Science.gov

Sample records for animal manure treatment

  1. Nutrient Recovery and Emissions of Ammonia, Nitrous Oxide, and Methane from Animal Manure in Europe: Effects of Manure Treatment Technologies.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Staritsky, Igor G; Oenema, Oene

    2017-01-03

    Animal manure contributes considerably to ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Various treatment technologies have been implemented to reduce emissions and to facilitate its use as fertilizer, but a systematic analysis of these technologies has not yet been carried out. This study presents an integrated assessment of manure treatment effects on NH3, nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions from manure management chains in all countries of EU-27 in 2010 using the MITERRA-Europe model. Effects of implementing 12 treatment technologies on emissions and nutrient recovery were further explored through scenario analyses; the level of implementation corresponded to levels currently achieved by forerunner countries. Manure treatment decreased GHG emissions from manures in EU countries by 0-17% in 2010, with the largest contribution from anaerobic digestion; the effects on NH3 emissions were small. Scenario analyses indicate that increased use of slurry acidification, thermal drying, incineration and pyrolysis may decrease NH3 (9-11%) and GHG (11-18%) emissions; nitrification-denitrification treatment decreased NH3 emissions, but increased GHG emissions. The nitrogen recovery (% of nitrogen excreted in housings that is applied to land) would increase from a mean of 57% (in 2010) to 61% by acidification, but would decrease to 48% by incineration. Promoting optimized manure treatment technologies can greatly contribute to achieving NH3 and GHG emission targets set in EU environmental policies.

  2. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...

  3. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  4. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  5. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  6. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  7. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  8. Growth of bacterial phytopathogens in animal manures.

    PubMed

    Sledz, Wojciech; Zoledowska, Sabina; Motyka, Agata; Kadziński, Leszek; Banecki, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Animal manures are routinely applied to agricultural lands to improve crop yield, but the possibility to spread bacterial phytopathogens through field fertilization has not been considered yet. We monitored 49 cattle, horse, swine, sheep or chicken manure samples collected in 14 Polish voivodeships for the most important plant pathogenic bacteria - Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Erwinia amylovora (Eam), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) and Dickeya sp. (Dsp). All of the tested animal fertilizers were free of these pathogens. Subsequently, the growth dynamics of Pba, Pcc, Rsol, and Xcc in cattle, horse, swine, sheep and chicken manures sterilized either by autoclaving or filtration was evaluated. The investigated phytopathogens did not exhibit any growth in the poultry manure. However, the manure filtrates originating from other animals were suitable for microbial growth, which resulted in the optical density change of 0.03-0.22 reached within 26 h (48 h Rsol, 120 h Xcc), depending on bacterial species and the manure source. Pcc and Pba multiplied most efficiently in the cattle manure filtrate. These bacteria grew faster than Rsol and Xcc in all the tested manure samples, both the filtrates and the autoclaved semi-solid ones. Though the growth dynamics of investigated strains in different animal fertilizers was unequal, all of the tested bacterial plant pathogens were proven to use cattle, horse, swine and sheep manures as the sources of nutrients. These findings may contribute to further research on the alternative routes of spread of bacterial phytopathogens, especially because of the fact that the control of pectionolytic bacteria is only based on preventive methods.

  9. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P < 0.05) increased the worm biomass and reproduction. The sludge amended with 40 % SM can be a great medium for the growth of E. fetida, and the sludge amended with 40 % CD can be a suitable medium for the fecundity of E. fetida. The addition of CD in sludge provided a better environment for the fecundity of earthworm than SM did. Moreover, vermicomposts obtained in the study had lower pH value, lower total organic carbon (TOC), lower NH4 (+)-N, lower C/N ratio, higher total available phosphorous (TAP) contents, optimal stability, and maturity. NH4 (+)-N, pH and TAP of the initial mixtures explained high earthworm growth. The results provided the theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida.

  10. Overview of the advances in environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increasing environmental concern over animal manure due to the volumes produced in modern intensified animal production. However, animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. Although research on environmental impacts of animal manure and associated...

  11. Applied and environmental chemistry of animal manure: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure consists of predominantly urine and feces, but also may contain bedding materials, dropped feed, scurf and other farming wastes. The estimated amount of manure produced in 12 major livestock producing countries is 9 x109 Mg of manure annually. Manures are rich in plant nutrients. Howev...

  12. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  13. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Steven M; Molde, Joseph S; Timler, Jacobe G; Wood, Brandon M; Mikula, Anthony L; Vozhdayev, Georgiy V; Colosky, Edward C; Spokas, Kurt A; Valentas, Kenneth J

    2014-09-02

    Projected shortages of global phosphate have prompted investigation of methods that could be employed to capture and recycle phosphate, rather than continue to allow the resource to be essentially irreversibly lost through dilution in surface waters. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures from large farms was investigated as a scenario for the reclamation of phosphate for agricultural use and mitigation of the negative environmental impact of phosphate pollution. Hydrothermal reaction conditions were identified for poultry, swine, and cattle manures that resulted in hydrochar yields of 50-60% for all three manures, and >90% of the total phosphorus present in these systems was contained in the hydrochars as precipitated phosphate salts. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 80-90% by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 81-87% based on starting manures by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Swine and cattle manures produced hydrochars with combustion energy contents comparable to those of high-end sub-bituminous coals.

  14. Microbiology of nitrogen cycle in animal manure compost

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Koki; Hanajima, Dai; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro; Morioka, Riki; Osada, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Summary Composting is the major technology in the treatment of animal manure and is a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas. Although the microbiological processes of both nitrification and denitrification are involved in composting, the key players in these pathways have not been well identified. Recent molecular microbiological methodologies have revealed the presence of dominant Bacillus species in the degradation of organic material or betaproteobacterial ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria on nitrification on the surface, and have also revealed the mechanism of nitrous oxide emission in this complicated process to some extent. Some bacteria, archaea or fungi still would be considered potential key players, and the contribution of some pathways, such as nitrifier denitrification or heterotrophic nitrification, might be involved in composting. This review article discusses these potential microbial players in nitrification–denitrification within the composting pile and highlights the relevant unknowns through recent activities that focus on the nitrogen cycle within the animal manure composting process. PMID:21375720

  15. Overview of manure treatment in France.

    PubMed

    Loyon, L

    2017-03-01

    Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13.6milliontons corresponding to 11.3% of the total annual tonnage (120milliontons). The main processes, mostly applied on the farm, were composting (8.5milliontons), aerobic treatment (2.9milliontons of pig slurry) and anaerobic digestion (1milliontons). Other manure treatments, including physical-chemical treatment, were less frequent (0.4million of m(3)). Treated manure was mainly used to fertilize the soil and crops on the farm concerned. Manure treatment can thus be considered to be underused in France. However, anaerobic digestion is expected to expand to reach the European target of 20% of energy from renewable sources. Nevertheless, this expansion will depend on overcoming the constraint requiring registration or normalization of the use of the digestate as fertilizer. Thus, to avoid penalizing farmers, the further development or creation of collective processing platforms is recommended, combined with an N recovery process that will enable the production of organic amendments and fertilizers in an easy marketable form.

  16. Gasification of hybrid feedstock using animal manures and hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a proprietary integrated gasification-internal combustion system in producing electricity from mixtures of animal manures such as swine solids, chicken litter, and hays. Five to 10 gallons of mixtures of swine manure, chicken litter, and h...

  17. Kinetics and energetics of producing animal-manure-based biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrolysis of animal manure produce biochar with multiple beneficial use potentials for improving soil quality and the environment. The kinetics and energetics of pyrolysis in producing manure-based biochar char were reviewed and analyzed. Kinetic analysis of pyrolysis showed that the higher the temp...

  18. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  19. Impact of dairy manure pre-application treatment on manure composition, soil dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes, and abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes on vegetables at harvest.

    PubMed

    Tien, Yuan-Ching; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong; Scott, Andrew; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Marti, Romain; Topp, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Manuring ground used for crop production is an important agricultural practice. Should antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria carried in the manure be transferred to crops that are consumed raw, their consumption by humans or animals will represent a route of exposure to antibiotic resistance genes. Treatment of manures prior to land application is a potential management option to reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes entrained with manure application. In this study, dairy manure that was untreated, anaerobically digested, mechanically dewatered or composted was applied to field plots that were then cropped to lettuce, carrots and radishes. The impact of treatment on manure composition, persistence of antibiotic resistance gene targets in soil following application, and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria on vegetables at harvest was determined. Composted manure had the lowest abundance of antibiotic resistance gene targets compared to the other manures. There was no significant difference in the persistence characteristics of antibiotic resistance genes following land application of the various manures. Compared to unmanured soil, antibiotic resistance genes were detected more frequently in soil receiving raw or digested manure, whereas they were not in soil receiving composted manure. The present study suggests that vegetables grown in ground receiving raw or digested manure are at risk of contamination with manure-borne antibiotic resistant bacteria, whereas vegetables grown in ground receiving composted manure are less so.

  20. Animal manure application and soil organic carbon stocks: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Émilie; Angers, Denis A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of animal manure application on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock changes is of interest for both agronomic and environmental purposes. There is a specific need to quantify SOC change for use in national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. We quantified the response of SOC stocks to manure application from a large worldwide pool of individual studies and determined the impact of explanatory factors such as climate, soil properties, land use and manure characteristics. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 42 research articles totaling 49 sites and 130 observations in the world. A dominant effect of cumulative manure-C input on SOC response was observed as this factor explained at least 53% of the variability in SOC stock differences compared to mineral fertilized or unfertilized reference treatments. However, the effects of other determining factors were not evident from our data set. From the linear regression relating cumulative C inputs and SOC stock difference, a global manure-C retention coefficient of 12% ± 4 (95% Confidence Interval, CI) could be estimated for an average study duration of 18 years. Following an approach comparable to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we estimated a relative SOC change factor of 1.26 ± 0.14 (95% CI) which was also related to cumulative manure-C input. Our results offer some scope for the refinement of manure retention coefficients used in crop management guidelines and for the improvement of SOC change factors for national GHG inventories by taking into account manure-C input. Finally, this study emphasizes the need to further document the long-term impact of manure characteristics such as animal species, especially pig and poultry, and manure management systems, in particular liquid vs. solid storage.

  1. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  2. Applied manure research—looking forward to the benign roles of animal manure in agriculture and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By definition, animal manure is discarded animal excreta and bedding materials usually applied to soils as a fertilizer for agricultural production. However, the impact of manure generation and disposal is far more than the role of organic fertilizers, even though the fertilizer function of animal m...

  3. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Projected shortages of global phosphate have prompted investigation of methods that could be employed to capture and recycle phosphate, rather than continue to allow the resource to be essentially irreversibly lost through dilution in surface waters. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures from...

  4. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only provides pollution prevention but also can convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion (AD) of livestock manures is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the AD animal manures. U.S. livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: slurry, plug-flow, complete-mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Case studies of operating digesters, with project and maintenance histories and the operators ''lessons learned,'' are included as reality checks. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some AD projects fail, are provided. The role of farm management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at farms willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. More than two decades of research has provided much information about how manure can be converted to an energy source; however, the American farmer has not been motivated

  5. The economics of energy from animal manure for greenhouse gas mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoori, Emad

    2007-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has significant economies of scale, i.e. per unit processing costs decrease with increasing size. The economics of AD to produce biogas and in turn electric power in farm or feedlot based units as well as centralized plants is evaluated for two settings in Alberta: a mixed farming area, Red Deer County, and an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, Lethbridge County. A centralized plant drawing manure from 61 sources in the mixed farming area could produce power at a cost of 218 MWh-1 (2005 US). A centralized plant drawing manure from 560,000 beef cattle in Lethbridge County, can produce power at a cost of 138 MWh-1. Digestate processing, if commercially available, shifts the balance in favor of centralized processing. At larger scales, pipelines could be used to deliver manure to a centralized plant and return the processed digestate back to the manure source for spreading. Pipeline transport of beef cattle manure is more economic than truck transport for the manure produced by more than 90,000 animals. Pipeline transport of digestate is more economic when manure from more than 21,000 beef cattle is available and two-way pipelining of manure plus digestate is more economic when manure from more than 29,000 beef cattle is available. The value of carbon credits necessary to make AD profitable in a mixed farming region is also calculated based on a detailed analysis of manure and digestate transport and processing costs at an AD plant. Carbon emission reductions from power generation are calculated for displacement of power from coal and natural gas. The required carbon credit to cover the cost of AD processing of manure is greater than 150 per tonne of CO2. These results show that AD treatment of manure from mixed farming areas is not economic given current values of carbon credits. Power from biogas has a high cost relative to current power prices and to the cost of power from other large scale renewable sources. Power from biogas would

  6. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    PubMed

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs.

  7. Combustible gas and biochar production from co-pyrolysis of agricultural plastic wastes and animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers report that manure-derived biochar has considerable potential both for improving soil quality and reducing water pollution. One of obstacles in obtaining manure biochar is its high energy requirement for pyrolyzing wet and low-energy-density animal manures. The combustible gas produced f...

  8. Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organizing and managing the whole manure handling chain from the animal house through transport to the point of use (e.g. in the field) is a challenging task requiring consideration of manure type and operating conditions. Solid and liquid manure must be handled differently, using very different tec...

  9. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  10. Growth and Productivity Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Amanullah; Khan, Shams-Ul-Tamraiz; Iqbal, Asif; Fahad, Shah

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha(-1) each) on the productivity of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) production under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg P ha(-1)) fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1), impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep, and poultry manures) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied) was investigated. In experiment (2), three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues, and wheat straw) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied). Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan) during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues) resulted in higher rice productivity (90 > 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha(-1)). In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures). In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic residues had higher rice productivity than wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw). On average, rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than rice grown under crop residues. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha(-1) along with combined application of animal manures, especially poultry manure increases rice productivity. Also, the use of either garlic residues or peach leaves, never applied before as organic manures, can increase crop productivity and will help

  11. Growth and Productivity Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Amanullah; Khan, Shams-ul-Tamraiz; Iqbal, Asif; Fahad, Shah

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha−1 each) on the productivity of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) production under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg P ha−1) fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1), impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep, and poultry manures) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied) was investigated. In experiment (2), three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues, and wheat straw) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied). Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan) during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues) resulted in higher rice productivity (90 > 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha−1). In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures). In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic residues had higher rice productivity than wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw). On average, rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than rice grown under crop residues. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha−1 along with combined application of animal manures, especially poultry manure increases rice productivity. Also, the use of either garlic residues or peach leaves, never applied before as organic manures, can increase crop productivity and will help

  12. Speciation and transformation of heavy metals during vermicomposting of animal manure.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of vermicomposting on the speciation and mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, and Cu) in cattle dung (CD) and pig manure (PM) using tessier sequential extraction method. Results showed that the pH, total organic carbon and C/N ratio were reduced, while the electric conductivity and humic acid increased after 90days vermicomposting. Moreover, the addition of earthworm could accelerate organic stabilization in vermicomposting. The total heavy metals in final vermicompost from CD and PM were higher than the initial values and the control without worms. Sequential extraction indicated that vermicomposting decreased the migration and availability of heavy metals, and the earthworm could reduce the mobile fraction, while increase the stable fraction of heavy metals. Furthermore, these results indicated that vermicomposting played a positive role in stabilizing heavy metals in the treatment of animal manure.

  13. Economic analyses of pig manure treatment options in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Tereza; Troy, Shane M; Gilkinson, Stephen; Frost, Peter; Xie, Sihuang; Zhan, Xinmin; Harrington, Caolan; Healy, Mark G; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-02-01

    An economic analysis was performed on treatment options for pig manure in Ireland. Costs were based on a 500 sow integrated pig farm producing 10,500 m(3) of manure per year at 4.8% dry matter. The anaerobic digestion of pig manure and grass silage (1:1; volatile solids basis) was unviable under the proposed tariffs, with costs at € 5.2 m(-3) manure. Subsequent solid-liquid separation of the digestate would cost an additional € 12.8 m(-3) manure. The treatment of the separated solid fraction by composting and of the liquid fraction by integrated constructed wetlands, would add € 2.8 and € 4.6 m(-3) manure, respectively to the treatment costs. The cost analysis presented showed that the technologies investigated are currently not cost effective in Ireland. Transport and spreading of raw manure, at € 4.9 m(-3) manure (15 km maximum distance from farm) is the most cost effective option.

  14. Assessing the effect of different treatments on decomposition rate of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Tariq M; Higgins, Stewart S; Ndegwa, Pius M; Frear, Craig S; Stöckle, Claudio O

    2016-11-01

    Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) contribute to greenhouse gas emission, but the magnitude of these emissions as a function of operation size, infrastructure, and manure management are difficult to assess. Modeling is a viable option to estimate gaseous emission and nutrient flows from CAFOs. These models use a decomposition rate constant for carbon mineralization. However, this constant is usually determined assuming a homogenous mix of manure, ignoring the effects of emerging manure treatments. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the decomposition rate constants of dairy manure in single and three-pool decomposition models, and to develop an empirical model based on chemical composition of manure for prediction of a decomposition rate constant. Decomposition rate constants of manure before and after an anaerobic digester (AD), following coarse fiber separation, and fine solids removal were determined under anaerobic conditions for single and three-pool decomposition models. The decomposition rates of treated manure effluents differed significantly from untreated manure for both single and three-pool decomposition models. In the single-pool decomposition model, AD effluent containing only suspended solids had a relatively high decomposition rate of 0.060 d(-1), while liquid with coarse fiber and fine solids removed had the lowest rate of 0.013 d(-1). In the three-pool decomposition model, fast and slow decomposition rate constants (0.25 d(-1) and 0.016 d(-1) respectively) of untreated AD influent were also significantly different from treated manure fractions. A regression model to predict the decomposition rate of treated dairy manure fitted well (R(2) = 0.83) to observed data.

  15. Toxicity of ozonated animal manure to the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Masten, S J; Kim-Yang, H; Walker, E D; Roman, H; Yokoyama, M T

    2001-01-01

    Swine manure slurries were ozonated at a dosage of 1 g/L and tested for their toxicity to the house fly (Musca domestica). The observed toxicity of ozonated swine manure was consistent and independent of origin of the swine manure. A dose (dilution) response curve was performed. A 50% dilution in the ozonated swine manure slurry resulted in 90% reduction in toxicity. Neither the synthetic nor ozonated synthetic swine manure, both of which contained higher concentrations of formaldehyde and three other unidentified carbonyl compounds than the ozonated swine manure, were toxic to the flies. Ozonated swine manure slurry was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45-microm filter. The liquid phase was as toxic as the unfiltered slurry; as such, the toxicant appears to be present in liquid phase. Neither ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde, nor other simple aldehydes appeared to be the toxic agent. The toxic agent appears to be a polar chemical compound and is concentrated in the urine. Several possible compounds have been identified. The toxicity of untreated and ozonated manure slurries from different livestock was compared. Six animal manure slurries (beef and dairy cattle, horse, poultry, sheep, and swine) were ozonated (dosage of 1 g/L) and tested for toxicity to the house fly. Ozonated dairy cattle manure slurry showed 78% mortality after 72 h, whereas ozonated swine manure slurry achieved a 100% mortality rate in 48 h. Neither the unozonated dairy nor swine manure slurries, nor any of the other raw or ozonated manure slurries, were toxic to the flies.

  16. Treatment technologies for ammonia in liquid manure: nitrification/denitrification and anammox based deammonification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological treatment is regarded as the most efficient and economically feasible method available for removal of ammonia from wastewater. Its use for animal wastewater required development of new systems and methods that could handle the higher-strength characteristics of liquid manure. The discover...

  17. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The...

  18. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The...

  19. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  20. Occurrence of 13 veterinary drugs in animal manure-amended soils in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ruicheng; Ge, Feng; Zhang, Lili; Hou, Xiang; Cao, Yinan; Gong, Lan; Chen, Ming; Wang, Ran; Bao, Endong

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence of 13 veterinary drugs were studied in soil fertilized with animal manures in Eastern China. The 69 soil samples were obtained from twenty-three vegetable fields in 2009 and analysed for selected veterinary drugs by HPLC-MS/MS at soil depths of 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm, and two additional samples were re-analysed from an earlier study from November 2011. Results showed that animal wastes, especially those from poultry farms, were one of pollution sources of veterinary drugs in soil. The detection frequency of veterinary drugs in soil was 83%, 91% and 87% in the three soil depths, respectively. The detection rates for the five classes of drugs in soils followed the rank order cyromazine > tetracyclines > sulfonamides > fluoroquinolones > florfenicol. Veterinary drugs were detected in soil layers at 20-40 and 40-60 cm depth to a greater extent than at 0-20 cm depth. The results of the same point in years 2009 and 2011 indicated that veterinary drugs accumulate easily and persist in the deeper soil. In addition, residue levels of veterinary drugs in soil were related to the animal species the manure was derived from. Overall, the predominance of tetracyclines in sampled soils underscored the need to regulate their veterinary use in order to improve the management and treatment of associated releases.

  1. Comparison of the ozonation and Fenton process performances for the treatment of antibiotic containing manure.

    PubMed

    Uslu, Merih Otker; Balcioğlu, Işil Akmehmet

    2009-05-15

    An integrated treatment method based on magnesium salt extraction followed by chemical oxidation was used for the treatment of a veterinary antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC) contaminated cow manure since animal manure can be an important source for antibiotic pollution in the environment. Pretreatment with magnesium salt enhanced the efficiencies of subsequent oxidation processes by extracting 63.9% of OTC from the manure thereby making it more favorable for oxidation with the hydroxyl radicals produced by the Fenton and ozone oxidation processes. Both the 24 h Fenton oxidation process with 434 mM H(2)O(2) and 43.4 mM Fe(2+) doses and the 1-h ozonation process with an applied ozone dose of 2.5 mg min(-1) provided more than 90% OTC removal from the manure slurry. However, the second-order OTC removal rate constant of Fenton process (119 M(-1)s(-1)) was remarkably lower than that obtained with the ozonation process (548 M(-1)s(-1)). The oxidant dose was a significant factor for the efficiency of the Fenton treatment but not for the ozone treatment. The efficiencies of both the Fenton and ozone oxidation processes were not affected by the pH adjustment of the manure slurry.

  2. Microwave treatment and struvite recovery potential of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asif; Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang

    2008-05-01

    Microwave digestion of liquid dairy manure was tested for the release of nutrients, such as orthophosphates, ammonia-nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and potassium, both with and without the aid of an oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide). The orthophosphate to total phosphorus ratio of the manure increased from 21% to greater than 80% with 5 minutes of microwave treatment. More than 36% of total chemical oxygen demand (t-COD) of the manure was reduced when microwave digestion was assisted with peroxide addition. In addition, the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) distribution shifted to simpler chain acids (acetic acid in particular) with an increase in operating temperature. In the second part of the study, digested manure with increased soluble phosphate was tested for the recovery of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) at different pH. It was found that up to 90% of orthophosphate can be removed from the solution. Overall, it was concluded that the oxidizing agent-assisted microwave digestion process can be used upstream of anaerobic digestion, following which the anaerobically digested manure can be used for struvite recovery. Thus, this microwave digestion process presents the potential for enhanced efficiencies in both manure digestion and struvite recovery.

  3. Co-pyrolyzing plastic mulch waste with animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrolyzing various livestock and agricultural wastes produces power and value-added byproducts. It also substantially reduces ultimate waste volume to be disposed of and improves soil fertility and promotes carbon sequestration via soil application of biochar. Researchers found that manure-derived ...

  4. Effect of Composting on Dissolved Organic Matter in Animal Manure and Its Binding with Cu

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengsong; Li, Yanxia; Xiong, Xiong; Yang, Ming; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural application of raw animal manure introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into soil and would increase transport of heavy metals such as Cu which are widely present in animal manure. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the evolution of DOM from pig and cattle manures during composting through excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the binding ability of DOM toward copper (Cu) ions with the aid of fluorescence quenching titration. The excitation-emission matrix spectra indicated that tyrosine-like, tryptophan-like, and soluble microbial byproduct-like fluorescence decreased significantly, while humic-like and fulvic-like fluorescence increased and became the main peaks in composted manure DOM. Fluorescence quenching titration showed that the complexing capacities of pig and cattle manure DOM decreased after composting. Correlation analysis confirmed that complexing capacity of DOM positively and significantly correlates with tyrosine-like and soluble microbial byproduct-like materials which mostly degraded after composting. These results would suggest that the ability of manure DOM to complex with Cu is inhibited as a result of reduced protein-like materials after composting. PMID:23125554

  5. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  6. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  7. Feeding on microbiomes: effects of detritivory on the taxonomic and phylogenetic bacterial composition of animal manures.

    PubMed

    Aira, Manuel; Bybee, Seth; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Domínguez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Earthworms play a key role in nutrient cycling by interacting with microorganisms thus accelerating organic matter turnover in soil systems. As detritivores, some earthworm types ingest and digest a mixture of dead organic matter and microorganisms, like animal manures (i.e. animal gut microbiomes). Here we described the earthworm cast microbiome and the role ingested bacteria play on its composition. We fed Eisenia andrei with cow, horse and pig manures and determined the taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of the these manures before and after passage through the earthworm gut. Earthworm cast microbiomes showed a smaller diversity than the manure they fed on. Manures strongly differed in their taxonomic and phylogenetic composition, but these differences were markedly reduced once transformed into earthworm cast microbiomes after passage through the earthworm gut. The core earthworm cast microbiome comprised 30 OTUs (2.6% of OTUs from cast samples), of which 10 are possibly native to the earthworm gut. Most of the core cast microbiome OTUs belonged to phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, as opposed to already described animal core gut microbiomes, which are composed mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that earthworms build up their cast microbiome by selecting from the pool of ingested bacteria.

  8. Release and removal of microorganisms from land-deposited animal waste and animal manures: A review of data and models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial pathogens present a leading cause of impairment to rivers, bays, and estuaries in the USA and agriculture is often viewed as the major contributor to such contamination. Microbial indicators and pathogens are released from land-applied animal manure during precipitation and irrigation even...

  9. Pyrogasification of blended animal manures to produce combustable gas and biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a skid-mounted pyrogasificaiton system for producing combustible gas from from animal manures: chicken litter, swine solids, and swine solids blended with rye grass. The skid-mounted pyrolysis system by the US Innovation Group, Inc. (USIG,...

  10. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: A review of manure management options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. This is the second in a series of reports commissioned by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to evaluate mitigation pra...

  11. Modelling nitrogen and carbon interactions in composting of animal manure in naturally aerated piles.

    PubMed

    Oudart, D; Robin, P; Paillat, J M; Paul, E

    2015-12-01

    Composting animal manure with natural aeration is a low-cost and low-energy process that can improve nitrogen recycling in millions of farms world-wide. Modelling can decrease the cost of choosing the best options for solid manure management in order to decrease the risk of loss of fertilizer value and ammonia emission. Semi-empirical models are suitable, considering the scarce data available in farm situations. Eleven static piles of pig or poultry manure were monitored to identify the main processes governing nitrogen transformations and losses. A new model was implemented to represent these processes in a pile considered as homogeneous. The model is based on four modules: biodegradation, nitrogen transformations and volatilization, thermal exchanges, and free air space evolution. When necessary, the parameters were calibrated with the data set. The results showed that microbial growth could reduce ammonia volatilization. Greatest nitrogen conservation is achieved when microbial growth was limited by nitrogen availability.

  12. Microbial and chemical markers: runoff transfer in animal manure-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Jaffrezic, Anne; Jardé, Emilie; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Gourmelon, Michèle; Caprais, Marie-Paule; Heddadj, Djilali; Cottinet, Patrice; Bilal, Muhamad; Derrien, Morgane; Marti, Romain; Mieszkin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Fecal contamination of water resources is evaluated by the enumeration of the fecal coliforms and Enterococci. However, the enumeration of these indicators does not allow us to differentiate between the sources of fecal contamination. Therefore, it is important to use alternative indicators of fecal contamination to identify livestock contamination in surface waters. The concentration of fecal indicators (, enteroccoci, and F-specific bacteriophages), microbiological markers (Rum-2-bac, Pig-2-bac, and ), and chemical fingerprints (sterols and stanols and other chemical compounds analyzed by 3D-fluorescence excitation-matrix spectroscopy) were determined in runoff waters generated by an artificial rainfall simulator. Three replicate plot experiments were conducted with swine slurry and cattle manure at agronomic nitrogen application rates. Low amounts of bacterial indicators (1.9-4.7%) are released in runoff water from swine-slurry-amended soils, whereas greater amounts (1.1-28.3%) of these indicators are released in runoff water from cattle-manure-amended soils. Microbial and chemical markers from animal manure were transferred to runoff water, allowing discrimination between swine and cattle fecal contamination in the environment via runoff after manure spreading. Host-specific bacterial and chemical markers were quantified for the first time in runoff waters samples after the experimental spreading of swine slurry or cattle manure.

  13. Fate of steroid hormones and endocrine activities in swine manure disposal and treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Combalbert, Sarah; Bellet, Virginie; Dabert, Patrick; Bernet, Nicolas; Balaguer, Patrick; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2012-03-01

    Manure may contain high concern endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as steroid hormones, naturally produced by pigs, which are present at μgL(-1) levels. Manure may also contain other EDCs such as nonylphenols (NP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Thus, once manure is applied to the land as soil fertilizer these compounds may reach aquifers and consequently living organisms, inducing abnormal endocrine responses. In France, manure is generally stored in anaerobic tanks prior spreading on land; when nitrogen removal is requested, manure is treated by aerobic processes before spreading. However, little is known about the fate of hormones and multiple endocrine-disrupting activities in such manure disposal and treatment systems. Here, we determined the fate of hormones and diverse endocrine activities during manure storage and treatment by combining chemical analysis and in vitro quantification of estrogen (ER), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), androgen (AR), pregnane-X (PXR) and peroxysome proliferator-activated γ (PPARγ) receptor-mediated activities. Our results show that manure contains large quantities of hormones and activates ER and AhR, two of the nuclear receptors studied. Most of these endocrine activities were found in the solid fraction of manure and appeared to be induced mainly by hormones and other unidentified pollutants. Hormones, ER and AhR activities found in manure were poorly removed during manure storage but were efficiently removed by aerobic treatment of manure.

