays an important role in minimising animal and public health risks attributable to zoonoses and other animal diseases, which can have severe consequences for global food safety and security. National Veterinary Services, which implement OIE animal health and welfare standards and other measures, are the first line of defence against these diseases, and must have the capacity to meet the core requirements necessary for their diagnosis and control. The OIE works collaboratively with the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to improve the ability of national animal and public health systems to respond to current and emerging animal health risks with public health consequences. In addition to improving and aligning national laboratory capacities in high-risk areas, the OIE collaborates on One Health-oriented projects for key diseases, establishing model frameworks which can be applied to manage other existing and emerging priority diseases. This article reviews the role and activities of the OIE in strengthening the national Veterinary Services of its Member Countries for a more effective and sustainable One Health collaboration.

  16. World Organisation for Animal Health: strengthening Veterinary Services for effective One Health collaboration.

    PubMed

    Corning, S

    2014-08-01

    To effectively reduce health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interface, a One Health strategy is crucially important to create strong national and regional animal health systems that are well coordinated with strong public health systems. Animal diseases, particularly those caused by new and emerging zoonotic pathogens, must be effectively controlled at their source to reduce their potentially devastating impact upon both animal and human health. As the international organisation responsible for developing standards, guidelines and recommendations for animal health, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) plays an important role in minimising animal and public health risks attributable to zoonoses and other animal diseases, which can have severe consequences for global food safety and security. National Veterinary Services, which implement OIE animal health and welfare standards and other measures, are the first line of defence against these diseases, and must have the capacity to meet the core requirements necessary for their diagnosis and control. The OIE works collaboratively with the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to improve the ability of national animal and public health systems to respond to current and emerging animal health risks with public health consequences. In addition to improving and aligning national laboratory capacities in high-risk areas, the OIE collaborates on One Health-oriented projects for key diseases, establishing model frameworks which can be applied to manage other existing and emerging priority diseases. This article reviews the role and activities of the OIE in strengthening the national Veterinary Services of its Member Countries for a more effective and sustainable One Health collaboration. PMID:25707190

  17. Information Technology Outside Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Mark S.

    1999-01-01

    Non-health-care uses of information technology (IT) provide important lessons for health care informatics that are often overlooked because of the focus on the ways in which health care is different from other domains. Eight examples of IT use outside health care provide a context in which to examine the content and potential relevance of these lessons. Drawn from personal experience, five books, and two interviews, the examples deal with the role of leadership, academia, the private sector, the government, and individuals working in large organizations. The interviews focus on the need to manage technologic change. The lessons shed light on how to manage complexity, create and deploy standards, empower individuals, and overcome the occasional “wrongness” of conventional wisdom. One conclusion is that any health care informatics self-examination should be outward-looking and focus on the role of health care IT in the larger context of the evolving uses of IT in all domains. PMID:10495095

  18. Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

    2008-04-01

    A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

  19. Reported health conditions in animals residing near natural gas wells in southwestern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Slizovskiy, I B; Conti, L A; Trufan, S J; Reif, J S; Lamers, V T; Stowe, M H; Dziura, J; Rabinowitz, P M

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas extraction activities, including the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, may pose potential health risks to both human and animal populations in close proximity to sites of extraction activity. Because animals may have increased exposure to contaminated water and air as well as increased susceptibility to contaminant exposures compared to nearby humans, animal disease events in communities living near natural gas extraction may provide "sentinel" information useful for human health risk assessment. Community health evaluations as well as health impact assessments (HIAs) of natural gas exploration should therefore consider the inclusion of animal health metrics in their assessment process. We report on a community environmental health survey conducted in an area of active natural gas drilling, which included the collection of health data on 2452 companion and backyard animals residing in 157 randomly-selected households of Washington County, Pennsylvania (USA). There were a total of 127 reported health conditions, most commonly among dogs. When reports from all animals were considered, there were no significant associations between reported health condition and household proximity to natural gas wells. When dogs were analyzed separately, we found an elevated risk of 'any' reported health condition in households less than 1km from the nearest gas well (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.07-9.7), with dermal conditions being the most common of canine disorders. While these results should be considered hypothesis generating and preliminary, they suggest value in ongoing assessments of pet dogs as well as other animals to better elucidate the health impacts of natural gas extraction on nearby communities. PMID:25734823

  20. Reported health conditions in animals residing near natural gas wells in southwestern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Slizovskiy, I B; Conti, L A; Trufan, S J; Reif, J S; Lamers, V T; Stowe, M H; Dziura, J; Rabinowitz, P M

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas extraction activities, including the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, may pose potential health risks to both human and animal populations in close proximity to sites of extraction activity. Because animals may have increased exposure to contaminated water and air as well as increased susceptibility to contaminant exposures compared to nearby humans, animal disease events in communities living near natural gas extraction may provide "sentinel" information useful for human health risk assessment. Community health evaluations as well as health impact assessments (HIAs) of natural gas exploration should therefore consider the inclusion of animal health metrics in their assessment process. We report on a community environmental health survey conducted in an area of active natural gas drilling, which included the collection of health data on 2452 companion and backyard animals residing in 157 randomly-selected households of Washington County, Pennsylvania (USA). There were a total of 127 reported health conditions, most commonly among dogs. When reports from all animals were considered, there were no significant associations between reported health condition and household proximity to natural gas wells. When dogs were analyzed separately, we found an elevated risk of 'any' reported health condition in households less than 1km from the nearest gas well (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.07-9.7), with dermal conditions being the most common of canine disorders. While these results should be considered hypothesis generating and preliminary, they suggest value in ongoing assessments of pet dogs as well as other animals to better elucidate the health impacts of natural gas extraction on nearby communities.

  1. Using the Neptune project to benefit Australian aquatic animal health research.

    PubMed

    McNamara, M; Ernst, I; Adlard, R D

    2015-06-29

    Diseases of aquatic animals have had, and continue to have, a significant impact on aquatic animal health. In Australia, where fisheries and aquaculture are important industries, aquatic species have been subject to serious disease outbreaks, including pilchard herpesvirus, the cause of one of the largest wild fish kills ever recorded. At the same time, there is a consensus that Australia's parasite fauna are largely unknown, and that aquatic animal health information is difficult to access. Managing aquatic animal diseases is challenging because they may be entirely new, their hosts may be new to aquaculture, and specialist expertise and basic diagnostic tools may be lacking or absent. The Neptune project was created in response to these challenges, and it aims to increase awareness of aquatic animal diseases, improve disease management, and promote communication between aquatic animal health professionals in Australia. The project consists of an online database, a digital microscopy platform containing a whole-slide image library, a community space, and online communications technology. The database contains aquatic animal health information from published papers, government reports, and other sources, while the library contains slides of key diseases both endemic and exotic to Australia. These assets make Neptune a powerful resource for researchers, students, and biosecurity officials.

  2. The Health Information Technology Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that a competent and well-trained workforce is required for successful implementation of health information technology. Methods New and previous research was gathered through literature and Web searching as well as domain experts. Overall themes were extracted and specific data collated within each. Results There is still a paucity of research concerning the health information technology workforce. What research has been done can be classified into five categories: quantities and staffing ratios, job roles, gaps and growth, leadership qualifications, and education and competencies. From several countries it can be seen that substantial numbers of individuals are needed with diverse backgrounds and competencies. Conclusions Additional research is necessary to determine the optimal organization and education of the health information technology workforce. PMID:23616836

  3. 77 FR 55217 - Health Information Technology Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Information Technology Implementation AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services...

  4. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ankrom, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 33-45%) and 26% (95% CI: 21-31%), respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4%) in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%), and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%). Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopt certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers discussed these

  5. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ankrom, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 33–45%) and 26% (95% CI: 21–31%), respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4%) in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%), and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%). Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopt certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers discussed these

  6. Animal-assisted interventions as innovative tools for mental health.

    PubMed

    Cirulli, Francesca; Borgi, Marta; Berry, Alessandra; Francia, Nadia; Alleva, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the potential health benefits of human-animal interactions. Although scientific evidence on the effects is far from being consistent, companion animals are used with a large number of human subjects, ranging from children to elderly people, who benefit most from emotional support. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the potential for domesticated animals, such as dogs, for providing emotional and physical opportunities to enrich the lives of many frail subjects. In particular, we focus on innovative interventions, including the potential use of dogs to improve the life of emotionally-impaired children, such as those affected by autism spectrum disorders. Overall an ever increasing research effort is needed to search for the mechanism that lie behind the human-animal bond as well as to provide standardized methodologies for a cautious and effective use of animal-assisted interventions.

  7. Nutraceuticals in joint health: animal models as instrumental tools.

    PubMed

    Mével, Elsa; Monfoulet, Laurent-Emmanuel; Merceron, Christophe; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann; Beck, Laurent; Guicheux, Jérôme

    2014-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with no curative treatments. Many studies have begun to demonstrate the efficacy of nutraceuticals for slowing down OA. Animal models are utilized as a compulsory step in demonstrating the protective potential of these compounds on joint health. Nevertheless, there exist a wide variety of available OA models and selecting a suitable system for evaluating the effects of a specific compound remains difficult. Here, we discuss animal studies that have investigated nutraceutical effects on OA. In particular, we highlight the large spectrum of animal models that are currently accepted for examining the OA-related effects of nutraceuticals, giving recommendations for their use. PMID:24955836

  8. [The need for research to support the emergence of alternative animal health systems].

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Bonnet, P; Renard, J F

    2004-04-01

    Animal diseases remain one of the main problems for livestock production in terms of trade development, poverty reduction and public health. Animal health systems are complex because of the diversity of the parties involved and because of various changes in the delivery of veterinary services, such as the redefinition of the roles of the public and private sectors. It is, therefore, often difficult to assess the global performance of animal health systems and sub-systems in terms of their medical, economic and social effectiveness. In addition, the necessary reliability of the health information obtained leads to certification of the status of regions and countries with regard to epizootics, which requires a high degree of standardisation and conformity with international norms. An assessment therefore needs to be made of the advantages of alternative systems compared with conventional systems. An animal health system should be seen as a whole, and when assessing its overall performance several things must be taken into account, e.g. the markets for products and the sometimes contradictory interests of all the different parties involved. There are, therefore, many research needs and avenues to be pursued, including: the methods, data and tools required for assessing the effectiveness of systems, including a definition of what constitutes a reliable indicator; the factors that determine the health of a herd; having a clearer idea of what will affect herd health will make it possible to map risk indicators and animal health care needs; the design and management of realistic and harmonised animal health information systems whose indicators provide reliable measurements of health; the function, organisation and effectiveness of participative surveillance approaches; the definition and effectiveness of animal health contracts, such as health mandates between the State and private veterinarians; the function and role of livestock auxiliaries; the establishment of

  9. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health.

  10. Sources of animal science research information: usefulness and reliability.

    PubMed

    Owens, F N

    1997-02-01

    Fifty-two animal scientists (8 private consultants, 22 feed industry representatives, 22 university personnel) were surveyed regarding frequency of use and reliability of information from 27 different publications and information sources. Among the information sources, these scientists (6 dairy specialists, 25 beef cattle specialists, 17 swine specialists, 4 dealing with multiple species) most frequently scanned Feedstuffs, the Journal of Animal Science, National Research Council (NRC) species bulletins, abstracts from regional and national meetings of either ASAS or ADSA, annual reports from experiment stations, and proceedings from state nutrition conferences. Differences among species specialties were detected: dairy specialists read the Journal of Dairy Science, abstracts from ADSA meetings, Dairy Herd Management, Hoard's Dairyman quite extensively; beef specialists read Beef and National Cattleman frequently; and swine specialists used the Pfizer Conference, National Hog Farmer, and Pork 95. Frequency of use rankings of publications were surprisingly similar for feed industry and university specialists; however, private consultants tended to use certain publications (Professional Animal Scientist, Feed Management, Beef Today) to a greater degree. For reliability, Journal of Animal Science, Journal of Dairy Science, NRC bulletins, the Professional Animal Scientist, Pfizer Report, and reports from ASAS and ADSA meetings received the highest rankings, and university workers ranked reliability of NRC publications and Animal Feed Science and Technology higher than feed industry personnel. Regarding timeliness of information, Feedstuffs, National Hog Farmer, Pork 95, and reports from state nutrition conferences ranked best, and NRC bulletins, Journal of Animal Science, and Journal of Dairy Science ranked lowest. Applicability of information was correlated with frequency of use (r = .38**) and presumed reliability (r = .59**). Asked whether some formal appraisal of

  11. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety. PMID:24816999

  12. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety.

  13. Connecting information to improve health.

    PubMed

    Hammond, W Ed; Bailey, Christopher; Boucher, Philippe; Spohr, Mark; Whitaker, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    Effective health information systems require timely access to all health data from all sources, including sites of direct care. In most parts of the world today, these data most likely come from many different and unconnected systems-but must be organized into a composite whole. We use the word interoperability to capture what is required to accomplish this goal. We discuss five priority areas for achieving interoperability in health care applications (patient identifier, semantic interoperability, data interchange standards, core data sets, and data quality), and we contrast differences in developing and developed countries. Important next steps for health policy makers are to define a vision, develop a strategy, identify leadership, assign responsibilities, and harness resources. PMID:20348075

  14. [Eco-pathologies: effect on public health and animal health].

    PubMed

    Pérez Pérez, F

    2001-01-01

    This study emphasizes on pathologies which rates are increasing due to human activities that alter the environment such as industries, deforestación, etc.... This ecopathologies are different from those caused by occasional natural agents. On the contrary, the agents responsible for these pathologies include gases such as CO2, NO and SO, released to the atmosphere, metals such as mercury, cupper, plumb, cadmium and chrome, contaminating soil and water, and pathogens of protein nature, i.e. prions, extended through the utilisation of feed of animal origin in intensive farming.

  15. Adverse impact of industrial animal agriculture on the health and welfare of farmed animals.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Joyce

    2006-03-01

    Industrial animal agriculture is grounded in the concept of maximizing productivity and profit. Selective breeding for maximum productivity in one characteristic of the animal (e.g. milk yield in cows, or breast meat in broiler chickens) has resulted in genotypes and phenotypes that may predispose the animals to poor health and welfare. The conditions in which these individuals are kept may also frustrate many inherited behaviors that they are strongly motivated to perform. In order to curb the resulting harmful aberrant behaviors, such as feather-pecking in chickens, we sometimes resort to mutilating the animals. In many places chickens are routinely de-beaked by means of a hot metal guillotine. Compassion in World Farming (an international organization that promotes the humane treatment of farm animals) believes that it is unethical to treat sentient beings in such ways. We have a duty to respect farm animals' sentience by providing them with housing conditions that take their needs and wants into account, and by reverting to the use of dual-purpose, slower-growing breeds that have the potential for good welfare. Alternatives to current farming practices are available, and we owe it to the animals, and to our consciences, to pursue them.

  16. Social Information Transmission in Animals: Lessons from Studies of Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; MacIntosh, Andrew; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to use information provided by others to guide behavior is a widespread phenomenon in animal societies. A standard paradigm to test if and/or how animals use and transfer social information is through social diffusion experiments, by which researchers observe how information spreads within a group, sometimes by seeding new behavior in the population. In this article, we review the context, methodology and products of such social diffusion experiments. Our major focus is the transmission of information from an individual (or group thereof) to another, and the factors that can enhance or, more interestingly, inhibit it. We therefore also discuss reasons why social transmission sometimes does not occur despite being expected to. We span a full range of mechanisms and processes, from the nature of social information itself and the cognitive abilities of various species, to the idea of social competency and the constraints imposed by the social networks in which animals are embedded. We ultimately aim at a broad reflection on practical and theoretical issues arising when studying how social information spreads within animal groups. PMID:27540368

  17. Social Information Transmission in Animals: Lessons from Studies of Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; MacIntosh, Andrew; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to use information provided by others to guide behavior is a widespread phenomenon in animal societies. A standard paradigm to test if and/or how animals use and transfer social information is through social diffusion experiments, by which researchers observe how information spreads within a group, sometimes by seeding new behavior in the population. In this article, we review the context, methodology and products of such social diffusion experiments. Our major focus is the transmission of information from an individual (or group thereof) to another, and the factors that can enhance or, more interestingly, inhibit it. We therefore also discuss reasons why social transmission sometimes does not occur despite being expected to. We span a full range of mechanisms and processes, from the nature of social information itself and the cognitive abilities of various species, to the idea of social competency and the constraints imposed by the social networks in which animals are embedded. We ultimately aim at a broad reflection on practical and theoretical issues arising when studying how social information spreads within animal groups. PMID:27540368

  18. Climate change impacts and risks for animal health in Asia.

    PubMed

    Forman, S; Hungerford, N; Yamakawa, M; Yanase, T; Tsai, H-J; Joo, Y-S; Yang, D-K; Nha, J-J

    2008-08-01

    The threat of climate change and global warming is now recognised worldwide and some alarming manifestations of change have occurred. The Asian continent, because of its size and diversity, may be affected significantly by the consequences of climate change, and its new status as a 'hub' of livestock production gives it an important role in mitigating possible impacts of climate variability on animal health. Animal health may be affected by climate change in four ways: heat-related diseases and stress, extreme weather events, adaptation of animal production systems to new environments, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases, especially vector-borne diseases critically dependent on environmental and climatic conditions. To face these new menaces, the need for strong and efficient Veterinary Services is irrefutable, combined with good coordination of public health services, as many emerging human diseases are zoonoses. Asian developing countries have acute weaknesses in their Veterinary Services, which jeopardises the global surveillance network essential for early detection of hazards. Indeed, international cooperation within and outside Asia is vital to mitigating the risks of climate change to animal health in Asia.

  19. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  20. Effects of Environment on Animal Health: Mechanisms and Regulatory Inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A functional model was developed and presented here to identify critical control points in associated biochemical pathways and further understand that how environmental factors impact the immune system to affect animal health.. A general comparison of the differences in cellular responses to mild v...

  1. 77 FR 2734 - Health Information Technology Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Information Technology Implementation AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Noncompetitive...

  2. 75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Animal Health Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 8301-8317); Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness... aid in containing and responding to a foreign animal disease outbreak, bioterrorism, or other animal... Animal Health Protection Act, 7 U.S.C. 8301-8317; the Public Health Security and...

  3. 78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION..., Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. BILLING CODE 3410-34-P...

  4. Community and environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R

    2002-10-01

    High-density concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become an increasing source of concern with respect to their impact on health, the environment, and quality of life in the communities in which they are located. A growing body of literature has identified a number of potential adverse effects, including the development of antimicrobial resistance patterns, groundwater contamination, and occupational respiratory disease. The odor associated with CAFOs has had a detrimental effect on the quality of life of rural residents, and there may also be associated adverse health effects. Physicians in rural areas may be asked to assess patients with concerns related to neighboring CAFOs and may be drawn into a political battle regarding the authorization of the development of additional CAFOs. This article reviews current research on the community, environmental, and occupational health effects associated with high-density animal production facilities. It also discusses recommendations for evaluating patients affected by CAFO odors and steps to decrease occupational and community exposure.

  5. The power of information: health information and UK agendas.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, Ruth; Grant, Maria J

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Health published a new health information strategy in May 2012. The document provides a framework for health information in England over the next 10 years. Health information developments in England, however, do not mirror developments in other parts of the United Kingdom. This article is a personal reflection on the new health information strategy in England, including comparison with developments in the other UK nations.

  6. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for health information technology to... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION... FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  7. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for health information technology to... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION... FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  8. [One Health--mutual health of humans, animals and the environment].

    PubMed

    Sukura, Antti; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    The detection in the early 2000's of new, pandemically spreading viral diseases and threats led to "One Health", a holistic concept of the inevitability of collaboration between human and animal health and the protection of the ecosystem. The movement initiated by physicians and veterinarians emerges form the idea that the health of humans and animals is interconnected and connected with the environment and that changes occurring in the environment will have a significant impact on health. Problems associated with health, such as antimicrobial resistance or zoonoses, require global solutions. PMID:27522830

  9. V.A. I Animal Science Technical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains two units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in an animal science course in vocational agriculture. Unit A on breeds and selection of livestock and poultry includes 13 topics covering beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, horses, goats, sheep, and poultry. Unit B on…

  10. Veterinary medical education and veterinary involvement in aquatic-animal health and aquaculture in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega S, César

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes curriculum offerings related to aquaculture and/or aquatic-animal health taught in veterinary medical schools or colleges in Mexico. The information database of the Mexican Association of Schools and Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and the Web sites of veterinary institutions indicate that 60% of veterinary colleges include courses related to aquaculture in their curriculum, but most of these are optional courses. There are few specialized continuing education programs or graduate level courses. There is also a lack of veterinary participation, in both public and private sectors, in aquatic-animal health. It is evident that there should be a greater involvement by the veterinary profession in Mexico's aquaculture to ensure food production in a safe and sustainable manner; to achieve this, veterinary medical institutions must include more aquaculture and aquatic-animal health courses in their curricula.

  11. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

  12. Overview of the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, John

    2016-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases arising from livestock and wildlife pose serious threats to global human health, as shown by a series of continuous outbreaks involving highly pathogenic influenza, SARS, Ebola and MERS. The risk of pandemics and bioterrorism threats is ever present and growing, but our ability to combat them is limited by the lack of available vaccines, therapeutics and rapid diagnostics. The use of high bio-containment facilities, such as the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, plays a key role studying these dangerous pathogens and facilitates the development of countermeasures. To combat diseases like MERS, we must take a holistic approach that involves the development of early biomarkers of infection, a suite of treatment options (vaccines, anti-viral drugs and antibody therapeutics) and appropriate animal models to test the safety and efficacy of candidate treatments. PMID:27118215

  13. [Animal health in organic agriculture: new guidelines and perspectives for food animal practitioners].

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, H; Walkenhorst, M; Klocke, P

    2003-11-01

    In the last decade, the organic agriculture in Switzerland has been substantially increased due to the interest of consumer and financial incentives of the federation. Ruminants take directly or indirectly the largest part from grassland used within the organic managed surfaces. As the contacts between veterinary practice and organic agriculture has increased, the potential for veterinary activity in this area has developed considerably. The organic agriculture guidelines stipulate that all the preventive measures should be taken in feeding, keeping and breeding to insure animal health safety. This requires veterinary services for herd management. The organic status of a farm affects veterinary practice also in the form of alternative therapy/drugs administration and measures like dehorning and tail-docking. An important point in organic managed herds requests that treatment of animals should depend on alternative medical preparations or procedures based on veterinarian's experience and also on the therapeutic effect on the animal species concerned as well as on the disease. However, there are no restrictions on the veterinarian to use registered drugs as long as no alternative therapy, according to experience and possible success, is available to treat the animals. The prophylactic administration of allopathic veterinary drugs is not permissible. Further features in organic farms regarding the use of drugs are the keeping of withholding/withdrawal time, the documentation and the treatment frequency tolerated by organic marketing. Despite the above measures, the animal health has a priority regardless of its organic status. Although management of organic farms represent a unique responsibility, there are still obvious deficits in the education of veterinary practitioners for this new situation. However, in the future the extension of veterinary activity to include the alternative medical therapy should be regarded for the practitioner as a challenge and an

  14. 76 FR 42675 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ..., monitor, control, or eradicate animal diseases of national importance. In doing so, the Committee will... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is...

  15. Information Systems; Modern Health Care and Medical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandejs, J. F., And Others

    1975-01-01

    To effectively handle changes in health policy and health information, new designs and applications of automation are explored. Increased use of computer-based information systems in health care could serve as a means of control over the costs of developing more comprehensive health service, with applications increasing not only the automation of…

  16. Negotiating Access to Health Information to Promote Students' Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radis, Molly E.; Updegrove, Stephen C.; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A.

    2016-01-01

    Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result,…

  17. Veterinarians and the animal-health industry: a complex dimension of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Sibbel, R L Rick

    2006-01-01

    The animal-health industry continues to offer many different opportunities for veterinarians interested in business applications for products and ideas vested in animal health and animal husbandry. These opportunities are expanding rapidly and becoming more diverse every day. Successful animal-health companies are increasing the recruiting and retention of business-savvy veterinary professionals. Employment earnings and broad offerings of employment extras in the animal health industries are in the top strata of the many veterinary professional options.

  18. Blogging in support of health information outreach.

    PubMed

    Sapp, Lara; Cogdill, Keith

    2010-07-01

    Social media technologies are transforming the way librarians are collaborating, creating, and disseminating information. This article discusses how librarians at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio created a blog to support their health information outreach activities. Launched in 2007, the Staying Well Connected blog was established with the goal of promoting access to biomedical and health information for consumers and health professionals in the South Texas region. Postings highlight relevant health news, conferences, funding opportunities, and outreach events.

  19. Explore a Career in Health Sciences Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advertise a Job Explore a Career in Health Sciences Information Whether you're a high school student ... this rewarding, challenging profession. What is a health sciences or medical librarian? What do they do? Health ...

  20. Community health and socioeconomic issues surrounding concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M; Thorne, Peter S

    2007-02-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization's definition of health, "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity," applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  1. Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Kelley J.; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L.; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization’s definition of health, “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,” applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  2. Quantifying group specificity of animal vocalizations without specific sender information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vester, Heike; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Recordings of animal vocalization can lack information about sender and context. This is often the case in studies on marine mammals or in the increasing number of automated bioacoustics monitorings. Here, we develop a framework to estimate group specificity without specific sender information. We introduce and apply a bag-of-calls-and-coefficients approach (BOCCA) to study ensembles of cepstral coefficients calculated from vocalization signals recorded from a given animal group. Comparing distributions of such ensembles of coefficients by computing relative entropies reveals group specific differences. Applying the BOCCA to ensembles of calls recorded from group of long-finned pilot whales in northern Norway, we find that differences of vocalizations within social groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are significantly lower than intergroup differences.

  3. Quantifying group specificity of animal vocalizations without specific sender information.

    PubMed

    Vester, Heike; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Recordings of animal vocalization can lack information about sender and context. This is often the case in studies on marine mammals or in the increasing number of automated bioacoustics monitorings. Here, we develop a framework to estimate group specificity without specific sender information. We introduce and apply a bag-of-calls-and-coefficients approach (BOCCA) to study ensembles of cepstral coefficients calculated from vocalization signals recorded from a given animal group. Comparing distributions of such ensembles of coefficients by computing relative entropies reveals group specific differences. Applying the BOCCA to ensembles of calls recorded from group of long-finned pilot whales in northern Norway, we find that differences of vocalizations within social groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are significantly lower than intergroup differences. PMID:26986319

  4. 75 FR 34422 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: We are giving notice... Health for a 2-year period. The Secretary of Agriculture has determined that the ] Committee is...

