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Sample records for animal manure bio-solids

  1. Fungal Bioconversion of Bio-Solids and Chicken Manure to Increase Soil Quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utilization of agro-chemical products such as pesticides and fertilizers has allowed the increase in food production. Poultry manure and manure from different animals have been used as alternative to improve soil quality, and therefore, helped increase crop production. Nevertheless, removal of t...

  2. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...

  3. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  4. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  5. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  6. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  7. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  8. Growth of bacterial phytopathogens in animal manures.

    PubMed

    Sledz, Wojciech; Zoledowska, Sabina; Motyka, Agata; Kadziński, Leszek; Banecki, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Animal manures are routinely applied to agricultural lands to improve crop yield, but the possibility to spread bacterial phytopathogens through field fertilization has not been considered yet. We monitored 49 cattle, horse, swine, sheep or chicken manure samples collected in 14 Polish voivodeships for the most important plant pathogenic bacteria - Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Erwinia amylovora (Eam), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) and Dickeya sp. (Dsp). All of the tested animal fertilizers were free of these pathogens. Subsequently, the growth dynamics of Pba, Pcc, Rsol, and Xcc in cattle, horse, swine, sheep and chicken manures sterilized either by autoclaving or filtration was evaluated. The investigated phytopathogens did not exhibit any growth in the poultry manure. However, the manure filtrates originating from other animals were suitable for microbial growth, which resulted in the optical density change of 0.03-0.22 reached within 26 h (48 h Rsol, 120 h Xcc), depending on bacterial species and the manure source. Pcc and Pba multiplied most efficiently in the cattle manure filtrate. These bacteria grew faster than Rsol and Xcc in all the tested manure samples, both the filtrates and the autoclaved semi-solid ones. Though the growth dynamics of investigated strains in different animal fertilizers was unequal, all of the tested bacterial plant pathogens were proven to use cattle, horse, swine and sheep manures as the sources of nutrients. These findings may contribute to further research on the alternative routes of spread of bacterial phytopathogens, especially because of the fact that the control of pectionolytic bacteria is only based on preventive methods.

  9. Overview of the advances in environmental chemistry of animal manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is an increasing environmental concern over animal manure due to the volumes produced in modern intensified animal production. However, animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. Although research on environmental impacts of animal manure and associated...

  10. Applied and environmental chemistry of animal manure: A review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal manure consists of predominantly urine and feces, but also may contain bedding materials, dropped feed, scurf and other farming wastes. The estimated amount of manure produced in 12 major livestock producing countries is 9 x109 Mg of manure annually. Manures are rich in plant nutrients. Howev...

  11. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  12. Gasification of hybrid feedstock using animal manures and hays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a proprietary integrated gasification-internal combustion system in producing electricity from mixtures of animal manures such as swine solids, chicken litter, and hays. Five to 10 gallons of mixtures of swine manure, chicken litter, and h...

  13. Kinetics and energetics of producing animal-manure-based biochar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyrolysis of animal manure produce biochar with multiple beneficial use potentials for improving soil quality and the environment. The kinetics and energetics of pyrolysis in producing manure-based biochar char were reviewed and analyzed. Kinetic analysis of pyrolysis showed that the higher the temp...

  14. Recovered phosphorus from animal manure and its use as fertilizer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Repeated land application of large amounts of manure from confined livestock facilities is an environmental concern frequently associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and a likely source for pollution of water resources. Animal waste treatments that include recovery of P from manure are a manag...

  15. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  16. Antibiotic uptake by plants from soil fertilized with animal manure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Gupta, S C; Baidoo, S K; Chander, Y; Rosen, C J

    2005-01-01

    Antibiotics are commonly added to animal feed as supplements to promote growth of food animals. However, absorption of antibiotics in the animal gut is not complete and as a result substantial amounts of antibiotics are excreted in urine and feces that end up in manure. Manure is used worldwide not only as a source of plant nutrients but also as a source of organic matter to improve soil quality especially in organic and sustainable agriculture. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine whether or not plants grown in manure-applied soil absorb antibiotics present in manure. The test crops were corn (Zea mays L.), green onion (Allium cepa L.), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group). All three crops absorbed chlortetracycline but not tylosin. The concentrations of chlortetracycline in plant tissues were small (2-17 ng g(-1) fresh weight), but these concentrations increased with increasing amount of antibiotics present in the manure. This study points out the potential human health risks associated with consumption of fresh vegetables grown in soil amended with antibiotic laden manures. The risks may be higher for people who are allergic to antibiotics and there is also the possibility of enhanced antimicrobial resistance as a result of human consumption of these vegetables.

  17. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  18. Applied manure research—looking forward to the benign roles of animal manure in agriculture and the environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    By definition, animal manure is discarded animal excreta and bedding materials usually applied to soils as a fertilizer for agricultural production. However, the impact of manure generation and disposal is far more than the role of organic fertilizers, even though the fertilizer function of animal m...

  19. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Projected shortages of global phosphate have prompted investigation of methods that could be employed to capture and recycle phosphate, rather than continue to allow the resource to be essentially irreversibly lost through dilution in surface waters. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures from...

  20. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only provides pollution prevention but also can convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion (AD) of livestock manures is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the AD animal manures. U.S. livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: slurry, plug-flow, complete-mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Case studies of operating digesters, with project and maintenance histories and the operators ''lessons learned,'' are included as reality checks. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some AD projects fail, are provided. The role of farm management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at farms willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. More than two decades of research has provided much information about how manure can be converted to an energy source; however, the American farmer has not been motivated

  1. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Steven M; Molde, Joseph S; Timler, Jacobe G; Wood, Brandon M; Mikula, Anthony L; Vozhdayev, Georgiy V; Colosky, Edward C; Spokas, Kurt A; Valentas, Kenneth J

    2014-09-02

    Projected shortages of global phosphate have prompted investigation of methods that could be employed to capture and recycle phosphate, rather than continue to allow the resource to be essentially irreversibly lost through dilution in surface waters. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures from large farms was investigated as a scenario for the reclamation of phosphate for agricultural use and mitigation of the negative environmental impact of phosphate pollution. Hydrothermal reaction conditions were identified for poultry, swine, and cattle manures that resulted in hydrochar yields of 50-60% for all three manures, and >90% of the total phosphorus present in these systems was contained in the hydrochars as precipitated phosphate salts. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 80-90% by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 81-87% based on starting manures by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Swine and cattle manures produced hydrochars with combustion energy contents comparable to those of high-end sub-bituminous coals.

  2. Microbiology of nitrogen cycle in animal manure compost

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Koki; Hanajima, Dai; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro; Morioka, Riki; Osada, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Summary Composting is the major technology in the treatment of animal manure and is a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas. Although the microbiological processes of both nitrification and denitrification are involved in composting, the key players in these pathways have not been well identified. Recent molecular microbiological methodologies have revealed the presence of dominant Bacillus species in the degradation of organic material or betaproteobacterial ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria on nitrification on the surface, and have also revealed the mechanism of nitrous oxide emission in this complicated process to some extent. Some bacteria, archaea or fungi still would be considered potential key players, and the contribution of some pathways, such as nitrifier denitrification or heterotrophic nitrification, might be involved in composting. This review article discusses these potential microbial players in nitrification–denitrification within the composting pile and highlights the relevant unknowns through recent activities that focus on the nitrogen cycle within the animal manure composting process. PMID:21375720

  3. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution.

    PubMed

    Infascelli, Roberta; Pelorosso, Raffaele; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2009-11-01

    Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  4. Combustible gas and biochar production from co-pyrolysis of agricultural plastic wastes and animal manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Researchers report that manure-derived biochar has considerable potential both for improving soil quality and reducing water pollution. One of obstacles in obtaining manure biochar is its high energy requirement for pyrolyzing wet and low-energy-density animal manures. The combustible gas produced f...

  5. Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organizing and managing the whole manure handling chain from the animal house through transport to the point of use (e.g. in the field) is a challenging task requiring consideration of manure type and operating conditions. Solid and liquid manure must be handled differently, using very different tec...

  6. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  7. Growth and Productivity Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Amanullah; Khan, Shams-ul-Tamraiz; Iqbal, Asif; Fahad, Shah

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha−1 each) on the productivity of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) production under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg P ha−1) fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1), impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep, and poultry manures) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied) was investigated. In experiment (2), three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues, and wheat straw) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied). Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan) during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues) resulted in higher rice productivity (90 > 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha−1). In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures). In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic residues had higher rice productivity than wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw). On average, rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than rice grown under crop residues. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha−1 along with combined application of animal manures, especially poultry manure increases rice productivity. Also, the use of either garlic residues or peach leaves, never applied before as organic manures, can increase crop productivity and will help

  8. Growth and Productivity Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Amanullah; Khan, Shams-Ul-Tamraiz; Iqbal, Asif; Fahad, Shah

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha(-1) each) on the productivity of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) production under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg P ha(-1)) fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1), impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep, and poultry manures) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied) was investigated. In experiment (2), three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues, and wheat straw) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied). Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan) during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues) resulted in higher rice productivity (90 > 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha(-1)). In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures). In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic residues had higher rice productivity than wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw). On average, rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than rice grown under crop residues. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha(-1) along with combined application of animal manures, especially poultry manure increases rice productivity. Also, the use of either garlic residues or peach leaves, never applied before as organic manures, can increase crop productivity and will help

  9. Nutrient Recovery and Emissions of Ammonia, Nitrous Oxide, and Methane from Animal Manure in Europe: Effects of Manure Treatment Technologies.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Staritsky, Igor G; Oenema, Oene

    2017-01-03

    Animal manure contributes considerably to ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Various treatment technologies have been implemented to reduce emissions and to facilitate its use as fertilizer, but a systematic analysis of these technologies has not yet been carried out. This study presents an integrated assessment of manure treatment effects on NH3, nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions from manure management chains in all countries of EU-27 in 2010 using the MITERRA-Europe model. Effects of implementing 12 treatment technologies on emissions and nutrient recovery were further explored through scenario analyses; the level of implementation corresponded to levels currently achieved by forerunner countries. Manure treatment decreased GHG emissions from manures in EU countries by 0-17% in 2010, with the largest contribution from anaerobic digestion; the effects on NH3 emissions were small. Scenario analyses indicate that increased use of slurry acidification, thermal drying, incineration and pyrolysis may decrease NH3 (9-11%) and GHG (11-18%) emissions; nitrification-denitrification treatment decreased NH3 emissions, but increased GHG emissions. The nitrogen recovery (% of nitrogen excreted in housings that is applied to land) would increase from a mean of 57% (in 2010) to 61% by acidification, but would decrease to 48% by incineration. Promoting optimized manure treatment technologies can greatly contribute to achieving NH3 and GHG emission targets set in EU environmental policies.

  10. Closing the loop for nutrients in livestock wastes: Phosphorus recovery from animal manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Repeated land application of large amounts of manure from confined livestock facilities is an environmental concern often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential pollution of water resources. Animal waste treatments that include recovery of P from manure are a management option th...

  11. Improving the sustainability of animal agriculture by treating manure with alum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two of the biggest environmental problems associated with animal manure management are ammonia emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff. Research conducted during the past two decades has shown that a simple topical application of aluminum sulfate (alum) to manure can greatly reduce the magnitude of bot...

  12. Toxicity of ozonated animal manure to the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Masten, S J; Kim-Yang, H; Walker, E D; Roman, H; Yokoyama, M T

    2001-01-01

    Swine manure slurries were ozonated at a dosage of 1 g/L and tested for their toxicity to the house fly (Musca domestica). The observed toxicity of ozonated swine manure was consistent and independent of origin of the swine manure. A dose (dilution) response curve was performed. A 50% dilution in the ozonated swine manure slurry resulted in 90% reduction in toxicity. Neither the synthetic nor ozonated synthetic swine manure, both of which contained higher concentrations of formaldehyde and three other unidentified carbonyl compounds than the ozonated swine manure, were toxic to the flies. Ozonated swine manure slurry was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45-microm filter. The liquid phase was as toxic as the unfiltered slurry; as such, the toxicant appears to be present in liquid phase. Neither ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde, nor other simple aldehydes appeared to be the toxic agent. The toxic agent appears to be a polar chemical compound and is concentrated in the urine. Several possible compounds have been identified. The toxicity of untreated and ozonated manure slurries from different livestock was compared. Six animal manure slurries (beef and dairy cattle, horse, poultry, sheep, and swine) were ozonated (dosage of 1 g/L) and tested for toxicity to the house fly. Ozonated dairy cattle manure slurry showed 78% mortality after 72 h, whereas ozonated swine manure slurry achieved a 100% mortality rate in 48 h. Neither the unozonated dairy nor swine manure slurries, nor any of the other raw or ozonated manure slurries, were toxic to the flies.

  13. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The...

  14. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The...

  15. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  16. Animal manure application and soil organic carbon stocks: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Émilie; Angers, Denis A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of animal manure application on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock changes is of interest for both agronomic and environmental purposes. There is a specific need to quantify SOC change for use in national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. We quantified the response of SOC stocks to manure application from a large worldwide pool of individual studies and determined the impact of explanatory factors such as climate, soil properties, land use and manure characteristics. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 42 research articles totaling 49 sites and 130 observations in the world. A dominant effect of cumulative manure-C input on SOC response was observed as this factor explained at least 53% of the variability in SOC stock differences compared to mineral fertilized or unfertilized reference treatments. However, the effects of other determining factors were not evident from our data set. From the linear regression relating cumulative C inputs and SOC stock difference, a global manure-C retention coefficient of 12% ± 4 (95% Confidence Interval, CI) could be estimated for an average study duration of 18 years. Following an approach comparable to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we estimated a relative SOC change factor of 1.26 ± 0.14 (95% CI) which was also related to cumulative manure-C input. Our results offer some scope for the refinement of manure retention coefficients used in crop management guidelines and for the improvement of SOC change factors for national GHG inventories by taking into account manure-C input. Finally, this study emphasizes the need to further document the long-term impact of manure characteristics such as animal species, especially pig and poultry, and manure management systems, in particular liquid vs. solid storage.

  17. Evaluation of biogas production potential by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass--animal manure mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H K; Smith, M C; Kondrad, S L; White, J W

    2010-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application with reduced environmental impacts. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion [>15% total solid (TS)] has an advantage over wet digestion (<10% TS) because it allows for the use of a smaller volume of reactor and because it reduces wastewater production. In addition, it produces a fertilizer that is easier to transport. Performance of anaerobic digestion of animal manure-switchgrass mixture was evaluated under dry (15% TS) and thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C). Three different mixtures of animal manure (swine, poultry, and dairy) and switchgrass were digested using batch-operated 1-L reactors. The swine manure test units showed 52.9% volatile solids (VS) removal during the 62-day trial, while dairy and poultry manure test units showed 9.3% and 20.2%, respectively. Over the 62 day digestion, the swine manure test units yielded the highest amount of methane 0.337 L CH4/g VS, while the dairy and poultry manure test units showed very poor methane yield 0.028 L CH4/g VS and 0.002 L CH4/g VS, respectively. Although dairy and poultry manure performed poorly, they may still have high potential as biomass for dry anaerobic digestion if appropriate designs are developed to prevent significant volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and pH drop.

  18. Investigation of the inorganic and organic phosphorus forms in animal manure.

    PubMed

    Pagliari, Paulo H; Laboski, Carrie A M

    2012-01-01

    The most viable way to beneficially use animal manure on most farms is land application. Over the past few decades, repeated manure application has shown adverse effects on environmental quality due to phosphorus (P) runoff with rainwater, leading to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Improved understanding of manure P chemistry may reduce this risk. In this research, 42 manure samples from seven animal species (beef and dairy cattle, swine, chicken, turkey, dairy goat, horse, and sheep) were sequentially fractionated with water, NaHCO₃, NaOH, and HCl. Inorganic (P(i)), organic (P(o)), enzymatic hydrolyzable (P(e); monoester-, DNA-, and phytate-like P), and nonhydrolyzable P were measured in each fraction. Total dry ash P (P(t)) was measured in all manures. Total fractionated P (P(ft)) and total P(i) (P(it)) showed a strong linear relationship with P(t). However, the ratios between P(ft)/P(t) and P(it)/P(t) varied from 59 to 117% and from 28 to 96%, respectively. Water and NaHCO₃ extracted most of the P(i) in manure from ruminant+horse, whereas in nonruminant species a large fraction of manure P was extracted in the HCl fraction. Manure P(e) summed over all fractions (P(et)) accounted for 41 to 69% of total P(0) and 4 to 29% of P(t). The hydrolyzable pool in the majority of the manures was dominated by phytate- and DNA-like P in water, monoester- and DNA-like P in NaHCO₃, and monoester- and phytate-like P in NaOH and HCl fractions. In conclusion, if one assumes that the P(et) and P(it) from the fractionation can become bioavailable, then from 34 to 100% of P(t) in animal manure would be bioavailable. This suggests the need for frequent monitoring of manure P for better manure management practices. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Calorific values and combustion chemistry of animal manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Combustion chemistry and calorific value analyses are the fundamental information for evaluating different biomass waste-to-energy conversion operations. Specific chemical exergy of manure and other biomass feedstock will provide a measure for the theoretically maximum attainable energy. The specifi...

  20. Co-pyrolyzing plastic mulch waste with animal manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyrolyzing various livestock and agricultural wastes produces power and value-added byproducts. It also substantially reduces ultimate waste volume to be disposed of and improves soil fertility and promotes carbon sequestration via soil application of biochar. Researchers found that manure-derived ...

  1. Effect of Composting on Dissolved Organic Matter in Animal Manure and Its Binding with Cu

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengsong; Li, Yanxia; Xiong, Xiong; Yang, Ming; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural application of raw animal manure introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into soil and would increase transport of heavy metals such as Cu which are widely present in animal manure. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the evolution of DOM from pig and cattle manures during composting through excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the binding ability of DOM toward copper (Cu) ions with the aid of fluorescence quenching titration. The excitation-emission matrix spectra indicated that tyrosine-like, tryptophan-like, and soluble microbial byproduct-like fluorescence decreased significantly, while humic-like and fulvic-like fluorescence increased and became the main peaks in composted manure DOM. Fluorescence quenching titration showed that the complexing capacities of pig and cattle manure DOM decreased after composting. Correlation analysis confirmed that complexing capacity of DOM positively and significantly correlates with tyrosine-like and soluble microbial byproduct-like materials which mostly degraded after composting. These results would suggest that the ability of manure DOM to complex with Cu is inhibited as a result of reduced protein-like materials after composting. PMID:23125554

  2. Energy conversion of animal manures: Feasibility analysis for thirteen western states

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Milward, R.; Churchill, G.; Searles, M.B.; Moser, M.; Swanson, D.; Morgan, G.

    1993-12-31

    The growth and concentration of the livestock industry has led to environmental disposal problems for large quantities of manure at feedlots, dairies, poultry production plants, animal holding areas and pasturelands. Consequently, waste management systems that facilitate energy recovery are becoming increasingly attractive since they address pollution problems and allow for energy generation from manure resources. This paper presents a manure resource assessment for the 13 US Department of Energy, Western Regional Biomass Energy Program states, describes and evaluates available energy conversion technologies, identifies environmental and regulatory factors associated with manure collection, storage and disposal, and identifies common disposal practices specific to animal types and areas within the WRBEP region. The paper also presents a pro forma economic analysis for selected manure-to-energy conversion technologies. The annual energy potential of various manures within the WRBEP region is equivalent to approximately 111 {times} 10{sup 13} Btu. Anaerobic digestion systems, both lagoon and plug flow, offer positive economic returns in a broad range of utility service territories.

  3. The economics of energy from animal manure for greenhouse gas mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoori, Emad

    2007-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has significant economies of scale, i.e. per unit processing costs decrease with increasing size. The economics of AD to produce biogas and in turn electric power in farm or feedlot based units as well as centralized plants is evaluated for two settings in Alberta: a mixed farming area, Red Deer County, and an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, Lethbridge County. A centralized plant drawing manure from 61 sources in the mixed farming area could produce power at a cost of 218 MWh-1 (2005 US). A centralized plant drawing manure from 560,000 beef cattle in Lethbridge County, can produce power at a cost of 138 MWh-1. Digestate processing, if commercially available, shifts the balance in favor of centralized processing. At larger scales, pipelines could be used to deliver manure to a centralized plant and return the processed digestate back to the manure source for spreading. Pipeline transport of beef cattle manure is more economic than truck transport for the manure produced by more than 90,000 animals. Pipeline transport of digestate is more economic when manure from more than 21,000 beef cattle is available and two-way pipelining of manure plus digestate is more economic when manure from more than 29,000 beef cattle is available. The value of carbon credits necessary to make AD profitable in a mixed farming region is also calculated based on a detailed analysis of manure and digestate transport and processing costs at an AD plant. Carbon emission reductions from power generation are calculated for displacement of power from coal and natural gas. The required carbon credit to cover the cost of AD processing of manure is greater than 150 per tonne of CO2. These results show that AD treatment of manure from mixed farming areas is not economic given current values of carbon credits. Power from biogas has a high cost relative to current power prices and to the cost of power from other large scale renewable sources. Power from biogas would

  4. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  5. Feeding on microbiomes: effects of detritivory on the taxonomic and phylogenetic bacterial composition of animal manures.

    PubMed

    Aira, Manuel; Bybee, Seth; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Domínguez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Earthworms play a key role in nutrient cycling by interacting with microorganisms thus accelerating organic matter turnover in soil systems. As detritivores, some earthworm types ingest and digest a mixture of dead organic matter and microorganisms, like animal manures (i.e. animal gut microbiomes). Here we described the earthworm cast microbiome and the role ingested bacteria play on its composition. We fed Eisenia andrei with cow, horse and pig manures and determined the taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of the these manures before and after passage through the earthworm gut. Earthworm cast microbiomes showed a smaller diversity than the manure they fed on. Manures strongly differed in their taxonomic and phylogenetic composition, but these differences were markedly reduced once transformed into earthworm cast microbiomes after passage through the earthworm gut. The core earthworm cast microbiome comprised 30 OTUs (2.6% of OTUs from cast samples), of which 10 are possibly native to the earthworm gut. Most of the core cast microbiome OTUs belonged to phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, as opposed to already described animal core gut microbiomes, which are composed mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that earthworms build up their cast microbiome by selecting from the pool of ingested bacteria.

  6. Release and removal of microorganisms from land-deposited animal waste and animal manures: A review of data and models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microbial pathogens present a leading cause of impairment to rivers, bays, and estuaries in the USA and agriculture is often viewed as the major contributor to such contamination. Microbial indicators and pathogens are released from land-applied animal manure during precipitation and irrigation even...

  7. Release and removal of microorganisms from land-deposited animal waste and animal manures: A review of data and models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microbial pathogens present a leading cause of impairment to rivers, bays, and estuaries in the USA and agriculture is often viewed as the major contributor to such contamination. Microbial indicators and pathogens are released from land-applied animal manure during precipitation and irrigation even...

  8. Pyrogasification of blended animal manures to produce combustable gas and biochar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrogasificaiton system for producing combustible gas from from animal manures: chicken litter, swine solids, and swine solids blended with rye grass. The skid-mounted pyrolysis system by the US Innovation Group, Inc. (USIG,...

  9. Properties of animal-manure based hydrochars and predictions using published models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to fully utilize hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) to produce value-added hydrochars from animal manures, it is important to understand how process conditions (e.g., temperature, reaction time, solids concentration) influence product characteristics. The effect of process conditions on the e...

  10. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: A review of manure management options

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. This is the second in a series of reports commissioned by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to evaluate mitigation pra...

  11. Microbial and chemical markers: runoff transfer in animal manure-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Jaffrezic, Anne; Jardé, Emilie; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Gourmelon, Michèle; Caprais, Marie-Paule; Heddadj, Djilali; Cottinet, Patrice; Bilal, Muhamad; Derrien, Morgane; Marti, Romain; Mieszkin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Fecal contamination of water resources is evaluated by the enumeration of the fecal coliforms and Enterococci. However, the enumeration of these indicators does not allow us to differentiate between the sources of fecal contamination. Therefore, it is important to use alternative indicators of fecal contamination to identify livestock contamination in surface waters. The concentration of fecal indicators (, enteroccoci, and F-specific bacteriophages), microbiological markers (Rum-2-bac, Pig-2-bac, and ), and chemical fingerprints (sterols and stanols and other chemical compounds analyzed by 3D-fluorescence excitation-matrix spectroscopy) were determined in runoff waters generated by an artificial rainfall simulator. Three replicate plot experiments were conducted with swine slurry and cattle manure at agronomic nitrogen application rates. Low amounts of bacterial indicators (1.9-4.7%) are released in runoff water from swine-slurry-amended soils, whereas greater amounts (1.1-28.3%) of these indicators are released in runoff water from cattle-manure-amended soils. Microbial and chemical markers from animal manure were transferred to runoff water, allowing discrimination between swine and cattle fecal contamination in the environment via runoff after manure spreading. Host-specific bacterial and chemical markers were quantified for the first time in runoff waters samples after the experimental spreading of swine slurry or cattle manure.

  12. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure for the conterminous United States, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David K.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    County-level nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from animal manure for the conterminous United States for 2002 were estimated from animal populations from the 2002 Census of Agriculture by using methods described in U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006–5012. These estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure were compiled in support of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

  13. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter and manure removed... which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall be destroyed or treated by...

  15. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...

  16. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...

  17. Effects of animal diet, manure application rate, and tillage on transport of microorganisms from manure-amended fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure from cattle fed distiller’s grain or corn diets was land-applied to fields and subjected to rainfall simulation tests. Manure was added at four rates on till and no-till plots. Correlations between microbial transport and runoff-characteristics were identified. Results indicate diet affects...

  18. Speciation and transformation of heavy metals during vermicomposting of animal manure.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of vermicomposting on the speciation and mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, and Cu) in cattle dung (CD) and pig manure (PM) using tessier sequential extraction method. Results showed that the pH, total organic carbon and C/N ratio were reduced, while the electric conductivity and humic acid increased after 90days vermicomposting. Moreover, the addition of earthworm could accelerate organic stabilization in vermicomposting. The total heavy metals in final vermicompost from CD and PM were higher than the initial values and the control without worms. Sequential extraction indicated that vermicomposting decreased the migration and availability of heavy metals, and the earthworm could reduce the mobile fraction, while increase the stable fraction of heavy metals. Furthermore, these results indicated that vermicomposting played a positive role in stabilizing heavy metals in the treatment of animal manure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transfer of antibiotics from wastewater or animal manure to soil and edible crops.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2017-08-31

    Antibiotics are added to agricultural fields worldwide through wastewater irrigation or manure application, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks to terrestrial environments and humans. Most studies focused on antibiotic detection in different matrices or were conducted in a hydroponic environment. Little is known about the transfer of antibiotics from antibiotic-contaminated irrigation wastewater and animal manure to agricultural soil and edible crops. In this study, we evaluated the transfer of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) to different crops under two levels of antibiotic-contaminated wastewater irrigation and animal manure fertilization. The final distribution of tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NOR) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in the crop tissues under these four treatments were as follows: fruit > leaf/shoot > root, while an opposite order was found for sulfamethazine (SMZ) and erythromycin (ERY): root > leaf/shoot > fruit. The growth of crops could accelerate the dissipation of antibiotics by absorption from contaminated soil. A higher accumulation of antibiotics was observed in crop tissues under the wastewater treatment than under manure treatment, which was due to the continual irrigation that increased adsorption in soil and uptake by crops. The translocation of antibiotics in crops mainly depended on their physicochemical properties (e.g. log Kow), crop species, and the concentrations of antibiotics applied to the soil. The levels of antibiotics ingested through the consumption of edible crops under the different treatments were much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in antibiotic concentrations and antibiotic resistome during commercial composting of animal manures.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Yang, Xin-Ping; Li, Qian; Wu, Long-Hua; Shen, Qi-Rong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China. High concentrations of fluoroquinolones were found in the poultry and swine composts, suggesting insufficient removal of these antibiotics by commercial thermophilic composting. Total ARGs in the cattle and poultry manures were as high as 1.9 and 5.5 copies per bacterial cell, respectively. After thermophilic composting, the ARG abundance in the mature compost decreased to 9.6% and 31.7% of that in the cattle and poultry manure, respectively. However, some ARGs (e.g. aadA, aadA2, qacEΔ1, tetL) and MGE marker genes (e.g. cintI-1, intI-1 and tnpA-04) were persistent with high abundance in the composts. The antibiotics that were detected at high levels in the composts (e.g. norfloxacin and ofloxacin) might have posed a selection pressure on ARGs. MGE marker genes were found to correlate closely with ARGs at the levels of individual gene, resistance class and total abundance, suggesting that MGEs and ARGs are closely associated in their persistence in the composts under antibiotic selection. Our research shows potential disseminations of antibiotics and ARGs via compost utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling nitrogen and carbon interactions in composting of animal manure in naturally aerated piles.

    PubMed

    Oudart, D; Robin, P; Paillat, J M; Paul, E

    2015-12-01

    Composting animal manure with natural aeration is a low-cost and low-energy process that can improve nitrogen recycling in millions of farms world-wide. Modelling can decrease the cost of choosing the best options for solid manure management in order to decrease the risk of loss of fertilizer value and ammonia emission. Semi-empirical models are suitable, considering the scarce data available in farm situations. Eleven static piles of pig or poultry manure were monitored to identify the main processes governing nitrogen transformations and losses. A new model was implemented to represent these processes in a pile considered as homogeneous. The model is based on four modules: biodegradation, nitrogen transformations and volatilization, thermal exchanges, and free air space evolution. When necessary, the parameters were calibrated with the data set. The results showed that microbial growth could reduce ammonia volatilization. Greatest nitrogen conservation is achieved when microbial growth was limited by nitrogen availability. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Leaching behavior of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure-applied soils.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2017-02-01

    Agricultural fields worldwide are being contaminated by the escalating application of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) via animal manure and biosolids applied as fertilizers or of wastewater for irrigation, resulting in soil degradation and damage to the health of terrestrial environments. This paper describes a series of column studies investigating the leaching behavior of five VAs, tetracycline (TC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), norfloxacin (NOR), erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP), under different simulated rainfall conditions that could occur in agricultural environments. Our aim was to explore the effects of acid rain and torrential rain on the leaching of different VAs and to determine their leaching behaviors along the soil profile. The results showed that acid rain accelerated the accumulation of VAs from animal manure in surface soil while long rainfall durations promoted the downward migration of VAs in soil. Under acid rain conditions, a higher concentration of VAs remained in the animal manure. More VAs were eluted to deeper soil layers and the leachate under extreme rainfall conditions. The leachability of VAs was higher in sandy soil than in clay or loamy soil. SMZ and ERY posed a higher risk to deeper soil layers and groundwater, while NOR and TC tended to persist in surface soil, which can be explained by their different physicochemical properties in soil. Moreover, the general trends from two model assessments and soil column measurements appeared to be in agreement. SMZ had a high leachability, while NOR tended to accumulate in soils. This study provided vital insight into the persistence mechanisms of VAs in terrestrial environments and their potential risks to soils and groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence of 13 veterinary drugs in animal manure-amended soils in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ruicheng; Ge, Feng; Zhang, Lili; Hou, Xiang; Cao, Yinan; Gong, Lan; Chen, Ming; Wang, Ran; Bao, Endong

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence of 13 veterinary drugs were studied in soil fertilized with animal manures in Eastern China. The 69 soil samples were obtained from twenty-three vegetable fields in 2009 and analysed for selected veterinary drugs by HPLC-MS/MS at soil depths of 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm, and two additional samples were re-analysed from an earlier study from November 2011. Results showed that animal wastes, especially those from poultry farms, were one of pollution sources of veterinary drugs in soil. The detection frequency of veterinary drugs in soil was 83%, 91% and 87% in the three soil depths, respectively. The detection rates for the five classes of drugs in soils followed the rank order cyromazine > tetracyclines > sulfonamides > fluoroquinolones > florfenicol. Veterinary drugs were detected in soil layers at 20-40 and 40-60 cm depth to a greater extent than at 0-20 cm depth. The results of the same point in years 2009 and 2011 indicated that veterinary drugs accumulate easily and persist in the deeper soil. In addition, residue levels of veterinary drugs in soil were related to the animal species the manure was derived from. Overall, the predominance of tetracyclines in sampled soils underscored the need to regulate their veterinary use in order to improve the management and treatment of associated releases.

  4. Selected veterinary pharmaceuticals in agricultural water and soil from land application of animal manure.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenlu; Ding, Yunjie; Chiou, Cary T; Li, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals are commonly administered to animals for disease control, and added into feeds at subtherapeutic levels to improve feeding efficiency. As a result of these practices, a certain fraction of the pharmaceuticals are excreted into animal manures. Land application of these manures contaminates soils with the veterinary pharmaceuticals, which can subsequently lead to contamination of surface and groundwaters. Information on the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in soil and water is needed to assess the potential for exposure of at-risk populations and the impacts on agricultural ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and fate of four commonly used veterinary pharmaceuticals (amprolium, carbadox, monensin, and tylosin) in a farm in Michigan. Amprolium and monensin were frequently detected in nearby surface water, with concentrations ranging from several to hundreds of nanograms per liter, whereas tylosin or carbadox was rarely found. These pharmaceuticals were more frequently detected in surface runoff during nongrowing season (October to April) than during growing season (May to September). Pharmaceuticals resulting from postharvest manure application appeared to be more persistent than those from spring application. High concentrations of pharmaceuticals in soils were generally observed at the sites where the respective concentrations in surface water were also high. For monensin, the ratios of soil-sorbed to aqueous concentrations obtained from field samples were within the order of the distribution coefficients obtained from laboratory studies. These results suggest that soil is a reservoir for veterinary pharmaceuticals that can be disseminated to nearby surface water via desorption from soil, surface runoff, and soil erosion.

  5. A beef herd model for simulating feed intake, animal performance, and manure excretion in farm systems.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Buckmaster, D R; Comerford, J W

    2005-01-01

    A beef herd submodel was created for integration with other farm components to form a whole-farm model capable of simulating a wide range of beef production systems. This herd submodel determined the best available feed or feed mix to meet the fiber, energy, and protein requirements for each of up to six animal groups on the farm. The groups comprised any combination of cows, nursing calves, young heifers, yearling heifers, stockers, and finishing cattle. Protein, energy, and mineral requirements were determined for each group using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, Level 1. Diets were formulated to meet these requirements with available feeds, and the resulting feed intake, growth, and manure DM and nutrient (N, P, and K) excretions were predicted. Required feed characteristics included CP, ruminally degradable protein, acid detergent insoluble protein, NDF, P, and K concentrations. Feed intake was predicted by considering energy intake, potentially limited by fill, and exceeding a minimum roughage requirement. Fill and roughage limits were functions of feed NDF concentrations adjusted to consider particle size distribution and the relative rate of ruminal digestibility or the physical effectiveness of the fiber. The herd submodel was verified to predict feed intakes, nutrient requirements, diets, and manure excretions similar to those recommended or measured for beef animals. Incorporation of the beef herd submodel with other farm components, including crop growth (alfalfa, grass, corn, small grain, and soybean), harvest, storage, feeding, grazing, and manure handling, provided the Integrated Farm System Model. This comprehensive farm-simulation model is a useful research and teaching tool for evaluating and comparing the long-term performance, economics, and environmental impact of beef, dairy, and crop production systems.

  6. Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria Rather than Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea were Widely Distributed in Animal Manure Composts from Field-Scale Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Nozomi; Oishi, Ryu; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in cattle, swine, and chicken manure compost was analyzed. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that a Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis-like sequence dominated in cattle manure compost, while few AOA were detected in other composts. In the case of AOB, Nitrosomonas-like sequences were detected with higher diversity in cattle and swine manure composts. The relative abundance of ammonia oxidizers by real-time PCR revealed that more AOB was present in compost except in one swine manure compost. Our results indicated that AOB rather than AOA are widely distributed in animal manure compost. PMID:22972386

  7. Phosphorus forms in animal manure and the impact on soil P status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased knowledge of manure P chemistry is needed to optimize recycling and minimize adverse environmental effects associated with land application of manure. Part I of this chapter reviews and discusses various manure P characterization methods including sequential fractionation, solution 31P nu...

  8. HIGHLIGHTS, INSIGHTS, AND PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND ANIMAL MANURE IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is: 1) Highlight the core principles and findings from the Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated With Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures and Other Organic By-Products held June 4-6, 2001, Cincinnati, Ohio, so that all readers,...

  9. HIGHLIGHTS, INSIGHTS, AND PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND ANIMAL MANURE IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is: 1) Highlight the core principles and findings from the Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated With Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures and Other Organic By-Products held June 4-6, 2001, Cincinnati, Ohio, so that all readers,...

  10. Content of Heavy Metals in Animal Feeds and Manures from Farms of Different Scales in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengsong; Li, Yanxia; Yang, Ming; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    To determine the contents of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd and Pb) in animal feeds and manures, 104 livestock feeds and 118 animal manure samples from farms of different herd size and located in northeast China were collected and their heavy metal concentrations were determined. The content of Cu, As and Cd ranged from 2.3–1,137.1 mg/kg dm, 0.02–13.03 mg/kg dm and non-detectable (nd)−31.65 mg/kg dm in pig feeds, 2.88–98.08 mg Cu/kg dm, 0.02–6.42 mg As/kg dm and non-detectable (nd)–8.00 mg Cd/kg dm in poultry feeds, and their content in cattle feeds was similar to that in poultry feeds. The typical content in pig manures was 642.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 8.6 mg As/kg dm, and 15.1 mg Cd/kg dm, which reflected the metal contents in feeds. The typical contents in poultry manures were 65.6 mg Cu/kg dm, 3.3 mg As/kg dm and 1.6 mg Cd/kg dm while the contents in cattle manures were 31.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 2.5 mg As/kg dm and 0.5 mg Cd/kg dm. Animal manure is an important source of heavy metals to the environment in Northeast China. PMID:23066389

  11. Content of heavy metals in animal feeds and manures from farms of different scales in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengsong; Li, Yanxia; Yang, Ming; Li, Wei

    2012-08-01

    To determine the contents of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd and Pb) in animal feeds and manures, 104 livestock feeds and 118 animal manure samples from farms of different herd size and located in northeast China were collected and their heavy metal concentrations were determined. The content of Cu, As and Cd ranged from 2.3-1,137.1 mg/kg dm, 0.02-13.03 mg/kg dm and non-detectable (nd)-31.65 mg/kg dm in pig feeds, 2.88-98.08 mg Cu/kg dm, 0.02-6.42 mg As/kg dm and non-detectable (nd)-8.00 mg Cd/kg dm in poultry feeds, and their content in cattle feeds was similar to that in poultry feeds. The typical content in pig manures was 642.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 8.6 mg As/kg dm, and 15.1 mg Cd/kg dm, which reflected the metal contents in feeds. The typical contents in poultry manures were 65.6 mg Cu/kg dm, 3.3 mg As/kg dm and 1.6 mg Cd/kg dm while the contents in cattle manures were 31.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 2.5 mg As/kg dm and 0.5 mg Cd/kg dm. Animal manure is an important source of heavy metals to the environment in Northeast China.

  12. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jieying; Yu, Zixuan; Gao, Hongjian; Yan, Xiaoming; Chang, Jiang; Wang, Chengming; Hu, Jingwei

    2017-01-01

    Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics were measured by routine analyses and chemical structures by solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR. Three manures were of distinct properties. Their changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures, and maturity were different not only from each other but also from those with addition of bulking agents during composting. Aromaticity in chicken manure composts decreased at first, and then increased whereas that in cattle and swine manure composts increased. Enhanced ammonia volatilization occurred without addition of bulking agents. NMR structural information indicated that cattle and chicken composts were relatively stable at day 36 and 56, respectively, but swine manure composts were not mature up to day 70. Finally, the days required for three manures to reach the threshold values of different maturity indices were different. PMID:28604783

  13. Co-composting of distillery wastes with animal manures: carbon and nitrogen transformations in the evaluation of compost stability.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, M A; Paredes, C; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Bernal, M P; Moral, R

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the viability of recycling the solid wastes generated by the winery and distillery industry by means of co-composting with animal manures, as well as to evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. Two piles, using exhausted grape marc and cattle manure or poultry manure, respectively (at ratios, on a fresh weight basis, of 70:30), were composted by the Rutgers static pile composting system. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were monitored, such as pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, water-soluble carbon, water-soluble polyphenols, different forms of nitrogen (organic nitrogen, ammonium and nitrate) and humification indices (humification ratio, humification index, percentage of humic acid-like C, polymerisation ratio and cation exchange capacity), as well as the germination index. Organic matter losses followed first-order kinetics equation in both piles, the highest organic matter mineralisation rate being observed with exhausted grape marc and cow manure. On the other hand, the mixture with the lowest C/N ratio, using exhausted grape marc and poultry manure, showed the highest initial ammonium contents, probably due to the higher and more labile N content of poultry manure. The increase in the cation exchange capacity revealed the organic matter humification during composting. In contrast, other humification parameters, such as the humification ratio and the humification index, did not show the expected evolution and, thus, could not be used to assess compost maturity. Composting produced a degradation of the phytotoxic compounds, such as polyphenols, to give composts without a phytotoxic character. Therefore, composting can be considered as an efficient treatment to recycle this type of wastes, due to composts presented a stable and humified organic matter and without phytotoxic effects, which makes them suitable for their agronomic use.

  14. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    PubMed

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  15. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    PubMed Central

    Cu, T. T. T.; Nguyen, T. X.; Triolo, J. M.; Pedersen, L.; Le, V. D.; Le, P. D.; Sommer, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

  16. Heavy metal and nutrient changes during vermicomposting animal manure spiked with mushroom residues.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiuchao; Liu, Manqiang; Wu, Di; Qi, Lin; Ye, Chenglong; Jiao, Jiaguo; Hu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    A pilot-scale trial of four months was conducted to investigate the responses of heavy metal and nutrient to composting animal manure spiked with mushroom residues with and without earthworms. Results showed that earthworm activities accelerated organic matter mineralization (e.g. reduction in C/N ratio, increase in total concentrations of N, P, K) and humification (e.g. increase in humic acid concentration, humification ratio and humification index). Despite composting increased total heavy metal (i.e. As, Pb, Cu, Zn) concentrations irrespective of earthworm, the availability of heavy metals extracted by DTPA significantly (P<0.05) decreased particularly in treatments with earthworms introduced. The shift from available to unavailable fractions of heavy metals was either due to earthworm bioaccumulation, as indicated by total heavy metal concentrations being higher in earthworm tissues, or due to the formation of stable metal-humus complexes as indicated by the promotion of humification. Our results suggest that vermicomposting process could magnify the nutrient quality but relieve the heavy metals risk of agricultural organic wastes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure.