  14. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  15. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter and manure removed... which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall be destroyed or treated by...

  16. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...

  17. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...

  18. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure for the conterminous United States, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David K.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    County-level nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from animal manure for the conterminous United States for 2002 were estimated from animal populations from the 2002 Census of Agriculture by using methods described in U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006–5012. These estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure were compiled in support of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

  19. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D.; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC. PMID:27701451

  20. Heavy metal and nutrient changes during vermicomposting animal manure spiked with mushroom residues.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiuchao; Liu, Manqiang; Wu, Di; Qi, Lin; Ye, Chenglong; Jiao, Jiaguo; Hu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    A pilot-scale trial of four months was conducted to investigate the responses of heavy metal and nutrient to composting animal manure spiked with mushroom residues with and without earthworms. Results showed that earthworm activities accelerated organic matter mineralization (e.g. reduction in C/N ratio, increase in total concentrations of N, P, K) and humification (e.g. increase in humic acid concentration, humification ratio and humification index). Despite composting increased total heavy metal (i.e. As, Pb, Cu, Zn) concentrations irrespective of earthworm, the availability of heavy metals extracted by DTPA significantly (P<0.05) decreased particularly in treatments with earthworms introduced. The shift from available to unavailable fractions of heavy metals was either due to earthworm bioaccumulation, as indicated by total heavy metal concentrations being higher in earthworm tissues, or due to the formation of stable metal-humus complexes as indicated by the promotion of humification. Our results suggest that vermicomposting process could magnify the nutrient quality but relieve the heavy metals risk of agricultural organic wastes.

  1. Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Renčo, M.; Kováčik, P.

    2012-01-01

    In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreased number of plant parasitic nematodes and also root-fungal feeding nematodes compared to the untreated control. Sawdust applied alone had no effect on plant parasitic and root-fungal feeding nematode suppression. Free-living nematodes which were mainly bacteriovores and fungivores were significantly more abundant in soil amended with fermented pig manure, while the sawdust had no effect on these nematodes. The effect of all tested treatments on omnivores-predators was rather random, and in general, the number of these nematodes decreased after soil amendment applications compared to the untreated control. PMID:23482503

  2. Effects of animal diet, manure application rate, and tillage on transport of microorganisms from manure-amended fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure from cattle fed distiller’s grain or corn diets was land-applied to fields and subjected to rainfall simulation tests. Manure was added at four rates on till and no-till plots. Correlations between microbial transport and runoff-characteristics were identified. Results indicate diet affects...

  3. Immobilization of tetracyclines in manure and manure-amended soils using aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Elzinga, Evert J; Datta, Rupali

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants of concern in the environment, mainly due to the potential for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and effect on microbiota that could interfere with crucial ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. High levels of VAs such as tetracyclines (TCs) have been reported in agricultural soils amended with manure, which also has the potential to cause surface and groundwater contamination. Several recent studies have focused on developing methods to immobilize VAs such as composting with straw, hardwood chips, commercial biochar, aeration, mixing, heat treatment, etc. The major shortcomings of these methods include high cost and limited effectiveness. In the current study, we assessed the effectiveness of aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) as a "green" sorbent to immobilize TCs in manure and manure-applied soils with varying physicochemical properties by laboratory incubation study. Results show that Al-WTR is very effective in immobilizing tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC). The presence of phosphate resulted in significant (p < 0.01) decrease in TTC/OTC sorption by Al-WTR, but the presence of sulfate did not. attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy indicate that TTC and OTC likely forming surface complexes via inner-sphere-type bonds in soils, manure, and manure-applied soils amended with Al-WTR.

  4. Changes in antibiotic concentrations and antibiotic resistome during commercial composting of animal manures.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Yang, Xin-Ping; Li, Qian; Wu, Long-Hua; Shen, Qi-Rong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China. High concentrations of fluoroquinolones were found in the poultry and swine composts, suggesting insufficient removal of these antibiotics by commercial thermophilic composting. Total ARGs in the cattle and poultry manures were as high as 1.9 and 5.5 copies per bacterial cell, respectively. After thermophilic composting, the ARG abundance in the mature compost decreased to 9.6% and 31.7% of that in the cattle and poultry manure, respectively. However, some ARGs (e.g. aadA, aadA2, qacEΔ1, tetL) and MGE marker genes (e.g. cintI-1, intI-1 and tnpA-04) were persistent with high abundance in the composts. The antibiotics that were detected at high levels in the composts (e.g. norfloxacin and ofloxacin) might have posed a selection pressure on ARGs. MGE marker genes were found to correlate closely with ARGs at the levels of individual gene, resistance class and total abundance, suggesting that MGEs and ARGs are closely associated in their persistence in the composts under antibiotic selection. Our research shows potential disseminations of antibiotics and ARGs via compost utilization.

  5. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    PubMed Central

    Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, René K.; Petersen, Søren O.; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h−1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path. PMID:23124240

  6. Carbon offsets from improved swine manure management using aerobic treatment technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic treatment of manure is an accepted manure management system under protocols adopted through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Our objectives were to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from replacement of anaerobic lagoons with aerobic treatme...

  7. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  8. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions following application of animal manures to grassland

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.R.; Pain, B.F.; Brookman, S.K.E.

    2000-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions were measured from grassland following manure applications at three times of the year. Pig (Sus scrofa) slurry and dairy cow (Bos taurus) slurry were applied in April, at equal rates of ammoniacal-N (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N), and in July, at equal volumetric rates (50 m{sup 3}ha{sup {minus}1}). In October, five manure types were applied to grassland plots at typical application rates: pig slurry, dilute diary cow effluent, pig farm yard manure (FYM), beef FYM and layer manure. Emissions were measured for 20, 22, and 24 d, respectively. In April, greater cumulative emissions of N{sub 2}O-N were measured following application of dairy cow slurry (1.51 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than pig slurry (90.77 kg ha{sup {minus}1}). Cumulative CH{sub 4} emissions following application in April were significantly greater from the dairy cow slurry treatment (0.58 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than the pig slurry treatment (0.13 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) (P < 0.05). In July, significantly greater N{sub 2}O-N emissions resulted from pig slurry-treated plots (0.57 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than dairy cow slurry-treated plots (0.34 kg ha{sup {minus}1}). Cumulative net CH{sub 4} emissions were very low following July applications (<10 g ha{sup {minus}1}). In October, the lowest N{sub 2}O-N emission resulted from application of dilute dairy effluent, 0.15 kg ha{sup {minus}1}, with the greatest net emission from the application of pig slurry, 0.74 kg ha{sup {minus}1}. Methane emissions were greatest from the plots that received pig FYM, resulting in a mean cumulative net emission of 2.39 kg ha{sup {minus}1}.

  9. Multi-utilization of swine manure as a bioenergy feedstock: Carbonization and combustion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of animal manure and other organic-based waste products as bioenergy feedstocks is gaining interest for waste-to-bioenergy conversion processes. While thermochemical conversion of animal manure via combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification is becoming a new frontier of manure treatment; there ...

  10. HIGHLIGHTS, INSIGHTS, AND PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND ANIMAL MANURE IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is: 1) Highlight the core principles and findings from the Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated With Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures and Other Organic By-Products held June 4-6, 2001, Cincinnati, Ohio, so that all readers,...

  11. Manure treatment according to the Trevi-concept.

    PubMed

    Smet, E; Debruyne, J; Deckx, J; Deboosere, S

    2003-01-01

    In Flanders great amounts of livestock, especially pigs, lead to a surplus of manure that can not be spread on farmland because of the prevailing fertilizing restrictions. Aside that, Flemish government obliges farmers with a surplus of 7500 kg total P2O5 production to treat this excess of manure partially or totally. Trevi N.V. developed a manure treating system that starts with the separation of the raw manure in a solid fraction and a liquid fraction. The solid fraction can be exported after drying and hygienisation in the condensation drier, which is characterised by the absence of off-gases. The liquid fraction is treated in a biological plant and contains only 10 to 15% of the original amount of nutrients. As a result of this, the biological effluent can be spread on farmland at a bigger quantity (100-150 ton/ha) in comparison with raw manure. This biological effluent needs further polishing to obtain an effluent that can be discharged into surface waters. This was realised in coordination with Danis N. V. at the Discover plant in Izegem. In this plant, an evaporator treats the biological effluent and produces a dischargable condensate.

  12. Sustainable intensive livestock production demands manure and exhaust air treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Melse, Roland W; Timmerman, Maikel

    2009-11-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including discharges to soils and surface waters and emissions to the atmosphere. In areas with a high livestock density the low availability of nearby arable land, together with the preferred use of chemical fertilizer by arable farmers, results in high off-farm disposal costs for manure. Furthermore, ammonia abatement technologies, such as treatment of exhaust air, are important as ammonia emissions may account up to a quarter of the total nitrogen flux. Firstly, the paper describes and discusses the development of manure treatment in the Netherlands since the 1970's. Manure treatment processes that result in products that compete with and replace the use of chemical fertilizers can (partly) close the nutrient cycle again. From this point of view aerobic treatment of manure (nitrification/denitrification) can not be considered sustainable as nitrogen is taken out of the cycle at high environmental costs. Secondly, the state-of-the-art of techniques for treatment of exhaust air is presented. Besides ammonia, application of air treatment may also reduce environmental emissions of odour and particulate matter (dust). Both manure treatment and treatment of exhaust air are considered essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with a high livestock density.

  13. Anaerobic mesophilic treatment of cattle manure in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with prior pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Marañón, Elena; Castrillón, Leonor; Fernández, Juan José; Fernández, Yolanda; Peláez, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Jesús

    2006-02-01

    Different autonomous communities located in northern Spain have large populations of dairy cattle. In the case of Asturias, the greatest concentration of dairy farms is found in the areas near the coast, where the elimination of cattle manure by means of its use as a fertilizer may lead to environmental problems. The aim of the present research work was to study the anaerobic treatment of the liquid fraction of cattle manure at mesophilic temperature using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor combined with a settler after a pasteurization process at 70 degrees C for 2 hr. The manure used in this study came from two different farms, with 40 and 200 cows, respectively. The manure from the smaller farm was pretreated in the laboratory by filtration through a 1-mm mesh, and the manure from the other farm was pretreated on the farm by filtration through a separator screw press (0.5-mm mesh). The pasteurization process removed the pathogenic microorganisms lacking spores, such as Enterococcus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas, and coliforms, but bacterial spores are only reduced by this treatment, not removed. The combination of a UASB reactor and a settler proved to be effective for the treatment of cattle manure. In spite of the variation in the organic loading rate and total solids in the influent during the experiment, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent from the settler remained relatively constant, obtaining reductions in the COD of approximately 85%.

  14. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009), fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW) ha−1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg−1) and swine (460 g kg−1) manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC) contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC) was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered. PMID:25494364

  15. Food Web Responses to Augmenting the Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Bare and Animal Manure-Mulched Soil

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, L. W.; Graham, J. H.; Zellers, J.; Bright, D.; Dunn, D. C.; El-Borai, F. E.; Porazinska, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    Factorial treatments of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) and composted, manure mulches were evaluated for two years in a central Florida citrus orchard to study the post-application biology of EPN used to manage the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus. Mulch treatments were applied once each year to study the effects of altering the community of EPN competitors (free-living bactivorous nematodes) and antagonists (nematophagous fungi (NF), predaceous nematodes and some microarthro-pods). EPN were augmented once with Steinernema riobrave in 2004 and twice in 2005. Adding EPN to soil affected the prevalence of organisms at several trophic levels, but the effects were often ephemeral and sometimes inconsistent. EPN augmentation always increased the mortality of sentinel weevil larvae, the prevalence of free-living nematodes in sentinel cadavers and the prevalence of trapping NF. Subsequent to the insecticidal effects of EPN augmentation in 2004, but not 2005, EPN became temporarily less prevalent, and fewer sentinel weevil larvae died in EPN-augmented compared to non-augmented plots. Manure mulch had variable effects on endoparasitic NF, but consistently decreased the prevalence of trapping NF and increased the prevalence of EPN and the sentinel mortality. Both temporal and spatial abundance of NF were inversely related to the prevalence of Steinernema diaprepesi, whereas Heterorhabditis zealandica prevalence was positively correlated with NF over time. The number of weevil larvae killed by EPN was likely greatest in 2005, due in part to non-target effects of augmentation on the endemic EPN community in 2004 that occurred during a period of peak weevil recruitment into the soil. PMID:19259487

  16. Effects of acidifying reagents on microwave treatment of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Nkansah-Boadu, Frank; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2014-01-01

    Dairy manure, acidified using organic acids (acetic, oxalic, and citric acid) were treated with microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP). The effect of a mixture of oxalic acid and commonly used mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acid) on MW/H2O2-AOP was also examined. Substantial amounts of phosphorus were released under MW/H2O2-AOP, regardless of organic acid or mineral acid used. All three organic acids were good acidifying reagents; however, only oxalic acid could remove free calcium ion in the solution, and improve settleability of dairy manure. The MW/H2O2-AOP and calcium removal process could be combined into a single-stage process, which could release phosphate, solubilize solids and remove calcium from dairy manure at the same time. A mixture of oxalic acid and mineral acid produced the maximum volume of clear supernatant and had an ideal molar ratio of calcium to magnesium for effective struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) crystallization process. A single-stage MW/H2O2-AOP would simplify the process and reduce mineral acid consumption compared to a two-stage operation. The results of a pilot scale study demonstrate that MW/H2O2-AOP is effective in treating manure and recovering resource from dairy farms.

  17. A Process Based Approach to Modeling Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions Across the Air-Surface Interface of Manure from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Aneja, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are an important concern due to their contribution to odor and their potential to form PMfine. CAFO manure surface emissions occur from barns floors, during waste storage and treatment, and following land application. There is a need for a process based model, which will provide a method for quantifying emissions in different production, management and environmental conditions. A process based air-surface interface mass transfer model with chemical reactions was developed based on theoretical principles and related published information on H2S emissions. Different approaches were used to calculate the three main components of the model: the dissociation constant, the Henry’s law constant, and the overall mass transport coefficient. The dissociation constant was calculated based on thermodynamic principles and was corrected for the ionic strength of the manure. Similarly, the Henry’s law constant was also calculated based on thermodynamic principles. The overall mass transfer coefficient was developed using a previously published air-surface interface mass transport model, which considered the most important properties affecting mass transport to be the diffusivity of H2S in air, the air viscosity, and the air density. These parameters were modeled using dimensional analysis, which identified the variables that needed to be measured to determine the relevant constant and exponents values. By using the previously published study’s model and their measured constant and exponent values, an appropriate overall mass transfer coefficient was developed. Sensitivity analysis of the process based air-surface interface mass transfer model showed predicted fluxes to be most dependent on manure sulfide concentration and manure pH, and to a smaller extent on wind speed and manure temperature. Model predicted fluxes were compared with measured H2S flux and meteorological and physiochemical

  18. Selective release of inorganic constituents in broiler manure biochars under different post-activation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies determined that poultry litter is a desirable feedstock for activated biochars with enhanced adsorption towards cations. Animal manures such as poultry litter contain a significant fraction of inorganic material that can significantly affect the final physical, chemical and adsorpt...

  19. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    PubMed

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  20. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    PubMed Central

    Cu, T. T. T.; Nguyen, T. X.; Triolo, J. M.; Pedersen, L.; Le, V. D.; Le, P. D.; Sommer, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

  1. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure.

    PubMed

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  2. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    PubMed Central

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains. PMID:26167534

  3. Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers.

    PubMed

    Mulbry, Walter; Kondrad, Shannon; Pizarro, Carolina; Kebede-Westhead, Elizabeth

    2008-11-01

    Cultivating algae on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in animal manure effluents presents an alternative to the current practice of land application. The objective of this study was to determine values for productivity, nutrient content, and nutrient recovery using filamentous green algae grown in outdoor raceways at different loading rates of raw and anaerobically digested dairy manure effluent. Algal turf scrubber raceways (30m2 each) were operated in central Maryland for approximately 270 days each year (roughly April 1-December 31) from 2003 to 2006. Algal biomass was harvested every 4-12 days from the raceways after daily additions of manure effluent corresponding to loading rates of 0.3 to 2.5g total N (TN) and 0.08 to 0.42g total P (TP) m(-2)d(-1). Mean algal productivity values increased from approximately 2.5g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the lowest loading rate (0.3g TN m(-2)d(-1)) to 25g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the highest loading rate (2.5g TN m(-2)d(-1)). Mean N and P contents in the dried biomass increased 1.5-2.0-fold with increasing loading rate up to maximums of 7% N and 1% P (dry weight basis). Although variable, algal N and P accounted for roughly 70-90% of input N and P at loading rates below 1g TN, 0.15g TP m(-2)d(-1). N and P recovery rates decreased to 50-80% at higher loading rates. There were no significant differences in algal productivity, algal N and P content, or N and P recovery values from raceways with carbon dioxide supplementation compared to values from raceways without added carbon dioxide. Projected annual operational costs are very high on a per animal basis ($780 per cow). However, within the context of reducing nutrient inputs in sensitive watersheds such as the Chesapeake Bay, projected operational costs of $11 per kgN are well below the costs cited for upgrading existing water treatment plants.

  4. Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

  5. Reuse of concentrated animal feed operation wastewater on agricultural lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal areas, further lim...

  6. Performance of two swine manure treatment systems on chemical composition and on the reduction of pathogens.

    PubMed

    Viancelli, A; Kunz, A; Steinmetz, R L R; Kich, J D; Souza, C K; Canal, C W; Coldebella, A; Esteves, P A; Barardi, C R M

    2013-01-01

    Swine effluents must be correctly handled to avoid negative environmental impacts. In this study, the profiles of two swine manure treatment systems were evaluated: a solid-liquid separation step, followed by an anaerobic reactor, and an aerobic step (System 1); and a biodigester followed by serial lagoons (System 2). Both systems were described by the assessment of chemical, bacterial and viral parameters. The results showed that in System 1, there was reduction of chemicals (COD, phosphorus, total Kjeldhal nitrogen - TKN - and NH(3)), total coliforms and Escherichia coli; however, the same reduction was not observed for Salmonella sp. Viral particles were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated from the effluent. In System 2, there was a reduction of chemicals, bacteria and viruses with no detection of Salmonella sp., circovirus, parvovirus, and torque teno virus in the effluent. The chemical results indicate that the treated effluent can be reused for cleaning swine facilities. However, the microbiological results show a need of additional treatment to achieve a complete inactivation for cases when direct contact with animals is required.

  7. Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review.

    PubMed

    Bernal, M P; Alburquerque, J A; Moral, R

    2009-11-01

    New livestock production systems, based on intensification in large farms, produce huge amount of manures and slurries without enough agricultural land for their direct application as fertilisers. Composting is increasingly considered a good way for recycling the surplus of manure as a stabilised and sanitised end-product for agriculture, and much research work has been carried out in the last decade. However, high quality compost should be produced to overcome the cost of composting. In order to provide and review the information found in the literature about manure composting, the first part of this paper explains the basic concepts of the composting process and how manure characteristics can influence its performance. Then, a summary of those factors such as nitrogen losses (which directly reduce the nutrient content), organic matter humification and compost maturity which affect the quality of composts produced by manure composting is presented. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of using an adequate bulking agent for reducing N-losses and the necessity of standardising the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria.

  8. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  9. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    PubMed

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products.

  10. New systems for treatment of manure from confined animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New swine waste management systems developed in North Carolina to replace the anaerobic lagoons need to meet the strict performance standards of an environmentally superior technology (EST). These technologies must be able to substantially remove nutrients, heavy metals, emissions of ammonia, odors,...

  11. Microbial response to repeated treatments of manure containing sulfadiazine and chlortetracycline in soil.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hua; Han, Yu L; Yin, Yuan M; Jin, Xiang X; Wang, Shao Y; Tang, Fei F; Cai, Lin; Yu, Yun L

    2014-01-01

    Substantive addition of antibiotic-contaminated manure to agricultural soil may lead to "persistent" residues of antibiotics and may affect soil health. Therefore, this study examines the effects of repeated manure treatments containing sulfadiazine (SDZ) and chlortetracycline (CTC) residues, both individually and combined, on the functional diversity and structure of soil microbial communities in the soils under laboratory conditions. The average well color development (AWCD), Simpson diversity index (1/D, dominant populations), Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H', richness), and McIntosh diversity index (U, evenness) in the antibiotics-treated soils decreased in the first 60-day treatment and then gradually recovered or even exceeded the initial level in the unamended soils with increasing treatment frequency. A total of 11 specific bands in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) profiles were observed and sequence analyzed for five repeated treatments, and most of them belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. These results indicate that repeated treatments of manure containing SDZ and CTC residues can alter soil microbial community structure, although they have a temporary suppression effect on soil microbial functional diversity.

  12. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure for the conterminous United States, 2007 and 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gronberg, JoAnn M.; Arnold, Terri L.

    2017-03-24

    County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from animal manure for the conterminous United States were calculated from animal population inventories in the 2007 and 2012 Census of Agriculture, using previously published methods. These estimates of non-point nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from animal manure were compiled in support of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the National WaterQuality Program and are needed to support national-scale investigations of stream and groundwater water quality. The estimates published in this report are comparable with older estimates which can be compared to show changes in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from manure over time.

  13. Borax and Octabor Treatment of Stored Swine Manure: Reduction in Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions and Phytotoxicity to Agronomic Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gaseous emissions from stored manure have become environmental and health issues for humans and animals as the livestock industry becomes specialized and concentrated. Of particular concern is hydrogen sulfide, which is being targeted for regulatory control in concentrated animal farm operations. ...

  14. Treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure in a two-stage biofiltration system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengjing; Tao, Wendong; Wang, Ziyuan; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-01-01

    High concentrations of ammonium and phosphate present a challenge to cost-effective treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure. This study investigated the efficacy of a two-stage biofiltration system for passive treatment of digested dairy manure. The first stage pebble filters were batch loaded. When the slurry-like digested dairy manure was retained on pebble beds, soluble contaminants were removed before liquid infiltrated over 8-17 days. The pebble filters removed 70% of soluble chemical oxygen demand, 71% of soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 75% of ammonium, and 68% of orthophosphate. Nitrogen removal was attributed to the conventional nitrification - denitrification process and novel nitritation - anammox process. Aerobic ammonium oxidizing and anammox bacteria accounted for 25 and 23% of all bacteria, respectively, in the filtrate of the pebble filters. The longer it took for filtration, the greater the removal efficiency of soluble contaminants. The second stage sand filters had removal efficiencies of 17% for soluble chemical oxygen demand, 45% for soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 43% for ammonium, and 16% for orthophosphate during batch operations at a hydraulic retention time of 7 days. Aerobic ammonium oxidation and anammox were primarily responsible for nitrogen removal in the sand filters. Vegetation made an insignificant difference in treatment performance of the sand filters.

  15. Studies into Using Manure in a Biorefinery Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shulin; Wen, Zhiyou; Liao, Wei; Liu, Chuanbin; Kincaid, R. L.; Harrison, J. H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Brown, Michael D.; Stevens, Don J.

    2005-03-01

    Animal manure is an underutilized biomass resource containing a large amount of organic carbon that is often wasted in the existing manure disposal practices. A research project funded by the US Department of Energy explored the feasibility of using manure via the sugar platform in a biorefinery. The results showed that fiber, the major component of dry manure, constituted approximately 50%, 40%, and 36% of the dry dairy, swine, and poultry manure materials, respectively. The highest fiber contents were in dairy manure of which more than 75% of the dry matter was in the particles greater than 0.125 mm. Manure can be used for substrate to produce cellulase on site. The hemicellulose component in the manure fiber could be readily converted to sugar through acid hydrolysis. Concentrated acid treatment was most effective in manure cellulose decrystallization. The effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis was limited without concentrated acid pretreatment. The high protein content in manure had negative affects on acid hydrolysis. Purification and separation is necessary for further chemical conversion of the sugar to value-added chemicals through hydrogenation.

  16. Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse.

  17. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhanguang; Zhou Xuefei; Zhang Yalei; Zhu Hongguang

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was key controlling factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The threshold of the SCOD/TAN ratio was 2.4 at an influent pH of 8.5-9. - Abstract: The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700 m{sup 3} chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3 L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5 kg-COD/m{sup 3} d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5 d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3} d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250 mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9.

  18. Integrated biological treatment of fowl manure for nitrogen recovery and reuse.

    PubMed

    Posmanik, Roy; Nejidat, Ali; Bar-Sinay, Boaz; Gross, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Biowaste such as animal manure poses an environmental threat, due to among others, uncontrolled emissions of ammonia and additional hazardous gases to the atmosphere. This study presents a quantitative analysis of an alternative biowaste management approach aimed at nitrogen recovery and reduction of contamination risks. The suggested technology combines anaerobic digestion of nitrogen-rich biowaste with biofiltration of the resulting gaseous ammonia. A compost-based biofilter is used to capture the ammonia and convert it to nitrate by nitrifying microorganisms. Nitrogen mass balance was applied to quantify the system's capacity under various fowl manure-loading regimes and ammonia loading rates. The produced nitrate was recovered and its use as liquid fertilizer was evaluated with cucumber plant as a model crop. In addition, emissions of other hazardous gases (N(2)O, CH(4) and H(2)S) were monitored before and after biofiltration to evaluate the efficiency of the system for treating these gases. It was found that nitrate-rich liquid fertilizer can be continuously produced using the suggested approach, with an over 67 percentage of nitrogen recovery, under an ammonia loading rate of up to 40 g NH(3) per cubic meter biofilter per hour. Complete elimination of NH(3), H(2)S, CH(4) and N(2)O was achieved, demonstrating the potential of the suggested technology for mitigating emission of these gases from fowl manure. Moreover, the quality of the recovered fertilizer was demonstrated by higher yield performance of cucumber plant compared with control plants treated with a commonly applied organic liquid fertilizer.

  19. Brazilian beef cattle feedlot manure management: a country survey.

    PubMed

    Costa, C; Goulart, R S; Albertini, T Z; Feigl, B J; Cerri, C E P; Vasconcelos, J T; Bernoux, M; Lanna, D P D; Cerri, C C

    2013-04-01

    No information regarding the management of manure from beef cattle feedlots is available for Brazil. To fill this knowledge gap, a survey of 73 feedlots was conducted in 7 Brazilian states. In this survey, questions were asked regarding animal characteristics, their diets, and manure handling management from generation to disposal. These feedlots finished 831,450 animals in 2010. The predominant breed fed was Nellore, with average feeding periods of 60 to 135 d. Corn was the primary source of grain used in the feedlot diets (76% of surveyed animals) with concentrate inclusion levels ranging from 81 to 90% (38% of surveyed animals). The most representative manure management practice was the removal of manure from pens only at the end of the feeding period. Subsequently, the manure was stored in mounds before being applied to crop and pasture lands. Runoff, mainly from rainwater, was collected in retention ponds and used for agriculture. However, the quantity of runoff was not known. Manure was composted for only 20% of the animals in the survey and was treated in anaerobic digesters for only 1% of the animals. Manure from 59% of the cattle surveyed was used as fertilizer, providing a cost savings over the use of synthetic fertilizers. Overall, chemical analysis of the manure before application to fields was conducted for the manure of 56% of the surveyed animals, but the exact quantity applied (per hectare) was unknown for 48%. Feedlots representing 48% of the surveyed animals noted similar or greater crop and pasture yields when using manure, rather than synthetic fertilizers. In addition, 32% mentioned an increase in soil organic matter. Feedlots representing 88% of the surveyed cattle indicated that information concerning management practices that improve manure use efficiency is lacking. Feedlots representing 93% of the animals in the survey reported having basic information regarding the generation of energy and fertilizer with anaerobic digesters. However

  20. Thermochemical conversion technologies for production of renewable energy and value-added char from animal manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in the USA and many other countries have undergone extensive expansions and consolidations for the last few decades. This shift in animal production agriculture toward fewer, but larger operations has created serious environmental concerns in recycling and ...

  1. Special topics--Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: II. A review of manure management mitigation options.

    PubMed

    Montes, F; Meinen, R; Dell, C; Rotz, A; Hristov, A N; Oh, J; Waghorn, G; Gerber, P J; Henderson, B; Makkar, H P S; Dijkstra, J

    2013-11-01

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Reducing excreted nitrogen (N) and degradable organic carbon (C) by diet manipulation to improve the balance of nutrient inputs with production is an effective practice to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions. Most CH4 is produced during manure storage; therefore, reducing storage time, lowering manure temperature by storing it outside during colder seasons, and capturing and combusting the CH4 produced during storage are effective practices to reduce CH4 emission. Anaerobic digestion with combustion of the gas produced is effective in reducing CH4 emission and organic C content of manure; this increases readily available C and N for microbial processes creating little CH4 and increased N2O emissions following land application. Nitrous oxide emission occurs following land application as a byproduct of nitrification and dentrification processes in the soil, but these processes may also occur in compost, biofilter materials, and permeable storage covers. These microbial processes depend on temperature, moisture content, availability of easily degradable organic C, and oxidation status of the environment, which make N2O emissions and mitigation results highly variable. Managing the fate of ammoniacal N is essential to the success of N2O and CH4 mitigation because ammonia is an important component in the cycling of N through manure, soil, crops, and animal feeds. Manure application techniques such as subsurface injection reduce ammonia and CH4 emissions but can result in increased N2O emissions. Injection works well when combined with anaerobic digestion and solids separation by improving infiltration. Additives such as urease and nitrification inhibitors that inhibit microbial processes have mixed results but are generally effective in controlling N2O emission from intensive grazing systems. Matching plant nutrient

  2. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan-Guang; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhu, Hong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700m(3) chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35±1°C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5kg-COD/m(3)d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2m(3)/m(3)d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9.