  5. Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-01-01

    Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (δD) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for

  6. Patient Matching within a Health Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Godlove, Tim; Ball, Adrian W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the patient matching problems resulting from the Nationwide Health Information Network's automated patient discovery specification and propose a more effective and secure approach for patient matching between health information organizations participating in a health information exchange. This proposed approach would allow the patient to match his or her identity between a health information organization's electronic health records (EHRs) at the same time the patient identifies which EHR data he or she consents to share between organizations. The patient's EHR username/password combination would be the credential used to establish and maintain health information exchange identity and consent data. The software developed to support this approach (e.g., an EHR health information exchange module) could also allow a patient to see what health information was shared when and with whom. PMID:26755901

  7. Patient Matching within a Health Information Exchange.

    PubMed

    Godlove, Tim; Ball, Adrian W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the patient matching problems resulting from the Nationwide Health Information Network's automated patient discovery specification and propose a more effective and secure approach for patient matching between health information organizations participating in a health information exchange. This proposed approach would allow the patient to match his or her identity between a health information organization's electronic health records (EHRs) at the same time the patient identifies which EHR data he or she consents to share between organizations. The patient's EHR username/password combination would be the credential used to establish and maintain health information exchange identity and consent data. The software developed to support this approach (e.g., an EHR health information exchange module) could also allow a patient to see what health information was shared when and with whom.

  8. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Assi, Mohammed Abdulrazzaq; Hezmee, Mohd Noor Mohd; Haron, Abd Wahid; Sabri, Mohd Yusof Mohd; Rajion, Mohd Ali

    2016-06-01

    Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning "the liquid silver") and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb) has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb) effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well. PMID:27397992

  9. Improving animal and human health through understanding liver fluke immunology.

    PubMed

    Piedrafita, D; Spithill, T W; Smith, R E; Raadsma, H W

    2010-08-01

    Sheep, goats and cattle represent the most numerous and economically important agricultural species worldwide used as sources for milk, fibre and red meat. In addition, in the developing world, these species often represent the sole asset base for small-holder livestock farmers and cattle/buffaloes often provide the majority of draught power for crop production. Production losses caused by helminth diseases of these animals are a major factor in extending the cycle of poverty in developing countries and a major food security issue for developed economies. Fasciola spp. are one of the most important zoonotic diseases with a global economic impact in livestock production systems and a poorly defined but direct effect on human health. Improvements in human and animal health will require a concerted research effort into the development of new accurate and simple diagnostic tests and increased vaccine and drug development against Fasciola infections. Here, the use of definitive natural host breeds with contrasting resistance to Fasciola infections is discussed as a resource to contrast parasite-host interactions and identify parasite immune evasion strategies. Such studies are likely to boost the discovery of new vaccine, drug and diagnostic candidates and provide the foundation for future genetic selection of resistant animals. PMID:20626812

  10. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Mohammed Abdulrazzaq; Hezmee, Mohd Noor Mohd; Haron, Abd Wahid; Sabri, Mohd Yusof Mohd; Rajion, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning “the liquid silver”) and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb) has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb) effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well. PMID:27397992

  11. Animal source foods and human health during evolution.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Clark Spencer

    2003-11-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) have always been a constituent of human diets. Their pattern of use, however, changed in dramatic ways over the course of human evolution. Before 2 million years ago (mya), meat in particular was acquired opportunistically via hunting of small or young animals and scavenging of animals killed by other species. At some point after that time, humans began to hunt cooperatively, making possible the acquisition of meat from large game. The marked increase in human heights between 2.0 and 1.7 mya may be linked to more efficient means of acquiring meat, namely through hunting. The final pattern of meat (and other ASF) use before the modern era is associated with the shift from hunting and gathering beginning approximately 10,000 y ago. This fundamental dietary change resulted in a narrowing of diet, reduced consumption of meat and increased focus on domesticated grains. The study of archaeological human remains from around the world reveals that this period in human dietary history saw a decline in health, including increased evidence of morbidity (poorer dental health, increased occlusal abnormalities, increased iron deficiency anemia, increased infection and bone loss). Human populations living in developing and developed settings today rely on meats with lipid compositions that when eaten in excess promote cardiovascular disease. As humans become more sedentary and eat more high fat foods, we can expect to see increases in heart disease, osteoporosis and other diseases of "civilization."

  12. Facilitating consumer access to health information.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.

  13. [Animal biomonitoring and micropollutants in public health--review].

    PubMed

    Rombolà, Pasquale; Battisti, Sabrina; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to provide a picture of the current knowledge on animal biomonitoring and on the link between pollution and Public Health. There are various reasons leading to this road: the need of early detection of industrial pollutants, especially micropollutants that have adverse effects in very low concentrations: it is important to disclose the presence of these compounds directly or through certain molecular biomarkers in living organisms rather than in the natural environment, where they are often below the detection threshold; the need to optimize the allocation of resources: some experiences of biomonitoring carried out in wild animals may be useful in the identification of pollution sources; however, biomonitoring of domestic animals appears to be more feasable and effective, because they share with humans the exposure to pollutants. Nowadays, professionals of different disciplines such as doctors and biologists do not share a common set of terms and definitions in animal biomonitoring: this review wants to give a contribution in the consolidation of the current knowledge under a common language. PMID:23139184

  14. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  15. Improving information access for public health professionals.

    PubMed

    Telleen, Sharon; Martin, Elaine

    2002-12-01

    Fundamental to our protection against biological weapons and the detection of disease outbreaks is the need to strengthen our surveillance systems. Improved electronic communications between local, state, and federal public health agencies provide a way for health officials to share information on unusual disease outbreaks and provide important health alert information. This article describes a model of a partnership between a regional medical library of the National Library of Medicine, a school of public health, and federally qualified community health centers. This project upgraded technology and provided public health professional training on Internet information and resources for local public health agencies.

  16. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    PubMed

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25812201

  17. Community and environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R

    2002-10-01

    High-density concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become an increasing source of concern with respect to their impact on health, the environment, and quality of life in the communities in which they are located. A growing body of literature has identified a number of potential adverse effects, including the development of antimicrobial resistance patterns, groundwater contamination, and occupational respiratory disease. The odor associated with CAFOs has had a detrimental effect on the quality of life of rural residents, and there may also be associated adverse health effects. Physicians in rural areas may be asked to assess patients with concerns related to neighboring CAFOs and may be drawn into a political battle regarding the authorization of the development of additional CAFOs. This article reviews current research on the community, environmental, and occupational health effects associated with high-density animal production facilities. It also discusses recommendations for evaluating patients affected by CAFO odors and steps to decrease occupational and community exposure. PMID:12416314

  18. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of ‘colour vision’ that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the first, even without an (image-forming) eye, simple organisms can compare photoreceptor signals to locate a desired light environment. At the next grade, chromatic mechanisms along with spatial vision guide innate preferences for objects such as food or mates; this is sometimes described as wavelength-specific behaviour. Here, we compare the capabilities of di- and trichromatic vision, and ask why some animals have more than three spectral types of receptors. Behaviours guided by innate preferences are then distinguished from a grade that allows learning, in part because the ability to learn an arbitrary colour is evidence for a neural representation of colour. The fourth grade concerns colour appearance rather than colour difference: for instance, the distinction between hue and saturation, and colour categorization. These higher-level phenomena are essential to human colour perception but poorly known in animals, and we suggest how they can be studied. Finally, we observe that awareness of colour and colour qualia cannot be easily tested in animals. PMID:20164101

  19. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of 'colour vision' that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the first, even without an (image-forming) eye, simple organisms can compare photoreceptor signals to locate a desired light environment. At the next grade, chromatic mechanisms along with spatial vision guide innate preferences for objects such as food or mates; this is sometimes described as wavelength-specific behaviour. Here, we compare the capabilities of di- and trichromatic vision, and ask why some animals have more than three spectral types of receptors. Behaviours guided by innate preferences are then distinguished from a grade that allows learning, in part because the ability to learn an arbitrary colour is evidence for a neural representation of colour. The fourth grade concerns colour appearance rather than colour difference: for instance, the distinction between hue and saturation, and colour categorization. These higher-level phenomena are essential to human colour perception but poorly known in animals, and we suggest how they can be studied. Finally, we observe that awareness of colour and colour qualia cannot be easily tested in animals. PMID:20164101

  20. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel. A.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brownstein, John S.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; McCraw, Sarah L.; Gurr, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

  1. Newborn Screening Information Supports Public Health More than Informed Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Katrina; Stewart, Ruth; Oliver, Sandy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To appraise information resources on newborn blood spot screening currently available for parents and health professionals internationally. Method: Health information on newborn blood spot screening was sourced internationally through the internet and, in the United Kingdom, through health service providers and support organisations. An…

  2. Using local health information to promote public health.

    PubMed

    Luck, Jeff; Chang, Carol; Brown, E Richard; Lumpkin, John

    2006-01-01

    Local health information can be a powerful vehicle for improving the health of a community. It can highlight both the existence of problems and opportunities for improvement. It can also guide local action in support of policy changes and improve programs' effectiveness. However, efforts to expand the availability and use of local health information face major technical and institutional barriers, as well as health information privacy concerns. This paper provides an overview of current issues surrounding the availability and use of local health information, identifies barriers that hinder its use, and suggests potential solutions.

  3. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Don E

    2003-01-01

    Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII) offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries). The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security) framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin PMID:12525262

  4. Industrial food animal production, antimicrobial resistance, and human health.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, Ellen K; Graham, Jay; Price, Lance B

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health crisis, eroding the discovery of antimicrobials and their application to clinical medicine. There is a general lack of knowledge of the importance of agricultural antimicrobial use as a factor in antimicrobial resistance even among experts in medicine and public health. This review focuses on agricultural antimicrobial drug use as a major driver of antimicrobial resistance worldwide for four reasons: It is the largest use of antimicrobials worldwide; much of the use of antimicrobials in agriculture results in subtherapeutic exposures of bacteria; drugs of every important clinical class are utilized in agriculture; and human populations are exposed to antimicrobial-resistant pathogens via consumption of animal products as well as through widespread release into the environment.

  5. Obesity, public health, and the consumption of animal products.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Partly in response to rising rates of obesity, many governments have published healthy eating advice. Focusing on health advice related to the consumption of animal products (APs), I argue that the individualistic paradigm that prevails must be replaced by a radically new approach that emphasizes the duty of all human beings to restrict their negative "Global Health Impacts" (GHIs). If they take human rights seriously, many governments from nations with relatively large negative GHIs-including the Australian example provided here-must develop strategies to reduce their citizens' negative GHIs. As the negative GHIs associated with the consumption of many APs are excessive, it is my view that many governments ought to adopt a qualified ban on the consumption of APs. PMID:23288438

  6. Information theory, animal communication, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.; McCowan, Brenda; Johnston, Simon; Hanser, Sean F.

    2011-02-01

    We present ongoing research in the application of information theory to animal communication systems with the goal of developing additional detectors and estimators for possible extraterrestrial intelligent signals. Regardless of the species, for intelligence (i.e., complex knowledge) to be transmitted certain rules of information theory must still be obeyed. We demonstrate some preliminary results of applying information theory to socially complex marine mammal species (bottlenose dolphins and humpback whales) as well as arboreal squirrel monkeys, because they almost exclusively rely on vocal signals for their communications, producing signals which can be readily characterized by signal analysis. Metrics such as Zipf's Law and higher-order information-entropic structure are emerging as indicators of the communicative complexity characteristic of an "intelligent message" content within these animals' signals, perhaps not surprising given these species' social complexity. In addition to human languages, for comparison we also apply these metrics to pulsar signals—perhaps (arguably) the most "organized" of stellar systems—as an example of astrophysical systems that would have to be distinguished from an extraterrestrial intelligence message by such information theoretic filters. We also look at a message transmitted from Earth (Arecibo Observatory) that contains a lot of meaning but little information in the mathematical sense we define it here. We conclude that the study of non-human communication systems on our own planet can make a valuable contribution to the detection of extraterrestrial intelligence by providing quantitative general measures of communicative complexity. Studying the complex communication systems of other intelligent species on our own planet may also be one of the best ways to deprovincialize our thinking about extraterrestrial communication systems in general.

  7. SERVAL: a new framework for the evaluation of animal health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Gunn, G; Stärk, K D C

    2015-02-01

    Animal health surveillance programmes may change in response to altering requirements or perceived weaknesses but are seldom subjected to any formal evaluation to ensure that they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. The literature on the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems is sparse, and those that are published may be unstructured and therefore incomplete. To address this gap, we have developed SERVAL, a SuRveillance EVALuation framework, which is novel and aims to be generic and therefore suitable for the evaluation of any animal health surveillance system. The inclusion of socio-economic criteria ensures that economic evaluation is an integral part of this framework. SERVAL was developed with input from a technical workshop of international experts followed by a consultation process involving providers and users of surveillance and evaluation data. It has been applied to a range of case studies encompassing different surveillance and evaluation objectives. Here, we describe the development, structure and application of the SERVAL framework. We discuss users' experiences in applying SERVAL to evaluate animal health surveillance systems in Great Britain.

  8. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  9. Communicating health information to disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Beacom, Amanda M; Newman, Sandra J

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the communication of health information among disadvantaged populations has increased in recent years with the shift from a model of patient-provider communication to one of a more empowered healthcare consumer; with the use of new communication technologies that increase the number of channels through which health information may be accessed; and with the steadily increasing number of people without health insurance. Three separate research literatures contribute to our current understanding of this issue. In the medicine and public health literature, disparities in health access and outcomes among socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups are now well documented. In the information sciences literature, scholars note that on a continuum of health information behaviors, ranging from information avoidance and nonseeking to active seeking, nonseeking behaviors are associated with disadvantaged populations. In the communication literature, enthusiasm over the technology-driven growth of online health information seeking is tempered by evidence supporting the knowledge gap hypothesis, which indicates that as potential access to health information increases, systematic gaps in health knowledge also increase as groups with higher socioeconomic status acquire this information at a faster rate than those with lower socioeconomic status. A number of diverse strategies show promise in reducing information and health disparities, including those that focus on technology, such as programs to increase computer and Internet access, skills, and comprehension; those that focus on interpersonal communication, such as the community health worker model; and those that focus on mass media channels, such as entertainment education. PMID:20216358

  10. The scientific rationale for the World Organisation for Animal Health standards and recommendations on avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Pasick, J; Kahn, S

    2014-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) prescribes standards for the diagnosis and control of avian influenza, as well as health measures for safe trade in birds and avian products, which are based on up-to-date scientific information and risk management principles, consistent with the role of the OIE as a reference standard-setting body for the World Trade Organization (WTO). These standards and recommendations continue to evolve, reflecting advances in technology and scientific understanding of this important zoonotic disease. The avian influenza viruses form part of the natural ecosystem by virtue of their ubiquitous presence in wild aquatic birds, a fact that human intervention cannot change. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code), avian influenza is defined as an infection of poultry. However, the scope of the OIE standards and recommendations is not restricted to poultry, covering the diagnosis, early detection and management of avian influenza, including sanitary measures for trade in birds and avian products. The best way to manage avian influenza-associated risks to human and animal health is for countries to conduct surveillance using recommended methods, to report results in a consistent and transparent manner, and to applythe sanitary measures described in the Terrestrial Code. Surveillance for and timely reporting of avian influenza in accordance with OIE standards enable the distribution of relevant, up-to-date information to the global community.

  11. Respiratory Health Effects of Large Animal Farming Environments

    PubMed Central

    May, Sara; Romberger, Debra J.; Poole, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in large animal-feeding operations to meet consumer demand, adverse upper and lower respiratory health effects in exposed agriculture workers is a concern. The aim of this study was to review large animal confinement feeding operational exposures associated with respiratory disease with focus on recent advances in the knowledge of causative factors and cellular and immunological mechanisms. A PubMed search was conducted with the following keywords: airway, farm, swine, dairy, horse, cattle inflammation, organic dust, endotoxin, and peptidoglycan that were published between 1980 and current. Articles were selected based on their relevance to environmental exposure and reference to airway diseases. Airway diseases included rhinitis, sinusitis, mucus membrane inflammation syndrome, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome. There is lower prevalence of IgE-mediated asthma and atopy in farmers and their children, but organic dust worsens existing asthma. Multiple etiologic factors are linked to disease including allergens, organic dusts, endotoxins, peptidoglycans and gases. Large animal confinement feeding operations contain a wide-diversity of microbes with increasing focus on Gram-positive bacteria and archeabacteria as opposed to Gram-negative bacteria in mediating disease. Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like innate immune pathways respond to these exposures. Finally, a chronic inflammatory adaptation, tolerance-like response in chronically exposed workers occurs. Large animal confinement farming exposures produces a wide spectrum of upper and lower respiratory tract diseases due to the complex diversity of organic dust, particulates, microbial cell wall components and gases and resultant activation of various innate immune receptor signaling pathways. PMID:23199220

  12. Negotiating Access to Health Information to Promote Students' Health.

    PubMed

    Radis, Molly E; Updegrove, Stephen C; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A

    2016-04-01

    Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result, nurses' time is poorly utilized and students may suffer adverse outcomes including delayed school entry. In response to this pressing public health issue, a school medical advisor and director of school nurses in a local health department successfully negotiated access for school nurses to three health record systems: a state immunization tracking system, an electronic lead surveillance program, and an electronic health record system. This negotiation process is presented within a framework of the Theory of Diffusion of Innovation and provides a strategy for other school nurses seeking access to student health information. PMID:26547091

  13. Negotiating Access to Health Information to Promote Students' Health.

    PubMed

    Radis, Molly E; Updegrove, Stephen C; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A

    2016-04-01

    Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result, nurses' time is poorly utilized and students may suffer adverse outcomes including delayed school entry. In response to this pressing public health issue, a school medical advisor and director of school nurses in a local health department successfully negotiated access for school nurses to three health record systems: a state immunization tracking system, an electronic lead surveillance program, and an electronic health record system. This negotiation process is presented within a framework of the Theory of Diffusion of Innovation and provides a strategy for other school nurses seeking access to student health information.

  14. The Teen Health Information Network (THINK).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzel, Judith; Erickson, Su

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Teen Health Information Network (THINK), a grant-funded partnership of Aurora, Illinois, public libraries, schools, and community agencies to provide materials, information, and programming on issues related to teen health. Seven appendixes provide detailed information on survey results, collection evaluation and development,…

  15. Family Caregivers and Consumer Health Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer L; Darer, Jonathan D; Larsen, Kevin L

    2016-01-01

    Health information technology has been embraced as a strategy to facilitate patients' access to their health information and engagement in care. However, not all patients are able to access, or are capable of using, a computer or mobile device. Although family caregivers assist individuals with some of the most challenging and costly health needs, their role in health information technology is largely undefined and poorly understood. This perspective discusses challenges and opportunities of engaging family caregivers through the use of consumer-oriented health information technology. We compile existing evidence to make the case that involving family caregivers in health information technology as desired by patients is technically feasible and consistent with the principles of patient-centered and family-centered care. We discuss how more explicit and purposeful engagement of family caregivers in health information technology could advance clinical quality and patient safety by increasing the transparency, accuracy, and comprehensiveness of patient health information across settings of care. Finally, we describe how clarifying and executing patients' desires to involve family members or friends through health information technology would provide family caregivers greater legitimacy, convenience, and timeliness in health system interactions, and facilitate stronger partnerships between patients, family caregivers, and health care professionals.

  16. Online health information - what can you trust?

    MedlinePlus

    ... health, you may look it up on the Internet. You can find accurate health information on many sites. But, you are also likely to run across a lot of questionable, even false content. How can you tell the difference? To ...

  17. Informational Privacy, Public Health, and State Laws

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Gene

    2011-01-01

    Developments in information technology that make it possible to rapidly transmit health information also raise questions about the possible inappropriate use and protection of identifiable (or potentially identifiable) personal health information. Despite efforts to improve state laws, adoption of provisions has lagged. We found that half of states have no statutes addressing nondisclosure of personally identifiable health information generally held by public health agencies. Exceptional treatment of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, or tuberculosis-related information was common. Where other provisions were found, there was little consistency in the laws across states. The variation in state laws supports the need to build consensus on the appropriate use and disclosure of public health information among public health practitioners. PMID:21852633

  18. Blogging in support of health information outreach.

    PubMed

    Sapp, Lara; Cogdill, Keith

    2010-07-01

    Social media technologies are transforming the way librarians are collaborating, creating, and disseminating information. This article discusses how librarians at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio created a blog to support their health information outreach activities. Launched in 2007, the Staying Well Connected blog was established with the goal of promoting access to biomedical and health information for consumers and health professionals in the South Texas region. Postings highlight relevant health news, conferences, funding opportunities, and outreach events. PMID:20677064

  19. Welcome to health information science and systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanchun

    2013-01-01

    Health Information Science and Systems is an exciting, new, multidisciplinary journal that aims to use technologies in computer science to assist in disease diagnoses, treatment, prediction and monitoring through the modeling, design, development, visualization, integration and management of health related information. These computer-science technologies include such as information systems, web technologies, data mining, image processing, user interaction and interface, sensors and wireless networking and are applicable to a wide range of health related information including medical data, biomedical data, bioinformatics data, public health data.

  20. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy & Breastfeeding You are here Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are ...

  1. Report from the second international symposium on animal genomics for animal health: critical needs, challenges and potential solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunitie...

  2. Report from the Second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health: Critical Needs, Challenges and Potential Solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunitie...

  3. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues.

  4. Manipulating dietary PUFA in animal feed: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Butler, Gillian

    2014-02-01

    Milk, meat and eggs tend not to be regarded as an important source of PUFA. They are disproportionally high in SFA compared with their PUFA content, especially those from cattle and sheep, since their rumen microbes are responsible for the loss of over 90% of PUFA intake by livestock. This need not necessarily be the case since the relative proportion of PUFA in these foods is dictated by livestock management, especially feeding, and this can be manipulated to boost their content of crucial long-chain n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic fatty acids. The present paper considers the fatty acid composition in animal-derived foods and how these can be manipulated to be more conducive for consumers' health. The importance of recognising the effect of livestock production systems on fat composition is also highlighted along with the fact that we may have to compromise between intensive, high levels of production and this particular aspect of food quality.

  5. Developing national health information in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moss, E A

    1995-01-01

    Two significant developments in the past two years have given impetus to development of health information in Australia. In March 1993, the former National Minimum Data Set was revised and published as the National Health Data Dictionary. Second, establishment of an agreement in June 1993, between the Commonwealth and State/Territory government health authorities, the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare initiated a process of working cooperatively to develop national health information. Australia, like many other countries, suffers from inconsistent health data definitions, lack of timely data, poor data quality, gaps in data coverage, and barriers to accessing the data. The National Health Information Agreement [1] came into effect on June 1, 1993 and seeks to provide a national framework and processes to improve national health information, that is, information on health of the population; determinants of the population's health; provision and utilization of health promotion and disease prevention programs and health services including: outcomes and outputs, resource use and costs, access by and distribution to population groups; relationships between these elements; and the language necessary to facilitate provision of services and collection of national health information. The major implementation mechanism of the Agreement is a rolling three-year National Health Information Work Program of national health information activities. The activities range from development work on standard hospital charts of accounts, on health outcome measures, and on new collections such as outpatients to improved definitions and the enhancement of existing collections such as mental health and vital statistics. The Work Program is published annually. A first priority is to improve the data collections available. This is being achieved through the setting of national data definitions and standards. The Agreement recognizes the

  6. Tea flavonoids for bone health: from animals to humans.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures. Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density, and strength. Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture, due to tea's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.

  7. Integrating animal health surveillance and food safety: the issue of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Acar, J F; Moulin, G

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in commensal, zoonotic and pathogenic bacteria from humans, animals and food is an essential source of information when formulating measures to improve food safety. International organisations (the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) have developed a complete set of standards related to resistance surveillance programmes and are calling for the establishment of integrated surveillance programmes. The most important task in establishing an integrated surveillance programme for antimicrobial resistance should be the harmonisation of laboratory testing methodology and antimicrobial-use reporting. Overthe last decade, the integration of surveillance of antimicrobial resistance has been an important step toward addressing the global concern with antimicrobial resistance. However, very few systems are in place and there is still a lot to do before harmonised surveillance systems become the norm.

  8. [Good practice guidelines for health information].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based health information is distinguished by the provision of an unbiased and trustworthy description of the current state of medical knowledge. It enables people to learn more about health and disease, and to make health-related decisions - on their own or together with others - reflecting their attitudes and lifestyle. To adequately serve this purpose, health information must be evidence-based. A working group from the German Network for Evidence-based Medicine (Deutsches Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin) has developed a first draft of good practice guidelines for health information (Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation) with the aim of providing support for authors and publishers of evidence-based health information. The group included researchers, patient representatives, journalists and developers of health information. The criteria for evidence-based health information were developed and agreed upon within this author group, and then made available for public comment. All submitted comments were documented and assessed regarding the need to revise or amend the draft. Changes were subsequently implemented following approval by the author group. Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation calls for a transparent methodological approach in the development of health information. To achieve this, evidence-based information must be based on (a) a systematic literature search, (b) a justified selection of evidence, (c) unbiased reporting of relevant results, (d) appropriate factual and linguistic communication of uncertainties, (e) either avoidance of any direct recommendations or a strict division between the reporting of results and the derivation of recommendations, (f) the consideration of current evidence on the communication of figures, risks and probabilities, and (g) transparent information about the authors and publishers of the health information, including their funding sources. Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation lists a total of 16 aspects to be addressed

  9. 75 FR 48303 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; U.S. Origin Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; U.S. Origin Health Certificate AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of approval of an information collection; comment request. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  10. Animal models of autism spectrum disorders: Information for neurotoxicologists

    PubMed Central

    Halladay, Alycia K.; Amaral, David; Aschner, Michael; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Bowman, Aaron; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Hyman, Susan L.; Keller, Flavio; Lein, Pamela; Pessah, Isaac; Restifo, Linda; Threadgill, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings derived from large-scale datasets and biobanks link multiple genes to autism spectrum disorders. Consequently, novel rodent mutants with deletions, truncations and in some cases, overexpression of these candidate genes have been developed and studied both behaviorally and biologically. At the Annual Neurotoxicology Meeting in Rochester, NY in October of 2008, a symposium of clinicians and basic scientists gathered to present the behavioral features of autism, as well as strategies to model those behavioral features in mice and primates. The aim of the symposium was to provide researchers with up-to-date information on both the genetics of autism and how they are used in differing in vivo and in vitro animal models as well as to provide a background on the environmental exposures being tested on several animal models. In addition, researchers utilizing complementary approaches, presented on cell culture, in vitro or more basic models, which target neurobiological mechanisms, including Drosophila. Following the presentation, a panel convened to explore the opportunities and challenges of using model systems to investigate genetic and environment interactions in autism spectrum disorders. The following paper represents a summary of each presentation, as well as the discussion that followed at the end of the symposium. PMID:19596370

  11. [Information systems in health and health indicators: an integrating perspective].