    PubMed

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  18. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    PubMed Central

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains. PMID:26167534

  19. The feasibility of a centralized biogas plant treating the manure produced by an organized animal farmers union in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dereli, R K; Yangin-Gomec, C; Ozabali, A; Ozturk, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and the energy recovery potential of mesophilic (30-35 °C) anaerobic digestion of animal wastes (manure) at a centralized biogas plant (CBP) for 35,000 cattle. The proposed CBP is composed of an equalization tank followed by pasteurization and 3+[1/2] modules; i.e. each module consists of four completely mixed anaerobic reactors with a capacity of treating the manure from 10,000 cattle. The effect of maize silage loading, as the co-substrate, both on biomethane production and feasibility of the system was also evaluated. Besides, the transport fuel substitutes of the produced biomethane with or without co-substrate were also investigated. Results of the proposed CBP indicated that biomethane production increased ca. 1.65 fold with co-substrate addition and pay-back periods for one module treating 10,000 cattle manure are calculated to be ca. 11 and 7.0 yr without and with silage addition, respectively. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 74 heavy goods vehicles or 1,560 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed CBP where the co-digestion of manure and maize silage is applied.

  20. Model of fecal coliform overland transport from agricultural lands fertilized with animal manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Risk assessment of surface water contamination after manure applications requires developing microbial transport models. Application of such models often leads to incorrect conclusions due to lack of calibration with experimental data and ignorance of spatial variability in bacterial concentrations....

  1. Phosphorus Leaching in Soils Amended with Animal Manures Generated from Modified Diets.

    PubMed

    Toor, Gurpal S; Sims, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    New dietary modifications for dairy (reducing P content in feed) and poultry (addition of feed additives such as phytase) aim to reduce P excretion in manures. Our objective was to investigate if dietary changes were effective at reducing P leaching loss on land application of manures. We used 54 undisturbed lysimeters (30 cm diameter, 50 cm deep) collected from three typical mid-Atlantic soils. Lysimeters received 85 kg total P ha from fertilizer (superphosphate), dairy manures generated from low- or high-P diets, or broiler litters generated from normal diet or reduced P- and phytase-amended diets. Lysimeters were irrigated with 50 mm of water each week for 9 wk. The major forms of P in the leachate were dissolved (dissolved unreactive > dissolved reactive P [DRP]) rather than particulate (total particulate P). The higher P solubility (100%) in superphosphate resulted in greater leaching of DRP, whereas the lower P solubility (<30%) in dairy manures or broiler litters resulted in lower DRP leaching from soils. Preferential flow in two soils caused greater DRP leaching; this effect was more pronounced in the superphosphate-amended than in the manure/litter-amended lysimeters. The dairy and poultry dietary modification was effective at reducing the amount of P in manures and litters. However, the application of treatments at similar P rate (85 kg ha) resulted in the addition of a higher amount of manure (54-66%) in lysimeters that received low-P dairy manure-amended and phytase-amended broiler litter, which then controlled P leaching from soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Optimization of animal manure vermicomposting based on biomass production of earthworms and higher plants.

    PubMed

    Borges, Yan V; Alves, Luciano; Bianchi, Ivan; Espíndola, Jonas C; Oliveira, Juahil M De; Radetski, Claudemir M; Somensi, Cleder A

    2017-09-21

    The goal of this study was to optimize the mixture of swine manure (SM) and cattle manure (CM) used in the vermicomposting process, seeking to increase the manure biodegradation rate and enhance the biomass production of both earthworms and higher plants. To achieve this goal, physico-chemical parameters were determined to assess the final compost quality after 50 days of vermicomposting. The different manure ratios used to produce the composts (C) were as follows (SM:CM, % m/m basis): C1 100:0, C2 (75:25), C3 (50:50), C4 (25:75), and C5 (0:100). In addition, the earthworm biomass and the phytoproductivity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants grown in mixtures (1:1) of natural soil and the most viable vermicomposts were investigated. The C1 and C2 compost compositions were associated with high earthworm mortality rates. The C3 compost provided the highest mineral concentrations and C5 showed the highest lettuce yield (wet biomass). The results verify that stabilized cattle manure is an excellent substrate for the vermicomposting process and that fresh swine manure must be mixed with pre-stabilized cattle manure to ensure an optimized vermicomposting process, which must be controlled in terms of temperature and ammonia levels. It is concluded that small livestock farmers could add value to swine manure by applying the vermicomposting process, without the need for high investments and with a minimal requirement for management of the biodegradation process. These are important technical aspects to be considered when circular economy principles are applied to small farms.

  3. Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review.

    PubMed

    Bernal, M P; Alburquerque, J A; Moral, R

    2009-11-01

    New livestock production systems, based on intensification in large farms, produce huge amount of manures and slurries without enough agricultural land for their direct application as fertilisers. Composting is increasingly considered a good way for recycling the surplus of manure as a stabilised and sanitised end-product for agriculture, and much research work has been carried out in the last decade. However, high quality compost should be produced to overcome the cost of composting. In order to provide and review the information found in the literature about manure composting, the first part of this paper explains the basic concepts of the composting process and how manure characteristics can influence its performance. Then, a summary of those factors such as nitrogen losses (which directly reduce the nutrient content), organic matter humification and compost maturity which affect the quality of composts produced by manure composting is presented. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of using an adequate bulking agent for reducing N-losses and the necessity of standardising the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria.

  4. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    PubMed

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products.

  5. Thermal and nonthermal factors affecting survival of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in animal manure-based compost mixtures.

    PubMed

    Erickson, M C; Liao, J; Ma, L; Jiang, X; Doyle, M P

    2014-09-01

    Reduction of enteric pathogens in animal manures before field application is essential for mitigating the risk of foodborne illness associated with produce. Aerobic composting of manures has been advocated as an effective treatment for reducing pathogen populations, and heat is a major factor contributing to pathogen inactivation. This study was initiated to determine the potential contribution of both thermal and nonthermal (pH, volatile acids, and ammonia) factors to pathogen inactivation during aerobic composting in bioreactors for mixtures containing manure from various sources (dairy, chicken, and swine). The test mixtures were formulated with an initial moisture content of 60% and a C:N ratio of 20:1, using straw and cottonseed meal as amendments. Mixtures were then inoculated with Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes labeled with green fluorescent protein at initial populations of ca. 10(7) CFU/g. Three replicate trials of each treatment were conducted. Temperatures within the bioreactors were recorded at 30-min intervals, and duplicate samples were withdrawn daily from two sampling locations within the bioreactor. Significant regression models were derived relating decreases in pathogen populations to the degree of heat generated in the mixture (cumulative heat) and the pH of the mixture on the day before the pathogen losses were calculated (P < 0.0002). Although pathogens in swine manure compost mixtures were inactivated by the third day of composting, very little heat was generated in these mixtures, which were characterized by significantly higher levels of volatile acids compared with the other two compost mixtures. Therefore, volatile acids could help achieve pathogen inactivation when temperatures are too low such as when heat is lost too quickly at the surface of static compost piles or during winter composting.

  6. Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Renčo, M.; Kováčik, P.

    2012-01-01

    In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreased number of plant parasitic nematodes and also root-fungal feeding nematodes compared to the untreated control. Sawdust applied alone had no effect on plant parasitic and root-fungal feeding nematode suppression. Free-living nematodes which were mainly bacteriovores and fungivores were significantly more abundant in soil amended with fermented pig manure, while the sawdust had no effect on these nematodes. The effect of all tested treatments on omnivores-predators was rather random, and in general, the number of these nematodes decreased after soil amendment applications compared to the untreated control. PMID:23482503

  7. Gasification of blended animal manures to produce synthesis gas and activated charcoal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blended swine solids, chicken litter, and hardwood are renewable and expensive sources to produce combined heat and power (CHP), fuels and related chemicals. The therrmochemical pathway to gasify manure has the added advantage of destroying harmful pathogens and pharmaceutically active compounds dur...

  8. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure for the conterminous United States, 2007 and 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gronberg, JoAnn M.; Arnold, Terri L.

    2017-03-24

    County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from animal manure for the conterminous United States were calculated from animal population inventories in the 2007 and 2012 Census of Agriculture, using previously published methods. These estimates of non-point nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from animal manure were compiled in support of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the National WaterQuality Program and are needed to support national-scale investigations of stream and groundwater water quality. The estimates published in this report are comparable with older estimates which can be compared to show changes in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from manure over time.

  9. Persistence and leaching potential of microorganisms and mineral N in animal manure applied to intact soil columns.

    PubMed

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, René K; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1)) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path.

  10. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    PubMed Central

    Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, René K.; Petersen, Søren O.; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h−1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path. PMID:23124240

  11. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions following application of animal manures to grassland

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.R.; Pain, B.F.; Brookman, S.K.E.

    2000-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions were measured from grassland following manure applications at three times of the year. Pig (Sus scrofa) slurry and dairy cow (Bos taurus) slurry were applied in April, at equal rates of ammoniacal-N (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N), and in July, at equal volumetric rates (50 m{sup 3}ha{sup {minus}1}). In October, five manure types were applied to grassland plots at typical application rates: pig slurry, dilute diary cow effluent, pig farm yard manure (FYM), beef FYM and layer manure. Emissions were measured for 20, 22, and 24 d, respectively. In April, greater cumulative emissions of N{sub 2}O-N were measured following application of dairy cow slurry (1.51 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than pig slurry (90.77 kg ha{sup {minus}1}). Cumulative CH{sub 4} emissions following application in April were significantly greater from the dairy cow slurry treatment (0.58 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than the pig slurry treatment (0.13 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) (P < 0.05). In July, significantly greater N{sub 2}O-N emissions resulted from pig slurry-treated plots (0.57 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than dairy cow slurry-treated plots (0.34 kg ha{sup {minus}1}). Cumulative net CH{sub 4} emissions were very low following July applications (<10 g ha{sup {minus}1}). In October, the lowest N{sub 2}O-N emission resulted from application of dilute dairy effluent, 0.15 kg ha{sup {minus}1}, with the greatest net emission from the application of pig slurry, 0.74 kg ha{sup {minus}1}. Methane emissions were greatest from the plots that received pig FYM, resulting in a mean cumulative net emission of 2.39 kg ha{sup {minus}1}.

  12. Removal of antimony (III) and cadmium (II) from aqueous solution using animal manure-derived hydrochars and pyrochars.

    PubMed

    Han, Lanfang; Sun, Haoran; Ro, Kyoung S; Sun, Ke; Libra, Judy A; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-06-01

    In this study, hydrochars and pyrochars prepared from animal manures were characterized and were used to remove Sb (III) and Cd (II) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the interaction between Cd (II) and CO and CO groups within biochars and between Sb (III) and CO, CO and OH groups, respectively. Additionally, the lower absolute value of zeta potential of biochar after loading Sb (III) and Cd (II) suggested the occurrence of surface complexation. Existing primarily in the form of Sb (OH)3, the maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) for Sb (III) were lower than those for Cd (II). Due to the lower contents of surface polar functional groups and less negative surface charge, hydrochars exhibited lower Qmax for Sb (III) and Cd (II) than pyrochars. However, hydrochars in this study had higher sorption capacities for Cd (II) than most of plant-based pyrochars reported by other literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Food web responses to augmenting the entomopathogenic nematodes in bare and animal manure-mulched soil.

    PubMed

    Duncan, L W; Graham, J H; Zellers, J; Bright, D; Dunn, D C; El-Borai, F E; Porazinska, D L

    2007-06-01

    Factorial treatments of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) and composted, manure mulches were evaluated for two years in a central Florida citrus orchard to study the post-application biology of EPN used to manage the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus. Mulch treatments were applied once each year to study the effects of altering the community of EPN competitors (free-living bactivorous nematodes) and antagonists (nematophagous fungi (NF), predaceous nematodes and some microarthro-pods). EPN were augmented once with Steinernema riobrave in 2004 and twice in 2005. Adding EPN to soil affected the prevalence of organisms at several trophic levels, but the effects were often ephemeral and sometimes inconsistent. EPN augmentation always increased the mortality of sentinel weevil larvae, the prevalence of free-living nematodes in sentinel cadavers and the prevalence of trapping NF. Subsequent to the insecticidal effects of EPN augmentation in 2004, but not 2005, EPN became temporarily less prevalent, and fewer sentinel weevil larvae died in EPN-augmented compared to non-augmented plots. Manure mulch had variable effects on endoparasitic NF, but consistently decreased the prevalence of trapping NF and increased the prevalence of EPN and the sentinel mortality. Both temporal and spatial abundance of NF were inversely related to the prevalence of Steinernema diaprepesi, whereas Heterorhabditis zealandica prevalence was positively correlated with NF over time. The number of weevil larvae killed by EPN was likely greatest in 2005, due in part to non-target effects of augmentation on the endemic EPN community in 2004 that occurred during a period of peak weevil recruitment into the soil.

  14. Food Web Responses to Augmenting the Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Bare and Animal Manure-Mulched Soil

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, L. W.; Graham, J. H.; Zellers, J.; Bright, D.; Dunn, D. C.; El-Borai, F. E.; Porazinska, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    Factorial treatments of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) and composted, manure mulches were evaluated for two years in a central Florida citrus orchard to study the post-application biology of EPN used to manage the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus. Mulch treatments were applied once each year to study the effects of altering the community of EPN competitors (free-living bactivorous nematodes) and antagonists (nematophagous fungi (NF), predaceous nematodes and some microarthro-pods). EPN were augmented once with Steinernema riobrave in 2004 and twice in 2005. Adding EPN to soil affected the prevalence of organisms at several trophic levels, but the effects were often ephemeral and sometimes inconsistent. EPN augmentation always increased the mortality of sentinel weevil larvae, the prevalence of free-living nematodes in sentinel cadavers and the prevalence of trapping NF. Subsequent to the insecticidal effects of EPN augmentation in 2004, but not 2005, EPN became temporarily less prevalent, and fewer sentinel weevil larvae died in EPN-augmented compared to non-augmented plots. Manure mulch had variable effects on endoparasitic NF, but consistently decreased the prevalence of trapping NF and increased the prevalence of EPN and the sentinel mortality. Both temporal and spatial abundance of NF were inversely related to the prevalence of Steinernema diaprepesi, whereas Heterorhabditis zealandica prevalence was positively correlated with NF over time. The number of weevil larvae killed by EPN was likely greatest in 2005, due in part to non-target effects of augmentation on the endemic EPN community in 2004 that occurred during a period of peak weevil recruitment into the soil. PMID:19259487

  15. Thermochemical conversion technologies for production of renewable energy and value-added char from animal manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in the USA and many other countries have undergone extensive expansions and consolidations for the last few decades. This shift in animal production agriculture toward fewer, but larger operations has created serious environmental concerns in recycling and ...

  16. Special topics--Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: II. A review of manure management mitigation options.

    PubMed

    Montes, F; Meinen, R; Dell, C; Rotz, A; Hristov, A N; Oh, J; Waghorn, G; Gerber, P J; Henderson, B; Makkar, H P S; Dijkstra, J

    2013-11-01

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Reducing excreted nitrogen (N) and degradable organic carbon (C) by diet manipulation to improve the balance of nutrient inputs with production is an effective practice to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions. Most CH4 is produced during manure storage; therefore, reducing storage time, lowering manure temperature by storing it outside during colder seasons, and capturing and combusting the CH4 produced during storage are effective practices to reduce CH4 emission. Anaerobic digestion with combustion of the gas produced is effective in reducing CH4 emission and organic C content of manure; this increases readily available C and N for microbial processes creating little CH4 and increased N2O emissions following land application. Nitrous oxide emission occurs following land application as a byproduct of nitrification and dentrification processes in the soil, but these processes may also occur in compost, biofilter materials, and permeable storage covers. These microbial processes depend on temperature, moisture content, availability of easily degradable organic C, and oxidation status of the environment, which make N2O emissions and mitigation results highly variable. Managing the fate of ammoniacal N is essential to the success of N2O and CH4 mitigation because ammonia is an important component in the cycling of N through manure, soil, crops, and animal feeds. Manure application techniques such as subsurface injection reduce ammonia and CH4 emissions but can result in increased N2O emissions. Injection works well when combined with anaerobic digestion and solids separation by improving infiltration. Additives such as urease and nitrification inhibitors that inhibit microbial processes have mixed results but are generally effective in controlling N2O emission from intensive grazing systems. Matching plant nutrient

  17. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P < 0.05) increased the worm biomass and reproduction. The sludge amended with 40 % SM can be a great medium for the growth of E. fetida, and the sludge amended with 40 % CD can be a suitable medium for the fecundity of E. fetida. The addition of CD in sludge provided a better environment for the fecundity of earthworm than SM did. Moreover, vermicomposts obtained in the study had lower pH value, lower total organic carbon (TOC), lower NH4 (+)-N, lower C/N ratio, higher total available phosphorous (TAP) contents, optimal stability, and maturity. NH4 (+)-N, pH and TAP of the initial mixtures explained high earthworm growth. The results provided the theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida.

  18. Animal waste utilization: Effective use of manure as a soil resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, J.L.; Stewart, B.A.

    1998-12-31

    This unique book examines the beneficial aspects of animal waste as a soil resource--not simply as an agricultural by-product with minimal practical use. Topics include: types of livestock waste--swine, poultry, dairy; methods and management of waste utilization; storage, handling, processing and application of animal waste; economics of waste utilization; new modeling and management techniques; and nonpoint source pollution, water quality, leaching, and air quality.

  19. Sources and contents of heavy metals and other trace elements in animal manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trace elements take part in various physiological functions including enzyme formation, vitamin formation, metabolism, and electron transport in animals. Thus, trace elements are added to livestock and poultry diets to prevent diseases, improve weight gains and feed conversion, and increase egg prod...

  20. Production of value-added chars and activated carbons from animal manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States has a strong agricultural foundation that leaves behind large quantities of animal wastes. In the United States, an estimated 9 billion broilers, 256 million turkeys, 62 million pigs and 97 million dairy cows were produced in 2006 producing 5 times the waste of the U.S. human popu...

  1. Reducement of cadmium adsorption on clay minerals by the presence of dissolved organic matter from animal manure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjun; Ren, Lingwei; Zhu, Lizhong

    2017-04-01

    Clay minerals are the most popular adsorbents/amendments for immobilizing heavy metals in contaminated soils, but the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil environment would potentially affect the adsorption/immobilization capacity of clay minerals for heavy metals. In this study, the effects of DOM derived from chicken manure (CM) on the adsorption of cadmium (Cd(2+)) on two clay minerals, bentonite and zeolite, were investigated. The equilibrium data for Cd(2+) sorption in the absence or presence of CM-DOM could be well-fitted to the Langmuir equation (R(2) > 0.97). The presence of CM-DOM in the aqueous solution was found to greatly reduce the adsorption capacity of both minerals for Cd(2+), in particular zeolite, and the percentage decreases for Cd(2+) sorption increased with increasing concentrations of Cd(2+) as well as CM-DOM in aqueous solutions. The adsorption of CM-DOM on zeolite was greater than that on bentonite in the absence of Cd(2+), however, a sharp increase was observed for CM-DOM sorption on bentonite with increasing Cd(2+) concentrations but little change for that on zeolite, which can be attributed to the different ternary structures on mineral surface. The CM-DOM modified clay minerals were utilized to investigate the effect of mineral-adsorbed CM-DOM on Cd(2+) sorption. The adsorbed form was found to inhibit Cd(2+) sorption, and further calculation suggested it primarily responsible for the overall decrease in Cd(2+) sorption on clay minerals in the presence of CM-DOM in aqueous solutions. An investigation for the mineral surface morphology suggested that the mineral-adsorbed CM-DOM decreased Cd(2+) sorption on bentonite mainly through barrier effect, while in the case of zeolite, it was the combination of active sites occupation and barrier effect. These results can serve as a guide for evaluating the performance of clay minerals in immobilizing heavy metals when animal manure is present in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  2. Management of antibiotic residues from agricultural sources: use of composting to reduce chlortetracycline residues in beef manure from treated animals.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Rice, Clifford

    2009-05-30

    Chlortetracycline (CTC) is one of only ten antibiotics licensed in the U.S.A. for use as growth promoters for livestock. The widespread use and persistence of CTC may contribute in development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of composting on the fate of CTC residues found in manure from medicated animals. The effect of CTC residues on composting was also investigated. Five beef calves were medicated for 5 days with 22 mg/kg/day of CTC. Manure samples collected from calves prior to and after medication were mixed with straw and woodchips, and aliquots of the subsequent mixtures were treated in laboratory composters for 30 days. In addition, aliquots of the CTC-containing mixture were incubated at 25 degrees C or sterilized followed by incubation at 25 degrees C and 55 degrees C (composting temperature). The presence of CTC did not appear to affect the composting process. Concentrations of CTC/ECTC (the summed concentrations of CTC and its epimer ECTC) in the composted mixture (CM) and sterilized mixture incubated at 55 degrees C (SM55) decreased 99% and 98% (from 113 microg/g dry weight (DW) to 0.7 microg/g DW and 2.0 microg/g DW), respectively, in 30 days. In contrast, levels of CTC/ECTC in room temperature incubated (RTIM) and sterilized mixture incubated at 25 degrees C (SM25) decreased 49% and 40% (to 58 microg/g DW and 68 microg/g DW), respectively, after 30 days. Concentrations of the CTC metabolite, iso-chlortetracycline (ICTC), in CM and SM55 decreased more than 99% (from 12 microg/g DW to below quantitation limit of 0.3 microg/g DW) in 30 days. ICTC levels in RTIM and SM25 decreased 80% (to 4 microg/g DW) in 30 days. These results confirm and extend those from previous studies that show the increased loss of extractable CTC residues with increased time and incubation temperature. In addition, our results using sterile and non-sterile samples suggest that the decrease in concentrations of extractable

  3. VOLATILE ORGANO-METALLOIDS IN BIO-SOLID MATERIALS: ANALYSIS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION-GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method based on vacuum distillation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (VD-GC-MS)

    was developed for determining volatile organo-metalloid contaminants in bio-solid materials. Method

    performance was evaluated for dimethylselenide (DMSe), dimethyldisel...

  4. VOLATILE ORGANO-METALLOIDS IN BIO-SOLID MATERIALS: ANALYSIS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION-GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method based on vacuum distillation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (VD-GC-MS)

    was developed for determining volatile organo-metalloid contaminants in bio-solid materials. Method

    performance was evaluated for dimethylselenide (DMSe), dimethyldisel...

  5. Implications from distinct sulfate-reducing bacteria populations between cattle manure and digestate in the elucidation of H2S production during anaerobic digestion of animal slurry.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2017-07-01

    Biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of animal slurry consists mainly of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but also includes other minor gases, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Since it can act as a potent corrosive agent and presents a health hazard even at low concentrations, H2S is considered an undesirable by-product of anaerobic digestion. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) have been identified as the main biological source of H2S in a number of natural, biological, and human-made habitats, and thus represent likely candidate microorganisms responsible for the production of H2S in anaerobic manure digesters. Phylogenetically, SRBs form a divergent group of bacteria that share a common anaerobic respiration pathway that allows them to use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. While the composition and activity of SRBs have been well documented in other environments, their metabolic potential remains largely uncharacterized and their populations poorly defined in anaerobic manure digesters. In this context, a combination of in vitro culture-based studies and DNA-based approaches, respectively, were used to gain further insight. Unexpectedly, only low to nondetectable levels of H2S were produced by digestate collected from a manure biogas plant documented to have persistently high concentrations of H2S in its biogas (2000-3000 ppm). In contrast, combining digestate with untreated manure (a substrate with comparatively lower sulfate and SRB cell densities than digestate) was found to produce elevated H2S levels in culture. While a 16S rRNA gene-based community composition approach did not reveal likely candidate SRBs in digestate or untreated manure, the use of the dsrAB gene as a phylogenetic marker provided more insight. In digestate, the predominant SRBs were found to be uncharacterized species likely belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus (Peptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Firmicutes), while Desulfovibrio-related SRBs (Desulfovibrionaceae

  6. A novel treatment system to remove phosphorus from liquid manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lowering the total phosphorus (P) content of animal manure is one approach of addressing concerns over surplus P accumulation in soils resulting from land application of animal manure. We sought to develop a treatment system for liquid manures that conserves manure nitrogen (N) while removing most o...

  7. A Process Based Approach to Modeling Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions Across the Air-Surface Interface of Manure from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Aneja, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are an important concern due to their contribution to odor and their potential to form PMfine. CAFO manure surface emissions occur from barns floors, during waste storage and treatment, and following land application. There is a need for a process based model, which will provide a method for quantifying emissions in different production, management and environmental conditions. A process based air-surface interface mass transfer model with chemical reactions was developed based on theoretical principles and related published information on H2S emissions. Different approaches were used to calculate the three main components of the model: the dissociation constant, the Henry’s law constant, and the overall mass transport coefficient. The dissociation constant was calculated based on thermodynamic principles and was corrected for the ionic strength of the manure. Similarly, the Henry’s law constant was also calculated based on thermodynamic principles. The overall mass transfer coefficient was developed using a previously published air-surface interface mass transport model, which considered the most important properties affecting mass transport to be the diffusivity of H2S in air, the air viscosity, and the air density. These parameters were modeled using dimensional analysis, which identified the variables that needed to be measured to determine the relevant constant and exponents values. By using the previously published study’s model and their measured constant and exponent values, an appropriate overall mass transfer coefficient was developed. Sensitivity analysis of the process based air-surface interface mass transfer model showed predicted fluxes to be most dependent on manure sulfide concentration and manure pH, and to a smaller extent on wind speed and manure temperature. Model predicted fluxes were compared with measured H2S flux and meteorological and physiochemical

  8. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A; Hansen, Martin

    2012-11-28

    This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine the antiparasitic veterinary drug toltrazuril and its two main metabolites, toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone, in environmental surface water, soil and animal manure. Using solid phase extraction and selective pressurized liquid extraction with integrated clean-up, the analytical method allows for the determination of these compounds down to 0.06-0.13 ng L(-1) in water, 0.01-0.03 ng g(-1)dw in soil and 0.22-0.51 ng g(-1) dw in manure. The deuterated analog of toltrazuril was used as internal standard, and ensured method accuracy in the range 96-123% for water and 77-110% for soil samples. The developed method can also be applied to simultaneously determine steroid hormones in the solid samples. The antiparasitic drug and its metabolites were found in manure and soil up to 114 and 335 pg g(-1) dw, respectively. Little is known regarding the environmental fate and effects of these compounds; consequently more research is urgently needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between stall surface and some animal welfare measurements in freestall dairy herds using recycled manure solids for bedding.

    PubMed

    Husfeldt, A W; Endres, M I

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between stall surface and some animal welfare measurements in upper Midwest US dairy operations using recycled manure solids as bedding material. The study included 34 dairy operations with herd sizes ranging from 130 to 3,700 lactating cows. Forty-five percent of the herds had mattresses and 55% had deep-bedded stalls. Farms were visited once between July and October 2009. At the time of visit, at least 50% of the cows in each lactating pen were scored for locomotion, hygiene, and hock lesions. On-farm herd records were collected for the entire year and used to investigate mortality, culling, milk production, and mastitis incidence. Stall surface was associated with lameness and hock lesion prevalence. Lameness prevalence (locomotion score ≥ 3 on a 1 to 5 scale) was lower in deep-bedded freestalls (14.4%) than freestalls with mattresses (19.8%). Severe lameness prevalence (locomotion score ≥ 4) was also lower for cows housed in deep-bedded freestalls (3.6%) than for cows housed in freestalls with mattresses (5.9%). In addition, the prevalence of hock lesions (hock lesion scores ≥ 2 on a 1 to 3 scale, with 1=no lesion, 2=hair loss or mild lesion, and 3=swelling or severe lesion) and severe hock lesions (hock lesion score=3) was lower in herds with deep-bedded freestalls (49.4%; 6.4%) than in herds with mattresses (67.3%; 13.2%). Herd turnover rates were not associated with stall surface; however, the percentage of removals due to voluntary (low milk production, disposition, and dairy) and involuntary (death, illness, injury, and reproductive) reasons was different between deep-bedded and mattress-based freestalls. Voluntary removals averaged 16% of all herd removals in deep-bedded herds, whereas in mattress herds, these removals were 8%. Other welfare measurements such as cow hygiene, mortality rate, mastitis incidence, and milk production were not associated with stall surface.

  10. Survival and Persistence of Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and Attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Soils Amended with Animal Manure in a Greenhouse Environment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manan; Millner, Patricia D; Hashem, Fawzy; Camp, Mary; Whyte, Celia; Graham, Lorna; Cotton, Corrie P

    2016-06-01

    Animal manure provides benefits to agriculture but may contain pathogens that contaminate ready-to-eat produce. U.S. Food and Drug Administration standards include 90- or 120-day intervals between application of manure and harvest of crop to minimize risks of pathogen contamination of fresh produce. Data on factors affecting survival of Escherichia coli in soils under greenhouse conditions are needed. Three separate studies were conducted to evaluate survival of nonpathogenic E. coli (gEc) and attenuated E. coli O157:H7 (attO157) inoculated at either low (4 log CFU/ml) or high (6 log CFU/ml) populations over 56 days. Studies involved two pot sizes (small, 398 cm(3); large, 89 liters), three soil types (sandy loam, SL; clay loam, CL; silt loam, SIL), and four amendments (poultry litter, PL; dairy manure liquids, DML; horse manure, HM; unamended). Amendments were applied to the surface of the soil in either small or large containers. Study 1, conducted in regularly irrigated small containers, showed that populations of gEc and attO157 (2.84 to 2.88 log CFU/g) in PL-amended soils were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those in DML-amended (0.29 to 0.32 log CFU/g [dry weight] [gdw]) or unamended (0.25 to 0.28 log CFU/gdw) soils; soil type did not affect E. coli survival. Results from study 2, in large pots with CL and SIL, showed that PL-amended soils supported significantly higher attO157 and gEc populations compared with HM-amended or unamended soils. Study 3 compared results from small and large containers that received high inoculum simultaneously. Overall, in both small and large containers, PLamended soils supported higher gEc and attO157 populations compared with HM-amended and unamended soils. Populations of attO157 were significantly greater in small containers (1.83 log CFU/gdw) than in large containers (0.65 log CFU/gdw) at week 8, perhaps because small containers received more regular irrigation than large pots. Regular irrigation of small pots may have

  11. Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures.

    PubMed

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W; Okorogbona, A O M

    2010-04-01

    Crop responses to different manures differs considerably, however, the factors responsible for it have not been conclusively elucidated. Consequently, this study examined the biomass response of Cucurbita maxima and Solanum retroflexum to application rates of chicken and kraal manures of cattle and goat, and soil factors related to salinity. The crops' biomass yield increased linearly with increase in application rates of kraal and chicken manures, but steeper in the latter. Results showed that significant decline in biomass yield in chicken manure at rates above 8.5 tons ha(-1) were not due to salinity. The crops' response to cattle and goat kraal manures was linear but polynomial (cubic) in layer chicken manure. It was concluded that the yield decline in chicken manure was due to other manure factors except salinity, probably toxicity effect of the manure fatty acids. Further research was however, recommended to elucidate this claim. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Resource conservation and utilization in animal waste management. Volume III. Utilization of animal manures as feedstocks for energy production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.H. Jr; Loehr, R.C.

    1983-03-01

    This study critically examined the feasibility of using thermochemical processes such as combustion, pyrolysis, and partial oxidation and anaerobic digestion as methods for utilizing livestock and poultry manures as renewable sources of energy. Technical, economic, and environmental quality aspects were considered. Results of this study indicate that livestock and poultry manures can, at best, supply only a small fraction of U.S. energy requirements and cannot significantly reduce the dependence of U.S. agriculture on petroleum fuels. It also was found that the technical feasibility of manurial biogas production has been adequately demonstrated and a rational basis for system design and operation has been established. Although manurial biogas production is technically feasible, economic feasibility was found to be site specific depending on available biogas utilization options.

  13. Antibiotic resistance gene abundances associated with antibiotics and heavy metals in animal manures and agricultural soils adjacent to feedlots in Shanghai; China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiuling; Shen, Qunhui; Liu, Fang; Ma, Jing; Xu, Gang; Wang, Yuanlong; Wu, Minghong

    2012-10-15

    Eight antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), 7 heavy metals, and 6 antibiotics were quantified in manures and soils collected from multiple feedlots in Shanghai. The samples were analyzed to determine if ARG abundances were associated with heavy metal concentration and independent of antibiotics. The results revealed the presence of chloramphenicol, sulfonamides and tetracyclines at concentration ranges of 3.27-17.85, 5.85-33.37 and 4.54-24.66 mg kg(-1), respectively. Typical heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and As, were detected at concentration ranges of 32.3-730.1, 75.9-4333.8, and 2.6-617.2 mg kg(-1). All ARGs tested were detected in the collected samples except tetB(P), which was absent in animal manures. Overall, sulfonamide ARGs were more abundant than tetracycline ARGs. Except for sulII, only a weak positive correlation was found between ARGs and their corresponding antibiotics. On the contrary, significant positive correlations (p<0.05) were found between some ARGs and typical heavy metals. For example, sulA and sulIII were strongly correlated with levels of Cu, Zn and Hg. The data demonstrated that the presence of ARGs was relatively independent of their respective antibiotic inducer. In addition to antibiotics, toxic heavy metals, such as Hg, Cu, and Zn, exerted a strong selection pressure and acted as complementary factors for ARG abundance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbial and nutrient stabilization of two animal manures after the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826).

    PubMed

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2009-01-30

    Here we studied how the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eisenia fetida affects the microbial and nutrient stabilization of pig and cow manure, by analyzing fresh casts. Earthworms reduced the pools of dissolved organic C and N in casts from both types of manure, as wells as mineral N. Microbial biomass was enhanced only in casts from pig manure and did not change in casts from cow manure, and fungal populations only raised in casts from cow manure. Earthworms reduced microbial activity in casts from cow manure and did not modify in casts from pig slurry. Enzyme activities in casts also depended on the manure ingested; there were no changes in dehydrogenase and beta-glucosidase activities, whereas acid and alkaline phosphatases increased. The results indicate that the first stage in vermicomposting of pig and cow manure by E. fetida, i.e. casting, produced a microbial stabilization decreasing the activity of microorganisms; this stabilization occurred despite of the increase in microbial biomass. The strong reduction in nutrient pools of manures may be the responsible of this contradiction. These changes will influence the dynamics of the organic matter degradation by reducing forms of C and N available to microorganisms and hence restricting their growth and multiplication. Nevertheless, casts were also characterized by an increased enzyme potential that might lead to a further thorough degradation of pig and cow manure.

  15. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  16. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  17. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  18. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  19. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  20. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  1. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  2. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  3. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  4. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  5. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same. ...

  6. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same. ...

  7. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same. ...

  8. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same. ...

  9. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same. ...

  10. Thermal characterization of swine manure: Bioenergy feedstock potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The trend toward larger concentrated animal feeding operations has generated a sustainable surplus of manure. In addition to its traditional use as a fertilizer, manure is a rich organic resource that can be used as a bioenergy feedstock. While thermochemical conversion of animal manure via combusti...

  11. Geographic information system based manure application plan.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Badri B; Apan, Armando A; Raine, Steven R

    2002-02-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) based manure application plan has been developed for the site-specific application of animal waste to agricultural fields in the Westbrook sub-catchment of the Murray-Darling Basin, south-east Queensland, Australia. Sites suitable for animal waste application were identified using a GIS based weighted linear combination (WLC) model. The degree of land suitability for animal waste application was determined using a range of social, economic, environmental, and agricultural factors. As eutrophication and toxic blue-green algae blooms are a known problem in the catchment, the manure application rates were limited to the rate of crop phosphorus removal. Maximum manure application rate was calculated spatially by taking the crop nutrient (P2O5) requirement and the manure nutrient (P2O5) content into account. The environmental suitability of the fields receiving animal waste was considered in prescribing the final application rate of solid and liquid manures generated by local animal production facilities. The degree of site suitability of the agricultural fields was also used to suggest manure management practices to minimise the socio-environmental risks and increase the nutrient use efficiency of the applied manure. The amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) that would be added to the soil by satisfying the P2O5 requirement using manure sources was also calculated and an applied NH4-N map was created. This map could be used to assist farmers identify additional nitrogen requirements after manure application.

  12. Investigation of chamber methods and a micrometeorological mass balance method for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from animal manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyu-Hyun

    Various measurement methods to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure storage or treatment facilities have been used. However, it is difficult to directly compare emission data measured with different methods, which causes uncertainties in national GHG inventories. In the micrometeorological mass balance (MMB) method, a gas flux consists of a horizontal mean flux (MF) and horizontal turbulent flux (TF) terms. In Chapter 2, methane (GH4 ) TF measurements obtained using a sonic anemometer and a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer are presented. Contrary to previous studies in wind tunnels and flat-level field conditions, an overestimation of only 0.5% was observed by only considering the MF term. This means the MMB method without consideration of TF is suitable in complex field conditions with uneven topography, and farm buildings. In Chapter 3, the MMB method was compared to a floating chamber method. Of these, the floating chamber method has been extensively used for CH4 flux quantification. The MMB method, although providing advantages such as spatial integration of fluxes, requires fast response trace gas analyzers which are not widely available. The mean ratio of CH4 flux measured with the floating chamber method to that measured using the MMB method was 1.25, ranging from 1.07 to 1.83. Flux overestimation by the floating chamber could have been caused by location of the chamber and potential disturbances by the chamber. Frequent changes of the chamber location, use of several chambers, and/or avoiding chamber placement on 'hot spots' are recommended to decrease flux overestimation. In Chapter 4, CH4 fluxes measured with a mega chamber and eight small chambers during the in-vessel composting phase showed similar temporal variation, while nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were, significantly lower for the small chambers. The ratios of CH4 fluxes measured with a mega chamber to eight small chambers during the in-vessel composting phase were 0.72 and 1

  13. An innovative intermittent-vacuum assisted thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for effective animal manure utilization and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renchuan; Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Deng, Xiangyuan; Kabir, Fayal; Lu, Qian; Ma, Yiwei; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent-vacuum stripping (IVS) was developed as a pretreatment for thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) to improve methanogenesis and hydrolysis activity through preventing free ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhibition from liquid swine manure (LSM). Over 98% of ammonia and 38% organic nitrogen were removed in 60min from 55°C to 85°C with vacuum pressure (from 100.63±3.79mmHg to 360.91±7.39mmHg) at initial pH 10.0 by IVS. Thermophilic methanogenesis and hydrolysis activity of pretreated LSM increased 52.25% (from 11.56±1.75% to 17.60±0.49%) in 25days and 40% (from 10days to 6days) in bio-methane potential assay. Over 80% H2S and total nitrogen were removed by IVS assistance, while around 70% nitrogen was recycled as ammonium sulfate. Therefore, IVS-TAD combination could be an effective strategy to improve TAD efficiency, whose elution is more easily utilized in algae cultivation and/or hydroponic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Manure Spills in Streams: Current Practices and Remediation Methods to Minimize Water Quality Degradation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure spills into streams are an all too common byproduct of animal production. With greater numbers of animals raised on fewer farms, manure spills become greater problems due to the volume of manure spilled into aquatic ecosystems. This book chapter reviews why manure spills occur, and the curren...

  15. Development of an efficient extraction method for oxytetracycline in animal manure for high performance liquid chromatography analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxytetracycline (2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene- 1,3,12-trione) is a majormember of the tetracycline antibiotics family ofwhich are widely administered to animals in concentrated animal feeding operations for purposes o...

  16. Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) waste is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO waste to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluat...

  17. Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) waste is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO waste to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluat...

  18. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L E; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009), fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW) ha-1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg-1) and swine (460 g kg-1) manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC) contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC) was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered.

  19. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009), fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW) ha−1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg−1) and swine (460 g kg−1) manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC) contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC) was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered. PMID:25494364

  20. Effect of Poultry Manure Amendment on Soil Phosphatase Activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal manure has traditionally been used as a fertilizer source. Manure phosphorus (P) exists in many forms, not all of which are immediately available. Microbial and plant-derived phosphatases can mineralize some organic P forms. Increased understanding of effects of manure application on soil p...

  1. Bio-solid-State processes for synthesis of Li-Fe-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Bum; Park, Byungno; Lee, Insung; Roh, Yul

    2008-10-01

    Lithium-Fe-phosphates have become of great interest as storage cathodes for rechargeable Li-batteries because of their high density, environmental friendliness, and safety. The objective of this study was to examine bio-solid-state synthesis of LiFePO4 by microbial processes at room temperature. The microbial reduction of Fe(III)-citrate using an organic carbon, glucose, as an electron donor in the presence of NaHPO4 and lithium that resulted in the formation of Li-substituted iron phosphate. Our studies showed that bacteria enriched from inter-tidal flat sediments, designated as Haejae-1, synthesized Li-substituted iron phosphate. Characterization by X-ray diffraction showed the reduction of Fe(III)-citrate in the presence of NaHPO4 and LiCl2 resulted in the precipitation of Li-substituted vivianite [Li(x)Fe(3-x)(PO4)2 x 8H2O]. SEM-EDX, FTIR, and ESCA analyses showed the chemical composition of the synthesized phases was Li, Fe, P, C, and O. Based on the chemical and physical structure of the mineral, the novel bio-nano-material may be potentially useful to the development of energy storage materials.

  2. Effects of liquid swine manure on sorption of 17ß-estradiol to soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estrogens are potent endocrine disrupting chemicals and can be found in the environment. Animal manure can contain estrogenic hormones, specifically 17'-estradiol (E2). A common manure management practice is to contain liquid manure in a manure storage ponds or lagoons, which is then applied on or i...