  3. Hydrothermal liquefaction of separated dairy manure for production of bio-oils with simultaneous waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Theegala, Chandra S; Midgett, Jason S

    2012-03-01

    A bench scale hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) system was tested using dairy manure to explore biooil production and waste treatment potential. Carbon monoxide was used as the process gas and sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3)) as catalyst. At a 350°C process temperature, the HTL unit produced 3.45 g (± 0.21) of acetone soluble oil fractions (ASF), with an average Higher Heating Value of 32.16 (± 0.23) MJ kg(-1). A maximum ASF yield of 4.8 g was produced at a process temperature of 350°C and 1g of catalyst. The best ASF yield corresponded to 67.6% of energy contained in the raw manure. GC-MS analysis of ASF indicated that the highest quantities of phenolic compounds were formed when 1g catalyst was used. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction in the dischargeable slurry was as high as 75%. The results point to an alternative dairy waste treatment technology with a potential to generate transportable biooils.

  4. Animal waste utilization: Effective use of manure as a soil resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, J.L.; Stewart, B.A.

    1998-12-31

    This unique book examines the beneficial aspects of animal waste as a soil resource--not simply as an agricultural by-product with minimal practical use. Topics include: types of livestock waste--swine, poultry, dairy; methods and management of waste utilization; storage, handling, processing and application of animal waste; economics of waste utilization; new modeling and management techniques; and nonpoint source pollution, water quality, leaching, and air quality.

  5. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, G; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; Negral, L; Rodríguez-Iglesias, J; Ormaechea, P

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of applying ultrasound pre-treatment in the production of methane when co-digesting mixtures of cattle manure with food waste and sludge. A series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in continuously stirred-tank reactors containing 70% cattle manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge. Ultrasound pre-treatment allows operating at lower HRT, achieving higher volumetric methane yields: 0.85 L CH4/L day at 36°C and 0.82 CH4/L day at 55°C, when cattle manure and sewage sludge were sonicated. With respect to the non-sonicated waste, these values represent increases of up to 31% and 67% for mesophilic and thermophilic digestion, respectively.

  6. Treatment of Dairy and Swine Manure Effluents Using Freshwater Algae: Fatty Acid Content and Composition of Algal Biomass at Different Manure Loading Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alternative to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure and convert manure N and P into algal biomass. The objective of this study was to determine how fatty acid (FA) content and composition of algae respond to changes in the type of manu...

  7. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health. PMID:27376311

  8. Production of value-added chars and activated carbons from animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States has a strong agricultural foundation that leaves behind large quantities of animal wastes. In the United States, an estimated 9 billion broilers, 256 million turkeys, 62 million pigs and 97 million dairy cows were produced in 2006 producing 5 times the waste of the U.S. human popu...

  9. Sources and contents of heavy metals and other trace elements in animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace elements take part in various physiological functions including enzyme formation, vitamin formation, metabolism, and electron transport in animals. Thus, trace elements are added to livestock and poultry diets to prevent diseases, improve weight gains and feed conversion, and increase egg prod...

  10. Influence of post-treatment strategies on the properties of activated chars from broiler manure.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabel M; Boykin, Debbie L; Thomas Klasson, K; Uchimiya, Minori

    2014-01-01

    There are a myriad of carbonaceous precursors that can be used advantageously to produce activated carbons or chars, due to their low cost, availability and intrinsic properties. Because of the nature of the raw material, production of granular activated chars from broiler manure results in a significant ash fraction. This study was conducted to determine the influence of several pre- and post-treatment strategies in various physicochemical and adsorptive properties of the resulting activated chars. Pelletized samples of broiler litter and cake were pyrolyzed at 700 °C for 1h followed by a 45 min steam activation at 800 °C at different water flow rates from 1 to 5 mL min(-1). For each activation strategy, samples were either water-rinsed or acid-washed and rinsed or used as is (no acid wash/rinse). Activated char's physicochemical and adsorptive properties towards copper ions were selectively affected by both pre- and post-treatments. Percent ash reduction after either rinsing or acid washing ranged from 1.1 to 15.1% but washed activated chars were still alkaline with pH ranging from 8.4 to 9.1. Acid washing or water rinsing had no significant effect in the ability of the activated char to adsorb copper ions, however it significantly affected surface area, pH, ash content and carbon content. Instead, manure type (litter versus cake) and the activation water flow rate were determining factors in copper ion adsorption which ranged from 38 mg g(-1) to 104 mg g(-1) of activated char. Moreover, strong positive correlations were found between copper uptake and concentration of certain elements in the activated char such as phosphorous, sulfur, calcium and sodium. Rinsing could suffice as a post treatment strategy for ash reduction since no significant differences in the carbon properties were observed between rinsed and acid wash treatments.

  11. Management of antibiotic residues from agricultural sources: use of composting to reduce chlortetracycline residues in beef manure from treated animals.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Rice, Clifford

    2009-05-30

    Chlortetracycline (CTC) is one of only ten antibiotics licensed in the U.S.A. for use as growth promoters for livestock. The widespread use and persistence of CTC may contribute in development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of composting on the fate of CTC residues found in manure from medicated animals. The effect of CTC residues on composting was also investigated. Five beef calves were medicated for 5 days with 22 mg/kg/day of CTC. Manure samples collected from calves prior to and after medication were mixed with straw and woodchips, and aliquots of the subsequent mixtures were treated in laboratory composters for 30 days. In addition, aliquots of the CTC-containing mixture were incubated at 25 degrees C or sterilized followed by incubation at 25 degrees C and 55 degrees C (composting temperature). The presence of CTC did not appear to affect the composting process. Concentrations of CTC/ECTC (the summed concentrations of CTC and its epimer ECTC) in the composted mixture (CM) and sterilized mixture incubated at 55 degrees C (SM55) decreased 99% and 98% (from 113 microg/g dry weight (DW) to 0.7 microg/g DW and 2.0 microg/g DW), respectively, in 30 days. In contrast, levels of CTC/ECTC in room temperature incubated (RTIM) and sterilized mixture incubated at 25 degrees C (SM25) decreased 49% and 40% (to 58 microg/g DW and 68 microg/g DW), respectively, after 30 days. Concentrations of the CTC metabolite, iso-chlortetracycline (ICTC), in CM and SM55 decreased more than 99% (from 12 microg/g DW to below quantitation limit of 0.3 microg/g DW) in 30 days. ICTC levels in RTIM and SM25 decreased 80% (to 4 microg/g DW) in 30 days. These results confirm and extend those from previous studies that show the increased loss of extractable CTC residues with increased time and incubation temperature. In addition, our results using sterile and non-sterile samples suggest that the decrease in concentrations of extractable

  12. Reducement of cadmium adsorption on clay minerals by the presence of dissolved organic matter from animal manure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjun; Ren, Lingwei; Zhu, Lizhong

    2017-04-01

    Clay minerals are the most popular adsorbents/amendments for immobilizing heavy metals in contaminated soils, but the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil environment would potentially affect the adsorption/immobilization capacity of clay minerals for heavy metals. In this study, the effects of DOM derived from chicken manure (CM) on the adsorption of cadmium (Cd(2+)) on two clay minerals, bentonite and zeolite, were investigated. The equilibrium data for Cd(2+) sorption in the absence or presence of CM-DOM could be well-fitted to the Langmuir equation (R(2) > 0.97). The presence of CM-DOM in the aqueous solution was found to greatly reduce the adsorption capacity of both minerals for Cd(2+), in particular zeolite, and the percentage decreases for Cd(2+) sorption increased with increasing concentrations of Cd(2+) as well as CM-DOM in aqueous solutions. The adsorption of CM-DOM on zeolite was greater than that on bentonite in the absence of Cd(2+), however, a sharp increase was observed for CM-DOM sorption on bentonite with increasing Cd(2+) concentrations but little change for that on zeolite, which can be attributed to the different ternary structures on mineral surface. The CM-DOM modified clay minerals were utilized to investigate the effect of mineral-adsorbed CM-DOM on Cd(2+) sorption. The adsorbed form was found to inhibit Cd(2+) sorption, and further calculation suggested it primarily responsible for the overall decrease in Cd(2+) sorption on clay minerals in the presence of CM-DOM in aqueous solutions. An investigation for the mineral surface morphology suggested that the mineral-adsorbed CM-DOM decreased Cd(2+) sorption on bentonite mainly through barrier effect, while in the case of zeolite, it was the combination of active sites occupation and barrier effect. These results can serve as a guide for evaluating the performance of clay minerals in immobilizing heavy metals when animal manure is present in contaminated soils.

  13. Improving estimates of N and P loads in irrigation water from swine manure lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of nutrient management plans (NMPs) for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requires recording N and P loads from land-applied manure, including nutrients applied in irrigation water from manure treatment lagoons. By regulation, lagoon irrigation water nutrient records in ...

  14. Improved method for recovery of organic solids from diluted swine manure in 3rd generation treatment system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid-liquid separation of the raw manure increases the capacity of decision making and opportunities for treatment. The high-rate separation up-front using flocculants allows recovery of most of the organic compounds, which can be used for manufacture of high-quality compost materials. However, t...

  15. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non fertilized cereal reference during the GM year (2009). Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+ 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) resulting in generally higher N2O emissions during barley production. Addition of biogas residue (80 kg N ha-1) in 2010 to previously non mulched GM and unfertilized cereal plots (2009) had no significant effect on cumulative N2O emissions relative to a treatment receiving the same amount of N in form of mulched aboveground GM. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, organic amendments (previously mulched or harvested GM, biorest) increased N2O emissions relative to a reference treatment with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  16. Development and analysis of microbial characteristics of an acidulocomposting system for the treatment of garbage and cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryoki; Otawa, Kenichi; Ozutsumi, Yuhei; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Abdel-Mohsein, Hosnia Swafy; Nakai, Yutaka

    2010-10-01

    An acidulocomposting system for the treatment of cattle manure with little emission of ammonia gas was developed, and the structure of its microbial community was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library construction. An acidulocomposting apparatus (BC20, 20 L) was operated for 79 days to treat 2 kg (wet wt) of garbage per 1 or 2 days. On day 80 of operation, the substrate was changed from garbage to cattle manure (1 kg of beef cattle manure was added to the apparatus every 2 or 3 days), and the system continued operating from days 80 to 158. The compost in the vessel was under acidic conditions at pH 5.2-5.8, and ammonia emission was below the detectable level (<5 ppm) throughout the period of cattle manure feeding. Total nitrogen and total carbon in the compost were 26-29 and 439-466 mg/g of dry weight, respectively, which are higher than those in general cattle manure compost. The main acids accumulated during operation were lactic and acetic. Sequencing analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene revealed the stable dominance of the bacterial phylum Firmicutes, with a high proportion of the isolates belonging to the genus Bacillus. Using a culturing method with MRS agar, we isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) related to Pediococcus acidilactici, Weissella paramesenteroides, and Lactobacillus salivarius, indicating the existence of LAB in the system. These results indicate that acidulocomposting treatment of cattle manure is not accompanied by ammonia emission and that Bacillus and LAB may be the key components in the system.

  17. Implications from distinct sulfate-reducing bacteria populations between cattle manure and digestate in the elucidation of H2S production during anaerobic digestion of animal slurry.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2017-04-07

    Biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of animal slurry consists mainly of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but also includes other minor gases, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Since it can act as a potent corrosive agent and presents a health hazard even at low concentrations, H2S is considered an undesirable by-product of anaerobic digestion. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) have been identified as the main biological source of H2S in a number of natural, biological, and human-made habitats, and thus represent likely candidate microorganisms responsible for the production of H2S in anaerobic manure digesters. Phylogenetically, SRBs form a divergent group of bacteria that share a common anaerobic respiration pathway that allows them to use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. While the composition and activity of SRBs have been well documented in other environments, their metabolic potential remains largely uncharacterized and their populations poorly defined in anaerobic manure digesters. In this context, a combination of in vitro culture-based studies and DNA-based approaches, respectively, were used to gain further insight. Unexpectedly, only low to nondetectable levels of H2S were produced by digestate collected from a manure biogas plant documented to have persistently high concentrations of H2S in its biogas (2000-3000 ppm). In contrast, combining digestate with untreated manure (a substrate with comparatively lower sulfate and SRB cell densities than digestate) was found to produce elevated H2S levels in culture. While a 16S rRNA gene-based community composition approach did not reveal likely candidate SRBs in digestate or untreated manure, the use of the dsrAB gene as a phylogenetic marker provided more insight. In digestate, the predominant SRBs were found to be uncharacterized species likely belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus (Peptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Firmicutes), while Desulfovibrio-related SRBs (Desulfovibrionaceae

  18. Investigation of chamber methods and a micrometeorological mass balance method for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from animal manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyu-Hyun

    Various measurement methods to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure storage or treatment facilities have been used. However, it is difficult to directly compare emission data measured with different methods, which causes uncertainties in national GHG inventories. In the micrometeorological mass balance (MMB) method, a gas flux consists of a horizontal mean flux (MF) and horizontal turbulent flux (TF) terms. In Chapter 2, methane (GH4 ) TF measurements obtained using a sonic anemometer and a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer are presented. Contrary to previous studies in wind tunnels and flat-level field conditions, an overestimation of only 0.5% was observed by only considering the MF term. This means the MMB method without consideration of TF is suitable in complex field conditions with uneven topography, and farm buildings. In Chapter 3, the MMB method was compared to a floating chamber method. Of these, the floating chamber method has been extensively used for CH4 flux quantification. The MMB method, although providing advantages such as spatial integration of fluxes, requires fast response trace gas analyzers which are not widely available. The mean ratio of CH4 flux measured with the floating chamber method to that measured using the MMB method was 1.25, ranging from 1.07 to 1.83. Flux overestimation by the floating chamber could have been caused by location of the chamber and potential disturbances by the chamber. Frequent changes of the chamber location, use of several chambers, and/or avoiding chamber placement on 'hot spots' are recommended to decrease flux overestimation. In Chapter 4, CH4 fluxes measured with a mega chamber and eight small chambers during the in-vessel composting phase showed similar temporal variation, while nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were, significantly lower for the small chambers. The ratios of CH4 fluxes measured with a mega chamber to eight small chambers during the in-vessel composting phase were 0.72 and 1

  19. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  20. [Yield and heavy metal content of Brassica parachinensis influenced by successive application of chicken manure].

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-xian; Li, Guo-liang; He, Zhao-huan; Fu, Chang-ying

    2007-05-01

    High heavy metal content in animal manures commonly occurs in the world since microelement additives are widely used in intensive animal production. Successive field trials in Brassica parachinensis (BP) were conducted to investigate the influence of successive application of chicken manure (at the rate of) on the yield and heavy metal content of BP. The application rate of chicken manure was calculated by its N content and ranged from N 0-450 kg x hm(-2). The results indicate that compared to single application of inorganic fertilizers, chicken manure decreases the yield of BP in the first and the third crop, increases that in the second crop. Combinations of chicken manure and inorganic fertilizers increase the yield in the fourth yield. Mean yields of all treatments in various crops are greatly different. The second crop is significantly higher than all other crops. In terms of mean heavy metal contents of BP of four crops in various treatment, As and Zn contents increase with applying chicken manure, Cr and Cd contents decrease, Pb contents don't change considerably, and Cu contents increase with applying chicken manure and inorganic fertilizers together. Generally, except for the second crop, mean As, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn contents of BP in various crops increase with the increasing application times of chicken manure, mean Cd contents decrease. Hence, mass application for one crop or repeated application of chicken manure should be avoided in crop production.

  1. Fate and transport of zoonotic, bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens during swine manure treatment, storage, and land application.

    PubMed

    Ziemer, C J; Bonner, J M; Cole, D; Vinjé, J; Constantini, V; Goyal, S; Gramer, M; Mackie, R; Meng, X J; Myers, G; Saif, L J

    2010-04-01

    Members of the public are always somewhat aware of foodborne and other zoonotic pathogens; however, recent illnesses traced to produce and the emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus have increased the scrutiny on all areas of food production. The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology has recently published a comprehensive review of the fate and transport of zoonotic pathogens that can be associated with swine manure. The majority of microbes in swine manure are not zoonotic, but several bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens have been detected. Awareness of the potential zoonotic pathogens in swine manure and how treatment, storage, and handling affect their survival and their potential to persist in the environment is critical to ensure that producers and consumers are not at risk. This review discusses the primary zoonotic pathogens associated with swine manure, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, as well as their fate and transport. Because the ecology of microbes in swine waste is still poorly described, several recommendations for future research are made to better understand and reduce human health risks. These recommendations include examination of environmental and ecological conditions that contribute to off-farm transport and development of quantitative risk assessments.

  2. Effect of manure vs. fertilizer inputs on productivity of forage crop models.

    PubMed

    Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caternolo, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Martiniello, Pasquale

    2011-06-01

    Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha(-1), respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha(-1) of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha(-1) under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  3. Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models

    PubMed Central

    Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caternolo, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Martiniello, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding. PMID:21776208

  4. Association between stall surface and some animal welfare measurements in freestall dairy herds using recycled manure solids for bedding.

    PubMed

    Husfeldt, A W; Endres, M I

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between stall surface and some animal welfare measurements in upper Midwest US dairy operations using recycled manure solids as bedding material. The study included 34 dairy operations with herd sizes ranging from 130 to 3,700 lactating cows. Forty-five percent of the herds had mattresses and 55% had deep-bedded stalls. Farms were visited once between July and October 2009. At the time of visit, at least 50% of the cows in each lactating pen were scored for locomotion, hygiene, and hock lesions. On-farm herd records were collected for the entire year and used to investigate mortality, culling, milk production, and mastitis incidence. Stall surface was associated with lameness and hock lesion prevalence. Lameness prevalence (locomotion score ≥ 3 on a 1 to 5 scale) was lower in deep-bedded freestalls (14.4%) than freestalls with mattresses (19.8%). Severe lameness prevalence (locomotion score ≥ 4) was also lower for cows housed in deep-bedded freestalls (3.6%) than for cows housed in freestalls with mattresses (5.9%). In addition, the prevalence of hock lesions (hock lesion scores ≥ 2 on a 1 to 3 scale, with 1=no lesion, 2=hair loss or mild lesion, and 3=swelling or severe lesion) and severe hock lesions (hock lesion score=3) was lower in herds with deep-bedded freestalls (49.4%; 6.4%) than in herds with mattresses (67.3%; 13.2%). Herd turnover rates were not associated with stall surface; however, the percentage of removals due to voluntary (low milk production, disposition, and dairy) and involuntary (death, illness, injury, and reproductive) reasons was different between deep-bedded and mattress-based freestalls. Voluntary removals averaged 16% of all herd removals in deep-bedded herds, whereas in mattress herds, these removals were 8%. Other welfare measurements such as cow hygiene, mortality rate, mastitis incidence, and milk production were not associated with stall surface.

  5. Feasibility and interest of the anammox process as treatment alternative for anaerobic digester supernatants in manure processing--an overview.

    PubMed

    Magrí, Albert; Béline, Fabrice; Dabert, Patrick

    2013-12-15

    Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal (ANR) is based on the combination of partial nitritation (PN) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). It is a promising alternative for the subsequent treatment of biogas digester supernatants in livestock manure processing and nitrogen surplus scenarios. However, as no full-scale experiences in the treatment of manure digestates by ANR have been published to date, future field studies addressing treatment of this kind of effluent would be of great interest. Some topics to be considered in these studies would be coupling anaerobic digestion and ANR, analysis of the factors that affect the process, comparing reactor configurations, microbial ecology, gas emissions, and achieving robust performance. This paper provides an overview of published studies on ANR. Specific issues related to the applicability of the process for treating manure digestates are discussed. The energy requirements of ANR are compared with those of other technological alternatives aimed at recovering nitrogen from digester supernatants. The results of the assessment were shown to depend on the composition of the supernatant. In this regard, the PN-anammox process was shown to be more competitive than other alternatives particularly at concentrations of up to 2 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3).

  6. Separation efficiency and particle size distribution in relation to manure type and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Møller, H B; Sommer, S G; Ahring, B K

    2002-11-01

    Mechanical separation of liquid animal manure can be an effective technique for production of a liquid and a nutrient-rich solid fraction. The efficiency of separators depends on the physical and chemical composition of the animal manure. Therefore, the particle size composition was measured for different types of manure before treatment with a decanting centrifuge and a screw press. Storage of pig manure reduces the total dry matter content, and the content of small particles (< 0.0016 mm) is reduced more than the content of large particles. In consequence, the proportion of large particles will increase, while the portion of small particles will decrease. The separation efficiency of the screw press was found to be low, as this separator only retains particles > 1 mm. The decanter centrifuge retained all the particles > 0.02 mm and was therefore much more efficient than the screw press. Separation efficiency was also found to be highly dependent on the type of manure used.

  7. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Other Zoonotic Pathogens during Simulated Composting, Manure Packing, and Liquid Storage of Dairy Manure

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Sukhbir K.; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Michel, Frederick C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock manures contain numerous microorganisms which can infect humans and/or animals, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis). The effects of commonly used manure treatments on the persistence of these pathogens have rarely been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the persistence of artificially inoculated M. paratuberculosis, as well as other naturally occurring pathogens, during the treatment of dairy manure under conditions that simulate three commonly used manure management methods: thermophilic composting at 55°C, manure packing at 25°C (or low-temperature composting), and liquid lagoon storage. Straw and sawdust amendments used for composting and packing were also compared. Manure was obtained from a large Ohio free-stall dairy herd and was inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at 106 CFU/g in the final mixes. For compost and pack treatments, this manure was amended with sawdust or straw to provide an optimal moisture content (60%) for composting for 56 days. To simulate liquid storage, water was added to the manure (to simulate liquid flushing and storage) and the slurry was placed in triplicate covered 4-liter Erlenmeyer flasks, incubated under ambient conditions for 175 days. The treatments were sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 for the detection of pathogens. The persistence of M. paratuberculosis was also assessed by a PCR hybridization assay. After 56 days of composting, from 45 to 60% of the carbon in the compost treatments was converted to CO2, while no significant change in carbon content was observed in the liquid slurry. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Listeria were all detected in the manure and all of the treatments on day 0. After 3 days of composting at 55°C, none of these organisms were detectable. In liquid manure and pack treatments, some of these microorganisms were detectable up to 28 days. M

  8. Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures.

    PubMed

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W; Okorogbona, A O M

    2010-04-01

    Crop responses to different manures differs considerably, however, the factors responsible for it have not been conclusively elucidated. Consequently, this study examined the biomass response of Cucurbita maxima and Solanum retroflexum to application rates of chicken and kraal manures of cattle and goat, and soil factors related to salinity. The crops' biomass yield increased linearly with increase in application rates of kraal and chicken manures, but steeper in the latter. Results showed that significant decline in biomass yield in chicken manure at rates above 8.5 tons ha(-1) were not due to salinity. The crops' response to cattle and goat kraal manures was linear but polynomial (cubic) in layer chicken manure. It was concluded that the yield decline in chicken manure was due to other manure factors except salinity, probably toxicity effect of the manure fatty acids. Further research was however, recommended to elucidate this claim.

  9. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities.

  10. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Flows through the Manure Management Chain in China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin; Jin, Shuqin; Ma, Wenqi; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene; Liu, Ling; Chadwick, David; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-12-20

    The largest livestock production and greatest fertilizer use in the world occurs in China. However, quantification of the nutrient flows through the manure management chain and their interactions with management-related measures is lacking. Herein, we present a detailed analysis of the nutrient flows and losses in the "feed intake-excretion-housing-storage-treatment-application" manure chain, while considering differences among livestock production systems. We estimated the environmental loss from the manure chain in 2010 to be up to 78% of the excreted nitrogen and over 50% of the excreted phosphorus and potassium. The greatest losses occurred from housing and storage stages through NH3 emissions (39% of total nitrogen losses) and direct discharge of manure into water bodies or landfill (30-73% of total nutrient losses). There are large differences among animal production systems, where the landless system has the lowest manure recycling. Scenario analyses for the year 2020 suggest that significant reductions of fertilizer use (27-100%) and nutrient losses (27-56%) can be achieved through a combination of prohibiting manure discharge, improving manure collection and storages infrastructures, and improving manure application to cropland. We recommend that current policies and subsidies targeted at the fertilizer industry should shift to reduce the costs of manure storage, transport, and application.

  11. Influence of post-treatment strategies on the properties of activated chars from broiler manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a myriad of carbonaceous precursors that can be used advantageously to produce activated carbons or chars, due to their low cost, availability and intrinsic properties. Because of the nature of the raw material, production of granular activated chars from broiler manure results in a signif...

  12. A Chemical Treatment to Reduce P Desorption From Manure Exposed Fluvial Sediments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current remediation methods for manure spills that have reached surface waters give no attention to the P enriched ditch sediments that remain in the fluvial system and continue to impair the water column. Consequently, no method exists to treat P contaminated sediments to reduce their ability ...

  13. Effects of borax treatment on hydrogen sulfide emissions and sulfate reducing bacteria in stored swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malodorous compounds and emissions produced from stored swine manure can pose both environmental and health issues. These nuisance odors largely result from compounds such as sulfides, volatile fatty acids, and phenols, which are produced as a result of anaerobic digestion of materials present in t...

  14. Antibiotic resistance gene abundances associated with antibiotics and heavy metals in animal manures and agricultural soils adjacent to feedlots in Shanghai; China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiuling; Shen, Qunhui; Liu, Fang; Ma, Jing; Xu, Gang; Wang, Yuanlong; Wu, Minghong

    2012-10-15

    Eight antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), 7 heavy metals, and 6 antibiotics were quantified in manures and soils collected from multiple feedlots in Shanghai. The samples were analyzed to determine if ARG abundances were associated with heavy metal concentration and independent of antibiotics. The results revealed the presence of chloramphenicol, sulfonamides and tetracyclines at concentration ranges of 3.27-17.85, 5.85-33.37 and 4.54-24.66 mg kg(-1), respectively. Typical heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and As, were detected at concentration ranges of 32.3-730.1, 75.9-4333.8, and 2.6-617.2 mg kg(-1). All ARGs tested were detected in the collected samples except tetB(P), which was absent in animal manures. Overall, sulfonamide ARGs were more abundant than tetracycline ARGs. Except for sulII, only a weak positive correlation was found between ARGs and their corresponding antibiotics. On the contrary, significant positive correlations (p<0.05) were found between some ARGs and typical heavy metals. For example, sulA and sulIII were strongly correlated with levels of Cu, Zn and Hg. The data demonstrated that the presence of ARGs was relatively independent of their respective antibiotic inducer. In addition to antibiotics, toxic heavy metals, such as Hg, Cu, and Zn, exerted a strong selection pressure and acted as complementary factors for ARG abundance.

  15. 34 CFR 76.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 76.682 Section 76.682 Education... animals. If a State or a subgrantee uses an animal in a project, the State or subgrantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act of...

  16. 34 CFR 76.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 76.682 Section 76.682 Education... animals. If a State or a subgrantee uses an animal in a project, the State or subgrantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act of...

  17. 34 CFR 76.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 76.682 Section 76.682 Education... animals. If a State or a subgrantee uses an animal in a project, the State or subgrantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act of...

  18. 34 CFR 76.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 76.682 Section 76.682 Education... animals. If a State or a subgrantee uses an animal in a project, the State or subgrantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act of...

  19. 34 CFR 76.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 76.682 Section 76.682 Education... animals. If a State or a subgrantee uses an animal in a project, the State or subgrantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act of...

  20. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2016-01-01

    Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans. PMID:27571092

  1. The Humane Treatment of Animals: A Guide for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    Presented is the New York State guide, for elementary teachers, for the humane treatment of animals. Material is divided into three levels by age: 3-5, 6-8, and 9-11. Included are five topics: house pets, treatment of animals, animals in their natural environment, treatment of animals in school, and open discussion topics. Each topic includes…

  2. 34 CFR 75.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 75.682 Section 75.682 Education... Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.682 Treatment of animals. If a grantee uses an animal in a project, the grantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment...

  3. 34 CFR 75.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 75.682 Section 75.682 Education... Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.682 Treatment of animals. If a grantee uses an animal in a project, the grantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment...

  4. 34 CFR 75.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 75.682 Section 75.682 Education... Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.682 Treatment of animals. If a grantee uses an animal in a project, the grantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment...

  5. 34 CFR 75.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 75.682 Section 75.682 Education... Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.682 Treatment of animals. If a grantee uses an animal in a project, the grantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment...

  6. 34 CFR 75.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 75.682 Section 75.682 Education... Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.682 Treatment of animals. If a grantee uses an animal in a project, the grantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment...

  7. Degradation and behavior of natural steroid hormones in cow manure waste during biological treatments and ozone oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ermawati, Rahyani; Morimura, Shigeru; Tang, Yueqin; Liu, Kai; Kida, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    An efficient treatment process for screened cow manure waste, particularly for the degradation of natural steroid hormones, was developed. The first step in this process was a draw-and-fill process for thermophilic anaerobic digestion. After fourfold dilution with tap water, continuous feeding was performed for the aerobic treatment of the effluent from the anaerobic treatment. Batchwise ozone oxidation was then carried out for the degradation of the natural steroid hormones that remained in the effluent from the aerobic treatment. A yeast two-hybrid assay was performed to evaluate hormonal degradation. Significant reductions in the concentrations of total VFA, BOD(5), COD(Cr), TOC, TS, VSS, and natural steroid hormones were demonstrated in the effluent from the biological treatments. The removal ratios of such concentrations were 99.7%, 90%, 79%, 84%, 51%, 58%, and 99%, respectively. Although the concentrations of the remaining TOC and COD(Cr) remained constant, natural steroid hormones were completely removed by ozone oxidation.

  8. Abundance of 13C and 15N in emmer, spelt and naked barley grown on differently manured soils: towards a method for identifying past manuring practice.