    PubMed

    Canela-Soler, Jaume; Elvira-Martínez, David; Labordena-Barceló, María Jesús; Loyola-Elizondo, Enrique

    2010-02-01

    Health Information Systems (HIS) are the core support to decision-making in health organizations. Within HIS, health indicators (HI) reflect, numerically, events measured in the health-illness continuum. The integrated health information system is intended to standardize, integrate and organize all the information available in health information systems through an accessible and secure repository, and to conveniently distribute information for decision-making. To standardize information it is necessary to define standards and semantic information to enable us to identify concepts and relate them uniquely to each other. The definition of a catalog of entities (DEA) with concepts, attributes and domains will enable the configuration of the information system, so there will be a catalog of entities (concepts of information and domains). Based on operational systems, analytical systems enabling management and strategy in the management of organizations will be built. The maximum level of analysis is the Balanced Score Card (BSC), which is established as the strategic tool for managers. It is necessary for the organization an integrated information system to plan, manage, evaluate and therefore provide managers with a decision tool for strategic and tactical decision-making in short and medium term. PMID:20211346

  12. Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guard, Roger; And Others

    The Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network (OVCHIN) works to determine the efficacy of delivering health information to residents of rural southern Ohio and the urban and suburban Cincinnati area. OVCHIN is a community-based, consumer-defined demonstration grant program funded by the National Telecommunications and Information…

  13. Health Information Technology and Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Nursing homes are considered lagging behind in adopting health information technology (HIT). Many studies have highlighted the use of HIT as a means of improving health care quality. However, these studies overwhelmingly do not provide empirical information proving that HIT can actually achieve these improvements. The main research goal of this…

  14. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  15. Health information technology: laying the infrastructure for national health reform.

    PubMed

    Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Jain, Sachin H; Blumenthal, David

    2010-06-01

    The enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a signal achievement on the road to reform, which arguably began with the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. That statute's Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) provisions created an essential foundation for restructuring health care delivery and for achieving the key goals of improving health care quality; reducing costs; and increasing access through better methods of storing, analyzing, and sharing health information. This article discusses the range of initiatives under HITECH to support health reform, including proposed regulations on "meaningful use" and standards; funding of regional extension centers and Beacon communities; and support for the development and use of clinical registries and linked health outcomes research networks, all of which are critical to carrying out the comparative clinical effectiveness research that will be expanded under health reform.

  16. Data Mining in Health and Medical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to data mining (DM) in health and medical information: the potential of DM in health and medicine; statistical methods; evaluation of methods; DM tools for health and medicine; inductive learning of symbolic rules; application of DM tools in diagnosis and prognosis; and…

  17. Health Behaviors among Baby Boomer Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and…

  18. Training Older Adults to Access Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.; Bertera, Robert L.; Morgan, Russell; Wuertz, Ellen; Attey, Alfred M. O.

    2007-01-01

    Many older adults do not use health information available on the Internet. Older adults residing in affordable housing were taught to use the NIHSeniorHealth.gov Web site. Participants were predominantly African American women with limited education and income (N = 42). Outcomes included changes in computer and health Web site navigation skills.…

  19. Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Girolamo, Francesco Di; D’Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

  20. Farm animal serum proteomics and impact on human health.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-09-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals.

  1. Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector

    PubMed Central

    NAG, Anjali; VYAS, Heer; NAG, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector. PMID:26903262

  2. Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector.

    PubMed

    Nag, Anjali; Vyas, Heer; Nag, Pranab

    2016-08-01

    Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector. PMID:26903262

  3. Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector.

    PubMed

    Nag, Anjali; Vyas, Heer; Nag, Pranab

    2016-08-01

    Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector.

  4. Public Health Practice within a Health Information Exchange: Information Needs and Barriers to Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Blaine; Revere, Debra; Hills, Rebecca A; Baseman, Janet G; Lober, William B

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Public health professionals engage in frequent exchange of health information while pursuing the objectives of protecting and improving population health. Yet, there has been little study of the information work of public health workers with regard to information exchange. Our objective was to gain a better understanding of information work at a local health jurisdiction before and during the early stages of participation in a regional Health Information Exchange. Methods: We investigated the information work of public health workers engaged in disease surveillance activities at a medium-sized local health jurisdiction by conducting semi-structured interviews and thematically analyzing interview transcripts. Results: Analysis of the information work of public health workers revealed barriers in the following areas: information system usability; data timeliness, accuracy and completeness; and social interaction with clients. We illustrate these barriers by focusing on the work of epidemiologists. Conclusion: Characterizing information work and barriers to information exchange for public health workers should be part of early system design efforts. A comprehensive understanding of the information practice of public health workers will inform the design of systems that better support public health work. PMID:23569649

  5. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Guillermo; Lauková, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Callaway, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals' health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

  6. Health professionals' roles in animal agriculture, climate change, and human health.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha Z; Greger, Michael; Ferdowsian, Hope; Frank, Erica

    2009-02-01

    What we eat is rapidly becoming an issue of global concern. With food shortages, the rise in chronic disease, and global warming, the impact of our dietary choices seems more relevant today than ever. Globally, a transition is taking place toward greater consumption of foods of animal origin, in lieu of plant-based diets. With this transition comes intensification of animal agriculture that in turn is associated with the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases, environmental degradation, and the epidemics of chronic disease and obesity. Health professionals should be aware of these trends and consider them as they promote healthier and more environmentally-sustainable diets.

  7. Presidential leadership and health information technology.

    PubMed

    Brailer, David J

    2009-01-01

    There have been two pivotal contests between Congress and two presidents over the nation's investment in health information technology (IT) and whether it will improve the quality and efficiency of care. The first, between President George W. Bush and the 109th Congress, resulted in a strong declaration of presidential support for health IT and galvanized the health IT community for aggressive activism. The second was set in motion when the 111th Congress used the stimulus legislation to drive potentially disruptive changes in health IT spending and policy. We again face the question of whether presidential leadership will keep health IT on course as a driver of health reform.

  8. Cueing Animations: Dynamic Signaling Aids Information Extraction and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.; Putri, Dian K.; Groff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of animations containing two novel forms of animation cueing that target relations between event units rather than individual entities was compared with that of animations containing conventional entity-based cueing or no cues. These relational event unit cues ("progressive path" and "local coordinated" cues) were specifically…

  9. 78 FR 17418 - Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Rural Health Information Technology Network... award under the Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant (RHITND) to Grace... relinquishing its fiduciary responsibilities for the Rural Health Information Technology Network...

  10. 78 FR 42945 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT.... ARRA requires that one member have expertise in health information privacy and security. Due to...

  11. 76 FR 9537 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... surveillance on, monitor, control, or eradicate animal diseases of national importance. In doing so, the... disease traceability. Animal disease traceability will be the primary discussion topic at the meeting on March 4, 2011. APHIS has spent much of the past year developing a framework for animal...

  12. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  13. Finding Reliable Health Information Online

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your physician any articles that interest you. Internet Credibility Help from Genetic Alliance The Access To ... for people developing educational materials. Top of page Internet Resources Genetics Information Genetic Testing Registry www.ncbi. ...

  14. American Health Information Management Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Improvement Overview Training & Resources Certification CDI Month Information Governance IG Basics Free IG Resources IG Education & Training ... Values Strategic Objectives Ethics Him Reimagined Him Awareness Governance Board Of Directors House Of Delegates Affiliates Component ...

  15. Corporate information systems in health organisations.

    PubMed

    Smith, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nature of corporate information systems and their applications in health organisations. It emphasises the importance of financial and human resource information in the creation of a corporate data model. The paper summarises the main features of finance and human resource systems as they are used in health organisations. It looks at a series of case studies carried out in health organisations, which were selected on the basis of their representation of different aspects of service delivery. It also discusses the theoretical and practical perspectives of the systems themselves, their roles in information management, executive and decision support, and in planning and forecasting. PMID:10173702

  16. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    PubMed Central

    Téllez, Guillermo; Lauková, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Callaway, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

  17. Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Denli, Muzaffer; Perez, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry. PMID:22069626

  18. 77 FR 59222 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Submission) used by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (NPS IACUC/the Committee) to ensure compliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), its regulations (AWAR), and the Interagency Research Animal... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care...

  19. Health information technology: dispatches from the revolution.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Ticia

    2009-01-01

    Countries around the world are increasingly employing health information technology (IT). These tools hold the promise of powerful health system breakthroughs from Johannesburg to Jakarta. While implementers multiply, a global e-health consensus framework is beginning to take shape among donors, governments, industries, researchers, and policymakers. As plans are formulated in the United States for substantial new federal investments in health IT, this paper details common threads in national and global health IT discourse. Among them are the need for strong stakeholder engagement, workable policy solutions, funding and donor coordination, and the imperative for adequately addressing standards and interoperability.

  20. Environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations: implications for nurses.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Katie G

    2010-01-01

    Changes in livestock farming over the last 50 years have led to the increase of large-scale livestock farms called concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These farms pose a threat to the environment by polluting the air and nearby ground and surface waters. In addition, adverse health effects have been found in CAFO workers and CAFO neighbors. A multitude of respiratory effects have been noted by workers and neighbors, some of which are severe enough to cause workers to leave the industry. The mental health of CAFO neighbors appears to suffer as well, mainly because of noxious odors and stress. Concentrated animal feeding operations also contribute to the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which have the potential to harm populations nationwide. Although research is being done on this topic around the world, the nursing literature contains very little information on health effects from CAFOs. Occupational, community, and public health nurses should be aware of the dangers from CAFOs and should participate in caring practices, research, and advocacy to diminish the risks.

  1. Environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations: implications for nurses.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Katie G

    2010-01-01

    Changes in livestock farming over the last 50 years have led to the increase of large-scale livestock farms called concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These farms pose a threat to the environment by polluting the air and nearby ground and surface waters. In addition, adverse health effects have been found in CAFO workers and CAFO neighbors. A multitude of respiratory effects have been noted by workers and neighbors, some of which are severe enough to cause workers to leave the industry. The mental health of CAFO neighbors appears to suffer as well, mainly because of noxious odors and stress. Concentrated animal feeding operations also contribute to the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which have the potential to harm populations nationwide. Although research is being done on this topic around the world, the nursing literature contains very little information on health effects from CAFOs. Occupational, community, and public health nurses should be aware of the dangers from CAFOs and should participate in caring practices, research, and advocacy to diminish the risks. PMID:20838176

  2. Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Lexi Bambas; Braveman, Paula; Dachs, J. Norberto W.; Delgado, Iris; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Moser, Kath; Rolfe, Liz; Vega, Jeanette; Zarowsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (dis)advantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS) lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development. PMID:16184279

  3. Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis: How informative are they?

    PubMed

    McNamee, Kay; Williams, Richard; Seed, Michael

    2015-07-15

    Animal models of arthritis are widely used to de-convolute disease pathways and to identify novel drug targets and therapeutic approaches. However, the high attrition rates of drugs in Phase II/III rates means that a relatively small number of drugs reach the market, despite showing efficacy in pre-clinical models. There is also increasing awareness of the ethical issues surrounding the use of animal models of disease and it is timely, therefore, to review the relevance and translatability of animal models of arthritis. In this paper we review the most commonly used animal models in terms of their pathological similarities to human rheumatoid arthritis as well as their response to drug therapy. In general, the ability of animal models to predict efficacy of biologics in man has been good. However, the predictive power of animal models for small molecules has been variable, probably because of differences in the levels of target knockdown achievable in vivo.

  4. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-07-01

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes). PMID:26442892

  5. Survivable Authentication for Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bicakci, Kemal; Baykal, Nazife

    2003-01-01

    Possible solutions to establish a survivable authentication framework in a health information system including the one based on one-time passwords (OTPs) are discussed. A new convenient method to generate OTPs is proposed. PMID:14728296

  6. Health Consumers eHealth Literacy to Decrease Disparities in Accessing eHealth Information.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin; Cormier, Eileen; Glenna, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived eHealth literacy of a general health consumer population so that health care professionals can effectively address skills gaps in health consumers' ability to access and use high quality online health information. Participants were recruited from three public library branches in a Northeast Florida community. The eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS) was used. The majority of participants (n = 108) reported they knew how and where to find health information and how to use it to make health decisions; knowledge of what health resources were available and confidence in the ability to distinguish high from low quality information was considerably less. The findings suggest the need for eHealth education and support to health consumers from health care professionals, in particular, how to access and evaluate the quality of health information. PMID:27332397

  7. Health information privacy: why trust matters.

    PubMed

    Mancilla, Desla; Biedermann, Sue

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to recognize the importance of gaining consumers' trust in how their health information is accessed and used. With the increased use of technology for creating, maintaining, and transmitting health information and the inherent distrust of these kinds of systems, consumer support for advantageous technology is lacking. This article addresses numerous protective measures that are in place and the role of healthcare professionals in building trust with healthcare consumers.

  8. Ontology-driven health information systems architectures.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Oemig, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Following an architecture vision such as the Generic Component Model (GCM) architecture framework, health information systems for supporting personalized care have to be based on a component-oriented architecture. Representing concepts and their interrelations, the GCM perspectives system architecture, domains, and development process can be described by the domains' ontologies. The paper introduces ontology principles, ontology references to the GCM as well as some practical aspects of ontology-driven approaches to semantically interoperable and sustainable health information systems.

  9. Geographic Information Systems and travel health.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Irmgard L; Puotinen, Marji

    2002-01-01

    Questions dealing with space and/or location have always been integral to understanding and addressing health issues, such as charting the spread of a disease. Health researchers have traditionally used paper maps to explore the spatial dimensions of health. However, due to advances in technology, it is now possible to ask such questions using a suite of computer-based methods and tools that are collectively known as a Geographic Information System (GIS).

  10. Hospitals as Centers for Consumer Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, Judith M.

    1978-01-01

    Hospitals are trying to make health information available to lay persons to increase their knowledge of the processes of health and disease. Specific programs cited include those based in hospital libraries. Findings of several studies evaluating program effectiveness are indicated, as well as directions for future research. (MBR)

  11. Online Access to Mental Health Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Barbara A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents overview of commercially available databases useful to field of mental health. The availability, costs, coverage, currency, update frequency, and access points are compared for four major files--PsychINFO, National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information, Social SciSearch, and MEDLINE. Forty-nine references are provided. (EJS)

  12. One health and cyanobacteria in freshwater systems: animal illnesses and deaths are sentinel events for human health risks.

    PubMed

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Beasley, Val R

    2015-04-20

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associated with harmful cyanobacteria blooms tend to be investigated and reported separately. Consequently, professionals working in human or in animal health do not always communicate findings related to these events with one another. Using the One Health concept of integration and collaboration among health disciplines, we systematically review the existing literature to discover where harmful cyanobacteria-associated animal illnesses and deaths have served as sentinel events to warn of potential human health risks. We find that illnesses or deaths among livestock, dogs and fish are all potentially useful as sentinel events for the presence of harmful cyanobacteria that may impact human health. We also describe ways to enhance the value of reports of cyanobacteria-associated illnesses and deaths in animals to protect human health. Efficient monitoring of environmental and animal health in a One Health collaborative framework can provide vital warnings of cyanobacteria-associated human health risks.

  13. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths Are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Beasley, Val R.

    2015-01-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associated with harmful cyanobacteria blooms tend to be investigated and reported separately. Consequently, professionals working in human or in animal health do not always communicate findings related to these events with one another. Using the One Health concept of integration and collaboration among health disciplines, we systematically review the existing literature to discover where harmful cyanobacteria-associated animal illnesses and deaths have served as sentinel events to warn of potential human health risks. We find that illnesses or deaths among livestock, dogs and fish are all potentially useful as sentinel events for the presence of harmful cyanobacteria that may impact human health. We also describe ways to enhance the value of reports of cyanobacteria-associated illnesses and deaths in animals to protect human health. Efficient monitoring of environmental and animal health in a One Health collaborative framework can provide vital warnings of cyanobacteria-associated human health risks. PMID:25903764

  14. Timely Reporting and Interactive Visualization of Animal Health and Slaughterhouse Surveillance Data in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Muellner, Ulrich J; Vial, Flavie; Wohlfender, Franziska; Hadorn, Daniela; Reist, Martin; Muellner, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The reporting of outputs from health surveillance systems should be done in a near real-time and interactive manner in order to provide decision makers with powerful means to identify, assess, and manage health hazards as early and efficiently as possible. While this is currently rarely the case in veterinary public health surveillance, reporting tools do exist for the visual exploration and interactive interrogation of health data. In this work, we used tools freely available from the Google Maps and Charts library to develop a web application reporting health-related data derived from slaughterhouse surveillance and from a newly established web-based equine surveillance system in Switzerland. Both sets of tools allowed entry-level usage without or with minimal programing skills while being flexible enough to cater for more complex scenarios for users with greater programing skills. In particular, interfaces linking statistical softwares and Google tools provide additional analytical functionality (such as algorithms for the detection of unusually high case occurrences) for inclusion in the reporting process. We show that such powerful approaches could improve timely dissemination and communication of technical information to decision makers and other stakeholders and could foster the early-warning capacity of animal health surveillance systems. PMID:26664974

  15. Timely Reporting and Interactive Visualization of Animal Health and Slaughterhouse Surveillance Data in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Muellner, Ulrich J.; Vial, Flavie; Wohlfender, Franziska; Hadorn, Daniela; Reist, Martin; Muellner, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The reporting of outputs from health surveillance systems should be done in a near real-time and interactive manner in order to provide decision makers with powerful means to identify, assess, and manage health hazards as early and efficiently as possible. While this is currently rarely the case in veterinary public health surveillance, reporting tools do exist for the visual exploration and interactive interrogation of health data. In this work, we used tools freely available from the Google Maps and Charts library to develop a web application reporting health-related data derived from slaughterhouse surveillance and from a newly established web-based equine surveillance system in Switzerland. Both sets of tools allowed entry-level usage without or with minimal programing skills while being flexible enough to cater for more complex scenarios for users with greater programing skills. In particular, interfaces linking statistical softwares and Google tools provide additional analytical functionality (such as algorithms for the detection of unusually high case occurrences) for inclusion in the reporting process. We show that such powerful approaches could improve timely dissemination and communication of technical information to decision makers and other stakeholders and could foster the early-warning capacity of animal health surveillance systems. PMID:26664974

  16. Timely Reporting and Interactive Visualization of Animal Health and Slaughterhouse Surveillance Data in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Muellner, Ulrich J; Vial, Flavie; Wohlfender, Franziska; Hadorn, Daniela; Reist, Martin; Muellner, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The reporting of outputs from health surveillance systems should be done in a near real-time and interactive manner in order to provide decision makers with powerful means to identify, assess, and manage health hazards as early and efficiently as possible. While this is currently rarely the case in veterinary public health surveillance, reporting tools do exist for the visual exploration and interactive interrogation of health data. In this work, we used tools freely available from the Google Maps and Charts library to develop a web application reporting health-related data derived from slaughterhouse surveillance and from a newly established web-based equine surveillance system in Switzerland. Both sets of tools allowed entry-level usage without or with minimal programing skills while being flexible enough to cater for more complex scenarios for users with greater programing skills. In particular, interfaces linking statistical softwares and Google tools provide additional analytical functionality (such as algorithms for the detection of unusually high case occurrences) for inclusion in the reporting process. We show that such powerful approaches could improve timely dissemination and communication of technical information to decision makers and other stakeholders and could foster the early-warning capacity of animal health surveillance systems.

  17. Health information systems: the foundations of public health.

    PubMed Central

    AbouZahr, Carla; Boerma, Ties

    2005-01-01

    Public health decision-making is critically dependent on the timely availability of sound data. The role of health information systems is to generate, analyse and disseminate such data. In practice, health information systems rarely function systematically. The products of historical, social and economic forces, they are complex, fragmented and unresponsive to needs. International donors in health are largely responsible for the problem, having prioritized urgent needs for data over longer-term country capacity-building. The result is painfully apparent in the inability of most countries to generate the data needed to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Solutions to the problem must be comprehensive; money alone is likely to be insufficient unless accompanied by sustained support to country systems development coupled with greater donor accountability and allocation of responsibilities. The Health Metrics Network, a global collaboration in the making, is intended to help bring such solutions to the countries most in need. PMID:16184276

  18. [Information security in health care].

    PubMed

    Ködmön, József; Csajbók, Zoltán Ernő

    2015-07-01

    Doctors, nurses and other medical professionals are spending more and more time in front of the computer, using applications developed for general practitioners, specialized care, or perhaps an integrated hospital system. The data they handle during healing and patient care are mostly sensitive data and, therefore, their management is strictly regulated. Finding our way in the jungle of laws, regulations and policies is not simple. Notwithstanding, our lack of information does not waive our responsibility. This study summarizes the most important points of international recommendations, standards and legal regulations of the field, as well as giving practical advices for managing medical and patient data securely and in compliance with the current legal regulations.

  19. Compendium of measures to prevent disease associated with animals in public settings, 2011: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    PubMed

    2011-05-01

    Certain venues encourage or permit the public to be in contact with animals, resulting in millions of human-animal interactions each year. These settings include county or state fairs, petting zoos, animal swap meets, pet stores, feed stores, zoologic institutions, circuses, carnivals, educational farms, livestock-birthing exhibits, educational exhibits at schools and child-care facilities, and wildlife photo opportunities. Although human-animal contact has many benefits, human health problems are associated with these settings, including infectious diseases, exposure to rabies, and injuries. Infectious disease outbreaks have been caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Cryptosporidium species, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ringworm, and other pathogens. Such outbreaks have substantial medical, public health, legal, and economic effects. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff members, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. The recommendation to wash hands is the most important for reducing the risk for disease transmission associated with animals in public settings. Other important recommendations are that venues prohibit food in animal areas and include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors receive information about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. These updated 2011 guidelines provide new information on the risks associated with amphibians and with animals in day camp settings, as well as the protective role of zoonotic disease education.

  20. A vision for child health information systems: developing child health information systems to meet medical care and public health needs.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Alan R; Saarlas, Kristin N; Ross, David A

    2004-11-01

    In both the medical care and public health arenas, a variety of information systems have been developed to serve providers and program managers. In general, these systems have not been designed to share information with other information systems and provide comprehensive information about a child's health status to the information user. A number of initiatives are underway to develop integrated information systems. In December 2003, All Kids Count hosted an invitational conference "Developing Child Health Information Systems to Meet Medical Care and Public Health Needs." Through a series of plenary presentations and breakout discussion groups, participants developed a series of recommendations about governance, economic issues, information infrastructure, and uses of information from integrated child health information systems (CHIS). Common threads in the recommendations were: (1) development of a national coalition of stakeholders to promote integration of separate child health information systems within the context of ongoing national initiatives such as the National Health Information Infrastructure and the Public Health Information Network, (2) the need to develop the business and policy cases for integrated CHIS, (3) the need to develop agreement on standards for collecting and transferring information, and (4) the need to get the word out about the importance of integrating separate CHIS to improve health and health services.

  1. Improving Injury Prevention Through Health Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Haegerich, Tamara M.; Sugerman, David E.; Annest, Joseph L.; Klevens, Joanne; Baldwin, Grant T.

    2015-01-01

    Health information technology is an emerging area of focus in clinical medicine with the potential to improve injury and violence prevention practice. With injuries being the leading cause of death for Americans aged 1–44 years, greater implementation of evidence-based preventive services, referral to community resources, and real-time surveillance of emerging threats is needed. Through a review of the literature and capturing of current practice in the field, this paper showcases how health information technology applied to injury and violence prevention can lead to strengthened clinical preventive services, more rigorous measurement of clinical outcomes, and improved injury surveillance, potentially resulting in health improvement. PMID:25441230

  2. Harnessing health information in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Coghlan, S E; Khan, M S

    1993-01-01

    The provision of technical information on health in developing countries is discussed, with particular reference to the Diarrhoeal Diseases Information Services Centre in Bangladesh. Progress towards meeting the pressing needs of the Third World in this field can undoubtedly be made by increasing the use of micrographic, computer and videodisc technologies and by reorganizing and promoting the facilities on offer. PMID:8397746

  3. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  4. A health plan prescription for health information technology.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Newt; Hasan, Malik

    2010-12-01

    The economic stimulus law of 2009 included incentive payments to encourage providers and hospitals to adopt and "meaningfully use" electronic health records. One resource was excluded from these regulations: patient data from the patient's health insurer, although health insurance companies tie together multiple sectors of the healthcare industry in a single patient-centered data form known as the claims history. They also have considerable experience with information technology (IT). As a result, they are uniquely positioned to move adoption of health IT systems forward. Health plan technologies should be included in the meaningful-use requirements. The result will be additional functionality, which in the end will improve quality, lower costs, and improve individual health.

  5. Function Model for Community Health Service Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peng; Pan, Feng; Liu, Danhong; Xu, Yongyong

    In order to construct a function model of community health service (CHS) information for development of CHS information management system, Integration Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0), an IEEE standard which is extended from Structured Analysis and Design(SADT) and now is a widely used function modeling method, was used to classifying its information from top to bottom. The contents of every level of the model were described and coded. Then function model for CHS information, which includes 4 super-classes, 15 classes and 28 sub-classed of business function, 43 business processes and 168 business activities, was established. This model can facilitate information management system development and workflow refinement.

  6. Sentinel Animals in a One Health Approach to Harmful Cyanobacterial and Algal Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Miller, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    People, domestic animals, and wildlife are all exposed to numerous environmental threats, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). However, because animals exhibit wide variations in diet, land use and biology, they are often more frequently or heavily exposed to HAB toxins than are people occupying the same habitat, making them sentinels for human exposures. Historically, we have taken advantage of unique physiological characteristics of animals, such as the sensitivity of canaries to carbon monoxide, to more quickly recognize threats and help protect human health. As HAB events become more severe and widespread worldwide, exposure and health outcome data for animals can be extremely helpful to predict, prevent, and evaluate human exposures and health outcomes. Applying a One Health approach to investigation of HABs means that lessons learned from animal sentinels can be applied to protect people, animals and our shared environment. PMID:27152315

  7. Evaluating and approaching a strange animal: children's trust in informant testimony.

    PubMed

    Boseovski, Janet J; Thurman, Sabrina L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 3- to 7-year-old children's reliance on informant testimony to learn about a novel animal. Sixty participants were given positive or negative information about an Australian marsupial from an informant described as a maternal figure or a zookeeper. Children were asked which informant was correct and were invited to touch the animal, which was a stuffed toy hidden in a crate. Overall, younger children endorsed the zookeeper's testimony about the animal, but touched the animal more readily when the maternal figure provided positive information. Older children endorsed the informant who provided positive information, but showed some sensitivity to zookeeper expertise. Age differences were obtained in the association between participant characteristics and informant selection and animal approach behavior.

  8. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  9. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  10. Bacteriophages: an underestimated role in human and animal health?