  3. Inhibition of Escherichia coli in cultivated cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Z G; Szakacs, G; Chen, Y; Pinto, R; Bernstein, S; Konya, B; Sela Saldinger, S

    2014-05-01

    A common practice on Israeli dairy barns comprises daily cultivation of the manure. Cultivation is a mechanical process used to break up and till the manure bedding and it results in a drier and aerated bedding and cleaner cows, which consequently reduces the incidence of mastitis. Cultivation was associated with a shorter survival of Escherichia coli in cultivated manure as compared with noncultivated manure. The objective of the current study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the shorter survival duration of E. coli in the cultivated manure. We hypothesized that microorganisms that are antagonistic to E. coli, developing in the cultivated manure, are responsible for this phenomenon. A cow manure derived E. coli strain expressing the green fluorescence protein and antibiotic resistance markers was used to inoculate cow manure in 1.5-L jars. Manure treatments included cultivated and noncultivated manure. Half the jars of each cultivation treatment were autoclave sterilized at 121°C for 1 h on 3 successive days to eliminate from the manure antagonistic microorganisms. Each cultivation-sterilization treatment was performed in triplicate jars. Following sterilization, E. coli numbers in the cultivated and noncultivated manure were comparable, while in the nonsterilized manure the numbers were lower in the cultivated compared with the noncultivated manure. Several fungi isolated from the cultivated manure samples displayed inhibition effect on the tagged E. coli. Antagonistic fungi were also isolated from large-scale cultivated manure samples collected on several dairy farms in Israel. These findings support the notion that manure cultivation might facilitate the development of microorganisms that are antagonistic to E. coli, thus contributing to the general hygiene of the cattle. Identifying the mechanisms by which the antagonistic fungi affect the survival of E. coli in manure could be exploited for improvement of the animal health and for limiting the

  4. 9 CFR 82.7 - Interstate movement of manure and litter from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... litter from a quarantined area. 82.7 Section 82.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Interstate movement of manure and litter from a quarantined area. (a) Manure generated by and litter used by... if: (1) The manure and litter is accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (2)...

  5. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE, AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND HPLC-ICPMS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes from poultry houses is currently unregulated and poses a potential environmental concern. Determination of roxarsone and its transformation products in chicken manure is necessary to understand their possible impacts on human health and ...

  6. Survival and persistence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soils amended with animal manure in a greenhouse environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological soil amendments (BSA's), including dairy cattle, poultry litter, and horse manure, play an important role in agriculture but may contain pathogens that can contaminate raw or ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable crops that are consumed raw. Proposed FDA standards include a 90- or 120-day inte...

  7. Making Use of Manure for a Clean-Up Job

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wastes should no longer be wasted. This article describes how animal manure can be utilized by converting it into activated carbons. These activated carbons are then utilized to adsorb unwanted pollutants because of their high porosity. The animal manure will eventually help to remove odors from dr...

  8. Multi-utilization of swine manure as a bioenergy feedstock: Carbonization and combustion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of animal manure and other organic-based waste products as bioenergy feedstocks is gaining interest for waste-to-bioenergy conversion processes. While thermochemical conversion of animal manure via combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification is becoming a new frontier of manure treatment; there ...

  9. Impacts of a Swine Manure Spill on Fluvial Sediments: Evaluation of an alternative Manure Spill Remediation Method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Within the last decade the frequency of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) manure spills and violations have increased, in conjunction with the increase in the number of animal on each farm and production efficiency. Currently, the conventional remediation method for manure spills focus exc...

  10. Manure on alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  11. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  12. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  13. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  14. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  15. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  16. Impact of dairy manure pre-application treatment on manure composition, soil dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes, and abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes on vegetables at harvest.

    PubMed

    Tien, Yuan-Ching; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong; Scott, Andrew; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Marti, Romain; Topp, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Manuring ground used for crop production is an important agricultural practice. Should antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria carried in the manure be transferred to crops that are consumed raw, their consumption by humans or animals will represent a route of exposure to antibiotic resistance genes. Treatment of manures prior to land application is a potential management option to reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes entrained with manure application. In this study, dairy manure that was untreated, anaerobically digested, mechanically dewatered or composted was applied to field plots that were then cropped to lettuce, carrots and radishes. The impact of treatment on manure composition, persistence of antibiotic resistance gene targets in soil following application, and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria on vegetables at harvest was determined. Composted manure had the lowest abundance of antibiotic resistance gene targets compared to the other manures. There was no significant difference in the persistence characteristics of antibiotic resistance genes following land application of the various manures. Compared to unmanured soil, antibiotic resistance genes were detected more frequently in soil receiving raw or digested manure, whereas they were not in soil receiving composted manure. The present study suggests that vegetables grown in ground receiving raw or digested manure are at risk of contamination with manure-borne antibiotic resistant bacteria, whereas vegetables grown in ground receiving composted manure are less so.

  17. Studies into Using Manure in a Biorefinery Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shulin; Wen, Zhiyou; Liao, Wei; Liu, Chuanbin; Kincaid, R. L.; Harrison, J. H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Brown, Michael D.; Stevens, Don J.

    2005-03-01

    Animal manure is an underutilized biomass resource containing a large amount of organic carbon that is often wasted in the existing manure disposal practices. A research project funded by the US Department of Energy explored the feasibility of using manure via the sugar platform in a biorefinery. The results showed that fiber, the major component of dry manure, constituted approximately 50%, 40%, and 36% of the dry dairy, swine, and poultry manure materials, respectively. The highest fiber contents were in dairy manure of which more than 75% of the dry matter was in the particles greater than 0.125 mm. Manure can be used for substrate to produce cellulase on site. The hemicellulose component in the manure fiber could be readily converted to sugar through acid hydrolysis. Concentrated acid treatment was most effective in manure cellulose decrystallization. The effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis was limited without concentrated acid pretreatment. The high protein content in manure had negative affects on acid hydrolysis. Purification and separation is necessary for further chemical conversion of the sugar to value-added chemicals through hydrogenation.

  18. Inorganic carbon and emission of ammonia from manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal agriculture, and manure in particular, is a major source of ammonia emissions, and numerous models have been developed for predicting ammonia emission from manure. However, even the most comprehensive models are often inaccurate. Ammonia emission is complicated by volatilization of carbon dio...

  19. Solubility of manure phosphorus characterized by selective and sequential extractions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increasing awareness of the severity of the problem of phosphorus (P) derived from agricultural production moving off-farm and threatening water quality has led to the search for methods to characterize the forms and potential solubilities of phosphorus in food animal manures and manure products...

  20. Protecting water quality by developing subsurface application technology for dry manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal manure provides a rich source of crop nutrients, but applying manure on the soil surface can result in significant nutrient losses that degrade water quality and accelerate the eutrophication process. Because surface-applied manure is completely exposed to the atmosphere, runoff water can tr...

  1. Effects of field-manure applications on stratified 17B-estradiol concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The estrogenic hormone, 17'-estradiol (E2), is a potent endocrine disrupting compound found in animal manures. The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of manure-borne E2 stratified through soil in fields that receive swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure slurry as fertilizer. Soil cor...

  2. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: Laboratory-scale study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does no...

  3. Manure-DNDC: a biogeochemical process model for quantifying greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from livestock manure systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From the point of view of biogeochemistry, manure is a complex of organic matter containing minor minerals. When manure is excreted by animals, it undergoes a series of reactions such as decomposition, hydrolysis, ammonia volatilization, nitrification, denitrification, and fermentation from which ca...

  4. Brazilian beef cattle feedlot manure management: a country survey.

    PubMed

    Costa, C; Goulart, R S; Albertini, T Z; Feigl, B J; Cerri, C E P; Vasconcelos, J T; Bernoux, M; Lanna, D P D; Cerri, C C

    2013-04-01

    No information regarding the management of manure from beef cattle feedlots is available for Brazil. To fill this knowledge gap, a survey of 73 feedlots was conducted in 7 Brazilian states. In this survey, questions were asked regarding animal characteristics, their diets, and manure handling management from generation to disposal. These feedlots finished 831,450 animals in 2010. The predominant breed fed was Nellore, with average feeding periods of 60 to 135 d. Corn was the primary source of grain used in the feedlot diets (76% of surveyed animals) with concentrate inclusion levels ranging from 81 to 90% (38% of surveyed animals). The most representative manure management practice was the removal of manure from pens only at the end of the feeding period. Subsequently, the manure was stored in mounds before being applied to crop and pasture lands. Runoff, mainly from rainwater, was collected in retention ponds and used for agriculture. However, the quantity of runoff was not known. Manure was composted for only 20% of the animals in the survey and was treated in anaerobic digesters for only 1% of the animals. Manure from 59% of the cattle surveyed was used as fertilizer, providing a cost savings over the use of synthetic fertilizers. Overall, chemical analysis of the manure before application to fields was conducted for the manure of 56% of the surveyed animals, but the exact quantity applied (per hectare) was unknown for 48%. Feedlots representing 48% of the surveyed animals noted similar or greater crop and pasture yields when using manure, rather than synthetic fertilizers. In addition, 32% mentioned an increase in soil organic matter. Feedlots representing 88% of the surveyed cattle indicated that information concerning management practices that improve manure use efficiency is lacking. Feedlots representing 93% of the animals in the survey reported having basic information regarding the generation of energy and fertilizer with anaerobic digesters. However

  5. Methane emission factors from cattle manure in Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Avalos, E; Ruiz-Suárez, L G

    2001-10-01

    Factors responsible for methane emission from cattle manure representing diverse climates, systems and functions of cattle production are presented. These factors were obtained by means of an experimental methodology developed for this project. It was considered that the temperature, moisture, handling of manure and the animals' feed ration affect methane production. Drying conditions and fermentation of manure in cool, temperate and warm climates were simulated in the laboratory. Cattle manure was obtained from animals in intensive, semi-intensive and extensive production systems; for dairy, non-dairy and double purpose cattle production functions. Also handling of manure in dry lot, pasture and solid storage was considered. Results suggest that the dominant factor in methane emissions is the feed ration, followed by fermentation temperature and the excreta moisture content. The emission factors obtained in this work are at least a factor of five smaller than those proposed in the revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for countries like Mexico.

  6. Manure use on alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure application to alfalfa is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can improve yield and performance of t...

  7. Characterization of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Kedar

    Emission of gases, odor, and particulate matters from livestock manure is a major concern because of their potential adverse environmental impacts. For example, ammonia in the air has the potential to: negatively affect animal, human health and environment. Mitigation of ammonia emissions from livestock manure to protect animal and human health, and the environment, in general, is thus an important agenda for livestock producers, engineers, and environmental scientists. Proper understanding of the mechanisms or process of its volatilization from manure is the first step towards designing or formulating appropriate emissions mitigation strategies. This research investigated the effects of suspended solids, anaerobic digestion, and ionic strength on the ammonia (NH3) volatilization mechanism from liquid dairy manure. Experiments were conducted to: (i) assess the role of suspended solids characteristics on ammonia volatilization, (ii) evaluate the impacts of anaerobic digestion on the process governing NH 3 volatilization, and (iii) delineate the influences of suspended solids (SS) and ionic strength (IS) on the ammonia volatilization process from dairy manure. Two key parameters (the ammonia dissociation and the overall mass transfer coefficient (KoL)) that govern ammonia volatilization were evaluated to achieve these objectives. The physical and chemical properties of manure were also evaluated to further elucidate the respective processes. The suspended solids ammoniacal nitrogen adsorption properties did not significantly affect either the ammonium dissociation or the K oL; suggesting that the characteristics of manure suspended solids did not play a significant role in ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure. The dissociation of ammonium in anaerobically digested (AD) manure was significantly higher than in the undigested (UD) manure. However, KoL was less in AD manure than in UD manure, while an increase in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was observed

  8. Size distributions of manure particles released under simulated rainfall.

    PubMed

    Pachepsky, Yakov A; Guber, Andrey K; Shelton, Daniel R; McCarty, Gregory W

    2009-03-01

    Manure and animal waste deposited on cropland and grazing lands serve as a source of microorganisms, some of which may be pathogenic. These microorganisms are released along with particles of dissolved manure during rainfall events. Relatively little if anything is known about the amounts and sizes of manure particles released during rainfall, that subsequently may serve as carriers, abode, and nutritional source for microorganisms. The objective of this work was to obtain and present the first experimental data on sizes of bovine manure particles released to runoff during simulated rainfall and leached through soil during subsequent infiltration. Experiments were conducted using 200 cm long boxes containing turfgrass soil sod; the boxes were designed so that rates of manure dissolution and subsequent infiltration and runoff could be monitored independently. Dairy manure was applied on the upper portion of boxes. Simulated rainfall (ca. 32.4 mm h(-1)) was applied for 90 min on boxes with stands of either live or dead grass. Electrical conductivity, turbidity, and particle size distributions obtained from laser diffractometry were determined in manure runoff and soil leachate samples. Turbidity of leachates and manure runoff samples decreased exponentially. Turbidity of manure runoff samples was on average 20% less than turbidity of soil leachate samples. Turbidity of leachate samples from boxes with dead grass was on average 30% less than from boxes with live grass. Particle size distributions in manure runoff and leachate suspensions remained remarkably stable after 15 min of runoff initiation, although the turbidity continued to decrease. Particles had the median diameter of 3.8 microm, and 90% of particles were between 0.6 and 17.8 microm. The particle size distributions were not affected by the grass status. Because manure particles are known to affect transport and retention of microbial pathogens in soil, more information needs to be collected about the

  9. Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

  10. Reuse of concentrated animal feed operation wastewater on agricultural lands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal areas, further lim...

  11. Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

  12. Cellulose decomposition and larval biomass production from the co-digestion of dairy manure and chicken manure by mini-livestock (Hermetia illucens L.).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Kashif Ur; Cai, Minmin; Xiao, Xiaopeng; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Hui; Soomro, Abdul Aziz; Zhou, Yusha; Li, Wu; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Jibin

    2017-03-22

    World trends toward the modern dairies intensification on large production units cause massive animal manure production and accumulation. Improper handling of manure produced by industrial farm operation greatly deteriorates the major environmental media including air, water and soil. The black soldier fly utilizes organic waste and converts it into larvae biomass to be used as livestock feed and into residues to be used as bio-fertilizer. However, due to the high ratio of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in dairy manure, this conversion is difficult. Therefore, dairy manure treated with chicken manure was digested by Hermetia illucens. In this paper, we found that the co-digestion process significantly enhanced the larval production, waste mass reduction, rate of larvae conversion, feed conversion ratio, nutrient reduction and fibers utilization. Whereas 40% dairy manure and 60% chicken manure group show better results than other manure mixtures and had a significantly increased the cellulose consumption by 61.19%, hemicellulose consumption by 53.22% and lignin consumption by 42.23% compared with 49.89%, 49.77% and 31.95%, respectively, in the dairy-only manure group. Finally, scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the structural changes of dairy manure, chicken manure and their co-digestion mixtures. The scan electron microscopy showed the deterioration in the structure of dairy and chicken manure fibers by Hermetia illucens. Moreover, the carbon-nitrogen ratio was decreased in all end products of post vermicomposting. The results suggest that the co-digestion of 40% dairy manure with 60% chicken manure is an appropriate proportion for dairy manure management with the black soldier fly.

  13. Two new designs for manure solids and liquids sampling from tank, pit, and lagoons at various depths

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wide variety of animal manure slurry storage structures and the spatially heterogeneous nature of manure within the storage structure present a difficult challenge to researchers studying the composition and activities within manure storage systems. The objective of this study was to design and...

  14. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE. AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND UHPLC -ICPMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic animal-feed additives have been extensively used in the United States for their growth- promoting and disease-controlling properties. In particular most broiler chickens are fed roxarsone(3- nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) to control coccidiosis. Disposal of the result...

  15. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE. AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND UHPLC -ICPMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic animal-feed additives have been extensively used in the United States for their growth- promoting and disease-controlling properties. In particular most broiler chickens are fed roxarsone(3- nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) to control coccidiosis. Disposal of the result...

  16. Characterization of antibiotic resistant (AR) fecal indicators in runoff from fields amended with swine manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The application of animal manures to agricultural soil is a widespread practice. One concern associated with food animal manures is the introduction of antibiotic drugs, AR bacteria, and AR genes that may be spread through and across agroecosystems, with the potential to adversely impact the treatm...

  17. County-based estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal manure in the United States for 1982, 1987, and 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, Larry; Hitt, Kerie; Alexander, Richard

    1998-01-01

    names that correspond to the FIPS codes. 2. Tabular component - Nine tab-delimited ASCII lookup tables of animal counts and nutrient estimates organized by 5-digit state/county FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standards) code. Another table lists the county names that correspond to the FIPS codes. The use of trade names is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  18. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy.

    PubMed

    De Vries, J W; Groenestein, C M; De Boer, I J M

    2012-07-15

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer. Five environmental impact categories were quantified using life cycle assessment: climate change (CC), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD). For pig as well as dairy cattle manure, we compared a scenario with the processing method and a scenario with additional anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction to a reference situation applying only liquid manure. Comparisons were based on a functional unit of 1 ton liquid manure. System boundaries were set from the manure storage under the animal house to the field application of all end products. Scenarios with only manure processing increased the environmental impact for most impact categories compared to the reference: ME did not change, whereas, TA and PMF increased up to 44% as a result of NH3 and NO(x) emissions from processing and storage of solid fraction. Including digestion reduced CC by 117% for pig manure and 104% for dairy cattle manure, mainly because of substituted electricity and avoided N2O emission from storage of solid fraction. FFD decreased by 59% for pig manure and increased 19% for dairy cattle manure. TA and PMF remained higher compared to the reference. Sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emission from manure storage, NH3 emission from processing, and the replaced nitrogen

  19. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  20. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  1. Transport of microorganisms in the presence and absence of manure suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, S. A.; Tadassa, Y.; Bettahar, M.

    2004-12-01

    Wash water and storm water runoff from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) frequently contain manure and a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasite pathogens. Column experiments were conducted to elucidate the transport behavior of representative microbes (coliphage, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Giardia cysts) through several aquifer sands in the presence and absence of manure suspensions. Specific factors that were considered include the soil grain size distribution, the presence and absence of manure suspensions, and manure size distribution. Effluent concentration curves and the final spatial distributions of microorganisms and manure particles were measured. Increasing the microbe size and decreasing the median grain size of the sand resulted in low effluent concentrations and increased retention of the microbes, especially in the sand near the column inlet. Similar transport trends were observed for the manure suspensions in these sands. The spatial distributions of retained microbes and manure were generally not consistent with predictions from conventional attachment, detachment, and blocking models; but rather with straining. The transport potential of the microbes was sometimes enhanced in the presence of manure suspensions. This observation, as well transport and retention data for manure suspensions, suggest that manure components filled straining sites and inhibited microbe retention. Differences in the surface charge properties of clean and manure equilibrated microbes (presumably due to adsorption of organic components from the suspension) may also influence transport behavior.

  2. Influence of manure application on surface energy and snow cover: field experiments.

    PubMed

    Kongoli, C E; Bland, W L

    2002-01-01

    Application of manure to frozen and/or snow-covered soils of high-latitude, continental climate regions is associated with enhanced P losses to surface water bodies, but the practice is an essential part of most animal farming systems in these regions. Field experiments of the fates of winter-applied manure P are so difficult as to make them essentially impractical, so a mechanistic, modeling approach is required. Central to a mechanistic understanding of manure P snow-melt runoff is knowledge of snowpack disappearance (ablation) as affected by manure application. The objective of this study was to learn how solid manure applied to snow-covered fields modulates the surface energy balance and thereby snow cover ablation. Manure landspreading experiments were conducted in Arlington, WI during the winters of 1998 and 1999. Solid dairy manure was applied on top of snow at a rate of 70 Mg ha(-1) in 1998, and at 45 and 100 Mg ha(-1) in 1999. Results showed that the manure retarded melt, in proportion to the rate applied. The low-albedo manure increased absorption of shortwave radiation compared with snow, but this extra energy was lost in longwave radiation and turbulent flux of sensible and latent heat. These losses result in significant attenuation of melt peaks, retarding snowmelt. Lower snowmelt rates beneath manure may allow more infiltration of meltwater compared with bare snow. This infiltration and attenuated snowmelt runoff may partially mitigate the enhanced likelihood of P runoff from unincorporated winter-spread manure.

  3. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health. PMID:27376311

  4. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-06-30

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  6. Origins and identities of key manure odor components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Odor is just one of many environmental issues associated with animal manures. Odor arises from a number of different locations in animal production systems, but the chemistry and biochemical origin is similar across sites. A complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and inorganic compoun...

  7. Global review of winter manure application regulations and guidelines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Application of animal manure to frozen and snow-covered soils can increase the risk of nutrient losses and impairment of water quality in regions with hardy winters. In conjunction with global distributions of animal densities, we reviewed world-wide regulatory and voluntary guidelines on winter man...

  8. Ammonia and greenhouse gas concentrations at surfaces of simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bedding is used in livestock operations to facilitate manure management and provide comfort for the animal. The research objective was to determine differences in ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) concentrations from simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs ...

  9. What dairy cows are fed impacts manure chemistry and the environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past 20 years or so there has been increasing evidence and concern that nutrients contained in animal manures can adversely impact water and air quality. Research has demonstrated that the diets fed to dairy cows can be modified to reduce nutrient excretions in manure and environmental impa...

  10. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices.

  11. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure applicatio...

  12. Improving estimates of N and P loads in irrigation water from swine manure lagoons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The implementation of nutrient management plans (NMPs) for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requires recording N and P loads from land-applied manure, including nutrients applied in irrigation water from manure treatment lagoons. By regulation, lagoon irrigation water nutrient records in ...

  13. Leachate water quality from soils amended with swine manure based biochars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure applicatio...

  14. Persistence of Escherichia coli in manure-amended soil in Pennsylvania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potential for pathogen transfer from soils amended with untreated animal manure to crops and the frequent occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks involving Escherichia coli O157:H7 prompted the FDA proposal requiring a 9-month waiting period before harvesting produce from manure-amended fields. A...

  15. Diet, tillage and soil moisture effects on odorous emissions following land application of beef manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef manure from animals fed diets containing different amounts of wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) was applied to soil as a fertilizer to plot located across the slope. The applied manure and soil were either tilled or not tilled. The odor emissions were measured for 24 hours. Then a sing...

  16. Composition of whole and water extractable organic matter of cattle manure affected by management practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic matter (OM) is a major component of animal manure. In this chapter, we present two case studies on the multiple spectral features of whole and water extractable organic matter (WEOM) of cattle (beef and dairy) manure affected by differing management practices. Using wet chemistry and Fourie...

  17. Temporal succession of soil antibiotic resistance genes following application of swine, cattle and poultry manures spiked with or without antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Gou, Min; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-09-27

    Land application of animal manure is a common agricultural practice potentially leading to dispersal and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental settings. However, the fate of resistome in agro-ecosystems over time following application of different manure sources has never been compared systematically. Here, soil microcosm incubation was conducted to compare effects of poultry, cattle and swine manures spiked with or without the antibiotic tylosin on the temporal changes of soil ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR detected a total of 185 unique ARGs, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B resistance as the most frequently encountered ARG type. The diversity and abundance of ARGs significantly increased following application of manure and manure spiked with tylosin, with more pronounced effects observed in the swine and poultry manure treatments than in the cattle manure treatment. The level of antibiotic resistance gradually decreased over time in all manured soils but was still significantly higher in the soils treated with swine and poultry manures than in the untreated soils after 130 days' incubation. Tylosin-amended soils consistently showed higher abundances of ARGs than soils treated with manure only, suggesting a strong selection pressure of antibiotic-spiked manure on soil ARGs. The relative abundance of ARGs had significantly positive correlations with integrase and transposase genes, indicative of horizontal transfer potential of ARGs in manure and tylosin treated soils. Our findings provide evidence that application of swine and poultry manures might enrich more soil ARGs than cattle manure, which necessitates the appropriate treatment of raw animal manures prior to land application to minimise the spread of environmental ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Yield and heavy metal content of Brassica parachinensis influenced by successive application of chicken manure].

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-xian; Li, Guo-liang; He, Zhao-huan; Fu, Chang-ying

    2007-05-01

    High heavy metal content in animal manures commonly occurs in the world since microelement additives are widely used in intensive animal production. Successive field trials in Brassica parachinensis (BP) were conducted to investigate the influence of successive application of chicken manure (at the rate of) on the yield and heavy metal content of BP. The application rate of chicken manure was calculated by its N content and ranged from N 0-450 kg x hm(-2). The results indicate that compared to single application of inorganic fertilizers, chicken manure decreases the yield of BP in the first and the third crop, increases that in the second crop. Combinations of chicken manure and inorganic fertilizers increase the yield in the fourth yield. Mean yields of all treatments in various crops are greatly different. The second crop is significantly higher than all other crops. In terms of mean heavy metal contents of BP of four crops in various treatment, As and Zn contents increase with applying chicken manure, Cr and Cd contents decrease, Pb contents don't change considerably, and Cu contents increase with applying chicken manure and inorganic fertilizers together. Generally, except for the second crop, mean As, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn contents of BP in various crops increase with the increasing application times of chicken manure, mean Cd contents decrease. Hence, mass application for one crop or repeated application of chicken manure should be avoided in crop production.

  19. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberle, E.

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  20. Effect of manure vs. fertilizer inputs on productivity of forage crop models.

    PubMed

    Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caternolo, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Martiniello, Pasquale

    2011-06-01

    Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha(-1), respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha(-1) of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha(-1) under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  1. Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models

    PubMed Central

    Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caternolo, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Martiniello, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding. PMID:21776208

  2. Optimizing the Logistics of Anaerobic Digestion of Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoori, Emad; Flynn, Peter C.

    Electrical power production from the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is a means of recovering energy from animal waste. We evaluate the lowest cost method of moving material to and from centralized AD plants serving multiple confined feeding operations. Two areas are modeled, Lethbridge County, Alberta, Canada, an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, and Red Deer County, Alberta, a mixed-farming area with hog, dairy, chicken and beef cattle farms, and feedlots. We evaluate two types of AD plant: ones that return digestate to the source confined feeding operation for land spreading (current technology), and ones that process digestate to produce solid fertilizer and a dischargeable water stream (technology under development). We evaluate manure and digestate trucking, trucking of manure with return of digestate by pipelines, and pipelining of manure plus digestate. We compare the overall cost of power from these scenarios to farm or feedlot-based AD units. For a centralized AD plant with digestate return for land spreading the most economical transport option for manure plus digestate is by truck for the mixed-farming area and by pipelines for the concentrated feedlot area. For a centralized AD plant with digestate processing, the most economical transport option is trucking of manure for both cases.

  3. Assessment and characterization of manure in the Southeastern US

    SciTech Connect

    Gerwig, B.K.; Hegg, R.O.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to assess the quantity and characteristics of the livestock and poultry manures in the Southeastern US Livestock and poultry production in the U.S. is evolving to larger operations. This has caused some concern for water and air quality. Some states require certain management practices that might restrict the expansion of the livestock or poultry industry. These management practices may be: specific setback distances of the facility from neighboring property lines, groundwater monitoring, land application practices, odor control, operator training, and annual fees. These stricter regulations are encouraging the industry to look at various methods to dispose of or utilize animal manure. These methods may include energy recovery by methane production or direct combustion. In the 13 Southeastern states there are 81.1 x 10{sup 9} kg (89 million tons) of collectable manure produced per year. The top three producers of manure in the Southeast are North Carolina, Missouri and Arkansas. These three states contribute 49% of the total collectable manure. The hog and broiler industries supply 63% of the total collectable manure.

  4. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China.

  5. Separation efficiency and particle size distribution in relation to manure type and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Møller, H B; Sommer, S G; Ahring, B K

    2002-11-01

    Mechanical separation of liquid animal manure can be an effective technique for production of a liquid and a nutrient-rich solid fraction. The efficiency of separators depends on the physical and chemical composition of the animal manure. Therefore, the particle size composition was measured for different types of manure before treatment with a decanting centrifuge and a screw press. Storage of pig manure reduces the total dry matter content, and the content of small particles (< 0.0016 mm) is reduced more than the content of large particles. In consequence, the proportion of large particles will increase, while the portion of small particles will decrease. The separation efficiency of the screw press was found to be low, as this separator only retains particles > 1 mm. The decanter centrifuge retained all the particles > 0.02 mm and was therefore much more efficient than the screw press. Separation efficiency was also found to be highly dependent on the type of manure used.

  6. Handling manure on forage crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure application to alfalfa (and other perennial forages) is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can impr...

  7. Diverse Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Dairy Cow Manure

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Andrew, Sheila; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However, our knowledge of the identity, diversity, and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure, a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to beta-lactams, phenicols, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. Functional screening of fosmid and small-insert libraries identified 80 different antibiotic resistance genes whose deduced protein sequences were on average 50 to 60% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. The resistance genes were frequently found in clusters and originated from a taxonomically diverse set of species, suggesting that some microorganisms in manure harbor multiple resistance genes. Furthermore, amid the great genetic diversity in manure, we discovered a novel clade of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. Our study combined functional metagenomics with third-generation PacBio sequencing to significantly extend the roster of functional antibiotic resistance genes found in animal gut bacteria, providing a particularly broad resource for understanding the origins and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in agriculture and clinical settings. PMID:24757214

  8. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Flows through the Manure Management Chain in China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin; Jin, Shuqin; Ma, Wenqi; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene; Liu, Ling; Chadwick, David; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-12-20

    The largest livestock production and greatest fertilizer use in the world occurs in China. However, quantification of the nutrient flows through the manure management chain and their interactions with management-related measures is lacking. Herein, we present a detailed analysis of the nutrient flows and losses in the "feed intake-excretion-housing-storage-treatment-application" manure chain, while considering differences among livestock production systems. We estimated the environmental loss from the manure chain in 2010 to be up to 78% of the excreted nitrogen and over 50% of the excreted phosphorus and potassium. The greatest losses occurred from housing and storage stages through NH3 emissions (39% of total nitrogen losses) and direct discharge of manure into water bodies or landfill (30-73% of total nutrient losses). There are large differences among animal production systems, where the landless system has the lowest manure recycling. Scenario analyses for the year 2020 suggest that significant reductions of fertilizer use (27-100%) and nutrient losses (27-56%) can be achieved through a combination of prohibiting manure discharge, improving manure collection and storages infrastructures, and improving manure application to cropland. We recommend that current policies and subsidies targeted at the fertilizer industry should shift to reduce the costs of manure storage, transport, and application.

  9. Dairy manure nutrient analysis using quick tests.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Bicudo, J R

    2005-05-01

    Rapid on-farm assessment of manure nutrient content can be achieved with the use of quick tests. These tests can be used to indirectly measure the nutrient content in animal slurries immediately before manure is applied on agricultural fields. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of hydrometers, electrical conductivity meter and pens, and Agros N meter against standard laboratory methods. Manure samples were collected from 34 dairy farms in the Mammoth Cave area in central Kentucky. Regression equations were developed for combined and individual counties located In the area (Barren, Hart and Monroe). Our results indicated that accuracy in nutrient estimation could be improved if separate linear regressions were developed for farms with similar facilities in a county. Direct hydrometer estimates of total nitrogen were among the most accurate when separate regression equations were developed for each county (R2 = 0.61, 0.93, and 0.74 for Barren, Hart and Monroe county, respectively). Reasonably accurate estimates (R2 > 0.70) were also obtained for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using hydrometers, either by relating specific gravity to nutrient content or to total solids content. Estimation of ammoniacal nitrogen with Agros N meter and electrical conductivity meter/pens correlated well with standard laboratory determinations, especially while using the individual data sets from Hart County (R2 = 0.70 to 0.87). This study indicates that the use of quick test calibration equations developed for a small area or region where farms are similar in terms of manure handling and management, housing, and feed ration are more appropriate than using "universal" equations usually developed with combined data sets. Accuracy is expected to improve if individual farms develop their own calibration curves. Nevertheless, we suggest confidence intervals always be specified for nutrients estimated through quick testing for any specific region, county, or farm.

  10. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to dire...

  11. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to dire...

  12. Coupling Manure Injection with Cover Crops to Enhance Nutrient Cycling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large-scale hog (Sus scrofa) production is a major agricultural enterprise in the Midwest. Large numbers of confined hogs produce about 50 million tons per year of swine manure in Iowa alone. Rapid expansion of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has resulted in increased concentrations o...

  13. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  14. Effects of organic dairy manure amendment on soil phosphatase activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic dairy production is increasing in the U.S. due to concerns over environmental, human, and animal health. It is well known that the application of livestock manure to soil can influence enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling and soil fertility, such as soil phosphatases; however, orga...

  15. Phosphorus and nitrogen losses from winter stacking of manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Appropriate management of animal manure including storage is essential for minimizing nutrient losses and guaranteeing good water quality. A field lysimeter study was carried out at the Susquehanna River Basin, northeastern USA to investigate phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) losses in leachate and ru...

  16. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2016-01-01

    Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans. PMID:27571092

  17. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure.

    PubMed

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-08-25

    Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans.

  18. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities.

  19. Abundance of 13C and 15N in emmer, spelt and naked barley grown on differently manured soils: towards a method for identifying past manuring practice.

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Marie; Thomsen, Ingrid K; Andersen, Astrid J; Bogaard, Amy; Christensen, Bent T

    2011-10-15

    The shortage of plant-available nutrients probably constrained prehistoric cereal cropping but there is very little direct evidence relating to the history of ancient manuring. It has been shown that the long-term addition of animal manure elevates the δ(15)N value of soil and of modern crops grown on the soil. We have examined the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of soil and of the grain and straw fractions of three ancient cereal types grown in unmanured, PK amended and cattle manured plots of the Askov long-term field experiment. Manure increased biomass yields and the δ(15)N values of soil and of grain and straw fractions of the ancient cereal types; differences in δ(15)N between unmanured and PK treatments were insignificant. The offset in straw and grain δ(15)N due to manure averaged 7.9 and 8.8 ‰, respectively, while the soil offset was 1.9 ‰. The soil and biomass δ(13)C values were not affected by nutrient amendments. Grain weights differed among cereal types but increased in the order: unmanured, PK, and animal manure. The grain and straw total-N concentration was generally not affected by manure addition. Our study suggests that long-term application of manure to permanently cultivated sites would have provided a substantial positive effect on cereals grown in early agriculture and will have left a significant N isotopic imprint on soil, grains and straw. We suggest that the use of animal manure can be identified by the (15)N abundance in remains of ancient cereals (e.g. charred grains) from archaeological sites and by growing test plants on freshly exposed palaeosols.

  20. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotics used in animal feeding operations have been detected in the environment. There is a growing concern about the impact of these pharmaceutical compounds in the manure and the effect they may have on aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and the potential development of antibiotic resistant m...

  1. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term.

  2. Airborne pathogens from dairy manure aerial irrigation and the human health risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Burch, Tucker R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy manure, like the fecal excrement from any domesticated or wild animal, can contain pathogens capable of infecting humans and causing illness or even death. Pathogens in dairy manure can be broadly divided into categories of taxonomy or infectiousness. Dividing by taxonomy there are three pathogen groups in dairy manure: viruses (e.g., bovine rotavirus), bacteria (e.g., Salmonella species), and protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum). There are two categories of infectiousness for pathogens found in animals: those that are zoonotic and those that are not. A zoonotic pathogen is one that can infect both human and animal hosts. Some zoonotic pathogens found in dairy manure cause illness in both hosts (e.g., Salmonella) while other zoonotic pathogens, like Escherichia coli O157:H7, (enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)) cause illness only in humans. As a general rule, the gastrointestinal viruses found in dairy manure are not zoonotic. While there are exceptions (e.g., rare reports of bovine rotavirus infecting children), for the most part the viruses in dairy manure are not a human health concern. The primary concerns are the zoonotic bacteria and protozoa in dairy manure.

  3. Manure sampling for nutrient analysis: variability and sampling efficacy.

    PubMed

    Dou, Z; Galligan, D T; Allshouse, R D; Toth, J D; Ramberg, C F; Ferguson, J D

    2001-01-01

    Reliable estimation of nutrient concentrations is required to manage animal manure for protecting waters while sustaining crop production. This study was conducted to investigate sample variability and reliable nutrient analysis for several manure types and handling systems. Serial samples were collected from dairy, swine, and broiler poultry operations while manure was being loaded onto hauler tanks or spreaders for field application. Samples were analyzed for total solids (TS), total nitrogen (N), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N), total phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). The least number of samples needed for reliable testing of total N and P, defined as +/- 10% of the experimental means with 99% probability, was obtained for each farm using a computer-intensive random resampling technique. Sample variability within farms, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), was mostly 6 to 8% for farms that used agitation of manure storages but several times higher (20-30%) on farms where no agitation was applied during the sampling period. Results from the random resampling procedure indicated that for farms that used agitation, three to five samples were adequate for a representative composite for reliable testing of total N and P; whereas for farms without agitation, at least 40 samples would be required. Data also suggest that using book values for manure nutrient estimations could be problematic because the discrepancies between book standards and measured farm data varied widely from a small amount to several fold.

  4. Efficacy of alum and coal combustion by-products in stabilizing manure phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Dou, Z; Zhang, G Y; Stout, W L; Toth, J D; Ferguson, J D

    2003-01-01

    Animal manures contain large amounts of soluble phosphorus (P), which is prone to runoff losses when manure is surface-applied. Here we report the efficacy of alum and three coal combustion by-products in reducing P solubility when added to dairy, swine, or broiler litter manures in a laboratory incubation study. Compared with unamended controls, alum effectively reduced readily soluble P, determined in water extracts of moist manure samples with 1 h of shaking, for all three manures. The reduction ranged from 80 to 99% at treatment rates of 100 to 250 g alum kg(-1) manure dry matter. The fluidized bed combustion fly ash (FBC) reduced readily soluble P by 50 to 60% at a rate of 400 g kg(-1) for all three manures. Flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) reduced readily soluble P by nearly 80% when added to swine manure and broiler litter at 150 and 250 g kg(-1). Another by-product, anthracite refuse fly ash (ANT), was ineffective for all three manures. In all cases, reduction in readily soluble P is primarily associated with inorganic phosphorus (P(i)) with little change in organic phosphorus (P(o)). Sequential extraction results indicate that the by-product treatments shifted manure P from H2O-P into a less vulnerable fraction, NaHCO3 - P, while the alum treatment shifted the P into even more stable forms, mostly NaOH-P. Such shifts in P fractions would have little influence on P availability for crops over the long-term but would retard and reduce potential losses of P following manure applications.

  5. Effects of carbon dioxide emission, kinetically-limited reactions, and diffusive transport on ammonia emission from manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure causes significant loss of fixed N from livestock operations. Ammonia emission from manure is the culmination of biological, chemical, and physical processes, all of which are well-understood. In this work, we present a speciation and transport mode...

  6. Detection of methanogenic archaea in stored swine manure by direct mcrA PCR and sequence analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Storage of swine manure is associated with the production of a variety of odors and emissions which are products of anaerobic metabolism of the indigenous bacteria in the manure. These emissions can pose problems to the health and production efficiency of the animals, as well as the health and comf...

  7. Estrogen transport in surface runoff from agricultural fields treated with two different application methods of dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While the land-application of animal manure provides many benefits, concerns exist regarding the subsequent transport of hormones and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. This study compares two methods of dairy manure application, surface broadcasting and shallow disk injection, on the fate and...

  8. Effect of rainfall timing and tillage on the transport of steroid hormones in runoff from manure amended row crop fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure generated from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represents one of the major sources of steroid hormones found in surface water. This paper presents results of a study conducted near Concord, NE to determine the effects of manure handling (compost vs. stockpile), tillage (no-till...

  9. Impact of fiber source and feed particle size on swine manure properties related to spontaneous foam formation during anaerobic decomposition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foam accumulation in deep-pit manure storage facilities is of concern for swine producers because of the logistical and safety-related problems it creates. A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the impact of feed grind size, fiber source, and manure age on foaming characteristics. Animals were f...

  10. Characteristics of pollutant gas releases from swine, dairy, beef, and layer manure, and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Saha, Chayan Kumer; Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Dunn, James L

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about characteristics of gas releases from various types of organic wastes can assist in developing gas pollution reduction technologies and establishing environmental regulations. Five different organic wastes, i.e., four types of animal manure (swine, beef, dairy, and layer hen) and municipal wastewater, were studied for their characteristics of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) releases for 38 or 43 days in reactors under laboratory conditions. Weekly waste additions and continuous reactor headspace ventilation were supplied to simulate waste storage conditions. Results demonstrated that among the five waste types, layer hen manure and municipal wastewater had the highest and lowest NH3 release potentials, respectively. Layer manure had the highest and dairy manure had the lowest CO2 release potentials. Dairy manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest H2S release potentials, respectively. Beef manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest SO2 releases, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the different types of wastes, especially the total nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, dry matter, and pH, had strong influence on the releases of the four gases. Even for the same type of waste, the variation in physicochemical characteristics affected the gas releases remarkably.

  11. Biogas production from steer manures in Vietnam: Effects of feed supplements and tannin contents.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cuong H; Saggar, Surinder; Vu, Cuong C; Tate, Kevin R; Tran, Thao T T; Luu, Thi T; Ha, Hanh T; Nguyen, Huong L T; Sommer, Sven G

    2017-08-05

    In developing countries, the simple biogas digesters installed underground without heating or stirring are seen as a 'green' technology to convert animal waste into biogas, a source of bio-energy. However, quantitative estimates of biogas production of manures from steers fed local feed diets at actual incubation temperatures have yet to be carried out. The aim of this study was to determine the methane (CH4) production potential of manures from steers in Vietnam offered traditional feed rations or supplemental diets. Biochemical CH4 production (BMP) was measured in batch tests at 30°C using manures collected from two different experiments of steers fed diets containing feed supplements. BMP was 110.1 (NLkg(-1)VS) for manure from steers receiving a control diet, significantly lower 79.0 (NL kg(-1)VS) for manure from steers fed a diet containing 0.3% tannin (%DM), but then showed an increasing trend to 90.9 and 91.2 (NL kg(-1)VS) for manures from steers receiving 0.4 and 0.5% tannin (%DM) supplements, respectively. Similarly, the CH4 production (NL kg(-1)VS) of manure from steers was 174 for control, 142 for control supplemented concentrate (C), 143 for control added rice straw treated with urea (R), and 127 for control supplemented C and R. Our results show there was a decrease in CH4 emissions from steer manures through using supplemented rations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal changes of selected chemical properties in three manure - amended soils of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Escobar, M E; Hue, N V

    2008-12-01

    Soil amendment with organic materials (crop residues animal manure, and green manure) reportedly has positive effects on soil properties, from acidity to plant-nutrient availability. To examine that hypothesis, an incubation study was conducted to assess the changes in some chemical properties of three different tropical soils (Andisol, Ultisol, and Oxisol) amended with chicken manure and green manure (Leucaena leucocephala) at the rate of 10tha(-1). The results showed that organic amendments raised soil pH and EC, regardless of the type of manure used. Manuring lowered the concentrations of Mehlich-3 extractable Ca, P, Mn and Si in all soils and decreased the concentration of Mg in the Ultisol and Oxisol. However, manure amendment led to increases in the concentrations of Mg and K in the Andisol. Organic amendments caused a decrease in KCl extractable Al. Initial soluble C levels were highest in the Oxisol (60micromolg(-1)) and lowest in the Andisol (20micromolg(-1)). The concentration of soluble C decreased exponentially with duration of incubation. Three low molecular weight organic molecules (acetic acid, catechol and oxalic acid) out of the eight tested were found in all manure-amended soils. This study quantified the release of some Al chelating organic acids, the reduction of exchangeable Al, and the changes in major plant-nutrients when organic materials were added to nutrient poor, tropical acid soils.