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Marie; Thomsen, Ingrid K; Andersen, Astrid J; Bogaard, Amy; Christensen, Bent T

    2011-10-15

    The shortage of plant-available nutrients probably constrained prehistoric cereal cropping but there is very little direct evidence relating to the history of ancient manuring. It has been shown that the long-term addition of animal manure elevates the δ(15)N value of soil and of modern crops grown on the soil. We have examined the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of soil and of the grain and straw fractions of three ancient cereal types grown in unmanured, PK amended and cattle manured plots of the Askov long-term field experiment. Manure increased biomass yields and the δ(15)N values of soil and of grain and straw fractions of the ancient cereal types; differences in δ(15)N between unmanured and PK treatments were insignificant. The offset in straw and grain δ(15)N due to manure averaged 7.9 and 8.8 ‰, respectively, while the soil offset was 1.9 ‰. The soil and biomass δ(13)C values were not affected by nutrient amendments. Grain weights differed among cereal types but increased in the order: unmanured, PK, and animal manure. The grain and straw total-N concentration was generally not affected by manure addition. Our study suggests that long-term application of manure to permanently cultivated sites would have provided a substantial positive effect on cereals grown in early agriculture and will have left a significant N isotopic imprint on soil, grains and straw. We suggest that the use of animal manure can be identified by the (15)N abundance in remains of ancient cereals (e.g. charred grains) from archaeological sites and by growing test plants on freshly exposed palaeosols.

  9. Emission of odorous volatile organic compounds from a municipal manure treatment plant and their removal using a biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Jun; Wu, Yan-Di; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal manure treatment facilities are considered as a major nuisance issue for operators and nearby residents. In this study, up to 71 odorous VOCs were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at the manure treatment plant. These compounds can be classified into five different categories, including alkanes, olefins, aromatics, volatile organosulphur compounds and terpenes. Toluene, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl sulphide, xylene and ethylbenzene were the five most abundant pollutants. A pilot-scale biotrickling filter (BTF) was employed to treat the complex odorous gases. Correlation analysis showed that the removal efficiency (RE) of the BTF was related with the molecular weight and chemical structure of contaminants. Higher than 85% of REs could be reached for aromatic, terpenes and most alkanes compounds after 180 days of operation. Comparatively, most olefins and partial alkanes compounds with a molecular weight lower than 70 were not removed easily. The REs of these compounds ranged from 0% to 94%, and the average removal efficiency (RE) was only about 33.3%.

  10. Microbial and nutrient stabilization of two animal manures after the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826).

    PubMed

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2009-01-30

    Here we studied how the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eisenia fetida affects the microbial and nutrient stabilization of pig and cow manure, by analyzing fresh casts. Earthworms reduced the pools of dissolved organic C and N in casts from both types of manure, as wells as mineral N. Microbial biomass was enhanced only in casts from pig manure and did not change in casts from cow manure, and fungal populations only raised in casts from cow manure. Earthworms reduced microbial activity in casts from cow manure and did not modify in casts from pig slurry. Enzyme activities in casts also depended on the manure ingested; there were no changes in dehydrogenase and beta-glucosidase activities, whereas acid and alkaline phosphatases increased. The results indicate that the first stage in vermicomposting of pig and cow manure by E. fetida, i.e. casting, produced a microbial stabilization decreasing the activity of microorganisms; this stabilization occurred despite of the increase in microbial biomass. The strong reduction in nutrient pools of manures may be the responsible of this contradiction. These changes will influence the dynamics of the organic matter degradation by reducing forms of C and N available to microorganisms and hence restricting their growth and multiplication. Nevertheless, casts were also characterized by an increased enzyme potential that might lead to a further thorough degradation of pig and cow manure.

  11. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  12. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  13. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  14. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  15. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  16. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  17. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  18. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  19. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  20. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  1. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  2. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  3. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  4. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  5. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  6. Nutrient leaching and soil retention in mined land reclaimed with stabilized manure.

    PubMed

    Dere, Ashlee L; Stehouwer, Richard C; Aboukila, Emad; McDonald, Kirsten E

    2012-01-01

    Two environmental problems in Pennsylvania are degraded mined lands and excess manure nutrients from intensive animal production. Manure could be used in mine reclamation, but the large application rates required for sustained biomass production could result in significant nutrient discharge. An abandoned mine site in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, was used to test manure nutrient stabilization by composting and by mixing with primary paper mill sludge (PMS). Reclamation treatments were lime and fertilizer, composted poultry manure (78 and 156 Mg ha), and poultry manure (50 Mg ha) mixed with PMS (103 and 184 Mg ha) to achieve C-to-N ratios of 20 and 29. Leachates were collected with zero-tension lysimeters, and during 3 yr following amendment application, <1% of added N leached from the compost treatments. The manure+PMS C:N 29 treatment leached more N than any other treatment (393 kg N ha during 3 yr, 12.4 times more N than compost treatments), mostly as pulses of NO in the first two fall seasons following reclamation. The manure+PMS C:N 20 treatment leached 107 kg N ha during 3 yr. Three years after amendment application, most of the N and P added with the manure-based amendments was retained in the mine soil even though net immobilization of N by PMS appeared to be limited to 3 mo following application. Composting or mixing PMS with manure to achieve a C-to-N ratio of 20 can effectively minimize N leaching, retain added N in mine soil, and provide greater improvement in soil quality than lime and fertilizer amendment.

  7. The inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting.

    PubMed

    Monteith, H D; Shannon, E E; Derbyshire, J B

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70 degrees C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  8. Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) waste is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO waste to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluat...

  9. Development of an efficient extraction method for oxytetracycline in animal manure for high performance liquid chromatography analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxytetracycline (2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene- 1,3,12-trione) is a majormember of the tetracycline antibiotics family ofwhich are widely administered to animals in concentrated animal feeding operations for purposes o...

  10. Treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process under a continuous mode operation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Lo, Ing W; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2010-11-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat dairy manure for solubilization of nutrients and organic matters. This study investigated the effectiveness of the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP under a continuous mode of operation, and compared the results to those of batch operations. The main factors affecting solubilization by the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP were heating temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased with an increase of microwave (MW) heating temperature; very high concentrations were obtained at 90°C. Insignificant amounts of ammonia and reducing sugars were released in all runs. An acidic pH condition was required for phosphorus solubilisation from dairy manure. The best yield was obtained at 90°C with an acid dosage of 1.0 %; about 92 % of total phosphorus and 90 % of total chemical oxygen demand were in the soluble forms. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP operated in a continuous operation mode showed pronounced synergistic effects between hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation when compared to a batch system under similar operating conditions, resulting in much better yields.

  11. Manure Spills in Streams: Current Practices and Remediation Methods to Minimize Water Quality Degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure spills into streams are an all too common byproduct of animal production. With greater numbers of animals raised on fewer farms, manure spills become greater problems due to the volume of manure spilled into aquatic ecosystems. This book chapter reviews why manure spills occur, and the curren...

  12. 45 CFR 63.33 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treatment of animals. 63.33 Section 63.33 Public... animals. If animals are utilized in any project receiving assistance, the applicant for such assistance shall provide assurances satisfactory to the Assistant Secretary that such animals will be provided...

  13. 45 CFR 63.33 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treatment of animals. 63.33 Section 63.33 Public... animals. If animals are utilized in any project receiving assistance, the applicant for such assistance shall provide assurances satisfactory to the Assistant Secretary that such animals will be provided...

  14. 45 CFR 63.33 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treatment of animals. 63.33 Section 63.33 Public... animals. If animals are utilized in any project receiving assistance, the applicant for such assistance shall provide assurances satisfactory to the Assistant Secretary that such animals will be provided...

  15. 45 CFR 63.33 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment of animals. 63.33 Section 63.33 Public... animals. If animals are utilized in any project receiving assistance, the applicant for such assistance shall provide assurances satisfactory to the Assistant Secretary that such animals will be provided...

  16. Technical and economical optimization of a full-scale poultry manure treatment process: total ammonia nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Alejo-Alvarez, Luz; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

    2016-11-01

    A full-scale process for the treatment of 80 tons per day of poultry manure was designed and optimized. A total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) balance was performed at steady state, considering the stoichiometry and the kinetic data from the anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic ammonia oxidation. The equipment, reactor design, investment costs, and operational costs were considered. The volume and cost objective functions optimized the process in terms of three variables: the water recycle ratio, the protein conversion during AD, and the TAN conversion in the process. The processes were compared with and without water recycle; savings of 70% and 43% in the annual fresh water consumption and the heating costs, respectively, were achieved. The optimal process complies with the Chilean environmental legislation limit of 0.05 g total nitrogen/L.

  17. On-farm treatment of swine manure based on solid-liquid separation and biological nitrification-denitrification of the liquid fraction.

    PubMed

    Riaño, B; García-González, M C

    2014-01-01

    In some regions, intensive pig farming has led to soil and water pollution due to the over-application of manure as an organic fertilizer, thereby necessitating alternative treatment technologies to help manage the large amounts of manure generated. The present study seeks to determine the effectiveness of an on-farm swine manure treatment plant consisting of a solid-liquid separation phase using screw pressing followed by a coagulation-flocculation process, and nitrification-denitrification of the liquid fraction. Each treatment unit was evaluated for its contribution towards reducing the raw manure concentration of solids, organic matter, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous), metals, and pathogens. The overall system presented high removal efficiencies of up to 71% of TS (total solids) and 97% of TCOD (total chemical oxygen demand). Approximately 97% TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen) and 89% TP (total phosphorous) removal was achieved. Metals (copper and zinc) diminished in the liquid fraction to non-detectable concentrations (<1.0 mg L(-1)). As regards microbial removal, total concentration reductions of 3.6 log10 for Escherichia coli and 1.8 log10 for Salmonella were achieved. Finally, the system was evaluated from a financial standpoint. Results indicate that screw pressing and coagulation-flocculation for solid-liquid separation and nitrification-denitrification of the liquid fraction is a technological alternative for reducing the environmental impact of intensive pig farming in a given area.

  18. Degradation and dissipation of the veterinary ionophore lasalocid in manure and soil.

    PubMed

    Žižek, Suzana; Dobeic, Martin; Pintarič, Štefan; Zidar, Primož; Kobal, Silvestra; Vidrih, Matej

    2015-11-01

    Lasalocid is a veterinary ionophore antibiotic used for prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. It is excreted from the treated animals mostly in its active form and enters the environment with the use of contaminated manure on agricultural land. To properly assess the risk that lasalocid poses to the environment, it is necessary to know its environmental concentrations as well as the rates of its degradation in manure and dissipation in soil. These values are still largely unknown. A research was undertaken to ascertain the rate of lasalocid degradation in manure under different storage conditions (aging in a pile or composting) and on agricultural soil after using lasalocid-contaminated manure. The results have shown that there is considerable difference in lasalocid degradation between aging manure with no treatment (t1/2=61.8±1.7 d) and composting (t1/2=17.5±0.8 d). Half-lives in soil are much shorter (on average 3.1±0.4 d). On the basis of the measured concentrations of lasalocid in soil after manure application, we can conclude that it can potentially be harmful to soil organisms (PEC/PNEC ratio of 1.18), but only in a worst-case scenario of using the maximum permissible amount of manure and immediately after application. To make certain that no harmful effects occur, composting is recommended.

  19. 45 CFR 63.33 - Treatment of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of animals. 63.33 Section 63.33 Public... OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Special Provisions § 63.33 Treatment of... proper care and humane treatment; in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.)...

  20. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  1. Effect of Poultry Manure Amendment on Soil Phosphatase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure has traditionally been used as a fertilizer source. Manure phosphorus (P) exists in many forms, not all of which are immediately available. Microbial and plant-derived phosphatases can mineralize some organic P forms. Increased understanding of effects of manure application on soil p...

  2. Evaluation of a new fixed-bed digester design utilizing large media for flush dairy manure treatment.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Usama; Frear, Craig; Pandey, Paramod; Chen, Shulin

    2008-12-01

    A new anaerobic digester design for the treatment of diluted (<2% solids) flush dairy manure was evaluated. The new design was developed as an economic alternative for enhancing the performance of anaerobic lagoon systems in cold weather areas. The digester employed used automobile tires as fixed-bed media to improve bacterial retention. The digester was heated by steam injection and built underground to enhance insulation. The tires were sorted in a unique pattern for improving mixing and uniform temperature distribution. The system was tested on a pilot-scale. The treatment mechanism was explored by mathematical modeling. The observed treatment efficiency of the new design was comparable to that of conventional digesters operating at higher total solids concentrations (>4%). With a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 17 days, the measured removal rates were 30-50% and 40-60% of TVS and COD, respectively. The new digester maintained longer solids retention time (SRT) as estimated using the model, supported by the observed thick biofilm formation and resistance to hydraulic overload. The model was used to analyze different operation scenarios varying both the organic and hydraulic loads.

  3. Antibiotic uptake by vegetable crops from manure-applied soils.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Hee; Gupta, Satish; Rosen, Carl; Fritz, Vincent; Singh, Ashok; Chander, Yogesh; Murray, Helene; Rohwer, Charlie

    2013-10-23

    This study quantified the uptake of five antibiotics (chlortetracycline, monensin, sulfamethazine, tylosin, and virginiamycin) by 11 vegetable crops in two different soils that were fertilized with raw versus composted turkey and hog manures or inorganic fertilizer. Almost all vegetables showed some uptake of antibiotics from manure treatments. However, statistical testing showed that except for a few isolated treatments the concentrations of all antibiotics in vegetable tissues were generally less than the limits of quantification. Further testing of the significant treatments showed that antibiotic concentrations in vegetables from many of these treatments were not significantly different than the corresponding concentrations from the fertilizer treatment (matrix effect). All five antibiotic concentrations in the studied vegetables were <10 μg kg(-1). On the basis of the standards for maximum residue levels in animal tissues and suggested maximum daily intake based on body weight, this concentration would not pose any health risk unless one is allergic to that particular antibiotic.

  4. Postexposure treatment and animal rabies, Ontario, 1958-2000.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Christopher P; Tinline, Rowland R; Honig, Janet M; Ball, David G A; Hauschildt, Peggy; LeBer, Charles A

    2002-02-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between animal rabies and postexposure treatment (PET) in Ontario by examining the introduction of human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) in 1980 and the initiation of an oral rabies vaccination program for wildlife in 1989. Introducing HDCV led to an immediate doubling of treatments. Both animal rabies and human treatments declined rapidly after the vaccination program was introduced, but human treatments have leveled off at approximately 1,000 per year.

  5. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  6. Effects of liquid swine manure on sorption of 17ß-estradiol to soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogens are potent endocrine disrupting chemicals and can be found in the environment. Animal manure can contain estrogenic hormones, specifically 17'-estradiol (E2). A common manure management practice is to contain liquid manure in a manure storage ponds or lagoons, which is then applied on or i...

  7. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Thais A.; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals world wide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using 2 week old horse manure (control) and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old) to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1–3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size) was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1–5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevundimonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly – microbial interactions. PMID:25426108

  8. 9 CFR 82.7 - Interstate movement of manure and litter from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... litter from a quarantined area. 82.7 Section 82.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Interstate movement of manure and litter from a quarantined area. (a) Manure generated by and litter used by... if: (1) The manure and litter is accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (2)...

  9. Reducing swine farm ammonia emission with a full-scale manure treatment system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new full-scale treatment system in its second-generation was implemented at a 5000-head finishing swine farm in North Carolina to improve treatment lagoon water quality and reduce ammonia emissions. The system combined high-rate solid-liquid separation with nitrogen and phosphorus removal process...

  10. Treatment of E. coli HB101 and the tetM gene by Fenton's reagent and ozone in cow manure.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Murat; Uslu, Merih Otker; Balcioglu, Isil

    2010-12-01

    The destruction of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms at the source of contamination is necessary due to their adverse effects and to their increasingly widespread occurrence in the environment. To address this problem, Fenton and ozone oxidation processes were applied to synthetically contaminated cow manure to remove the tetM gene and its host, Escherichia coli HB101. The efficiency of the processes was evaluated by enumeration of E. coli HB101 and by PCR amplification of the tetM gene. The results of this study show that 56.60% bacterial inactivation (corresponding to a 0.36 log reduction) was achieved by a Fenton reagent dose of 50 mM H(2)O(2) and 5 mM Fe(2+) without acidifying the manure. Despite the high organic content of cow manure, 98.50% bacterial inactivation (corresponding to a 1.83 log reduction) was obtained by the ozonation process with an applied dose of 3.125 mg ozone/g manure slurry. The PCR study revealed that the band intensity of the tetM gene gradually decreased by increasing the Fenton reagent and the applied ozone dose. However, significantly high doses of oxidants would be required to completely eliminate bacterial pollution in manure.

  11. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE, AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND HPLC-ICPMS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes from poultry houses is currently unregulated and poses a potential environmental concern. Determination of roxarsone and its transformation products in chicken manure is necessary to understand their possible impacts on human health and ...

  12. Survival and persistence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soils amended with animal manure in a greenhouse environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological soil amendments (BSA's), including dairy cattle, poultry litter, and horse manure, play an important role in agriculture but may contain pathogens that can contaminate raw or ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable crops that are consumed raw. Proposed FDA standards include a 90- or 120-day inte...

  13. Sustainable treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams in Russia: from laboratory trials to full-scale implementation.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey; Sklyar, Vladimir; Epov, Andrey; Arkhipchenko, Irina; Barboulina, Irina; Orlova, Olga; Kovalev, Alexander; Nozhevnikova, Alla; Klapwijk, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater and resulted in the removal of a significant part of the dry matter, total nitrogen, and phosphorus (65, 27, and 32%, respectively). From the filtrate generated, 60-80% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor operating at 15-30 degrees C. Ammonia was efficiently eliminated (>99%) from the anaerobic effluents using Ural laumantite as an ion exchanger. However, the nitrogen-content of the zeolite was too low to consider this method of ammonia removal economically feasible. The phosphate precipitation block, consisting of stripper of CO2 and fluidized-bed crystallizator, was able to decrease the concentration of soluble phosphate in the anaerobic effluents up to 7-15 mg of phosphate/L. The application of aerobic/anoxic biofilter as a sole polishing step was acceptable from an aesthetic point of view (the effluents were transparent and almost colorless and odorless) and elimination of biochemical oxygen demand (the resting COD was hardly biodegradable). However, the effluent nutrient concentrations (especially nitrogen) were far from the current standards for direct discharge of treated wastewater. We discuss the approaches for further improvement of effluent quality. Finally, we provide an outline of a full-scale system that partially implements the laboratory- and pilotscale results obtained.

  14. Making Use of Manure for a Clean-Up Job

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastes should no longer be wasted. This article describes how animal manure can be utilized by converting it into activated carbons. These activated carbons are then utilized to adsorb unwanted pollutants because of their high porosity. The animal manure will eventually help to remove odors from dr...

  15. Sodium tetraborate decahydrate treatment reduces hydrogen sulfide emissions and the sulfate reducing bacteria population of swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emission of odorous and toxic gases from stored livestock manure is well documented, and poses a serious health risk to farmers and livestock. Hydrogen sulfide emissions have been sharply rising with more intensive livestock production and are of particular concern due to its acute toxicity. Num...

  16. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  17. Extensive Treatment System For Recycling Water For Flushing Fresh Manure And Recovering Nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morand, Philippe; Robin, Paul; Escande, Aurélie; Picot, Bernadette; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Jiangping, Qiu; Yinsheng, Li; Hamon, Gwenn; Amblard, Charlotte; Luth, Fievet, Sébastien; Oudart, Didier; Le Quéré, Camille Pain; Cluzeau, Daniel; Landrain, Brigitte

    2010-11-01

    From preliminary researches on a pilot scale, a complete demonstration plant was built to treat the effluents of a 30 pregnant sow's piggery. It includes a screen, a vermifilter, a macrophyte lagooning, and a complementary water storage pond; the recycled water is used for flushing, and rainfall is collected to compensate for evapotranspiration. After functioning in 2008 and 2009, it was showed that, during the warm season, the whole plant produced an effluent suitable for flushing, where the concentration decrease was over 70% for the phosphorus and potassium, 95% for the COD and nitrogen, 99.8% for endocrine disruptors (estrogenic activity), and 99.99% for pathogenic micro-organisms. During the cold season, the dilution by the rain water and the treatment effect of the constructed wetlands lead to similar results. Nevertheless, for this season, suitable floating macrophytes that will cover the lagoons remain to be settled.

  18. Impacts of a Swine Manure Spill on Fluvial Sediments: Evaluation of an alternative Manure Spill Remediation Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the last decade the frequency of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) manure spills and violations have increased, in conjunction with the increase in the number of animal on each farm and production efficiency. Currently, the conventional remediation method for manure spills focus exc...

  19. Treatment planning for a small animal using Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, James C. L.; Leung, Michael K. K.

    2007-12-15

    The development of a small animal model for radiotherapy research requires a complete setup of customized imaging equipment, irradiators, and planning software that matches the sizes of the subjects. The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate the use of a flexible in-house research environment for treatment planning on small animals. The software package, called DOSCTP, provides a user-friendly platform for DICOM computed tomography-based Monte Carlo dose calculation using the EGSnrcMP-based DOSXYZnrc code. Validation of the treatment planning was performed by comparing the dose distributions for simple photon beam geometries calculated through the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system and measurements. A treatment plan for a mouse based on a CT image set by a 360-deg photon arc is demonstrated. It is shown that it is possible to create 3D conformal treatment plans for small animals with consideration of inhomogeneities using small photon beam field sizes in the diameter range of 0.5-5 cm, with conformal dose covering the target volume while sparing the surrounding critical tissue. It is also found that Monte Carlo simulation is suitable to carry out treatment planning dose calculation for small animal anatomy with voxel size about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the human.

  20. Treatment planning for a small animal using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Chow, James C L; Leung, Michael K K

    2007-12-01

    The development of a small animal model for radiotherapy research requires a complete setup of customized imaging equipment, irradiators, and planning software that matches the sizes of the subjects. The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate the use of a flexible in-house research environment for treatment planning on small animals. The software package, called DOSCTP, provides a user-friendly platform for DICOM computed tomography-based Monte Carlo dose calculation using the EGSnrcMP-based DOSXYZnrc code. Validation of the treatment planning was performed by comparing the dose distributions for simple photon beam geometries calculated through the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system and measurements. A treatment plan for a mouse based on a CT image set by a 360-deg photon arc is demonstrated. It is shown that it is possible to create 3D conformal treatment plans for small animals with consideration of inhomogeneities using small photon beam field sizes in the diameter range of 0.5-5 cm, with conformal dose covering the target volume while sparing the surrounding critical tissue. It is also found that Monte Carlo simulation is suitable to carry out treatment planning dose calculation for small animal anatomy with voxel size about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the human.

  1. Manure on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  2. Animal models for arthritis: innovative tools for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kollias, George; Papadaki, Piyi; Apparailly, Florence; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J; Holmdahl, Rikard; Baumans, Vera; Desaintes, Christian; Di Santo, James; Distler, Jörg; Garside, Paul; Hegen, Martin; Huizinga, Tom W J; Jüngel, Astrid; Klareskog, Lars; McInnes, Iain; Ragoussis, Ioannis; Schett, Georg; Hart, Bert 't; Tak, Paul P; Toes, Rene; van den Berg, Wim; Wurst, Wolfgang; Gay, Steffen

    2011-08-01

    The development of novel treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) requires the interplay between clinical observations and studies in animal models. Given the complex molecular pathogenesis and highly heterogeneous clinical picture of RA, there is an urgent need to dissect its multifactorial nature and to propose new strategies for preventive, early and curative treatments. Research on animal models has generated new knowledge on RA pathophysiology and aetiology and has provided highly successful paradigms for innovative drug development. Recent focus has shifted towards the discovery of novel biomarkers, with emphasis on presymptomatic and emerging stages of human RA, and towards addressing the pathophysiological mechanisms and subsequent efficacy of interventions that underlie different disease variants. Shifts in the current paradigms underlying RA pathogenesis have also led to increased demand for new (including humanised) animal models. There is therefore an urgent need to integrate the knowledge on human and animal models with the ultimate goal of creating a comprehensive 'pathogenesis map' that will guide alignment of existing and new animal models to the subset of disease they mimic. This requires full and standardised characterisation of all models at the genotypic, phenotypic and biomarker level, exploiting recent technological developments in 'omics' profiling and computational biology as well as state of the art bioimaging. Efficient integration and dissemination of information and resources as well as outreach to the public will be necessary to manage the plethora of data accumulated and to increase community awareness and support for innovative animal model research in rheumatology.

  3. Development and application of real-time PCR assays for quantification of erm genes conferring resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B in livestock manure and manure management systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Zhongtang; Michel, Frederick C; Wittum, Thomas; Morrison, Mark

    2007-07-01

    Erythromycin and tylosin are commonly used in animal production, and such use is perceived to contribute to the overall antimicrobial resistance (AR) reservoirs. Quantitative measurements of this type of AR reservoir in microbial communities are required to understand AR ecology (e.g., emergence, persistence, and dissemination). We report here the development, validation, and use of six real-time PCR assays for quantifying six classes of erm genes (classes A through C, F, T, and X) that encode the major mechanism of resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLS(B)). These real-time PCR assays were validated and used in quantifying the six erm classes in five types of samples, including those from bovine manure, swine manure, compost of swine manure, swine waste lagoons, and an Ekokan upflow biofilter system treating hog house effluents. The bovine manure samples were found to contain much smaller reservoirs of each of the six erm classes than the swine manure samples. Compared to the swine manure samples, the composted swine manure samples had substantially reduced erm gene abundances (by up to 7.3 logs), whereas the lagoon or the biofilter samples had similar erm gene abundances. These preliminary results suggest that the methods of manure storage and treatment probably have a substantial impact on the persistence and decline of MLS(B) resistance originating from food animals, thus likely affecting the dissemination of such resistance genes into the environment. The abundances of these erm genes appeared to be positively correlated with those of the tet genes determined previously among these samples. These real-time PCR assays provide a rapid, quantitative, and cultivation-independent measurement of six major classes of erm genes, which should be useful for ecological studies of AR.

  4. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  5. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  6. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  7. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  8. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  9. Treatment, promotion, commotion: Antibiotic alternatives in food-producing animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternatives to antibiotics in animal agriculture are urgently needed but present a complex problem because of their various uses: disease treatment, disease prevention, and feed efficiency improvement. Numerous antibiotic alternatives, such as feed amended with pre- and probiotics, have been propos...

  10. The development of alum rates to enhance the remediation of phosphorus in fluvial systems following manure spills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the remediation of animal manure spills that reach surface waters, contaminated streambed sediments are often left in place and become a source for internal P loading within the stream in subsequent flow. The objective of this study was to develop treatment rates and combinations of alum a...

  11. Utilisation of dried caged-hen manure and cassava peels for intensive sheep production.

    PubMed

    Okeudo, N J; Adegbola, A A

    1993-11-01

    Twenty grower ewes with an average weight of 14.3 +/- 3.7 kg were allotted to 5 dietary treatments. The diets contained 0, 13, 25, 35 and 45% dried caged-hen manure which replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%, respectively of the conventional protein supplements. The animals were fed 55.0 g/w0.75 kg/day of the concentrate food during a 104 days growth study. Air dried cassava peels and water were also provided ad libitum. The differences in average total dry matter intake were not statistically significant. The higher the manure content in the diets, the lower the energy content and the higher the cassava peels intake. No statistical differences were found in growth rates. The efficiency of food conversion decreased progressively though insignificantly. It was concluded that sheep can be fed caged-hen manure as the sole protein supplement in cassava peel based diets.

  12. A full-scale house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae bioconversion system for value-added swine manure reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Zhang, Zhijian; Czapar, George F; Winkler, Mari K H; Zheng, JianGuo

    2013-02-01

    Manure produced from confined animal farms can threaten public and environmental health if not managed properly. Herein, a full-scale commercial bioconversion operation in DeQing County, China for value-added swine manure reduction using house fly, Musca domestica L., larvae is reported. The greenhouse-assisted larvae bioreactor had a maximum daily treatment capacity of 35 m(3) fresh raw manure per day. The bioconversion process produced a fresh larvae yield of 95-120 kg m(3) fresh raw manure. This process provided an alternative animal foodstuff (having 56.9 and 23.8% protein and total fat as dry matter, respectively), as well as captured nutrients for agricultural re-utilization. Bioconversion reduced odour emission (characterized by 3-methylindole) and the Escherichia coli (E. coli) index by 94.5 and 92.0%, respectively, and reductions in total weight, moisture and total Kjeldahl nitrogen in solids were over 67.2, 80.0 and 76.0%, respectively. Yearly profit under this trial period ranged from US$33.4-46.1 per m(3). It is concluded that swine manure larvae bioconversion technology with subsequent production of value-added bio-products can be a promising avenue when considering a programme to reduce waste products in an intensive animal production system.

  13. Animal Study on Primary Dysmenorrhoea Treatment at Different Administration Times

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Bao-Chan; Fang, Ling; Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Rui; Li, Ai-zhu

    2015-01-01

    The new methods of different administration times for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea are more widely used clinically; however, no obvious mechanism has been reported. Therefore, an animal model which is closer to clinical evaluation is indispensable. A novel animal experiment with different administration times, based on the mice oestrous cycle, for primary dysmenorrhoea treatment was explored in this study. Mice were randomly divided into two parts (one-cycle and three-cycle part) and each part includes five groups (12 mice per group), namely, Jingqian Zhitong Fang (JQF) 6-day group, JQF last 3-day group, Yuanhu Zhitong tablet group, model control group, and normal control group. According to the one-way ANOVAs, results (writhing reaction, and PGF2α, PGE2, NO, and calcium ions analysis by ELISA) of the JQF cycle group were in accordance with those of JQF last 3-day group. Similarly, results of three-cycle continuous administration were consistent with those of one-cycle treatment. In conclusion, the consistency of the experimental results illustrated that the novel animal model based on mice oestrous cycle with different administration times is more reasonable and feasible and can be used to explore in-depth mechanism of drugs for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in future. PMID:25705236

  14. Advancing addiction treatment: what can we learn from animal studies?

    PubMed

    Wu, Peter H; Schulz, Kalynn M

    2012-01-01

    Substance addiction is a maladaptive behavior characterized by compulsive and uncontrolled self-administration of a substance (drug). Years of research indicate that addictive behavior is the result of complex interactions between the drug, the user, and the environment in which the drug is used; therefore, addiction cannot simply be attributed to the neurobiological actions of a drug. However, despite the obvious complexity of addictive behavior, animal models have both advanced understanding of addiction and contributed importantly to the development of medications to treat this disease. We briefly review recent animal models used to study drug addiction and the contribution of data generated by these animal models for the clinical treatment of addictive disorders.