    PubMed Central

    De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R.; Petit, Marie-Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity. PMID:24734220

  11. Linking personal and public health information: a vision for community-centered health information systems.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, K; Brennan, P F

    2001-01-01

    As health care in the U.S. and worldwide has shifted from a centralized, institution-based model to a distributed process occurring largely in the communities, Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) initiatives must also move toward addressing the challenges of integrating health information at the community level. The Wisconsin IAIMS initiative strives to create such a solution, anchoring its efforts in a regional health information technology architecture by partnering with Wisconsin-area communities as the foundation that will ensure the establishment of the appropriate collaborations to gain adequate investment and generate sustainable solutions for health information integration.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  13. Review Of Internet Health Information Quality Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Dzenowagis, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Background The massive growth of health information on the Internet; the global nature of the Internet; the seismic shift taking place in the relationships of various actors in this arena, and the absence of real protection from harm for citizens who use the Internet for health purposes are seen to be real problems. One response to many of these problems has been the burgeoning output of codes of conduct by numerous organizations trying to address quality of health information. Objectives Review the major self-regulatory initiatives in the English-speaking world to develop quality and ethical standards for health information on the Internet. Compare and analyze the approaches taken by the different initiatives. Clarify the issues around the development and enforcement of standards. Methods Quality initiatives selected meet one or more of the following criteria: Self-regulatory. A reasonable constituency. Diversity (eg, of philosophy, approach and process)-to achieve balance and wide representation, and to illustrate and compare different approaches. Historic value. A wider reach than a national audience, except when its reach is a significant sector of the Internet health information industry. The initiatives were compared in 3 ways: (1) Analysis and comparison of: key concepts, mechanism, or approach. Analysis of: the obligations that a provider has to meet to comply with the given initiative, the intended beneficiaries of that initiative, and the burdens imposed on different actors. These burdens are described in terms of their effect on the long-term sustainability and maintenance of the initiative by its developers. Analysis of the enforcement mechanisms. (2) Analysis and comparison by type of sponsoring organization, the reach of the initiative, and the sources of funding of the initiative or the sponsoring organization. (3) How the various initiatives fall under 1 of 3 key mechanisms and comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of these key mechanisms

  14. Identifying Health Consumers' eHealth Literacy to Decrease Disparities in Accessing eHealth Information.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin; Cormier, Eileen; Gordon, Glenna; Baeg, Jung Hoon

    2016-02-01

    The increasing amount of health information available on the Internet highlights the importance of eHealth literacy skills for health consumers. Low eHealth literacy results in disparities in health consumers' ability to access and use eHealth information. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived eHealth literacy of a general health consumer population so that healthcare professionals can effectively address skills gaps in health consumers' ability to access and use high-quality online health information. Participants were recruited from three public library branches in a Northeast Florida community. The eHealth Literacy Scale was used. The majority of participants (n = 108) reported they knew how and where to find health information and how to use it to make health decisions; knowledge of what health resources were available and confidence in the ability to distinguish high- from low-quality information were considerably less. The findings suggest the need for eHealth education and support to health consumers from healthcare professionals, in particular, how to access and evaluate the quality of health information.

  15. 78 FR 24749 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment AGENCY: Government Accountability... Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee to make recommendations on the implementation of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure to the...

  16. National Library of Medicine Guide to Finding Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Evaluate Information that I Find? MedlinePlus Evaluating Internet Health Information , National Library of Medicine Using Trusted Resources , NIH National Cancer Institute How to Evaluate Health Information on the Internet , NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Find Good Health ...

  17. Impact of Health Disclosure Laws on Health Information Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    Adjerid, Idris; Padman, Rema

    2011-01-01

    Health information exchanges (HIEs) are expected to facilitate data sharing between healthcare entities, thereby improving the efficiency and quality of care. Privacy concerns have been consistently cited as one of the primary challenges to HIE formation and success. Currently, it is unclear how privacy laws – in particular, legislation restricting the disclosure of health records – have shaped the development of HIEs. This preliminary study explores the landscape of state-level health privacy legislation and examines the impact of variations in such privacy and confidentiality laws on the progress of HIEs. We found that states with stronger privacy laws, limiting the disclosure of health information, had significantly more HIEs exchanging data and had fewer failed HIEs. We suggest that this counterintuitive finding may be explained by the more subtle benefits of such laws, such as increased confidence and trust of participants in an exchange. Other key contributors to this work are Alessandro Acquisti, Rahul Telang, and Julia Adler-Milstein PMID:22195054

  18. Relations between companion animals and self-reported health in older women: cause, effect or artifact?

    PubMed

    Pachana, Nancy A; Ford, Jessica H; Andrew, Brooke; Dobson, Annette J

    2005-01-01

    A large longitudinal dataset on women's health in Australia provided the basis of analysis of potential positive health effects of living with a companion animal. Age, living arrangements, and housing all strongly related to both living with companion animals and health. Methodological problems in using data from observational studies to disentangle a potential association in the presence of substantial effects of demographic characteristics are highlighted. Our findings may help to explain some inconsistencies and contradictions in the literature about the health benefits of companion animals, as well as offer suggestions for ways to move forward in future investigations of human-pet relationships. PMID:15901219

  19. Smart health community: the hidden value of health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, James N; Kulatilaka, Nalin

    2010-12-01

    Investments in health information technology are accelerating the digitization of medicine. The value from these investments, however, can grow beyond efficiencies by filling the information gaps between the various stakeholders. New work processes, governance structures, and relationships are needed for the coevolution of healthcare markets and business models. But coevolution is slow, hindered by the scarcity of incentives for legacy delivery systems and constrained by the prevailing patient-healthcare paradigm. The greater opportunity lies in wellness for individuals, families, communities, and society at large: a consumer-community paradigm. Capturing new value from this opportunity can start with investment in health information exchange and the creation of Smart Health Communities. By shifting the focus of exchange from public servant to value-added service provider, these communities can serve as a platform for a wider array of wellness services from consumer care, traditional healthcare, and research. PMID:21314218

  20. Evaluating a health information resource in a health system.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Wendy F; Einbinder, Laura; Attridge, Elaine; Lord, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to offer the broadest scope of quality information resources, libraries are often faced with decisions related to the sources they provide based on the quality and cost of each resource. However, there lacks a framework to evaluate these resources to maximize the value of services offered to library users. The Claude Moore Health Sciences Library collaborated with the Department of Health Evaluation Sciences to undertake a comprehensive evaluation project to begin to establish such a framework. The long term goals are to: 1) determine cost effectiveness of services provided on an ongoing basis to provide objective basis for pursuing or renewing licenses, 2) evaluate licensed health care information services/databases under consideration and 3) create a process for ongoing evaluation. This abstract reports the results of the first demonstration evaluation of an information resource, MDConsult, as a model for future evaluation studies in a library setting. PMID:14728323

  1. Animal virus discovery: improving animal health, understanding zoonoses, and opportunities for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of viral genomes has accelerated due to improvement in DNA sequencing technology. Sources of animal samples and molecular methods for the identification of novel viral pathogens and steps to determine their pathogenicity are listed. The difficulties for predicting future cross-species transmissions are highlighted by the wide diversity of known viral zoonoses. Recent surveys of viruses in wild and domesticated animals have characterized numerous viruses including some closely related to those infecting humans. The detection of multiple genetic lineages within viral families infecting a single host species, phylogenetically interspersed with viruses found in other host species, reflects frequent past cross-species transmissions. Numerous opportunities for the generation of novel vaccines will arise from a better understanding of animal viromes. PMID:22463981

  2. How Animal Models Inform Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Hanna E.; Vaccarino, Flora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Every available approach should be utilized to advance the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. Biological systems are important for the behavioral problems of children. Close examination of non-human animals and the biology and behavior they share with humans is an approach that must be used to advance the clinical work of child psychiatry. Method We review here how model systems are used to contribute to significant insights into childhood psychiatric disorders. Model systems have not only demonstrated causality of risk factors for psychiatric pathophysiology but have also allowed child psychiatrists to think in different ways about risks for psychiatric disorders and multiple levels that might be the basis of recovery and prevention. Results We present examples of how animal systems are utilized to benefit child psychiatry, including through environmental, genetic, and acute biological manipulations. Animal model work has been essential in our current thinking about childhood disorders, including the importance of dose and timing of risk factors, specific features of risk factors that are significant, neurochemistry involved in brain functioning, molecular components of brain development, and the importance of cellular processes previously neglected in psychiatric theories. Conclusion Animal models have clear advantages and disadvantages that must both be considered for these systems to be useful. Coupled with increasingly sophisticated methods for investigating human behavior and biology, animal model systems will continue to make essential contributions to our field. PMID:25901771

  3. Consumer Health Information Seeking as Hypothesis Testing

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Browne, Allen C.; Kaufman, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Despite the proliferation of consumer health sites, lay individuals often experience difficulty finding health information online. The present study attempts to understand users' information seeking difficulties by drawing on a hypothesis testing explanatory framework. It also addresses the role of user competencies and their interaction with internet resources. Design Twenty participants were interviewed about their understanding of a hypothetical scenario about a family member suffering from stable angina and then searched MedlinePlus® consumer health information portal for information on the problem presented in the scenario. Participants' understanding of heart disease was analyzed via semantic analysis. Thematic coding was used to describe information seeking trajectories in terms of three key strategies: verification of the primary hypothesis, narrowing search within the general hypothesis area and bottom-up search. Results Compared to an expert model, participants' understanding of heart disease involved different key concepts, which were also differently grouped and defined. This understanding provided the framework for search-guiding hypotheses and results interpretation. Incorrect or imprecise domain knowledge led individuals to search for information on irrelevant sites, often seeking out data to confirm their incorrect initial hypotheses. Online search skills enhanced search efficiency, but did not eliminate these difficulties. Conclusions Regardless of their web experience and general search skills, lay individuals may experience difficulty with health information searches. These difficulties may be related to formulating and evaluating hypotheses that are rooted in their domain knowledge. Informatics can provide support at the levels of health information portals, individual websites, and consumer education tools. PMID:18436912

  4. The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

  5. Rewriting public health information in plain language.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rima E; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Colton, Tayla; Gregoire, John; Hyde, James

    2004-01-01

    Public health materials are often designed to inform and rally the public to spur action and maintain vigilance on important issues to family, work, community, and public policy. Limited access to public health information certainly curtails knowledge and awareness but may also hamper action and civic involvement. A growth in published assessments of health materials indicates an increased interest in the mismatch between the reading level of most health materials and the reading ability of the average adult. However, while several guidebooks offer suggestions for developing new materials, little attention has been given to the process of rewriting materials and grappling with bureaucratic language. We describe, in this case study, a process we used to assess and then rewrite a federally mandated report to consumers about the quality of their water. PMID:15360033

  6. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    PubMed Central

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  7. Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

    2014-07-01

    As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved

  8. 76 FR 37814 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; New Animal Drugs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Collection; Comment Request; New Animal Drugs for Investigational Uses AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... solicits comments on the reporting and recordkeeping requirements for ``New Animal Drugs for... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. New Animal Drugs for Investigational Uses--21 CFR...

  9. 78 FR 9729 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Submission, Exhibitor, Annual Review, and Amendment Forms) used by the Institutional Animal Care and Use ] Committee (NPS IACUC/the Committee) to ensure compliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), its regulations... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care...

  10. One Health - Transdisciplinary Opportunities for SETAC Leadership in Integrating and Improving the Health of People, Animals, and the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    One Health is a collaborative, transdisciplinary effort working locally, nationally, and globally to improve health for people,animals, plants, and the environment. The term is relatively new (from ?2003), and it is increasingly common to see One Health included by name in interi...

  11. High-impact animal health research conducted at the USDA's National Animal Disease Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commissioned by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in December 1961, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center (NADC) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in November 2011. Over these 50 years, the NADC established itself amon...

  12. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock agriculture is in a period of tumultuous change and upheaval. General economic development, and population growth and mobility, have increased demand for livestock products, but have also placed pressures on the sustainability of rural environments and animal production systems. Livestock ...

  13. 78 FR 14793 - Advancing Interoperability and Health Information Exchange

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... of the National Coordinator (ONC) for Health IT (HIT) Certification Program are increasing standards..., laboratories, nursing homes, home health agencies, hospices, rural health clinics, ambulatory surgical centers... Interoperability and Health Information Exchange AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  14. Approaching Equity in Consumer Health Information Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Theodore A.; Guard, J. Roger; Marine, Stephen A.; Schick, Leslie; Haag, Doris; Tsipis, Gaylene; Kaya, Birsen; Shoemaker, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The growing public interest in health and wellness information stems from many sources, including social changes related to consumers' rights and women's health movements, and economic changes brought about by the managed health care revolution. Public, hospital, and medical center libraries have been ill-equipped to meet the increasing need for consumer-oriented materials, even though a few notable programs have been established. The “Information Superhighway” could be an effective tool for sharing health information if access to telecomputing equipment and training were available to those with an information need. The University of Cincinnati Medical Center, with its libraries in the leading role, is delivering NetWellness, an electronic consumer health library service, to residents of 29 counties in three midwestern states. Users connect directly through the Internet, through regional Free-Nets, and by visiting one of 43 public access sites where networked workstations have been installed. The continued success of the project depends on developing partnerships, providing quality content and maintaining fair access. PMID:8988468

  15. Vaccines against diseases transmitted from animals to humans: a one health paradigm.

    PubMed

    Monath, Thomas P

    2013-11-01

    This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animals, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animal health and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern are transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. via arthropod vectors) from animals to humans. A number of examples of the use of Framework II vaccines are provided, e.g. against brucellosis, Escherichia coli O157, rabies, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Hendra virus. Framework III vaccines are used to immunize wild animals as a means of preventing transmission of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Examples are reservoir-targeted, oral bait rabies, Mycobacterium bovis and Lyme disease vaccines. Given the speed and lost cost of veterinary vaccine development, some interventions based on the immunization of animals could lead to rapid and relatively inexpensive advances in public health. Opportunities for vaccine-based approaches to preventing zoonotic and emerging diseases that integrate veterinary and human medicine (the One Health paradigm) are emphasized.

  16. Refinement and use of Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (Health Certificates) for optimal assurance of disease freedom in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Starling, D E; Palić, D; Scarfe, A D

    2007-01-01

    Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (CVI), generally termed "Health Certificates", are pivotal for ensuring that translocated animals are not diseased or do not harbour significant pathogens. While used very successfully with terrestrial animal movement for decades, CVIs for aquatic animals are not well refined, understood or used, despite the availability of several aquatic animal "certification processes", "permits" and "health certificates", including the OIE model health certificates. Correctly designed CVIs provide the single most economical and effective assurance of disease status (generally freedom from specific diseases or pathogens) for individuals or lots of animals, at any point in time. When issued by a qualified independent third-party (typically a licensed and government accredited veterinarian) they provide the official level of assurance necessary for intrastate, interstate and international trade. Tailored modifications of CVIs are also useful for other purposes requiring the evaluation of animal health (e.g. specific pathogen-free (SPF) assurance for premises, risk-mitigating assurance necessary for insurance policies, breeding soundness assurance of broodstock, etc.). Here we discuss necessary information for aquatic animal CVIs: animal, ownership and location; standardized diagnostic results and their interpretation; and language contained in CVIs. Also addressed is the viability for use with multiple aquatic species and diseases/pathogens of interest, and their use in conjunction with established veterinary inspection procedures. A revised model aquatic CVI, with broad potential use for individual operations, states or countries, is offered for discussion, comment and refinement. In addition an optimally designed model CVI may be of use with electronic systems that are evolving in, for example, Europe, the USA and Australia/New Zealand (e.g. TRACES, e-CVI, e-Certs).

  17. Health Information Privacy and Health Information Technology in the US Correctional Setting

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Melissa M.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic health records and electronic health information exchange are essential to improving quality of care, reducing medical errors and health disparities, and advancing the delivery of patient-centered medical care. In the US correctional setting, these goals are critical because of the high numbers of Americans affected, yet the use of health information technology is quite limited. In this article, I describe the legal environment surrounding health information sharing in corrections by focusing on 2 key federal privacy laws: the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and the federal Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records laws. In addition, I review stakeholder concerns and describe possible ways forward that enable electronic exchange while ensuring protection of inmate information and legal compliance. PMID:24625160

  18. Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Singer, Randall S; Cox, Louis A; Dickson, James S; Hurd, H Scott; Phillips, Ian; Miller, Gay Y

    2007-05-16

    To achieve further reductions in foodborne illness levels in humans, effective pre-harvest interventions are needed. The health status of food animals that are destined to enter the human food supply chain may be an important, although often overlooked, factor in predicting the risk of human foodborne infections. The health status of food animals can potentially influence foodborne pathogen levels in three ways. First, diseased animals may shed higher levels of foodborne pathogens. Second, animals that require further handling in the processing plant to remove affected parts may lead to increased microbial contamination and cross-contamination. Finally, certain animal illnesses may lead to a higher probability of mistakes in the processing plant, such as gastrointestinal ruptures, which would lead to increased microbial contamination and cross-contamination. Consequently, interventions that reduce the incidence of food animal illnesses might also help reduce bacterial contamination on meat, thereby reducing human illness. Some of these interventions, however, might also present a risk to human health. For example, the use of antibiotics in food animals can reduce rates of animal illness but can also select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria which can threaten human treatment options. In this study, we present a mathematical model to evaluate human health risks from foodborne pathogens associated with changes in animal illness. The model is designed so that potential human health risks and benefits from interventions such as the continued use of antibiotics in animal agriculture can be evaluated simultaneously. We applied the model to a hypothetical example of Campylobacter from chicken. In general, the model suggests that very minor perturbations in microbial loads on meat products could have relatively large impacts on human health, and consequently, small improvements in food animal health might result in significant reductions in human illness. PMID:17270298

  19. [Wawared Peru: reducing health inequities and improving maternal health by improving information systems in health].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lu, José E; Iguiñiz Romero, Ruth; Bayer, Angela M; García, Patricia J

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, there are no high quality data to support decision-making and governance due to inadequate information collection and transmission processes. Our project WawaRed-Peru: "Reducing health inequities and improving maternal health by improving health information systems" aims to improve maternal health processes and indicators through the implementation of interoperability standards for maternal health information systems in order for decision makers to have timely, high quality information. Through this project, we hope to support the development of better health policies and to also contribute to reducing problems of health equity among Peruvian women and potentially women in other developing countries. The aim of this article is to present the current state of information systems for maternal health in Peru. PMID:26338401

  20. Convergent Evolution of Health Information Management and Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, C. J.; Abrams, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Clearly defined boundaries are disappearing among the activities, sources, and uses of health care data and information managed by health information management (HIM) and health informatics (HI) professionals. Definitions of the professional domains and scopes of practice for HIM and HI are converging with the proliferation of information and communication technologies in health care settings. Convergence is changing both the roles that HIM and HI professionals serve in their organizations as well as the competencies necessary for training future professionals. Many of these changes suggest a blurring of roles and responsibilities with increasingly overlapping curricula, job descriptions, and research agendas. Blurred lines in a highly competitive market create confusion for students and employers. In this essay, we provide some perspective on the changing landscape and suggest a course for the future. First we review the evolving definitions of HIM and HI. We next compare the current domains and competencies, review the characteristics as well as the education and credentialing of both disciplines, and examine areas of convergence. Given the current state, we suggest a path forward to strengthen the contributions HIM and HI professionals and educators make to the evolving health care environment. PMID:25848421

  1. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  2. Aspergillus flavus genomics: gateway to human and animal health, food safety, and crop resistance to diseases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiujiang; Cleveland, Thomas E; Nierman, William C; Bennett, Joan W

    2005-12-01

    Aspergillus flavus is an imperfect filamentous fungus that is an opportunistic pathogen causing invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis in humans, animals, and insects. It also causes allergic reactions in humans. A. flavus infects agricultural crops and stored grains and produces the most toxic and potent carcinogic metabolites such as aflatoxins and other mycotoxins. Breakthroughs in A. flavus genomics may lead to improvement in human health, food safety, and agricultural economy. The availability of A. flavus genomic data marks a new era in research for fungal biology, medical mycology, agricultural ecology, pathogenicity, mycotoxin biosynthesis, and evolution. The availability of whole genome microarrays has equipped scientists with a new powerful tool for studying gene expression under specific conditions. They can be used to identify genes responsible for mycotoxin biosynthesis and for fungal infection in humans, animals and plants. A. flavus genomics is expected to advance the development of therapeutic drugs and to provide information for devising strategies in controlling diseases of humans and other animals. Further, it will provide vital clues for engineering commercial crops resistant to fungal infection by incorporating antifungal genes that may prevent aflatoxin contamination of agricultural harvest. PMID:16499411

  3. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  4. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  5. Large-Scale Environmental Influences on Aquatic Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the latter portion of the 20th century, North America experienced numerous large-scale mortality events affecting a broad diversity of aquatic animals. Short-term forensic investigations of these events have sometimes characterized a causative agent or condition, but have rare...

  6. [Animal hoarding: a mental disorder with implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Gahr, M; Connemann, B J; Freudenmann, R W; Kölle, M A; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, C J

    2014-06-01

    Animal hoarding (AH) is a mental disorder that is characterised by an excessive number of kept animals, inability to maintain minimal standards of animal care and hygiene, and deficient insight into the thereby developing failures and problems. Although AH as a disease concept is neither represented in the DSM-5 nor the ICD-10, it may be classified as a subform of the hoarding disorder (DSM-5 300.3) that was implemented in the DSM-5 as an obsessive-compulsive disorder. Due to the hygienic deficiencies of the living spaces and the insufficient keeping of animals there is an increased risk of epizootic diseases and zoonoses. Specific epidemiological studies do not exist, however, women seem to be affected more frequently. AH is diagnosed mostly in late adulthood. Besides thorough somatic and psychiatric medical diagnostics, cooperation with the veterinary offices and authorities is usually necessary. Comorbid mental disorders (particularly depressive, obsessive-compulsive and personality disorders) are frequent. Currently, no evidence-based therapies exist. Social therapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic interventions as well as sufficient treatment of comorbid mental disorders are recommended.

  7. Integrating global animal health, public health and tropical animal health issues into the veterinary curriculum: a South African/African perspective.

    PubMed

    Swan, G E; Coetzer, J A W; Terblanche, H M

    2009-08-01

    The globalisation of trade and food, the increased volume and speed of international travel, climate change, and the related escalation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases mean that countries are now more interconnected and interdependent than ever before. Africa is beleaguered by a range of endemic infectious and parasitic tropical diseases which, due to its diverse wildlife populations and indigenous livestock, can serve as a reservoir of high-impact or transboundary diseases and play a role in the emergence of disease, particularly at the wildlife, domestic animal and human interfaces. It is therefore essential to integrate animal and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum. Veterinary training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has focused on producing veterinarians to serve the livestock sector although socio-economic changes and privatisation of Veterinary Services have caused curriculum adjustments, as have globalisation and the increased risk of the spread of transboundary diseases. In South Africa, undergraduate veterinary training is more clinically oriented than in other regions. Animal and public health issues are covered in the curriculum, although their global relevance is not emphasised. The authors describe the undergraduate veterinary curriculum and summarise post-graduate programmes in South Africa. They also discuss a more comprehensive core-elective approach to the current curriculum and the need to adapt to new challenges facing the profession. Finally, they examine the potential use of innovative technology in undergraduate and post-graduate training and professional development, the importance of regional and international collaboration and the accreditation and recognition of veterinary training. PMID:20128484

  8. Integrating global animal health, public health and tropical animal health issues into the veterinary curriculum: a South African/African perspective.

    PubMed

    Swan, G E; Coetzer, J A W; Terblanche, H M

    2009-08-01

    The globalisation of trade and food, the increased volume and speed of international travel, climate change, and the related escalation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases mean that countries are now more interconnected and interdependent than ever before. Africa is beleaguered by a range of endemic infectious and parasitic tropical diseases which, due to its diverse wildlife populations and indigenous livestock, can serve as a reservoir of high-impact or transboundary diseases and play a role in the emergence of disease, particularly at the wildlife, domestic animal and human interfaces. It is therefore essential to integrate animal and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum. Veterinary training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has focused on producing veterinarians to serve the livestock sector although socio-economic changes and privatisation of Veterinary Services have caused curriculum adjustments, as have globalisation and the increased risk of the spread of transboundary diseases. In South Africa, undergraduate veterinary training is more clinically oriented than in other regions. Animal and public health issues are covered in the curriculum, although their global relevance is not emphasised. The authors describe the undergraduate veterinary curriculum and summarise post-graduate programmes in South Africa. They also discuss a more comprehensive core-elective approach to the current curriculum and the need to adapt to new challenges facing the profession. Finally, they examine the potential use of innovative technology in undergraduate and post-graduate training and professional development, the importance of regional and international collaboration and the accreditation and recognition of veterinary training.

  9. Protecting animal and human health and the nation's food supply through veterinary diagnostic laboratory testing.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Claire B

    2011-03-01

    The current detection system for animal diseases requires coordination between veterinarians; veterinary medical laboratories; and state, federal, and international agencies, as well as associated private sector industries. Veterinary clinical pathologists in clinical and governmental laboratories often have responsibilities and expertise in one or more laboratory disciplines involved in diagnosing zoonotic and/or emerging diseases and diseases exotic to the United States that are important to animal and human health and the nation's food supply. The knowledge and roles of all veterinary laboratory professionals are vital to detect, monitor, and confirm diseases and conditions that affect animal and human health and the nation's animal food supply.

  10. Overview of the animal health drug development and registration process: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Robert P; Shryock, Thomas R; Cox, Brian R; Butler, Roger M; Hammelman, Jason E

    2011-05-01

    Products for animal health commercialization follow a structured progression from initial concept through to regulatory approval. Typically, products are developed for use in either food animals or companion animals. These can be for the intention of disease intervention, productivity enhancement or improvement in a quality of life capacity. The animal health industry is a regulated industry, meaning that a government agency is responsible for oversight of products, both pre- and post-approval. There are three primary US government agencies that ensure quality, safety and effectiveness for the approval of new products and post-marketing compliance.

  11. Public health issues related to animal and human spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in the United Kingdom but has occurred subsequently in several other countries. This Memorandum reviews the existing state of knowledge on all the known spongiform encephalopathies, and evaluates the pathways of transmission and associated hazards. The possible implications of the animal diseases, especially BSE, with regard to the use of animal tissues as animal feed, human food, and in the preparation of medicinal and other products for human use are discussed, with recommendations to national health authorities on appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of BSE to public and animal health. PMID:1600580

  12. The synergism of Health Information Science/Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Protti, D J

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is threefold: to review the status of Health Information Science (Health Informatics) as reported in the literature; to suggest a taxonomy to integrate the many varied concepts being discussed under the rubric of Health Information Science; and to propose a framework into which research can be classified and potential research hypotheses generated. It is suggested that such a framework is needed if generalizations are to be made to the end that the knowledge produced from research efforts may be cumulative with that from other studies. A framework for research is needed if the field is to become an established academic discipline; whether or not it takes on the mantel of a "science" is another matter.

  13. Assessing the expenditure distribution of animal health surveillance: the case of Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; Häsler, B; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2014-01-01

    Animal health surveillance in Great Britain (GB) is conducted through public and private initiatives, yet there is no consolidated information on these activities and their outcomes. We developed an inventory of livestock health surveillance programmes in GB to identify gaps in resource use and potential synergies that could be exploited. The inventory contained details of 36 livestock surveillance activities active in 2011. Data were collected by questionnaire and interviews. Livestock health surveillance funding was found to be unevenly distributed between species: the vast majority (approximately 94 per cent) was spent on cattle diseases (tuberculosis surveillance accounted for most of this expenditure), with 2 per cent on pigs, 2 per cent on sheep/goats, 1 per cent on poultry, and 1 per cent on antimicrobial resistance surveillance across all species. Consequently, surveillance efforts in GB appears heavily skewed towards regions with high cattle densities, particularly high-prevalence tuberculosis areas such as the southwest. The contribution of private schemes to surveillance funding was hard to quantify due to limited access to data, but was estimated to be about 10 per cent. There is scope to better understand the benefits of surveillance, enhance data sharing, clarify costs and identify who pays and who gains. Health surveillance should be considered within the sharing of responsibilities for disease control. PMID:24162504

  14. Wildlife Pathology Studies and How They Can Inform Public Health.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Tracey S

    2016-01-01

    Emerging zoonoses have had a serious impact on human and animal health in recent decades. More often than not, these disease outbreaks have taken public health by surprise because we have failed to shift the epidemiological curve to the far left and detect zoonoses in animal populations prior to spillover to people. Not only can animals serve as valuable sentinels for emerging zoonoses but also much can be gained by the study of the animals themselves.