  13. Seasonal variation in methane emission from stored slurry and solid manures

    SciTech Connect

    Husted, S.

    1994-05-01

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) is an important greenhouse gas and recent inventories have suggested that livestock manure makes a significant contribution to global CH{sub 4} emissions. The emission of CH{sub 4} from stored pig slurry, cattle slurry, pig solid manure, and cattle solid manure was followed during a 1-yr period. Methane emission was determined by dynamic chambers. Emission rates followed a ln-normal distribution for all four manures, Indicating large spatial and seasonal variation& Monthly geometric means for pig slurry, cattle slurry, pig solid manure, and cattle solid manure varied from 0.4 to 35.8, 0.0 to 34.5, 0.4 to 142.1, and 0.1 to 42.7 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, respectively. For slurries CH{sub 4} emission rates increased significantly with storage temperatures, the Q{sub 10} value ranging from 14 to 5.7 depending on slurry type. The presence of a natural surface crust reduced CH{sub 4} emission from slurry by a factor of 11 to 12. Surface crust effects declined with increasing slurry temperature. Solid manures stored in dungheaps showed significant heat production. Pig solid manure temperatures were maintained at 30 to 60{degrees}C throughout most of the year, while cattle solid manure temperatures were close to ambient levels until late spring, when heat production was initiated. Methanogenesis in solid manure also increased with increasing temperatures. For pig solid manure, CH{sub 4} emission rates peaked at 35 to 45{degrees}C. No distinct temperature optimum could be detected for cattle solid manure, however, temperatures rarely exceeded 45{degrees}C. The Q{sub 10} values for dungheaps ranged from 2.7 to 10.3 depending on-manure type and Q{sub 10} temperature interval. Annual CH{sub 4} emissions from pig slurry, cattle slurry, pig solid manure, and cattle solid manure were estimated at 8.9, 15.5, 27.3, and 5.3 kg animal{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, respectively. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.8 9 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg Pyr.(-1) (1 Tg = 10(12)g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  15. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Ospina, A; Dao, Thanh H; Van Kessel, J A; Reeves, J B

    2005-05-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213gL(-1), in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m(-1)). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP(s)) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP(s)) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP(s) = 0.471 x MRP(s) + 1102 (r2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH < or = 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r2) for the MRP(s) and RQFlex-DP(s) relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure.

  16. Diverse antibiotic resistance genes in dairy cow manure.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Andrew, Sheila; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-04-22

    Application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However, our knowledge of the identity, diversity, and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure, a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to beta-lactams, phenicols, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. Functional screening of fosmid and small-insert libraries identified 80 different antibiotic resistance genes whose deduced protein sequences were on average 50 to 60% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. The resistance genes were frequently found in clusters and originated from a taxonomically diverse set of species, suggesting that some microorganisms in manure harbor multiple resistance genes. Furthermore, amid the great genetic diversity in manure, we discovered a novel clade of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. Our study combined functional metagenomics with third-generation PacBio sequencing to significantly extend the roster of functional antibiotic resistance genes found in animal gut bacteria, providing a particularly broad resource for understanding the origins and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in agriculture and clinical settings. IMPORTANCE The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria is one of the most intractable challenges in 21st-century public health. The origins of resistance are complex, and a better understanding of the impacts of antibiotics used on farms would produce a more robust platform for public policy. Microbiomes of farm animals are reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which may affect distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens. Previous studies have focused on antibiotic resistance genes in manures of animals subjected

  17. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Other Zoonotic Pathogens during Simulated Composting, Manure Packing, and Liquid Storage of Dairy Manure

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Sukhbir K.; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Michel, Frederick C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock manures contain numerous microorganisms which can infect humans and/or animals, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis). The effects of commonly used manure treatments on the persistence of these pathogens have rarely been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the persistence of artificially inoculated M. paratuberculosis, as well as other naturally occurring pathogens, during the treatment of dairy manure under conditions that simulate three commonly used manure management methods: thermophilic composting at 55°C, manure packing at 25°C (or low-temperature composting), and liquid lagoon storage. Straw and sawdust amendments used for composting and packing were also compared. Manure was obtained from a large Ohio free-stall dairy herd and was inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at 106 CFU/g in the final mixes. For compost and pack treatments, this manure was amended with sawdust or straw to provide an optimal moisture content (60%) for composting for 56 days. To simulate liquid storage, water was added to the manure (to simulate liquid flushing and storage) and the slurry was placed in triplicate covered 4-liter Erlenmeyer flasks, incubated under ambient conditions for 175 days. The treatments were sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 for the detection of pathogens. The persistence of M. paratuberculosis was also assessed by a PCR hybridization assay. After 56 days of composting, from 45 to 60% of the carbon in the compost treatments was converted to CO2, while no significant change in carbon content was observed in the liquid slurry. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Listeria were all detected in the manure and all of the treatments on day 0. After 3 days of composting at 55°C, none of these organisms were detectable. In liquid manure and pack treatments, some of these microorganisms were detectable up to 28 days. M

  18. Assessing the effect of different treatments on decomposition rate of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Tariq M; Higgins, Stewart S; Ndegwa, Pius M; Frear, Craig S; Stöckle, Claudio O

    2016-11-01

    Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) contribute to greenhouse gas emission, but the magnitude of these emissions as a function of operation size, infrastructure, and manure management are difficult to assess. Modeling is a viable option to estimate gaseous emission and nutrient flows from CAFOs. These models use a decomposition rate constant for carbon mineralization. However, this constant is usually determined assuming a homogenous mix of manure, ignoring the effects of emerging manure treatments. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the decomposition rate constants of dairy manure in single and three-pool decomposition models, and to develop an empirical model based on chemical composition of manure for prediction of a decomposition rate constant. Decomposition rate constants of manure before and after an anaerobic digester (AD), following coarse fiber separation, and fine solids removal were determined under anaerobic conditions for single and three-pool decomposition models. The decomposition rates of treated manure effluents differed significantly from untreated manure for both single and three-pool decomposition models. In the single-pool decomposition model, AD effluent containing only suspended solids had a relatively high decomposition rate of 0.060 d(-1), while liquid with coarse fiber and fine solids removed had the lowest rate of 0.013 d(-1). In the three-pool decomposition model, fast and slow decomposition rate constants (0.25 d(-1) and 0.016 d(-1) respectively) of untreated AD influent were also significantly different from treated manure fractions. A regression model to predict the decomposition rate of treated dairy manure fitted well (R(2) = 0.83) to observed data.

  19. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Moeletsi, Mokhele Edmond; Tongwane, Mphethe Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Livestock manure management is one of the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in South Africa producing mainly methane and nitrous oxide. The emissions from this sub-category are dependent on how manure is stored. Liquid-stored manure predominantly produces methane while dry-based manure enhances mainly production of nitrous oxide. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines were utilized at different tier levels in estimating GHG emissions from manure management. The results show that methane emissions are relatively higher than nitrous oxide emissions with 3104 Gg and 2272 Gg respectively in carbon dioxide global warming equivalent. Abstract Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc.) were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal), sows (25.23 kg/year/animal) and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal). Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO2 Equivalent). Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO2 Equivalent) and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options

  20. Effects of pH and manure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in soil.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Claudia; Harter, Thomas; Radke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are a commonly used group of compounds in animal husbandry. They are excreted with manure, which is collected in a storage lagoon in certain types of confined animal feeding operations. Flood irrigation of forage fields with this liquid manure creates the potential risk of groundwater contamination in areas with shallow groundwater levels. We tested the hypothesis that-in addition to the soil characteristics-manure as cosolute and manure pH are two major parameters influencing sulfonamide transport in soils. Solute displacement experiments in repacked, saturated soil columns were performed with soil (loamy sand) and manure from a dairy farm in California. Breakthrough of nonreactive tracer and sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole at different solution pH (5, 6.5, 8.5) with and without manure was modeled using Hydrus-1D to infer transport and reaction parameters. Tracer and sulfonamide breakthrough curves were well explained by a model concept based on physical nonequilibrium transport, equilibrium sorption, and first-order dissipation kinetics. Sorption of the antibiotics was low ( K₄ ≤ 0.7 L kg) and only weakly influenced by pH and manure. However, sulfonamide attenuation was significantly affected by both pH and manure. The mass recovery of sulfonamides decreased with decreasing pH, e.g., for sulfamethoxazole from 77 (pH 8.5) to 56% (pH 5). The sulfonamides were highly mobile under the studied conditions, but manure application increased their attenuation substantially. The observed attenuation was most likely caused by a combination of microbial transformation and irreversible sorption to the soil matrix.

  1. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  2. Survival of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus in different types of manure and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Jin, Yan; Sims, Tom; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2010-08-01

    Noroviruses and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are common causes of foodborne disease. They are usually shed in feces and have been found in sewage water, biosolids, and animal manures. With the wide application of manure and biosolids on agricultural lands, there is an increasing interest in investigating virus survival in manure and biosolids. In this study, Murine norovirus-1 (MNV) and HAV were inoculated into different types of animal manure and three types of differently treated biosolids at 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C for up to 60 days. Both HAV and MNV viral genomes degraded immediately in high pH biosolids type 2 and 3 at time zero. For other types of manure and biosolids, HAV RNA was significantly reduced in biosolids type 1 and in liquid dairy manure (DM) after 60 days stored at 20 degrees C, but was stable in all types of manure and biosolids type 1 at 4 degrees C. MNV RNA was unstable in pelletized poultry litter and biosolids type 1 at 20 degrees C, and less stable in liquid DM at both temperatures. For MNV infectivity, there was no significant difference among pelletized poultry litter, alum-treated poultry litter, raw poultry litter, and swine manure at either 20 degrees C or 4 degrees C after 60 days of storage. However, HAV stored in swine manure and raw poultry litter had significantly higher infectivity levels than HAV stored in alum-treated poultry litter at both 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C. Overall, both viruses were inactivated rapidly in alkaline pH biosolids and unstable in liquid DM, but alum added in poultry litter had different effects on the two viruses: alum inactivated some HAV at both temperatures but had no effect on MNV.

  3. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  4. Estrogenic contamination by manure fertilizer in organic farming: a case study with the lizard Podarcis sicula.

    PubMed

    Verderame, Mariailaria; Limatola, Ermelinda; Scudiero, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, worldwide organic farming has grown exponentially; as a consequence, the use of animal manure as a soil fertility source has become the principal agricultural choice. However, the use of manure as fertilizer can increase the amount of steroid hormone metabolites in the soil. In southern Italy, lacertidae lizards are the most abundant vertebrate group in agroecosystems and have been identified as potential model species for ecotoxicological studies. The aim of this study was to understand if the manure applied in organic farming has estrogen-like effects in the lizard Podarcis sicula. Adult male lizards were captured in two organic agricultural fields (manure-treated sites) and in an uncultivated field (control site). Lizards from the two organic farms displayed hepatic biosynthetic alterations typical of an estrogenic contamination; hepatocytes contained both vitellogenin and estrogen receptor alpha transcripts and proteins, detected by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. The same cells did not show cadmium, lead and metallothionein accumulation, indicative of the lack of inorganic contamination. These findings suggest that exogenous estrogens, arising from the use of manure, could affect the welfare of wild animals and animal breeding, leading to bioaccumulation of estrogens in food chain, with possible risk for human consumers. For this reason, organic farming should implement the use of sustainable practices such as crop rotation to preserve the soil biological activity, rather than organic manure as fertilizer.

  5. Optimizing the logistics of anaerobic digestion of manure.

    PubMed

    Ghafoori, Emad; Flynn, Peter C

    2007-04-01

    Electrical power production from the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is a means of recovering energy from animal waste. We evaluate the lowest cost method of moving material to and from centralized AD plants serving multiple confined feeding operations. Two areas are modeled, Lethbridge County, Alberta, Canada, an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, and Red Deer County, Alberta, a mixed-farming area with hog, dairy, chicken and beef cattle farms, and feedlots. We evaluate two types of AD plant: ones that return digestate to the source confined feeding operation for land spreading (current technology), and ones that process digestate to produce solid fertilizer and a dischargeable water stream (technology under development). We evaluate manure and digestate trucking, trucking of manure with return of digestate by pipelines, and pipelining of manure plus digestate. We compare the overall cost of power from these scenarios to farm or feedlot-based AD units. For a centralized AD plant with digestate return for land spreading the most economical transport option for manure plus digestate is by truck for the mixed-farming area and by pipelines for the concentrated feedlot area. For a centralized AD plant with digestate processing, the most economical transport option is trucking of manure for both cases.However, for the concentrated feedlot area, pipeline transport of manure is close in cost to trucking, and the impact of truck congestion would likely lead to selection of pipeline transport. For the mixed-farming area, centralized AD is more economical than for any individual farm or feedlot unit. For the concentrated feedlot area, a centralized AD plant is less economical than a feedlot-based AD unit more than 55,000 head (digestate return) and 300,000 head (digestate processing). The study demonstrates the viability of centralized AD plants vs farm-based units in most farming environments, and that careful analysis of the cost of

  6. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microwave pretreatment for enhancement of phosphorus release from dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Szu-Hua; Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang; Schreier, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Both the advanced oxidation process (AOP) using a combination of hydrogen peroxide addition and microwave heating (H2O2/microwave), and the microwave heating process were used for solubilization of phosphorus from liquid dairy manure. About 80% of total phosphate was released into the solution at a microwave heating time of 5 min at 170 degrees C. With an addition of H2O2, more than 81% of total phosphate could be released over a reaction period of 49 h at ambient temperature. The AOP process could achieve up to 85% of total phosphate release at 120 degrees C. The results indicated that both the microwave, and the AOP processes could effectively release phosphate from liquid dairy manure. These processes could serve as pretreatments for phosphorus recovery from animal wastes, and could be combined with the struvite crystallization process to provide a new approach in treating animal wastes.

  8. Degradation and dissipation of the veterinary ionophore lasalocid in manure and soil.

    PubMed

    Žižek, Suzana; Dobeic, Martin; Pintarič, Štefan; Zidar, Primož; Kobal, Silvestra; Vidrih, Matej

    2015-11-01

    Lasalocid is a veterinary ionophore antibiotic used for prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. It is excreted from the treated animals mostly in its active form and enters the environment with the use of contaminated manure on agricultural land. To properly assess the risk that lasalocid poses to the environment, it is necessary to know its environmental concentrations as well as the rates of its degradation in manure and dissipation in soil. These values are still largely unknown. A research was undertaken to ascertain the rate of lasalocid degradation in manure under different storage conditions (aging in a pile or composting) and on agricultural soil after using lasalocid-contaminated manure. The results have shown that there is considerable difference in lasalocid degradation between aging manure with no treatment (t1/2=61.8±1.7 d) and composting (t1/2=17.5±0.8 d). Half-lives in soil are much shorter (on average 3.1±0.4 d). On the basis of the measured concentrations of lasalocid in soil after manure application, we can conclude that it can potentially be harmful to soil organisms (PEC/PNEC ratio of 1.18), but only in a worst-case scenario of using the maximum permissible amount of manure and immediately after application. To make certain that no harmful effects occur, composting is recommended.

  9. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff.

  10. Practical survey on antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities in livestock manure and manure-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Wang, Ruifei; Ren, Siwei; Szoboszlay, Marton; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Through livestock manure fertilization, antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are transferred to agricultural soils, resulting in a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the soil. It is not clear, however, whether a correlation exists between resistant bacterial populations in manure and manure-amended soil. In this work, we demonstrate that the prevalence of cephalexin-, amoxicillin-, kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria as well as bacteria simultaneously resistant to all four antibiotics was much higher in manure-amended soils than in manure-free soil. 454-pyrosequencing indicated that the ARB and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in swine or chicken manure and manure-amended soil were mainly distributed among Sphingobacterium, Myroides, Enterococcus, Comamonas and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae. The genus Sphingobacterium was highly prevalent among ARB from swine manure and manure-amended soil, and was also the most dominant genus among MARB from chicken manure and manure-amended soil. Other dominant genera among ARB or MARB populations in manure samples, including Myroides, Enterococcus and Comamonas, could not be detected or were detected at very low relative abundance in manure-amended soil. The present study suggests the possibility of transfer of ARBs from livestock manures to soils and persistence of ARB in these environments.

  11. Anaerobic acidogenesis of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Krones, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if high rate acidogenic fermentation of dairy manure was possible, Whole dairy manure was ground and diluted to 4% total solids and fed to a 10 L anaerobic chemostat operating at 35C and with hydraulic retention times varying between 6 and 50 hours. Several physical and organic parameters of the influent and effluent were measured and compared. The results indicated that the manure was too refractory for high rate liquefaction and hydrolysis. A second experiment was conducted using the same techniques and substrate but varying the substrate pH between 5 and 7. The objectives were to further investigate the pH sensitivity of the acidogenic process and to determine if, by introducing a substrate with a low pH, acidogenesis might proceed more efficiently. The primary result of decreasing the pH was a smaller proportion of methane and an increased proportion of hydrogen in the gas. Liquefaction and hydrolysis continued to be rate limiting and appeared to be a major impediment to two phase anaerobic treatment of dairy manure.

  12. Process modeling of ammonia volatilization from ammonium solution and manure surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations have become an important concern because of their potential effects on animal and human health and the environment. Emissions occur from manure surfaces on the barn floor, during storage, and following field application. To better quantify ammonia emi...

  13. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Cata Saady, Noori M.; Gilbert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Beside their use to treat infections, antibiotics are used excessively as growth promoting factors in livestock industry. Animals discharge in their feces and urine between 70%–90% of the antibiotic administrated unchanged or in active metabolites. Because livestock manure is re-applied to land as a fertilizer, concerns are growing over spread of antibiotics in water and soil. Development of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major risk. This paper reviewed the potential of anaerobic digestion to degrade antibiotics in livestock manure. Anaerobic digestion can degrade manure-laden antibiotic to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Abstract Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical) versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics’ metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion. PMID

  14. Nutrient leaching and soil retention in mined land reclaimed with stabilized manure.

    PubMed

    Dere, Ashlee L; Stehouwer, Richard C; Aboukila, Emad; McDonald, Kirsten E

    2012-01-01

    Two environmental problems in Pennsylvania are degraded mined lands and excess manure nutrients from intensive animal production. Manure could be used in mine reclamation, but the large application rates required for sustained biomass production could result in significant nutrient discharge. An abandoned mine site in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, was used to test manure nutrient stabilization by composting and by mixing with primary paper mill sludge (PMS). Reclamation treatments were lime and fertilizer, composted poultry manure (78 and 156 Mg ha), and poultry manure (50 Mg ha) mixed with PMS (103 and 184 Mg ha) to achieve C-to-N ratios of 20 and 29. Leachates were collected with zero-tension lysimeters, and during 3 yr following amendment application, <1% of added N leached from the compost treatments. The manure+PMS C:N 29 treatment leached more N than any other treatment (393 kg N ha during 3 yr, 12.4 times more N than compost treatments), mostly as pulses of NO in the first two fall seasons following reclamation. The manure+PMS C:N 20 treatment leached 107 kg N ha during 3 yr. Three years after amendment application, most of the N and P added with the manure-based amendments was retained in the mine soil even though net immobilization of N by PMS appeared to be limited to 3 mo following application. Composting or mixing PMS with manure to achieve a C-to-N ratio of 20 can effectively minimize N leaching, retain added N in mine soil, and provide greater improvement in soil quality than lime and fertilizer amendment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Detection of Manure-Derived Organic Compounds in Rivers Draining Agricultural Areas of Intensive Manure Spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardé, E.; Gruau, G.

    2006-12-01

    This study presents the potentiality of organic markers to trace the impact of animal manure in soils and rivers draining agricultural watersheds. As described by Gruau et al. (in this session), the analysis of long term records of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five watersheds in Brittany (western of France) shows divergent trends which can not be explained solely by global changes. One alternative explanation could be that long- term records of DOM in rivers are controlled by human activities, and notably by agricultural practices. In Brittany, the agricultural intensification led to an over-application of animal manures to soils. This practice can strongly increase the amount of soil-water extractable organic matter, thereby leading to an increase of organic matter fluxes in agricultural landscapes and then to a contamination of river waters. Such an hypothesis deserves consideration in view of the massive manure fluxes that are disposed on agricultural land in many parts of the world. In this goal, our study aimed at determining potential sources of organic matter and molecular markers or specific distributions in rivers draining agricultural watersheds. In this study we focused on the analysis of pig slurries because of the importance of pig production in Brittany. The analysis of pig slurry evidenced the presence of coprostanol (5β) as a specific marker, originating from the bio- hydrogenation of cholesterol by anaerobic bacteria. The difference with other animal or human wastes has been evidenced by two ratios: 5β/C27 and C29/C27. After the validation of the ability of coprostanol to be a molecular marker of pig slurry, our analysis has been focused on the OM of watersheds in Brittany showing divergent evolutions. The results show a systematic relation between the C29/C27 and 5β/C27 ratios and the type of animal breeding in each watershed. This study allows us to evidence the impact of animal breeding activities in the analysed rivers. Such a study

  16. Managing manure from China's pigs and poultry: the influence of ecological rationality.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaohui; Bluemling, Bettina; Liu, Yi; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated manure management practices at three farm scales in Chinese pig and poultry production. The concept of ecological rationality was employed to explore empirically how environmental concerns drive adoption of environmental-friendly manure management technologies at different farm scales. The more developed Rudong County in Jiangsu Province and the less developed Zhongjiang County in Sichuan Province were chosen as cases for study of 258 animal breeders. On the contrary to our hypothesis, medium-scale farmers were not always found to be laggards in adoption of manure management technologies. Government ecological rationality played a key role to induce environmental-friendly technology adoption on its own, but also in cooperation with ecologically rational individual or network drivers. Authorities no longer applied their efforts in a conventional command-and-control way, but more in the form of incentives, stimulation, and information to farmers. Individual farmers in general showed low environmental responsibility in relation to manure handling.

  17. Use of mammal manure by nesting burrowing owls: a test of four functional hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Animals have evolved an impressive array of behavioural traits to avoid depredation. Olfactory camouflage of conspicuous odours is a strategy to avoid depredation that has been implicated only in a few species of birds. Burrowing owls, Athene cunicularia, routinely collect dried manure from mammals and scatter it in their nest chamber, in the tunnel leading to their nest and at the entrance to their nesting burrow. This unusual behaviour was thought to reduce nest depredation by concealing the scent of adults and juveniles, but a recent study suggests that manure functions to attract arthropod prey. However, burrowing owls routinely scatter other materials in the same way that they scatter manure, and this fact seems to be at odds with both of these hypotheses. Thus, we examined the function of this behaviour by testing four alternative hypotheses. We found no support for the widely cited olfactory-camouflage hypothesis (manure did not lower the probability of depredation), or for the mate-attraction hypothesis (males collected manure after, not before, pair formation). Predictions of the burrow-occupied hypothesis (manure indicates occupancy to conspecifics and thereby reduces agonistic interactions) were supported, but results were not statistically significant. Our results also supported several predictions of the prey-attraction hypothesis. Pitfall traps at sampling sites with manure collected more arthropod biomass (of taxa common in the diet of burrowing owls) than pitfall traps at sampling sites without manure. Scattering behaviour of burrowing owls appears to function to attract arthropod prey, but may also signal occupancy of a burrow to conspecifics. ?? 2006 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  18. Ammonia volatilization after surface application of laying-hen and broiler-chicken manures.

    PubMed

    Miola, Ezequiel C C; Rochette, Philippe; Chantigny, Martin H; Angers, Denis A; Aita, Celso; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Pelster, David E; Bertrand, Normand

    2014-11-01

    Ammonia (NH) losses after field application of animal manure are affected by manure characteristics. The objectives of this study were to quantify NH losses from poultry manures obtained from varied handling and storage systems commonly found in eastern Canada and to relate NH emissions to manure characteristics. We measured NH volatilization using wind tunnels for 22 d after soil-surface application of seven solid poultry manures originating from farms varying in production type (laying hens and broiler chickens) and in storage duration and conditions. Cumulative emissions (2.7-7.0 g NH-N m) accounted for 13.6 to 35.0% of the total N applied and 51 to 84% (mean, 70%) of the sum of ammoniacal N, urea N, and uric acid N applied (TAUA). On average, 20% of these losses occurred during the first 4.5 h after application for manures that were not dried in the barn shortly after excretion. Production type and storage durations could not explain differences in NH volatilization between manures. Volatilization losses were linearly related to manure dry matter and to manure-derived NH-N, but sources of N changed with time after application. During the first 7 d, variations in total ammoniacal N applied (TANA) among manures explained most of the variations in cumulative NH losses ( = 0.85 after 26 h and 0.92 after 7 d). After a simulated rainfall (5 mm) on Day 7 that stimulated the decomposition of uric acid in manures, TAUA rather than TANA was related to cumulative emissions ( = 0.77 after 14 and 22 d). Our results indicate that reliable estimates of NH volatilization after land spreading of poultry manures should be based not only on TANA but also on NH-N derived from the decomposition of uric acid, that volatilization losses reported in the literature (including the present study) averaged 50% of TAUA, and that estimates for a given situation also need to account for local environmental conditions.

  19. The antibiotic resistome of swine manure is significantly altered by association with the Musca domestica larvae gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Sangwan, Naseer; Li, Hong-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Oyang, Wei-Yin; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Gilbert, Jack A; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ping, Fan; Zhang, Han-Luo

    2017-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics as veterinary feed additives is potentially contributing to a significant reservoir of antibiotic resistance in agricultural farmlands via the application of antibiotic-contaminated manure. Vermicomposting of swine manure using housefly larvae is a promising biotechnology for waste reduction and control of antibiotic pollution. To determine how vermicomposting influences antibiotic resistance traits in swine manure, we explored the resistome and associated bacterial community dynamics during larvae gut transit over 6 days of treatment. In total, 94 out of 158 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were significantly attenuated (by 85%), while 23 were significantly enriched (3.9-fold) following vermicomposting. The manure-borne bacterial community showed a decrease in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, and an increase in Proteobacteria, specifically Ignatzschineria, following gut transit. ARG attenuation was significantly correlated with changes in microbial community succession, especially reduction in Clostridiales and Bacteroidales. Six genomes were assembled from the manure, vermicompost (final product) and gut samples, including Pseudomonas, Providencia, Enterococcus, Bacteroides and Alcanivorax. Transposon-linked ARGs were more abundant in gut-associated bacteria compared with those from manure and vermicompost. Further, ARG-transposon gene cassettes had a high degree of synteny between metagenomic assemblies from gut and vermicompost samples, highlighting the significant contribution of gut microbiota through horizontal gene transfer to the resistome of vermicompost. In conclusion, the larvae gut microbiome significantly influences manure-borne community succession and the antibiotic resistome during animal manure processing.

  20. The fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons following the application of swine and dairy manure to soils.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Kyle D; LaPara, Timothy M

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and class 1 integrons following the application of swine and dairy manure to soil. Soil microcosms were amended with either manure from swine fed subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics or manure from dairy cows that were given antibiotics only rarely and strictly for veterinary purposes. Microcosms were monitored for 6 months using quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes (a measure of bacterial biomass), intI1, erm(B), tet(A), tet(W) and tet(X). Swine manure had 10- to 100-fold higher levels of ARGs than the dairy manure, all of which decayed over time after being applied to soil. A modified Collins-Selleck model described the decay of ARGs in the soil microcosms well, particularly the characteristic in which the decay rate declined over time. By the completion of the soil microcosm experiments, ARGs in the dairy manure-amended soils returned to background levels, whereas the ARGs in swine manure remained elevated compared to control microcosms. Our research suggests that the use of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in animal feed could lead to the accumulation of ARGs in soils to which manure is applied. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Antibiotic uptake by vegetable crops from manure-applied soils.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Hee; Gupta, Satish; Rosen, Carl; Fritz, Vincent; Singh, Ashok; Chander, Yogesh; Murray, Helene; Rohwer, Charlie

    2013-10-23

    This study quantified the uptake of five antibiotics (chlortetracycline, monensin, sulfamethazine, tylosin, and virginiamycin) by 11 vegetable crops in two different soils that were fertilized with raw versus composted turkey and hog manures or inorganic fertilizer. Almost all vegetables showed some uptake of antibiotics from manure treatments. However, statistical testing showed that except for a few isolated treatments the concentrations of all antibiotics in vegetable tissues were generally less than the limits of quantification. Further testing of the significant treatments showed that antibiotic concentrations in vegetables from many of these treatments were not significantly different than the corresponding concentrations from the fertilizer treatment (matrix effect). All five antibiotic concentrations in the studied vegetables were <10 μg kg(-1). On the basis of the standards for maximum residue levels in animal tissues and suggested maximum daily intake based on body weight, this concentration would not pose any health risk unless one is allergic to that particular antibiotic.

  2. Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...

  3. Modeling rainfall-induced release of manure constituents from surface-applied liquid dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Release kinetics of manure constituents (MC) is an important mechanism affecting overland and subsurface transport of manure-borne contaminants. Present release models adequately describe the rainfall-induced release of MC from surface-applied solid manure, but these models are not applicable for li...

  4. Assessing the impacts of temperature and storage on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes decay in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sagor; Pandey, Pramod K; Farver, Thomas B

    2016-06-01

    Elevated levels of animal waste-borne pathogen in ambient water is a serious human health issue. Mitigating influx of pathogens from animal waste such as dairy manure to soil and water requires improving our existing knowledge of pathogen reductions in dairy manure treatment methods. This study was conducted to enhance the  understanding of human pathogen decay in liquid dairy manure in anaerobic (AN) and limited aerobic (LA) storage conditions. The decay of three pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes) was assessed in bench-scale batch reactors fed with liquid slurry. A series of temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C) conditions were tested to determine the impacts of temperature on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes decay in AN and LA conditions. Results showed prolonged survival of E. coli compared to Salmonella and L. monocytogenes in both LA and AN environments. Variations in survival among pathogens with temperature and environmental conditions (i.e., LA and AN) indicated the necessity of developing improved dairy manure waste treatment methods for controlling animal waste-borne pathogens. The results of this study will help in improving the current understanding of human pathogen decay in dairy manure for making informed decisions of animal manure treatment by stakeholders.

  5. Sorption and transport of five sulfonamide antibiotics in agricultural soil and soil-manure systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Xu, Jing; Hao, Lijun; Kong, Deyang; Gao, Shixiang

    2015-01-01

    Animal manure application is a main spreading route of veterinary antibiotics in soil and groundwater. The sorption and leaching behavior of five commonly used sulfonamides in five typical soil and soil/manure mixtures from China were investigated in this study. Results showed that the empirical Freundlich equation fits well the sorption behavior of selected sulfonamides (r(2) was between 0.803 and 0.999, 1/n was between 0.68 and 1.44), and pH and soil organic carbon (OC) were the key impact factors to sorption and leaching. Addition of manure was found to increase the Kd values of sulfonamides in five different soils, following the rules that the more polar substances, the more increased extent of sorption after manure amendment (5.87 times for sulfadiazine with Log Kow = -0.09, and 2.49 times for sulfamethoxazole with Log Kow = 0.89). When the simulated rainfall amount reached 300 mL (180 mm), sulfonamides have high migration potential to the groundwater, especially in the soil with low OC and high pH. However, manure amendment increased the sorption capacity of sulfonamides in the top layer, thus it might play a role in decreasing the mobility of sulfonamides in soils. The systematic study would be more significant to assess the ecological risks and suggest considering the influence of manure amendment for the environmental fate of antibiotics.

  6. Long-term monitoring of sulfonamide leaching from manure amended soil into groundwater.

    PubMed

    Spielmeyer, Astrid; Höper, Heinrich; Hamscher, Gerd

    2017-06-01

    Veterinary antibiotics such as sulfonamides are frequently applied in livestock farming worldwide. Due to poor absorption in the animal gut and/or reversible metabolization sulfonamides are excreted in considerable amounts and can subsequently be detected in liquid manure. As manure is utilized for soil fertilization, sulfonamides can enter the environment via this pathway. Water samples taken below an agriculture field in Lower Saxony revealed the permanent entrance of sulfamethazine into groundwater and concentrations up to 100 ng L(-1) were determined. During a long-term lysimeter study, nine sulfonamides were applied to two different soil types by using fortified liquid manure. Divert mobilities were found with sulfamethazine und sulfamethoxazole showing the highest detection frequency in water samples taken below both bedrock and sandy soil. Four years after the last application of fortified manure, sulfonamides were still detectable in the leachate. Based on analyses of manure and fermentation residue samples, a permanent input of sulfonamides to the soil can be excluded. Thus, the positive findings must be caused by the antibiotics once applied. Soils fertilized with manure contaminated with sulfonamides can consequently be a long-time source for the transfer of antibiotics into groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does manure management affect the latent greenhouse gas emitting potential of livestock manures?

    PubMed

    Pratt, Chris; Redding, Matthew; Hill, Jaye; Jensen, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    With livestock manures being increasingly sought as alternatives to costly synthetic fertilisers, it is imperative that we understand and manage their associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we provide the first dedicated assessment into how the GHG emitting potential of various manures responds to the different stages of the manure management continuum (e.g., from feed pen surface vs stockpiled). The research is important from the perspective of manure application to agricultural soils. Manures studied included: manure from beef feedpen surfaces and stockpiles; poultry broiler litter (8-week batch); fresh and composted egg layer litter; and fresh and composted piggery litter. Gases assessed were methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), the two principal agricultural GHGs. We employed proven protocols to determine the manures' ultimate CH4 producing potential. We also devised a novel incubation experiment to elucidate their N2O emitting potential; a measure for which no established methods exist. We found lower CH4 potentials in manures from later stages in their management sequence compared with earlier stages, but only by a factor of 0.65×. Moreover, for the beef manures this decrease was not significant (P<0.05). Nitrous oxide emission potential was significantly positively (P<0.05) correlated with C/N ratios yet showed no obvious relationship with manure management stage. Indeed, N2O emissions from the composted egg manure were considerably (13×) and significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the fresh egg manure. Our study demonstrates that manures from all stages of the manure management continuum potentially entail significant GHG risk when applied to arable landscapes. Efforts to harness manure resources need to account for this. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Manure from biochar, bentonite and zeolite feed supplemented poultry: Moisture retention and granulation properties.

    PubMed

    Prasai, Tanka P; Walsh, Kerry B; Midmore, David J; Jones, Ben E H; Bhattarai, Surya P

    2017-08-31

    Feeding treatments were imposed in two feeding trials involving Cobb broiler and Bond Brown layer birds. Three feed additives (biochar, bentonite and zeolite) were supplied at four rates (0, 1, 2 and 4% w/w) in feed, as previously considered in the context of animal production, was considered in the context of Excreta chemical and water retention properties and granulation characteristics of decomposed excreta (manure) were characterised. At field capacity (- 0.01 MPa), manure produced from control and 4% bentonite diets contained significantly (p = 0.001) more water (at 1.93 and 2.44% v/v water, respectively) than zeolite and biochar treatments. Manure mesoporosity was significantly (p = 0.015) higher in 2 and 4% bentonite treatments than other feed additives. Fresh excreta from layer birds on the control diet contained 6% w/dw N and 35% C, which was decreased to 2.6% N and 28% C after decomposition, with C:N ratio changing from 5.9 to 12.1. Ammonia loss was higher from biochar and zeolite manures than control or bentonite, associated with higher pH in the biochar and zeolite manures. More N was unaccounted from bentonite manure than other treatments, presumably lost as N2O or N2, a result linked to its higher moisture content and its enhanced rate of denitrification. The highest proportion of granules in the size class desired for fertilizer spreading was achieved using decomposed manure from the 1 and 2% w/w biochar treatments of the broiler trial, and 1 and 2% zeolite and 4% biochar treatments of the layer trial. Thus the feed amendments improved poultry manure in specific ways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects of turning frequency on emission of greenhouse gas and ammonia during swine manure windrow composting].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen-Yang; Li, Hong-Mei; Wei, Yuan-Song; Zhong, Jia; Zheng, Jia-Xi; Han, Sheng-Hui; Wan, He-Feng

    2014-02-01

    It is of great concern for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of animal manure management in China due to the extreme lack of GHG emission data during animal manure composting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of turning frequency on the emission of GHG (CH4, N2O) and NH3 during swine manure windrow composting through on-site observation of a full scale test in Beijing. Results showed that the turning frequency had significant impacts on the emission of both GHG and ammonia, which did not only increase the emission of GHG and ammonia, but also increased the percentage of total nitrogen loss due to NH3 emission (42.2% at turning once a week and 70.05% at turning twice a week, respectively). Compared with N2O emission, CH4 emission was the main contributor to Global Warming Potentials (GWPs).

  10. Cow power: the energy and emissions benefits of converting manure to biogas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuéllar, Amanda D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2008-07-01

    This report consists of a top-level aggregate analysis of the total potential for converting livestock manure into a domestic renewable fuel source (biogas) that could be used to help states meet renewable portfolio standard requirements and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the US, livestock agriculture produces over one billion tons of manure annually on a renewable basis. Most of this manure is disposed of in lagoons or stored outdoors to decompose. Such disposal methods emit methane and nitrous oxide, two important GHGs with 21 and 310 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, respectively. In total, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector in the US amounted to 536 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide equivalent, or 7% of the total US emissions in 2005. Of this agricultural contribution, 51 to 118 MMT of carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from livestock manure emissions alone, with trends showing this contribution increasing from 1990 to 2005. Thus, limiting GHG emissions from manure represents a valuable starting point for mitigating agricultural contributions to global climate change. Anaerobic digestion, a process that converts manure to methane-rich biogas, can lower GHG emissions from manure significantly. Using biogas as a substitute for other fossil fuels, such as coal for electricity generation, replaces two GHG sources—manure and coal combustion—with a less carbon-intensive source, namely biogas combustion. The biogas energy potential was calculated using values for the amount of biogas energy that can be produced per animal unit (defined as 1000 pounds of animal) per day and the number of animal units in the US. The 95 million animal units in the country could produce nearly 1 quad of renewable energy per year, amounting to approximately 1% of the US total energy consumption. Converting the biogas into electricity using standard microturbines could produce 88 ± 20 billion kWh, or 2.4 ± 0.6% of annual electricity

  11. Effect of farmyard manure rate on water erosion of a Mediterranean soil: determination of the critical point of inefficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annabi, Mohamed; Bahri, Haithem; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cultivation of soils, using multiple soil tillage, led to the decrease of their organic matter content and structural stability in several cultivated area of the Mediterranean countries. In these degraded soils, the addition of organic products, traditionally the animal manure, should improve soil health among them the resistance of soil to water erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate after 1 year of the addition to a cambisoil different doses of farmyard manure on soil organic matter content, on microbial activity and on aggregate stability (proxy to soil resistance to water erosion). The statistical process (bilinear model) was used to found a point at which the addition of the organic product no longer influences the soil resistance to erosion. The farmyard manure issued from a cow breeding was composted passively during 4 months and used to amend a small plots of a cultivated cambisol (silty-clay texture, 0.9% TOC) located in the northeast of Tunisia (Morneg region). The manure was intimately incorporate to the soil. The manure organic matter content was 31%, and its isohumic coefficient was 49%. Twelve dose of manure were tested: from 0 to 220 t C.ha-1. The experiment was started on September 2011. In November 2012, soil sampling was done and soil organic carbon content (Walkley-Black method) and soil aggregate stability (wet method of Le Bissonnais) were assessed. A laboratory incubations of soil+manure mixtures, with the same proportions as tested in the field conditions, was carried at 28°C and at 75% of the mixture field capacity water retention. Carbon mineralization was monitored during three months incubation. Results show that the addition of farmyard manure stimulated the microbial activity proportionally to the added dose. This activation is due to the presence of easily biodegradable carbon in the manure, which increases with increasing manure dose. On the other hand, the addition of manure increased the aggregate stability with

  12. The development in beef cattle manure of Petriedllidium boydii (Shear) Malloch, a potential pathogen for man and cattle.

    PubMed

    Bell, R G

    1976-04-01

    Petriellidium boydii (Allescheria boydii) dominated the mycoflora of manure samples form three beef cattle feedlots after incubation at room temperature for 4 months. The possible dangers associated with this pathogenic fungus, which causes mycotic abortion in livestock, pulmonary allescheriasis in man, and mycetomas in both man and animals, are discussed. This fungus could create a health hazard in feedlots where in situ manure decompostion is encouraged.