  15. Estrogenic activity and nutrient losses in surface runoff after winter manure application to small watersheds.

    PubMed

    Shappell, N W; Billey, L O; Shipitalo, M J

    2016-02-01

    Confined Animal Feeding Operations generate large amounts of wastes that are land-applied to provide nutrients for crop production and return organic matter to the soil. Production practices and storage limitations often necessitate that wastes be applied to frozen and snow-covered soil. Use of application setbacks have reduced concerns related to nutrient losses in surface runoff from manure, but the estrogenic activity of runoff under these conditions has not been evaluated. Therefore, we measured and sampled surface runoff when manure was applied in the winter at a rate to meet crop N needs and measured estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs) using E-Screen. In year one, six small watersheds used to produce corn were evaluated, treatments: 2 no-manure controls, 2 liquid swine manure with 30-m setbacks, and 2 turkey litter with 30-m setbacks. In addition, beef manure was applied to six frozen plots of forage. For years 2 and 3, applications were repeated on the swine manure watersheds and one control watershed. E2Eqs and nutrient concentrations generally peaked in the first runoff event after application. The highest measured E2Eq (5.6 ng L(-1)) was in the first event after swine manure application and was less than the 8.9 ng L(-1) Lowest Observable Effect Concentration (LOEC) for aquatic species and well below the concentrations measured in other studies using ELISAs to measure hormone concentrations. No runoff occurred from plots planted with forage, indicating low risk for environmental impact, and therefore plots were discontinued from study. In years 2 and 3, estrogenic activity never exceeded the Predicted No Effect Concentrations for E2 of 2 ng L(-1). When post-application runoff contained high estrogenic activity, strong correlations (R(2) 0.86 to 0.96) of E2Eq to Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) concentrations were observed, indicating under some condition these cations might be useful surrogates for E2Eq measurements.

  16. Research on animal laser varicose treatment in CIOMP, CAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Laiming; Li, Dianjun; Lu, Qipeng; Yang, Guilong; Guo, Jin

    2007-05-01

    The work on laser varicose treatment carried out in CIOMP, CAS cooperating with The First Clinical Hospital, Jilin University is summarized. Dozens of animal experiments adopting dog and rabbit samples are made in a long time of several years. Different lasers are used, including long pulse frequency-doubled Nd:YAG(532nm) and semiconductor laser(808nm). Dozens of animal experiments show that laser has good efficacy to occlude the vein vessels. It has precise adjustability and relatively short treatment time only needing outpatient office setting with high cost and effect rate; It provides minimal invasion, often under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation thereby eliminating the need for general anesthesia, greatly shortens postoperative recovery term, and it is highly safe with no side effects and no serious complications.

  17. Solubility of manure phosphorus characterized by selective and sequential extractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing awareness of the severity of the problem of phosphorus (P) derived from agricultural production moving off-farm and threatening water quality has led to the search for methods to characterize the forms and potential solubilities of phosphorus in food animal manures and manure products...

  18. Protecting water quality by developing subsurface application technology for dry manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure provides a rich source of crop nutrients, but applying manure on the soil surface can result in significant nutrient losses that degrade water quality and accelerate the eutrophication process. Because surface-applied manure is completely exposed to the atmosphere, runoff water can tr...

  19. Effects of field-manure applications on stratified 17B-estradiol concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The estrogenic hormone, 17'-estradiol (E2), is a potent endocrine disrupting compound found in animal manures. The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of manure-borne E2 stratified through soil in fields that receive swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure slurry as fertilizer. Soil cor...

  20. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: Laboratory-scale study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does no...

  1. Manure-DNDC: a biogeochemical process model for quantifying greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from livestock manure systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From the point of view of biogeochemistry, manure is a complex of organic matter containing minor minerals. When manure is excreted by animals, it undergoes a series of reactions such as decomposition, hydrolysis, ammonia volatilization, nitrification, denitrification, and fermentation from which ca...

  2. Clinical translation of animal models of treatment relapse.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Mace, F Charles; Penney, Heather; Harris, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Behavioral Momentum Theory (BMT) has inspired animal models of treatment relapse. We translated the models of reinstatement and resurgence into clinical procedures to test whether relapse tests would replicate behavior pattern found in basic research. Following multiple schedule baseline reinforcement of a 16-year-old male's problem behavior at equal rates by two therapists, treatment was introduced using a variable-interval, variable-time (VI VT) schedule arrangement with therapists delivering reinforcers at different rates. Despite the differing rates of VI VT reinforcers, the treatment produced comparable reductions in problem behavior. Following successful treatment, the two therapists discontinued treatment and resumed reinforcement of problem behavior at equal rates that constituted a reinstatement of baseline conditions. As predicted by BMT, reinstatement resulted in an immediate return of high rates of problem behavior but was 2.6 times higher for the therapist using the higher rate VI VT treatment. A second treatment phase was implemented followed by a test of resurgence in a single extended extinction session conducted separately for each therapist. The unequal VI VT treatment rates by therapists resulted in 2.1 times greater responding in the resurgence test for the therapist who implemented the higher rate VI VT procedure. These results are consistent with basic research studies and BMT.

  3. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  4. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  5. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  6. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  7. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  8. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  9. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    PubMed

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  10. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets..., AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.22 Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may...

  11. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets..., AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.22 Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may...

  12. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets..., AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.22 Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may...

  13. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets..., AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.22 Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may...

  14. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets..., AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.22 Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may...

  15. Anaerobic digestion of nitrogen rich poultry manure: Impact of thermophilic biogas process on metal release and microbial resistances.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Reshma; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Krakat, Niclas

    2017-02-01

    Poultry manure is a nitrogen rich fertilizer, which is usually recycled and spread on agricultural fields. Due to its high nutrient content, chicken manure is considered to be one of the most valuable animal wastes as organic fertilizer. However, when chicken litter is applied in its native form, concerns are raised as such fertilizers also include high amounts of antibiotic resistant pathogenic Bacteria and heavy metals. We studied the impact of an anaerobic thermophilic digestion process on poultry manure. Particularly, microbial antibiotic resistance profiles, mobile genetic elements promoting the resistance dissemination in the environment as well as the presence of heavy metals were focused in this study. The initiated heat treatment fostered a community shift from pathogenic to less pathogenic bacterial groups. Phenotypic and molecular studies demonstrated a clear reduction of multiple resistant pathogens and self-transmissible plasmids in the heat treated manure. That treatment also induced a higher release of metals and macroelements. Especially, Zn and Cu exceeded toxic thresholds. Although the concentrations of a few metals reached toxic levels after the anaerobic thermophilic treatment, the quality of poultry manure as organic fertilizer may raise significantly due to the elimination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and self-transmissible plasmids.

  16. Co-addition of manure increases the dissipation rates of tylosin A and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yong-De; Liao, Xin-Di; Liang, Juan-Boo; Xin, Wen; Wu, Yin-Bao

    2015-09-15

    The behavior of veterinary antibiotics in the soil is commonly studied using the following methods to add antibiotics to the soil: (A) adding manure collected from animals fed a diet that includes antibiotics; (B) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics; and (C) the direct addition of antibiotics. However, most studies have only used methods (B) and (C) in their research, and few studies have simultaneously compared the different antibiotic addition methods. This study used tylosin A (TYLA) as a model antibiotic to compare the effects of these three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on the dissipation rates of TYLA and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed that the three treatment methods produced similar TYLA degradation trends; however, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the TYLA degradation half-life (t1/2) among the three methods. The half-life of TYLA degradation in treatments A, B and C was 2.44 ± 0.04, 1.21 ± 0.03 and 5.13 ± 0.11 days, respectively. The presence of manure resulted in a higher electrical conductivity (EC), higher relative abundance of Citrobacter amalonaticus, higher macrolide resistant gene (ermB, ermF and ermT) count and lower ecological toxicity in the soil, which could partially explain the higher TYLA degradation rate in the treatments containing manure. The higher degradation rate of TYLA in treatment B when compared to treatment A could be due to the lower concentrations of tylosin B (TYLB) and tylosin D (TYLD). The main route for veterinary antibiotics to enter the soil is via the manure of animals that have been administered antibiotics. Therefore, the more appropriate method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in the soil is by using manure from animals fed/administered the particular antibiotic rather than by adding the antibiotic directly to the soil.

  17. Manure Refinement Affects Apple Rhizosphere Bacterial Community Structure: A Study in Sandy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Jian; Liu, Songzhong; Wei, Qinping

    2013-01-01

    We used DNA-based pyrosequencing to characterize the bacterial community structure of the sandy soil of an apple orchard with different manure ratios. Five manure percentages (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were examined. More than 10,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate. The communities were composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes), of which Proteobacteria content gradually decreased from 41.38% to 37.29% as manure ratio increased from 0% to 25%, respectively. Redundancy analysis showed that 37 classes were highly correlated with manure ratio, 18 of which were positively correlated. Clustering revealed that the rhizosphere samples were grouped into three components: low manure (control, 5%) treatment, medium manure (10%, 15%) treatment and high manure (20%, 25%) treatment. Venn analysis of species types of these three groups revealed that the bacteria community difference was primarily reflected by quantity ratio rather than species variety. Although greater manure content led to higher soil organic matter content, the medium manure improved soil showed the highest urease activity and saccharase activity, while 5% to 20% manure ratio improvement also resulted in higher bacteria diversity than control and 25% manure ratio treatment. Our experimental results suggest that the use of a proper manure ratio results in significantly higher soil enzyme activity and different bacteria community patterns, whereas the use of excessive manure amounts has negative effect on soil quality. PMID:24155909

  18. Characterization of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Kedar

    Emission of gases, odor, and particulate matters from livestock manure is a major concern because of their potential adverse environmental impacts. For example, ammonia in the air has the potential to: negatively affect animal, human health and environment. Mitigation of ammonia emissions from livestock manure to protect animal and human health, and the environment, in general, is thus an important agenda for livestock producers, engineers, and environmental scientists. Proper understanding of the mechanisms or process of its volatilization from manure is the first step towards designing or formulating appropriate emissions mitigation strategies. This research investigated the effects of suspended solids, anaerobic digestion, and ionic strength on the ammonia (NH3) volatilization mechanism from liquid dairy manure. Experiments were conducted to: (i) assess the role of suspended solids characteristics on ammonia volatilization, (ii) evaluate the impacts of anaerobic digestion on the process governing NH 3 volatilization, and (iii) delineate the influences of suspended solids (SS) and ionic strength (IS) on the ammonia volatilization process from dairy manure. Two key parameters (the ammonia dissociation and the overall mass transfer coefficient (KoL)) that govern ammonia volatilization were evaluated to achieve these objectives. The physical and chemical properties of manure were also evaluated to further elucidate the respective processes. The suspended solids ammoniacal nitrogen adsorption properties did not significantly affect either the ammonium dissociation or the K oL; suggesting that the characteristics of manure suspended solids did not play a significant role in ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure. The dissociation of ammonium in anaerobically digested (AD) manure was significantly higher than in the undigested (UD) manure. However, KoL was less in AD manure than in UD manure, while an increase in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was observed

  19. Addition of cattle manure to sheep bedding allows vermicomposting process and improves vermicompost quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antonio de Mendonça; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Rozatti, Marcos A T; Martins, Marcos F Leal

    2017-03-01

    Animal waste is usually a good substrate for vermicomposting. However, numerous animal husbandry systems use bedding that consists primarily of lignocellulosic substrates, which hinders earthworm and microorganism's development and thus, the entire bioconversion process. One possible solution is to mix the used bedding with other waste materials that are more amenable to earthworm ingestion and can provide better conditions for earthworm population growth. Here, we have aimed to examine the effectiveness of such procedure by mixing rice-husk-based sheep bedding with cattle manure in different proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). We have carried out vermicomposting experiments in benchtop vermireactors inoculated with 0.88kg of dry matter (sheep bedding+cattle manure). Data used in the Principal Component Analysis were the multiple vermicomposting variables (i.e., EC; pH; HA/FA and C/N ratios; P, K, cellulose, and hemicellulose content). The effect of the treatment on earthworm count was analyzed with ANOVA. We have observed that the addition of at least 25% of cattle manure to sheep bedding allows vermicomposting process but it is necessary 148days to obtain a stabilized vermicompost. However, increasing the proportion of cattle manure to sheep bedding, the vermicomposting time decreases proportionally to 94days. We concluded that vermicomposting can be considered a bioprocess to stabilize rice husk after being used as sheep bedding.

  20. Manure use on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to alfalfa is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can improve yield and performance of t...

  1. Short chain nitrocompounds as a treatment of layer hen manure and litter; effects on in vitro survivability of Salmonella, generic E. coli, and nitrogen metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Layer hen manure and litter contain appreciable amounts of uric acid, which makes these good crude protein sources for ruminants. Rumen microbial populations can upgrade the nitrogen in uric acid into high quality microbial protein of nutritional value to the host. Layer hen manure and litter can ...

  2. Size distributions of manure particles released under simulated rainfall.

    PubMed

    Pachepsky, Yakov A; Guber, Andrey K; Shelton, Daniel R; McCarty, Gregory W

    2009-03-01

    Manure and animal waste deposited on cropland and grazing lands serve as a source of microorganisms, some of which may be pathogenic. These microorganisms are released along with particles of dissolved manure during rainfall events. Relatively little if anything is known about the amounts and sizes of manure particles released during rainfall, that subsequently may serve as carriers, abode, and nutritional source for microorganisms. The objective of this work was to obtain and present the first experimental data on sizes of bovine manure particles released to runoff during simulated rainfall and leached through soil during subsequent infiltration. Experiments were conducted using 200 cm long boxes containing turfgrass soil sod; the boxes were designed so that rates of manure dissolution and subsequent infiltration and runoff could be monitored independently. Dairy manure was applied on the upper portion of boxes. Simulated rainfall (ca. 32.4 mm h(-1)) was applied for 90 min on boxes with stands of either live or dead grass. Electrical conductivity, turbidity, and particle size distributions obtained from laser diffractometry were determined in manure runoff and soil leachate samples. Turbidity of leachates and manure runoff samples decreased exponentially. Turbidity of manure runoff samples was on average 20% less than turbidity of soil leachate samples. Turbidity of leachate samples from boxes with dead grass was on average 30% less than from boxes with live grass. Particle size distributions in manure runoff and leachate suspensions remained remarkably stable after 15 min of runoff initiation, although the turbidity continued to decrease. Particles had the median diameter of 3.8 microm, and 90% of particles were between 0.6 and 17.8 microm. The particle size distributions were not affected by the grass status. Because manure particles are known to affect transport and retention of microbial pathogens in soil, more information needs to be collected about the

  3. Dissecting OCD Circuits: From Animal Models to Targeted Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ahmari, Susanne E.; Dougherty, Darin D.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic, severe mental illness with up to 2–3% prevalence worldwide, which has been classified as one of the world’s 10 leading causes of illness-related disability according to the World Health Organization, largely because of the chronic nature of disabling symptoms 1. Despite the severity and high prevalence of this chronic and disabling disorder, there is still relatively limited understanding of its pathophysiology. However, this is now rapidly changing due to development of powerful technologies that can be used to dissect the neural circuits underlying pathologic behaviors. In this article, we describe recent technical advances that have allowed neuroscientists to start identifying the circuits underlying complex repetitive behaviors using animal model systems. In addition, we review current surgical and stimulation-based treatments for OCD that target circuit dysfunction. Finally, we discuss how findings from animal models may be applied in the clinical arena to help inform and refine targeted brain stimulation-based treatment approaches. PMID:25952989

  4. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  5. Influence of pH on hydrothermal treatment of swine manure: Impact on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus in process water.

    PubMed

    Ekpo, U; Ross, A B; Camargo-Valero, M A; Fletcher, L A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the influence of pH on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus from swine manure following hydrothermal treatment. Conditions include thermal hydrolysis (TH) at 120°C and 170°C, and hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) at 200°C and 250°C in either water alone or in the presence of 0.1M NaOH, H2SO4, CH3COOH or HCOOH. Phosphorus extraction is pH and temperature dependent and is enhanced under acidic conditions. The highest level of phosphorus is extracted using H2SO4 reaching 94% at 170°C. The phosphorus is largely retained in the residue for all other conditions. The extraction of nitrogen is not as significantly influenced by pH, although the maximum N extraction is achieved using H2SO4. A significant level of organic-N is extracted into the process waters following hydrothermal treatment. The results indicate that operating hydrothermal treatment in the presence of acidic additives has benefits in terms of improving the extraction of phosphorus and nitrogen.

  6. Effects of water treatment residuals and coal combustion byproduct amendments on properties of a sandy soil and impact on crop production – A pot experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Byproducts of coal combustion (such as fly ash: FA), livestock industry (such as chicken manure: CM, or animal manure, etc), or water treatment residuals (such as sewage sludge: SS, or incinerated sewage sludge: ISS) can be used as amendments to agricultural soils, provided that these byproducts (ap...

  7. Short chain nitrocompounds as a treatment of layer hen manure and litter; effects on in vitro survivability of Salmonella, generic E. coli and nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Barrera, Oscar; Anderson, Robin C; Hume, Michael E; Corrales-Millan, Jonatan; Castillo-Castillo, Yamicela; Corral-Luna, Agustin; Guevara-Valdez, Jose Luis; Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Rodriguez-Muela, Carlos; Arzola-Alvarez, Claudio

    2017-01-02

    The current study was conducted to assess the bactericidal effectiveness of several nitrocompounds against pathogens in layer hen manure and litter. Evidence from an initial study indicated that treatment of layer hen manure with 12 mM nitroethane decreased populations of generic E. coli and total coliforms by 0.7 and 2.2 log10 colony forming units (CFU) g(-1), respectively, after 24 h aerobic incubation at ambient temperature when compared to untreated populations. Salmonella concentrations were unaffected by nitroethane in this study. In a follow-up experiment, treatment of 6-month-old layer hen litter (mixed with 0.4 mL water g(-1)) with 44 mM 2-nitroethanol, 2-nitropropanol or ethyl nitroacetate decreased an inoculated Salmonella typhimurium strain from its initial concentration (3 log10 CFU g(-1)) by 0.7 to 1.7 log10 CFU g(-1) after 6 h incubation at 37°C in covered containers. After 24 h incubation, populations of the inoculated S. Typhmiurium in litter treated with 44 mM 2-nitroethanol, 2-nitropropanol, ethyl nitroacetate or nitroethane were decreased more than 3.2 log10 CFU g(-1) compared to populations in untreated control litter. Treatment of litter with 44 mM 2-nitroethanol, 2-nitropropanol, ethyl nitroacetate decreased rates of ammonia accumulation more than 70% compared to untreated controls (0.167 µmol mL(-1) h(-1)) and loses of uric acid (< 1 µmol mL(-1)) were observed only in litter treated with 44 mM 2-nitropropanol, indicating that some of these nitrocompounds may help prevent loss of nitrogen in treated litter. Results warrant further research to determine if these nitrocompounds can be developed into an environmentally sustainable and safe strategy to eliminate pathogens from poultry litter, while preserving its nitrogen content as a nutritionally valuable crude protein source for ruminants.

  8. Cellulose decomposition and larval biomass production from the co-digestion of dairy manure and chicken manure by mini-livestock (Hermetia illucens L.).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Kashif Ur; Cai, Minmin; Xiao, Xiaopeng; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Hui; Soomro, Abdul Aziz; Zhou, Yusha; Li, Wu; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Jibin

    2017-03-22

    World trends toward the modern dairies intensification on large production units cause massive animal manure production and accumulation. Improper handling of manure produced by industrial farm operation greatly deteriorates the major environmental media including air, water and soil. The black soldier fly utilizes organic waste and converts it into larvae biomass to be used as livestock feed and into residues to be used as bio-fertilizer. However, due to the high ratio of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in dairy manure, this conversion is difficult. Therefore, dairy manure treated with chicken manure was digested by Hermetia illucens. In this paper, we found that the co-digestion process significantly enhanced the larval production, waste mass reduction, rate of larvae conversion, feed conversion ratio, nutrient reduction and fibers utilization. Whereas 40% dairy manure and 60% chicken manure group show better results than other manure mixtures and had a significantly increased the cellulose consumption by 61.19%, hemicellulose consumption by 53.22% and lignin consumption by 42.23% compared with 49.89%, 49.77% and 31.95%, respectively, in the dairy-only manure group. Finally, scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the structural changes of dairy manure, chicken manure and their co-digestion mixtures. The scan electron microscopy showed the deterioration in the structure of dairy and chicken manure fibers by Hermetia illucens. Moreover, the carbon-nitrogen ratio was decreased in all end products of post vermicomposting. The results suggest that the co-digestion of 40% dairy manure with 60% chicken manure is an appropriate proportion for dairy manure management with the black soldier fly.

  9. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE. AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND UHPLC -ICPMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic animal-feed additives have been extensively used in the United States for their growth- promoting and disease-controlling properties. In particular most broiler chickens are fed roxarsone(3- nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) to control coccidiosis. Disposal of the result...

  10. Two new designs for manure solids and liquids sampling from tank, pit, and lagoons at various depths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of animal manure slurry storage structures and the spatially heterogeneous nature of manure within the storage structure present a difficult challenge to researchers studying the composition and activities within manure storage systems. The objective of this study was to design and...

  11. County-based estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal manure in the United States for 1982, 1987, and 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, Larry; Hitt, Kerie; Alexander, Richard

    1998-01-01

    names that correspond to the FIPS codes. 2. Tabular component - Nine tab-delimited ASCII lookup tables of animal counts and nutrient estimates organized by 5-digit state/county FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standards) code. Another table lists the county names that correspond to the FIPS codes. The use of trade names is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  12. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms.

  13. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  14. Impact of colistin sulfate treatment of broilers on the presence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes in stored or composted manure.

    PubMed

    Le Devendec, Laetitia; Mourand, Gwenaelle; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Léaustic, Julien; Jouy, Eric; Keita, Alassane; Couet, William; Rousset, Nathalie; Kempf, Isabelle

    2016-10-15

    The application of manure may result in contamination of the environment with antimicrobials, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, resistance genes and plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the administration of colistin and of manure management on (i) the presence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and (ii) the prevalence of various antimicrobial resistance genes in feces and in composted or stored manure. One flock of chickens was treated with colistin at the recommended dosage and a second flock was kept as an untreated control. Samples of feces, litter and stored or composted manure from both flocks were collected for isolation and determination of the colistin-susceptibility of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa and quantification of genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobials. The persistence of plasmids in stored or composted manure from colistin-treated broilers was also evaluated by plasmid capturing experiments. Results revealed that colistin administration to chickens had no apparent impact on the antimicrobial resistance of the dominant Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa populations in the chicken gut. Composting stimulated an apparently limited decrease in genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobial families. Importantly, it was shown that even after six weeks of composting or storage, plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes could still be transferred to a recipient E. coli. In conclusion, composting is insufficient to completely eliminate the risk of spreading antimicrobial resistance through chicken manure.

  15. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S O; Blanchard, M; Chadwick, D; Del Prado, A; Edouard, N; Mosquera, J; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found.

  16. Effect of solid separation and composting on the energy content of swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure represents a significant source of renewable bioenergy. In order to utilize current thermochemical energy conversion processes, a dry material (more than 90% total solids) is recommended. Solid-liquid separation can serve as a useful pretreatment of animal manure as a dewatering tool. ...

  17. Characterization of antibiotic resistant (AR) fecal indicators in runoff from fields amended with swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of animal manures to agricultural soil is a widespread practice. One concern associated with food animal manures is the introduction of antibiotic drugs, AR bacteria, and AR genes that may be spread through and across agroecosystems, with the potential to adversely impact the treatm...

  18. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy.

    PubMed

    De Vries, J W; Groenestein, C M; De Boer, I J M

    2012-07-15

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer. Five environmental impact categories were quantified using life cycle assessment: climate change (CC), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD). For pig as well as dairy cattle manure, we compared a scenario with the processing method and a scenario with additional anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction to a reference situation applying only liquid manure. Comparisons were based on a functional unit of 1 ton liquid manure. System boundaries were set from the manure storage under the animal house to the field application of all end products. Scenarios with only manure processing increased the environmental impact for most impact categories compared to the reference: ME did not change, whereas, TA and PMF increased up to 44% as a result of NH3 and NO(x) emissions from processing and storage of solid fraction. Including digestion reduced CC by 117% for pig manure and 104% for dairy cattle manure, mainly because of substituted electricity and avoided N2O emission from storage of solid fraction. FFD decreased by 59% for pig manure and increased 19% for dairy cattle manure. TA and PMF remained higher compared to the reference. Sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emission from manure storage, NH3 emission from processing, and the replaced nitrogen

  19. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... materials or other materials commingled with manure or set aside for disposal. (6) Medium concentrated..., treatment, or disposal of mortalities. (9) Small concentrated animal feeding operation (“Small CAFO”). An... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Concentrated animal feeding...

  20. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... materials or other materials commingled with manure or set aside for disposal. (6) Medium concentrated..., treatment, or disposal of mortalities. (9) Small concentrated animal feeding operation (“Small CAFO”). An... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Concentrated animal feeding...

  1. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  2. Evaluation of probiotic treatment in a neonatal animal model.

    PubMed

    Lee, D J; Drongowski, R A; Coran, A G; Harmon, C M

    2000-01-01

    The clinical use of probiotic agents such as enteral Lactobacillus to enhance intestinal defense against potential luminal pathogens has been tested in vivo; however, an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed protection is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus on bacterial translocation (BT) in a neonatal animal model. Newborn New Zealand white rabbit pups were enterally fed a 10% Formulac solution inoculated with or without a 10(8) suspension of ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli K1 (E. coli K1A) and/or Lactobacillus casei GG (Lacto GG). Pups received either no bacteria (n = 10), Lacto GG (n = 8), E. coli K1A (n = 26), or a combination of Lacto GG and E. coli K1A (n = 33). On day 3, representative tissue specimens from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen (SPL), and liver (LIV) were aseptically harvested in addition to a small-bowel (SB) sample that was rinsed to remove luminal contents. The specimens were then cultured in organism-specific media. Statistical analysis was by one-way ANOVA with P values less than 0.05 considered significant. Neonatal rabbits receiving Lacto GG-supplemented formula exhibited a 25% decrease (P < 0.05) in small-bowel colonization by E. coli K1A. In addition, Lacto GG decreased the frequency of extraintestinal BT by 46% (P < 0.05), 61% (P < 0.05), and 23%, respectively, in the MLN, SPL, and LIV. We have shown that enterally-administered Lacto GG decreases the frequency of E. coli K1A translocation in a neonatal rabbit model. These results may have significant implications for the treatment of BT and sepsis in the human neonate and provide a model for further studies.

  3. Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.

    PubMed

    Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH₃-N, TN, COD, and PO₄-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study.

  4. Salmonella survival in manure-treated soils during simulated seasonal temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Holley, Richard A; Arrus, Katia M; Ominski, Kimberly H; Tenuta, Mario; Blank, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Addition of animal manure to soil can provide opportunity for Salmonella contamination of soil, water, and food. This study examined how exposure of hog manure-treated loamy sand and clay soils to different simulated seasonal temperature sequences influenced the length of Salmonella survival. A six-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Agona, Hadar, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Oranienburg, and Typhimurium) was added to yield 5 log cfu/g directly to about 5 kg of the two soils and moisture adjusted to 60 or 80% of field capacity (FC). Similarly, the Salmonella cocktail was mixed with fresh manure slurry from a hog nursery barn and the latter added to the two soils at 25 g/kg to achieve 5 log cfu/g Salmonella. Manure was mixed either throughout the soil or with the top kilogram of soil and the entire soil volume was adjusted to 60 or 80% FC. Soil treatments were stored 180 d at temperature sequences representing winter to summer (-18, 4, 10, 25 degrees C), spring to summer (4, 10, 25, 30 degrees C), or summer to winter (25, 10, 4, -18 degrees C) seasonal periods with each temperature step lasting 45 d. Samples for Salmonella recovery by direct plating or enrichment were taken at 0, 7, and 15 d post-inoculation and thereafter at 15-d intervals to 180 d. Salmonella numbers decreased during application to soil and the largest decreases occurred within the first week. Higher soil moisture, manure addition, and storage in the clay soil increased Salmonella survival. Salmonella survived longest (> or = 180 d) in both soils during summer-winter exposure but was not isolated after 160 d from loamy sand soil exposed to other seasonal treatments. For all but one treatment decimal reduction time (DRT45d) values calculated from the first 45 d after application were < or = 30 d and suggested that a 30-d delay between field application of manure in the spring or fall and use of the land would provide reasonable assurance that crop and animal contamination by Salmonella would be

  5. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and Animal...; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. Cars and other vehicles, and...

  6. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and Animal..., and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. Cars and...

  7. Transport of microorganisms in the presence and absence of manure suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, S. A.; Tadassa, Y.; Bettahar, M.