  15. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kansiime, Catherine; Atuyambe, Lynn M.; Asiimwe, Benon B.; Mugisha, Anthony; Mugisha, Samuel; Guma, Victor; Rwego, Innocent B.; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda. Methods This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method. Results All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process. Conclusions The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such

  16. Information Literacy for Health Professionals: Teaching Essential Information Skills with the Big6 Information Literacy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana Arroyo, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals frequently do not possess the necessary information-seeking abilities to conduct an effective search in databases and Internet sources. Reference librarians may teach health professionals these information and technology skills through the Big6 information literacy model (Big6). This article aims to address this issue. It also…

  17. Making Sense of Health Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitzmiller, Rebecca Rutherford

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hospital adoption of health information technology (HIT) systems is promoted as essential to decreasing medical error and their associated 44,000 annual deaths and $17 billion in healthcare costs (Institute of Medicine, 2001; Kohn, Corrigan, & Donaldson, 1999). Leading national healthcare groups, such as the Institute of Medicine,…

  18. A Security Architecture for Health Information Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kailar, Rajashekar

    2007-01-01

    Health information network security needs to balance exacting security controls with practicality, and ease of implementation in today’s healthcare enterprise. Recent work on ‘nationwide health information network’ architectures has sought to share highly confidential data over insecure networks such as the Internet. Using basic patterns of health network data flow and trust models to support secure communication between network nodes, we abstract network security requirements to a core set to enable secure inter-network data sharing. We propose a minimum set of security controls that can be implemented without needing major new technologies, but yet realize network security and privacy goals of confidentiality, integrity and availability. This framework combines a set of technology mechanisms with environmental controls, and is shown to be sufficient to counter commonly encountered network security threats adequately. PMID:18693862

  19. A security architecture for health information networks.

    PubMed

    Kailar, Rajashekar; Muralidhar, Vinod

    2007-10-11

    Health information network security needs to balance exacting security controls with practicality, and ease of implementation in today's healthcare enterprise. Recent work on 'nationwide health information network' architectures has sought to share highly confidential data over insecure networks such as the Internet. Using basic patterns of health network data flow and trust models to support secure communication between network nodes, we abstract network security requirements to a core set to enable secure inter-network data sharing. We propose a minimum set of security controls that can be implemented without needing major new technologies, but yet realize network security and privacy goals of confidentiality, integrity and availability. This framework combines a set of technology mechanisms with environmental controls, and is shown to be sufficient to counter commonly encountered network security threats adequately.

  20. Data Liquidity in Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 the IOM report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" and the NCVHS report "Information for Health" were released and they provided the context for the development of information systems used to support health-supporting processes. Both had as their goals, implicit or explicit, to ensure the right data is provided to the right person at the right time, which is one definition of "Data Liquidity". This concept has had some traction in recent years as a shorthand way to express a system property for Health IT, but there is not a well-defined characterization of what properties of a system or of its components give it better or worse data liquidity. This paper looks at some recent work that help to identify those properties and perhaps can help to ground the concept with metrics that are assessable. PMID:21799328

  1. The role of the health information professional.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Audrey

    2014-07-15

    This virtual issue has been published to mark the CILIP Health Libraries Group 2014 Conference, taking place in Oxford on 24th and 25th July 2014. The issue's theme is to highlight the key role of the health information professional and it shines a spotlight on professional expertise, demonstrating what we can share and learn from each other. It comprises a collection of articles published in the Health Information and Libraries Journal during the last 2 years but is very much about looking forward. The articles selected embrace three main themes: new ways of working; acquiring new skills and competencies; and fine-tuning existing skills and practices. The virtual issue mirrors the format of the regular journal, namely a review article, six original articles and the three regular features, covering Dissertations into Practice, International Perspectives and Initiatives and Learning and Teaching in Action. All articles included in this virtual issue are available free online.

  2. Online information retrieval systems and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Lialiou, Pascalina; Mantas, John

    2014-01-01

    The following paper presents a scientific contribution that explores the clinicians' use of online information retrieval systems for their clinical decision making. Particularly, the research focuses on the ability of doctors and nurses in seeking information through MEDLINE and ScienceDirect. The research process took place by an electronic form consisted of five clinical scenarios and an evaluation sheet. The results testify that only a small percent of clinicians use the recommended electronic bibliographic databasesand take the right clinical decision to the scenarios. Health professionals have to be educated in information searching and take advantage from the provided literature taking more useful and reliable answers on their clinical questions.

  3. Integrating the issues of world animal health and world public health into the veterinary curriculum: a Southeast Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Zamri-Saad, M; Romziah, S; Kunavongkrit, A; Valdez, C A; Thien, M

    2009-08-01

    The authors analysed the curricula of five veterinary schools in Southeast Asia to determine how successfully they integrate the issues of global animal health and global public health into their programmes. Two schools offer a five-year programme while the remaining three offer a six-year programme. The core courses within the curricula range from 145 to 224 credit hours, in total. In general, world animal health and world public health are well integrated into the veterinary curriculum. Most curricula allocate approximately 3% of their total credit hours to subjects associated with animal and public health, but other subjects that may contain discussions on these issues range between 6% and 10%. Most veterinary schools in Southeast Asia offer a Master's programme in Veterinary Public Health, with detailed emphasis on animal and public health but focusing principally on topics of local importance. At the same time, undergraduate and post-graduate veterinary students are exposed to current issues in animal and public health through regional and international scientific meetings. PMID:20128483

  4. Antibiotic resistance—consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics. PMID:24678738

  5. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  6. The development of a quality-and-multimedia-based health web information searching tool.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Jou; Chang, Polun

    2009-01-01

    People have not been satisfied with the search tools of web health information. We built a prototype easy-to-use web information searching tool by using multimedia techniques, combined with the emphasis of result presentation and content quality information. Instead of traditional search methods, we provide quality and webpage source information of websites for people to get useful information, and present search result by graphs and animations for people to get better user experience.

  7. Bacteriophage therapy for safeguarding animal and human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review.

  8. Evaluating new health information technologies: expanding the frontiers of health care delivery and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Kreps, Gary L

    2002-01-01

    The modern health care system is being irrevocably changed by the development and introduction of new health information technologies (such as health information systems, decision-support tools, specialized websites, and innovative communication devices). While many of these new technologies hold the promise of revolutionizing the modern health system and facilitating improvements in health care delivery, health education, and health promotion, it is imperative to carefully examine and assess the effectiveness of these technological tools to determine which products are most useful to apply in specific contexts, as well as to learn how to best utilize these products and processes. Without good evaluative information about new technologies, we are unlikely to reap the greatest benefits from these powerful new tools. This chapter examines the demand for evaluating health information technologies and suggests several strategies for conducting rigorous and relevant evaluation research.

  9. [Informed consent in health legislation of Mexico].

    PubMed

    López-de la Peña, X A

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with informed consent in Mexican Health Legislation in the context of a contract regulated by the Mexican Civil Code, in which a patient capable of making a thoughtful decision agrees to a specific plan of medical management and has received sufficient information, in a clear and explicit manner so that he/she can make a decision and in consequence agrees, or does not agree, to a course of action and to its consequences, under the Nuremberg Code. In Mexico, informed consent has recently been incorporated into health care legislation, and is basically oriented toward the field of medical research, while in other medical procedures, a legal authorization, and not an informed consent form is required, as with surgical procedures such as definitive fertility control (e.g. vasectomy or fallopian tube ligation). We emphasize the necessity of the adding of informed consent to Mexican health legislation in general, substituting it for other terms to legalize medical action, such as authorization, permission, dispositioned compliance, acceptance or approval-all of which have an essentially different and limited connotation, and are not Patient's Rights legal protector mechanisms, from our point of view. PMID:9011521

  10. Planetree health information services: public access to the health information people want.

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, T L

    1994-01-01

    In July 1981, the Planetree Health Resource Center opened on the San Francisco campus of California Pacific Medical Center (Pacific Presbyterian Medical Center). Planetree was founded on the belief that access to information can empower people and help them face health and medical challenges. The Health Resource Center was created to provide medical library and health information resources to the general public. Over the last twelve years, Planetree has tried to develop a consumer health library collection and information service that is responsive to the needs and interests of a diverse public. In an effort to increase accessibility to the medical literature, a consumer health library classification scheme was created for the organization of library materials. The scheme combines the specificity and sophistication of the National Library of Medicine classification scheme with the simplicity of common lay terminology. PMID:8136762

  11. Transforming health information management through technology.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Mary Ellen

    2002-08-01

    No one would deny the need to transform health care. Information technology is capable of transforming health care organizations and delivering measurable value. However, these organizations will have to deploy effective, proactive strategies for managing information and adapting to the opportunities the technology offers. If, for example, an organization wants to become paperless, its information strategy must include appropriate tools to store and access unstructured data components of the medical record as well as structured data. An Electronic Document Management System (EDMS) is a critical element of this strategy. Also, a plan for managing change must be developed to mitigate technology risks. This can be realized through the development of a clear vision of the future and strong leadership, among other key items. PMID:12402636

  12. Health information technology impact on productivity.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Managers work to achieve the greatest output for the least input effort, better balancing all factors of delivery to achieve the most with the smallest resource effort. Documentation of actual health information technology (HIT) cost savings has been elusive. Information technology and linear programming help to control hospital costs without harming service quality or staff morale. This study presents production function results from a study of hospital output during the period 2008-2011. The results suggest that productivity varies widely among the 58 hospitals as a function of staffing patterns, methods of organization, and the degree of reliance on information support systems. Financial incentives help to enhance productivity. Incentive pay for staff based on actual productivity gains is associated with improved productivity. HIT can enhance the marginal value product of nurses and staff, so that they concentrate their workday around patient care activities. The implementation of electronic health records (EHR) was associated with a 1.6 percent improvement in productivity.

  13. Health consumer-oriented information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Claveau, Vincent; Hamon, Thierry; Le Maguer, Sébastien; Grabar, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    While patients can freely access their Electronic Health Records or online health information, they may not be able to correctly understand the content of these documents. One of the challenges is related to the difference between expert and non-expert languages. We propose to investigate this issue within the Information Retrieval field. The patient queries have to be associated with the corresponding expert documents, that provide trustworthy information. Our approach relies on a state-of-the-art IR system called Indri and on semantic resources. Different query expansion strategies are explored. Our system shows up to 0.6740 P@10, up to 0.7610 R@10, and up to 0.6793 NDCG@10.

  14. Availability of Information about Airborne Hazardous Releases from Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tyler J. S.; Rubenstein, Leonard S.; Nachman, Keeve E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Air from animal feeding operations (AFOs) has been shown to transport numerous contaminants of public health concern. While federal statutes like the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) generally require that facilities report hazardous releases, AFOs have been exempted from most of these requirements by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We assessed the availability of information about AFO airborne hazardous releases following these exemptions. Methods We submitted public records requests to 7 states overlapping with or adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay watershed for reports of hazardous releases made by AFOs under EPCRA. From the records received, we calculated the proportion of AFOs in each state for which ≥1 reports were available. We also determined the availability of specific types of information required under EPCRA. The numbers of AFOs permitted under the Clean Water Act (CWA) or analogous state laws, as determined from permitting databases obtained from states, were used as denominators. Results We received both EPCRA reports and permitting databases from 4 of 7 states. Across these 4 states, the mean proportion of AFOs for which ≥1 EPCRA reports were available was 15% (range: 2-33%). The mean proportions of AFOs for which the name or identity of the substance released, ≥1 estimates of quantity released, and information about nearby population density and sensitive populations were available were 15% (range: 2-33%), 8% (range: 0-22%), and 14% (range: 2-8%), respectively. Discussion These results suggest that information about the airborne hazardous releases of a large majority of AFOs is not available under federal law in the states that we investigated. While the results cannot be attributed to specific factors by this method, attention to multiple factors, including revision of the EPA’s exemptions, may increase the availability of information relevant to the health of populations living or working

  15. Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health

    PubMed Central

    Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Béla

    2013-01-01

    After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of Escherichia coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development, and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms, and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence) among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these “bad genes” in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR) commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the

  16. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for appointing 13 of its...

  17. 77 FR 39986 - Information Collection; Health Screening Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Health Screening Questionnaire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... a currently approved information collection, Health Screening Questionnaire. DATES: Comments must be...: Title: Health Screening Questionnaire. OMB Number: 0596-0164. Expiration Date of Approval: January...

  18. 76 FR 4350 - Health Information Technology Extension Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Information Technology Extension Program ACTION: Public Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces changes to the Health Information Technology Extension Program, which assists...

  19. 77 FR 27774 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for appointing 13 of its 20...

  20. Evaluating and Approaching a Strange Animal: Children's Trust in Informant Testimony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boseovski, Janet J.; Thurman, Sabrina L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 3- to 7-year-old children's reliance on informant testimony to learn about a novel animal. Sixty participants were given positive or negative information about an Australian marsupial from an informant described as a maternal figure or a zookeeper. Children were asked which informant was correct and were invited to touch…

  1. Bone Health for Life: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Bone Basics Bone Health for Life: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family Publication available ... and preclinical sciences. Where Can People Find More Information About Bone Health? For more information on osteoporosis ...

  2. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    PubMed

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks.

  3. Attitudes and concerns of Canadian animal health technologists toward postoperative pain management in dogs and cats.

    PubMed Central

    Dohoo, S E; Dohoo, I R

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty-two Canadian animal health technologists (AHTs) were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward postoperative pain management in dogs and cats following 6 surgical procedures, their concerns regarding the use of opioid analgesics, and their role within veterinary practices with respect to postoperative pain control. Two hundred and sixty-four (82%) returned the questionnaire. Pain perception was defined as the average of pain rankings for dogs and cats (on a scale of 1 to 10) following abdominal surgery, or the value for dogs or cats if the AHT worked with only 1 of the 2 species. Maximum concern about the risks associated with the postoperative use of morphine or oxymorphone was defined as the highest rating assigned to any of the 6 risks evaluated in either dogs or cats. Animal health technologists reported significantly higher pain perception scores than did veterinarians who completed a similar survey 2 years previously. Higher pain perception scores were associated with decreased satisfaction with the adequacy of analgesic therapy in their practice, higher pain control goals, and attendance at continuing education within the previous 12 months. The majority of AHTs (55%) agreed that one or more risks associated with the use of morphine or oxymorphone outweighed the benefits. The 3 issues that were perceived to pose the greatest risk were respiratory depression, bradycardia, and sedation and excitement, for dogs and cats, respectively. Most AHTs (68%) considered their knowledge related to the recognition and control of pain to be adequate, compared with 24% of veterinarians who responded to a similar previous survey. As for veterinarians, experience gained while in practice was ranked as the most important source of knowledge, while the technical program attended was ranked as least important. Over 88% of the AHTs provided nursing care during the postoperative period, monitored animals for side effects of postoperative analgesic

  4. Developing a health information infrastructure for Arizona.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R K; Haddix, A; McCray, J C; Wunz, T P

    1994-01-01

    Network connectivity is critical in Arizona, where travel distances are great, academic programs dispersed, and health care practitioners often geographically isolated. Accordingly, the University of Arizona (UA) applied for $50,000.00 in National Library of Medicine/National Science Foundation (NLM/NSF) Connections Program funding to promote statewide collaboration in supporting UA's health sciences education and research programs by expanding network connectivity to hospitals and other health-related institutions. The proposal outlined three strategies: Each major nonuniversity teaching hospital would secure and maintain a leased communications line dedicated to network connectivity, and NSF funds would be used to buy some necessary hardward. NSF funds would be used to establish a modern bank for dial-up Internet access by rural practitioners and teaching sites. Co-principal investigators of the project would promote and support the use of this new statewide connectivity and foster its continued expansion. The proposal was based on a conservative philosophy: familiar technologies and, where possible, existing networks and equipment would be used. The proposal was approved, and NSF funds hastened creation of an expanded health information network in Arizona. Once that network was in place, participants moved quickly from managing the mechanics of connectivity to planning for a computing and communications platform with services. Private funds were obtained to help organize the Arizona Health Information Network to direct these expanded services. PMID:7841909

  5. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  6. Developing a Comprehensive Animal Care Occupational Health and Safety Program at a Land-Grant Institution.

    PubMed

    Goodly, Lyndon J; Jarrell, Vickie L; Miller, Monica A; Banks, Maureen C; Anderson, Thomas J; Branson, Katherine A; Woodward, Robert T; Peper, Randall L; Myers, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    The Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and sound ethical practices require institutions to provide safe working environments for personnel working with animals; this mandate is achieved in part by establishing an effective animal care Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP). Land-grant institutions often face unique organizational challenges in fulfilling this requirement. For example, responsibilities for providing health and safety programs often have historically been dispersed among many different divisions scattered around the campus. Here we describe how our institutional management personnel overcame organizational structure and cultural obstacles during the formation of a comprehensive campus-wide animal care OHSP. Steps toward establishing the animal care OHSP included assigning overall responsibility, identifying all stakeholders, creating a leadership group, and hiring a fulltime Animal Care OHSP Specialist. A web-based portal was developed, implemented, and refined over the past 7 y and reflected the unique organizational structures of the university and the needs of our research community. Through this web-based portal, hazards are identified, risks are assessed, and training is provided. The animal care OHSP now provides easy mandatory enrollment, supports timely feedback regarding hazards, and affords enrollees the opportunity to participate in voluntary medical surveillance. The future direction and development of the animal care OHSP will be based on the research trends of campus, identification of emerging health and safety hazards, and ongoing evaluation and refinement of the program.

  7. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  8. Developing a Comprehensive Animal Care Occupational Health and Safety Program at a Land-Grant Institution

    PubMed Central

    Goodly, Lyndon J; Jarrell, Vickie L; Miller, Monica A; Banks, Maureen C; Anderson, Thomas J; Branson, Katherine A; Woodward, Robert T; Peper, Randall L; Myers, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    The Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and sound ethical practices require institutions to provide safe working environments for personnel working with animals; this mandate is achieved in part by establishing an effective animal care Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP). Land-grant institutions often face unique organizational challenges in fulfilling this requirement. For example, responsibilities for providing health and safety programs often have historically been dispersed among many different divisions scattered around the campus. Here we describe how our institutional management personnel overcame organizational structure and cultural obstacles during the formation of a comprehensive campus-wide animal care OHSP. Steps toward establishing the animal care OHSP included assigning overall responsibility, identifying all stakeholders, creating a leadership group, and hiring a fulltime Animal Care OHSP Specialist. A web-based portal was developed, implemented, and refined over the past 7 y and reflected the unique organizational structures of the university and the needs of our research community. Through this web-based portal, hazards are identified, risks are assessed, and training is provided. The animal care OHSP now provides easy mandatory enrollment, supports timely feedback regarding hazards, and affords enrollees the opportunity to participate in voluntary medical surveillance. The future direction and development of the animal care OHSP will be based on the research trends of campus, identification of emerging health and safety hazards, and ongoing evaluation and refinement of the program. PMID:26817980

  9. Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parshall, Debra Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

  10. Mechanisms of Communicating Health Information Through Facebook: Implications for Consumer Health Information Technology Design

    PubMed Central

    Menefee, Hannah K; Thompson, Morgan J; Guterbock, Thomas M; Williams, Ishan C

    2016-01-01

    Background Consumer health information technology (IT) solutions are designed to support patient health management and have the ability to facilitate patients’ health information communication with their social networks. However, there is a need for consumer health IT solutions to align with patients’ health management preferences for increased adoption of the technology. It may be possible to gain an understanding of patients’ needs for consumer health IT supporting their health information communication with social networks by explicating how they have adopted and adapted social networking sites, such as Facebook, for this purpose. Objective Our aim was to characterize patients’ use of all communication mechanisms within Facebook for health information communication to provide insight into how consumer health IT solutions may be better designed to meet patients’ communication needs and preferences. Methods This study analyzed data about Facebook communication mechanisms use from a larger, three-phase, sequential, mixed-methods study. We report here on the results of the study’s first phase: qualitative interviews (N=25). Participants were over 18, used Facebook, were residents or citizens of the United States, spoke English, and had a diagnosis consistent with type 2 diabetes. Participants were recruited through Facebook groups and pages. Participant interviews were conducted via Skype or telephone between July and September 2014. Data analysis was grounded in qualitative content analysis and the initial coding framework was informed by the findings of a previous study. Results Participants’ rationales for the use or disuse of a particular Facebook mechanism to communicate health information reflected six broad themes: (1) characteristics and circumstances of the person, (2) characteristics and circumstances of the relationship, (3) structure and composition of the social network, (4) content of the information, (5) communication purpose, and (6

  11. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services.

    PubMed

    More, Simon J

    2008-01-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands). PMID:21851708

  12. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services.

    PubMed

    More, Simon J

    2008-01-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands).

  13. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cherniack, E. Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  14. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals.

    PubMed

    Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  15. Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009 Recommend on ... more likely than men to have used the Internet for health information. Women were more likely than ...

  16. Health information technology: fallacies and sober realities

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, Matthew B; Abbott, Patricia A; Wears, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Current research suggests that the rate of adoption of health information technology (HIT) is low, and that HIT may not have the touted beneficial effects on quality of care or costs. The twin issues of the failure of HIT adoption and of HIT efficacy stem primarily from a series of fallacies about HIT. We discuss 12 HIT fallacies and their implications for design and implementation. These fallacies must be understood and addressed for HIT to yield better results. Foundational cognitive and human factors engineering research and development are essential to better inform HIT development, deployment, and use. PMID:20962121

  17. Computers, health care, and medical information science.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, T L; Korpman, R A

    1980-10-17

    The clinical laboratory is examined as a microcosm of the entire health care delivery system. The introduction of computers into the clinical laboratory raises issues that are difficult to resolve by the methods of information science or medical science applied in isolation. The melding of these two disciplines, together with the contributions of other disciplines, has created a new field of study called medical information science. The emergence of this new discipline and some specific problem-solving approaches used in its application in the clinical laboratory are examined.

  18. Animal-human connections, "one health," and the syndemic approach to prevention.

    PubMed

    Rock, Melanie; Buntain, Bonnie J; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2009-03-01

    A syndemic involves two or more afflictions that, by interacting synergistically, contribute to excess burdens of disease. A syndemic approach to prevention, meanwhile, focuses on connections among health-related problems, considers those connections when developing health policies, and aligns with forces for social change. In this short report, we expand the syndemic concept to acknowledge the extent to which animal health connects with human health and, with reference to existing publications, we demonstrate the pertinence of this expanded definition for a syndemic approach to prevention. Our demonstration assumes practical importance in relation to the concept of 'one health', which many prominent veterinary and human health scientists have recently endorsed as a sound basis for redressing human diseases, animal diseases, and environmental degradation worldwide. While social scientists have mostly ignored animal health, few 'one health' proponents have emphasized social conditions or involved social scientists. By explicitly accommodating animal-human connections in our expanded conceptualization of a syndemic, we hope to help create a space in which human health, veterinary, and social scientists may learn from one another, collaborate in research, and cooperate to clear the way for innovations in prevention. PMID:19157669

  19. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  20. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operations, as these terms are defined at 45 CFR 164.501. (e) Record actions related to electronic health... algorithm identified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as an approved security...) Verification that electronic health information has not been altered in transit. Standard. A hashing...

  1. Qualitative Evaluation of Health Information Exchange Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    Because most health information exchange (HIE) initiatives are as yet immature, formative evaluation is recommended so that what is learned through evaluation can be immediately applied to assist in HIE development efforts. Qualitative methods can be especially useful for formative evaluation because they can guide ongoing HIE growth while taking context into consideration. This paper describes important HIE-related research questions and outlines appropriate qualitative research techniques for addressing them. PMID:17904914

  2. Managing health information during disasters: a survey of Victorian hospitals' current specialised health information systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erin; Morgans, Amee; Biggs, Jennifer; Buchanan, Ross

    2007-01-01

    It can be predicted that a substantial number of patients will seek medical care during a possible disaster, placing an increased strain on hospital resources, including health information services. With medical records playing a vital role in the identification of patients and documentation of patient care, the ability of the health information system to cope with this projected surge in demand needs to be addressed. This study was designed to investigate the expected use of specialised health information systems for disasters in Victorian hospitals during such contingencies. Specifically, this study investigated what type of specialised systems hospitals had in place at the time and whether a standard for specialised health information systems for disasters was needed. While 79% of responding hospitals reported having a specialised health information system for disasters, 91% of all responding hospitals reported that specialised health information systems for disasters were necessary. All specialised systems were paper-based, and 94% were based on the standard medical record format and content. Finally, 64% of hospitals believed that a Standard for specialised disaster medical records should be developed.

  3. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention. PMID:26166008

  4. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.

  5. Consumer health information for pet owners

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sarah Anne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The author studied health information available for veterinary consumers both in print and online. Methods: WorldCat was searched using a list of fifty-three Library of Congress subject headings relevant to veterinary consumer health to identify print resources for review. Identified items were then collected and assessed for authority, comprehensiveness of coverage, validity, and other criteria outlined by Rees. An in-depth assessment of the information available for feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) and canine congestive heart failure (CHF) was then conducted to examine the availability and quality of information available for specific diseases and disorders. A reading grade level was assigned for each passage using the Flesch-Kincaid formula in the Readability Statistics feature in Microsoft Word. Results/Discussion: A total of 187 books and 7 Websites were identified and evaluated. More than half of the passages relating to FLUTD and CHF were written above an 11th-grade reading level. A limited quantity of quality, in-depth resources that address specific diseases and disorders and are written at an appropriate reading level for consumers is available. Conclusion: The library's role is to facilitate access to the limited number of quality consumer health resources that are available to veterinary consumers. PMID:16636707

  6. Evaluating Health Information Systems Using Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Anderberg, Peter; Larsson, Tobias C; Fricker, Samuel A; Berglund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several frameworks that attempt to address the challenges of evaluation of health information systems by offering models, methods, and guidelines about what to evaluate, how to evaluate, and how to report the evaluation results. Model-based evaluation frameworks usually suggest universally applicable evaluation aspects but do not consider case-specific aspects. On the other hand, evaluation frameworks that are case specific, by eliciting user requirements, limit their output to the evaluation aspects suggested by the users in the early phases of system development. In addition, these case-specific approaches extract different sets of evaluation aspects from each case, making it challenging to collectively compare, unify, or aggregate the evaluation of a set of heterogeneous health information systems. Objectives The aim of this paper is to find a method capable of suggesting evaluation aspects for a set of one or more health information systems—whether similar or heterogeneous—by organizing, unifying, and aggregating the quality attributes extracted from those systems and from an external evaluation framework. Methods On the basis of the available literature in semantic networks and ontologies, a method (called Unified eValuation using Ontology; UVON) was developed that can organize, unify, and aggregate the quality attributes of several health information systems into a tree-style ontology structure. The method was extended to integrate its generated ontology with the evaluation aspects suggested by model-based evaluation frameworks. An approach was developed to extract evaluation aspects from the ontology that also considers evaluation case practicalities such as the maximum number of evaluation aspects to be measured or their required degree of specificity. The method was applied and tested in Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research (FI-STAR), a project of 7 cloud-based eHealth applications that were developed and

  7. Setting the One Health agenda and the human-companion animal bond.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Gregg K; Day, Michael J

    2014-10-27

    "One Health", also called "One Medicine", began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB) as it relates to healthcare in these areas.