  13. Poultry manure runoff and its influence on fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Dutta, S.; Inamdar, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Land application of poultry manure as a substitute for synthetic fertilizer is a common practice in states like Delaware which have a surplus of this animal waste. However, this practice can generate large amounts of labile DOM and nutrients in agricultural runoff that can cause eutrophication of downstream aquatic ecosystems. We determined the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and the quality of DOM for a cropland receiving poultry manure in the coastal plain soils of Delaware. Manure was applied at the rate of 9 Mg ha-1 in the spring (March 10) of 2010 to an agricultural field planted in corn. Sampling was performed for surface runoff and soil waters at four landscape positions - field edge, upper and lower riparian zones and the stream. Sampling was conducted for eight storm events, one before manure application and seven after (March through July spanning over 100 days). DOM quality was characterized using spectrofluorometric techniques and the development of a site-specific PARAFAC model. DOC and DIN concentrations in surface runoff ranged from 18.1 to 77.2 mg/l and 4.2 to 22.6 mg/l, respectively. The percent of protein-like and humic-like DOM in surface runoff ranged between 3.9 to 23.5% and 12.3 to 41.6%, respectively. Highest concentrations of DOC and DIN were observed at the field edge and lowest in the stream. Protein-like and humic-like DOM decreased from the field edge to stream in surface runoff and soil waters. Temporally, both humic-like and protein-like DOM showed significant increases in storm runoff following manure application. After manure application, humic-like DOM increased by 70% while protein-like DOM increased by more than 200% in surface runoff indicating elevated content of labile DOM in poultry manure. These concentrations remained high for more than 60 days following manure application. Protein-like DOM was significantly correlated with nitrate-nitrogen (r = 0.43; p < 0

  14. Overview of manure treatment in France.

    PubMed

    Loyon, L

    2017-03-01

    Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13.6milliontons corresponding to 11.3% of the total annual tonnage (120milliontons). The main processes, mostly applied on the farm, were composting (8.5milliontons), aerobic treatment (2.9milliontons of pig slurry) and anaerobic digestion (1milliontons). Other manure treatments, including physical-chemical treatment, were less frequent (0.4million of m(3)). Treated manure was mainly used to fertilize the soil and crops on the farm concerned. Manure treatment can thus be considered to be underused in France. However, anaerobic digestion is expected to expand to reach the European target of 20% of energy from renewable sources. Nevertheless, this expansion will depend on overcoming the constraint requiring registration or normalization of the use of the digestate as fertilizer. Thus, to avoid penalizing farmers, the further development or creation of collective processing platforms is recommended, combined with an N recovery process that will enable the production of organic amendments and fertilizers in an easy marketable form.

  15. Dairy manure applications and soil health implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy manure applications can potentially improve soil health by adding organic matter (OM) to the soil. However, intensive dairy manure applications can cause salt accumulations on arid, irrigated soils, impairing soil health, which can reduce crop growth and yield. Soil organic matter, a major c...

  16. Green manures and plant disease management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of green manures, which involves the incorporation of fresh plant material, has traditionally been primarily for the purpose of soil enrichment through the addition of plant organic matter and nutrients. However, green manures produce many changes in soil physical, chemical, and biological p...

  17. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  18. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  19. Ammonia emissions from land application of manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia volatilization can be a major nitrogen (N) loss process for surface-applied manures. There is concern that current manure management practices are contributing to ammonia losses in the Mid-Atlantic region with subsequent reductions in air quality and increases in N losses to streams and est...

  20. Dairy Manure Nutrients: Variable But Valuable

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowing the nutrient content of manure is essential for doing nutrient management planning for dairy farms. Summaries of over 14,000 dairy manure samples from Wisconsin and 2,300 from Vermont over a 10 to 15-year period showed average values that were consistent with UW-Extension book values but dif...

  1. Dairy Manure Nutrients: Variable, But Valuable

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowing the nutrient content of manure is essential for doing nutrient management planning for dairy farms. Summaries of over 14,000 dairy manure samples from Wisconsin and 2,300 from Vermont over a 10 to 15-year period showed average values that were consistent with UW-Extension book values but dif...

  2. Utilization and environmental management of residues from intensive animal production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal manures are traditional sources of nutrients in agriculture. Under proper management, manures provide nutrients to soil, reducing or eliminating the use of commercial fertilizers, as well as organic carbon that improves soil physical properties and soil health. However, excessive application ...

  3. Deodorization of swine manure using minced horseradish roots and peroxides.

    PubMed

    Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Heinemann, Paul H; Kephart, Kenneth B; Dec, Jerzy

    2005-06-15

    Public concerns about offensive odors from livestock manures are on the rise and so is the pressure to develop practical ways to reduce the odors. The use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticanaL) roots (1:10 w/v plant tissue to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO2 at 26 or 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 at 34, 52, or 68 mM) for the deodorization of swine manure, was evaluated through a series of laboratory experiments. The principle underlying this deodorization method is the oxidation of odorants by the concerted action of horseradish peroxidase (present in the plant tissue) and peroxide that serves as an electron acceptor, followed by polymerization of phenolic odorants with a possible copolymerization or adsorption of other odorant compounds. The deodorization effect was assessed by a human panel and gas chromatography (GC). In the case of the GC method, 12 compounds commonly associated with malodor (7 volatile fatty acids or VFAs, 3 phenolic compounds, and 2 indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Malodor assessment of the treated slurry by a human panel indicated a 50% reduction in odor intensity. GC results showed 100% removal of all phenolic odorants without reoccurrence for at least 72 h. In view of these data, using plant materials as enzyme carriers and peroxides as electron acceptors emerges as an effective approach to phenolic odor control in animal manure.

  4. Tracing copper derived from pig manure in calcareous soils and soil leachates by 65Cu labeling.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Anne; He, Yao; Siemens, Jan; Welp, Gerhard; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Münker, Carsten; Xue, Qiaoyun; Lin, Xianyong; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-04-07

    Copper is used as a growth promoter in animal husbandry, resulting in high Cu concentrations in animal manure. We tested whether Cu would be mobilized in soils receiving excessive loads of manure, both from recently added and from aged fractions. To discriminate between these Cu sources, manure was labeled with (65)Cu. After soil application of 0, 15, and 30 Mg manure ha(-1), leachate was collected in free-draining lysimeters (40 cm depth) under undisturbed soil over a 53 day period. Determining the total amounts of Cu and the fractions of (65)Cu in leachate and the soil profile enabled us to trace the translocation of Cu derived from labeled manure. More than 84% of the applied Cu was retained in the top 2 cm of soil. Less than 0.01% of the applied Cu was detected overall in the leachate. Of this amount, however, 38% (± 8.9 SE) was leached within 8 days after application. The total Cu concentration in leachates (32-164 μg L(-1)) frequently exceeded the Chinese groundwater quality standard of 50 μg L(-1). The added (65)Cu, however, accounted for less than 3.6% of the total Cu leaching load, suggesting that Cu from older sources and/or geological background controls contamination, regardless of current land management.

  5. Microbial pollution in wildlife: Linking agricultural manuring and bacterial antibiotic resistance in red-billed choughs.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A; Grande, Javier

    2009-05-01

    The spread of pathogens in the environment due to human activities (pathogen pollution) may be involved in the emergence of many diseases in humans, livestock and wildlife. When manure from medicated livestock and urban effluents is spread onto agricultural land, both residues of antibiotics and bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance may be introduced into the environment. The transmission of bacterial resistance from livestock and humans to wildlife remains poorly understood even while wild animals may act as reservoirs of resistance that may be amplified and spread in the environment. We determined bacterial resistance to antibiotics in wildlife using the red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax as a potential bioindicator of soil health, and evaluated the role of agricultural manuring with waste of different origins in the acquisition and characteristics of such resistance. Agricultural manure was found to harbor high levels of bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics. Choughs from areas where manure landspreading is a common agricultural practice harbor a high bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics, resembling the resistance profile found in the waste (pig slurry and sewage sludge) used in each area. The transfer of bacterial resistance to wildlife should be considered as an important risk for environmental health when agricultural manuring involves fecal material containing multiresistant enteric bacteria including pathogens from livestock operations and urban areas. The assessment of bacterial resistance in wild animals may be valuable for the monitoring of environmental health and for the management of emergent infectious diseases influenced by the impact of different human activities in the environment.

  6. Greenhouse gas emission from the total process of swine manure composting and land application of compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuansong; Wan, Hefeng; Wu, Yulong; Zheng, Jiaxi; Han, Shenghui; Zheng, Bofu

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal manure management are of great concern in China. However, there are still great uncertainties about China's GHG inventory due to the GHG emission factors partly used default values from the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The purpose of this study was to use a case study in Beijing to determine the regional GHG emission factors based on the combination of swine manure composting and land application of the compost with both on-site examination and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results showed that the total GHG emission factor was 240 kgCO2eq tDS-1 (dry solids), including the direct GHG emission factor of 115 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for swine manure composting and 48 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for land application of the compost. Among the total GHG emissions of 5.06 kgCH4 tDS-1 and 0.13 kgN2O tDS-1, the swine manure composting contributed approximately 89% to CH4 emissions while land application accounted for 92% of N2O emission. Meanwhile, the GHG emission profile from the full process in Beijing in 2015 and 2020 was predicted by the scenario analysis. The composting and land application is a cost-effective way for animal manure management in China considering GHG emissions.

  7. Stimulation of N2 O emission by manure application to agricultural soils may largely offset carbon benefits: a global meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Minghua; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Shijie; Zhu, Xinyu; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure application as organic fertilizer does not only sustain agricultural productivity and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but also affects soil nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. However, given that the sign and magnitude of manure effects on soil N2 O emissions is uncertain, the net climatic impact of manure application in arable land is unknown. Here, we performed a global meta-analysis using field experimental data published in peer-reviewed journals prior to December 2015. In this meta-analysis, we quantified the responses of N2 O emissions to manure application relative to synthetic N fertilizer application from individual studies and analyzed manure characteristics, experimental duration, climate, and soil properties as explanatory factors. Manure application significantly increased N2 O emissions by an average 32.7% (95% confidence interval: 5.1-58.2%) compared to application of synthetic N fertilizer alone. The significant stimulation of N2 O emissions occurred following cattle and poultry manure applications, subsurface manure application, and raw manure application. Furthermore, the significant stimulatory effects on N2 O emissions were also observed for warm temperate climate, acid soils (pH < 6.5), and soil texture classes of sandy loam and clay loam. Average direct N2 O emission factors (EFs) of 1.87% and 0.24% were estimated for upland soils and rice paddy soils receiving manure application, respectively. Although manure application increased SOC stocks, our study suggested that the benefit of increasing SOC stocks as GHG sinks could be largely offset by stimulation of soil N2 O emissions and aggravated by CH4 emissions if, particularly for rice paddy soils, the stimulation of CH4 emissions by manure application was taken into account. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [GIS-based analysis of the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-xia; Li, Wei; Han, Wei; Yang, Ming; Dong, Yun-she; Lin, Chun-ye; Zhang, Feng-song; Xiong, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    As an important industrial and grain production base of China, livestock and poultry industry have been rapidly developed in the northeastern provinces. With the rapid increasing amount of animal production, how to handle the huge amount of animal manure has become a critical issue for local government. A quantitative analysis based on geographic information system (GIS) combining the biophysical, environmental, social and economic factors was applied to determine the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces. The results show that a farmland area of 211942.7 km2, accounting for 78.9% of the cultivated land in three northeastern provinces, is estimated to be suitable for manure application. The suitable farmlands are mostly distributed in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces. Proximity to residential area, water body and roads are identified as the primary factors influencing the manure application, while rainfall is the main factor to generate discrepancies in different areas. Furthermore, the future potential capacity for animal production in three provinces was forecasted based on the areas of suitable land and the population of existing livestock production. Among 36 cities of three provinces, the big variation is observed, Siping City is overproducing 1.813 million heads of pig unit at present, but Qiqihaer City still has the potential to rear 11.203 million heads of pig unit. Overall, eastern region of the study area holds the high potential for animal production with a surplus capacity of 2.842 million heads of pig unit, the potential of the typical mountain and forest areas is only 10% of eastern region, however. In contrast, in half of western region (central Liaoning province and central Jilin Province), their animal populations have exceeded the land carrying capacity. Therefore, we strongly suggest a site-specific animal production and manure application guide to achieve a sustainable development of livestock production in the

  9. Distillers by-product cattle diets enhance reduced sulfur gas fluxes from feedlot soils and manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times duri...

  10. Trans-disciplinary soil science research: Impacts of dairy nutrition on manure chemistry and the environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The on-going trend of consolidation and intensification of animal agriculture requires a greater dependence on purchased feed. Larger livestock farms and more imported feed can result in the excretion of manure nutrients that may surpass the recycling capacity of local land, air, and water resource...

  11. Treatment technologies for ammonia in liquid manure: nitrification/denitrification and anammox based deammonification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological treatment is regarded as the most efficient and economically feasible method available for removal of ammonia from wastewater. Its use for animal wastewater required development of new systems and methods that could handle the higher-strength characteristics of liquid manure. The discover...

  12. Improving N and P estimates for swine manure lagoon irrigation water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutrient management plans (NMPs) for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) require a record of N and P loads from manure land-applications, including irrigation with lagoon water. Mississippi regulations require nutrient records for lagoon irrigation water be based on at least one annual analy...

  13. Characterization of manure from conventional and phytase transgenic pigs by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-point phosphorus (P) pollution from animal manure is becoming a serious global problem. The current solution for the swine industry is including the enzyme phytase as a component of the cereal grain diet. A very real possibility in the future is the production of transgenic pigs that express phy...

  14. CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MANURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA and the USDA convened a three-day Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures, and Other Organic By-Products on June 4-6, 2001 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the effe...

  15. CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MANURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA and the USDA convened a three-day Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures, and Other Organic By-Products on June 4-6, 2001 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the effe...

  16. Enhanced reduced sulfur emission from manures of beef cattle fed distiller's byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reduced sulfur compounds are normal products of manure decomposition which are emitted from confined animal feeding operations (CAFO). These compounds not only contribute to nuisance odors, but with recent EPA regulations, H2S emissions in excess of 100 lbs per day must be reported by the livestock...

  17. Survival of Salmonella spp. in dried turkey manure and persistence on spinach leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concerns about the microbiological safety of fresh produce has attracted attention in the past three decades due to multiple foodborne outbreaks. Animal manure contaminated with enteric pathogens has been identified as an important pre-harvest pathogen source. This study investigated the survival of...

  18. Selective release of inorganic constituents in broiler manure biochars under different post-activation treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies determined that poultry litter is a desirable feedstock for activated biochars with enhanced adsorption towards cations. Animal manures such as poultry litter contain a significant fraction of inorganic material that can significantly affect the final physical, chemical and adsorpt...

  19. Effect of feedlot manure collection techniques on ultimate methane yield

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Hills, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Beef cattle manure collected from unpaved dirt feedlots has a significantly reduced energy production potential due to low organic content and dirt contamination. In laboratory batch fermentors beef feedlot manure of various ages was digested. The study showed that compared with fresh manure gas production at 100%, aged manure produced between 16 and 73% of the gas per kilogram of volatile solids added. More than one-half of the nitrogen was lost after the manure had aged three months. The resulting economic advantage of fresh manure over aged manure for energy and nitrogen recovery would be from $26 to $61/head/y.

  20. Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Adriana; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Borowski, Sebastian; Bakuła, Tadeusz; Opaliński, Sebastian; Kołacz, Roman; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure and inhalation of odorous compounds from poultry manure can be harmful to farm workers and the surrounding residents as well as animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity and IC50 values of common odorous compounds such as ammonium, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, butyric acid, phenol, and indole in the chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH (Leghorn Male Hepatoma), in vitro, using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and PrestoBlue cytotoxicity assays. The cells were microscopically examined for any morphological changes post treatment. Dimethylamine exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect on LMH cells with an IC50 value of 0.06% and 0.04% after an exposure of 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Both ammonium and trimethylamine had comparable cytotoxicity and their IC50 values were 0.08% and 0.04% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Of note, indole had the lowest cytotoxicity as the majority of cells were viable even after 72 h exposure. Thus, the IC50 for indole was not calculated. Results achieved from both MTT and PrestoBlue assays were comparable. Moreover, the morphological changes induced by the tested odours in LMH cells resulted in monolayer destruction, cytoplasm vacuolisation, chromatin condensation, and changes in nucleus and cell shape. Our study showed harmful effects of odorous compounds in chick tissues. PMID:27792203

  1. Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Borowski, Sebastian; Bakuła, Tadeusz; Opaliński, Sebastian; Kołacz, Roman; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-10-26

    Long-term exposure and inhalation of odorous compounds from poultry manure can be harmful to farm workers and the surrounding residents as well as animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity and IC50 values of common odorous compounds such as ammonium, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, butyric acid, phenol, and indole in the chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH (Leghorn Male Hepatoma), in vitro, using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and PrestoBlue cytotoxicity assays. The cells were microscopically examined for any morphological changes post treatment. Dimethylamine exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect on LMH cells with an IC50 value of 0.06% and 0.04% after an exposure of 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Both ammonium and trimethylamine had comparable cytotoxicity and their IC50 values were 0.08% and 0.04% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Of note, indole had the lowest cytotoxicity as the majority of cells were viable even after 72 h exposure. Thus, the IC50 for indole was not calculated. Results achieved from both MTT and PrestoBlue assays were comparable. Moreover, the morphological changes induced by the tested odours in LMH cells resulted in monolayer destruction, cytoplasm vacuolisation, chromatin condensation, and changes in nucleus and cell shape. Our study showed harmful effects of odorous compounds in chick tissues.

  2. Impact of recent manure applications on natural estrogen concentrations in streams near agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Lafrance, Pierre; Caron, Emmanuelle

    2013-10-01

    Few studies on natural estrogens have been conducted in agricultural ecosystems. High (up to 58 ng/L) estrone concentrations were measured shortly after applications of manure in a small agricultural watershed. No other estrogens (17ß-estradiol, estrone or estriol) were detected afterward (first three rainfalls after applications). Results suggest that aquatic organisms in agricultural watersheds could be exposed to estrone shortly after manure applications, probably from leaching of land-applied animal wastes, but that this exposure would be short-lived. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transport of Manure Constituents in Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, D.; Guber, A.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Sikora, L. M.; Nemes, A.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2005-12-01

    Fecal coliforms (FC) are often used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria contamination of surface water from surface-applied manure. Manure constituents other than FC may serve as natural tracers of bacterial contamination provided the rates of release from manure and surface transport mechanisms are similar. The objective of this work was to compare fecal coliforms (FC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble phosphorus (P) transport from dissolving manure applied on hillslopes with different soil texture and surface cover conditions under simulated rainfall. Two-by-six meters runoff plots were set in triplicate on vegetated and bare 20% slopes with sandy loam and clay loam soils at the ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. Fresh bovine manure was applied at the top 30-cm wide strip, and at 50 cm x 30 cm miniplots in the immediate vicinity of runoff plots. Rainfall (ca. 6 cm per hour) was simulated for 1 hour on bare plots and for 1.5 hours on vegetated plots. Runoff was collected from gutters at the edge of runoff plots and miniplots at five-min intervals. In general, the volume of runoff was less from vegetated plots than from bare plots, and was less from sandy loam plots than from clay loam plots. Partitioning of fecal coliforms between runoff and suspended sediment was quantified using the partitioning coefficient Kd. The Kd values were greater for the sandy loam plot than the clay loam soil. The value of the partitioning coefficient increased from spring to fall at all plots. Release kinetics of FC and soluble P were similar. The fast release stage of about 20 minutes was followed by aa relatively slow release stage. Both soil texture and vegetation significantly affected transport of the manure constituents. More than 70% of manure FC and OC were transported with runoff over bare plots, and less than 15% over vegetation plots. Overall, manure-borne P appears to be a promising potential tracer for assessing of manure-borne bacteria transport.

  4. Effects of dirty housing and a Typhimurium DT104 challenge on pig growth performance, diet utilization efficiency, and gas emissions from stored manure.

    PubMed

    Li, M M; Seelenbinder, K M; Ponder, M A; Deng, L; Rhoads, R P; Pelzer, K D; Radcliffe, J S; Maxwell, C V; Ogejo, J A; White, R R; Hanigan, M D

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the effects of a dirty environment and a challenge plus associated environmental contamination on pig growth performance, diet utilization efficiency, and gas emissions (CO, NH, CH, NO, and HS) from stored manure. Twenty-four weaned barrows, aged 31 d at initiation of the trial, were randomly allotted to 3 different treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments were: pigs housed in cages with manure removed and cages washed daily (Clean); pigs housed in cages sprayed daily with manure slurry mixtures (Dirty); or pigs challenged with Typhimurium DT104 and housed in cages that were not washed, but manure was removed daily ( challenge). Rectal temperature, body weight, daily feed intake, manure output, manure composition, and gas emissions from stored manure were measured throughout the 24-d animal phase. The Dirty and challenge treatments were statistically compared to the Clean treatment to evaluate individual effects. Dirty housing tended to decrease ADG from d 1 to 24 ( = 0.06) but there were no other effects on pig performance compared with the Clean treatment. In contrast, a challenge was associated with a marked reduction in each of the measured indicators of pig performance. challenge increased the carbon to nitrogen ratio, ether extract, and lignin concentrations in excreted manure ( = 0.02, 0.01, 0.003, respectively), and increased manure and head space temperatures in manure tanks ( < 0.0001). Gas emissions from stored manure of pigs on the Dirty or treatments were increased for each of the measured gases as compared to the Clean treatment ( < 0.01) when expressed per unit of BW gain. When gas emissions from manure of pigs housed in the Dirty treatment were expressed per unit of manure volatile solids (VS), they were increased for NH, CH, and HS ( < 0.02). challenge was associated with increased emissions of CO, and NO and decreased emissions of HS per kilogram manure VS compared to the Clean

  5. Assessing Nutrient Removal Kinetics in Flushed Manure Using Chlorella vulgaris Biomass Production.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pramod; Shi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of dairy wastewater for producing algal biomass is seen as a two-fold opportunity to treat wastewater and produce algae biomass, which can be potentially used for production of biofuels. In animal agriculture system, one of the major waste streams is dairy manure that contains high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Furthermore, it is produced abundantly in California's dairy industry, as well as many other parts of the world. We hypothesized that flushed manure, wastewater from a dairy farm, can be used as a potential feedstock after pretreatment to grow Chlorella vulgaris biomass and to reduce nutrients of manure. In this study, we focused on investigating the use of flushed manure, produced in a dairy farm for growing C. vulgaris biomass. A series of batch-mode experiments, fed with manure feedstock and synthetic medium, were conducted and corresponding C. vulgaris production was analyzed. Impacts of varying levels of sterilized manure feedstock (SMF) and synthetic culture medium (SCM) (20-100%) on biomass production, and consequential changes in total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were determined. C. vulgaris production data (Shi et al., 2016) were fitted into a model (Aslan and Kapdan, 2006) for calculating kinetics of TN and TP removal. Results showed that the highest C. vulgaris biomass production occurs, when SMF and SCM were mixed with ratio of 40%:60%. With this mixture, biomass on Day 9 was increased by 1,740% compared to initial biomass; and on Day 30, it was increased by 2,456.9%. The production was relatively low, when either only SCM or manure feedstock medium (without pretreatment, i.e., no sterilization) was used as a culture medium. On this ratio, TN and TP were reduced by 29.9 and 12.3% on Day 9, and these reductions on Day 30 were 76 and 26.9%, respectively.

  6. Estrogenic activity and nutrient losses in surface runoff after winter manure application to small watersheds.

    PubMed

    Shappell, N W; Billey, L O; Shipitalo, M J

    2016-02-01

    Confined Animal Feeding Operations generate large amounts of wastes that are land-applied to provide nutrients for crop production and return organic matter to the soil. Production practices and storage limitations often necessitate that wastes be applied to frozen and snow-covered soil. Use of application setbacks have reduced concerns related to nutrient losses in surface runoff from manure, but the estrogenic activity of runoff under these conditions has not been evaluated. Therefore, we measured and sampled surface runoff when manure was applied in the winter at a rate to meet crop N needs and measured estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs) using E-Screen. In year one, six small watersheds used to produce corn were evaluated, treatments: 2 no-manure controls, 2 liquid swine manure with 30-m setbacks, and 2 turkey litter with 30-m setbacks. In addition, beef manure was applied to six frozen plots of forage. For years 2 and 3, applications were repeated on the swine manure watersheds and one control watershed. E2Eqs and nutrient concentrations generally peaked in the first runoff event after application. The highest measured E2Eq (5.6 ng L(-1)) was in the first event after swine manure application and was less than the 8.9 ng L(-1) Lowest Observable Effect Concentration (LOEC) for aquatic species and well below the concentrations measured in other studies using ELISAs to measure hormone concentrations. No runoff occurred from plots planted with forage, indicating low risk for environmental impact, and therefore plots were discontinued from study. In years 2 and 3, estrogenic activity never exceeded the Predicted No Effect Concentrations for E2 of 2 ng L(-1). When post-application runoff contained high estrogenic activity, strong correlations (R(2) 0.86 to 0.96) of E2Eq to Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) concentrations were observed, indicating under some condition these cations might be useful surrogates for E2Eq measurements.

  7. Sewage sludge and liquid pig manure as possible sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hölzel, Christina S; Schwaiger, Karin; Harms, Katrin; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Kunz, Anne; Meyer, Karsten; Müller, Christa; Bauer, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) - used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 - were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics including several "reserve drugs". E. coli (n=613) from pig manure were at a significantly higher degree resistant to streptomycin, doxycycline, spectinomycin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol than E. coli (n=116) from sewage sludge. Enterococci (Ent. faecalis, n=387, and Ent. faecium, n=183) from pig manure were significantly more often resistant to high levels of doxycycline, rifampicin, erythromycin, and streptomycin than Ent. faecalis (n=44) and Ent. faecium (n=125) from sewage sludge. Significant differences in enterococcal resistance were also seen for tylosin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin high level, fosfomycin, clindamicin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. By contrast, aminopenicillins were more effective in enterococci from pig manure, and mean MIC-values of piperacillin+tazobactam and third generation cefalosporines were significantly lower in E. coli from pig manure than in E. coli from sewage sludge. 13.4% (E. coli) to 25.3% (Ent. faecium) of pig manure isolates were high-level multiresistant to substances from more than three different classes of antimicrobial agents. In sewage sludge, high-level-multiresistance reached from 0% (Ent. faecalis) to 16% (Ent. faecium). High rates of (multi-) resistant bacteria in pig manure emphasize the need for a prudent - cautious - use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  8. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p < 0.001) quadratically from -31??? to -15 ???. The relationship between cumulative ammonia losses and ??15N of manure was highly significant (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76). In Exp. 2, using a mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. Particulate and dissolved phosphorus chemical separation and phosphorus release from treated dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh H; Daniel, Tommy C

    2002-01-01

    In confined animal feeding operations, liquid manure systems present special handling and storage challenges because of the large volume of diluted wastes. Water treatment polymers and mineral phosphorus (P) immobilizing chemicals [AI2(SO4)3 x 18H2O, FeCl3-6H2O, and Class C fly ash] were used to determine particulate and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) reduction mechanisms in high total suspended solid (TSS) dairy manure and the P release from treated manure and amended soils. Co-application exceeded the aggregation level achieved with individual manure amendments and resulted in 80 and 90% reduction in metal salt and polymer rates, respectively. At marginally effective polymer rates between 0.01 and 0.25 g L(-1), maximal aggregation was attained in combination with 1 and 10 g L(-1) of aluminum sulfate (3 and 30 mmol Al3+ L(-1)) and iron chloride (3.7 and 37 mmol Fe3+ L(-1)) in 30 g L(-1) (TSS30) and 100 g L(-1) TSS (TSS100) suspensions, respectively. Fly ash induced particulate destabilization at rates > or = 50 g L(-1) and reduced solution-phase DRP at all rates > or = 1 g L(-1) by 52 and 71% in TSS30 and TSS100 suspensions, respectively. Aluminum and Fe salts also lowered DRP at rates < or = 10 g L(-1) and higher concentrations redispersed particulates and increased DRP due to increased suspension acidity and electrical conductivity. The DRP release from treated manure solids and a Typic Paleudult amended with treated manure was reduced, although the amendments increased Mehlich 3-extractable P. Therefore, the synergism of flocculant types allowed input reduction in aggregation aid chemicals, enhancing particulate and dissolved P separation and immobilization in high TSS liquid manure.

  10. Lab-assay for estimating methane emissions from deep-pit swine manure storages.

    PubMed

    Andersen, D S; Van Weelden, M B; Trabue, S L; Pepple, L M

    2015-08-15

    Methane emission is an important tool in the evaluation of manure management systems due to the potential impact it has on global climate change. Field procedures used for estimating methane emission rates require expensive equipment, are time consuming, and highly variable between farms. The purpose of this paper is to report a simple laboratory procedure for estimating methane emission from stored manure. The test developed was termed a methane production rate (MPR) assay as it provides a short-term biogas production measurement. The MPR assay incubation time is short (3d), requires no sample preparation in terms of inoculation or dilution of manure, is incubated at room temperature, and the manure is kept stationary. These conditions allow for high throughput of samples and were chosen to replicate the conditions within deep-pit manure storages. In brief, an unaltered aliquot of manure was incubated at room temperature for a three-days to assay the current rate of methane being generated by the manure. The results from this assay predict an average methane emission factor of 12.2 ± 8.1 kg CH4 head(-1) yr(-1) per year, or about 5.5 ± 3.7 kg CH4 per finished animal, both of which compare well to literature values of 5.5 ± 1.1 kg CH4 per finished pig for deep-pit systems (Liu et al., 2013). The average methane flux across all sites and months was estimated to be 22 ± 17 mg CH4 m(-2)-min(-1), which is within literature values for deep-pit systems ranging from 0.24 to 63 mg CH4 m(-2)-min(-1) (Park et al., 2006) and similar to the 15 mg CH4 m(-2)-min(-1) estimated by (Zahn et al., 2001).

  11. Delineating Effects of Ionic Strength and Suspended Solids on Ammonia Volatilization from Dairy Manure Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of total solids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant roles in the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study. Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  12. Assessing Nutrient Removal Kinetics in Flushed Manure Using Chlorella vulgaris Biomass Production

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pramod; Shi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of dairy wastewater for producing algal biomass is seen as a two-fold opportunity to treat wastewater and produce algae biomass, which can be potentially used for production of biofuels. In animal agriculture system, one of the major waste streams is dairy manure that contains high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Furthermore, it is produced abundantly in California’s dairy industry, as well as many other parts of the world. We hypothesized that flushed manure, wastewater from a dairy farm, can be used as a potential feedstock after pretreatment to grow Chlorella vulgaris biomass and to reduce nutrients of manure. In this study, we focused on investigating the use of flushed manure, produced in a dairy farm for growing C. vulgaris biomass. A series of batch-mode experiments, fed with manure feedstock and synthetic medium, were conducted and corresponding C. vulgaris production was analyzed. Impacts of varying levels of sterilized manure feedstock (SMF) and synthetic culture medium (SCM) (20–100%) on biomass production, and consequential changes in total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were determined. C. vulgaris production data (Shi et al., 2016) were fitted into a model (Aslan and Kapdan, 2006) for calculating kinetics of TN and TP removal. Results showed that the highest C. vulgaris biomass production occurs, when SMF and SCM were mixed with ratio of 40%:60%. With this mixture, biomass on Day 9 was increased by 1,740% compared to initial biomass; and on Day 30, it was increased by 2,456.9%. The production was relatively low, when either only SCM or manure feedstock medium (without pretreatment, i.e., no sterilization) was used as a culture medium. On this ratio, TN and TP were reduced by 29.9 and 12.3% on Day 9, and these reductions on Day 30 were 76 and 26.9%, respectively. PMID:28798913

  13. Does monensin in chicken manure from poultry farms pose a threat to soil invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Zižek, Suzana; Hrženjak, Rok; Kalcher, Gabrijela Tavčar; Srimpf, Karin; Semrov, Neva; Zidar, Primož

    2011-04-01

    Monensin is a carboxylic polyether ionophore used in the poultry industry as a coccidiostat. It enters the environment via manure from broiler farms. In spite of its potential presence in the environment, information concerning monensin residues in manure and soil and its toxicity to soil organisms are insufficient. In the present study, two beneficial soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and woodlice (Porcellio scaber), were used to assess the toxicity of monensin. Animals were exposed to a range of monensin concentrations via soil or food. Earthworm reproduction was found to be the most susceptible endpoint (NOEC=3.5 mg kg(-1) dry soil; EC(50)=12.7 mg kg(-1) dry soil), while no adverse effects were recorded in isopods (NOEC⩾849mgkg(-1) dry soil, NOEC⩾357mgkg(-1) dry food). The obtained toxicity data were compared with potential concentrations of monensin in soil. In view of this, manure from broiler chickens treated with monensin at a poultry farm was sampled. According to monensin and nitrogen concentrations in the chicken manure and the degradation time of monensin, the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was calculated. PEC of monensin is around 0.013 mg kg(-1) soil if manure is used after 3 months of composting and 0.05 mg kg(-1) soil if used without storage. Data for earthworm reproduction was used to estimate the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC). If fresh chicken manure is applied to terrestrial ecosystems, the risk quotient (PEC/PNEC ratio) is above 1, which indicates that monensin might pose an environmental risk under certain conditions. To prevent this, it is strongly recommended to compost chicken manure for several months before using it as fertiliser.

  14. Impact of Physical-Chemical Properties on Ammonia Emissions of Dairy Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of totalsolids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant rolesin the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study.Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  15. Borax and Octabor Treatment of Stored Swine Manure: Reduction in Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions and Phytotoxicity to Agronomic Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gaseous emissions from stored manure have become environmental and health issues for humans and animals as the livestock industry becomes specialized and concentrated. Of particular concern is hydrogen sulfide, which is being targeted for regulatory control in concentrated animal farm operations. ...

  16. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal changes of antibiotic-resistance genes and bacterial communities in two contrasting soils treated with cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Han, Xue-Mei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Tao; Han, Li-Li; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-02-01

    The emerging environmental spread of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) and their subsequent acquisition by clinically relevant microorganisms is a major threat to public health. Animal manure has been recognized as an important reservoir of ARGs; however, the dissemination of manure-derived ARGs and the impacts of manure application on the soil resistome remain obscure. Here, we conducted a microcosm study to assess the temporal succession of total bacteria and a broad spectrum of ARGs in two contrasting soils following manure application from cattle that had not been treated with antibiotics. High-capacity quantitative PCR detected 52 unique ARGs across all the samples, with β-lactamase as the most dominant ARG type. Several genes of soil indigenous bacteria conferring resistance to β-lactam, which could not be detected in manure, were found to be highly enriched in manure-treated soils, and the level of enrichment was maintained over the entire course of 140 days. The enriched β-lactam resistance genes had significantly positive relationships with the relative abundance of the integrase intI1 gene, suggesting an increasing mobility potential in manure-treated soils. The changes in ARG patterns were accompanied by a significant effect of cattle manure on the total bacterial community compositions. Our study indicates that even in the absence of selective pressure imposed by agricultural use of antibiotics, manure application could still strongly impact the abundance, diversity and mobility potential of a broad spectrum of soil ARGs. Our findings are important for reliable prediction of ARG behaviors in soil environment and development of appropriate strategies to minimize their dissemination.

  18. Effects of Feeding Encapsulated Nitrate to Beef Cattle on Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Their Manure in a Short-Term Manure Storage System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanhee; Araujo, Rafael C; Koenig, Karen M; Hile, Michael L; Fabian-Wheeler, Eileen E; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Urinary, fecal, and manure nitrate (NO)-N concentration linearly increased ( < 0.001) with feeding EN, and urinary urea concentration tended to be lower ( = 0.078) for EN versus Control. The hourly emissions of NH, CO, and NO (mg head h) were not affected, although NH emission rates tended to be lower ( = 0.070) for EN compared with Control at 0 to 12 h. Cumulative NH, CO, and NO emissions over 156 h were not affected, but CH emissions were less (4.5 vs. 7.4 g head; = 0.027) for EN compared with Control. In conclusion, although NH emissions were initially lower for EN manures, total NH emitted over 156 h was not affected. Dietary EN lowered CH emissions from manure, and, despite greater NO concentrations in EN manure, NO emissions were not affected in this short-term incubation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Impact of fiber source and feed particle size on swine manure properties related to spontaneous foam formation during anaerobic decomposition.

    PubMed

    Van Weelden, M B; Andersen, D S; Kerr, B J; Trabue, S L; Pepple, L M

    2016-02-01

    Foam accumulation in deep-pit manure storage facilities is of concern for swine producers because of the logistical and safety-related problems it creates. A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the impact of feed grind size, fiber source, and manure inoculation on foaming characteristics. Animals were fed: (1) C-SBM (corn-soybean meal): (2) C-DDGS (corn-dried distiller grains with solubles); and (3) C-Soybean Hull (corn-soybean meal with soybean hulls) with each diet ground to either fine (374 μm) or coarse (631 μm) particle size. Two sets of 24 pigs were fed and their manure collected. Factors that decreased feed digestibility (larger grind size and increased fiber content) resulted in increased solids loading to the manure, greater foaming characteristics, more particles in the critical particle size range (2-25 μm), and a greater biological activity/potential.

  20. Development and application of real-time PCR assays for quantification of erm genes conferring resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B in livestock manure and manure management systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Zhongtang; Michel, Frederick C; Wittum, Thomas; Morrison, Mark

    2007-07-01

    Erythromycin and tylosin are commonly used in animal production, and such use is perceived to contribute to the overall antimicrobial resistance (AR) reservoirs. Quantitative measurements of this type of AR reservoir in microbial communities are required to understand AR ecology (e.g., emergence, persistence, and dissemination). We report here the development, validation, and use of six real-time PCR assays for quantifying six classes of erm genes (classes A through C, F, T, and X) that encode the major mechanism of resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLS(B)). These real-time PCR assays were validated and used in quantifying the six erm classes in five types of samples, including those from bovine manure, swine manure, compost of swine manure, swine waste lagoons, and an Ekokan upflow biofilter system treating hog house effluents. The bovine manure samples were found to contain much smaller reservoirs of each of the six erm classes than the swine manure samples. Compared to the swine manure samples, the composted swine manure samples had substantially reduced erm gene abundances (by up to 7.3 logs), whereas the lagoon or the biofilter samples had similar erm gene abundances. These preliminary results suggest that the methods of manure storage and treatment probably have a substantial impact on the persistence and decline of MLS(B) resistance originating from food animals, thus likely affecting the dissemination of such resistance genes into the environment. The abundances of these erm genes appeared to be positively correlated with those of the tet genes determined previously among these samples. These real-time PCR assays provide a rapid, quantitative, and cultivation-independent measurement of six major classes of erm genes, which should be useful for ecological studies of AR.

  1. Development and Application of Real-Time PCR Assays for Quantification of erm Genes Conferring Resistance to Macrolides-Lincosamides-Streptogramin B in Livestock Manure and Manure Management Systems▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Zhongtang; Michel, Frederick C.; Wittum, Thomas; Morrison, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Erythromycin and tylosin are commonly used in animal production, and such use is perceived to contribute to the overall antimicrobial resistance (AR) reservoirs. Quantitative measurements of this type of AR reservoir in microbial communities are required to understand AR ecology (e.g., emergence, persistence, and dissemination). We report here the development, validation, and use of six real-time PCR assays for quantifying six classes of erm genes (classes A through C, F, T, and X) that encode the major mechanism of resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLSB). These real-time PCR assays were validated and used in quantifying the six erm classes in five types of samples, including those from bovine manure, swine manure, compost of swine manure, swine waste lagoons, and an Ekokan upflow biofilter system treating hog house effluents. The bovine manure samples were found to contain much smaller reservoirs of each of the six erm classes than the swine manure samples. Compared to the swine manure samples, the composted swine manure samples had substantially reduced erm gene abundances (by up to 7.3 logs), whereas the lagoon or the biofilter samples had similar erm gene abundances. These preliminary results suggest that the methods of manure storage and treatment probably have a substantial impact on the persistence and decline of MLSB resistance originating from food animals, thus likely affecting the dissemination of such resistance genes into the environment. The abundances of these erm genes appeared to be positively correlated with those of the tet genes determined previously among these samples. These real-time PCR assays provide a rapid, quantitative, and cultivation-independent measurement of six major classes of erm genes, which should be useful for ecological studies of AR. PMID:17496134

  2. Utilisation of dried caged-hen manure and cassava peels for intensive sheep production.

    PubMed

    Okeudo, N J; Adegbola, A A

    1993-11-01

    Twenty grower ewes with an average weight of 14.3 +/- 3.7 kg were allotted to 5 dietary treatments. The diets contained 0, 13, 25, 35 and 45% dried caged-hen manure which replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%, respectively of the conventional protein supplements. The animals were fed 55.0 g/w0.75 kg/day of the concentrate food during a 104 days growth study. Air dried cassava peels and water were also provided ad libitum. The differences in average total dry matter intake were not statistically significant. The higher the manure content in the diets, the lower the energy content and the higher the cassava peels intake. No statistical differences were found in growth rates. The efficiency of food conversion decreased progressively though insignificantly. It was concluded that sheep can be fed caged-hen manure as the sole protein supplement in cassava peel based diets.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures in the USA: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective alternative fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided and possible end-use applications for methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

  4. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester)

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days) < Salmonella sp. (133 days) from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days. PMID:25026086

  5. Comparison of the ozonation and Fenton process performances for the treatment of antibiotic containing manure.

    PubMed

    Uslu, Merih Otker; Balcioğlu, Işil Akmehmet

    2009-05-15

    An integrated treatment method based on magnesium salt extraction followed by chemical oxidation was used for the treatment of a veterinary antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC) contaminated cow manure since animal manure can be an important source for antibiotic pollution in the environment. Pretreatment with magnesium salt enhanced the efficiencies of subsequent oxidation processes by extracting 63.9% of OTC from the manure thereby making it more favorable for oxidation with the hydroxyl radicals produced by the Fenton and ozone oxidation processes. Both the 24 h Fenton oxidation process with 434 mM H(2)O(2) and 43.4 mM Fe(2+) doses and the 1-h ozonation process with an applied ozone dose of 2.5 mg min(-1) provided more than 90% OTC removal from the manure slurry. However, the second-order OTC removal rate constant of Fenton process (119 M(-1)s(-1)) was remarkably lower than that obtained with the ozonation process (548 M(-1)s(-1)). The oxidant dose was a significant factor for the efficiency of the Fenton treatment but not for the ozone treatment. The efficiencies of both the Fenton and ozone oxidation processes were not affected by the pH adjustment of the manure slurry.