    2004-12-01

    Wash water and storm water runoff from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) frequently contain manure and a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasite pathogens. Column experiments were conducted to elucidate the transport behavior of representative microbes (coliphage, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Giardia cysts) through several aquifer sands in the presence and absence of manure suspensions. Specific factors that were considered include the soil grain size distribution, the presence and absence of manure suspensions, and manure size distribution. Effluent concentration curves and the final spatial distributions of microorganisms and manure particles were measured. Increasing the microbe size and decreasing the median grain size of the sand resulted in low effluent concentrations and increased retention of the microbes, especially in the sand near the column inlet. Similar transport trends were observed for the manure suspensions in these sands. The spatial distributions of retained microbes and manure were generally not consistent with predictions from conventional attachment, detachment, and blocking models; but rather with straining. The transport potential of the microbes was sometimes enhanced in the presence of manure suspensions. This observation, as well transport and retention data for manure suspensions, suggest that manure components filled straining sites and inhibited microbe retention. Differences in the surface charge properties of clean and manure equilibrated microbes (presumably due to adsorption of organic components from the suspension) may also influence transport behavior.

  8. Nitrogen potential recovery and concentration of ammonia from swine manure using electrodialysis coupled with air stripping.

    PubMed

    Ippersiel, D; Mondor, M; Lamarche, F; Tremblay, F; Dubreuil, J; Masse, L

    2012-03-01

    The practice of intensive animal production in certain areas has resulted in excessive manure production for the available regional land base. Consequently, there is a need to develop treatment technologies to recover the valuable nutrients that manure contains so that the resulting product can be transported and used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The project presented here used electrodialysis in a dilution/concentration configuration to transfer the manure ammonia in the diluate solution by electromigration to an adjacent solution separated by an ion-exchange membrane under the driving force of an electrical potential. Then, air stripping from the electrodialysis-obtained concentrate solution without pH modification was used to isolate the ammonia in an acidic solution. An optimal process operating voltage of 17.5 V was first determined on the basis of current efficiency and total energy consumption. During the process, the swine manure pH varied from 8.5 to 8.2, values favourable for NH(4)(+) electromigration. Total ammonia nitrogen reached 21,352 mg/L in the concentrate solution, representing approximately seven times the concentration in the swine manure. Further increases in concentration were limited by water transfer from the diluate solution due to electroosmosis and osmosis. Applying vacuum to the concentrate reservoir was found to be more efficient than direct concentrate solution aeration for NH(3) recuperation in the acid trap, given that the ammonia recuperated under vacuum represented 14.5% of the theoretical value of the NH(3) present in the concentrate solution as compared to 6.2% for aeration. However, an excessively low concentrate solution pH (8.6-8.3) limited NH(3)volatilization toward the acid trap. These results suggest that the concentrate solution pH needs to be raised to promote the volatile NH(3) form of total ammonia nitrogen.

  9. Animal-to-Human Dose Translation of Obiltoxaximab for Treatment of Inhalational Anthrax Under the US FDA Animal Rule.

    PubMed

    Nagy, C F; Mondick, J; Serbina, N; Casey, L S; Carpenter, S E; French, J; Guttendorf, R

    2017-01-01

    Obiltoxaximab, a monoclonal antibody against protective antigen (PA), is approved for treatment of inhalational anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Animal Rule. The human dose was selected and justified by comparing observed obiltoxaximab exposures in healthy and infected New Zealand White rabbits and cynomolgus macaques to observed exposures in healthy humans, to simulated exposures in healthy and infected humans, and to serum PA levels in infected animals. In humans, at 16 mg/kg intravenous, obiltoxaximab AUC was >2 times that in animals, while maximum serum concentrations were comparable to those in animals and were maintained in excess of the concentration required for PA neutralization in infected animals for 2-3 weeks. Obiltoxaximab 16 mg/kg in humans provided exposure beyond that of 16 mg/kg in animals, ensuring a sufficient duration of PA neutralization to allow for adaptive immunity development. Our approach to dose translation may be applicable to other agents being developed under the Animal Rule.

  10. Origins and identities of key manure odor components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odor is just one of many environmental issues associated with animal manures. Odor arises from a number of different locations in animal production systems, but the chemistry and biochemical origin is similar across sites. A complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and inorganic compoun...

  11. Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Adriana; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Borowski, Sebastian; Bakuła, Tadeusz; Opaliński, Sebastian; Kołacz, Roman; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure and inhalation of odorous compounds from poultry manure can be harmful to farm workers and the surrounding residents as well as animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity and IC50 values of common odorous compounds such as ammonium, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, butyric acid, phenol, and indole in the chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH (Leghorn Male Hepatoma), in vitro, using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and PrestoBlue cytotoxicity assays. The cells were microscopically examined for any morphological changes post treatment. Dimethylamine exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect on LMH cells with an IC50 value of 0.06% and 0.04% after an exposure of 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Both ammonium and trimethylamine had comparable cytotoxicity and their IC50 values were 0.08% and 0.04% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Of note, indole had the lowest cytotoxicity as the majority of cells were viable even after 72 h exposure. Thus, the IC50 for indole was not calculated. Results achieved from both MTT and PrestoBlue assays were comparable. Moreover, the morphological changes induced by the tested odours in LMH cells resulted in monolayer destruction, cytoplasm vacuolisation, chromatin condensation, and changes in nucleus and cell shape. Our study showed harmful effects of odorous compounds in chick tissues. PMID:27792203

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  13. Combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannins treatment to reduce hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock producers are acutely aware for the need to reduce gaseous emissions from stored livestock waste and have been trying to identify new technologies to address the chronic problem. Besides the malodor issue, toxic gases emitted from stored livestock manure, especially hydrogen sulfide (H2S)...

  14. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberle, E.

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  15. Ammonia and greenhouse gas concentrations at surfaces of simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedding is used in livestock operations to facilitate manure management and provide comfort for the animal. The research objective was to determine differences in ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) concentrations from simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs ...

  16. What dairy cows are fed impacts manure chemistry and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 20 years or so there has been increasing evidence and concern that nutrients contained in animal manures can adversely impact water and air quality. Research has demonstrated that the diets fed to dairy cows can be modified to reduce nutrient excretions in manure and environmental impa...

  17. Persistence of Escherichia coli in manure-amended soil in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential for pathogen transfer from soils amended with untreated animal manure to crops and the frequent occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks involving Escherichia coli O157:H7 prompted the FDA proposal requiring a 9-month waiting period before harvesting produce from manure-amended fields. A...

  18. Diet, tillage and soil moisture effects on odorous emissions following land application of beef manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef manure from animals fed diets containing different amounts of wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) was applied to soil as a fertilizer to plot located across the slope. The applied manure and soil were either tilled or not tilled. The odor emissions were measured for 24 hours. Then a sing...

  19. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices.

  20. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure applicatio...

  1. Leachate water quality from soils amended with swine manure based biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure applicatio...

  2. Composition of whole and water extractable organic matter of cattle manure affected by management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic matter (OM) is a major component of animal manure. In this chapter, we present two case studies on the multiple spectral features of whole and water extractable organic matter (WEOM) of cattle (beef and dairy) manure affected by differing management practices. Using wet chemistry and Fourie...

  3. Assessment and characterization of manure in the Southeastern US

    SciTech Connect

    Gerwig, B.K.; Hegg, R.O.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to assess the quantity and characteristics of the livestock and poultry manures in the Southeastern US Livestock and poultry production in the U.S. is evolving to larger operations. This has caused some concern for water and air quality. Some states require certain management practices that might restrict the expansion of the livestock or poultry industry. These management practices may be: specific setback distances of the facility from neighboring property lines, groundwater monitoring, land application practices, odor control, operator training, and annual fees. These stricter regulations are encouraging the industry to look at various methods to dispose of or utilize animal manure. These methods may include energy recovery by methane production or direct combustion. In the 13 Southeastern states there are 81.1 x 10{sup 9} kg (89 million tons) of collectable manure produced per year. The top three producers of manure in the Southeast are North Carolina, Missouri and Arkansas. These three states contribute 49% of the total collectable manure. The hog and broiler industries supply 63% of the total collectable manure.

  4. Optimizing the Logistics of Anaerobic Digestion of Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoori, Emad; Flynn, Peter C.

    Electrical power production from the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is a means of recovering energy from animal waste. We evaluate the lowest cost method of moving material to and from centralized AD plants serving multiple confined feeding operations. Two areas are modeled, Lethbridge County, Alberta, Canada, an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, and Red Deer County, Alberta, a mixed-farming area with hog, dairy, chicken and beef cattle farms, and feedlots. We evaluate two types of AD plant: ones that return digestate to the source confined feeding operation for land spreading (current technology), and ones that process digestate to produce solid fertilizer and a dischargeable water stream (technology under development). We evaluate manure and digestate trucking, trucking of manure with return of digestate by pipelines, and pipelining of manure plus digestate. We compare the overall cost of power from these scenarios to farm or feedlot-based AD units. For a centralized AD plant with digestate return for land spreading the most economical transport option for manure plus digestate is by truck for the mixed-farming area and by pipelines for the concentrated feedlot area. For a centralized AD plant with digestate processing, the most economical transport option is trucking of manure for both cases.

  5. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure. PMID:27444518

  6. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  7. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-22

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  8. Mitochondrial Based Treatments that Prevent Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis in a Translational Large Animal Intraarticular Fracture Survival Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Osteoarthritis ina Translational Large Animal Intraarticular Fracture Survival Model PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Todd O. McKinley, M.D...CONTRACT NUMBER Mitochondrial Based Treatments that Prevent Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis in a Translational Large Animal Intraarticular Fracture...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Posttraumatic osteoarthritis is a

  9. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China.

  10. [Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy animal model and its treatment applications].

    PubMed

    Chuman, Hideki

    2014-04-01

    Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is one of the most common acute unilaterally onset optic nerve diseases. One management problem in terms of NAION is the difficulty of differential diagnosis between NAION and anterior optic neuritis (ON). A second problem is that there is no established treatment for the acute stage of NAION. A third problem is that there is no preventive treatment for a subsequent attack on the fellow eye, estimated to occur in 15 to 25% of patients with NAION. For differentiation of acute NAION from anterior optic neuritis, we investigated the usefulness of laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG). In the normal control group, the tissue blood flow did not significantly differ between the right and left eyes. In the NAION group, all 6 patients had 29.5% decreased mean blur rate (MBR), which correlates to optic disc blood flow, of the NAION eye compared with the unaffected eye. In the anterior ON group, all 6 cases had 15.9% increased MBR of the anterior ON eye compared with the unaffected eye. Thus, LSFG showed a difference of the underlying pathophysiology between NAION and anterior ON despite showing disc swelling in both groups and could be useful for differentiating both groups. For the treatment of acute stage of NAION, we tried to reproduce the rodent model of NAION (rNAION) developed by Bernstein and colleagues. To induce rNAION, after the administration of rose bengal(RB) (2.5 mM) into the tail vein of SD rats, the small vessels of the left optic nerve were photoactivated using a 514 nm argon green laser (RB-laser-induction). In the RB-laser-induction eyes, the capillaries within the optic disc were reduced markedly, the optic disc became swollen, and fluorescein angiography showed filling defect in the choroid and the optic disc at an early stage, followed by hyperfluorescence at a late stage. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed that visual evoked potential (VEP) amplitude was significantly decreased but an electroretinogram

  11. Handling manure on forage crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to alfalfa (and other perennial forages) is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can impr...

  12. Diverse Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Dairy Cow Manure

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Andrew, Sheila; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However, our knowledge of the identity, diversity, and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure, a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to beta-lactams, phenicols, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. Functional screening of fosmid and small-insert libraries identified 80 different antibiotic resistance genes whose deduced protein sequences were on average 50 to 60% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. The resistance genes were frequently found in clusters and originated from a taxonomically diverse set of species, suggesting that some microorganisms in manure harbor multiple resistance genes. Furthermore, amid the great genetic diversity in manure, we discovered a novel clade of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. Our study combined functional metagenomics with third-generation PacBio sequencing to significantly extend the roster of functional antibiotic resistance genes found in animal gut bacteria, providing a particularly broad resource for understanding the origins and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in agriculture and clinical settings. PMID:24757214

  13. Dairy manure nutrient analysis using quick tests.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Bicudo, J R

    2005-05-01

    Rapid on-farm assessment of manure nutrient content can be achieved with the use of quick tests. These tests can be used to indirectly measure the nutrient content in animal slurries immediately before manure is applied on agricultural fields. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of hydrometers, electrical conductivity meter and pens, and Agros N meter against standard laboratory methods. Manure samples were collected from 34 dairy farms in the Mammoth Cave area in central Kentucky. Regression equations were developed for combined and individual counties located In the area (Barren, Hart and Monroe). Our results indicated that accuracy in nutrient estimation could be improved if separate linear regressions were developed for farms with similar facilities in a county. Direct hydrometer estimates of total nitrogen were among the most accurate when separate regression equations were developed for each county (R2 = 0.61, 0.93, and 0.74 for Barren, Hart and Monroe county, respectively). Reasonably accurate estimates (R2 > 0.70) were also obtained for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using hydrometers, either by relating specific gravity to nutrient content or to total solids content. Estimation of ammoniacal nitrogen with Agros N meter and electrical conductivity meter/pens correlated well with standard laboratory determinations, especially while using the individual data sets from Hart County (R2 = 0.70 to 0.87). This study indicates that the use of quick test calibration equations developed for a small area or region where farms are similar in terms of manure handling and management, housing, and feed ration are more appropriate than using "universal" equations usually developed with combined data sets. Accuracy is expected to improve if individual farms develop their own calibration curves. Nevertheless, we suggest confidence intervals always be specified for nutrients estimated through quick testing for any specific region, county, or farm.

  14. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to dire...

  15. An in vitro study of manure composition on the biochemical origins, composition, and accumulation of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2002-09-01

    Very little is known about the biochemical origin of cattle feedlot odors and the environmental factors controlling their production. The tie between diet and manure composition is well established, but the effect of different manure compositions on odorous chemical production is unknown. This study describes the effect of starch, casein, and cellulose substrate additions to slurries of fresh (< 24 h) and aged cattle manure (> 1 d) on the anaerobic production of fermentation products and the consumption of substrates relative to no addition treatments. Aged cattle manure accumulated more VFA (245 to 290 mM) than the fresh manure (91 to 181 mM) irrespective of substrate additions (P < 0.001). In fresh manures, VFA concentrations were increased (P < 0.01) over no addition treatments when carbohydrate (starch or cellulose) was added, whereas starch and protein treatments to aged manure increased VFA content relative to no addition treatments (P < 0.001). Branched-chain VFA and aromatic compounds accumulated only in the aged manure (no addition and protein treatments), indicating that some protein fermentation occurred in those treatments. Based upon substrate loss, starch fermentation was the dominant process in both manures and all treatments with losses exceeding 18.6 g/L. Protein fermentation occurred only in the aged manure, specifically the no addition and protein treatments, when starch was no longer available. The production of odorous compounds from manure was controlled by substrate availability and pH, with pH related to lactate accumulation. We believe that calcareous soil and lactate-consuming microorganisms in the aged manure slurries minimized slurry acidification and resulted in greater accumulations of odorous products. Substrate additions had little effect on the overall accumulation of odor compounds in manure but had profound effects on odor compound composition. We propose that modifying cattle diets to limit starch and protein excretion would

  16. Phosphorus and nitrogen losses from winter stacking of manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appropriate management of animal manure including storage is essential for minimizing nutrient losses and guaranteeing good water quality. A field lysimeter study was carried out at the Susquehanna River Basin, northeastern USA to investigate phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) losses in leachate and ru...

  17. Effects of organic dairy manure amendment on soil phosphatase activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairy production is increasing in the U.S. due to concerns over environmental, human, and animal health. It is well known that the application of livestock manure to soil can influence enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling and soil fertility, such as soil phosphatases; however, orga...

  18. Coupling Manure Injection with Cover Crops to Enhance Nutrient Cycling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale hog (Sus scrofa) production is a major agricultural enterprise in the Midwest. Large numbers of confined hogs produce about 50 million tons per year of swine manure in Iowa alone. Rapid expansion of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has resulted in increased concentrations o...

  19. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  20. Fate of Compost Nutrients as Affected by Co-Composting of Chicken and Swine Manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A.; Ogunjimi, Lawrence A. O.; Osunade, James A.

    2014-04-01

    Passive aeration co-composting using four mixtures of chicken manure and swine manure at 1:0, 1:1, 3:7 and 0:1 with sawdust and rice husk was carried out to study the effects of co-composting on the physicochemical properties of the organic materials. The experiment, which lasted 66 days, was carried out in bins equipped with inverted T aeration pipes. The results showed that nutrient losses decreased as the proportion of chicken manure in the mixtures decreased for saw dust and rice husk treatments. This indicates better nutrientst conservation during composting in swine than chicken manure. Manure mixtures with rice husk had higher pile temperatures (> 55°C), total carbon and total nitrogen losses, while manure mixtures with saw dust had higher total phosphorus loss and carbon to nitrogen ratio. Composts with rice husk demonstrated the ability to reach maturity faster by the rate of drop of the carbon to nitrogen ratio.

  1. Mitigation of Nitrogen Emissions from Animal Agriculture in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oenema, O.

    2011-12-01

    More than 70% of the utilized agricultural area (187 Mha) in the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU-27) is used for animal production. In addition, a considerable amount of animal feed is imported. Dairy and beef cattle, pigs, and poultry are the dominant animal species. Total livestock density is highest in the Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Denmark and some regions in France, Germany and Italy. The mean nitrogen (N) retention in animal products in EU-27 in 2005 was 20% for milk, 8% for beef, 25% for pork, 38% for poultry and 28% for egg production. This indicates that dairy cows excreted on average 80% of the N intake, beef cattle 92%, pigs 75%, poultry 62% and layers 72%. There was a large variation in N retention between countries. Animal manures and nitrogen (N) fertilizers are main sources of N emissions. In 2005, mean N excretion by animals ranged from less than 25 kg per ha per year in Bulgaria to nearly 250 kg per ha in The Netherlands. On average 25% of the total amount of N excreted was lost as ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere, though with a considerable variation between countries. About 10% was lost as NH3-N from housing systems, 9% from manure application to land, 4% from manure storage and treatment facilities, and 3% from grazing. Nitrogen leaching was in the same order of magnitude. Animal production also had a considerable share in the total emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere (range 5-25%). Especially dairy cattle and beef cattle contribute to the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. Considerable efforts are being made to decrease N emissions from agriculture in EU-27. Good agricultural practices and mandatory emission mitigation measures are enforced through EU environmental policies, including Nitrates Directive, National Emissions Ceiling Directive, and Water Framework Directive. Some countries have succeeded to decrease the NH3 emissions to air and N leaching losses to groundwater and

  2. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics used in animal feeding operations have been detected in the environment. There is a growing concern about the impact of these pharmaceutical compounds in the manure and the effect they may have on aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and the potential development of antibiotic resistant m...

  3. Nitrosomonas stercoris sp. nov., a Chemoautotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Tolerant of High Ammonium Isolated from Composted Cattle Manure

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Takahashi, Reiji

    2015-01-01

    Among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas eutropha-like microbes are distributed in strongly eutrophic environments such as wastewater treatment plants and animal manure. In the present study, we isolated an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium tolerant of high ammonium levels, designated strain KYUHI-ST, from composted cattle manure. Unlike the other known Nitrosomonas species, this isolate grew at 1,000 mM ammonium. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and amoA genes indicated that the isolate belonged to the genus Nitrosomonas and formed a unique cluster with the uncultured ammonia oxidizers found in wastewater systems and animal manure composts, suggesting that these ammonia oxidizers contributed to removing higher concentrations of ammonia in strongly eutrophic environments. Based on the physiological and phylogenetic data presented here, we propose and call for the validation of the provisional taxonomic assignment Nitrosomonas stercoris, with strain KYUHI-S as the type strain (type strain KYUHI-ST = NBRC 110753T = ATCC BAA-2718T). PMID:26156554

  4. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term.

  5. Treatment of acute cerebral ischemia using animal models: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng-Fei; Zhou, Yu; Fang, Huang; Lin, Sen; Wang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Yong; Xia, Jun; Eslick, Guy D.; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background There are numerous potential treatments assessed for acute cerebral ischemia using animal models. This study aimed to assess the effect of these treatments in terms of infarct size and neurobehavioral change. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine if any of these treatments provide a superior benefit so that they might be used on humans. Methods A systematic search was conducted using several electronic databases for controlled animal studies using only nonsurgical interventions for acute cerebral ischemia. A random-effects model was used. Results After an extensive literature search, 145 studies were included in the analysis. These studies included 1408 treated animals and 1362 control animals. Treatments that had the most significant effect on neurobehavioral scales included insulin, various antagonists, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ACEA1021, calmodulin antagonist DY-9760e, and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist YM872, and antiviral agents. Treatments providing the greatest effect on infarct size included statins, sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist (fingolimod), alcohol, angiotensin, and leukotrienes. Treatments offering the greatest reduction in brain water content included various agonists, including sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist fingolimod, statins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). Treatment groups with more than one study all had high heterogeneity (I2 > 80%), however, using meta-regression we determined several sources of heterogeneity including sample size of the treatment and control groups, the occlusion time, but not the year when the study was conducted. Conclusions Some treatments stand out when compared to others for acute cerebral ischemia in animals. Greater replication of treatment studies is required before any treatments are selected for future human trials. PMID:28123790

  6. Evaluation of fecal indicators and pathogens in a beef cattle feedlot vegetative treatment system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Runoff from open-lot animal feeding areas contains microorganisms that may adversely affect human and animal health if not properly managed. One alternative to full manure containment systems is a vegetative treatment system (VTS) that collects runoff in a sediment basin and then applies it to a per...

  7. Manure and inorganic N affect irrigated corn yields and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure could be a substitute for inorganic N fertilizers and for mitigating potential soil deterioration under irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) silage production, but the impact on yields, soil C and N have not been thoroughly studied in the semi-arid western U.S. Five N source treatments [dairy manure...

  8. Airborne pathogens from dairy manure aerial irrigation and the human health risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Burch, Tucker R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy manure, like the fecal excrement from any domesticated or wild animal, can contain pathogens capable of infecting humans and causing illness or even death. Pathogens in dairy manure can be broadly divided into categories of taxonomy or infectiousness. Dividing by taxonomy there are three pathogen groups in dairy manure: viruses (e.g., bovine rotavirus), bacteria (e.g., Salmonella species), and protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum). There are two categories of infectiousness for pathogens found in animals: those that are zoonotic and those that are not. A zoonotic pathogen is one that can infect both human and animal hosts. Some zoonotic pathogens found in dairy manure cause illness in both hosts (e.g., Salmonella) while other zoonotic pathogens, like Escherichia coli O157:H7, (enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)) cause illness only in humans. As a general rule, the gastrointestinal viruses found in dairy manure are not zoonotic. While there are exceptions (e.g., rare reports of bovine rotavirus infecting children), for the most part the viruses in dairy manure are not a human health concern. The primary concerns are the zoonotic bacteria and protozoa in dairy manure.

  9. Reverse translation of failed treatments can help improving the validity of preclinical animal models.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Bert A

    2015-07-15

    A major challenge in translational research is to reduce the currently high proportion of new candidate treatment agents for neuroinflammatory disease, which fail to reproduce promising effects observed in animal models when tested in patients. This disturbing situation has raised criticism against the currently used animal models in preclinical research and calls for improvement of these models. This seems a difficult task as the cause of failure is often not known. Here we propose a potentially useful strategy for investigating why a promising strategy fails as a guidance for improving the validity of the animal model(s).

  10. Animal-assisted therapy--a new trend in the treatment of children and adults.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2009-06-01

    Animal-assisted therapy is a familiar method of treatment in the rehabilitation of many illnesses and conditions, but is still not applied sufficiently in our milieu. This paper gives an overview of the available literature and some of the research which demonstrates that the interaction between the patient, animal and therapist provides a context which improves communication, elevates self-confidence, reduces the symptoms of diseases, and improves the quality of life. The dog, cat, horse, birds and toy animals are most often used in therapy. Short-term contacts with animals are used, as well as long term keeping of animals, which are looked after by patients following a particular methodology. The therapy is used in the treatment of psychiatric patients afflicted with depression, schizophrenia, phobias and addiction problems. Loneliness is easier to endure in the company of animals. It is also applied in cardiovascular diseases, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, child cerebral paralysis, rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, and other diseases. Research shows a more rapid reduction of symptoms of many diseases when animals are included in the therapeutic process.

  11. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  12. Fate of Viable but Non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in Pig Manure Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Desneux, Jérémy; Biscuit, Audrey; Picard, Sylvie; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The fate of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC) was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures) stored for 2 months at 8 and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA). The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analyzed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5–94.8%) than in treated manures (67.8–79.2%). The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behavior of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents. PMID:26973623

  13. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  14. Treatment of bovine cancer-eye (and other animal tumors) with heat

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Hyperthermia appears to be an excellent technique for the treatment of a variety of animal tumors. While this report has emphasized the application of hyperthermia to bovine cancer-eye, there cannot be serious doubt about the potential for wider applications of the technique. We have collaborated with the Animal Resource Facility at the University of New Mexico in the successful treatment of a variety of tumors in small animals which would not be a particular interest to stockmen, but the program included the successful treatment of a number of sarcoids in horses. This investigation involving heat effects on sarcoids will continue, but early results appear to be promising. Other veterinarians are using the commercial hyperthermia instruments to treat a variety of small-animal tumors; these practitioners are enthusiastic about the results but no data have been published to date. We have treated an equine lid tumor with good results, and others are pursuing investigations in this area. Use of commercial hyperthermia instruments for treatment of any condition other than bovine cancer-eye or similar small tumors on animals cannot be justified. Like other therapeutic techniques, hyperthermia must be applied to appropriate cases and retreatment will be necessary in some instances. (ERB)

  15. Effect of antimicrobial compounds tylosin and chlortetracycline during batch anaerobic swine manure digestion.

    PubMed

    Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A; Zhu, Zhenwei; Wong, Kwok L; Porath, Laura R; Spellman, Garth M

    2009-10-01

    Tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) are antimicrobial chemicals that are fed to >45% of the US swine herds at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dosages to enhance growth rates and treat swine health problems. These compounds are poorly absorbed during digestion so that the bioactive compound or metabolites are excreted. This study investigated the degradation and stabilization of swine manure that contained no additives and compared the observed processes with those of manure containing either tylosin or CTC. The batch anaerobic incubation lasted 216 days. The breakdown of insoluble organic matter through anaerobic hydrolysis reactions was faster for manure containing CTC compared with tylosin or no-antimicrobial treatments. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, was greater for CTC-containing manure compared to tylosin and no-antimicrobial treatments. The relative abundance of two aceticlastic methanogens, Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae spp., were less for CTC manure than manure with no-antimicrobial treatment. In addition, generation of methane and carbon dioxide was inhibited by 27.8% and 28.4%, respectively, due to the presence of CTC. Tylosin effects on manure degradation were limited, however the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae spp. was greater than found in the CTC or no-antimicrobial manures. These data suggest that acetate and other C-1 VFA compounds would be effectively utilized during methanogenesis in the presence of tylosin.

  16. Impact of fiber source and feed particle size on swine manure properties related to spontaneous foam formation during anaerobic decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foam accumulation in deep-pit manure storage facilities is of concern for swine producers because of the logistical and safety-related problems it creates. A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the impact of feed grind size, fiber source, and manure age on foaming characteristics. Animals were f...

  17. Effect of rainfall timing and tillage on the transport of steroid hormones in runoff from manure amended row crop fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure generated from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represents one of the major sources of steroid hormones found in surface water. This paper presents results of a study conducted near Concord, NE to determine the effects of manure handling (compost vs. stockpile), tillage (no-till...

  18. Detection of methanogenic archaea in stored swine manure by direct mcrA PCR and sequence analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of swine manure is associated with the production of a variety of odors and emissions which are products of anaerobic metabolism of the indigenous bacteria in the manure. These emissions can pose problems to the health and production efficiency of the animals, as well as the health and comf...

  19. Estrogen transport in surface runoff from agricultural fields treated with two different application methods of dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the land-application of animal manure provides many benefits, concerns exist regarding the subsequent transport of hormones and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. This study compares two methods of dairy manure application, surface broadcasting and shallow disk injection, on the fate and...

  20. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  1. Uptake of arsenic species by turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) treated with roxarsone and its metabolites in chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lian Xi; Yao, Li Xian; He, Zhao Huan; Zhou, Chang Min; Li, Guo Liang; Yang, Bao Mei; Li, Ying Fen

    2013-01-01

    Roxarsone is an organoarsenic feed additive that can be metabolised to other higher toxic arsenic (As) species in animal manure such as arsenate, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid and other unknown As species. The accumulation, transport and distribution of As species in turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) amended with roxarsone and its metabolites in chicken manure were investigated. Results showed arsenite was the predominant As form, followed by arsenate in turnip and lettuce plants, and a low content of dimethylarsinic acid was detected only in lettuce roots. Compared with the control plants treated with chicken manure without roxarsone and its metabolites, the treatments containing roxarsone and its metabolites increased arsenite content by 2.0-3.2% in turnip shoots, by 6.6-6.7% in lettuce shoots, by 11-44% in turnip tubers and by 18-20% in lettuce roots at two growth stages. The enhanced proportion of arsenate content in turnip shoots, turnip tubers and lettuce roots was 4.3-14%, 20-35% and 70%, respectively, while dimethylarsinic acid content in lettuce roots increased 2.4 times. Results showed that the occurrence of dimethylarsinic acid in lettuce roots might be converted from the inorganic As species and the uptake of both inorganic and organic As compounds in turnip and lettuce plants would be enhanced by roxarsone and its metabolites in chicken manure. The pathway of roxarsone metabolites introduced into the human body via roxarsone → animalmanure → soil → crop was indicated.

  2. Characteristics of pollutant gas releases from swine, dairy, beef, and layer manure, and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Saha, Chayan Kumer; Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Dunn, James L

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about characteristics of gas releases from various types of organic wastes can assist in developing gas pollution reduction technologies and establishing environmental regulations. Five different organic wastes, i.e., four types of animal manure (swine, beef, dairy, and layer hen) and municipal wastewater, were studied for their characteristics of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) releases for 38 or 43 days in reactors under laboratory conditions. Weekly waste additions and continuous reactor headspace ventilation were supplied to simulate waste storage conditions. Results demonstrated that among the five waste types, layer hen manure and municipal wastewater had the highest and lowest NH3 release potentials, respectively. Layer manure had the highest and dairy manure had the lowest CO2 release potentials. Dairy manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest H2S release potentials, respectively. Beef manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest SO2 releases, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the different types of wastes, especially the total nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, dry matter, and pH, had strong influence on the releases of the four gases. Even for the same type of waste, the variation in physicochemical characteristics affected the gas releases remarkably.