  8. One Health profile of a community at the wildlife-domestic animal interface, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Berrian, Amanda M; van Rooyen, Jacques; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Knobel, Darryn; Simpson, Gregory J G; Wilkes, Michael S; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    We used a community engagement approach to develop a One Health profile of an agro-pastoralist population at the interface of wildlife areas in eastern South Africa. Representatives from 262 randomly-selected households participated in an in-person, cross-sectional survey. Questions were designed to ascertain the participants' knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human health, domestic animal health, and natural resources including wildlife and water. Surveys were conducted within four selected villages by a team of trained surveyors and translators over four weeks in July-August 2013. Questions were a combination of multiple choice (single answer), multiple selection, open-ended, and Likert scale. The study found that nearly three-quarters of all households surveyed reported owning at least one animal (55% owned chickens, 31% dogs, 25% cattle, 16% goats, 9% cats, and 5% pigs). Among the animal-owning respondents, health concerns identified included dissatisfaction with government-run cattle dip facilities (97%) and frequent morbidity and mortality of chickens that had clinical signs consistent with Newcastle disease (49%). Sixty-one percent of participants believed that diseases of animals could be transmitted to humans. Ninety-six percent of respondents desired greater knowledge about animal diseases. With regard to human health issues, the primary barrier to health care access was related to transportation to/from the community health clinics. Environmental health issues revealed by the survey included disparities by village in drinking water reliability and frequent domiciliary rodent sightings positively associated with increased household size and chicken ownership. Attitudes towards conservation were generally favorable; however, the community demonstrated a strong preference for a dichotomous approach to wildlife management, one that separated wildlife from humans. Due to the location of the community, which neighbors the Great Limpopo

  9. One Health profile of a community at the wildlife-domestic animal interface, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Berrian, Amanda M; van Rooyen, Jacques; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Knobel, Darryn; Simpson, Gregory J G; Wilkes, Michael S; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    We used a community engagement approach to develop a One Health profile of an agro-pastoralist population at the interface of wildlife areas in eastern South Africa. Representatives from 262 randomly-selected households participated in an in-person, cross-sectional survey. Questions were designed to ascertain the participants' knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human health, domestic animal health, and natural resources including wildlife and water. Surveys were conducted within four selected villages by a team of trained surveyors and translators over four weeks in July-August 2013. Questions were a combination of multiple choice (single answer), multiple selection, open-ended, and Likert scale. The study found that nearly three-quarters of all households surveyed reported owning at least one animal (55% owned chickens, 31% dogs, 25% cattle, 16% goats, 9% cats, and 5% pigs). Among the animal-owning respondents, health concerns identified included dissatisfaction with government-run cattle dip facilities (97%) and frequent morbidity and mortality of chickens that had clinical signs consistent with Newcastle disease (49%). Sixty-one percent of participants believed that diseases of animals could be transmitted to humans. Ninety-six percent of respondents desired greater knowledge about animal diseases. With regard to human health issues, the primary barrier to health care access was related to transportation to/from the community health clinics. Environmental health issues revealed by the survey included disparities by village in drinking water reliability and frequent domiciliary rodent sightings positively associated with increased household size and chicken ownership. Attitudes towards conservation were generally favorable; however, the community demonstrated a strong preference for a dichotomous approach to wildlife management, one that separated wildlife from humans. Due to the location of the community, which neighbors the Great Limpopo

  10. Primary sources of health information: comparisons in the domain of health attitudes, health cognitions, and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J

    2004-01-01

    The recent growth in consumer autonomy in health care accompanied by the surge in the use of new media for health information gathering has led to an increasing scholarly interest in understanding the consumer health information search construct. This article explores consumer health information seeking in the realm of the primary sources of health information used by consumers. Based on an analysis of the 1999 HealthStyles data, the paper demonstrates that active communication channels such as interpersonal communication, print readership, and Internet communication serve as primary health information sources for health-conscious, health-information oriented individuals with strong health beliefs, and commitment to healthy activities. On the other hand, passive consumption channels such as television and radio serve as primary health information resources for individuals who are not health-oriented. Media planning implications are drawn from the results, suggesting that broadcast outlets with an entertainment orientation are better suited for prevention campaigns. Such channels provide suitable sites for entertainment-education. On the other hand, print media, interpersonal networks, and the Internet are better suited for communicating about health issues to the health-active consumer segment.

  11. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    PubMed

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n = 70), Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 28) and Sweden (n = 57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice

  12. CORBA security services for health information systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B; Holena, M

    1998-01-01

    The structure of healthcare systems in developed countries is changing to 'shared care', enforced by economic constraints and caused by a change in the basic conditions of care. That development results in co-operative health information systems across the boundaries of organisational, technological, and policy domains. Increasingly, these distributed and, as far as their domains are concerned, heterogeneous systems are based on middleware approaches, such as CORBA. Regarding the sensitivity of personal and medical data, such open, distributed, and heterogeneous health information systems require a high level of data protection and data security, both with respect to patient information and with respect to users. This paper, relying on experience gained through our activities in CORBAmed, describes the possibilities the CORBA middleware provides to achieve application and communication security. On the background of the overall CORBA architecture, it outlines the different security services previewed in the adopted CORBA specifications which are discussed in the context of the security requirements of healthcare information systems. Security services required in the healthcare domain but not available at the moment are mentioned. A solution is proposed, which on the one hand allows to make use of the available CORBA security services and additional ones, on the other hand remains open to other middleware approaches, such as DHE or HL7. PMID:9848400

  13. CORBA security services for health information systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B; Holena, M

    1998-01-01

    The structure of healthcare systems in developed countries is changing to 'shared care', enforced by economic constraints and caused by a change in the basic conditions of care. That development results in co-operative health information systems across the boundaries of organisational, technological, and policy domains. Increasingly, these distributed and, as far as their domains are concerned, heterogeneous systems are based on middleware approaches, such as CORBA. Regarding the sensitivity of personal and medical data, such open, distributed, and heterogeneous health information systems require a high level of data protection and data security, both with respect to patient information and with respect to users. This paper, relying on experience gained through our activities in CORBAmed, describes the possibilities the CORBA middleware provides to achieve application and communication security. On the background of the overall CORBA architecture, it outlines the different security services previewed in the adopted CORBA specifications which are discussed in the context of the security requirements of healthcare information systems. Security services required in the healthcare domain but not available at the moment are mentioned. A solution is proposed, which on the one hand allows to make use of the available CORBA security services and additional ones, on the other hand remains open to other middleware approaches, such as DHE or HL7.

  14. Information processing for aerospace structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; White, Edward V.; Baumann, Erwin W.

    1998-06-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology provides a means to significantly reduce life cycle of aerospace vehicles by eliminating unnecessary inspections, minimizing inspection complexity, and providing accurate diagnostics and prognostics to support vehicle life extension. In order to accomplish this, a comprehensive SHM system will need to acquire data from a wide variety of diverse sensors including strain gages, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, crack growth gages, corrosion sensors, and piezoelectric transducers. Significant amounts of computer processing will then be required to convert this raw sensor data into meaningful information which indicates both the diagnostics of the current structural integrity as well as the prognostics necessary for planning and managing the future health of the structure in a cost effective manner. This paper provides a description of the key types of information processing technologies required in an effective SHM system. These include artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks, expert systems, and fuzzy logic for nonlinear modeling, pattern recognition, and complex decision making; signal processing techniques such as Fourier and wavelet transforms for spectral analysis and feature extraction; statistical algorithms for optimal detection, estimation, prediction, and fusion; and a wide variety of other algorithms for data analysis and visualization. The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of information processing for SHM, discuss various technologies which can contribute to accomplishing this role, and present some example applications of information processing for SHM implemented at the Boeing Company.

  15. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  16. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service is making available a concept paper that describes a revised structure... paper we are making available for comment presents a structure we believe will give the NAHLN...

  17. 42 CFR 438.242 - Health information systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health information systems. 438.242 Section 438.242 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Measurement and Improvement Standards § 438.242 Health information systems. (a) General rule. The State...

  18. 42 CFR 438.242 - Health information systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health information systems. 438.242 Section 438.242 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Measurement and Improvement Standards § 438.242 Health information systems. (a) General rule. The State...

  19. 42 CFR 438.242 - Health information systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health information systems. 438.242 Section 438.242 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Measurement and Improvement Standards § 438.242 Health information systems. (a) General rule. The State...

  20. 42 CFR 438.242 - Health information systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health information systems. 438.242 Section 438.242 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Measurement and Improvement Standards § 438.242 Health information systems. (a) General rule. The State...

  1. 42 CFR 438.242 - Health information systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health information systems. 438.242 Section 438.242 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Measurement and Improvement Standards § 438.242 Health information systems. (a) General rule. The State...

  2. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  3. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community’s health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community’s health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Result Eight hundred three (99.4%) respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members’ exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals. Conclusion Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed. PMID:26959816

  4. Health equipment information, number 115, October 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Contents: Squibb Surgicare Ltd: System 2-Stoma Bridge for loop ostomy; Electronic and medical equipment: guidance on documentation required for maintenance; Assessment of the radio-opacity of catheters; IEC Publication number 731: dosimeters with ionization chambers as used in radiotherapy; Seminar on digital radiology; Economic appraisal of a Mobile CT Scanning Service; Equipment for the disabled; Evaluation of the Greiner G300 Analyser; Launch of Occupational Therapists' Reference Book 1983/4; Summary of health notices (hazard): 1 April 1983-31 August 1983; Safety Information Bulletin No 9-May 1983: Summary of items; Safety Information Bulletin No 10-July 1983: Summary of items; Safety Information Bulletin No 11-September 1983: Summary of items; Amendment to HEI 112 July 1983: evaluation of ECG Recorders.

  5. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  6. The public health impacts of concentrated animal feeding operations on local communities.

    PubMed

    Greger, Michael; Koneswaran, Gowri

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale farm animal production facilities, also known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), release a significant amount of contaminants into the air and water. Adverse health effects related to exposure to these contaminants among CAFO workers have been well-documented; however, less is known about their impact on the health of residents in nearby communities. Epidemiological research in this area suggests that neighboring residents are at increased risk of developing neurobehavioral symptoms and respiratory illnesses, including asthma. Additional research is needed to better understand community-scale exposures and health outcomes related to the management practices and emissions of CAFOs. PMID:20010001

  7. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees’ performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  8. Privacy policy analysis for health information networks and regional health information organizations.

    PubMed

    Noblin, Alice M

    2007-01-01

    Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) are forming in response to President George W. Bush's 2004 mandate that medical information be made available electronically to facilitate continuity of care. Privacy concerns are a deterrent to widespread acceptance of RHIOs. The Health Information Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 provides some guidelines for privacy protection. However, most states have stricter guidelines, causing difficulty when RHIOs form across these jurisdictions. This article compares several RHIOs including their privacy policies where available. In addition, studies were reviewed considering privacy concerns of people in the United States and elsewhere. Surveys reveal that Americans are concerned about the privacy of their personal health information and ultimately feel it is the role of the government to provide protection. The purpose of this article is to look at the privacy issues and recommend a policy that may help to resolve some of the concerns of both providers and patients. Policy research and action are needed to move the National Health Information Network toward reality. Efforts to provide consistency in privacy laws are a necessary early step to facilitate the construction and maintenance of RHIOs and the National Health Information Network.

  9. Challenges and options for animal and public health services in the next two decades.

    PubMed

    Heath, S E

    2006-04-01

    Trade in livestock and livestock products makes up approximately one sixth of global agriculture trade. This trade is demand driven, primarily by growing human populations, changing economies, and consumer preferences in developing countries. Different rates of population growth, economic growth, urbanisation, environmental sustainability, and technology transfer will determine which countries will reap the greatest benefits. Global trends in demand and supply for food, not terrorism, will drive the future of animal and public health service delivery. To benefit the greatest number of people and countries, animal and public health services should support policies that temper growing disparities among rich and poor countries, city and rural populations, and the sexes. Economic growth is critical to overcoming disparities between countries and best supported by integrated animal health, public health, labour, and foreign policies. Opportunities for job growth will be the greatest along the value added chain of food production and will require significant investments in science- (risk-) based education.

  10. Applying One Health to the Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Darlene; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-12-01

    The use of animal-assisted interventions in therapeutic programs is a growing phenomenon. Animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) involve a variety of species (dogs, cats, horses, domesticated birds, etc.) in primary health care. Despite their increasing application in a wide range of therapeutic services, the empirical evidence base of AAIs is limited. The authors of this paper propose that the public health framework of One Health can be adapted to advance AAI research. One Health's perspective on the environment is primarily ecological. The environmental impact on the human-animal interactions within AAIs, however, incorporates social, cultural, political, and economic factors. The environment has received minimal attention in AAI research. The authors discuss how this framework has been used in their prior AAI research and work with Indigenous people. Applying this framework to AAIs may guide future AAI research.

  11. Information Technology in Complex Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Southon, Frank Charles Gray; Sauer, Chris; Dampney, Christopher Noel Grant (Kit)

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify impediments to the successful transfer and implementation of packaged information systems through large, divisionalized health services. Design: A case analysis of the failure of an implementation of a critical application in the Public Health System of the State of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out. This application had been proven in the United States environment. Measurements: Interviews involving over 60 staff at all levels of the service were undertaken by a team of three. The interviews were recorded and analyzed for key themes, and the results were shared and compared to enable a continuing critical assessment. Results: Two components of the transfer of the system were considered: the transfer from a different environment, and the diffusion throughout a large, divisionalized organization. The analyses were based on the Scott-Morton organizational fit framework. In relation to the first, it was found that there was a lack of fit in the business environments and strategies, organizational structures and strategy-structure pairing as well as the management process-roles pairing. The diffusion process experienced problems because of the lack of fit in the strategy-structure, strategy-structure-management processes, and strategy-structure-role relationships. Conclusion: The large-scale developments of integrated health services present great challenges to the efficient and reliable implementation of information technology, especially in large, divisionalized organizations. There is a need to take a more sophisticated approach to understanding the complexities of organizational factors than has traditionally been the case. PMID:9067877

  12. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarhos; Tabbaa, Darem

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats) creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  13. The role and mandate of the World Organisation for Animal Health in veterinary education.

    PubMed

    Vallat, B; Pastoret, P-P

    2009-08-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), which was created in 1924 under the name Office International des Epizooties, is in charge of setting international standards and guidelines for animal health and welfare. The original aim of the Organisation was to control the international spread of infectious animal diseases, but this aim has expanded over the years and now the OIE has a global mandate to 'improve animal health worldwide' for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. A vital factor in successfully fulfilling this mandate is the quality and performance of both the public and private components of national Veterinary Services, which are increasingly working at the interface between human, animal and environmental health. The OIE considers global veterinary education to be key in maintaining and improving the quality of these Veterinary Services. Consequently, the competencies and continuing education of veterinarians are a priority in the assessment tool that the Organisation has developed to evaluate the performance of Veterinary Services (PVS). Evaluating the abilities and training of veterinarians is an important part of a PVS evaluation, as well-educated veterinarians with appropriate training are essential in improving Veterinary Services worldwide and in helping the OIE to fulfil its mandate.

  14. Legal issues concerning electronic health information: privacy, quality, and liability.

    PubMed

    Hodge, J G; Gostin, L O; Jacobson, P D

    1999-10-20

    Personally identifiable health information about individuals and general medical information is increasingly available in electronic form in health databases and through online networks. The proliferation of electronic data within the modern health information infrastructure presents significant benefits for medical providers and patients, including enhanced patient autonomy, improved clinical treatment, advances in health research and public health surveillance, and modern security techniques. However, it also presents new legal challenges in 3 interconnected areas: privacy of identifiable health information, reliability and quality of health data, and tortbased liability. Protecting health information privacy (by giving individuals control over health data without severely restricting warranted communal uses) directly improves the quality and reliability of health data (by encouraging individual uses of health services and communal uses of data), which diminishes tort-based liabilities (by reducing instances of medical malpractice or privacy invasions through improvements in the delivery of health care services resulting in part from better quality and reliability of clinical and research data). Following an analysis of the interconnectivity of these 3 areas and discussing existing and proposed health information privacy laws, recommendations for legal reform concerning health information privacy are presented. These include (1) recognizing identifiable health information as highly sensitive, (2) providing privacy safeguards based on fair information practices, (3) empowering patients with information and rights to consent to disclosure (4) limiting disclosures of health data absent consent, (5) incorporating industry-wide security protections, (6) establishing a national data protection authority, and (7) providing a national minimal level of privacy protections. PMID:10535438

  15. Legal issues concerning electronic health information: privacy, quality, and liability.

    PubMed

    Hodge, J G; Gostin, L O; Jacobson, P D

    1999-10-20

    Personally identifiable health information about individuals and general medical information is increasingly available in electronic form in health databases and through online networks. The proliferation of electronic data within the modern health information infrastructure presents significant benefits for medical providers and patients, including enhanced patient autonomy, improved clinical treatment, advances in health research and public health surveillance, and modern security techniques. However, it also presents new legal challenges in 3 interconnected areas: privacy of identifiable health information, reliability and quality of health data, and tortbased liability. Protecting health information privacy (by giving individuals control over health data without severely restricting warranted communal uses) directly improves the quality and reliability of health data (by encouraging individual uses of health services and communal uses of data), which diminishes tort-based liabilities (by reducing instances of medical malpractice or privacy invasions through improvements in the delivery of health care services resulting in part from better quality and reliability of clinical and research data). Following an analysis of the interconnectivity of these 3 areas and discussing existing and proposed health information privacy laws, recommendations for legal reform concerning health information privacy are presented. These include (1) recognizing identifiable health information as highly sensitive, (2) providing privacy safeguards based on fair information practices, (3) empowering patients with information and rights to consent to disclosure (4) limiting disclosures of health data absent consent, (5) incorporating industry-wide security protections, (6) establishing a national data protection authority, and (7) providing a national minimal level of privacy protections.

  16. Health information management in the computer era.

    PubMed

    Brunner, B K

    1992-11-01

    Medical record professionals are confronted with change at practically every front. Technologic advancements are changing the technical aspects of our job responsibilities. These advancements also have implications for the interpersonal aspects of our jobs. The effect of new technology on working relationships is exacerbated by the introduction of TQM, which also encourages a change in organizational relationships through a move away from traditional heirarchical management by fostering teamwork and staff empowerment. The changes that are transforming health care organizations can be viewed in two lights: (1) as unwanted hindrances to accomplishment or (2) as opportunities to enhance accomplishment. Medical record professionals are presented with unprecedented opportunities to enhance our accomplishments and maximize our position in health care facilities. We cannot long for the way things were or be satisfied with the status quo. Such action (or lack thereof) will only ensure that our role on the health care team will be taken over by someone else. To capitalize on the opportunities presented, medical record professionals must hone the knowledge and skills we already possess, gain other knowledge and skills necessary to function in the computerized environment, and, most of all, be proactive rather than reactive. Such action will ensure that we truly become health information managers.

  17. [Information on health: production, consumption and biopower].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cléber Domingos Cunha

    2013-10-01

    This article seeks to elicit misgivings regarding the value attributed to medical truth found in the biomedical literature. The issue of the protection of sexual practices was taken by way of example and the works of thinkers like Nietzsche, Baudrillard, Bourdieu, and especially Michel Foucault, were consulted. This was done in order to consider that the elaboration and use of health information can be interpreted as a practice constituting a policy that dynamically inspires both experts and non-experts on medical truth, constituting a morality that is based on the production and consumption of this truth. It is a policy that Foucault called biopolitics, able to establish ways of living where the exercise of thought does not seem to be so "rewarding," where practices of command and obedience are mediated by health information. In this perspective, physicians and non-physicians have been seduced by the desire to attain the truth, such that the commitment of everyone is seen to concentrate on the production and use of statements that they believe can prolong life and save from getting sick. These are discourses cultivated in the market of a media-dominated society in which individuals controlled by information produce subjectivities that are anchored in the medical-capital truth binomial. PMID:24061035

  18. [Information on health: production, consumption and biopower].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cléber Domingos Cunha

    2013-10-01

    This article seeks to elicit misgivings regarding the value attributed to medical truth found in the biomedical literature. The issue of the protection of sexual practices was taken by way of example and the works of thinkers like Nietzsche, Baudrillard, Bourdieu, and especially Michel Foucault, were consulted. This was done in order to consider that the elaboration and use of health information can be interpreted as a practice constituting a policy that dynamically inspires both experts and non-experts on medical truth, constituting a morality that is based on the production and consumption of this truth. It is a policy that Foucault called biopolitics, able to establish ways of living where the exercise of thought does not seem to be so "rewarding," where practices of command and obedience are mediated by health information. In this perspective, physicians and non-physicians have been seduced by the desire to attain the truth, such that the commitment of everyone is seen to concentrate on the production and use of statements that they believe can prolong life and save from getting sick. These are discourses cultivated in the market of a media-dominated society in which individuals controlled by information produce subjectivities that are anchored in the medical-capital truth binomial.

  19. The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.

    2010-01-01

    Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable. PMID:20224825

  20. [Accessible health information: a question of age?].

    PubMed

    Loos, E F

    2012-04-01

    Aging and digitalisation are important trends which have their impact on information accessibility. Accessible information about products and services is of crucial importance to ensure that all citizens can participate fully as active members of society. Senior citizens who have difficulties using new media run the risk of exclusion in today's information society. Not all senior citizens, however, encounter problems with new media. Not by a long shot. There is much to be said for 'aged heterogeneity', the concept that individual differences increase as people age. In two explorative qualitative case studies related to accessible health information--an important issue for senior citizens--that were conducted in the Netherlands, variables such as gender, education level and frequency of internet use were therefore included in the research design. In this paper, the most important results of these case studies will be discussed. Attention will be also paid to complementary theories (socialisation, life stages) which could explain differences in information search behaviour when using old or new media. PMID:22642049

  1. An ergonomic analysis of premixing and compounding processes in an animal health plant.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Goggins, W B

    1999-01-01

    This study is based on an ergonomic job analysis designed to develop a hazard prevention program for the premixing and compounding processes in animal health products plants. Animal health products plants are "pharmaceutical facilities" for livestock or domestic animals. A hazardous aerosol (highly concentrated antibiotics, anthelmintics, mineral oil, and animal hormones) is generated in the premixing or compounding processes. The animal health premixing jobs are heavy-duty jobs and have high potential for chemical exposure, heat stress, and ergonomic hazards. Ergonomic job analysis was used to recognize, identify, and evaluate actuarial and potential risks of injures or irritations. Chemical hazards and eight ergonomic factors were discussed: (1) forceful exertions, (2) awkward postures, (3) localized contract stresses, (4) vibration, (5) noise, (6) temperature extremes, (7) repetitive activities, and (8) prolonged activities. The results show that (1) current practices do not violate occupational safety and health regulations or recommended guidelines, but that hazards should be identified to protect worker health and safety; (2) for chemical hazards prevention, operators wear whole-body protection equipment, which also causes heat stress and increases the noise level in the work zone; and (3) the loading weight of the bags used needs to be reduced. PMID:10386360

  2. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing.

  3. [Health Information Technology -where are we heading?].