  6. Manure- and Biosolids-Resident Murine Norovirus 1 Attachment to and Internalization by Romaine Lettuce▿

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Jin, Yan; Sims, Tom; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2010-01-01

    The attachment of murine norovirus 1 (MNV) in biosolids, swine manure, and dairy manure to Romaine lettuce and internalization of this virus were evaluated. The MNV in animal manures had behavior similar to that of pure MNV; however, MNV in biosolids had significantly higher levels of attachment and internalization than pure MNV or MNV in manures. The incubation time did not affect the attachment of MNV in biosolids or manure. Confocal microscopy was used to observe MNV on lettuce after SYBR gold-labeled MNV was added directly to lettuce or after lettuce was submersed in labeled virus. MNV was observed on the lettuce surface, inside open cuts, and occasionally within stomata. In general, lettuce pieces with a long cut on the edge and short cuts on the stem was more likely to contain internalized MNV than intact lettuce pieces, as observed by confocal microscopy; however, while the difference was visible, it was not statistically significant. This study showed that the presence of MNV in biosolids may increase the risk of fresh produce contamination and that the MNV in open cuts and stomata is likely to be protected from sanitization. PMID:19933344

  7. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  8. Occurrence of (fluoro)quinolones and (fluoro)quinolone resistance in soil receiving swine manure for 11 years.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yonggang; Yu, Wantai; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Hua

    2015-10-15

    Because of the widespread use of antibiotics in animal breeding, the agricultural application of animal manure can lead to the introduction of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes to the soil and surrounding environment, which may pose a threat to public health. In this study, we investigated the status of (fluoro)quinolone (FQ) residues and FQ resistance levels in soil with and without receiving long-term swine manure. Six FQs (pipemidic acid, lomefloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin) were only detected in manured soil, with individual concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 27.2 μg kg(-1) and increasing with the increase in swine manure application rates. Higher load rates of swine manure yielded a higher number of ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIPr) bacteria after spreading. A total of 24 CIPr bacterial isolates were obtained from the tested soil, which belonged to four phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) or were related to nine different genera. Only 18 isolates from manured soil were positive for five plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrD, qepA, oqxA, and oqxB). To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in FQ-resistant bacteria from the soil environment. A similar result was observed for the total DNA from soil, with the exception of aac(6')-Ib being detected in the control sample. The absolute and relative abundances of total PMQR genes also increased with fertilization quantity. Significant correlations were observed between FQ resistance levels and FQ concentrations. These results indicated that the agricultural application of swine manure led to FQ residues and enhanced FQ resistance. This investigation provides baseline data on FQ resistance profiles in soils receiving long-term swine manure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of aluminum chloride and dietary phytase on relative ammonia losses from swine manure.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Moore, P A; Haggard, B E; Maxwells, C V; Daniel, T C; VanDevander, K; Davis, M E

    2004-02-01

    Ammonia (NH3) losses from swine manure contribute to odor problems, decrease animal productivity, and increase the risk of acid rain deposition. This study was conducted to determine whether aluminum chloride (AlCl3) or dietary manipulation with phytase could decrease relative NH3 losses from swine manure. Twenty-four pens of nursery pigs were used in two trials, and the pigs were fed normal or phytase-supplemented (500 IU/kg) diets. Aluminum chloride was added to manure pits (1.9 x 1.2 x 0.5 m) under each pen at 0, 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75% (vol:vol) of final manure volume. Manure pH and NH3 losses (measured by relative NH3 flux) were determined twice weekly. The addition of AlCl3 at 0.75% decreased (P < 0.05) manure pH from 7.48 to 6.69. Phytase decreased (P < 0.05) manure pH to 7.07 compared with 7.12 in the normal diet manure. Aluminum chloride administered at 0.75% without phytase reduced (P < 0.05) relative NH3 losses 52% for the entire 6-wk period. Relative NH3 losses were decreased (P < 0.05) from 109 mg of NH3/(m2 x h) in pens containing pigs fed the normal diet without AlCl3 to 81 mg of NH3/(m2 x h) in pens housing pigs administered the phytase diet, a 26% reduction. When the phytase diet and 0.75% AlCl3 additions were used in combination, relative NH3 losses were reduced (P < 0.05) by 60% compared with pens of pigs fed the control diet without AlCl3. Decreases in manure pH were likely responsible for the observed reduction in NH3 losses. Multiple regression was performed with relative rates of NH3 losses as the dependent variable and rate of AlCl3 addition, diet, and manure pH as independent variables. The model was tested using a stepwise regression (P < 0.001), and results indicated that the most important factors determining NH3 losses were manure pH and diet. However, the contribution of AlCl3 cannot be discounted. When manure pH was regressed against AlCl3 and dietary phytase, AlCl3 levels accounted for 64% of the variation in manure pH (P < 0

  10. Rheological properties of dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Hamed M; van Loon, Wilko K P; Zeeman, Grietje; Bot, Gerard P A

    2005-03-01

    Rheological properties are important for the design and modelling of handling and treating fluids. In the present study, the viscosity of liquid manure (about 10% total solids) was measured at different shear rates (2.38-238 s(-1)). The effect of temperature on the viscosity at different shear rates was also studied. The results showed that manure has non-Newtonian flow properties, because the viscosity strongly depended on the applied shear rate. The results showed also that manure behaves like real plastic materials. The power-law model of the shear stress and the rate of shear showed that the magnitude of the consistency coefficient decreased while increasing the temperature, with high values of the determination coefficient. Moreover, the results showed that the Arrhenius-type model fitted the temperature effect on manure viscosity very well (R2 at least 0.95) with calculated activation energy of 17.0+/-0.3 kJ mol(-1).

  11. Subsurface application enhances benefits of manure redistribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable nutrient management requires redistribution of livestock manure from nutrient-excess areas to nutrient-deficit areas. Field experiments were conducted to assess agronomic and environmental effects of different poultry litter application methods (surface vs. subsurface) and timings (fall ...

  12. Hygienisation and Nutrient Conservation of Sewage Sludge or Cattle Manure by Lactic Acid Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A.; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S.; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E.

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15–57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production. PMID:25786255

  13. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production.

  14. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    PubMed

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  15. Effect of feedlot manure collection techniques on ultimate methane yield

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Hills, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Beef-cattle manure collected from unpaved dirt feedlots has a significantly decreased energy-production potential due to low organic content and dirt contamination. In laboratory batch fermentors beef-feedlot manure of various ages was digested. Compared with fresh manure-gas production at 100%, aged manure produced 16-73% of the gas/kg of volatile solids added. More than 1/2 of the N was lost after the manure had aged 3 months. Economic benefits of CH/sub 4/ and N recovery from manure of different ages are discussed.

  16. Mixing rare earth elements with manures to control phosphorus loss in runoff and track manure fate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. We evaluated the effect of mixing two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride and ytterbium chloride, with poultr...

  17. A full-scale house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae bioconversion system for value-added swine manure reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Zhang, Zhijian; Czapar, George F; Winkler, Mari K H; Zheng, JianGuo

    2013-02-01

    Manure produced from confined animal farms can threaten public and environmental health if not managed properly. Herein, a full-scale commercial bioconversion operation in DeQing County, China for value-added swine manure reduction using house fly, Musca domestica L., larvae is reported. The greenhouse-assisted larvae bioreactor had a maximum daily treatment capacity of 35 m(3) fresh raw manure per day. The bioconversion process produced a fresh larvae yield of 95-120 kg m(3) fresh raw manure. This process provided an alternative animal foodstuff (having 56.9 and 23.8% protein and total fat as dry matter, respectively), as well as captured nutrients for agricultural re-utilization. Bioconversion reduced odour emission (characterized by 3-methylindole) and the Escherichia coli (E. coli) index by 94.5 and 92.0%, respectively, and reductions in total weight, moisture and total Kjeldahl nitrogen in solids were over 67.2, 80.0 and 76.0%, respectively. Yearly profit under this trial period ranged from US$33.4-46.1 per m(3). It is concluded that swine manure larvae bioconversion technology with subsequent production of value-added bio-products can be a promising avenue when considering a programme to reduce waste products in an intensive animal production system.

  18. Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste--The effects of trace element addition.

    PubMed

    Nordell, Erik; Nilsson, Britt; Nilsson Påledal, Sören; Karisalmi, Kaisa; Moestedt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Manure is one of the most common substrates for biogas production. Manure from dairy- and swine animals are often considered to stabilize the biogas process by contributing nutrients and trace elements needed for the biogas process. In this study two lab-scale reactors were used to evaluate the effects of trace element addition during co-digestion of manure from swine- and dairy animals with industrial waste. The substrate used contained high background concentrations of both cobalt and nickel, which are considered to be the most important trace elements. In the reactor receiving additional trace elements, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was 89% lower than in the control reactor. The lower VFA concentration contributed to a more digested digestate, and thus lower methane emissions in the subsequent storage. Also, the biogas production rate increased with 24% and the biogas production yield with 10%, both as a result of the additional trace elements at high organic loading rates. All in all, even though 50% of the feedstock consisted of manure, trace element addition resulted in multiple positive effects and a more reliable process with stable and high yield.

  19. Addition of cattle manure to sheep bedding allows vermicomposting process and improves vermicompost quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antonio de Mendonça; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Rozatti, Marcos A T; Martins, Marcos F Leal

    2017-03-01

    Animal waste is usually a good substrate for vermicomposting. However, numerous animal husbandry systems use bedding that consists primarily of lignocellulosic substrates, which hinders earthworm and microorganism's development and thus, the entire bioconversion process. One possible solution is to mix the used bedding with other waste materials that are more amenable to earthworm ingestion and can provide better conditions for earthworm population growth. Here, we have aimed to examine the effectiveness of such procedure by mixing rice-husk-based sheep bedding with cattle manure in different proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). We have carried out vermicomposting experiments in benchtop vermireactors inoculated with 0.88kg of dry matter (sheep bedding+cattle manure). Data used in the Principal Component Analysis were the multiple vermicomposting variables (i.e., EC; pH; HA/FA and C/N ratios; P, K, cellulose, and hemicellulose content). The effect of the treatment on earthworm count was analyzed with ANOVA. We have observed that the addition of at least 25% of cattle manure to sheep bedding allows vermicomposting process but it is necessary 148days to obtain a stabilized vermicompost. However, increasing the proportion of cattle manure to sheep bedding, the vermicomposting time decreases proportionally to 94days. We concluded that vermicomposting can be considered a bioprocess to stabilize rice husk after being used as sheep bedding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Survival of multidrug-resistant bacteria in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk.

    PubMed

    Beneragama, Nilmini; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Lateef, Suraju A; Yamashiro, Takaki; Ihara, Ikko; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2013-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion is considered as a promising method to manage animal waste with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Current research was conducted to investigate the survival of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) resistant to three groups of antibiotics: (i) cefazolin, neomycin, vancomycin, kanamycin (group 1); (ii) penicillin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin (group 2); and (iii) cefazolin, neomycin, vancomycin, kanamycin, penicillin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin (group 3), in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk at 37°C and 55°C for 22 days, respectively. The population densities of three groups of MDRB on peptone, tryptone, yeast and glucose agar plates incubated at 30°C for 7 days before and after digestion showed 100% destruction in both digestates at thermophilic temperature. Overall reduction of more than 90% of three groups of MDRB was observed in mesophilic digestion with no significant differences (P > 0.05) between manure and milk mixture. Co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk always produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher total gas and methane gas than digestion of manure alone at both temperatures. Gas production in each case was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in thermophilic digestion than in mesophilic digestion. The results demonstrate that thermophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk offers more benefits in terms of the environment and economy.

  1. Effects of pig manure and wheat straw on growth of mung bean seedlings grown in aluminium toxicity soil.

    PubMed

    Shen, Q R; Shen, Z G

    2001-02-01

    Crop production in red soil areas may be limited by Al toxicity. A possible alternative to ameliorate Al toxicity is the application of such organic manure as crop straw and animal manure. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic materials on the alleviation of Al toxicity in acid red soil. Ground wheat straw, pig manure or CaCO3 were mixed with the soil and incubated, at 85% of water holding capacity and 25 degrees C, for 8 weeks. After the incubation, 14 seedlings of mung bean (Phaseolus aures Roxb) were allowed to grow for 12 days. Results showed that application of organic material or CaCO3 increased soil pH and decreased soil monomeric inorganic Al concentrations. Growth of mung bean seedling was improved sustantially by the application of organic material or CaCO3. Pig manure or wheat straw was more effective in ameliorating Al toxicity than was CaCO3. Mung bean plants receiving pig manure or wheat straw contained relatively high concentrations of P, Ca and K in their leaves. It is suggested that the beneficial effect of organic manure on mung bean is likely due to decreasing concentrations of monomeric inorganic Al concentrations in soil solution and improvement of mineral nutrition.

  2. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures: Processes and energetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an emerging technology for thermochemically converting biomass and waste materials into value-added carbonaceous char called hydrochar. HTC is well suited to manage wet feedstocks streams because pre-drying prior to processing is not required as with gasification...

  3. New systems for treatment of manure from confined animal production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New swine waste management systems developed in North Carolina to replace the anaerobic lagoons need to meet the strict performance standards of an environmentally superior technology (EST). These technologies must be able to substantially remove nutrients, heavy metals, emissions of ammonia, odors,...

  4. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S O; Blanchard, M; Chadwick, D; Del Prado, A; Edouard, N; Mosquera, J; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found.

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus in swine manure and soil.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongqi; Griffin, Timothy S; Honeycutt, C Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Organic phosphorus (Po) exists in many chemical forms that differ in their susceptibility to hydrolysis and, therefore, bioavailability to plants and microorganisms. Identification and quantification of these forms may significantly contribute to effective agricultural P management. Phosphatases catalyze reactions that release orthophosphate (Pi) from Po compounds. Alkaline phosphatase in tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phytase in potassium acetate buffer (pH 5.0), and nuclease P1 in potassium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) can be used to classify and quantify Po in animal manure. Background error associated with different pH and buffer systems is observed. In this study, we improved the enzymatic hydrolysis approach and tested its applicability for investigating Po in soils, recognizing that soil and manure differ in numerous physicochemical properties. We applied (i) acid phosphatase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), (ii) acid phosphatases from both potato and wheat germ, and (iii) both enzymes plus nuclease P1 to identify and quantify simple labile monoester P, phytate (myo-inositol hexakis phosphate)-like P, and DNA-like P, respectively, in a single pH/buffer system (100 mM sodium acetate, pH 5.0). This hydrolysis procedure released Po in sequentially extracted H2O, NaHCO3, and NaOH fractions of swine (Sus scrofa) manure, and of three sandy loam soils. Further refinement of the approach may provide a universal tool for evaluating hydrolyzable Po from a wide range of sources.

  6. Occurrence and distribution of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, and nitrofurans in livestock manure and amended soils of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jie; Wan, Weining; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Chong; Mu, Quanhua; Qin, Songyan; Luo, Yi

    2015-03-01

    A feasible and rapid analysis for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides (SAs), tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs), macrolides (MACs) and nitrofurans (NFs) in livestock manure and soils was established by solid-phase extraction (SPE)-ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A total of 32 manure and 17 amended soil samples from the Liaoning and Tianjin areas in Northern China were collected for analysis. The largest detected frequencies and concentrations in manure samples were those of TCs (3326.6 ± 12,302.6 μg/kg), followed by FQs (411.3 ± 1453.4 μg/kg), SAs (170.6 ± 1060.2 μg/kg), NFs (85.1 ± 158.1 μg/kg), and MACs (1.4 ± 4.8 μg/kg). In general, veterinary antibiotics (VAs) were detected with higher concentrations in swine and chicken manure than in cattle manure, reflecting the heavy usage of VAs in swine and chicken husbandry in the studied area. Furthermore, higher residues of antibiotics were found in piglet and fattening swine manure than in sow manure. In addition, TCs were the most frequently (100%) detected antibiotics in amended soil with higher concentrations (up to 10,967.1 μg/kg) than any other VAs. The attenuation of SAs was more obvious than TCs in amended soil after fertilization, which can most likely be attributed to the stronger sorption of TCs than SAs to soil organic matter through cation exchange. This study illustrated the prevalence of TCs detected in both animal manure and fertilized agricultural soils in Northern China, which may increase the risk to human health through the food chain. Thus, TCs should be given more attention in the management of veterinary usage in livestock husbandry.

  7. Prevalence and persistence of potentially pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion treatment of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; de Oliveira Fortunato, Samuel; da Costa Carneiro, Jailton; Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2014-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion figures as a sustainable alternative to avoid discharge of cattle manure in the environment, which results in biogas and biofertilizer. Persistence of potentially pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion of cattle manure was evaluated. Selective cultures were performed for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined and a decay of all bacterial groups was observed after 60days. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected both the influent and effluent. GPC, the most prevalent group was highly resistant against penicillin and levofloxacin, whereas resistance to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam and chloramphenicol was frequently observed in the ENT and NFR groups. The data point out the need of discussions to better address management of biodigesters and the implementation of sanitary and microbiological safe treatments of animal manures to avoid consequences to human, animal and environmental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Degradation of veterinary antibiotics and hormone during broiler manure composting.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2013-03-01

    The fate of nine veterinary antibiotics and one hormone in broiler manure during 40 days of composting was investigated. Results showed that composting can significantly reduce the concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, making application of the post-compost manure safer for soil application. More than 99% of the nine antibiotics and one hormone involved in this study were removed from the manure during 40 days of composting. The target antibiotics and hormone showed short half-life in broiler manure composting, ranging from 1.3 to 3.8 days. The relationship between the physico-chemical properties of soil, manure and manure compost and its veterinary antibiotic and hormone concentration was statistically evaluated by Pearson correlation matrix. The concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in manure compost was suggested to be affected by physico-chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and metal contents.

  9. Immobilization of phosphorus in cow manure during hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lichun; Tan, Furong; Wu, Bo; He, Mingxiong; Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Qichun; Zhang, Min

    2015-07-01

    The surplus of manure phosphorus (P) with increasing livestock production might pose a risk of P loss to the environment due to the high mobility of P in manure. Thus, there is an increasing need to mitigate P loss from manure. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) on the immobilization of P in cow manure. The results demonstrated that the P content in cow manure was increased substantially by ∼20% after HTC, while the water-extractable P (WEP) and Mehlich-3-extractable P (MEP) in manure was reduced significantly by >80% and 50%, respectively. The decrease in P solubility might result from the increased apatite P (increased by >85%) and decreased soluble Ca (decreased by ∼50%) after HTC. These results suggested that HTC could be an efficient strategy to immobilize P in cow manure, thereby potentially mitigating the P loss problem from cow manure.

  10. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  11. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Krapac, I G; Dey, W S; Roy, W R; Smyth, C A; Storment, E; Sargent, S L; Steele, J D

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and delta15N and delta15O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both

  12. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Thais A.; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals world wide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using 2 week old horse manure (control) and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old) to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1–3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size) was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1–5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevundimonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly – microbial interactions. PMID:25426108

  13. Effect of Dietary Protein on Ammonia Emission from Dairy Manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH3) volatilization from dairy cow manure. Two types of manure were prepared by feeding lactating dairy cows diets with 16% (DM basis; HighCP) or 14% CP (LowCP). The manure was used in 2...

  14. Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land-applied swine manure can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of manure constituents occur. The use of chemical amendments to mitigate these losses has been investigated for poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention in this context, particularly ...

  15. Residues and potential ecological risks of veterinary antibiotics in manures and composts associated with protected vegetable farming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming; Wu, Longhua; Huang, Yujuan; Christie, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants and enter into soil principally by agricultural application of organic fertilizer. A total of 33 solid animal manures and 17 compost samples from protected vegetable farms in nine areas of China were analyzed for the antibiotic classes of tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and macrolides (17 substances in total). Oxytetracycline was found as a dominant compound in the samples, and its highest concentration reached 416.8 mg kg(-1) in a chicken manure sample from Shouguang, Shandong Province. Among the samples, animal manures (especially pig manure) contained higher VA residues than composts. However, fluoroquinolones exhibited higher persistence in the compost samples than other antibiotic classes. This is particularly the case in the rice husk compost, which contained the highest level of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (1334.5 and 1717.4 μg kg(-1) on average, respectively). The veterinary antibiotic profile in the risk husk compost had a good relationship with that in the corresponding manures. The refined commercial compost had the lowest VA residues among the compost samples in general. This implied that composting process might be important to reduce the antibiotic residue. High residue of antibiotics in soil was assumed to be a hazard to ecosystem. This is especially noticeable under current application rates (150 t ha(-1) a(-1)) in protected vegetable farming because over half of the samples exhibited a risk quotient (RQ) >1 for one or more antibiotics.

  16. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Shen, JianGuo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, LongHua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, HongYi; Zheng, ChangFeng; Xu, XinHua

    2014-01-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m−2, respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting. PMID:25354896

  17. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijian; Shen, Jianguo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, Longhua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, Hongyi; Zheng, Changfeng; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m-2, respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting.

  18. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Shen, JianGuo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, LongHua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, HongYi; Zheng, ChangFeng; Xu, XinHua

    2014-10-30

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m(-2), respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting.

  19. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  20. Assessment of oxytetracycline and tetracycline antibiotics in manure samples in different cities of Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Nadali; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Tetracyclines (TCs), a class of antibiotics with a broad spectrum, are the most frequently used antibiotics in animal production. The major concern is that the widespread use of the antibiotics may lead to the emergence of new strains of bacteria that are resistant to these antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the residual levels of oxytetracycline and tetracycline in 80 animal manure samples that were collected from the livestock and poultry feedlots in Khuzestan Province. The residual levels of the antibiotics in the samples were extracted by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) method and subsequently were measured by liquid chromatography. Recoveries from the spiked poultry manure samples ranged from 65 to 113% for tetracycline and 86 to 132% for oxytetracycline. Relative standard deviations of the recoveries were less than 5.7% within the same day. Method detection limit (MDL) measured for oxytetracycline and tetracycline in the manure were 0.011 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Analysis of the collected 50 chickens and 30 cow manure samples showed that the highest concentration of tetracycline was related to Behbahan City (5.36 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration was detected for Ramhormoz (0.05 mg/kg). The highest and lowest concentrations of oxytetracycline were respectively observed for Behbahan (13.77 mg/kg) and Ramhormoz (0.047 mg/kg). Based on the results, in chicken manure, there was significant statistical difference between the residual TC concentrations among five cities (p(value) < 0.05). However, no significant relationship was observed between oxytetracyclin (OTC) residual concentrations among five cities (p(value) > 0.05).

  1. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  2. Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management

    PubMed Central

    Čičková, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozánek, Milan; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Takáč, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed. PMID:22431982

  3. Geographic variations of soil phosphorus induced by long-term land and manure nutrient management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Thanh

    2014-05-01

    Most natural and agricultural ecosystems are deficient in phosphorus (P), and supplemental P must be provided to attain optimal levels of agronomic production. Animal manure is often used to supply needed plant nutrients to enhance production of feed and fiber crops for human and livestock consumption. Soils have been treated with large amounts of P-enriched manure, and have shown elevated P levels in watersheds where there is a high density of intensive confined animal agriculture. Long-term additions can have lasting effects on the geographic distribution of soil microbes associated with the turnover of major soil nutrients, in particular non-mobile one such as P. We determined the distribution of soil P forms in a 10-ha no-till field that received annual additions of dairy manure at 0, 15, and 30 kg P ha-1 at the field scale for 16 consecutive years. Spectroscopic analyses of the near-surface zone were performed by X-ray fluorescence in soil cores taken to a depth of 0.2 m. Geostatistical methods were used to determine the spatial structure of the soil compositional data. Soil X-ray fluorescence spectral attributes were obtained based on a set of five parallel transects established across five experimental blocks, i.e., a 5 × 5 rectangular grid pattern. Three subsets of each soil attribute were identified for the three rates of manure addition. Long-term manure addition, albeit liquid manure, resulted in significant variability in soil P distribution in the near surface zone. The heterogeneity persisted over years of continuous no-tillage management. Therefore, a high density of geo-referenced soil measurements must be made to estimate the status of a required plant nutrient, especially a non-mobile nutrient in soil. A large number of timely measurements would require a rapid geo-referenced soil sensing spectroscopic method such as X-ray fluorescence to manage in near real-time the observed spatial variability of manure-treated fields.

  4. Quantifying Bioactive P Pools in Fertilized and Manure-Amended Soils by Purified Phytic-Acid High Affinity Aspergillus phosphohydrolases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In areas of intensive animal agriculture, repeated land application of manure resulted in elevated soil concentrations of inorganic and organic phosphorus (P) myo-Inositol hexaphosphate, lower phosphomonoesters are the most abundant organic P compounds. Such P-enriched soils are potential pollution...

  5. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated if Neem (Azadirachta indic...

  6. The development of alum rates to enhance the remediation of phosphorus in fluvial systems following manure spills

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Following the remediation of animal manure spills that reach surface waters, contaminated streambed sediments are often left in place and become a source for internal P loading within the stream in subsequent flow. The objective of this study was to develop treatment rates and combinations of alum a...

  7. Temporal flux and spatial dynamics of nutrients, fecal indicators, and zoonotic pathogens in anaerobic swine manure lagoon water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure management in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in the Mid-South US involves anaerobic lagoons. Lagoon effluent is used to irrigate and fertilize crops. Nutrients and bacteria in effluent have been sporadically characterized, but annual temporal changes...

  8. Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure as influenced by three swine management systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vastly different microbial constituents in both the pig and the manure lagoons used to treat the fecal waste of the operation. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible th...

  9. Can cover crop and manure maintain or improve soil properties after stover removal from irrigated no-till corn?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Addition of cover crops and animal manure following corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for expanded uses may mitigate negative soil property effects of stover removal. We studied the short-term (3 yr) cumulative impacts of stover removal with and without winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop or a...

  10. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Swine Manure Management: A System Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Gerber, Pierre J; Xin, Hongwei; Smith, Pete; Opio, Carolyn; Steinfeld, Henning; Chadwick, Dave

    2017-04-18

    Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems is urgently needed to help mitigate climate change and to improve atmospheric air quality. This study presents a meta-analysis and an integrated assessment of gaseous emissions and mitigation potentials for NH3, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) (direct and indirect) losses from four typical swine manure management systems (MMSs). The resultant emission factors and mitigation efficiencies allow GHG and NH3 emissions to be estimated, as well as mitigation potentials for different stages of swine operation. In particular, changing swine manure management from liquid systems to solid-liquid separation systems, coupled with mitigation measures, could simultaneously reduce GHG emissions by 65% and NH3 emissions by 78%. The resultant potential reduction in GHG emissions from China's pig production alone is greater than the entire GHG emissions from agricultural sector of France, Australia, or Germany, while the reduction in NH3 emissions is equivalent to 40% of the total NH3 emissions from the European Union. Thus, improved swine manure management could have a significant impact on global environment issues.

  11. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments.

    PubMed

    Ro, K S; Novak, J M; Johnson, M G; Szogi, A A; Libra, J A; Spokas, K A; Bae, S

    2016-01-01

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure application are composting and thermochemical conversion which can destroy pathogens and improve handling and storage. The effect of four forms of swine manure-based soil amendments (raw, compost, hydrochar, and pyrochar) on soil fertility and leachate water quality characteristics of a sandy soil were investigated in soil incubation experiments. All four amendments significantly increased soil carbon, cation exchange capacity and available nutrient contents of the soil. However, hydrochar amended soil leached lower amounts of N, P, and K compared to the other amendments including the control. On the other hand, pyrochar amended soil leached higher concentrations of P and K. Subsequent tests on the hydrochar for K and N adsorption isotherms and surface analysis via XPS suggested that these nutrients were not sorbed directly to the hydrochar surface. Although it is still not clear how these nutrients were retained in the soil amended with hydrochar, it suggests a great potential for hydrochar as an alternative manure management option as the hydrochar can be soil applied while minimizing potential environmental issues from the leaching of high nutrient concentrations to water bodies.

  12. Reduction of estrone to 17 β-estradiol in the presence of swine manure colloids.

    PubMed

    Prater, Jacob R; Horton, Robert; Thompson, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Land application of animal manure and municipal biosolids to improve soil fertility carries the risk of adding to aquatic ecosystems contaminants that can disrupt the endocrine systems of aquatic organisms. This study explored the fate of two estrogens, 17 β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), in the presence of organic colloids derived from swine manure. Most reports concerning environmental estrogens indicate a degradation/transformation pathway that leads to decreased estrogenicity, that is, E2 is transformed to E1 and potentially to other daughter products. However, in this study we found that within 24 h the reverse reaction was possible (E1 transforming to E2) in a swine manure colloidal suspension closed to the atmosphere. The reaction occurred after approximately the same 24-h period in separate colloidal suspensions of swine manure that had been initially incubated with E2 or with E1. In the experiment with E2, there was an apparent complete reversal of the solution estrogen form, from E2 to E1 and then back to E2. Our observations support the concern that environmentally relevant estrogens have the potential to increase in estrogenicity and/or to persist under reducing conditions.

  13. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms.

  14. Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

  15. Characteristics of Stratified Bedded Pack Dairy Manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    "Compost" dairy barns are a relatively new housing system that generates a deep (0.9 to 1.5 m), stratified bedded pack (SBP) manure source. Bedding composed of sawdust, wood chips, or crop residues accumulates as additions are made to maintain a dry surface. Surface drying is promoted by a combinati...

  16. Subsurface application enhances benefits of manure redistribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable nutrient management requires redistribution of livestock manure from nutrient-excess areas to nutrient-deficit areas. Field experiments were conducted to assess agronomic (i.e., corn yield) and environmental (i.e., ammonia volatilization and surface nutrient losses) effects of different ...

  17. Evaluation of sample preservation methods for poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Pan, J; Fadel, J G; Zhang, R; El-Mashad, H M; Ying, Y; Rumsey, T

    2009-08-01

    When poultry manure is collected but cannot be analyzed immediately, a method for storing the manure is needed to ensure accurate subsequent analyses. This study has 3 objectives: (1) to investigate effects of 4 poultry manure sample preservation methods (refrigeration, freezing, acidification, and freeze-drying) on the compositional characteristics of poultry manure; (2) to determine compositional differences in fresh manure with manure samples at 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation under bird cages; and (3) to assess the influence of 14-d freezing storage on the composition of manure when later exposed to 25 degrees C for 7 d as compared with fresh manure. All manure samples were collected from a layer house. Analyses performed on the manure samples included total Kjeldahl nitrogen, uric acid nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and urea nitrogen. In experiment 1, the storage methods most similar to fresh manure, in order of preference, were freezing, freeze-drying, acidification, and refrigeration. Thoroughly mixing manure samples and compressing them to 2 to 3 mm is important for the freezing and freeze-dried samples. In general, refrigeration was found unacceptable for nitrogen analyses. A significant effect (P < 0.0001) of time for refrigeration was found on uric acid nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen. In experiment 2, the total Kjeldahl nitrogen and uric acid nitrogen were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation compared with fresh manure. Manure after 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation had similar nitrogen compositions. The results from experiment 3 show that nitrogen components from fresh manure samples and thawed samples from 14 d of freezing are similar at 7 d but high variability of nitrogen compositions during intermediate times from 0 to 7 d prevents the recommendation of freezing manure for use in subsequent experiments and warrants future experimentation. In conclusion, fresh poultry manure can be frozen for accurate subsequent nitrogen

  18. Performance of different composting techniques in reducing oestrogens content in manure from livestock in a Vietnamese setting.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Anh Hong; Clemens, Joachim; Nguyen, Thai Hoa

    2013-01-01

    Steroid oestrogens (SE) are released by humans and animals into the environment. In the Mekong Delta animal excrement is directly discharged into surface water and can pollute the water. Only a few animal production sites are currently treating the excrement in either biogas plants or vermicomposting systems. The concentration of SE in manures from pigs and cattle was monitored in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Fresh cow faeces had an oestrogen concentration of 3.3 ng E2 eq/g dry weight. The SE concentration in effluent from biogas plants fed with animal manures was 341 ng E2 eq/L. Most of the SE were in the solid phase (77.9-98.7%). Vermicomposting reduced SE to 95% of the original input.

  19. Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in cultivable multidrug-resistant bacteria from livestock manure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Tian, Tiantian; Niu, Tianqi; Wang, Panliang

    2017-10-01

    Diverse antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) are frequently reported to have high prevalence in veterinary manure samples due to extensive use of antibiotics in farm animals. However, the characteristics of the distribution and transmission of ARGs among bacteria, especially among different species of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB), have not been well explored. By applying high-throughput sequencing methods, our study uncovered a vast MARB reservoir in livestock manure. The genera Escherichia, Myroides, Acinetobacter, Proteus, Ignatzschineria, Alcaligenes, Providencia and Enterococcus were the predominant cultivable MARB, with compositions of 40.6%-85.7%. From chicken manure isolates, 33 MARB were selected for investigation of the molecular characteristics of antibiotic resistance. A total of 61 ARGs and 18 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were investigated. We found that 47 ARGs were widely distributed among the 33 MARB isolates. Each isolate carried 27-36 genes responsible for resistance to eight classes of antibiotics frequently used in clinic or veterinary settings. ARGs to the six classes of antibiotics other than streptogramins and vancomycin were present in all 33 MARB isolates with a prevalence of 80%-100%. A total of 12 MGEs were widely distributed among the 33 MARB, with intI1, IS26, ISaba1, and ISEcp1 simultaneously present in 100% of isolates. In addition, 9 gene cassettes within integrons and ISCR1 were detected among MARB isolates encoding resistance to different antibiotic classes. This is the first report revealing the general co-presence of multiple ARGs, various MGEs and ARG cassettes in different species of individual MARB isolates in chicken manure. The results highlight a much higher risk of ARGs spreading through livestock manure to humans than we expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrogen potential recovery and concentration of ammonia from swine manure using electrodialysis coupled with air stripping.

    PubMed

    Ippersiel, D; Mondor, M; Lamarche, F; Tremblay, F; Dubreuil, J; Masse, L

    2012-03-01

    The practice of intensive animal production in certain areas has resulted in excessive manure production for the available regional land base. Consequently, there is a need to develop treatment technologies to recover the valuable nutrients that manure contains so that the resulting product can be transported and used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The project presented here used electrodialysis in a dilution/concentration configuration to transfer the manure ammonia in the diluate solution by electromigration to an adjacent solution separated by an ion-exchange membrane under the driving force of an electrical potential. Then, air stripping from the electrodialysis-obtained concentrate solution without pH modification was used to isolate the ammonia in an acidic solution. An optimal process operating voltage of 17.5 V was first determined on the basis of current efficiency and total energy consumption. During the process, the swine manure pH varied from 8.5 to 8.2, values favourable for NH(4)(+) electromigration. Total ammonia nitrogen reached 21,352 mg/L in the concentrate solution, representing approximately seven times the concentration in the swine manure. Further increases in concentration were limited by water transfer from the diluate solution due to electroosmosis and osmosis. Applying vacuum to the concentrate reservoir was found to be more efficient than direct concentrate solution aeration for NH(3) recuperation in the acid trap, given that the ammonia recuperated under vacuum represented 14.5% of the theoretical value of the NH(3) present in the concentrate solution as compared to 6.2% for aeration. However, an excessively low concentrate solution pH (8.6-8.3) limited NH(3)volatilization toward the acid trap. These results suggest that the concentrate solution pH needs to be raised to promote the volatile NH(3) form of total ammonia nitrogen. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Response surface optimization of a rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction method for simultaneous determination of tetracycline antibiotics in manure.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanqing; Sun, Mingxing; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Ping; Min, Hong; Shen, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and cleanup-free ultrasound-assisted extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous extraction of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline in manure. The analytes were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. The influence of several variables on the efficiency of the extraction procedure was investigated by single-factor experiments. The temperature, pH, and amount of extraction solution were selected for optimization experiment using response surface methodology. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R (2) > 0.99) for all analytes in the range of 0.1-20 μg/mL. The four antibiotics were successfully extracted from manure with recoveries ranging from 81.89 to 92.42% and good reproducibility (RSD, <4.06%) under optimal conditions, which include 50 mL of McIlvaine buffer extraction solution (pH 7.15) mixed with 1 g of manure sample, extraction temperature of 40°C, extraction time of 10 min, and three extraction cycles. Method quantification limits of 1.75-2.32 mg/kg were obtained for the studied compounds. The proposed procedure demonstrated clear reductions in extraction time and elimination of cleanup steps. Finally, the applicability to tetracyclines antibiotics determination in real samples was evaluated through the successful determination of four target analytes in swine, cow manure, and mixture of animal manure with inorganic fertilizer.

  2. Response Surface Optimization of a Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Method for Simultaneous Determination of Tetracycline Antibiotics in Manure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lanqing; Sun, Mingxing; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Ping; Min, Hong; Shen, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and cleanup-free ultrasound-assisted extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous extraction of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline in manure. The analytes were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. The influence of several variables on the efficiency of the extraction procedure was investigated by single-factor experiments. The temperature, pH, and amount of extraction solution were selected for optimization experiment using response surface methodology. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99) for all analytes in the range of 0.1–20 μg/mL. The four antibiotics were successfully extracted from manure with recoveries ranging from 81.89 to 92.42% and good reproducibility (RSD, <4.06%) under optimal conditions, which include 50 mL of McIlvaine buffer extraction solution (pH 7.15) mixed with 1 g of manure sample, extraction temperature of 40°C, extraction time of 10 min, and three extraction cycles. Method quantification limits of 1.75–2.32 mg/kg were obtained for the studied compounds. The proposed procedure demonstrated clear reductions in extraction time and elimination of cleanup steps. Finally, the applicability to tetracyclines antibiotics determination in real samples was evaluated through the successful determination of four target analytes in swine, cow manure, and mixture of animal manure with inorganic fertilizer. PMID:25922787

  3. Anaerobic digestion of nitrogen rich poultry manure: Impact of thermophilic biogas process on metal release and microbial resistances.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Reshma; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Krakat, Niclas

    2017-02-01

    Poultry manure is a nitrogen rich fertilizer, which is usually recycled and spread on agricultural fields. Due to its high nutrient content, chicken manure is considered to be one of the most valuable animal wastes as organic fertilizer. However, when chicken litter is applied in its native form, concerns are raised as such fertilizers also include high amounts of antibiotic resistant pathogenic Bacteria and heavy metals. We studied the impact of an anaerobic thermophilic digestion process on poultry manure. Particularly, microbial antibiotic resistance profiles, mobile genetic elements promoting the resistance dissemination in the environment as well as the presence of heavy metals were focused in this study. The initiated heat treatment fostered a community shift from pathogenic to less pathogenic bacterial groups. Phenotypic and molecular studies demonstrated a clear reduction of multiple resistant pathogens and self-transmissible plasmids in the heat treated manure. That treatment also induced a higher release of metals and macroelements. Especially, Zn and Cu exceeded toxic thresholds. Although the concentrations of a few metals reached toxic levels after the anaerobic thermophilic treatment, the quality of poultry manure as organic fertilizer may raise significantly due to the elimination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and self-transmissible plasmids.

  4. Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Mahmoud; Pillai, Viju V.; Goddard, Joshua M.; Park, Hui G.; Kothapalli, Kumar S.; Ross, Deborah A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Milstein, Mark B.; Marquis, Helene; Johnson, Patricia A.; Nyrop, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    The common housefly, Musca domestica, is a considerable component of nutrient recycling in the environment. Use of housefly larvae to biodegrade manure presents an opportunity to reduce waste disposal while the rapidly assimilated insect biomass can also be used as a protein rich animal feed. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of dairy cattle manure using housefly larvae, and the nutritional value of the resulting larva meal as a feed ingredient. Our results demonstrated that dairy cattle manure presents a balanced substrate for larval growth, and the spent manure showed reductions in concentration of total nitrogen (24.9%) and phosphorus (6.2%) with an overall reduction in mass. Larva yield at an optimum density was approximately 2% of manure weight. Nutritional analysis of M. domestica larva meal showed values comparable to most high protein feed ingredients. Larva meal was 60% protein with a well-balanced amino acid profile, and 20% fat with 57% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 39% saturated fatty acids. Larva meal lacked any significant amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Evaluation of micronutrients in larva meal suggested that it is a good source of calcium and phosphorus (0.5% and 1.1% respectively). The nutritional value of larva meal closely matches that of fishmeal, making it a potentially attractive alternative for use as a protein-rich feed ingredient for livestock and aquaculture operations. PMID:28170420

  5. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Korn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork. PMID:26184255

  6. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure.

    PubMed

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Korn, Anna

    2015-07-10

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  7. An ecoregion-specific ammonia emissions inventory of Ontario dairy farming: Mitigation potential of diet and manure management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; MacDonald, Douglas; Bittman, Shabtai; Beauchemin, Karen A.; Janzen, H. Henry; McGinn, Sean M.; Vanderzaag, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The Canadian ammonia (NH3) emissions model and a survey of dairy farm practices were used to quantify effects of management on emissions from dairy farms in Ontario Canada. Total NH3 emissions from dairy farming were 21 Gg NH3-N yr-1 for the four ecoregions of the province. Annual emission rates ranged from 12.8 (for calves in ecoregions of Manitoulin-Lake Simcoe-Frontenac) to 50 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1 (for lactating cows in ecoregions of St. Lawrence Lowlands) (mean of 27 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1). The St. Lawrence Lowlands ecoregion had the highest emission rate because more dairy manure was managed as solid manure in that ecoregion. Total dairy cattle N intake (diet-N) was 81 Gg N yr-1, 23% of which was retained in animal products (e.g., milk, meat, and fetus), 47% was returned to the land, and 30% was emitted as gas (i.e., NH3-N, N2O-N, NO-N, and N2-N) and nitrate-N leaching/runoff. Ammonia volatilization constituted the largest loss of diet-N (26%), as well as manure-N (34%). Reducing the fraction of solid manure by 50% has the potential to mitigate NH3 emissions by 18% in Ontario ecoregions.