  3. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Ospina, A; Dao, Thanh H; Van Kessel, J A; Reeves, J B

    2005-05-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213gL(-1), in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m(-1)). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP(s)) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP(s)) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP(s) = 0.471 x MRP(s) + 1102 (r2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH < or = 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r2) for the MRP(s) and RQFlex-DP(s) relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure.

  4. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH Clinical Center | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Therapy Dogs Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH ... is unlike any other." A self-described "huge animal lover," she coordinates 14 teams of trained and ...

  5. Diverse antibiotic resistance genes in dairy cow manure.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Andrew, Sheila; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-04-22

    Application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However, our knowledge of the identity, diversity, and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure, a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to beta-lactams, phenicols, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. Functional screening of fosmid and small-insert libraries identified 80 different antibiotic resistance genes whose deduced protein sequences were on average 50 to 60% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. The resistance genes were frequently found in clusters and originated from a taxonomically diverse set of species, suggesting that some microorganisms in manure harbor multiple resistance genes. Furthermore, amid the great genetic diversity in manure, we discovered a novel clade of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. Our study combined functional metagenomics with third-generation PacBio sequencing to significantly extend the roster of functional antibiotic resistance genes found in animal gut bacteria, providing a particularly broad resource for understanding the origins and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in agriculture and clinical settings. IMPORTANCE The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria is one of the most intractable challenges in 21st-century public health. The origins of resistance are complex, and a better understanding of the impacts of antibiotics used on farms would produce a more robust platform for public policy. Microbiomes of farm animals are reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which may affect distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens. Previous studies have focused on antibiotic resistance genes in manures of animals subjected

  6. Impact of angiogenic therapy in the treatment of critical lower limb ischemia in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Reis, Paulo Eduardo Ocke; de Carvalho, Leonardo Pinto; Yasumura, Eduardo; da Silva, Flavia Helena; Garcia, Bianca Cristina; Beutel, Abram; Sacramento, Chester Bittencourt; Baptista-Silva, José Carlos Costa; de Campos, Ruy Ribeiro; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Borojevic, Radovan; Han, Sang Won

    2014-04-01

    Angiogenic therapies for critical limb ischemia were tested in a mouse model. The mice were anesthetized and their femoral arteries were ligated. The animals were treated with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) alone, BMMCs combined with plasmid vector encoding granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), received no treatment, or no intervention (controls). The degree of ischemia was monitored for 4 weeks using a visual scale. Muscle atrophy and strength were assessed at 4 weeks postoperatively; the mice were then killed. In treated animals, total necrosis of the limb was not found, the weight of the gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles was significantly higher, functional ability and tissue regeneration were significantly increased, and muscle impairment and adipocyte presence were significantly reduced compared with untreated animals. At inducing angiogenesis, the BMMCs alone was more effective than BMMCs combined with plasmid vector encoding GM-CSF. Treated animals showed increased angiogenesis compared with ischemic untreated ones.

  7. Animal models to improve our understanding and treatment of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gould, T D; Georgiou, P; Brenner, L A; Brundin, L; Can, A; Courtet, P; Donaldson, Z R; Dwivedi, Y; Guillaume, S; Gottesman, I I; Kanekar, S; Lowry, C A; Renshaw, P F; Rujescu, D; Smith, E G; Turecki, G; Zanos, P; Zarate, C A; Zunszain, P A; Postolache, T T

    2017-04-11

    Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes. Animal models are similarly a critical resource to help delineate treatment targets and pharmacological means to improve our ability to manage the risk of suicide. In particular, certain pathophysiological pathways to suicidal behavior, including stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, neurotransmitter system abnormalities, endocrine and neuroimmune changes, aggression, impulsivity and decision-making deficits, as well as the role of critical interactions between genetic and epigenetic factors, development and environmental risk factors can be modeled in laboratory animals. We broadly describe human biological findings, as well as protective effects of medications such as lithium, clozapine, and ketamine associated with modifying risk of engaging in suicidal behavior that are readily translatable to animal models. Endophenotypes of suicidal behavior, studied in animal models, are further useful for moving observed associations with harmful environmental factors (for example, childhood adversity, mechanical trauma aeroallergens, pathogens, inflammation triggers) from association to causation, and developing preventative strategies. Further study in animals will contribute to a more informed, comprehensive, accelerated and ultimately impactful suicide research portfolio.

  8. Progress of animal research on electro-acupuncture treatment for depression(△).

    PubMed

    Mo, Yu-ping; Yao, Hai-jiang; Song, Hong-tao; Xu, An-ping; Tang, Yin-shan; Li, Zhi-Gang

    2014-03-01

    This paper summarized the Chinese literatures in the previous 5 years about the pre-clinical animal researches on the application of electro-acupuncture (EA) treatment for depression, searched in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The efficiency of EA treatment for depression and the mechanism of it were discussed, to shed light on new ideas and new fronts for the further research on depression in clinical or pre-clinical fields.

  9. Antibiotics and Manure Effects on Microbial Communities Responsible for Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, M.; Song, B.; Sparrer, T.; Crozier, C.; Tobias, C. R.; Phillips, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Agroecosystems are major contributors of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrification and nitrification are the primary pathways of N2O emission in soils. However, there is uncertainty regarding the organisms responsible for N2O production. Bacteria were previously considered the only microbial N2O source, however, current studies indicate that fungi also produce N2O by denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria can be a source or sink of N2O depending on the presence and expression of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ), encoding for the enzyme converting N2O to N2. Fungal denitrification may produce only N2O as an end product due to missing the nosZ gene. Animal manures applied to agricultural fields can transfer antibiotics to soils as a result of antibiotic use in the livestock industry. These antibiotics target mostly bacteria and may promote fungal growth. The growth inhibition of denitrifying bacteria may favor fungal denitrifiers potentially enhancing N2O emissions. Our objective is to examine the effects of antibiotic exposure and manure fertilization on the microbial communities responsible for N2 and N2O production in grasslands. Soil slurry incubations were conducted with tetracycline at different concentrations. A mesocosm experiment was also performed with soil cores exposed to tetracycline and cow manure. Production of N2O and N2 was measured using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), respectively. Antibiotic inhibition of soil N2 production was found to be dose dependent, reaching up to 80% inhibition with 1g Kg-1 of tetracycline treatment, while N2O production was enhanced up to 8 times. These results suggest higher fungal denitrification with a concomitant decrease in bacterial denitrification after antibiotic exposure. We also found higher N2O fluxes in the soil mesocosms treated with manure plus tetracycline. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) will be conducted to examine the changes in

  10. Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child…

  11. Advances in biological nitrogen treatment of animal wastewater: Nitrification and anammox

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological nitrogen removal (BNR) is regarded as the most efficient and economically feasible method available for removal of nitrogen from municipal wastewaters. Its use for economical treatment of animal wastewaters required development of new technologies and systems adapted to the higher-strengt...

  12. Randomised controlled trial of animal facilitated therapy with dolphins in the treatment of depression

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Christian; Reveley, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of animal facilitated therapy with dolphins, controlling for the influence of the natural setting, in the treatment of mild to moderate depression and in the context of the biophilia hypothesis. Setting The study was carried out in Honduras, and recruitment took place in the United States and Honduras. Design Single blind, randomised, controlled trial. Participants Outpatients, recruited through announcements on the internet, radio, newspapers, and hospitals. Results Of the 30 patients randomly assigned to the two groups of treatment, two dropped out of the treatment group after the first week and three withdrew their consent in the control group after they had been randomly allocated. For the participants who completed the study, the mean severity of the depressive symptoms was more reduced in the treatment group than in the control group (Hamilton rating scale for depression, P = 0.002; Beck depression inventory, P = 0.006). For the sample analysed by modified intention to treat and last observation carried forward, the mean differences for the Hamilton and Beck scores between the two groups was highly significant (P = 0.007 and P = 0.012, respectively). Conclusions The therapy was effective in alleviating symptoms of depression after two weeks of treatment. Animal facilitated therapy with dolphins is an effective treatment for mild to moderate depression, which is based on a holistic approach, through interaction with animals in nature. PMID:16308382

  13. Effect of dietary protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas emitting potential of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Dell, C J; Feyereisen, G W; Kaye, J; Beegle, D

    2012-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH(3)) and greenhouse gas (GHG; nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) emissions from fresh dairy cow manure incubated in a controlled environment (experiment 1) and from manure-amended soil (experiment 2). Manure was prepared from feces and urine collected from lactating Holstein cows fed diets with 16.7% (DM basis; HCP) or 14.8% CP (LCP). High-CP manure had higher N content and proportion of NH(3)- and urea-N in total manure N than LCP manure (DM basis: 4.4 vs. 2.8% and 51.4 vs. 30.5%, respectively). In experiment 1, NH(3) emitting potential (EP) was greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (9.20 vs. 4.88 mg/m(2) per min, respectively). The 122-h cumulative NH(3) emission tended to be decreased 47% (P=0.09) using LCP compared with HCP manure. The EP and cumulative emissions of GHG were not different between HCP and LCP manure. In experiment 2, urine and feces from cows fed LCP or HCP diets were mixed and immediately applied to lysimeters (61×61×61 cm; Hagerstown silt loam; fine, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf) at 277 kg of N/ha application rate. The average NH(3) EP (1.53 vs. 1.03 mg/m(2) per min, respectively) and the area under the EP curve were greater for lysimeters amended with HCP than with LCP manure. The largest difference in the NH(3) EP occurred approximately 24 h after manure application (approximately 3.5 times greater for HCP than LCP manure). The 100-h cumulative NH(3) emission was 98% greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (7,415 vs. 3,745 mg/m(2), respectively). The EP of methane was increased and that of carbon dioxide tended to be increased by LCP compared with HCP manure. The cumulative methane emission was not different between treatments, whereas the cumulative carbon dioxide emission was increased with manure from the LCP diet. Nitrous oxide emissions were low in this experiment and did not differ between treatments. In the

  14. Translational approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder: from animal models to clinical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fineberg, NA; Chamberlain, SR; Hollander, E; Boulougouris, V; Robbins, TW

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions (intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive ritualistic behaviours) leading to functional impairment. Accumulating evidence links these conditions with underlying dysregulation of fronto-striatal circuitry and monoamine systems. These abnormalities represent key targets for existing and novel treatment interventions. However, the brain bases of these conditions and treatment mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. Animal models simulating the behavioural and clinical manifestations of the disorder show great potential for augmenting our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD. This paper provides an overview of what is known about OCD from several perspectives. We begin by describing the clinical features of OCD and the criteria used to assess the validity of animal models of symptomatology; namely, face validity (phenomenological similarity between inducing conditions and specific symptoms of the human phenomenon), predictive validity (similarity in response to treatment) and construct validity (similarity in underlying physiological or psychological mechanisms). We then survey animal models of OC spectrum conditions within this framework, focusing on (i) ethological models; (ii) genetic and pharmacological models; and (iii) neurobehavioural models. We also discuss their advantages and shortcomings in relation to their capacity to identify potentially efficacious new compounds. It is of interest that there has been rather little evidence of ‘false alarms’ for therapeutic drug effects in OCD models which actually fail in the clinic. While it is more difficult to model obsessive cognition than compulsive behaviour in experimental animals, it is feasible to infer cognitive inflexibility in certain animal paradigms. Finally, key future neurobiological and treatment research areas are highlighted. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational

  15. Is manure an alternative to topsoil in road embankment restoration?

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Desirée; García-Palacios, Pablo; Jauregui, Berta M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main steps in road and railway embankment restoration is the spreading of previously removed topsoil, which provides an input of seeds, organic matter and microorganisms and encourages the establishment of a vegetation cover, essential to stabilise the embankment and blend it with the landscape. However, topsoil is a scarce resource, prompting the search for economic alternatives with similar results. The present study compares the results of spreading topsoil with an organic amendment (manure) for the soil's physico-chemical properties, erosion resistance and microbial activity, floristic richness and composition, and bare soil cover. For this purpose, experimental plots with three treatments (Control, Topsoil and Manure) were maintained on a recently built embankment in Central Spain for 20 months. Manure was found to be an effective alternative to topsoil for the improvement of soil fertility (organic matter content and total nitrogen). The two types of organic amendment produced similar reductions in bare soil cover and erosion rates. However, plots with topsoil showed greater soil respiration and species richness and a different floristic composition in comparison to those treated with manure, which was closer to control plots. These results suggest that manure can be used to replace topsoil to enhance embankment stability during the early stages of restoration. However, if the aim of the restoration process is to promote plant diversity, topsoil is recommended. PMID:28346511

  16. Is manure an alternative to topsoil in road embankment restoration?

    PubMed

    Peco, Begoña; Rivera, Desirée; García-Palacios, Pablo; Jauregui, Berta M

    2017-01-01

    One of the main steps in road and railway embankment restoration is the spreading of previously removed topsoil, which provides an input of seeds, organic matter and microorganisms and encourages the establishment of a vegetation cover, essential to stabilise the embankment and blend it with the landscape. However, topsoil is a scarce resource, prompting the search for economic alternatives with similar results. The present study compares the results of spreading topsoil with an organic amendment (manure) for the soil's physico-chemical properties, erosion resistance and microbial activity, floristic richness and composition, and bare soil cover. For this purpose, experimental plots with three treatments (Control, Topsoil and Manure) were maintained on a recently built embankment in Central Spain for 20 months. Manure was found to be an effective alternative to topsoil for the improvement of soil fertility (organic matter content and total nitrogen). The two types of organic amendment produced similar reductions in bare soil cover and erosion rates. However, plots with topsoil showed greater soil respiration and species richness and a different floristic composition in comparison to those treated with manure, which was closer to control plots. These results suggest that manure can be used to replace topsoil to enhance embankment stability during the early stages of restoration. However, if the aim of the restoration process is to promote plant diversity, topsoil is recommended.

  17. Precipitation of liquid swine manure phosphates using magnesium smelting by-products.

    PubMed

    Parent, Gaétan; Bélanger, Gilles; Ziadi, Noura; Deland, Jean-Pierre; Laperrière, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Swine manure contains considerable amounts of total (P) and soluble phosphorus (PO(4)-P) which may increase the soil P content when applied in excess to crop requirements and, consequently, risk water eutrophication. The feasibility of using magnesium (Mg) from the by-product of electrolysis and foundries (BPEF) for the removal of P from liquid swine manure was studied by adding up to 3 g of Mg as BPEF per liter of nursery (NU) and grower-finisher (GF) swine manure in 25-L plastic buckets. Changes in P and other elements were monitored for up to 360 h. Small amounts of Mg as BPEF (0.5 and 1.0 g Mg L(-1) manure) reduced the total P concentration of the liquid fraction by 70 to 95% of both manure types with respect to the control treatment of mixed raw manure. A settling period of 8 h or more was necessary to significantly reduce the liquid fraction's total P concentration for both manure types. Reduction of PO(4)-P varied from 96 to 100% in the liquid fractions for both manure types, which along with natural settling, explains most of the total P reduction in that fraction. The addition of BPEF did not influence the N content of manure. The low P liquid fraction can be safely applied to saturated P soils whereas the high P solid fraction offers the opportunity of transporting manure to agricultural soils deficient in P. Since N is conserved, both liquid and solid fractions could be valuable fertilizer manure by-products.

  18. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety.

  19. Comparison of the Olfactory Preferences of Four of Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoid Species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for Hosts in Equine and Bovine Manure.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J

    2015-10-01

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids, primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), can be purchased for biological control of these flies. However, little is known about the host-habitat preferences associated with host-seeking by these parasitoids. The preferences of two Spalangia and two Muscidifurax species to odors associated with house fly hosts in equine and bovine manure were investigated in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfactometer. Odor stimuli from manure without developing flies, third-instar house flies in manure, and fly host puparia in manure were evaluated. In choice tests, S. cameroni and S. endius were strongly attracted to odor associated with equine manure against clean air. Although S. cameroni was attracted to all bovine manure-containing treatments against clean air, S. endius was only attracted to the bovine manure with third-instar flies. There were no significant differences between the Spalangia species in odor responses. Neither Muscidifurax species were attracted to equine manure treatments and were only attracted to the bovine manure with puparia over clean air. In manure comparison studies, bovine treatments with developing flies were more attractive than the equivalent equine treatments to both Muscidifurax species The data suggest that coexistence between the competing pteromalid parasitoids might be promoted by different host-seeking behaviors. Additionally, manure preferences may indicate parasitoid suitability for releases on different livestock and equine facilities.

  20. Gene therapy by electroporation for the treatment of chronic renal failure in companion animals

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patricia A; Bodles-Brakhop, Angela M; Pope, Melissa A; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2009-01-01

    Background Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plasmid-based therapy for the treatment of chronic renal failure and its complications was examined. Companion dogs (13.1 ± 0.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.01 kg) and cats (13.2 ± 0.9 years, 8.5 ± 0.37 kg) received a single 0.4 mg or 0.1 mg species-specific plasmid injection, respectively, intramuscularly followed by electroporation, and analyzed up to 75 days post-treatment; controls underwent electroporation without plasmid administration. Results Plasmid-treated animals showed an increase in body weight (dogs 22.5% and cats 3.2%) compared to control animals, and displayed improved quality of life parameters including significant increases in appetite, activity, mentation and exercise tolerance levels. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, the downstream effector of GHRH) levels were increased in the plasmid treated animals. Hematological parameters were also significantly improved. Protein metabolism changes were observed suggesting a shift from a catabolic to an anabolic state in the treated animals. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine did not show any significant changes suggesting maintenance of kidney function whereas the control animal's renal function deteriorated. Treated animals survived longer than control animals with 70% of dogs and 80% of cats surviving until study day 75. Only 17% and 40% of the control dogs and cats, respectively, survived to day 75. Conclusion Improved quality of life, survival and general well-being indicate that further investigation is warranted, and show the potential of a plasmid-based therapy by electroporation in preventing and managing complications of renal insufficiency. PMID:19149896

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in experimental animal models

    PubMed Central

    Klinker, Matthew W; Wei, Cheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are currently being studied as a cell-based treatment for inflammatory disorders. Experimental animal models of human immune-mediated diseases have been instrumental in establishing their immunosuppressive properties. In this review, we summarize recent studies examining the effectiveness of MSCs as immunotherapy in several widely-studied animal models, including type 1 diabetes, experimental autoimmune arthritis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, inflammatory bowel disease, graft-vs-host disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, we discuss mechanisms identified by which MSCs mediate immune suppression in specific disease models, and potential sources of functional variability of MSCs between studies. PMID:25914763

  2. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Moeletsi, Mokhele Edmond; Tongwane, Mphethe Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Livestock manure management is one of the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in South Africa producing mainly methane and nitrous oxide. The emissions from this sub-category are dependent on how manure is stored. Liquid-stored manure predominantly produces methane while dry-based manure enhances mainly production of nitrous oxide. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines were utilized at different tier levels in estimating GHG emissions from manure management. The results show that methane emissions are relatively higher than nitrous oxide emissions with 3104 Gg and 2272 Gg respectively in carbon dioxide global warming equivalent. Abstract Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc.) were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal), sows (25.23 kg/year/animal) and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal). Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO2 Equivalent). Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO2 Equivalent) and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options

  3. Biogas production from wheat straw and manure--impact of pretreatment and process operating parameters.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Kajsa; Sun, Li; Levén, Lotta; Horn, Svein Jarle; Schnürer, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Non-treated or steam-exploded straw in co-digestion with cattle manure was evaluated as a substrate for biogas production compared with manure as the sole substrate. All digestions were performed in laboratory-scale CSTR reactors (5L) operating with an organic loading late of approximately 2.8 g VS/L/day, independent of substrate mixture. The hydraulic retention was 25 days and an operating temperature of 37, 44 or 52°C. The co-digestion with steam exploded straw and manure was evaluated with two different mixtures, with different proportion. The results showed stable performance but low methane yields (0.13-0.21 N L CH4/kg VS) for both manure alone and in co-digestion with the straw. Straw appeared to give similar yield as manure and steam-explosion treatment of the straw did not increase gas yields. Furthermore, there were only slight differences at the different operating temperatures.

  4. The effects of biochar and manure in silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amending soil with biochar may be a means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality, but few multiyear field studies have examined the impacts of a one-time biochar application in an irrigated, calcareous soil. We fall-applied four treatments: dairy manure (18.7 tons/ac dry wt.); ha...

  5. Biochar and manure effects on nitrogen nutrition in silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amending soil with biochar may be a means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality, but few multiyear field studies have examined the impacts of a one-time biochar application in an irrigated, calcareous soil. Four treatments were applied in the fall 2008: dairy manure (18.7 tons/...

  6. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  7. Survival of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus in different types of manure and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Jin, Yan; Sims, Tom; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2010-08-01

    Noroviruses and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are common causes of foodborne disease. They are usually shed in feces and have been found in sewage water, biosolids, and animal manures. With the wide application of manure and biosolids on agricultural lands, there is an increasing interest in investigating virus survival in manure and biosolids. In this study, Murine norovirus-1 (MNV) and HAV were inoculated into different types of animal manure and three types of differently treated biosolids at 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C for up to 60 days. Both HAV and MNV viral genomes degraded immediately in high pH biosolids type 2 and 3 at time zero. For other types of manure and biosolids, HAV RNA was significantly reduced in biosolids type 1 and in liquid dairy manure (DM) after 60 days stored at 20 degrees C, but was stable in all types of manure and biosolids type 1 at 4 degrees C. MNV RNA was unstable in pelletized poultry litter and biosolids type 1 at 20 degrees C, and less stable in liquid DM at both temperatures. For MNV infectivity, there was no significant difference among pelletized poultry litter, alum-treated poultry litter, raw poultry litter, and swine manure at either 20 degrees C or 4 degrees C after 60 days of storage. However, HAV stored in swine manure and raw poultry litter had significantly higher infectivity levels than HAV stored in alum-treated poultry litter at both 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C. Overall, both viruses were inactivated rapidly in alkaline pH biosolids and unstable in liquid DM, but alum added in poultry litter had different effects on the two viruses: alum inactivated some HAV at both temperatures but had no effect on MNV.

  8. Effects of pH and manure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in soil.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Claudia; Harter, Thomas; Radke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are a commonly used group of compounds in animal husbandry. They are excreted with manure, which is collected in a storage lagoon in certain types of confined animal feeding operations. Flood irrigation of forage fields with this liquid manure creates the potential risk of groundwater contamination in areas with shallow groundwater levels. We tested the hypothesis that-in addition to the soil characteristics-manure as cosolute and manure pH are two major parameters influencing sulfonamide transport in soils. Solute displacement experiments in repacked, saturated soil columns were performed with soil (loamy sand) and manure from a dairy farm in California. Breakthrough of nonreactive tracer and sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole at different solution pH (5, 6.5, 8.5) with and without manure was modeled using Hydrus-1D to infer transport and reaction parameters. Tracer and sulfonamide breakthrough curves were well explained by a model concept based on physical nonequilibrium transport, equilibrium sorption, and first-order dissipation kinetics. Sorption of the antibiotics was low ( K₄ ≤ 0.7 L kg) and only weakly influenced by pH and manure. However, sulfonamide attenuation was significantly affected by both pH and manure. The mass recovery of sulfonamides decreased with decreasing pH, e.g., for sulfamethoxazole from 77 (pH 8.5) to 56% (pH 5). The sulfonamides were highly mobile under the studied conditions, but manure application increased their attenuation substantially. The observed attenuation was most likely caused by a combination of microbial transformation and irreversible sorption to the soil matrix.

  9. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  10. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2−–N and NH4+–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs. PMID:24765570

  11. Estrogenic contamination by manure fertilizer in organic farming: a case study with the lizard Podarcis sicula.

    PubMed

    Verderame, Mariailaria; Limatola, Ermelinda; Scudiero, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, worldwide organic farming has grown exponentially; as a consequence, the use of animal manure as a soil fertility source has become the principal agricultural choice. However, the use of manure as fertilizer can increase the amount of steroid hormone metabolites in the soil. In southern Italy, lacertidae lizards are the most abundant vertebrate group in agroecosystems and have been identified as potential model species for ecotoxicological studies. The aim of this study was to understand if the manure applied in organic farming has estrogen-like effects in the lizard Podarcis sicula. Adult male lizards were captured in two organic agricultural fields (manure-treated sites) and in an uncultivated field (control site). Lizards from the two organic farms displayed hepatic biosynthetic alterations typical of an estrogenic contamination; hepatocytes contained both vitellogenin and estrogen receptor alpha transcripts and proteins, detected by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. The same cells did not show cadmium, lead and metallothionein accumulation, indicative of the lack of inorganic contamination. These findings suggest that exogenous estrogens, arising from the use of manure, could affect the welfare of wild animals and animal breeding, leading to bioaccumulation of estrogens in food chain, with possible risk for human consumers. For this reason, organic farming should implement the use of sustainable practices such as crop rotation to preserve the soil biological activity, rather than organic manure as fertilizer.

  12. Optimizing the logistics of anaerobic digestion of manure.

    PubMed

    Ghafoori, Emad; Flynn, Peter C

    2007-04-01

    Electrical power production from the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is a means of recovering energy from animal waste. We evaluate the lowest cost method of moving material to and from centralized AD plants serving multiple confined feeding operations. Two areas are modeled, Lethbridge County, Alberta, Canada, an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, and Red Deer County, Alberta, a mixed-farming area with hog, dairy, chicken and beef cattle farms, and feedlots. We evaluate two types of AD plant: ones that return digestate to the source confined feeding operation for land spreading (current technology), and ones that process digestate to produce solid fertilizer and a dischargeable water stream (technology under development). We evaluate manure and digestate trucking, trucking of manure with return of digestate by pipelines, and pipelining of manure plus digestate. We compare the overall cost of power from these scenarios to farm or feedlot-based AD units. For a centralized AD plant with digestate return for land spreading the most economical transport option for manure plus digestate is by truck for the mixed-farming area and by pipelines for the concentrated feedlot area. For a centralized AD plant with digestate processing, the most economical transport option is trucking of manure for both cases.However, for the concentrated feedlot area, pipeline transport of manure is close in cost to trucking, and the impact of truck congestion would likely lead to selection of pipeline transport. For the mixed-farming area, centralized AD is more economical than for any individual farm or feedlot unit. For the concentrated feedlot area, a centralized AD plant is less economical than a feedlot-based AD unit more than 55,000 head (digestate return) and 300,000 head (digestate processing). The study demonstrates the viability of centralized AD plants vs farm-based units in most farming environments, and that careful analysis of the cost of

  13. Microwave pretreatment for enhancement of phosphorus release from dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Szu-Hua; Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang; Schreier, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Both the advanced oxidation process (AOP) using a combination of hydrogen peroxide addition and microwave heating (H2O2/microwave), and the microwave heating process were used for solubilization of phosphorus from liquid dairy manure. About 80% of total phosphate was released into the solution at a microwave heating time of 5 min at 170 degrees C. With an addition of H2O2, more than 81% of total phosphate could be released over a reaction period of 49 h at ambient temperature. The AOP process could achieve up to 85% of total phosphate release at 120 degrees C. The results indicated that both the microwave, and the AOP processes could effectively release phosphate from liquid dairy manure. These processes could serve as pretreatments for phosphorus recovery from animal wastes, and could be combined with the struvite crystallization process to provide a new approach in treating animal wastes.

  14. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer.

  15. Green farming systems for the Southeast USA using manure-to-energy conversion platforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock operations in the Southeastern USA are faced with implementing holistic solutions to address effective manure treatment through efficient energy management and safeguarding of supporting natural resources. By integrating waste-to-energy conversion platforms, future green farming systems ca...

  16. Vitamin D3 for the Treatment of Epilepsy: Basic Mechanisms, Animal Models, and Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Pendo, Kevin; DeGiorgio, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence supporting dietary and alternative therapies for epilepsy, including the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin D3 is actively under investigation as a potential intervention for epilepsy. Vitamin D3 is fat-soluble steroid, which shows promise in animal models of epilepsy. Basic research has shed light on the possible mechanisms by which Vitamin D3 may reduce seizures, and animal data support the efficacy of Vitamin D3 in rat and mouse models of epilepsy. Very little clinical data exist to support the treatment of human epilepsy with Vitamin D3, but positive findings from preliminary clinical trials warrant larger Phase I and II clinical trials in order to more rigorously determine the potential therapeutic value of Vitamin D3 as a treatment for human epilepsy. PMID:28008324

  17. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff.

  18. Effects of bamboo charcoal on antibiotic resistance genes during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Haichao; Duan, Manli; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Yajun; Qian, Xun; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2017-06-01

    Composting is widely used for animal waste disposal, and bamboo charcoal (BC) can be used for nitrogen conservation during composting. However, the effects of BC on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during chicken manure composting are still unclear. This study investigated the effects on ARGs of adding different proportions of BC (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% w/w) to chicken manure compost. After 26 days, the relative abundances (RAs) of most ARGs (tetC, tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, drfA7, ermB, ermF, ermQ, and ermX) and intI1 declined by 21.6-99.5%, whereas sul1 increased by 7.5-17.7 times. The average RAs reductions with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% BC were 0.85, 1.05, 1.08, and 1.15 logs, respectively. The most important environmental factor for the ARG profiles was temperature according to redundancy analysis. Furthermore, BC significantly decreased the bio-Cu and bio-Zn levels, thereby reducing the co-selection pressure from heavy metals. Different proportions of BC had no significant effects on the removal of tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, and ermB. Supplementation with 10% BC was more effective at removing tetC and drfA7 compared with the other treatments. The results suggested that 10% BC supplementation is appropriate for reducing ARGs in chicken manure compost.