    PubMed

    Ash, Nachman; Levy, Ilan

    2013-05-01

    The current issue of "Harefuah" dedicates a special corner to Health Information Technology (HIT), with a collection of five review papers discussing different areas of the field, focusing on its benefits to the quality of healthcare. In the first paper Topaz and Ash describe the United States MeaningfuL Use project, and list the lessons that the Israeli health system should learn from it. Zelingher and Ash analyze the decision of the Israeli Ministry of Health to move from the old coding system of ICD-9-CM to a combination of SNOMED-CT as a clinical terminology system and ICD-10-CM as the classification coding system. The authors conclude that achieving a standardized, homogenous and thorough coding of problems, diagnoses and procedures will enable interoperability in the Israeli health system. Shalom et al present us to the world of computerized clinical guidelines. They review the different projects that aim to bring tools and methods to transform the paper based guidelines to computer programs that support the everyday decisions that physicians take regarding their patients. The authors focus on their experience in developing methodology, tools and a library of computerized guidelines, and describe their evaluation in several projects. Shahar et al dive deeper to describe the challenge of representing time in cLinicaL guidelines and creating tools to discover new knowledge based on represented known knowledge. These two papers demonstrate the meaningful use of medicaL data. In the last article, Siegal addresses some legal concerns evolving from the HIT revolution, pointing to the emerging concepts in Israeli jurisprudence, which regards medical IT as an important contribution to patient empowerment, aspects of medical risk management and management of national health system resources. In the judgment of the Israeli court, a medical organization will possibly have to take the responsibiLity of not implementing a proven HIT system. This paper concludes with

  4. The dream of health information for all

    PubMed Central

    Proaño, Alvaro; Ruiz, Eloy F; Porudominsky, Ruben; Tapia, Jose Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, an influential report in The Lancet suggested that open health information for all could be achieved by 2015. Unfortunately, this goal has not yet been accomplished. Despite progress in obtaining quality scientific articles in Latin America, it remains difficult to reliably access new and cutting-edge research. As graduating Peruvian medical students, we have confronted many obstacles in obtaining access to quality and up-to-date information and a constant tension between accessing "what is available" rather than "what we need". As we have learned, these limitations affect not only our own education but also the choices we make in the management of our patients. In the following article, we state our point of view regarding limitations in access to scientific articles in Peru and Latin America. PMID:27081475

  5. The dream of health information for all.

    PubMed

    Proaño, Alvaro; Ruiz, Eloy F; Porudominsky, Ruben; Tapia, Jose Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, an influential report in The Lancet suggested that open health information for all could be achieved by 2015. Unfortunately, this goal has not yet been accomplished. Despite progress in obtaining quality scientific articles in Latin America, it remains difficult to reliably access new and cutting-edge research. As graduating Peruvian medical students, we have confronted many obstacles in obtaining access to quality and up-to-date information and a constant tension between accessing "what is available" rather than "what we need". As we have learned, these limitations affect not only our own education but also the choices we make in the management of our patients. In the following article, we state our point of view regarding limitations in access to scientific articles in Peru and Latin America. PMID:27081475

  6. Information support for health information management in regional Sri Lanka: health managers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Kaduruwane Indika; Chan, Taizan; Yaralagadda, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Good management, supported by accurate, timely and reliable health information, is vital for increasing the effectiveness of Health Information Systems (HIS). When it comes to managing the under-resourced health systems of developing countries, information-based decision making is particularly important. This paper reports findings of a self-report survey that investigated perceptions of local health managers (HMs) of their own regional HIS in Sri Lanka. Data were collected through a validated, pre-tested postal questionnaire, and distributed among a selected group of HMs to elicit their perceptions of the current HIS in relation to information generation, acquisition and use, required reforms to the information system and application of information and communication technology (ICT). Results based on descriptive statistics indicated that the regional HIS was poorly organised and in need of reform; that management support for the system was unsatisfactory in terms of relevance, accuracy, timeliness and accessibility; that political pressure and community and donor requests took precedence over vital health information when management decisions were made; and use of ICT was unsatisfactory. HIS strengths included user-friendly paper formats, a centralised planning system and an efficient disease notification system; weaknesses were lack of comprehensiveness, inaccuracy, and lack of a feedback system. Responses of participants indicated that HIS would be improved by adopting an internationally accepted framework and introducing ICT applications. Perceived barriers to such improvements were high initial cost of educating staff to improve computer literacy, introduction of ICTs, and HIS restructure. We concluded that the regional HIS of Central Province, Sri Lanka had failed to provide much-needed information support to HMs. These findings are consistent with similar research in other developing countries and reinforce the need for further research to verify causes of

  7. Effect of information about animal welfare on consumer willingness to pay for yogurt.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, F; Pacelli, C; Girolami, A; Braghieri, A

    2008-03-01

    This study aimed to verify whether consumers confirm their willingness to pay extra costs for higher animal welfare standards in a situation where a potential purchase performed by consumers, such as the Vickrey auction, is used. A 104-member consumer panel was asked to rate its willingness to pay (WTP) for plain and low-fat yogurts in 3 information conditions: tasting without information (blind WTP), information about animal welfare without tasting (expected WTP), tasting with information about animal welfare (actual WTP). Information was provided to the consumers under the form of labels indicating the level of animal cleanliness and freedom of movement (5-point scale, from poor to very good). Consumers were influenced by information about low standards of animal welfare (low cleanliness and low freedom of movement) and moved their willingness to pay in the direction of their expectations. However, the discrepancy between expectancy and actual WTP was not totally assimilated, indicating that WTP was also expressed in relation to other aspects (e.g., the sensory properties of the products). Conversely, the information concerning high standards of animal welfare (high cleanliness and high freedom of movement) was able to affect expectancy but had an effect on actual WTP only when the most acceptable yogurt was offered to the consumers. In the case of discordant information on animal welfare, partly indicating high levels of welfare (freedom of movements) and low levels of welfare (cleanliness), expected WTP was always lower than blind WTP. However, when the least acceptable product was presented, they completely assimilated their actual WTP to the expectations. Conversely, with the most acceptable yogurt, no assimilation occurred and sensory properties prevailed in orienting consumer WTP. Within each product, consumers expressed a higher WTP for products with labels indicating high welfare standards as compared with yogurts with labels reporting intermediate and

  8. How to Keep Your Health Information Private and Secure

    MedlinePlus

    ... communities, such as message boards. · Store in a personal health record (PHR) that is not offered through ... information. Here are some tips to ensure your personal health information is private and secure when accessing ...

  9. Health Information in Tagalog (Tagalog): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tagalog) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations T Testicular Cancer Testicular Self Exam Pagsusuri sa Sariling Bayag - Tagalog (Tagalog) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines Td (Tetanus and Diphtheria) ...

  10. Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Marano, N

    2009-08-01

    A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances. PMID:20128464

  11. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed

    Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi.

  12. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  13. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed

    Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  14. Relationship Between Parental and Adolescent eHealth Literacy and Online Health Information Seeking in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.

  15. Applying One Health to the Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Darlene; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-01-01

    The use of animal-assisted interventions in therapeutic programs is a growing phenomenon. Animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) involve a variety of species (dogs, cats, horses, domesticated birds, etc.) in primary health care. Despite their increasing application in a wide range of therapeutic services, the empirical evidence base of AAIs is limited. The authors of this paper propose that the public health framework of One Health can be adapted to advance AAI research. One Health’s perspective on the environment is primarily ecological. The environmental impact on the human–animal interactions within AAIs, however, incorporates social, cultural, political, and economic factors. The environment has received minimal attention in AAI research. The authors discuss how this framework has been used in their prior AAI research and work with Indigenous people. Applying this framework to AAIs may guide future AAI research. PMID:26063040

  16. 21 CFR 514.12 - Confidentiality of data and information in an investigational new animal drug notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... investigational new animal drug notice. 514.12 Section 514.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG... animal drug notice. (a) The existence of an INAD notice will not be disclosed by the Food and...

  17. 21 CFR 514.12 - Confidentiality of data and information in an investigational new animal drug notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... investigational new animal drug notice. 514.12 Section 514.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG... animal drug notice. (a) The existence of an INAD notice will not be disclosed by the Food and...

  18. Occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum among healthy dairy animals: an emerging public health hazard.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2016-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum in the feces of dairy animals. Fecal samples were collected from 203 apparently healthy dairy animals (50 cattle, 50 buffaloes, 52 sheep, 51 goats). Samples were cultured to recover C. botulinum while human pathogenic C. botulinum strains were identified after screening of all C. botulinum isolates for the presence of genes that encode toxins type A, B, E, F. The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.7% whereas human pathogenic C. botulinum strains (only type A) were isolated from six animals at the rates of 2, 2, 5.8, and 2% for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats, respectively. High fecal carriage rates of C. botulinum among apparently healthy dairy animals especially type A alarm both veterinary and public health communities for a potential role which may be played by dairy animals in the epidemiology of such pathogen. PMID:27077311

  19. Anthropogenic pollutants – an insidious threat to animal health and productivity?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Humans have always polluted their environment and, to an extent, the associated adverse consequences have increased in parallel with the global population. However, in recent decades, entirely novel compounds have been created, for multiple purposes, and some of these have become ubiquitous, damaging pollutants, which interfere with fundamental physiological processes in all animal species, disrupting reproductive and other functions. Understanding of the actions of these chemicals is poor but it is recognised that they can act additively, at low concentrations, and that animals at early stages of development are particularly sensitive to their effects. All species, including domestic and wild animals and humans, can be affected. Thus, there are potential adverse implications of exposure for farm and companion animal productivity and health, and associated economic implications. While anthropogenic pollutants exert subtle, but important, adverse effects on animal health and productivity, these should be weighed against the benefits associated with the use of these compounds, particularly in relation to food production and short-term determinants of animal health. However, it is suggested that it may be necessary to regulate future production and use of some of these compounds in order to ensure long term sustainability of production systems.

  20. [New information technologies and health consumerism].

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Castiel, Luis David; Bagrichevsky, Marcos; Griep, Rosane Harter

    2010-08-01

    Concepts related to consumption have shifted to include social processes not previously covered by traditional categories. The current review analyzes the application of classical concepts of consumerism to practices recently identified in the health field, like the phenomenon of cyberchondria. The theoretical challenge relates to the difficulty in extrapolating from the economic perspectives of consumerism to self-care issues in the context of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Drawing on recent anthropological categories, the study seeks to understand the phenomenon of self-care commodification under the imperative of self-accountability for health. New consumer identities are described in light of the unprecedented issues concerning technical improvements currently altering the nature of self-care. The study concludes that health is consumed as vitality, broken down into commercial artifacts in the context of a new bioeconomy - no longer linked to the idea of emulation and possession, but to forms of self-perception and self-care in the face of multiple risks and new definitions of the human being. PMID:21229207

  1. [New information technologies and health consumerism].

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Castiel, Luis David; Bagrichevsky, Marcos; Griep, Rosane Harter

    2010-08-01

    Concepts related to consumption have shifted to include social processes not previously covered by traditional categories. The current review analyzes the application of classical concepts of consumerism to practices recently identified in the health field, like the phenomenon of cyberchondria. The theoretical challenge relates to the difficulty in extrapolating from the economic perspectives of consumerism to self-care issues in the context of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Drawing on recent anthropological categories, the study seeks to understand the phenomenon of self-care commodification under the imperative of self-accountability for health. New consumer identities are described in light of the unprecedented issues concerning technical improvements currently altering the nature of self-care. The study concludes that health is consumed as vitality, broken down into commercial artifacts in the context of a new bioeconomy - no longer linked to the idea of emulation and possession, but to forms of self-perception and self-care in the face of multiple risks and new definitions of the human being.

  2. Facing the edible. The effects of edibility information on the neural encoding of animal faces.

    PubMed

    Bilewicz, Michal; Michalak, Jakub; Kamińska, Olga Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Animals perceived as edible are often denied more complex mental capacities or emotions. The process of categorizing and perceiving edible species as distant from humans has been extensively studied on the level of deliberate judgments of animals and humans. In the present study we wanted to determine whether information about the edibility of an artificially created species can affect one of the most automatic processes in humanity ascription: face perception. We focused on early perceptual stages of face processing as manifested in EEG signals by N170 Event Related Potentials. In an experimental study participants were assigned into two conditions, in which they were presented a series of human-animal morphed images. In one of the conditions participants were informed that the images present an edible species. Additionally, we measured participant judgments of the animals' capacity to suffer. Animal faces, which were perceived as non-edible, elicited larger N170 amplitudes than edible animal faces, suggesting that people recognize faces of non-edible animals as a face to a greater extent than edible ones. Importantly, this effect was significant only for those participants who perceived animals' capacity to suffer as relatively low. We discuss the obtained effects as a primary evidence for the very basic and automatic character of the "meat paradox", visible already in the initial stages of face perception. PMID:27328097

  3. Academic health sciences librarians' contributions to institutional animal care and use committees.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2014-07-01

    The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators.

  4. Academic health sciences librarians' contributions to institutional animal care and use committees.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2014-07-01

    The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators. PMID:25031565

  5. [Policies, operational framework and guidelines of the Inter-American Committee on Aquatic Animal Health].

    PubMed

    Martínez, B; Tella, S Koloffon; McGladdery, S; Enríquez, R

    2008-04-01

    The Americas are home to a large population of aquatic animals, most of which are used in aquaculture. Production systems are diverse and are distributed over a wide and varied geographical area. This presents a challenge for the region, which must be able to meet food safety requirements for aquatic animals traded in the international market. The authors describe the creation of the Inter-American Committee on Aquatic Animal Health (IAC-AAH), as well as its composition, operation, objectives, the activities of the groups that form the Committee and the various activities conducted so far.

  6. Enabling medication management through health information technology (Health IT).

    PubMed Central

    McKibbon, K Ann; Lokker, Cynthia; Handler, Steve M; Dolovich, Lisa R; Holbrook, Anne M; O'Reilly, Daria; Tamblyn, Robyn; J Hemens, Brian; Basu, Runki; Troyan, Sue; Roshanov, Pavel S; Archer, Norman P; Raina, Parminder

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of the report was to review the evidence on the impact of health information technology (IT) on all phases of the medication management process (prescribing and ordering, order communication, dispensing, administration and monitoring as well as education and reconciliation), to identify the gaps in the literature and to make recommendations for future research. DATA SOURCES We searched peer-reviewed electronic databases, grey literature, and performed hand searches. Databases searched included MEDLINE®, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Compendex, Inspec (which includes IEEE Xplore), Library and Information Science Abstracts, E-Prints in Library and Information Science, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and Business Source Complete. Grey literature searching involved Internet searching, reviewing relevant Web sites, and searching electronic databases of grey literatures. AHRQ also provided all references in their e-Prescribing, bar coding, and CPOE knowledge libraries. METHODS Paired reviewers looked at citations to identify studies on a range of health IT used to assist in the medication management process (MMIT) during multiple levels of screening (titles and abstracts, full text and final review for assignment of questions and data abstrction). Randomized controlled trials and cohort, case-control, and case series studies were independently assessed for quality. All data were abstracted by one reviewer and examined by one of two different reviewers with content and methods expertise. RESULTS 40,582 articles were retrieved. After duplicates were removed, 32,785 articles were screened at the title and abstract phase. 4,578 full text articles were assessed and 789 articles were included in the final report. Of these, 361 met only content criteria and were listed without further abstraction. The final report included data

  7. 20 CFR 402.65 - Health care information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PUBLIC § 402.65 Health care information. We have some information about health care programs under titles XVIII and XIX (Medicare and Medicaid) of the Social Security Act. We follow the rules in 42 CFR part 401... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health care information. 402.65 Section...

  8. 20 CFR 402.65 - Health care information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PUBLIC § 402.65 Health care information. We have some information about health care programs under titles XVIII and XIX (Medicare and Medicaid) of the Social Security Act. We follow the rules in 42 CFR part 401... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health care information. 402.65 Section...

  9. 20 CFR 402.65 - Health care information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PUBLIC § 402.65 Health care information. We have some information about health care programs under titles XVIII and XIX (Medicare and Medicaid) of the Social Security Act. We follow the rules in 42 CFR part 401... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health care information. 402.65 Section...

  10. 20 CFR 402.65 - Health care information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PUBLIC § 402.65 Health care information. We have some information about health care programs under titles XVIII and XIX (Medicare and Medicaid) of the Social Security Act. We follow the rules in 42 CFR part 401... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health care information. 402.65 Section...

  11. 20 CFR 402.65 - Health care information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PUBLIC § 402.65 Health care information. We have some information about health care programs under titles XVIII and XIX (Medicare and Medicaid) of the Social Security Act. We follow the rules in 42 CFR part 401... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health care information. 402.65 Section...

  12. What Your Can Do to Protect Your Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... don't want made public. Your doctor uses tools to protect and secure your health information at his or her office. You can do the same at home. If you have health information stored on your home computer or mobile device — ... email — simple tools like passwords can help keep your health information ...

  13. Learning Wellness: How Ageing Australians Experience Health Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christine; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Given identified synergies between information use and health status greater understanding is needed about how people use information to learn about their health. This paper presents the findings of preliminary research into health information literacy. Analysis of data from semi-structured interviews revealed six different ways ageing Australians…

  14. Health information systems in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Thieren, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Health information systems (HIS) in emergencies face a double dilemma: the information necessary to understand and respond to humanitarian crises must be timely and detailed, whereas the circumstances of these crises makes it challenging to collect it. Building on the technical work of the Health Metrics Network on HIS and starting with a systemic definition of HIS in emergencies, this paper reviews the various data-collection platforms in these contexts, looking at their respective contributions to providing what humanitarian actors need to know to target their intervention to where the needs really are. Although reporting or sampling errors are unavoidable, it is important to identify them and acknowledge the limitations inherent in generalizing data that were collected in highly heterogeneous environments. To perform well in emergencies, HIS require integration and participation. In spite of notable efforts to coordinate data collection and dissemination practices among humanitarian agencies, it is noted that coordination on the ground depends on the strengths and presence of a lead agency, often WHO, and on the commitment of humanitarian agencies to investing resources in data production. Poorly integrated HIS generate fragmented, incomplete and often contradictory statistics, a situation that leads to a misuse of numbers with negative consequences on humanitarian interventions. As a means to avoid confusion regarding humanitarian health statistics, this paper stresses the importance of submitting statistics to a rigorous and coordinated auditing process prior to their publication. The audit trail should describe the various steps of the data production chains both technically and operationally, and indicate the limits and assumptions under which each number can be used. Finally emphasis is placed on the ethical obligation for humanitarian agencies to ensure that the necessary safeguards on data are in place to protect the confidentiality of victims and

  15. Health Insurance Claim Review Using Information Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Sik; Speedie, Stuart M.; Yoon, Hojung; Lee, Jiseon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)'s payment request (PARE) system that plays the role of the gateway for all health insurance claims submitted to HIRA, and the claim review support (CRS) system that supports the work of claim review experts in South Korea. Methods This study describes the two systems' information technology (IT) infrastructures, their roles, and quantitative analysis of their work performance. It also reports the impact of these systems on claims processing by analyzing the health insurance claim data submitted to HIRA from April 1 to June 30, 2011. Results The PARE system returned to healthcare providers 2.7% of all inpatient claims (97,930) and 0.1% of all outpatient claims (317,007) as un-reviewable claims. The return rate was the highest for the hospital group as 0.49% and the lowest rate was found in clinic group. The CRS system's detection rate of the claims with multiple errors in inpatient and outpatient areas was 23.1% and 2.9%, respectively. The highest rate of error detection occurred at guideline check-up stages in both inpatient and outpatient groups. Conclusions The study found that HIRA's two IT systems had a critical role in reducing heavy administrative workloads through automatic data processing. Although the return rate of the problematic claims to providers and the error detection rate by two systems was low, the actual count of the returned claims was large. The role of IT will become increasingly important in reducing the workload of health insurance claims review. PMID:23115745

  16. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    PubMed

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P < 0.001), and important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On

  17. [Health effects of solar cell component material. Toxicity of indium compounds to laboratory animals determined by intratracheal instillations].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the increasing interest being paid to the issue of the global environment, the production of solar cells has increased rapidly in recent years. Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is a new efficient thin film used in some types of solar cell. Indium is a constitutive element of CIGS thin-film solar cells. It was thought that indium compounds were not harmful until the beginning of the 1990s because there was little information regarding the adverse health effects on humans or animals arising from exposure to indium compounds. After the mid-1990s, data became available indicating that indium compounds can be toxic to animals. In animal studies, it has been clearly demonstrated that indium compounds cause pulmonary toxicity and that the dissolution of indium compounds in the lungs is considerably slow, as shown by repeated intratracheal instillations in experimental animals. Thus, it is necessary to pay much greater attention to human exposure to indium compounds, and precautions against possible exposure to indium compounds are paramount with regard to health management.

  18. Role of inhalation studies with animals in defining human health risks for vehicle and power plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Automotive vehicles and power plants using fossil fuels emit a complex array of gases and particulate material. The physical and chemical characteristics of these emissions vary markedly between sources and comprise only a portion of the contributors to air pollution exposure of people. Further, it is well recognized that a single form of self-inflicted air pollution, cigarette smoking, is the dominant cause of air pollution-induced disease. These factors minimize our potential for developing an adequate understanding of the health effects of vehicle and power plant emissions by studying only people. The alternative is to use the human data to the extent feasible and complement it with information gained in studies with macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues and whole animals. Within this context, this paper reviews the use of inhalation studies with animals for defining human health risks of airborne materials, especially particulate materials. The major areas covered are: the fate of inhaled materials, the pathogenesis of disease induced by inhaled materials and long-term animal studies to identify late-occurring effects. Emphasis is placed on the utility of studies in whole animals as integrative models in which the multiple processes such as xenobiotic metabolism, cell injury, repair, transformation and promotion under the influence of many host factors interact in a manner that may not be directly observed in isolated cells or tissues. 60 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  19. Upgrading the Association for the Advancement of Health Education's Health Resources Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard E.

    The Association for the Advancement of Health Education (AAHE) and Academic Programs for Health Science, George Mason University (Virginia), have collaborated in upgrading AAHE's Health Resources Information System. The process involved updating the health resources information on file. This information, which represents addresses and telephone…

  20. Celebrity Health Announcements and Online Health Information Seeking: An Analysis of Angelina Jolie's Preventative Health Decision.

    PubMed

    Dean, Marleah

    2016-01-01

    On May 14, 2013, Angelina Jolie disclosed she carries BRCA1, which means she has an 87% risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime. Jolie decided to undergo a preventative bilateral mastectomy (PBM), reducing her risk to 5%. The purpose of this study was to analyze the type of information individuals are exposed to when using the Internet to search health information regarding Jolie's decision. Qualitative content analysis revealed four main themes--information about genetics, information about a PBM, information about health care, and information about Jolie's gender identity. Broadly, the identified websites mention Jolie's high risk for developing cancer due to the genetic mutation BRCA1, describe a PBM occasionally noting reasons why she had this surgery and providing alternatives to the surgery, discuss issues related to health care services, costs, and insurances about Jolie's health decision, and portray Jolie as a sexual icon, a partner to Brad Pitt, a mother of six children, and an inspirational humanitarian. The websites also depict Jolie's health decision in positive, negative, and/or both ways. Discussion centers on how this actress' health decision impacts the public. PMID:26574936

  1. The Digital Health Divide: Evaluating Online Health Information Access and Use among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide…

  2. Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Animal Nutrition and Health: The Role of Protein Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress (OS), and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism, and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional modifications. Protein oxidation seems to be involved in pathological conditions, such as respiratory diseases and parasitic infection; however, some studies also suggest that protein oxidation plays a crucial role in the regulation of important physiological functions, such as reproduction, nutrition, metabolism, lactation, gut health, and neonatal physiology. As the characterization of the mechanisms by which OS may influence metabolism and health is attracting considerable scientific interest, the aim of this review is to present veterinary scientists and clinicians with various aspects of oxidative damage to proteins. PMID:26664975

  3. [Framework for the strengthening of health information systems in Peru].

    PubMed

    Curioso, Walter H; Espinoza-Portilla, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present the essential components and policies that are most relevant regarding the conceptual framework to strengthen the health information systems in Peru. The article also presents the main policies, actions and strategies made in the field of electronic health in Peru that are most significant. The health information systems in Peru play a key role and are expected to achieve an integrated and interoperable information system. This will allow health information to be complete, efficient, of good quality and available in a timely manner to achieve better quality of life for people and allow meaningful modernization of public health in the context of health reform in Peru.

  4. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16–December 28, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Chen, Wan-Chin; Huang, Wan-Ting; Huang, Shih-Tse; Lo, Yi-Chun; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Chan, Pei-Chun; Hung, Min-Nan; Liu, Yu-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Liu, Ding-Ping; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI), and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010–July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5%) were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2%) persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9%) persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22%) were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and interministerial

  5. Privacy and health information: health cards offer a workable solution.

    PubMed

    Neame, Roderick

    2008-01-01

    Collections of computerised personal health data present a very real threat to privacy. Access control is difficult to manage in order to maintain privacy and at the same time to retain flexibility of usage. The legal situation is clear, imposing a requirement to respect personal privacy and human rights. Primary users (those whose access is based on a duty of care) may exceed their authorisation and access records where they have no duty of care or need to know. Secondary users (those generating analyses, research reports and financial management data) may be given access to datasets containing identifiers which are not required for their work. The 'owners' of the data (e.g. government) may use them in ways that are inconsistent with the permissions under which the data were provided (e.g. by permitting links to other databases to create 'new' information), behind closed doors and without independent audit. Currently there is a crisis emerging in which professionals are arguing that they are being compelled to compromise their ethical responsibilities to their patients, and government is responding that their measures are necessary to preserve access to quality data for research and planning. This paper proposes an integrated plan for managing these issues in a manner that is ethically sustainable, as well as in keeping with all provisions of the law, using a personal health card.

  6. Antibiotic usage in animals: impact on bacterial resistance and public health.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, A E; Stobberingh, E E

    1999-10-01

    Antibiotic use whether for therapy or prevention of bacterial diseases, or as performance enhancers will result in antibiotic resistant micro-organisms, not only among pathogens but also among bacteria of the endogenous microflora of animals. The extent to which antibiotic use in animals will contribute to the antibiotic resistance in humans is still under much debate. In addition to the veterinary use of antibiotics, the use of these agents as antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) greatly influences the prevalence of resistance in animal bacteria and a poses risk factor for the emergence of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. Antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and enterococci from animals can colonise or infect the human population via contact (occupational exposure) or via the food chain. Moreover, resistance genes can be transferred from bacteria of animals to human pathogens in the intestinal flora of humans. In humans, the control of resistance is based on hygienic measures: prevention of cross contamination and a decrease in the usage of antibiotics. In food animals housed closely together, hygienic measures, such as prevention of oral-faecal contact, are not feasible. Therefore, diminishing the need for antibiotics is the only possible way of controlling resistance in large groups of animals. This can be achieved by improvement of animal husbandry systems, feed composition and eradication of or vaccination against infectious diseases. Moreover, abolishing the use of antibiotics as feed additives for growth promotion in animals bred as a food source for humans would decrease the use of antibiotics in animals on a worldwide scale by nearly 50%. This would not only diminish the public health risk of dissemination of resistant bacteria or resistant genes from animals to humans, but would also be of major importance in maintaining the efficacy of antibiotics in veterinary medicine.

  7. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health.

    PubMed

    Pantosti, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50 years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The "pig" MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health.

  8. Consumer Health Information and the Demand for Physician Visits.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The present study empirically investigates the effect of consumer health information on the demand for physician visits. Using a direct information measure based on questions from the Swiss Health Survey, we estimate a Poisson hurdle model for office visits. We find that information has a negative effect on health care utilization, contradicting previous findings in the literature. We consider differences in the used information measures to be the most likely explanation for the different findings. However, our results suggest that increasing consumer health information has the potential to reduce health care expenditures.

  9. 75 FR 76393 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection (Public Health Information System)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Collection (Public Health Information System) AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... announcing its intention to request a new information collection concerning its Web-based Public Health...: Public Health Information System (PHIS). Type of Request: New information collection. Abstract: FSIS...

  10. The changing role of the health care chief information officer.

    PubMed

    Wood, G M

    2000-09-01

    Information is the lifeblood of the health care organization. In the past, chief information officers were responsible for nothing else but assuring a constant flow of information. Today, they are being asked to do a great deal more. From E-business to E-health strategy, the chief information officer is the focal point of an organization's ability to leverage new technology.

  11. Precision with Ease: Refining Thesaurus Support for Quality Health Information Searching on Health"Insite"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jill Buckley; Deacon, Prue

    2009-01-01

    Health"Insite" is the Australian Government's Internet gateway to reliable health information online, providing access to over 15,000 information items on the websites of more than 80 approved information partners. The gateway provides a variety of searching and browsing options to assist users to find information on a wide range of health topics.…

  12. Adding home health care to the discussion on health information technology policy.

    PubMed

    Ruggiano, Nicole; Brown, Ellen L; Hristidis, Vagelis; Page, Timothy F

    2013-01-01

    The potential for health information technology to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health care has resulted in several U.S. policy initiatives aimed at integrating health information technology into health care systems. However, home health care agencies have been excluded from incentive programs established through policies, raising concerns on the extent to which health information technology may be used to improve the quality of care for older adults with chronic illness and disabilities. This analysis examines the potential issues stemming from this exclusion and explores potential opportunities of integrating home health care into larger initiatives aimed at establishing health information technology systems for meaningful use.

  13. Toward a statewide health information technology center (abbreviated version).

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Joe, John C

    2010-11-01

    With the passage of The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009 that includes the Health Care Information Technology for Economic & Clinical Health Act, the opportunity for states to develop a Health Information Technology Center (THITC) has emerged. The Center provides the intellectual, financial, and technical leadership along with the governance and oversight for all health information technology-related activities in the state. This Center would be a free-standing, not-for-profit, public-private partnership that would be responsible for operating one or more (in large states) Regional Health Information Technology Extension Centers (Extension Centers) along with several Regional Health Information Exchanges (HIEs) and one or more Regional Health Information Data Centers (Data Centers). We believe that if these features and functions could be developed, deployed, and integrated statewide, the health and welfare of the citizens of the state could be improved while simultaneously reducing the costs associated with the provision of care.