  8. Bacterial Communities in Aerosols and Manure Samples from Two Different Dairies in Central and Sonoma Valleys of California

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosols have been suspected to transport food pathogens and contaminate fruits and vegetables grown in close proximity to concentrated animal feeding operations, but studies are lacking that substantiate such transport. To monitor the potential transport of bacteria originated from fresh or dry manure through aerosols on a dairy, we identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, bacteria in aerosols collected within 2 to 3 meters from dairy cows at two dairies. Gram-positive Firmicutes were predominant in aerosols from a dairy in Sonoma, California, and surrounded by vineyards, in contrast to sequences of Gram-negative Proteobacteria predominant in aerosols from a dairy in Modesto, California, also surrounded by other dairies. Although Firmicutes represented approximately 50% of the 10 most abundant sequences, aerosols from the Sonoma dairy also contained sequences of Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria, identified previously with animal feces. While none of the top 10 sequences from fresh or dry manure from Modesto dairy were detected in aerosols, two of the sequences from the phylum Bacteriodetes and one from class Clostridia from fresh manure were detected in aerosols from Sonoma. Interestingly, none of the sequences from dry manure were in the top 10 sequences in aerosols from both dairies. The 10 most abundant sequences in aerosols from the Modesto dairy were all from Proteobacteria and nearly half of them were from genus Massilia, which have been isolated previously from immune-compromised people and aerosols. We conclude that the predominant bacteria in aerosols are diverse among locations and that they do not reflect the predominant species of bacteria present in cow feces and/or in close proximity to cows. These results suggest that the aerosol sequences did not originate from manure. Large volumes of aerosols would be required to determine if bacterial sequences from aerosols could be used to track bacteria in manure to crops grown in proximity. PMID:21364996

  9. Pathogen inactivation in liquid dairy manure during anaerobic and aerobic digestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Pandey, P.; Castillo, A. R.; Vaddella, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Controlling manure-borne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are crucial for protecting surface and ground water as well as mitigating risks to human health. In California dairy farms, flushing of dairy manure (mainly animal feces and urine) from freestall barns and subsequent liquid-solid manure separation is a common practice for handling animal waste. The liquid manure fraction is generally pumped into the settling ponds and it goes into aerobic and/or anaerobic lagoons for extended period of time. Considering the importance of controlling pathogens in animal waste, the objective of the study was to understand the effects of anaerobic and aerobic digestions on the survival of three human pathogens in animal waste. The pathogen inactivation was assessed at four temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C), and the relationships between temperature and pathogen decay were estimated. Results showed a steady decrease of E. coli levels in aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes over the time; however, the decay rates varied with pathogens. The effect of temperature on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes survival was different than the E. coli survival. In thermophilic temperatures (42 and 50 °C), decay rate was considerable greater compared to the mesophilic temperatures (30 and 35°C). The E. coli log reductions at 50 °C were 2.1 in both aerobic and anaerobic digestions after 13 days of incubation. The Salmonella spp. log reductions at 50 °C were 5.5 in aerobic digestion, and 5.9 in anaerobic digestion. The Listeria monocytogenes log reductions at 50 °C were 5.0 in aerobic digestion, and 5.6 in anaerobic digestion. The log reduction of E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogens at 30 °C in aerobic environment were 0.1, 4.7, and 5.6, respectively. In anaerobic environment, the corresponding reductions were 0.4, 4.3, and 5.6, respectively. We anticipate that the outcomes of the study will help improving the

  10. Effect of application method, manure characteristics, weather and field conditions on ammonia volatilization from manure applied to arable land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Hol, J. M. G.; Vermeulen, G. D.

    To predict ammonia (NH 3) volatilization from field-applied manure, factors affecting volatilization following manure application need to be known. A database of field measurements in the Netherlands was analysed to identify these factors and to quantify their effects on the volatilization of NH 3 from liquid pig manure applied and incorporated on arable land. The combination and the statistical analysis of these data, together with the models that were designed, yielded valuable information about the factors that influence NH 3 volatilization, and about the magnitude of their effects when applying and incorporating manure on arable land. Factors analysed were application method, characteristics of the manure, weather and field conditions. The mean total volatilization, expressed as % of the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied, was 68% for surface spreading, 17% for surface incorporation and 2% for deep placement. The volatilization rate increased with an increase in TAN content of the manure, manure application rate and air temperature. Wind speed had a substantial effect on the volatilization rate, only when manure was surface applied or surface incorporated. The results show that useful prediction of ammonia volatilization following manure application on arable land in the Netherlands is feasible on the basis of information about application method, characteristics of the manure and weather conditions.

  11. Phosphorus Speciation in Manure and Manure-Amended Soils Using XANES Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sato,S.; Solomon, D.; Hyland, C.; Ketterings, Q.; Lehmann, J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggested an increase in the proportion of calcium phosphates (CaP) of the total phosphorus (P) pool in soils with a long-term poultry manure application history versus those with no or limited application histories. To understand and predict long-term P accumulation and release dynamics in these highly amended soils, it is important to understand what specific P species are being formed. We assessed forms of CaP formed in poultry manure and originally acidic soil in response to different lengths of mostly poultry manure applications using P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectra of poultry manure showed no evidences of crystalline P minerals but dominance of soluble CaP species and free and weakly bound phosphates (aqueous phosphate and phosphate adsorbed on soil minerals). Phosphate in an unamended neighboring forest soil (pH 4.3) was mainly associated with iron (Fe) compounds such as strengite and Fe-oxides. Soils with a short-term manure history contained both Fe-associated phosphates and soluble CaP species such as dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). Long-term manure application resulted in a dominance of CaP forms confirming our earlier results obtained with sequential extractions, and a transformation from soluble to more stable CaP species such as {beta}-tricalcium calcium phosphate (TCP). Even after long-term manure application (>25 yr and total P in soil up to 13 307 mg kg{sup -1}), however, none of the manure-amended soils showed the presence of crystalline CaP. With a reduction or elimination of poultry manure application to naturally acidic soils, the pH of the soil is likely to decrease, thereby increasing the solubility of Ca-bonded inorganic P minerals. Maintaining a high pH is therefore an important strategy to minimize P leaching in these soils.

  12. Distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chicken manure and manure-fertilized vegetables.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Ren, Siwei; Niu, Tianqi; Guo, Yuhui; Qi, Shiyue; Han, Xinkuan; Liu, Dong; Pan, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary manure is an important pollution reservoir of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). However, little is known of the distribution of ARB in plant endophytic bacteria and the number/types of ARB in chicken manure. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing was used to investigate the distribution and composition of ARBs in chicken manure and fertilized vegetables. The prevalence of ARB in the samples of the chicken manure compost recovered from farms on which amoxicillin, kanamycin, gentamicin, and cephalexin were used was 20.91-65.9% for ARBs and 8.24-20.63% simultaneously resistant to two or more antibiotics (multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria (MARB)). Antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria were widely detected in celery, pakchoi, and cucumber with the highest rate of resistance to cephalexin. The pyrosequencing indicated that the chicken manure dominantly harbored Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Synergistetes, and Proteobacteria and that Bacteroidetes was significantly enhanced in farms utilizing antibiotics. In the total cultivable colonies, 62.58-89.43% ARBs and 95.29% MARB were clustered in Bacteroidetes with the dominant species (Myroides ordoratimimus and Spningobacterium spp., respectively) related to human clinical opportunistic pathogens.

  13. Salmonella survival in manure-treated soils during simulated seasonal temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Holley, Richard A; Arrus, Katia M; Ominski, Kimberly H; Tenuta, Mario; Blank, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Addition of animal manure to soil can provide opportunity for Salmonella contamination of soil, water, and food. This study examined how exposure of hog manure-treated loamy sand and clay soils to different simulated seasonal temperature sequences influenced the length of Salmonella survival. A six-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Agona, Hadar, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Oranienburg, and Typhimurium) was added to yield 5 log cfu/g directly to about 5 kg of the two soils and moisture adjusted to 60 or 80% of field capacity (FC). Similarly, the Salmonella cocktail was mixed with fresh manure slurry from a hog nursery barn and the latter added to the two soils at 25 g/kg to achieve 5 log cfu/g Salmonella. Manure was mixed either throughout the soil or with the top kilogram of soil and the entire soil volume was adjusted to 60 or 80% FC. Soil treatments were stored 180 d at temperature sequences representing winter to summer (-18, 4, 10, 25 degrees C), spring to summer (4, 10, 25, 30 degrees C), or summer to winter (25, 10, 4, -18 degrees C) seasonal periods with each temperature step lasting 45 d. Samples for Salmonella recovery by direct plating or enrichment were taken at 0, 7, and 15 d post-inoculation and thereafter at 15-d intervals to 180 d. Salmonella numbers decreased during application to soil and the largest decreases occurred within the first week. Higher soil moisture, manure addition, and storage in the clay soil increased Salmonella survival. Salmonella survived longest (> or = 180 d) in both soils during summer-winter exposure but was not isolated after 160 d from loamy sand soil exposed to other seasonal treatments. For all but one treatment decimal reduction time (DRT45d) values calculated from the first 45 d after application were < or = 30 d and suggested that a 30-d delay between field application of manure in the spring or fall and use of the land would provide reasonable assurance that crop and animal contamination by Salmonella would be

  14. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Freshwater Impacted by Animal Fecal Material

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the potential for human illness from a hypothetical recreational exposure to freshwater impacted by land-applied, agricultural animal fecal material. The hypothetical exposure scenario included the following characteristics: 1) fresh cattle manure, pig slurry, or ch...

  15. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Freshwater Impacted by Animal Fecal Material

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the potential for human illness from a hypothetical recreational exposure to freshwater impacted by land-applied, agricultural animal fecal material. The hypothetical exposure scenario included the following characteristics: 1) fresh cattle manure, pig slurry, or ch...

  16. Ammonia emissions during vermicomposting of sheep manure.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Velasco, Joel; Parkinson, Robert; Kuri, Victor

    2011-12-01

    The effect of C:N ratio, temperature and water content on ammonia volatilization during two-phase composting of sheep manure was evaluated. The aerobic phase was conducted under field conditions. This was followed by Phase II, vermicomposting, conducted in the laboratory under controlled conditions of water content (70% and 80%) and temperature (15 and 22 °C). The addition of extra straw lead to a 10% reduction in NH3 volatilization compared to sheep manure composted without extra straw. Temperature and water content significantly effected ammonia volatilization at 0 day in Phase II, with a water content of 70% and temperature of 22 °C leading to greater losses of ammonia. Nitrogen loss by ammonia volatilization during vermicomposting ranged from 8% to 15% of the initial N content. The addition of extra straw did not result in significant differences in total carbon content following vermicomposting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe’s first farmers

    PubMed Central

    Bogaard, Amy; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H. E.; Wallace, Michael; Vaiglova, Petra; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Evershed, Richard P.; Styring, Amy K.; Andersen, Niels H.; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Bartosiewicz, László; Gardeisen, Armelle; Kanstrup, Marie; Maier, Ursula; Marinova, Elena; Ninov, Lazar; Schäfer, Marguerita; Stephan, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The spread of farming from western Asia to Europe had profound long-term social and ecological impacts, but identification of the specific nature of Neolithic land management practices and the dietary contribution of early crops has been problematic. Here, we present previously undescribed stable isotope determinations of charred cereals and pulses from 13 Neolithic sites across Europe (dating ca. 5900–2400 cal B.C.), which show that early farmers used livestock manure and water management to enhance crop yields. Intensive manuring inextricably linked plant cultivation and animal herding and contributed to the remarkable resilience of these combined practices across diverse climatic zones. Critically, our findings suggest that commonly applied paleodietary interpretations of human and herbivore δ15N values have systematically underestimated the contribution of crop-derived protein to early farmer diets. PMID:23858458

  18. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I

    2016-09-01

    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank.

  19. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    PubMed

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard.

  1. Confined space manure storage and facilities safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D J; Manbeck, H B

    2014-07-01

    A mail survey of 1,200 farms across 16 states was conducted to identify the number, type, and size of manure storages per farm, as well as safety-related behaviors or actions related to entry into confined-space manure storage and handling facilities. Respondents provided data on 297 storage units and facilities, with approximately 75% reporting up to three storages per farm operation. Dimensions were provided for 254 manure pits: nearly 66% were less than or equal to 100 feet long, 75% were less than or equal to 40 feet wide, and 75% were less than or equal to 10 feet deep. Almost 14% of the reported storages were over 300 feet long, seven were wider than 100 feet, and 17 were more than 20 feet deep. Survey results suggest that most farm operations with confined-space manure storages do not follow best safety practices regarding their manure storages, including using gas detection equipment before entering a manure pit, using rescue lines when entering storages, or developing a written confined-space safety policy or plan. Survey results also suggest that few farmers post warning signs around their storages, post recommended ventilation times before entry, or conduct training for workers who enter confined-space manure storages. This article provides a benchmark against which the effectiveness of educational programs and design tools for confined-space manure pit ventilation systems and other confined-space manure pit safety interventions can be measured.

  2. REMOTE SENSING FOR DETECTING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can
    pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

  3. Nutritional and management strategies to mitigate animal greenhouse gas emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The current analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential of nutritional, manure and animal management practices for mitigating methane and nitrous oxide, i.e. non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions from enteric ferm...

  4. REMOTE SENSING FOR DETECTING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can
    pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

  5. Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ro, Kyoung S.; Cantrell, Keri; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hunt, Patrick G.

    2007-02-21

    Applicability of wet gasification technology for various animal and municipal wastes was examined. Wet gasification of swine manure and raw sewage sludge generated high number of net energies. Furthermore, the moisture content of these wastes is ideal for current wet gasification technology. Significant quantities of water must be added to dry feedstock wastes such as poultry litter, feedlot manures and MSW to make the feedstock pumpable. Because of their high ash contents, MSW and unpaved feedlot manure would not generate positive energy return from wet gasification. The costs of a conceptual wet gasification manure management system for a model swine farm were significantly higher than that of the anaerobic lagoon system. However, many environmental advantages of the wet gasification system were identified, which might reduce the costs significantly. Due to high sulfur content of the wastes, pretreatment to prevent the poisoning of catalysts is critically needed.

  6. Safely Coupling Livestock and Crop Production Systems: How Rapidly Do Antibiotic Resistance Genes Dissipate in Soil following a Commercial Application of Swine or Dairy Manure?

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne

    2014-01-01

    Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems. PMID:24632259

  7. Safely coupling livestock and crop production systems: how rapidly do antibiotic resistance genes dissipate in soil following a commercial application of swine or dairy manure?

    PubMed

    Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne; Topp, Edward

    2014-05-01

    Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems.

  8. Varying forage type, metabolizable protein concentration, and carbohydrate source affects manure excretion, manure ammonia, and nitrogen metabolism of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Willett, L B; St-Pierre, N R; Borger, D C; McKelvey, T R; Wyatt, D J

    2009-11-01

    Effects of forage source, concentration of metabolizable protein (MP), and type of carbohydrate on manure excretion by dairy cows and production of ammonia from that manure were evaluated using a central composite experimental design. All diets (dry basis) contained 50% forage that ranged from 25:75 to 75:25 alfalfa silage:corn silage. Diets contained 10.7% rumen-degradable protein with variable concentrations of undegradable protein so that dietary MP ranged from 8.8 to 12%. Starch concentration ranged from 22 to 30% with a concomitant decrease in neutral detergent fiber. A total of 15 diets were fed to 36 Holstein cows grouped in 6 blocks. Each block was a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square resulting in 108 observations. Manure output (urine and feces) was measured using total collection, and fresh feces and urine were combined into slurries and incubated for 48 h to measure NH3-N production. Feces, urine, and manure output averaged 50.5, 29.5, and 80.1 kg/d, respectively. Manure output increased with increasing dry matter intake (approximately 3.5 kg of manure/kg of dry matter intake), increased concentrations of alfalfa (mostly via changes in urine output), and decreased concentrations of starch (mostly via changes in fecal output). The amount of NH3-N produced per gram of manure decreased with increasing alfalfa because excreted N shifted from urine to feces. Increasing MP increased NH3-N produced per gram of manure mainly because of increased urinary N, but increased fecal N also contributed to the manure NH3. Manure NH3-N production per cow (accounts for effects on manure production and NH3-N produced per unit of manure) was least and milk protein yields were maximal for diets with high alfalfa (75% of the forage), moderate MP (11% of diet dry matter), and high starch (30% of diet dry matter).

  9. The survival of cefazolin-resistant bacteria in mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk.

    PubMed

    Beneragama, Nilmini; Moriya, Yusuke; Yamashiro, Takaki; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Lateef, Suraju A; Ying, Chun; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2013-08-01

    The use of cefazolin to treat mastitic cows leads to cefazolin residues in milk and manure. This is responsible for the high occurrence of cefazolin resistant bacteria (CRB) in waste and the environment. Anaerobic digestion is considered to have the potential to reduce antibiotic-resistant bacteria present in waste that results from concentrated animal feeding operations. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of CRB and the digester performance in mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk. The experiment was carried out using three digester compositions: 100% slurry (slurry), 50% slurry + 50% manure (manure mixture) and 50% slurry + 45% manure + 5% waste milk (milk mixture) in batch digesters of 1 l with a working volume of 800 ml in triplicate at 37°C for 34 days. The daily biogas production in each digester, and methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide compositions in the gas were determined. The population densities of total culturable bacteria (TCB) and CRB were determined by plate counts on agar media at day 0, 10, 20 and 34 of digestion. Milk mixture produced the highest (P < 0.05) daily and cumulative total and CH4 gas. The maximum percentage reductions of TCB and CRB in manure and milk mixture was observed at day 20, the values being 96.2%, 96.0% and 99.8% and 99.8% respectively. Final volatile fatty acids (VFA) and pH values of the digesters confirmed the digester stability. Based on the findings, mesophilic anaerobic digestion can be considered a potent method to avoid the dissemination of CRB in nature.

  10. N mineralization and microbial dynamics in manured and non-manured fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    On-farm comparison of microbial and mineralization dynamics in two conventionally-managed fields were conducted to compare the impact of manure application. In-situ mineralization chambers at two depths (0-10 cm and 0-20 cm) were used to measure cumulative-net mineralization and microbial-biomass ch...

  11. Modeling water movement in beef cattle bedded manure pack

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bedded manure is a valuable fertilizer source because it contains essential macronutrients (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)) for crop production. Previous research with beef cattle bedded manure packs demonstrated that water-soluble macronutrients accumulated toward the bottom of the...

  12. Process for recovery of calcium phosphates from solid manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land application of manure in regions with intense confined livestock and poultry production is an environmental concern when land is limiting because it promotes soil phosphorus (P) surplus and potential pollution of water resources. Although manure can be moved off the farm, its transportation bec...

  13. Turning schedules influence final composition of composted swine manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Liquid swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure is a high-moisture, low-nutrient product that limits economical transport to areas in proximity of its source, possibly contributing to localized high soil nutrient levels. Composting swine manure converts liquid slurries to solids at lower moisture conten...

  14. Soil Nitrogen Response to Coupling Cover Crops with Manure Injection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coupling winter small grain cover crops (CC) with manure (M) application may increase retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this research was to quantify soil N changes after application of liquid swine M (Sus scrofa L.) at target N rates of 112, 224, an...

  15. Centrifuge separation effect on bacterial indicator reduction in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zong; Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C; Roa-Espinosa, Aicardo; Runge, Troy

    2017-04-15

    Centrifugation is a commonly applied separation method for manure processing on large farms to separate solids and nutrients. Pathogen reduction is also an important consideration for managing manure. Appropriate treatment reduces risks from pathogen exposure when manure is used as soil amendments or the processed liquid stream is recycled to flush the barn. This study investigated the effects of centrifugation and polymer addition on bacterial indicator removal from the liquid fraction of manure slurries. Farm samples were taken from a manure centrifuge processing system. There were negligible changes of quantified pathogen indicator concentrations in the low-solids centrate compared to the influent slurry. To study if possible improvements could be made to the system, lab scale experiments were performed investigating a range of g-forces and flocculating polymer addition. The results demonstrated that polymer addition had a negligible effect on the indicator bacteria levels when centrifuged at high g forces. However, the higher g force centrifugation was capable of reducing bacterial indicator levels up to two-log10 in the liquid stream of the manure, although at speeds higher than typical centrifuge operations currently used for manure processing applications. This study suggests manure centrifuge equipment could be redesigned to provide pathogen reduction to meet emerging issues, such as zoonotic pathogen control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling Fate and Transport of Manure-borne Pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure contains pathogenic microorganisms that can cause serious illness and death in humans. The objective of this work is to review the status and challenges in modeling fate and water transport of manure-borne pathogens (MBP) and organisms-indicators of fecal contamination. Approaches are outline...

  17. The role of carbon dioxide in ammonia emission from manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia emission from manure is a significant loss of fixed N from agricultural systems, and contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Despite the development of numerous mathematical models for predicting ammonia emission, the interactions between carbon dioxide emission, manure pH, a...

  18. Characteristics and Nitrogen Value of Stratified Bedded Pack Dairy Manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Compost-bedded-pack (CBP) dairy barns are relatively new, but CBP manure has not been characterized in detail and there are no published data on its N supply. We measured physical characteristics, nutrient concentration, N mineralization, and N supply to corn (Zea mays L.) of CBP manure from eight M...

  19. Net nitrogen mineralization from past year's manure and fertilizer applications.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure from the semiarid West’s dairy industries is a rich nutrient source, but its use for crops can be problematic because soil N availability from manure may vary substantially depending on the year of application. Experimental plots established in Idaho on a Portneuf silt loam (coarse silty, mi...

  20. Phosphorus distribution in a soil fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered in a concentrated form from livestock manure and poultry litter. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the short-term leaching potential and plant availability of P from recovered P materials from liquid pig manure (SRP) and broiler litter (LRP) in a characteri...

  1. Dairy heifer diets, manure management, and runoff phosphorus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of phosphorus and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer diet P, manure incorporation, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses f...

  2. Economic analyses of pig manure treatment options in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Tereza; Troy, Shane M; Gilkinson, Stephen; Frost, Peter; Xie, Sihuang; Zhan, Xinmin; Harrington, Caolan; Healy, Mark G; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-02-01

    An economic analysis was performed on treatment options for pig manure in Ireland. Costs were based on a 500 sow integrated pig farm producing 10,500 m(3) of manure per year at 4.8% dry matter. The anaerobic digestion of pig manure and grass silage (1:1; volatile solids basis) was unviable under the proposed tariffs, with costs at € 5.2 m(-3) manure. Subsequent solid-liquid separation of the digestate would cost an additional € 12.8 m(-3) manure. The treatment of the separated solid fraction by composting and of the liquid fraction by integrated constructed wetlands, would add € 2.8 and € 4.6 m(-3) manure, respectively to the treatment costs. The cost analysis presented showed that the technologies investigated are currently not cost effective in Ireland. Transport and spreading of raw manure, at € 4.9 m(-3) manure (15 km maximum distance from farm) is the most cost effective option.

  3. Odorous VOC emissions following land application of swine manure slurry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swine manure is often applied to crop land as a fertilizer source. Odor emissions from land-applied swine manure may pose a possible nuisance to downwind populations if not applied with sufficient forethought. A research project was conducted to assess the time decay of odorous volatile organic co...

  4. Sorption of lincomycin by manure-derived biochars from water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence of antibiotics in agroecosystems raises serious concerns about the proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria and potential adverse effects to human health. Soil amendment with biochars pyrolyzed from manures may be a win-win strategy for novel manure management and antibiotics abat...

  5. Effects of composting swine manure on nutrients and estrogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Direct application of raw manure to fields as a soil amendment can contribute ammonia, pathogens, and volatile organic compounds at concentrations that may give rise to adverse odors and environmental concerns. In addition, raw manures can contain concentrations of reproductive hormones that could i...

  6. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  7. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

  8. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D.; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC. PMID:27701451

  9. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Jerke W; Aarnink, André J A; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; De Boer, Imke J M

    2013-02-05

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt system and to compare it to conventional liquid manure management, that is, the reference. Moreover, we aimed at analyzing the uncertainty of the outcomes related to applied emission factors. We compared a reference with two scenarios: segregation with solid, aerobically, stored feces and with liquid, anaerobically, stored feces. Results showed that, compared to the reference, segregation reduced climate change (CC) up to 82%, due to lower methane emission, reduced terrestrial acidification (TA) and particulate matter formation (PMF) up to 49%, through lower ammonia emission, but increased marine eutrophication up to 11% through nitrogen oxide emission from storage and nitrate leaching after field application. Fossil fuel depletion did not change. Segregation with liquid feces revealed lower environmental impact than segregation with solid feces. Uncertainty analysis supported the conclusion that segregating fattening pig urine and feces significantly reduced CC and additionally segregation with liquid feces significantly reduced TA and PMF compared to the reference.

  10. Fate of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in simulated swine manure storage.

    PubMed

    Joy, Stacey R; Li, Xu; Snow, Daniel D; Gilley, John E; Woodbury, Bryan; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L

    2014-05-15

    The behavior of three antibiotics (bacitracin, chlortetracycline, and tylosin) and two classes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), tet and erm, were monitored in swine manure slurry under anaerobic conditions. First-order decay rates were determined for each antibiotic with half-lives ranging from 1 day (chlortetracycline) to 10 days (tylosin). ARGs were monitored in the swine manure slurry, and losses of approximately 1 to 3 orders of magnitude in relative abundance were observed during the 40 day storage period. First-order degradation profiles were observed for chlortetracycline and its corresponding resistance genes, tet(X) and tet(Q). Tylosin was degraded to approximately 10% of the starting concentration by day 40; however, the relative abundance of erm(B) remained at 50-60% of the initial relative abundance while the relative abundance of erm(F) decreased by 80-90%, consistent with tylosin. These results indicate that tet resistance genes respond primarily to chlortetracycline antimicrobials, and may be lost when the parent tetracycline compound is degraded. In contrast, erm(B) resistance gene may respond to a range of antimicrobials in animal manure, and may persist despite losses of tylosin.

  11. Anaerobic digestibility of beef hooves with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Wang, Ding-Kang; Kong, Yunhong; Ungerfeld, Emilio M; Seviour, Robert; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an effective method for treating animal by-products, generating at the same time green energy as methane (CH4). However, the methods and mechanisms involved in anaerobic digestion of α-keratin wastes like hair, nails, horns and hooves are still not clear. In this study we investigated the feasibility of anaerobically co-digesting ground beef hooves in the presence of swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge at 25 °C using eight 42-L Plexiglas lab-scale digesters. Our results showed addition of beef hooves statistically significantly increased the rate of CH4 production with swine manure, but only increased it slightly with slaughterhouse sludge. After 90-day digestion, 73% of beef hoof material added to the swine manure-inoculated digesters had been converted into CH4, which was significantly higher than the 45% level achieved in the slaughterhouse sludge inoculated digesters. BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining detected proteolytic bacteria in all digesters with and without added beef hooves, and their relative abundances corresponded to the rate of methanogenesis of the digesters with the different inocula. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining identified most proteolytic bacteria as members of genus Alkaliphilus in the subfamily Clostridiaceae 2 of family Clostridiaceae. They thus appear to be the bacteria mainly responsible for digestion of beef hooves. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Fenton Oxidation to Simultaneously Remove Different Estrogens from Cow Manure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Minxia; Xu, Defu; Ji, Yuefei; Liu, Juan; Ling, Wanting; Li, Shunyao; Chen, Mindong

    2016-01-01

    The presence of estrogens in livestock excrement has raised concerns about their potential negative influence on animals and the overall food cycle. This is the first investigation to simultaneously remove estrogens, including estriol (E3), bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), estradiol (E2), and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), from cow manure using a Fenton oxidation technique. Based on the residual concentrations and removal efficiency of estrogens, the Fenton oxidation reaction conditions were optimized as follows: a H2O2 dosage of 2.56 mmol/g, a Fe(II) to H2O2 molar ratio of 0.125 M/M, a solid to water mass ratio of 2 g/mL, an initial pH of 3, and a reaction time of 24 h. Under these conditions, the simultaneous removal efficiencies of E3, BPA, DES, E2, and EE2, with initial concentrations in cow manure of 97.40, 96.54, 100.22, 95.01, and 72.49 mg/kg, were 84.9%, 99.5%, 99.1%, 97.8%, and 84.5%, respectively. We clarified the possible Fenton oxidation reaction mechanisms that governed the degradation of estrogens. We concluded that Fenton oxidation technique could be effective for efficient removal of estrogens in livestock excrement. Results are of great importance for cow manure reuse in agricultural management, and can be used to reduce the threat of environmental estrogens to human health and ecological safety. PMID:27649223

  13. Flocculation, coagulation, and precipitation of manure affecting three separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Christensen, Peter Vittrup

    2008-12-01

    The effects of polymer flocculation before manure separation were investigated, through testing both a linear and a branched polymer. Centrifugation removed 60% of phosphorus from raw manure (control), whereas raw manure clogged the filters during gravity drainage and pressure filtration. At optimum flocculation, 95% of phosphorus was removed using any of the three methods. Optimum flocculation was achieved when 2.8meq of polymer charge was added per kg of manure, corresponding to 0.6g/kg of highly charged, branched polymer or 0.85g/kg of less-charged, linear polymer. If 10mmol of ferric chloride was added per kg of manure, 2% more phosphorus was precipitated and removed. The linear polymer formed loose flocs and was superior for reducing turbidity, whereas the branched polymer formed compact flocs that deflocculated at high polymer doses. The branched polymer, however, was best for pressure filtration, as overdosing with the linear polymer resulted in high resistance.

  14. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers.

  15. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  16. Sulfonamide-Resistant Bacteria and Their Resistance Genes in Soils Fertilized with Manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Shaojun; Zhang, Jun; Ye, Boping; Gao, Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) increasingly in the soil. The frequency of sulfonamide resistance genes was sul1 > sul2 > sul3 in pig-manured soil DNA and sul2 > sul1 > sul3 in chicken-manured soil DNA. Further analysis suggested that the frequency distribution of the sul genes in the genomic DNA and plasmids of the SR isolates from manured soil was sul2 > sul1 > sul3 overall (p<0.05). The combination of sul1 and sul2 was the most frequent, and the co-existence of sul1 and sul3 was not found either in the genomic DNA or plasmids. The sample type, animal type and sampling time can influence the prevalence and distribution pattern of sulfonamide resistance genes. The present study also indicated that Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Shigella were the most prevalent sul-positive genera in the soil, suggesting a potential human health risk. The above results could be important in the evaluation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes from manure as sources of agricultural soil pollution; the results also demonstrate the necessity and urgency of the regulation and supervision of veterinary antibiotics in China. PMID:25405870

  17. Phosphorus release from a manure-impacted spodosol: effects of a water treatment residual.

    PubMed

    Silveira, M L; Miyittah, M K; O'Connor, G A

    2006-01-01

    Long-term depositions of animal manures affect P dynamics in soils and can pose environmental risks associated with P losses. Laboratory studies were done on P solubility characteristics in a manure-impacted Immokalee soil (sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquod) and the effectiveness of water treatment residual (WTR) in controlling P leaching. Soil samples with contrasting initial total P concentrations were prepared by mixing samples of a manure-impacted surface A horizon and a minimally P-impacted E horizon. Effects of mixing various ratios of A and E horizons, WTR rates (0, 25, 50, and 100 g kg(-1)), and depths of WTR incorporation (mixed throughout the soil column or partially incorporated) on P leaching were determined. Between 62 and 77% of total P was released from the soil mixes by successive water extractions, suggesting a considerable buffering capacity of this manure-impacted soil to resupply P into solution. Between 224 and 408 mg kg(-1) P were leached during the 36-wk leaching period in the absence of WTR. Mixing WTRs with soil reduced soluble P concentration in leachates by as much as 99.8% compared with samples without WTR. Thoroughly mixing WTR with the entire soil column (15 cm) was much more efficient than mixing WTR with only the top 7.5 cm of soil. Calcium- and Mg-P forms appear to control P release in soils without WTR, whereas sorption-desorption reactions probably determine P leaching in WTR-treated samples. Soil P distribution in various chemical forms was affected by WTR additions. Data suggest that WTR-immobilized P is stable in the long term.

  18. A direct plating method for estimating populations of Escherichia coli 0157 in bovine manure and manure-based materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks associated with produce consumption have brought attention to livestock manures and manure-based soil amendments as potential sources of pathogens for the contamination of these crops. Procedures for enumeration of E. coli O157:H7 are needed to assess the risks of...

  19. Use and environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals in freestall dairy farms with manured forage fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watanabe, Naoko; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Harter, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental releases of antibiotics from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are of increasing regulatory concern. This study investigates the use and occurrence of antibiotics in dairy CAFOs and their potential transport into first-encountered groundwater. On two dairies we conducted four seasonal sampling campaigns, each across 13 animal production and waste management systems and associated environmental pathways: application to animals, excretion to surfaces, manure collection systems, soils, and shallow groundwater. Concentrations of antibiotics were determined using on line solid phase extraction (OLSPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) for water samples, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) LC/MS/MS with ESI for solid samples. A variety of antibiotics were applied at both farms leading to antibiotics excretion of several hundred grams per farm per day. Sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and their epimers/isomers, and lincomycin were most frequently detected. Yet, despite decades of use, antibiotic occurrence appeared constrained to within farm boundaries. The most frequent antibiotic detections were associated with lagoons, hospital pens, and calf hutches. When detected below ground, tetracyclines were mainly found in soils, whereas sulfonamides were found in shallow groundwater reflecting key differences in their physicochemical properties. In manure lagoons, 10 compounds were detected including tetracyclines and trimethoprim. Of these 10, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and lincomycin were found in shallow groundwater directly downgradient from the lagoons. Antibiotics were sporadically detected in field surface samples on fields with manure applications, but not in underlying sandy soils. Sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine were detected in shallow groundwater near field flood irrigation gates, but at highly attenuated levels.

  20. Use and Environmental Occurrence of Antibiotics in Freestall Dairy Farms with Manured Forage Fields

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Environmental releases of antibiotics from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are of increasing regulatory concern. This study investigates the use and occurrence of antibiotics in dairy CAFOs and their potential transport into first-encountered groundwater. On two dairies we conducted four seasonal sampling campaigns, each across 13 animal production and waste management systems and associated environmental pathways: application to animals, excretion to surfaces, manure collection systems, soils, and shallow groundwater. Concentrations of antibiotics were determined using on line solid phase extraction (OLSPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) for water samples, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) LC/MS/MS with ESI for solid samples. A variety of antibiotics were applied at both farms leading to antibiotics excretion of several hundred grams per farm per day. Sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and their epimers/isomers, and lincomycin were most frequently detected. Yet, despite decades of use, antibiotic occurrence appeared constrained to within farm boundaries. The most frequent antibiotic detections were associated with lagoons, hospital pens, and calf hutches. When detected below ground, tetracyclines were mainly found in soils, whereas sulfonamides were found in shallow groundwater reflecting key differences in their physicochemical properties. In manure lagoons, 10 compounds were detected including tetracyclines and trimethoprim. Of these 10, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and lincomycin were found in shallow groundwater directly downgradient from the lagoons. Antibiotics were sporadically detected in field surface samples on fields with manure applications, but not in underlying sandy soils. Sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine were detected in shallow groundwater near field flood irrigation gates, but at highly attenuated levels. PMID:20698525

  1. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Infascelli, Roberta; Faugno, Salvatore; Pindozzi, Stefania; Pelorosso, Raffaele; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2010-11-01

    Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha), livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European Directive 91/676, Italian rules 152/99 and 258/00), nitrate leakage is considered a pollution indicator related to breeding activities and must be kept within limits. Simulation studies were carried out in the Italian province of Caserta to evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater. Manure was also collected from 35 livestock farms and the nitrogen content measured in the laboratory. The results showed an average content of 2 kg/m3 of nitrogen, corresponding to 50 kg per animal and year, while the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater were found to be lower than those predicted by simulation. The nitrogen content found in buffalo manure <60% of the standard content produced by the bovine species (on average 83 kg nitrogen per adult animal per year). The fact that the bovine species is used as the standard reference for legislation on nitrogen production explains the inconsistency observed between the impact of buffalo livestock on the environment predicted by simulation and the nitrate concentration measured in the groundwater. Although it would be out of line with current regulations, it would theoretically be possible to increase the buffalo load on the territory without environmentally negative effects. Therefore, in this context, the common referral points, i.e. the American Midwest Point Service and others usually consulted for the assessment of livestock impact in terms of nutritional excretion and the risk of pollution for the environment, should be revisited.

  2. Procurement and persistence of GFP-expressing Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in male and female house flies exposed to cattle manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are associated with animal manure and other microbe-rich substrates. Consequently, both sexes can acquire and potentially disseminate pathogenic bacteria to surrounding environments, including residential areas, via contaminated body parts and/or ...

  3. Evaluation of phosphorus characterization in broiler ileal digesta, manure, and litter samples: (31)P-NMR vs. HPLC.

    PubMed

    Leytem, A B; Kwanyuen, P; Plumstead, P W; Maguire, R O; Brake, J

    2008-01-01

    Using 31-phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-NMR) to characterize phosphorus (P) in animal manures and litter has become a popular technique in the area of nutrient management. To date, there has been no published work evaluating P quantification in manure/litter samples with (31)P-NMR compared to other accepted methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To evaluate the use of (31)P-NMR to quantify myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) in ileal digesta, manure, and litter from broilers, we compared results obtained from both (31)P-NMR and a more traditional HPLC method. The quantification of phytate in all samples was very consistent between the two methods, with linear regressions having slopes ranging from 0.94 to 1.07 and r(2) values of 0.84 to 0.98. We compared the concentration of total monoester P determined with (31)P-NMR with the total inositol P content determined with HPLC and found a strong linear relationship between the two measurements having slopes ranging from 0.91 to 1.08 and r(2) values of 0.73 to 0.95. This suggests that (31)P-NMR is a very reliable method for quantifying P compounds in manure/litter samples.

  4. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS’s optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust’s coarse particle size and bulking effect. PMID:26954138

  5. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-05-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS's optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust's coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  6. Low-disturbance manure application methods in a corn silage-rye cover crop system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Incorporation of manure by tillage can conserve manure N by reducing ammonia volatilization losses, but tillage also incorporates crop residue, which increases erosion potential. This study compared several low-disturbance manure application methods, designed to incorporate manure while still mainta...

  7. Fate of antimicrobial resistance genes in response to application of poultry and swine manure in simulated manure-soil microcosms and manure-pond microcosms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mianzhi; Sun, Yongxue; Liu, Peng; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Qin; Xiong, Wenguang; Zeng, Zhenling

    2017-07-18

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence, abundance, and fate of nine important antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (sul1, sul2, tetB, tetM, ermB, ermF, fexA, cfr, and Intl1) in the simulated soil and pond microcosms following poultry and swine manure application. Absolute quantitative PCR method was used to determine the gene copies. The results were modeled as a logarithmic regression (N = mlnt + b) to explore the fate of target genes. Genes sul1, Intl1, sul2, and tetM had the highest abundance following the application of the two manure types. The logarithmic regression model fitted the results well (R (2) values up to 0.99). The reduction rate of all genes (except for the genes fexA and cfr) in manure-pond microcosms was faster than those in manure-soil microcosms. Importantly, sul1, intl1, sul2, and tetM had the lowest reduction rates in all the samples and the low reduction rates of tetM was the first time to be reported. These results indicated that ARG management should focus on using technologies for the ARG elimination before the manure applications rather than waiting for subsequent attenuation in soil or water, particularly the ARGs (such as sul1, intl1, sul2, and tetM investigated in this study) that had high abundance and low reduction rate in the soil and water after application of manure.

  8. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    PubMed

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Phosphorus recovery from pig manure solids prior to land application.

    PubMed

    Szögi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B; Hunt, Patrick G

    2015-07-01

    Land disposal of pig manure is an environmental concern due to an imbalance of the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio for crop production, leading to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential risks of water pollution. A process called "quick wash" was investigated for its feasibility to extract and recover P from pig manure solids. This process consists of selective dissolution of P from solid manure into a liquid extract using mineral or organic acid solutions, and recovery of P from the liquid extract by adding lime and an organic polymer to form a P precipitate. Laboratory tests confirmed the quick wash process selectively removed and recovered up to 90% of the total (TP) from fresh pig manure solids while leaving significant amounts of nitrogen (N) in the washed manure residue. As a result of manure P extraction, the washed solid residue became environmentally safer for land application with a more balanced N:P ratio for crop production. The recovered P can be recycled and used as fertilizer for crop production while minimizing manure P losses into the environment.

  10. Prefermentation of liquid dairy manure to support biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Kerem; Müftügil, Mert B; Ogejo, Jactone Arogo; Knowlton, Katharine F; Love, Nancy G

    2009-04-01

    A continuously operated, intermittently fed reactor (fermenter) system with a 2-d solids retention time was proposed for supporting biological nutrient removal from liquid dairy manure. The first objective of this study was to select a material with high fermentation potential to be used as the fermenter feed. Primary sludge, liquid separated dairy manure, and flushed dairy manure were investigated for their fermentation potential. Liquid separated dairy manure had the highest fermentation potential, 0.73mg volatile fatty acid as chemical oxygen demand/mg of initial volatile suspended solids (VSS). The second objective was to investigate the performance of a pilot-scale fermenter operated under an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 3 kg-VSS/m(3)/d. The reactor utilized 18% of the manure fermentation potential. Performance comparison of the pilot-scale fermenter and a lab-scale fermenter with an average OLR of 7 kg-VSS/m(3)/d highlighted the need to increase the OLR of the pilot-scale fermenter so that it can exploit a higher fraction of the manure fermentation potential. A continuously operated, intermittently fed fermenter with 2-d SRT can utilize the majority of the manure fermentation potential and support a downstream BNR reactor provided that it receives a sufficiently high OLR.

  11. Macroporosity and manure influence on atrazine transport through soil.

    PubMed

    Rudra, R P; Abu-Zreig, M; Asare, S N

    2001-09-01

    The influence of soil macro-porosity and manure on atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) transport was investigated under laboratory conditions using disturbed and undisturbed soil columns. The macro-porosity in the soil column was obtained with CT scanning technique. Liquid manure was applied at the surface of soil column, 19 cm long and 8 cm in diameter, at a rate of 60 m3/ha. Experimental results revealed that atrazine moves faster through the soils in the presence of manure compared to soil without application of manure. The average time for elusion and the relative peak concentration in the disturbed soil column without manure was 14.5 h and 3.1%, respectively compared to 11.0 h and 6.9% in the presence of manure, respectively. Similar behavior was observed in the case of disturbed soil columns. Soil macro-porosity has shown large impact on atrazine transport, especially in the presence of manure.

  12. Field experiment with liquid manure and enhanced biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunst, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Field experiments with low amounts of various liquid manure enhanced biochars. In 2016 a new machine was developed to inject liquid biochar based fertilizer directly into the crop root zone. A large-scale field experiment with corn and oil seed pumpkin was set-up on 42 hectares on 15 different fields in the south East of Austria. Three treatments were compared: (1) surface spreading of liquid manure as control (common practice), (2) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure, and (3) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure mixed with 1 to 2 tons of various nutrient enhanced biochars. The biochar were quenched with the liquid phase from a separated digestate from a biogas plant (feedstock: cow manure). From May to October nitrate and ammonium content was analyzed monthly from 0-30cm and 30-60cm soil horizons. At the end of the growing season the yield was determined. The root zone injection of the liquid manure reduced the nitrate content during the first two months at 13-16% compared to the control. When the liquid manure was blended with biochar, Nitrate soil content was lowest (reduction 40-47%). On average the root zone injection of manure-biochar increased the yield by 7% compared to the surface applied control and 3% compared to the root zone injected manure without biochar. The results shows, that biochar is able to reduce the Nitrate load in soils and increase the yield of corn at the same time. The nutrient efficiency of organic liquid fertilizers can be increased.

  13. Antibiotics and Manure Effects on Microbial Communities Responsible for Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, M.; Song, B.; Sparrer, T.; Crozier, C.; Tobias, C. R.; Phillips, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Agroecosystems are major contributors of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrification and nitrification are the primary pathways of N2O emission in soils. However, there is uncertainty regarding the organisms responsible for N2O production. Bacteria were previously considered the only microbial N2O source, however, current studies indicate that fungi also produce N2O by denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria can be a source or sink of N2O depending on the presence and expression of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ), encoding for the enzyme converting N2O to N2. Fungal denitrification may produce only N2O as an end product due to missing the nosZ gene. Animal manures applied to agricultural fields can transfer antibiotics to soils as a result of antibiotic use in the livestock industry. These antibiotics target mostly bacteria and may promote fungal growth. The growth inhibition of denitrifying bacteria may favor fungal denitrifiers potentially enhancing N2O emissions. Our objective is to examine the effects of antibiotic exposure and manure fertilization on the microbial communities responsible for N2 and N2O production in grasslands. Soil slurry incubations were conducted with tetracycline at different concentrations. A mesocosm experiment was also performed with soil cores exposed to tetracycline and cow manure. Production of N2O and N2 was measured using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), respectively. Antibiotic inhibition of soil N2 production was found to be dose dependent, reaching up to 80% inhibition with 1g Kg-1 of tetracycline treatment, while N2O production was enhanced up to 8 times. These results suggest higher fungal denitrification with a concomitant decrease in bacterial denitrification after antibiotic exposure. We also found higher N2O fluxes in the soil mesocosms treated with manure plus tetracycline. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) will be conducted to examine the changes in

  14. Onsite and online FT-NIR spectroscopy for the estimation of total nitrogen and moisture content in poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, E; Castaldelli, G; Ferrari, G; Marchetti, M G; Pedrini, P; Aschonitis, V G

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen and moisture of manure are highly variable parameters and depend on animal type, husbandry techniques, environmental conditions and storage time. The precision in manure dose estimation for crops fertilization depends on the total nitrogen and moisture content just before its incorporation in the field. The aim of the study is to develop a Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy method to determine the total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN%) and moisture (M%) of different types of poultry manure prior to land application. Samples covering a wide range of poultry types and different husbandry conditions were obtained from farms of North-Eastern Italy in order to develop the method. The method was calibrated (R(2) = 0.94 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.99 for M%) and validated (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.95 for M%) in the laboratory. An external validation was also performed in situ with independent samples, of similar origin to the previous data set, which were collected just before application in the field. Spectra acquisitions for these samples were carried out using the same instrumentation which was placed in a special vehicle for monitoring campaigns. The results showed satisfactory prediction accuracy (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.93 for M%). Finally, an additional analysis was performed to discriminate the different types of poultry effluents. The TKN and M measurements in the disposal areas indicated that current agronomic practices lead to more than double poultry manure oversupply. The proposed FT-NIR methodology aims to improve the current fertilization management and environmental protection by providing fast and precise estimations of poultry manure doses prior to land application.

  15. Effects on carbon and nitrogen emissions due to swine manure removal for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Kim H; Harper, Lowry A; Brown, Sarah M

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH) and ammonia (NH) are emitted from swine-manure processing lagoons, contributing to global climate change and reducing air quality. Manure diverted to biofuel production is proposed as a means to reduce CH emissions. At a swine confined animal feeding operation in the U.S. Central Great Basin, animal manure was diverted from 12 farms to a biofuel facility and converted to methanol. Ammonia emissions were determined using the De Visscher Model from measured data of dissolved lagoon ammoniacal N concentrations, pH, temperature, and wind speed at the lagoon sites. Other lagoon gas emissions were measured with subsurface gas collection devices and gas chromatography analysis. During 2 yr of study, CO and CH emissions from the primary lagoons decreased 11 and 12%, respectfully, as a result of the biofuel process, compared with concurrently measured control lagoon emissions. Ammonia emissions increased 47% compared with control lagoons. The reduction of CH and increase in NH emissions agrees with a short-term study measured at this location by Lagrangian inverse dispersion analysis. The increase in NH emissions was primarily due to an increase in lagoon solution pH attributable to decreased methanogenesis. Also observed due to biofuel production was a 20% decrease in conversion of total ammoniacal N to N, a secondary process for the removal of N in anaerobic waste lagoons. The increase in NH emissions can be partially attributed to the decrease in N production by a proposed NH conversion to N mechanism. This mechanism predicts that a decrease in NH conversion to N increases ammoniacal N pH. Both effects increase NH emissions. It is unknown whether the decrease in NH conversion to N is a direct or physical result of the decrease in methanogenesis. Procedures and practices intended to reduce emissions of one pollutant can have an unintended consequence on the emissions of another pollutant. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society

  16. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

  17. Effects of pen bedding and feeding high crude protein diets on manure composition and greenhouse gas emissions from a feedlot pen surface.

    PubMed

    Borhan, M S; Gautam, D P; Engel, C; Anderson, V L; Rahman, S

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations vary by stage of production and management practices. The objective of this research was to study the effect of two dietary crude protein levels (12 and 16%) fed to beef steers in pens with or without corn stover bedding. Manure characteristics and GHG emissions were measured from feedlot pen surfaces. Sixteen equal-sized feedlot pens (19 x 23 m) were used. Eight were bedded approximately twice a week with corn stover and the remaining eight feedlot pens were not bedded. Angus steers (n = 138) were blocked by live weights (lighter and heavier) with 7 to 10 animals per pen. The trial was a 2 x 2 factorial design with factors of two protein levels and two bedding types (bedding vs. non bedding), with four replicates. The study was conducted from June through September and consisted of four -28-day periods. Manure from each pen was scrapped once every 28 days and composite manure samples from each pen were collected. Air samples from pen surfaces were sampled in Tedlar bags using a Vac-U-Chamber coupled with a portable wind tunnel and analyzed with a greenhouse gas gas chromatograph within 24 hr of sampling. The manure samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia (NH3), total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), total carbon (TC), total phosphorus (TP), and potassium (K). The air samples were analyzed for methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations. The concentration of TN was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in manure from pens with cattle fed the high protein diets. The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids concentrations were similar across both treatments. There were no significant differences in pen surface GHG emissions across manure management and dietary crude protein levels.

  18. Evaluation of manure as a feedstock for gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, J.T.

    1988-05-01

    A preliminary program on evaluation of feedlot manure as a feed stock for gas turbines has been completed. It was determined that manure can be pulverized and fed into a gas turbine combustion system with the manure burning in much the same manner as a liquid or gaseous fuel. Ash and dirt in the manure did not appear to have a significant effect on combustion and were effectively removed by the cyclone filters. The exhaust gases varied from clear to a blue haze. Severe problems were encountered with slagging of the hot refractory walls of the combustor. Development of a suitable combustor will be required before a commercial size system can be designed. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Treatment of Dairy and Swine Manure Effluents Using Freshwater Algae: Fatty Acid Content and Composition of Algal Biomass at Different Manure Loading Rates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An alternative to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure and convert manure N and P into algal biomass. The objective of this study was to determine how fatty acid (FA) content and composition of algae respond to changes in the type of manu...

  20. Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure storages, and in particular those storing digested manure, are a source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Permeable manure storage covers can reduce NH3 emissions, however performance can decline as they degrade. Thermochemical conversion of biomass through pyrolysis and steam treatment could incre...

  1. Nitrous oxide fluxes from manure-amended soil under maize

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, R.; Rochette, P.; Gregorich, E.G.

    1996-11-01

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions by agricultural soils are influenced by farming practices. The application of manure to cultivated land modifies soil microbial activity by supplying additional quantities of C and N and changing soil physical and chemical properties. Nitrous oxide fluxes at the surface of a soil under maize (Zea mays L.) amended with dairy cattle manure were measured from April to October 1993 using closed chambers. The manure application rates were 0, 56, and 112 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} corresponding to 0. 170, and 339 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of total N, respectively. Nitrate and NH{sub 4}{sup +} were measured in soil samples obtained at the same time that gas flux measurements were made. Nitrous oxide concentrations in the soil profile were quantified by sampling soil air at depths of 5 and 15 cm using stationary air probes. On the manured plots 67% of the total N{sub 2}O emitted during the growing season occurred during the first 7 wk following manure application. Fluxes of N{sub 2}O occurred in episodes with maxima that ranged from 0.070 mg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} on the soil without manure amendment to 0.171 and 0.494 mg M{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} on soils that had received the low and high rates of manure, respectively. These high fluxes coincided with periods when NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N levels and soil water contents were relatively high. Fluxes were highest the first day after manure application and returned to near pre-application levels 7 d later. This episode was followed by short-lived peaks of N{sub 2}O flux that usually followed periods of rain. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Valorization of horse manure through catalytic supercritical water gasification.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Sonil; Dalai, Ajay K; Gökalp, Iskender; Kozinski, Janusz A

    2016-06-01

    The organic wastes such as lignocellulosic biomass, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and livestock manure have attracted attention as alternative sources of energy. Cattle manure, a waste generated in surplus amounts from the feedlot, has always been a chief environmental concern. This study is focused on identifying the candidacy of horse manure as a next generation feedstock for biofuel production through supercritical water gasification. The horse manure was gasified in supercritical water to examine the effects of temperature (400-600°C), biomass-to-water ratio (1:5 and 1:10) and reaction time (15-45min) at a pressure range of 23-25MPa. The horse manure and resulting biochar were characterized through carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen-sulfur (CHNS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of alkali catalysts such as NaOH, Na2CO3 and K2CO3 at variable concentrations (1-2wt%) were investigated to maximize the hydrogen yields. Supercritical water gasification of horse manure with 2wt% Na2CO3 at 600°C and 1:10 biomass-to-water ratio for 45min revealed maximum hydrogen yields (5.31mmol/g), total gas yields (20.8mmol/g) with greater carbon conversion efficiency (43.1%) and enhanced lower heating value of gas products (2920kJ/Nm(3)). The manure-derived biochars generated at temperatures higher than 500°C also demonstrated higher thermal stability (weight loss <34%) and larger carbon content (>70wt%) suggesting their application in enhancing soil fertility and carbon sequestration. The results propose that supercritical water gasification could be a proficient remediation technology for horse manure to generate hydrogen-rich gas products.

  3. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure and crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.; Robinson, S.

    1981-05-01

    Research on the feasibility of fermenting manure crop residue mixtures to methane, and on factors affecting the rate and extent of methane production is summarized. Experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and alkaline pretreatment on the rate and extent of hydrolysis of manure straw mixtures. The effects of mixing duration and vacuum fermenters on methane production rates from anaerobically fermented beef cattle wastes were also determined.

  4. Free Fatty acids and sterols in swine manure.

    PubMed

    Loughrin, John H; Szogi, Ariel A

    2006-01-01

    Free fatty acids and sterols were assessed in fresh manure and anaerobic lagoon sludge from swine production facilities in North Carolina. Eight free fatty acids and five sterols were identified and quantified in both manure and sludge samples. Compound identification was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and compound quantities were determined by gas chromatography after solid phase extraction with a 50:50 mixture of diethyl ether and hexane. The free fatty acids occurring in greatest abundance in both fresh manure and lagoon sludge were palmitic, oleic, and stearic. Free fatty acid content in fresh manure ranged from approximately 3 microg g(-1) dry weight (dw) to over 45 microg g(-1) dw. In lagoon sludge, free fatty acid content ranged from about 0.8 microg g(-1) dw to nearly 4 microg g(-1) dw. Coprostanol and epicoprostanol were the sterols in largest concentrations in fresh manure and lagoon sludge samples. Total sterol content ranged from approximately 0.5 microg g(-1) dw to around 11 microg g(-1) dw in fresh manure and from 3.5 microg g(-1) dw to almost 9 microg g(-1) dw in lagoon sludge. Fresh manure and lagoon sludge both had high levels of inorganic cations (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe) capable of binding free fatty acids and forming insoluble complexes, thereby potentially reducing fatty acid biodegradation. In anaerobic lagoons, sterols are an organic fraction of sludge that are resistant to bacterial degradation. In the case of fresh manure, fatty acids could represent a potential source of energy via the manufacture of biodiesel fuel, if efficient means for their extraction and transesterification can be devised.

  5. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire,R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL{sup -1}. Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions during cattle feedlot manure composting.

    PubMed

    Hao, X; Chang, C; Larney, F J; Travis, G R

    2001-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) during feedlot manure composting reduces the agronomic value of the final compost and increases the greenhouse effect. A study was conducted to determine whether GHG emissions are affected by composting method. Feedlot cattle manure was composted with two aeration methods--passive (no turning) and active (turned six times). Carbon lost in the forms of CO2 and CH4 was 73.8 and 6.3 kg C Mg-1 manure for the passive aeration treatment and 168.0 and 8.1 kg C Mg-1 manure for the active treatment. The N loss in the form of N2O was 0.11 and 0.19 kg N Mg-1 manure for the passive and active treatments. Fuel consumption to turn and maintain the windrow added a further 4.4 kg C Mg-1 manure for the active aeration treatment. Since CH4 and N2O are 21 and 310 times more harmful than CO2 in their global warming effect, the total GHG emission expressed as CO2-C equivalent was 240.2 and 401.4 kg C Mg-1 manure for passive and active aeration. The lower emission associated with the passive treatment was mainly due to the incomplete decomposition of manure and a lower gas diffusion rate. In addition, turning affected N transformation and transport in the window profile, which contributed to higher N2O emissions for the active aeration treatment. Gas diffusion is an important factor controlling GHG emissions. Higher GHG concentrations in compost windrows do not necessarily mean higher production or emission rates.

  7. Assessing the biosafety risks of pig manure for use as a feedstock for composting.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, G; Lawlor, P G; Gutierrez, M; Gardiner, G E

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to assess the biosafety risks of pig manure for use as a feedstock for composting. Salmonella was detected in the manure from half of the 30 pig farms sampled, with 52% of isolates recovered identified as multi-drug resistant S. Typhimurium. The highest prevalence (60%) was found on Salmonella category 2 and 3 farms i.e. those with medium and high Salmonella seroprevalence, respectively, although this was not statistically significant. Escherichia coli counts were, however, significantly higher in manure from Salmonella category 3 farms. Manure separation may be useful as a means of reducing/eliminating pathogens from manure prior to composting, as manure solids generated using a decanter centrifuge had lower E. coli and Enterococcus counts than manure. These findings should be taken into consideration when selecting pig manure for use as a feedstock for compost or other marketable manure by-products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying animal impacted beaches using a watershed approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogens in animal manure and other wastes pose potential risks to human health if the wastes are not adequately treated and contained. These pathogens, which can survive for months in the environment under the right conditions, can contaminate water and land [from runoff, enhan...

  9. Mesophilic versus thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure: methane productivity and microbial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Moset, Veronica; Poulsen, Morten; Wahid, Radziah; Højberg, Ole; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    In this study, productivity and physicochemical and microbiological (454 sequencing) parameters, as well as environmental criteria, were investigated in anaerobic reactors to contribute to the ongoing debate about the optimal temperature range for treating animal manure, and expand the general knowledge on the relation between microbiological and physicochemical process indicators. For this purpose, two reactor sizes were used (10 m3 and 16 l), in which two temperature conditions (35°C and 50°C) were tested. In addition, the effect of the hydraulic retention time was evaluated (16 versus 20 days). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion showed higher organic matter degradation (especially fiber), higher pH and higher methane (CH4) yield, as well as better percentage of ultimate CH4 yield retrieved and lower residual CH4 emission, when compared with mesophilic conditions. In addition, lower microbial diversity was found in the thermophilic reactors, especially for Bacteria, where a clear intensification towards Clostridia class members was evident. Independent of temperature, some similarities were found in digestates when comparing with animal manure, including low volatile fatty acids concentrations and a high fraction of Euryarchaeota in the total microbial community, in which members of Methanosarcinales dominated for both temperature conditions; these indicators could be considered a sign of process stability. PMID:25737010

  10. Odorous VOC emission following land application of swine manure slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David B.; Gilley, John; Woodbury, Bryan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Galvin, Geordie; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Li, Xu; Snow, Daniel D.

    2013-02-01

    Swine manure is often applied to crop land as a fertilizer source. Odor emissions from land-applied swine manure may pose a nuisance to downwind populations if manure is not applied with sufficient forethought. A research project was conducted to assess the time decay of odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions following land application of swine manure. Three land application methods were compared: surface application, incorporation 24 h after surface application, and injection. Emission rates were measured in field plots using a small wind tunnel and sorbent tubes. VOCs including eight volatile fatty acids, five aromatics, and two sulfur-containing compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In most cases, a first order exponential decay model adequately described the flux versus time relationship for the 24 h period following land application, but the model sometimes overestimated flux in the 6-24 h range. The same model but with the time term squared adequately predicted flux over the entire 24 h period. Three compounds (4-methylphenol, skatole, and 4-ethylphenol) accounted for 93 percent of the summed odor activity value. First order decay constants (k) for these three compounds ranged from 0.157 to 0.996 h-1. When compared to surface application, injection of swine manure resulted in 80-95 percent lower flux for the most odorous aromatic compounds. These results show that VOC flux decreases rapidly following land application of swine manure, declining below levels of detection and near background levels after 4 to 8 h.

  11. Effect of mineral and manure phosphorus sources on runoff phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Peter J A; Sharpley, Andrew N; Moyer, Barton G; Elwinger, Gerald F

    2002-01-01

    Concern over nonpoint-source phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural lands to surface waters has resulted in scrutiny of factors affecting P loss potential. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to quantify the effects of alternative P sources (dairy manure, poultry manure, swine slurry, and diammonium phosphate), application methods, and initial soil P concentrations on runoff P losses from three acidic soils (Buchanan-Hartleton, Hagerstown, and Lewbeach). Low P (12 to 26 mg kg(-1) Mehlich-3 P) and high P (396 to 415 mg kg(-1) Mehlich-3 P) members of each soil were amended with 100 kg total P ha(-1) from each of the four P sources either by surface application or mixing, and subjected to simulated rainfall (70 mm h(-1) to produce 30 min runoff). Phosphorus losses from fertilizer and manure applied to the soil surface differed significantly by source, with dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) accounting for 64% of total phosphorus (TP) (versus 9% for the unamended soils). For manure amended soils, these losses were linearly related to water-soluble P concentration of manure (r2 = 0.86 for DRP, r2 = 0.78 for TP). Mixing the P sources into the soil significantly decreased P losses relative to surface P application, such that DRP losses from amended, mixed soils were not significantly different from the unamended soil. Results of this study can be applied to site assessment indices to quantify the potential for P loss from recently manured soils.

  12. Economics of using horse manure and MSW as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lints, M.C.; Desmond, R.M.; Karlekar, B.V.; Kholman, R.C.

    1982-06-01

    The cost of removing horse manure, which in the past was sold to mushroom growers as compost, has placed a serious financial drain on many race track facilities. Additionally, energy costs have risen rapidly in the past several years due to increased fuel costs and time-of-day pricing schemes utilized in various states. Communities which must dispose of the horse manure in their landfills are also faced with the burden of disposing of their municipal solid waste (MSW). Such a combination of events has occured in Ontario County, New York. Finger Lakes Race Track must dispose of its horse manure in the Towns of Victor, Farmington, East Bloomfield, and West Bloomfield which are in close proximity to the race track. Also, these towns face the ongoing challenge of finding appropriate landfills. A cogeneration scheme which uses the ''unwanted'' horse manure and the MSW from the surrounding communities as fuel has been devised. The scheme utilizes excessive air incineration of the manure and the MSW, along with heat recovery from the incinerator to produce steam, electricity, or both. A parametric study which takes into account the cost of horse manure disposal, electrical buy-back rates, investment tax credits, tax credits for using renewable fuels and cogeneration, the cost of money, the cost of issuing bonds for the capital investment, the effect of time-of-day utility pricing, the capital cost of the cogeneration plant, and operation and maintenance costs has been performed and is presented here.

  13. Microwave treatment and struvite recovery potential of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asif; Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang

    2008-05-01

    Microwave digestion of liquid dairy manure was tested for the release of nutrients, such as orthophosphates, ammonia-nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and potassium, both with and without the aid of an oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide). The orthophosphate to total phosphorus ratio of the manure increased from 21% to greater than 80% with 5 minutes of microwave treatment. More than 36% of total chemical oxygen demand (t-COD) of the manure was reduced when microwave digestion was assisted with peroxide addition. In addition, the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) distribution shifted to simpler chain acids (acetic acid in particular) with an increase in operating temperature. In the second part of the study, digested manure with increased soluble phosphate was tested for the recovery of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) at different pH. It was found that up to 90% of orthophosphate can be removed from the solution. Overall, it was concluded that the oxidizing agent-assisted microwave digestion process can be used upstream of anaerobic digestion, following which the anaerobically digested manure can be used for struvite recovery. Thus, this microwave digestion process presents the potential for enhanced efficiencies in both manure digestion and struvite recovery.

  14. Biodiesel synthesis using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Jechan; Lee, Taewoo; Tsang, Daniel C W; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-11-01

    This study laid an emphasis on the possible employment of biochar generated from pyrolysis of chicken manure to establish a green platform for producing biodiesel. To this end, the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil was investigated. Compared with a commercial porous material (SiO2), chicken manure biochar generated from 350°C showed better performance, resulting in 95.6% of the FAME yield at 350°C. The Ca species in chicken manure biochar imparted strong catalytic capability by providing the basicity for transesterification. The identified catalytic effect also led to the thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs, which decreased the overall FAME yield. For example, 40-60% of converted FAMEs were thermally degraded. To avoid undesirable thermal cracking arising from the high content of the Ca species in chicken manure biochar, the fabrication of chicken manure biochar at temperatures ≥350°C was highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatially explicit methodology for coordinated manure management in shared watersheds.

    PubMed

    Sharara, Mahmoud; Sampat, Apoorva; Good, Laura W; Smith, Amanda S; Porter, Pamela; Zavala, Victor M; Larson, Rebecca; Runge, Troy

    2017-05-01

    Increased clustering and consolidation of livestock production systems has been linked to adverse impacts on water quality. This study presents a methodology to optimize manure management within a hydrologic region to minimize agricultural phosphorus (P) loss associated with winter manure application. Spatial and non-spatial data representing livestock, crop, soil, terrain and hydrography were compiled to determine manure P production rates, crop P uptake, existing manure storage capabilities, and transportation distances. Field slope, hydrologic soil group (HSG), and proximity to waterbodies were used to classify crop fields according to their runoff risk for winter-applied manure. We use these data to construct a comprehensive optimization model that identifies optimal location, size, and transportation strategy to achieve environmental and economic goals. The environmental goal was the minimization of daily hauling of manure to environmentally sensitive crop fields, i.e., those classified as high P-loss fields, whereas the economic goal was the minimization of the transportation costs across the entire study area. A case study encompassing two contiguous 10-digit hydrologic unit subwatersheds (HUC-10) in South Central Wisconsin, USA was developed to demonstrate the proposed methodology. Additionally, scenarios representing different management decisions (storage facility maximum volume, and project capital) and production conditions (increased milk production and 20-year future projection) were analyzed to determine their impact on optimal decisions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrosomonas stercoris sp. nov., a Chemoautotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Tolerant of High Ammonium Isolated from Composted Cattle Manure

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Takahashi, Reiji

    2015-01-01

    Among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas eutropha-like microbes are distributed in strongly eutrophic environments such as wastewater treatment plants and animal manure. In the present study, we isolated an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium tolerant of high ammonium levels, designated strain KYUHI-ST, from composted cattle manure. Unlike the other known Nitrosomonas species, this isolate grew at 1,000 mM ammonium. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and amoA genes indicated that the isolate belonged to the genus Nitrosomonas and formed a unique cluster with the uncultured ammonia oxidizers found in wastewater systems and animal manure composts, suggesting that these ammonia oxidizers contributed to removing higher concentrations of ammonia in strongly eutrophic environments. Based on the physiological and phylogenetic data presented here, we propose and call for the validation of the provisional taxonomic assignment Nitrosomonas stercoris, with strain KYUHI-S as the type strain (type strain KYUHI-ST = NBRC 110753T = ATCC BAA-2718T). PMID:26156554

  17. Methane production from thermophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk obtained from therapeutically treated cows.

    PubMed

    Beneragama, Nilmini; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2017-02-01

    Methane production from co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk, milk from cows treated with antibiotics for mastitis, was tested in a 2 × 4 factorial design. Four different waste milk percentages (w/w): 0% (SM), 10% (SMWM10), 20% (SMWM20) and 30% (SMWM30), were tested with two slurry percentages (w/w): 50% (A) and 25% (B) and the rest being manure at 55°C for 12 days in batch digesters. The results analyzed using a Gompertz model showed SMWM10 produced the highest methane production potential (Pm )/g volatile solids added followed by SM in both A and B. This Pm of SMWM10 in A and B was statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). More than 96% of cefazolin-resistant bacteria and 100% of multi-drug-resistant bacteria reductions were observed in all the treatments. Inclusion of waste milk at 10% in single stage digester enhances the methane production from dairy manure and could offer added benefit of waste milk treatment and disposal. © 2016 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-22

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  19. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure. PMID:27444518

  20. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  1. Viability of the biochar production from different manure wastes in the Amblés Valley (Ávila, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, Paola; Méndez, Ana; Rodríguez, Francisco; García, Sagrario; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gascó, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    In the last years, intensive animal husbandry production has led to a large concentration of animals in small areas. This has resulted in the production of excessive amounts of manures with insufficient nearby land for application. One of this areas is the Amblés Valley located in the centre of Spain, near to Ávila city, with an extension of 167472 ha of which 88.9% is agricultural land. This valley has an important livestock focused on pig, cattle, chicken production which is associated with the generation of more than 200,000 t/year of manure. There are a number of environmental problems associated with these intensive agricultural systems, including N and P pollution of water bodies, methane emissions and odour pollution. These serious environmental threats are called for innovative environmental management approaches. A feasible technology for the management of manures, offering a potential to valorise these wastes, is pyrolysis, which results in the production of biochar. The objective of this work is evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of the production of biochar in Amblés Valley (Spain).

  2. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa Junior, Ciniro; Cerri, Carlos E P; Pires, Alexandre V; Cerri, Carlos C

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope "housing to field application" by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO₂eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ~80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO₂eq per kg lwg(-1)). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO₂eq kg lwg(-1) or 95% (±45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (±47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions from beef production systems.

  3. Occurrence of antibiotics in soils and manures from greenhouse vegetable production bases of Beijing, China and an associated risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Han, Ping; Luan, Yunxia; Lu, Anxiang

    2015-07-15

    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics in soil and manure samples from 11 large-scale greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) bases in Beijing, China was investigated. Results showed that the greenhouse soils were ubiquitously contaminated with antibiotics, and that antibiotic concentrations were significantly higher in greenhouses than in open field soils. The mean concentrations of four antibiotic classes decreased in the following order: tetracyclines (102μg/kg)>quinolones (86μg/kg)>sulfonamides (1.1μg/kg)>macrolides (0.62μg/kg). This investigation also indicated that fertilization with manure and especially animal feces might be the primary source of antibiotics. A risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) demonstrated that oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin could pose a high risk to soil organisms. These results suggested that the ecological effects of antibiotic contamination in GVP bases and their potential adverse risks on human health need to be given special attention.

  4. [Animal hygiene and environmental hygiene].

    PubMed

    Strauch, D

    1986-12-01

    Animal Hygiene has developed historically from the field of Animal Health Care and is as a part of Veterinary Hygiene now about 100 years old. From her very beginning Animal Hygiene has dealt with the influences of the live and inanimate environment on the health of animals an also investigated the reverse developments. From a historical point of view it can be stated that Animal Hygiene has done active research in the field of environmental hygiene ever since. This tendency was intensified by the modern developments of keeping animals in confinements, enlargement of livestock, new kinds of residues like slurry which demanded a change in the management of arable and forage land combined with an increase in the agricultural utilization of residues form the municipal area like sewage sludge and compost made from refuse. Based on selected examples from the field of production and processing of animals the research on Animal Hygiene in the framework of environmental hygiene is described. This refers especially to emissions and other environmental problems (malodor, dust, airborne microbes) which derive from keeping animals in confinements as well as such which are caused by storage and utilization of animal residues (farm-yard manure, urine, slurry). The most serious problems are caused by production and utilization of slurry (transmission of infectious agents, malodors, damages of soils, plants, surface and ground waters by excess fertilization of arable and forage land). It was Animal Hygiene which made most valuable contributions for solving such problems of environmental hygiene. It was also Animal Hygiene which warned of the possible negative environmental influences of disinfectants. Respective investigations were made and recommendations to avoid damages to the environment given. Also in the field of the agricultural utilization of residues from the municipal area (sewage, sewage sludge, refuse composts) Animal Hygiene has developed basic investigation methods

  5. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-11-15

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH{sub 4} EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} emissions dominated the CO{sub 2}-eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH{sub 4} emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions but tended to grow.

  7. Stored swine manure and swine faeces as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, T R; Cotta, M A

    2013-04-01

    Inclusion of low levels of antibiotics in the feed of domestic food animals promotes improved growth, animal performance and overall health benefits. However, this practice has come under scrutiny due to concerns over such feeding on bacterial antibiotic resistance (AR) and potential impact on human health. There is a paucity of data on the types and levels of AR genes that may be present in agricultural practices. Using PCR detection of AR genes, this study demonstrates that both stored swine manure and swine faeces harbour a variety of AR genes, and bacterial members of these communities contain genes that may move between micro-organisms. Thus, both ecosystems may serve as reservoirs of AR genes.

  8. Use of cationic polymers to reduce pathogen levels during dairy manure separation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zong; Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Runge, Troy

    2016-01-15

    Various separation technologies are used to deal with the enormous amounts of animal waste that large livestock operations generate. When the recycled waste stream is land applied, it is essential to lower the pathogen load to safeguard the health of livestock and humans. We investigated whether cationic polymers, used as a flocculent in the solid/liquid separation process, could reduce the pathogen indicator load in the animal waste stream. The effects of low charge density cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and high charge density cationic polydicyandiamide (PDCD) were investigated. Results demonstrated that CPAM was more effective than PDCD for manure coagulation and flocculation, while PDCD was more effective than CPAM in reducing the pathogen indicator loads. However, their combined use, CPAM followed by PDCD, resulted in both improved solids separation and pathogen indicator reduction.

  9. Plasma Vitellogenin and Hormone Levels in Common Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Ponds versus a Reference Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff from land treated with animal manure may contaminate adjacent aquatic ecosystems and negatively impact organisms living in these environments. Of notable concern, influx of estrogens can result in endocrine disruption and affect reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. Vitel...

  10. Plasma Vitellogenin and Hormone Levels in Common Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Ponds versus a Reference Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff from land treated with animal manure may contaminate adjacent aquatic ecosystems and negatively impact organisms living in these environments. Of notable concern, influx of estrogens can result in endocrine disruption and affect reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. Vitel...

  11. Manure Refinement Affects Apple Rhizosphere Bacterial Community Structure: A Study in Sandy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Jian; Liu, Songzhong; Wei, Qinping

    2013-01-01

    We used DNA-based pyrosequencing to characterize the bacterial community structure of the sandy soil of an apple orchard with different manure ratios. Five manure percentages (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were examined. More than 10,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate. The communities were composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes), of which Proteobacteria content gradually decreased from 41.38% to 37.29% as manure ratio increased from 0% to 25%, respectively. Redundancy analysis showed that 37 classes were highly correlated with manure ratio, 18 of which were positively correlated. Clustering revealed that the rhizosphere samples were grouped into three components: low manure (control, 5%) treatment, medium manure (10%, 15%) treatment and high manure (20%, 25%) treatment. Venn analysis of species types of these three groups revealed that the bacteria community difference was primarily reflected by quantity ratio rather than species variety. Although greater manure content led to higher soil organic matter content, the medium manure improved soil showed the highest urease activity and saccharase activity, while 5% to 20% manure ratio improvement also resulted in higher bacteria diversity than control and 25% manure ratio treatment. Our experimental results suggest that the use of a proper manure ratio results in significantly higher soil enzyme activity and different bacteria community patterns, whereas the use of excessive manure amounts has negative effect on soil quality. PMID:24155909

  12. Field evaluation of nitrogen availability from fresh and composted manure.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gabriela R; Kelling, Keith A; Rylant, Karen E; Zhu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of manure nitrogen availability to crops is key to ensuring adequate production while minimizing potential adverse environmental impacts. This field study estimated first-year and residual N availability from several manures subjected to various levels of processing, and evaluated the applicability of the pre-sidedress soil N test (PSNT) in fields receiving the different manures using corn (Zea mays L.) as the test crop. Plots received several rates of fresh (FP), dried (DP), or composted (CP) poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) manure, composted cow (Bos taurus) (CC) manure, ammonium nitrate (AN), or no N. Crop yields and N uptake from plots where CC was applied were undistinguishable from controls in most years, whereas poultry manures significantly increased corn production. Average apparent first-year N availability, as measured by fertilizer equivalence, was 57, 53, 14, and 4% for FP, DP, CP, and CC respectively. Apparent second-year N availability, as measured by relative effectiveness, was 18, 19, 12, and 7% for FP, DP, CP, and CC; however, for CC both first- and second-year estimates of apparent N recovery (ANR) could statistically not be separated from the controls. Apparent nitrogen avail-ability was greater for less processed manures and for CP compared to CC, emphasizing that producers should know the source and level of compost stability when these materials are used as a primary nutrient source. The PSNT successfully (87% correct) identified sites with a critical value of 24 mg kg(-1) that were N sufficient across a variety of N amendments from those that would have benefitted from additional N input.

  13. Residues of veterinary antibiotics in manures from feedlot livestock in eight provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan Hua; Wang, Hui

    2010-02-01

    The residue levels of selected fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines in 143 animal dung samples collected in 2007 from large-scale livestock and poultry feedlots in 8 provinces were determined by using ultrasonic extraction and liquid chromatography. Recoveries from spiked pig dung samples (spike level=1mg/kg) ranged from 73.9 to 102.0% for fluoroquinolones, from 81.6 to 92.3% for sulfonamides, and from 57.2 to 72.6% for tetracyclines. Relative standard deviations of the recoveries were less than 10% within the same day. Method quantification limits were measured from 0.031 to 0.150 mg/kg for fluoroquinolones, from 0.023 to 0.082 mg/kg for sulfonamides, and 0.091 to 0.182 mg/kg for tetracyclines in spiked pig manure samples. Analysis of 61 pig, 54 chicken and 28 cow dung samples collected in China revealed that in pig and cow dung, up to 33.98 and 29.59 mg/kg ciprofloxacin, 33.26 and 46.70 mg/kg enrofloxacin, 59.06 and 59.59 mg/kg oxytetracycline, and 21.06 and 27.59 mg/kg chlortetracycline could be detected, respectively. A maximum concentration of 99.43 mg/kg fleroxacin, 225.45 mg/kg norfloxacin, 45.59 mg/kg ciprofloxacin and 1420.76 mg/kg enrofloxacin could be detected in chicken dung. No appreciable sulfonamide antibiotic concentrations (less than 10mg/kg) were found in any animal dung, and only sulfadimidine was observed, at a maximum concentration of 6.04 mg/kg, in chicken dung. Both enrofloxacin and chlortetracycline were detected with a very high occurrence in three animal manure samples. The residue levels for most antibiotics showed significant statistical differences among the sampling districts and the animal species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemically and biologically-mediated fertilizing value of manure-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Subedi, R; Taupe, N; Ikoyi, I; Bertora, C; Zavattaro, L; Schmalenberger, A; Leahy, J J; Grignani, C

    2016-04-15

    This study evaluates the potential of manure-derived biochars in promoting plant growth and enhancing soil chemical and biological properties during a 150day pot experiment. Biochars from pyrolysis of poultry litter (PL) and swine manure (SM) at 400 and 600°C, and a commonly available wood chip (WC) biochar produced at high temperature (1000°C) were incorporated to silt-loam (SL) and sandy (SY) soils on a 2% dry soil weight basis. Ryegrass was sown and moisture was adjusted to 60% water filled pore space (WFPS). The PL400 and SM400 biochars significantly increased (p<0.05) shoot dry matter (DM) yields (SL soil) and enhanced nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) uptake by the plants in both soils, compared to the Control. All biochars significantly increased the soil carbon (C) contents compared to the Control. Total N contents were significantly greater for PL400 and PL600 treatments in both soils. The dehydrogenase activity (DA) significantly increased for PL400 and SM400 treatments and was positively correlated with the volatile matter (VM) contents of the biochars, while β-glucosidase activity (GA) decreased for the same treatments in both soils. All biochars significantly shifted (p≤0.05) the bacterial community structure compared to the Control. This study suggests that pyrolysis of animal manures can produce a biochar that acts as both soil amendment and an organic fertilizer as proven by increased NPK uptake, positive liming effect and high soil nutrient availability, while WC biochar could work only in combination with fertilizers (organic as well as mineral). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    PubMed

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effects of bamboo charcoal on antibiotic resistance genes during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Haichao; Duan, Manli; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Yajun; Qian, Xun; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2017-06-01

    Composting is widely used for animal waste disposal, and bamboo charcoal (BC) can be used for nitrogen conservation during composting. However, the effects of BC on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during chicken manure composting are still unclear. This study investigated the effects on ARGs of adding different proportions of BC (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% w/w) to chicken manure compost. After 26 days, the relative abundances (RAs) of most ARGs (tetC, tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, drfA7, ermB, ermF, ermQ, and ermX) and intI1 declined by 21.6-99.5%, whereas sul1 increased by 7.5-17.7 times. The average RAs reductions with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% BC were 0.85, 1.05, 1.08, and 1.15 logs, respectively. The most important environmental factor for the ARG profiles was temperature according to redundancy analysis. Furthermore, BC significantly decreased the bio-Cu and bio-Zn levels, thereby reducing the co-selection pressure from heavy metals. Different proportions of BC had no significant effects on the removal of tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, and ermB. Supplementation with 10% BC was more effective at removing tetC and drfA7 compared with the other treatments. The results suggested that 10% BC supplementation is appropriate for reducing ARGs in chicken manure compost.

  17. Integrated biological treatment of fowl manure for nitrogen recovery and reuse.

    PubMed

    Posmanik, Roy; Nejidat, Ali; Bar-Sinay, Boaz; Gross, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Biowaste such as animal manure poses an environmental threat, due to among others, uncontrolled emissions of ammonia and additional hazardous gases to the atmosphere. This study presents a quantitative analysis of an alternative biowaste management approach aimed at nitrogen recovery and reduction of contamination risks. The suggested technology combines anaerobic digestion of nitrogen-rich biowaste with biofiltration of the resulting gaseous ammonia. A compost-based biofilter is used to capture the ammonia and convert it to nitrate by nitrifying microorganisms. Nitrogen mass balance was applied to quantify the system's capacity under various fowl manure-loading regimes and ammonia loading rates. The produced nitrate was recovered and its use as liquid fertilizer was evaluated with cucumber plant as a model crop. In addition, emissions of other hazardous gases (N(2)O, CH(4) and H(2)S) were monitored before and after biofiltration to evaluate the efficiency of the system for treating these gases. It was found that nitrate-rich liquid fertilizer can be continuously produced using the suggested approach, with an over 67 percentage of nitrogen recovery, under an ammonia loading rate of up to 40 g NH(3) per cubic meter biofilter per hour. Complete elimination of NH(3), H(2)S, CH(4) and N(2)O was achieved, demonstrating the potential of the suggested technology for mitigating emission of these gases from fowl manure. Moreover, the quality of the recovered fertilizer was demonstrated by higher yield performance of cucumber plant compared with control plants treated with a commonly applied organic liquid fertilizer.

  18. Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, Walter; Kondrad, Shannon; Pizarro, Carolina; Kebede-Westhead, Elizabeth

    2008-11-01

    Cultivating algae on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in animal manure effluents presents an alternative to the current practice of land application. The objective of this study was to determine values for productivity, nutrient content, and nutrient recovery using filamentous green algae grown in outdoor raceways at different loading rates of raw and anaerobically digested dairy manure effluent. Algal turf scrubber raceways (30m2 each) were operated in central Maryland for approximately 270 days each year (roughly April 1-December 31) from 2003 to 2006. Algal biomass was harvested every 4-12 days from the raceways after daily additions of manure effluent corresponding to loading rates of 0.3 to 2.5g total N (TN) and 0.08 to 0.42g total P (TP) m(-2)d(-1). Mean algal productivity values increased from approximately 2.5g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the lowest loading rate (0.3g TN m(-2)d(-1)) to 25g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the highest loading rate (2.5g TN m(-2)d(-1)). Mean N and P contents in the dried biomass increased 1.5-2.0-fold with increasing loading rate up to maximums of 7% N and 1% P (dry weight basis). Although variable, algal N and P accounted for roughly 70-90% of input N and P at loading rates below 1g TN, 0.15g TP m(-2)d(-1). N and P recovery rates decreased to 50-80% at higher loading rates. There were no significant differences in algal productivity, algal N and P content, or N and P recovery values from raceways with carbon dioxide supplementation compared to values from raceways without added carbon dioxide. Projected annual operational costs are very high on a per animal basis ($780 per cow). However, within the context of reducing nutrient inputs in sensitive watersheds such as the Chesapeake Bay, projected operational costs of $11 per kgN are well below the costs cited for upgrading existing water treatment plants.

  19. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm(3)). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Determination and Comparison of Urease Activity in Feces and Fresh Manure from Pig and Cattle in Relation to Ammonia Production and pH Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production. PMID:25397404