  14. HIV/AIDS Community Health Information System.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Christopher L; Kaukinen, Catherine E

    2003-01-01

    Given changes in the faces of AIDS over the last decade, it is crucial that disparities in health and access to healthcare are addressed. An Internet-based GIS was developed using ESRI's Arc Internet Map Server (Arc IMS) to provide users with a suite of tools to interact with geographic data and conduct spatial analyses related to the characteristics that promote or impede the provision of HIV-related services. Internet Mapping allows those engaged in local decision-making to: (1) geographically visualize information via the Internet; (2) Assess the relationship between the distribution of HIV services and spatially referenced socio-economic data; and (3) generate "what if" scenarios" that may direct the allocation of healthcare resources. PMID:14728567

  15. Risk analysis and its link with standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, K; Murray, N

    2011-04-01

    Among the agreements included in the treaty that created the World Trade Organization (WTO) in January 1995 is the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) that sets out the basic rules for food safety and animal and plant health standards. The SPS Agreement designates the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as the organisation responsible for developing international standards for animal health and zoonoses. The SPS Agreement requires that the sanitary measures that WTO members apply should be based on science and encourages them to either apply measures based on the OIE standards or, if they choose to adopt a higher level of protection than that provided by these standards, apply measures based on a science-based risk assessment. The OIE also provides a procedural framework for risk analysis for its Member Countries to use. Despite the inevitable challenges that arise in carrying out a risk analysis of the international trade in animals and animal products, the OIE risk analysis framework provides a structured approach that facilitates the identification, assessment, management and communication of these risks.

  16. From the Director: Surfing the Web for Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues From the Director: Surfing the Web for Health Information Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... all information on the Internet is reliable. Some Web sites post inaccurate or biased medical information. Others ...

  17. Seeking health information: what sources do your patients use?

    PubMed

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare professionals believe that it is important for patients to be educated about health for optimal outcomes. For education to occur, healthcare professionals need to know where patients seek information. The concept of health information-seeking behavior (HISB) focuses on how patients obtain information (strategies/actions). Theories/ models are presented to describe how patients obtain information and what they do with information that is available. The most recent HISB research has examined the use of the Internet for health information. Although the Internet is utilized by many individuals, studies show that the most common and trusted source of information is healthcare professionals. Individuals use other sources of health information (e.g., TV, radio, newspaper, magazines, Internet, and family/friends/coworkers) to supplement information provided by healthcare professionals. When and how individuals use supplemental information varies and is associated with many factors such as race, education, income, health literacy, and health status. Utilizing health information also depends on an individual's health orientation. As nurses, we need to utilize knowledge about HISB to assist patients in obtaining health information to optimize health outcomes.

  18. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status. PMID:22841799

  19. Simulation modeling to derive the value-of-information for risky animal disease-import decisions.

    PubMed

    Disney, W Terry; Peters, Mark A

    2003-11-12

    Simulation modeling can be used in aiding decision-makers in deciding when to invest in additional research and when the risky animal disease-import decision should go forward. Simulation modeling to evaluate value-of-information (VOI) techniques provides a robust, objective and transparent framework for assisting decision-makers in making risky animal and animal product decisions. In this analysis, the hypothetical risk from poultry disease in chicken-meat imports was modeled. Economic criteria were used to quantify alternative confidence-increasing decisions regarding potential import testing and additional research requirements. In our hypothetical example, additional information about poultry disease in the exporting country (either by requiring additional export-flock surveillance that results in no sign of disease, or by conducting additional research into lack of disease transmittal through chicken-meat ingestion) captured >75% of the value-of-information attainable regarding the chicken-meat-import decision.

  20. An Analysis of the Future Need for Certified Animal Health Technicians and Instructional Program Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Council on Occupational Education, Carson City.

    A study examined the future need for certified animal health technicians (CAHT) in Nevada and the skills/knowledge that future CAHTs will need. Questionnaires were mailed to all of Nevada's 306 licensed veterinarians; 100 (32.68%) responded. The estimated numbers of CAHTs needed by the state's veterinarians in 1, 3, and 5 years were 62, 142, and…

  1. Factors influencing the demand of the service of community based animal health care in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mutambara, J; Dube, I; Matangi, E; Majeke, F

    2013-11-01

    This study was done to find out about animal health service providers and factors that determined demand for community based veterinary service delivery in smallholder sector of Zimbabwe. Focus group discussions and a questionnaire was used to collect data on veterinary services providers and socio-economic factors related to animal health from a sample (N=333) smallholder livestock farmers from Gutu district of Masvingo province in Zimbabwe. Analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, K-mean cluster analysis and Tobit regression model. Results showed that the majority of farmers (45%) obtained services from both Community Based Animal Health Workers (CBAHWs) and Department of Veterinary Service (DVS), 25% DVS only, 20% used CBAHWs while 10% did not seek any services. Further analysis showed that distance to CBAHW, distance to AHMC and employment status were significantly related to demand for CBAHWs with coefficients of -1.5, 0.7 and -10.3, respectively. The study thus concluded that CBAHW is an alternative animal health service delivery approach already practiced in smallholder farming sectors of Zimbabwe. Socio-economic factors significantly influenced the demand for CBAHW services. Given limited resources by state sponsored veterinary services, it is recommended that the CBAHWs approach should be encouraged as supplementary service provider especially in areas further DVS. These community organizations can be empowered by the state to deliver more improved services based on hygiene and modern science at a relatively low cost to farmers.

  2. Financing the delivery of animal health services in developing countries: a case study of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Turkson, P K; Brownie, C F

    1999-02-01

    Inadequate financing for the delivery of animal health services in many developing countries has been blamed for lack of efficiency and effectiveness of veterinary services. There are no reports of how the delivery of veterinary services in Ghana is financed. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the funding of veterinary services in Ghana to help in decision making on resource allocation. Various indicators and measures were used in assessing the adequacy of financing and resource allocation from 1990 to 1995. These measures were the veterinary budget as proportions of the national budget, GDP and AGDP; the proportions of the veterinary budget allocated to salaries; the ratios of salaries to non-staff expenditure and of non-staff expenditure to veterinary livestock units and technical staff; coefficient of efficacy; and R-ratio. These generally declined or worsened over the period, deviating from recommended norms where such norms exist. This confirmed the paucity of financing and resource allocation for the delivery of veterinary services. Revenue generation from cost recovery over the 1993-95 period was a potential source of funding, exceeding 100% of non-staff expenditure for 1993 and 1994. However, the revenue generated was not channelled back to veterinary services but went to the national coffers. This served as a disincentive. There is an urgent need to review how veterinary services are financed in Ghana, if the delivery of services is to improve in efficiency and effectiveness.

  3. Models in animal collective decision-making: information uncertainty and conflicting preferences.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Larissa

    2012-04-01

    Collective decision-making plays a central part in the lives of many social animals. Two important factors that influence collective decision-making are information uncertainty and conflicting preferences. Here, I bring together, and briefly review, basic models relating to animal collective decision-making in situations with information uncertainty and in situations with conflicting preferences between group members. The intention is to give an overview about the different types of modelling approaches that have been employed and the questions that they address and raise. Despite the use of a wide range of different modelling techniques, results show a coherent picture, as follows. Relatively simple cognitive mechanisms can lead to effective information pooling. Groups often face a trade-off between decision accuracy and speed, but appropriate fine-tuning of behavioural parameters could achieve high accuracy while maintaining reasonable speed. The right balance of interdependence and independence between animals is crucial for maintaining group cohesion and achieving high decision accuracy. In conflict situations, a high degree of decision-sharing between individuals is predicted, as well as transient leadership and leadership according to needs and physiological status. Animals often face crucial trade-offs between maintaining group cohesion and influencing the decision outcome in their own favour. Despite the great progress that has been made, there remains one big gap in our knowledge: how do animals make collective decisions in situations when information uncertainty and conflict of interest operate simultaneously?

  4. Models in animal collective decision-making: information uncertainty and conflicting preferences

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    Collective decision-making plays a central part in the lives of many social animals. Two important factors that influence collective decision-making are information uncertainty and conflicting preferences. Here, I bring together, and briefly review, basic models relating to animal collective decision-making in situations with information uncertainty and in situations with conflicting preferences between group members. The intention is to give an overview about the different types of modelling approaches that have been employed and the questions that they address and raise. Despite the use of a wide range of different modelling techniques, results show a coherent picture, as follows. Relatively simple cognitive mechanisms can lead to effective information pooling. Groups often face a trade-off between decision accuracy and speed, but appropriate fine-tuning of behavioural parameters could achieve high accuracy while maintaining reasonable speed. The right balance of interdependence and independence between animals is crucial for maintaining group cohesion and achieving high decision accuracy. In conflict situations, a high degree of decision-sharing between individuals is predicted, as well as transient leadership and leadership according to needs and physiological status. Animals often face crucial trade-offs between maintaining group cohesion and influencing the decision outcome in their own favour. Despite the great progress that has been made, there remains one big gap in our knowledge: how do animals make collective decisions in situations when information uncertainty and conflict of interest operate simultaneously? PMID:23565335

  5. 21 CFR 514.11 - Confidentiality of data and information in a new animal drug application file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of an animal drug on animals and all studies and tests on the animal drug for identity, stability... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in a new animal drug application file. 514.11 Section 514.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  6. 21 CFR 514.11 - Confidentiality of data and information in a new animal drug application file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of an animal drug on animals and all studies and tests on the animal drug for identity, stability... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in a new animal drug application file. 514.11 Section 514.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  7. Rain Forest: The Latest Information and Hands-on Activities To Explore Animals, Plants, and Geography. Grades 2-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robin

    This book contains information and activities to help make the study of rainforests an exciting exploration for teachers and students. Students explore the animals, plants, and geography of the rainforest by completing hands-on activities from various disciplines. This book contains five units: (1) "Living Layers"; (2) "Animals, Animals, Animals";…

  8. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.

    PubMed

    Dorne, J L C M; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Bertelsen, U; Renshaw, D W; Peltonen, K; Anadon, A; Feil, A; Sanders, P; Wester, P; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  9. Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human-Companion Animal Bond

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Gregg K.; Day, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    “One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB) as it relates to healthcare in these areas. PMID:25350006

  10. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fernández-Cruz, M.L.; Bertelsen, U.; Renshaw, D.W.; Peltonen, K.; Anadon, A.; Feil, A.; Sanders, P.; Wester, P.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  11. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations. PMID:25734821

  12. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations.

  13. Intellectual property and networked health information: issues and principles.

    PubMed Central

    Cate, F H

    1996-01-01

    Information networks offer enormous potential for improving the delivery of health care services, facilitating health-related decision-making, and contributing to better health. In addition, advanced information technologies offer important opportunities for new markets, targeted information products and services, greater accessibility, lower costs and prices, and more rapid and efficient distribution. Realizing the full potential of those information resources requires the resolution of significant intellectual property issues, some of which may be affected by special features of health information. For example, the government is a significant funder and originator of health-related information. In addition, much of that information is of great importance to the population and benefits not only individual users, but also employers, insurance companies, the government, and society as a whole. The government must therefore continue to provide particularly important health information to the public, and facilitate that information's accessibility and reliability, while avoiding unnecessary competition with private information providers. Congress and courts must modify or interpret current copyright law as necessary to guarantee that it does not interfere with innovation in tailored health information or exceed its constitutional boundaries and restrict access to information, as opposed to expression. Both producers and users of information must work with the government to educate the public about the availability of health information and the rights of and limitations upon users under copyright law. PMID:8826629

  14. Integration of health care information systems.

    PubMed

    Cuddeback, J K

    1993-03-01

    Information is at the core of an effective response to virtually all of the new demands that health care institutions will face in the 1990s. New information that is differently organized, more timely, and more conveniently available will facilitate new interactions within the institution. The consistent theme of the new systems requirements introduced by CQI is tighter connection to the processes of patient care and integration of systems and data as those processes cross traditional organizational boundaries. Even the billing requirements are pushing in the same direction. Ironically, the dinosaurs descended from billing systems do not even perform very well as billing systems today, because payers want more clinical detail, in addition to information at very specific points during the patient-care process. This new management model changes our view of our systems. Instead of systems designed to create an after-the-fact record of patient care, we need to think in terms of systems that are part of the patient-care process. This is essential for the continuous monitoring and--when the process gets out of control--rapid intervention that are an intrinsic part of the process in the CQI model. Of course, these systems also produce a complete record as a by-product, but that is not their primary objective. These demands will test the capacities of many of our existing systems and will require the replacement of others. Like all complex processes, however, systems development is performed one step at a time. Each step is taken within the context of an overall goal but also presents an opportunity for learning. CQI is a new management model, and the system requirements are far from clear. Hence, we are likely to need a little continuous improvement in the systems, too.

  15. The use of subtherapeutic antibiotics in animal feed and its implications on human health.

    PubMed

    Gersema, L M; Helling, D K

    1986-03-01

    Antibiotics were approved for use as animal feed additives in 1950 after it was discovered that their use increased growth rate, improved feed utilization, and reduced mortality and morbidity from clinical and subclinical infections in animals. Subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in animal feed grew extensively and concern has arisen that this "indiscriminate" use of antibiotics could lead to increased numbers of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and ultimately compromise treatment of human bacterial infections. Three recently published studies seem to indicate that animal-to-man transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is possible. Increased debate on the continuing allowance of antibiotic feed additives has ensued. The National Resources Defense Council has recently petitioned the FDA to disallow penicillin and tetracycline use in animal feed, and legislation has been introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives that would limit the subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in animal feed. Experts have predicted that meat prices would increase and meat quality would decrease if antibiotics are disallowed as a feed additive. It is the opinion of the authors that there is no conclusive evidence at this time to support the premise that subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in animal feed poses a greater threat to human health than if antibiotic feed additives were banned. PMID:3956379

  16. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  17. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  18. How does searching for health information on the Internet affect individuals' demand for health care services?

    PubMed

    Suziedelyte, Agne

    2012-11-01

    The emergence of the Internet made health information, which previously was almost exclusively available to health professionals, accessible to the general public. Access to health information on the Internet is likely to affect individuals' health care related decisions. The aim of this analysis is to determine how health information that people obtain from the Internet affects their demand for health care. I use a novel data set, the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (2003-07), to answer this question. The causal variable of interest is a binary variable that indicates whether or not an individual has recently searched for health information on the Internet. Health care utilization is measured by an individual's number of visits to a health professional in the past 12 months. An individual's decision to use the Internet to search for health information is likely to be correlated to other variables that can also affect his/her demand for health care. To separate the effect of Internet health information from other confounding variables, I control for a number of individual characteristics and use the instrumental variable estimation method. As an instrument for Internet health information, I use U.S. state telecommunication regulations that are shown to affect the supply of Internet services. I find that searching for health information on the Internet has a positive, relatively large, and statistically significant effect on an individual's demand for health care. This effect is larger for the individuals who search for health information online more frequently and people who have health care coverage. Among cancer patients, the effect of Internet health information seeking on health professional visits varies by how long ago they were diagnosed with cancer. Thus, the Internet is found to be a complement to formal health care rather than a substitute for health professional services.

  19. Use of the internet for health information: United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robin A; Adams, Patricia F

    2011-07-01

    Research has shown that 74% of all U.S. adults use the Internet, and 61% have looked for health or medical information on the Internet. Additionally, 49% have accessed a website that provides information about a specific medical condition or problem. In 2009, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) became the first nationally representative household survey to collect data on the use of health information technology when the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation sponsored 10 questions that asked about use of the Internet to look up health information, refill a prescription, schedule a medical appointment, learn about health topics in online chat groups, and e-mail a health care provider. This report provides estimates, using 2009 NHIS data, about adult use of the Internet for health information in the past 12 months, by selected sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:22142942

  20. Use of the internet for health information: United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robin A; Adams, Patricia F

    2011-07-01

    Research has shown that 74% of all U.S. adults use the Internet, and 61% have looked for health or medical information on the Internet. Additionally, 49% have accessed a website that provides information about a specific medical condition or problem. In 2009, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) became the first nationally representative household survey to collect data on the use of health information technology when the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation sponsored 10 questions that asked about use of the Internet to look up health information, refill a prescription, schedule a medical appointment, learn about health topics in online chat groups, and e-mail a health care provider. This report provides estimates, using 2009 NHIS data, about adult use of the Internet for health information in the past 12 months, by selected sociodemographic characteristics.

  1. Public Health Information Systems: Priorities and Practices for Successful Deployments.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A fast paced workshop designed for senior public health decision makers and clinical leaders implementing information systems to support delivery of public health programs. The tutorial will introduce public health information systems and provide best practices for implementing solutions related to immunization, communicable disease case management and outbreak management. Using a combination of formats, the tutorial will: • Highlight key functionality of public health information systems. • Review global crises currently exposing gaps and deficiencies in public health information. • Examine governance, planning, and implementation priorities. • Highlight considerations supporting implementations nationally and in special populations. • Provide real, actionable lessons learned to take away and apply in the real world. PMID:27332303

  2. Health information technology use and health literacy among community-dwelling African Americans.

    PubMed

    McCleary-Jones, Voncella; Scheideman-Miller, Cynthia; Rev Dorn, James A; Johnson, Birdie; Overall, Mary; Dwyer, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, cross-sectional study of African Americans was to determine the purpose and levels of health information technology (IT) use, health literacy [HL] levels, and to explore the relationship between health IT usage and HL levels. Study participants (N = 88) resided in zip codes with low wellness scores. Participants had adequate HL levels, 83% owned a computer, 65% used the Internet to access health information, those with higher education levels were more likely to use a computer to access health information, those with lower HL levels did not use a computer to access health information or to store personal health information. Participants [77%] indicated they would be willing to use a computer-based program to store their personal health information; however, concerns related to privacy were cited. Findings obtained are useful for planning and implementing health IT programs among this population to enhance health outcomes.

  3. Even therapeutic antimicrobial use in animal husbandry may generate environmental hazards to human health.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P

    2016-02-01

    The potential negative impact for human health of veterinary use of antimicrobials in prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and growth promotion in animal husbandry was first established in the 1960s and 1970s. Determination of the molecular structure of antimicrobial resistance plasmids at that time explained the ability of antimicrobial resistance genes to disseminate among bacterial populations and elucidated the reasons for the negative effects of antimicrobials used in food animals for human health. In this issue of Environmental Microbiology, Liu et al. (2016) show that even therapeutic use of antimicrobials in dairy calves has an appreciable environmental microbiological footprint. We discuss the negative implications of this footprint for human health and the possibility they may lead to calls for increased regulation of veterinary antimicrobial use in terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  4. Even therapeutic antimicrobial use in animal husbandry may generate environmental hazards to human health.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P

    2016-02-01

    The potential negative impact for human health of veterinary use of antimicrobials in prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and growth promotion in animal husbandry was first established in the 1960s and 1970s. Determination of the molecular structure of antimicrobial resistance plasmids at that time explained the ability of antimicrobial resistance genes to disseminate among bacterial populations and elucidated the reasons for the negative effects of antimicrobials used in food animals for human health. In this issue of Environmental Microbiology, Liu et al. (2016) show that even therapeutic use of antimicrobials in dairy calves has an appreciable environmental microbiological footprint. We discuss the negative implications of this footprint for human health and the possibility they may lead to calls for increased regulation of veterinary antimicrobial use in terrestrial and aquatic environments. PMID:26913818

  5. Coherence of animal health, welfare and carcass quality in pork production chains.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Thorsten N; Piñeiro, Matilde; Schulze-Geisthövel, Sophia; Plattes, Susanne; Selhorst, Thomas; Petersen, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the potential impact of animal health and welfare on the carcass quality. 99 pigs under equal housing and feeding conditions were involved in the study. Effects of the immune system on carcass composition, meat quality and performance data of slaughter pigs became measureable by quantification of acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP). The results were not significantly affected by gender or breed. The calculated correlations between chosen animal health indicators and carcass quality parameters prove an influence of health and welfare on performance, carcass composition and meat quality traits. The acute phase proteins could also be valuable as a predictive indicator for risk assessment in meat inspection, as increased Hp concentrations in slaughter blood indicate a 16 times higher risk for organ abnormalities and Pig-MAP concentrations above 0.7mg/ml a 10 times higher risk.

  6. Transforming Health Care Delivery Through Consumer Engagement, Health Data Transparency, and Patient-Generated Health Information

    PubMed Central

    Wald, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Address current topics in consumer health informatics. Methods Literature review. Results Current health care delivery systems need to be more effective in the management of chronic conditions as the population turns older and experiences escalating chronic illness that threatens to consume more health care resources than countries can afford. Most health care systems are positioned poorly to accommodate this. Meanwhile, the availability of ever more powerful and cheaper information and communication technology, both for professionals and consumers, has raised the capacity to gather and process information, communicate more effectively, and monitor the quality of care processes. Conclusions Adapting health care systems to serve current and future needs requires new streams of data to enable better self-management, improve shared decision making, and provide more virtual care. Changes in reimbursement for health care services, increased adoption of relevant technologies, patient engagement, and calls for data transparency raise the importance of patient-generated health information, remote monitoring, non-visit based care, and other innovative care approaches that foster more frequent contact with patients and better management of chronic conditions. PMID:25123739

  7. Confidence sharing: an economic strategy for efficient information flows in animal groups.

    PubMed

    Korman, Amos; Greenwald, Efrat; Feinerman, Ofer

    2014-10-01

    Social animals may share information to obtain a more complete and accurate picture of their surroundings. However, physical constraints on communication limit the flow of information between interacting individuals in a way that can cause an accumulation of errors and deteriorated collective behaviors. Here, we theoretically study a general model of information sharing within animal groups. We take an algorithmic perspective to identify efficient communication schemes that are, nevertheless, economic in terms of communication, memory and individual internal computation. We present a simple and natural algorithm in which each agent compresses all information it has gathered into a single parameter that represents its confidence in its behavior. Confidence is communicated between agents by means of active signaling. We motivate this model by novel and existing empirical evidences for confidence sharing in animal groups. We rigorously show that this algorithm competes extremely well with the best possible algorithm that operates without any computational constraints. We also show that this algorithm is minimal, in the sense that further reduction in communication may significantly reduce performances. Our proofs rely on the Cramér-Rao bound and on our definition of a Fisher Channel Capacity. We use these concepts to quantify information flows within the group which are then used to obtain lower bounds on collective performance. The abstract nature of our model makes it rigorously solvable and its conclusions highly general. Indeed, our results suggest confidence sharing as a central notion in the context of animal communication. PMID:25275649

  8. Confidence Sharing: An Economic Strategy for Efficient Information Flows in Animal Groups

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Amos; Greenwald, Efrat; Feinerman, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Social animals may share information to obtain a more complete and accurate picture of their surroundings. However, physical constraints on communication limit the flow of information between interacting individuals in a way that can cause an accumulation of errors and deteriorated collective behaviors. Here, we theoretically study a general model of information sharing within animal groups. We take an algorithmic perspective to identify efficient communication schemes that are, nevertheless, economic in terms of communication, memory and individual internal computation. We present a simple and natural algorithm in which each agent compresses all information it has gathered into a single parameter that represents its confidence in its behavior. Confidence is communicated between agents by means of active signaling. We motivate this model by novel and existing empirical evidences for confidence sharing in animal groups. We rigorously show that this algorithm competes extremely well with the best possible algorithm that operates without any computational constraints. We also show that this algorithm is minimal, in the sense that further reduction in communication may significantly reduce performances. Our proofs rely on the Cramér-Rao bound and on our definition of a Fisher Channel Capacity. We use these concepts to quantify information flows within the group which are then used to obtain lower bounds on collective performance. The abstract nature of our model makes it rigorously solvable and its conclusions highly general. Indeed, our results suggest confidence sharing as a central notion in the context of animal communication. PMID:25275649

  9. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  10. 45 CFR 164.526 - Amendment of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amendment of protected health information. 164.526 Section 164.526 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information §...

  11. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  12. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  13. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  14. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  15. 45 CFR 164.526 - Amendment of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment of protected health information. 164.526 Section 164.526 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.526 Amendment of protected...

  16. Student Reception, Sources, and Believability of Health-Related Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Matthew Yiu Wing; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.; Lowe, David; Taman, Sara; Faulkner, Guy E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the health topics students received information about, how students obtained health-related information, and perceived believability of those sources. Participants and Methods: Students (N = 1202) were surveyed using the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) of the American College Health…

  17. Internet Use for Health Information among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escoffery, Cam; Miner, Kathleen R.; Adame, Daniel D.; Butler, Susan; McCormick, Laura; Mendell, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Use of the Internet to retrieve health information is increasingly common. The authors surveyed 743 undergraduate students at 2 academic institutions to examine their Internet use, health-seeking behaviors, and attitudes related to the use of the Internet to obtain health information. Fifty-three percent of the respondents indicated that they…

  18. Public health ethics: informing better public health practice.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Kerridge, Ian; Sainsbury, Peter; Letts, Julie K

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics has emerged and grown as an independent discipline over the last decade. It involves using ethical theory and empirical analyses to determine and justify the right thing to do in public health. In this paper, we distinguish public health ethics from clinical ethics, research ethics, public health law and politics. We then discuss issues in public health ethics including: how to weigh up the benefits, harms and costs of intervening; how to ensure that public health interventions produce fair outcomes; the potential for public health to undermine or promote the rights of citizens; and the significance of being transparent and inclusive in public health interventions. We conclude that the explicit and systematic consideration of ethical issues will, and should, become central to every public health worker's daily practice.

  19. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    PubMed

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  20. Health record problem-oriented information system.

    PubMed

    Romeu, J; Sotos, F; Ros, L; Ortiz, A

    1995-01-01

    Health Record refers to the recording of the medical and relevant social history of the patient, obtained directly or indirectly. It is an instrument of frequent use that must guarantee the quality of assistance provided, reflecting all information pertinent to forming the patient's medical history. It must be designed so that data is easily and effectively retrieved for everyday use, without compromising the patient's privacy. The Health Record Problem Oriented model achieves all of these objectives. This model comprises: 1. Initial data: the relevant medical histories and biography is recorded. 2. Problems list: the patient provides reasons why she is seeking medical attention. 3. Performance plans: these include diagnostic, therapeutic, pharmacological, dietetic, physiotherapist, and surgical plans, as well as the education of the patient. 4. Evolution notes: the progress of the condition. This model guarantees multi-professional registration, an integral focus on the health, and a continued focus on the patient. These characteristics make it the model par excellence of Primary Care. Prior to the implementation of this model, existing information must be analyzed so that it can eventually be converted to a relational database. The Entity-Relationship Model (E/R Model) has been used to represent the database. Here, the basic concepts involved are entities, relationships, and attributes. Entities represent classes or objects from the real world that have common characteristics. The relationships represent the aggregation of two or more entities. The attributes are elemental properties of both entities and relationships. The E/R Diagram graphically represents the conceptual model of a database; the one built for the Health Record Problem Oriented reflects all the entities that compound the attending processes and the relationships existing between them. The Patient is the central axis of the attending process. The record contains the identifying data of the subject