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  20. Manure Preferences and Postemergence Learning of Two Filth Fly Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caitlin E; Machtinger, Erika T; Geden, Christopher J; Kramer, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is crucial to the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information garnered from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commercially available parasitoids of filth flies. Postemergence exposure to a specific manure may provide a way to increase parasitism in specific microhabitats found at livestock facilities upon release. In this study, female parasitoids of both species were exposed to equine manure, bovine manure, or clean pupae. Females from each emergence exposure were tested in a two-choice arena (house fly hosts in bovine manure versus clean pupae, equine manure versus clean pupae, and equine manure versus bovine manure) for progeny production. There was a detectable but small effect of postemergence exposure on S. cameroni, but it was not sufficient to reverse innate preferences. Females consistently produced more progeny in hosts found in any manure over clean pupae, and in equine manure over bovine manure. The effect of postemergence exposure on M. raptor was also detectable but small. Females produced equal numbers of progeny in bovine manure versus clean pupae, as opposed to preferring to oviposit in clean pupae as with all other treatments. Preferences by M. raptor were overall less marked than for S. cameroni; indeed most of the variability observed for this species did not result from the treatment design. Residual host mortality was also detectably altered by exposure in both species, but the effect was small. Thus, postemergence exposure did not consistently and effectively manipulate these parasitoids to producing progeny in different exposure manures, suggesting that microhabitat preferences are largely determined by other factors.

  1. Manure Preferences and Postemergence Learning of Two Filth Fly Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is crucial to the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information garnered from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commercially available parasitoids of filth flies. Postemergence exposure to a specific manure may provide a way to increase parasitism in specific microhabitats found at livestock facilities upon release. In this study, female parasitoids of both species were exposed to equine manure, bovine manure, or clean pupae. Females from each emergence exposure were tested in a two-choice arena (house fly hosts in bovine manure versus clean pupae, equine manure versus clean pupae, and equine manure versus bovine manure) for progeny production. There was a detectable but small effect of postemergence exposure on S. cameroni, but it was not sufficient to reverse innate preferences. Females consistently produced more progeny in hosts found in any manure over clean pupae, and in equine manure over bovine manure. The effect of postemergence exposure on M. raptor was also detectable but small. Females produced equal numbers of progeny in bovine manure versus clean pupae, as opposed to preferring to oviposit in clean pupae as with all other treatments. Preferences by M. raptor were overall less marked than for S. cameroni; indeed most of the variability observed for this species did not result from the treatment design. Residual host mortality was also detectably altered by exposure in both species, but the effect was small. Thus, postemergence exposure did not consistently and effectively manipulate these parasitoids to producing progeny in different exposure manures, suggesting that microhabitat preferences are largely determined by other factors. PMID:27936090

  2. Practical survey on antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities in livestock manure and manure-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Wang, Ruifei; Ren, Siwei; Szoboszlay, Marton; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Through livestock manure fertilization, antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are transferred to agricultural soils, resulting in a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the soil. It is not clear, however, whether a correlation exists between resistant bacterial populations in manure and manure-amended soil. In this work, we demonstrate that the prevalence of cephalexin-, amoxicillin-, kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria as well as bacteria simultaneously resistant to all four antibiotics was much higher in manure-amended soils than in manure-free soil. 454-pyrosequencing indicated that the ARB and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in swine or chicken manure and manure-amended soil were mainly distributed among Sphingobacterium, Myroides, Enterococcus, Comamonas and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae. The genus Sphingobacterium was highly prevalent among ARB from swine manure and manure-amended soil, and was also the most dominant genus among MARB from chicken manure and manure-amended soil. Other dominant genera among ARB or MARB populations in manure samples, including Myroides, Enterococcus and Comamonas, could not be detected or were detected at very low relative abundance in manure-amended soil. The present study suggests the possibility of transfer of ARBs from livestock manures to soils and persistence of ARB in these environments.

  3. Runoff phosphorus loss immediately after poultry manure application as influenced by the application rate and tillage.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Daniel E; Mallarino, Antonio P; Haq, Mazhar U; Allen, Brett L

    2009-01-01

    Excessive or N-based application of poultry manure for crops may result in significant risk of P loss with surface runoff. This study assessed P loss immediately after poultry manure application to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] residue with and without tillage at eight Iowa fields. Manure from chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) or turkeys (Melleagris gollopavo) was applied at intended rates of 0, 84, or 168 kg total N ha(-1) (total P was 0, 21-63, 50-123 kg P ha(-1), respectively) with three replications. Simulated rainfall (76 mm h(-1)) was applied to 3-m2 sections of larger field plots with 2 to 7% slope, usually within 2 d of application, to collect runoff during 30 min. Runoff was analyzed for concentrations of sediment, dissolved reactive P (DRPC), bioavailable P (BAPC), and total P (TPRC). Non-incorporated manure consistently increased (P < or = 0.10) concentrations of all runoff P fractions in five sites, but there were increasing trends at all sites, and on average manure increased DRPC, BAPC, and TPRC 32, 23, and 12 times, respectively, over the control. Tillage to incorporate manure reduced DRPC, BAPC, and TPRC by 88, 89, and 77% on average, respectively, although in non-manured plots tillage seldom affected DRPC or BAPC and often increased TPRC. Tillage increased sediment concentration in runoff but not enough to offset the benefits of manure P incorporation. Runoff P loads generally followed trends of runoff P concentrations but were more variable, and significant treatment effects were less frequent. Overall, incorporation of manure by tillage was very effective at reducing P loss during runoff events shortly after poultry manure application under the conditions of this study.

  4. Effects of Feeding Encapsulated Nitrate to Beef Cattle on Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Their Manure in a Short-Term Manure Storage System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanhee; Araujo, Rafael C; Koenig, Karen M; Hile, Michael L; Fabian-Wheeler, Eileen E; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Urinary, fecal, and manure nitrate (NO)-N concentration linearly increased ( < 0.001) with feeding EN, and urinary urea concentration tended to be lower ( = 0.078) for EN versus Control. The hourly emissions of NH, CO, and NO (mg head h) were not affected, although NH emission rates tended to be lower ( = 0.070) for EN compared with Control at 0 to 12 h. Cumulative NH, CO, and NO emissions over 156 h were not affected, but CH emissions were less (4.5 vs. 7.4 g head; = 0.027) for EN compared with Control. In conclusion, although NH emissions were initially lower for EN manures, total NH emitted over 156 h was not affected. Dietary EN lowered CH emissions from manure, and, despite greater NO concentrations in EN manure, NO emissions were not affected in this short-term incubation.

  5. Process modeling of ammonia volatilization from ammonium solution and manure surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations have become an important concern because of their potential effects on animal and human health and the environment. Emissions occur from manure surfaces on the barn floor, during storage, and following field application. To better quantify ammonia emi...

  6. Detection of Manure-Derived Organic Compounds in Rivers Draining Agricultural Areas of Intensive Manure Spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardé, E.; Gruau, G.

    2006-12-01

    This study presents the potentiality of organic markers to trace the impact of animal manure in soils and rivers draining agricultural watersheds. As described by Gruau et al. (in this session), the analysis of long term records of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five watersheds in Brittany (western of France) shows divergent trends which can not be explained solely by global changes. One alternative explanation could be that long- term records of DOM in rivers are controlled by human activities, and notably by agricultural practices. In Brittany, the agricultural intensification led to an over-application of animal manures to soils. This practice can strongly increase the amount of soil-water extractable organic matter, thereby leading to an increase of organic matter fluxes in agricultural landscapes and then to a contamination of river waters. Such an hypothesis deserves consideration in view of the massive manure fluxes that are disposed on agricultural land in many parts of the world. In this goal, our study aimed at determining potential sources of organic matter and molecular markers or specific distributions in rivers draining agricultural watersheds. In this study we focused on the analysis of pig slurries because of the importance of pig production in Brittany. The analysis of pig slurry evidenced the presence of coprostanol (5β) as a specific marker, originating from the bio- hydrogenation of cholesterol by anaerobic bacteria. The difference with other animal or human wastes has been evidenced by two ratios: 5β/C27 and C29/C27. After the validation of the ability of coprostanol to be a molecular marker of pig slurry, our analysis has been focused on the OM of watersheds in Brittany showing divergent evolutions. The results show a systematic relation between the C29/C27 and 5β/C27 ratios and the type of animal breeding in each watershed. This study allows us to evidence the impact of animal breeding activities in the analysed rivers. Such a study

  7. Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization.

    PubMed

    Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Wichmann, Fabienne; Broderick, Nichole A; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-10-21

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global threat to public health. Agricultural use of antibiotics is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanisms by which many agricultural practices influence resistance remain obscure. Although manure from dairy farms is a common soil amendment in crop production, its impact on the soil microbiome and resistome is not known. To gain insight into this impact, we cultured bacteria from soil before and at 10 time points after application of manure from cows that had not received antibiotic treatment. Soil treated with manure contained a higher abundance of β-lactam-resistant bacteria than soil treated with inorganic fertilizer. Functional metagenomics identified β-lactam-resistance genes in treated and untreated soil, and indicated that the higher frequency of resistant bacteria in manure-amended soil was attributable to enrichment of resident soil bacteria that harbor β-lactamases. Quantitative PCR indicated that manure treatment enriched the blaCEP-04 gene, which is highly similar (96%) to a gene found previously in a Pseudomonas sp. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the abundance of Pseudomonas spp. increased in manure-amended soil. Populations of other soil bacteria that commonly harbor β-lactamases, including Janthinobacterium sp. and Psychrobacter pulmonis, also increased in response to manure treatment. These results indicate that manure amendment induced a bloom of certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil that was independent of antibiotic exposure of the cows from which the manure was derived. Our data illustrate the unintended consequences that can result from agricultural practices, and demonstrate the need for empirical analysis of the agroecosystem.

  8. Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Wichmann, Fabienne; Broderick, Nichole A.; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global threat to public health. Agricultural use of antibiotics is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanisms by which many agricultural practices influence resistance remain obscure. Although manure from dairy farms is a common soil amendment in crop production, its impact on the soil microbiome and resistome is not known. To gain insight into this impact, we cultured bacteria from soil before and at 10 time points after application of manure from cows that had not received antibiotic treatment. Soil treated with manure contained a higher abundance of β-lactam–resistant bacteria than soil treated with inorganic fertilizer. Functional metagenomics identified β-lactam–resistance genes in treated and untreated soil, and indicated that the higher frequency of resistant bacteria in manure-amended soil was attributable to enrichment of resident soil bacteria that harbor β-lactamases. Quantitative PCR indicated that manure treatment enriched the blaCEP-04 gene, which is highly similar (96%) to a gene found previously in a Pseudomonas sp. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the abundance of Pseudomonas spp. increased in manure-amended soil. Populations of other soil bacteria that commonly harbor β-lactamases, including Janthinobacterium sp. and Psychrobacter pulmonis, also increased in response to manure treatment. These results indicate that manure amendment induced a bloom of certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil that was independent of antibiotic exposure of the cows from which the manure was derived. Our data illustrate the unintended consequences that can result from agricultural practices, and demonstrate the need for empirical analysis of the agroecosystem. PMID:25288759

  9. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Cata Saady, Noori M.; Gilbert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Beside their use to treat infections, antibiotics are used excessively as growth promoting factors in livestock industry. Animals discharge in their feces and urine between 70%–90% of the antibiotic administrated unchanged or in active metabolites. Because livestock manure is re-applied to land as a fertilizer, concerns are growing over spread of antibiotics in water and soil. Development of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major risk. This paper reviewed the potential of anaerobic digestion to degrade antibiotics in livestock manure. Anaerobic digestion can degrade manure-laden antibiotic to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Abstract Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical) versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics’ metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion. PMID

  10. Recycling manure as cow bedding: Potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Leach, Katharine A; Archer, Simon C; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J; Ohnstad, Ian C; Tuer, Sally; Bradley, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health.

  11. Animal models for diabetes: Understanding the pathogenesis and finding new treatments.

    PubMed

    King, Aileen; Bowe, James

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong, metabolic disease that is characterised by an inability to maintain normal glucose homeostasis. There are several different forms of diabetes, however the two most common are Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is caused by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells and a subsequent lack of insulin production, whilst Type 2 diabetes is due to a combination of both insulin resistance and an inability of the beta cells to compensate adequately with increased insulin release. Animal models are increasingly being used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes as well as to identify and refine novel treatments. However, a wide range of different animal models are currently in use. The majority of these models are suited to addressing certain specific aspects of diabetes research, but may be of little use in other studies. All have pros and cons, and selecting an appropriate model for addressing a specific question is not always a trivial task and will influence the study results and their interpretation. Thus, as the number of available animal models increases it is important to consider the potential roles of these models in the many different aspects of diabetes research. This review gathers information on the currently used experimental animal models of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes and evaluates their advantages and disadvantages for research purposes and details the factors that should be taken into account in their use.

  12. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  13. Use of mammal manure by nesting burrowing owls: a test of four functional hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Animals have evolved an impressive array of behavioural traits to avoid depredation. Olfactory camouflage of conspicuous odours is a strategy to avoid depredation that has been implicated only in a few species of birds. Burrowing owls, Athene cunicularia, routinely collect dried manure from mammals and scatter it in their nest chamber, in the tunnel leading to their nest and at the entrance to their nesting burrow. This unusual behaviour was thought to reduce nest depredation by concealing the scent of adults and juveniles, but a recent study suggests that manure functions to attract arthropod prey. However, burrowing owls routinely scatter other materials in the same way that they scatter manure, and this fact seems to be at odds with both of these hypotheses. Thus, we examined the function of this behaviour by testing four alternative hypotheses. We found no support for the widely cited olfactory-camouflage hypothesis (manure did not lower the probability of depredation), or for the mate-attraction hypothesis (males collected manure after, not before, pair formation). Predictions of the burrow-occupied hypothesis (manure indicates occupancy to conspecifics and thereby reduces agonistic interactions) were supported, but results were not statistically significant. Our results also supported several predictions of the prey-attraction hypothesis. Pitfall traps at sampling sites with manure collected more arthropod biomass (of taxa common in the diet of burrowing owls) than pitfall traps at sampling sites without manure. Scattering behaviour of burrowing owls appears to function to attract arthropod prey, but may also signal occupancy of a burrow to conspecifics. ?? 2006 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  14. Cancer prevention and treatment using combination therapy with plant- and animal-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Uzoigwe, Jacinta; Sauter, Edward R

    2012-11-01

    Compounds naturally occurring in plants and animals play an essential role in the prevention and treatment of various cancers. There are more than 100 plant- and animal-based natural compounds currently in clinical use. Similar to synthetic compounds, these natural compounds are associated with dose-related toxicity that limits efficacy. Scientists have investigated combination therapy with compounds that have different toxicities in order to optimize efficacy. These combination therapies may work additively or synergistically, there may be no effect or they may promote tumor formation. Combination therapy with agents that have similar mechanisms of action may increase toxicity. In this article, combination therapies that have been investigated, their rationale, mechanism of action and findings are reviewed. When the data warrant it, combined (pharmacologic and natural; two or more natural) interventions that appear to increase efficacy (compared with monotherapy) while minimizing toxicity have been highlighted.

  15. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain

  16. Long-term manure amendments reduced soil aggregate stability via redistribution of the glomalin-related soil protein in macroaggregates.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongtu; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lianfeng; Wang, Jingkuan; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm; 2000-250 μm; 250-53 μm; and <53 μm). The treatments include no fertilization (CK), low and high manure amendment (M1, M2), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK), and combined manure and chemical fertilizers (NPKM1, NPKM2). Though SOC, GRSPe and GRSPt in soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000-250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture.

  17. Manure phosphorus extractability as affected by aluminum- and iron by-products and aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Dao, T H; Sikora, L J; Hamasaki, A; Chaney, R L

    2001-01-01

    Shifts in manure phosphorus (P) chemical forms and pool sizes induced by water treatment residuals and industrial mineral by-products are largely undefined. We conducted a manure P fractionation study to determine mechanisms of reduction of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in poultry manure upon mineral by-product additions. The effects of composting on the P immobilization efficacy of the by-products were determined using laboratory self-heating composting simulators. The mineral by-products included an aluminum-water treatment residual (Al-WTR) and an iron-rich titanium-processing by-product. The noncomposted manure averaged 0.11 g g(-1) of total P as DRP forms. The by-products significantly reduced manure DRP, by an average of 39 and 48% in the Al- and the Fe-treated manure, respectively. The by-products also reduced the 0.5 M NH4F-extractable phosphorus (FEP) fraction. Shifts in P forms between FEP and 0.1 M NaOH-extractable phosphorus (SHEP) depended upon the Al and Fe contents of the by-products while the combined FEP + SHEP pool remained constant. Phosphate sorption measurements supported the observations that the Fe-rich by-product was more effective at reducing manure DRP and enhancing the formation of SHEP forms at the expense of FEP than the Al-WTR. Composting had no effect on the efficacy of either by-product to reduce DRP. Potential mechanisms of enhanced P stabilization in treated manure upon composting included chemical shifts from the DRP and FEP fractions to the citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite extractable P fraction. Thus, the choice of P immobilization agents affected the stability of immobilized P forms and should be taken into consideration in developing manure processing and nutrient stabilization methods.

  18. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  19. Alternative soil quality indices for evaluating the effect of intensive cropping, fertilisation and manuring for 31 years in the semi-arid soils of India.

    PubMed

    Masto, Reginald Ebhin; Chhonkar, Pramod K; Singh, Dhyan; Patra, Ashok K

    2008-01-01

    Soil quality assessment provides a tool for evaluating the sustainability of alternative soil management practices. Our objective was to develop the most sensitive soil quality index for evaluating fertilizer, farm yard manure (FYM), and crop management practices on a semiarid Inceptisol in India. Soil indicators and crop yield data from a long-term (31 years) fertilizer, manure, and crop rotation (maize, wheat, cowpea, pearl millet) study at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) near New Delhi were used. Plots receiving optimum NPK, super optimum NPK and optimum NPK + FYM had better values for all the parameters analyzed. Biological, chemical, and physical soil quality indicator data were transformed into scores (0 to 1) using both linear and non-linear scoring functions, and combined into soil quality indices using unscreened transformations, regression equation, or principal component analysis (PCA). Long-term application of optimum inorganic fertilizers (NPK) resulted in higher soil quality ratings for all methods, although the highest values were obtained for treatment, which included FYM. Correlations between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and the various soil quality indices showed the best relationship (highest r) between yield and a PCA-derived SQI. Differences in SQI values suggest that the control (no NPK, no manure) and N only treatments were degrading, while soils receiving animal manure (FYM) or super optimum NPK fertilizer had the best soil quality, respectively. Lower ratings associated with the N only and NP treatments suggest that one of the most common soil management practices in India may not be sustainable. A framework for soil quality assessment is proposed.

  20. Natural healers: a review of animal assisted therapy and activities as complementary treatment for chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Reed, Reiley; Ferrer, Lilian; Villegas, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this review is to synthesize the existing literature on the use of animal-assisted therapy and activity (AAT/A) as complementary treatment among people living with chronic disease and to discuss the possible application of this practice among children living with HIV. Relevant databases were searched between March 10 and April 11, 2011, using the words: animal assisted therapy or treatment and chronic conditions or diseases. Thirty-one articles were found and 18 followed the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Research suggests that AAT/A is effective for different patient profiles, particularly children. Interaction with dogs has been found to increase positive behaviors, such as sensitivity and focus, in children with social disabilities. Decreased levels of pain have also been reported among child patients as a result of AAT/A. More research should be done in the area of children living with chronic diseases that require strict adherence to treatment, such as HIV, and on AAT/A's prospective use as an educational tool to teach children about the importance of self-care for their medical conditions.

  1. Monitoring tumor growth and treatment in small animals with magnetic resonance and optical tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masciotti, J.; Provenzano, F.; Papa, J.; Klose, A.; Hur, J.; Gu, X.; Yamashiro, D.; Kandel, J.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2006-02-01

    Small animal models are employed to simulate disease in humans and to study its progression, what factors are important to the disease process, and to study the disease treatment. Biomedical imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Optical Tomography make it possible to non-invasively monitor the progression of diseases in living small animals and study the efficacy of drugs and treatment protocols. MRI is an established imaging modality capable of obtaining high resolution anatomical images and along with contrast agents allow the studying of blood volume. Optical tomography, on the other hand, is an emerging imaging modality, which, while much lower in spatial resolution, can separate the effects of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and blood volume with high temporal resolution. In this study we apply these modalities to imaging the growth of kidney tumors and then there treatment by an anti-VEGF agent. We illustrate how these imaging modalities have their individual uses, but can still supplement each other and cross validation can be performed.

  2. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle manure heaps: effect of compaction and covering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, D. R.

    The effect of compaction and covering during storage of beef cattle ( Bos taurus) farmyard manure (FYM) on ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) emissions was determined. Gaseous emission measurements were made over three separate storage periods of between 90 and 109 days. The effect of the different storage treatments on manure chemical composition was also determined. Compaction was carried out as the manure was put into store and the compacted manures covered with plastic sheeting. Compaction and covering significantly reduced NH 3 emissions from manure by over 90% during the first summer storage period (P<0.05). Over the subsequent storage periods NH 3 emissions from the FYM were small and unaffected by storage treatment. However, during the second storage period heavy and persistent rainfall during heap establishment and the following week appeared to reduce NH 3 emissions markedly. The low ammonium-N content of the FYM in the third storage period may have reduced the risk of NH 3 emission and reduced the relative effect of the compaction/covering treatment. Compaction and covering also significantly reduced N 2O emissions from cattle FYM (P<0.05) by ca. 30% during the first storage period. Subsequent N 2O emissions were unaffected by treatment. Methane emissions from cattle FYM were unaffected by treatment over the first storage period and were decreased by compaction in the second storage period yet was increased by compaction during the third storage period. It would appear that compacting and covering manure heaps does have the potential to reduce emissions of both NH 3 and N 2O when the manure contains relatively high ammonium-N contents. Additional benefits are that N and K are retained in the manure heap for agronomic benefit.

  3. Effect of nitrogen and fish manure fertilization on growth and chemical composition of lettuce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Ertan; Kul, Raziye; Turan, Metin; Ekinci, Melek; Alak, Gonca; Atamanalp, Muhammet

    2016-04-01

    Present experiment was designed to determine the response of various dozes of fish manure (FM) and commercial fertilizers on plant growth, yield and nutrient content of lettuce. The treatments consisted of fish manure, commercial fertilizer and the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer with four dozes of nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha). The results of the study showed that treatments significantly affected the growth and chemical characteristics of lettuce. The best results in regard to plant growth and yield were obtained from 100 and 150 kg kg/ha nitrogen dozes of the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer.

  4. Ammonia volatilization after surface application of laying-hen and broiler-chicken manures.

    PubMed

    Miola, Ezequiel C C; Rochette, Philippe; Chantigny, Martin H; Angers, Denis A; Aita, Celso; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Pelster, David E; Bertrand, Normand

    2014-11-01

    Ammonia (NH) losses after field application of animal manure are affected by manure characteristics. The objectives of this study were to quantify NH losses from poultry manures obtained from varied handling and storage systems commonly found in eastern Canada and to relate NH emissions to manure characteristics. We measured NH volatilization using wind tunnels for 22 d after soil-surface application of seven solid poultry manures originating from farms varying in production type (laying hens and broiler chickens) and in storage duration and conditions. Cumulative emissions (2.7-7.0 g NH-N m) accounted for 13.6 to 35.0% of the total N applied and 51 to 84% (mean, 70%) of the sum of ammoniacal N, urea N, and uric acid N applied (TAUA). On average, 20% of these losses occurred during the first 4.5 h after application for manures that were not dried in the barn shortly after excretion. Production type and storage durations could not explain differences in NH volatilization between manures. Volatilization losses were linearly related to manure dry matter and to manure-derived NH-N, but sources of N changed with time after application. During the first 7 d, variations in total ammoniacal N applied (TANA) among manures explained most of the variations in cumulative NH losses ( = 0.85 after 26 h and 0.92 after 7 d). After a simulated rainfall (5 mm) on Day 7 that stimulated the decomposition of uric acid in manures, TAUA rather than TANA was related to cumulative emissions ( = 0.77 after 14 and 22 d). Our results indicate that reliable estimates of NH volatilization after land spreading of poultry manures should be based not only on TANA but also on NH-N derived from the decomposition of uric acid, that volatilization losses reported in the literature (including the present study) averaged 50% of TAUA, and that estimates for a given situation also need to account for local environmental conditions.

  5. Neuroethics, painience, and neurocentric criteria for the moral treatment of animals.

    PubMed

    Loveless, Sherry E; Giordano, James

    2014-04-01

    Neuroscience affords knowledge that can be leveraged in the ontological valuation of individuals, groups, and species. Sociocultural sentiments, norms, and mores may impede embracing such knowledge to revise moral attitudes, ethics, and policies. We argue that the practices of neuroethics will be valuable in that they ground ethico-legal discourse in (1) naturalistic philosophy; (2) the current epistemological capital of neuroscience; (3) the issues, problems, and solutions arising in and from neuroscientific research and its applications; and 4) the use of neurocentric criteria-such as painience-to define and resolve ethical decisions regarding attitudes toward and treatment of nonhuman animals.

  6. Drug treatment of canine acral lick. An animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, J L; Ryland, D H; Kriete, M

    1992-07-01

    Canine acral lick dermatitis is a naturally occurring disorder in which excessive licking of paws or flank can produce ulcers and infection that require medical treatment. Forty-two dogs with severe chronic canine acral lick dermatitis were treated in three double-blind crossover comparisons of clomipramine hydrochloride/desipramine hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride/fenfluramine hydrochloride, and sertraline hydrochloride/placebo. The serotonin uptake blocking drugs were clinically effective, while the other drugs were not. Based on phenomenology and pharmacological response, we propose canine acral lick dermatitis as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  7. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: trial on different animal model.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Tooru; Fujimoto, Takuya; Sudo, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Epstein, Alan L; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki

    2014-06-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS.

  8. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C.

  9. [Effects of nitrogen application and winter green manure on soil active organic carbon and the soil carbon pool management index].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Lan, Yan; Chen, Hong-Jun; Wang, Shu-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Based on a cropping system of "winter green manure-double rice", the 4 x 4 two-factor test was used to study the effects of different nitrogen (N) application levels and winter green manure application on soil active organic carbon (AOC) and the C pool management index. The aim was to explore the ecological effects of winter green manure on soil improvement and determine the appropriate application levels of N fertilizer and winter green manure for improved rice yield. Results were as follows: 1) Compared with the control, the SOC and AOC contents increased by 22.2% and 26.7%, respectively, under the green manure only treatment, but the SOC contents decreased by 0.6%-3.4% under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with the control, the soil C pool management index increased by 24.55 and 15.17 under the green manure only and green manure plus N fertilizer treatments, respectively, and reduced by 2.59 under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with no fertilization, the average microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased by 54.0%, 95.2% and 14.3% under the green manure, green manure plus N fertilizer and single N fertilizer treatments, respectively. 2) The soil AOC content was significantly positively correlated with the C pool management index (P < 0.01), and had a significant correlation with dis- solved organic C and MBC (P < 0.05). Rice yield was significantly positively correlated with AOC contents and the C pool management index, and the correlation coefficient was significantly greater than that with the total organic C. These results suggested that application of winter green manure at proper rates with inorganic fertilizer could increase SOC contents and the soil C pool management index, improve soil quality and fertility.

  10. Effects of green manures on growth, yield and quality of green okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har Lium Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P; Kaewsit, S

    2007-04-01

    This green manure experiment with the use of okra crop as indicator plant was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand during May to September 2005 to investigate four types of green manure legume crops on growth, yield and quality of edible fresh pods of okra crop when grown on Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The four types of green manure plants include Jack bean, Cowpea, Green gram, and Giant sensitive plant. The experiment consisted of five treatments, i.e., T1 (Control), T2 (Jack bean), T3 (Cowpea), T4 (Green gram) and T5 (Giant sensitive plant). The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults) contained some considerable mean values of organic matter (1.64-1.66%) but soil available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were relatively low, particularly potassium. Green manures of the four legume plants slightly improved soil property of the Roi-Et soil series (tested at the end of the experimental period). The most effective green manure on stem diameter, bushy diameter, leaf numbers plant(-1) and leaf area of the fifth leaf of the okra plants, in most cases, was found with Jack bean and Cowpea ranked the second. However, in most cases, Cowpea gave a similar effect as that of Green gram and Giant sensitive plant. Pod length and weight pod(-1), pod diameter and edible fresh pod yields (5941.86 kg ha(-1)) were highest with Jack bean green manure treatment (T2), whilst the rest, in most cases, were similar. Green manure treatments gave highly significant effect on total soluble solids of pods over the control treatment, whilst total acidity, fibre and pectin contents were unaffected by green manure treatments. Green manure of Jack bean was the best legume crop for green manure to be used in improving soil fertility, particularly for Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults).

  11. A review on animal models and treatments for the reconstruction of Achilles and flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Bottagisio, Marta; Lovati, Arianna B

    2017-03-01

    Tendon is a connective tissue mainly composed of collagen fibers with peculiar mechanical properties essential to functional movements. The increasing incidence of tendon traumatic injuries and ruptures-associated or not with the loss of tissue-falls on the growing interest in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The use of animal models is mandatory to deepen the knowledge of the tendon healing response to severe damages or acute transections. Thus, the selection of preclinical models is crucial to ensure a successful translation of effective and safe innovative treatments to the clinical practice. The current review is focused on animal models of tendon ruptures and lacerations or defective injuries with large tissue loss that require surgical approaches or grafting procedures. Data published between 2000 and 2016 were examined. The analyzed articles were compiled from Pub Med-NCBI using search terms, including animal model(s) AND tendon augmentation OR tendon substitute(s) OR tendon substitution OR tendon replacement OR tendon graft(s) OR tendon defect(s) OR tendon rupture(s). This article presents the existing preclinical models - considering their advantages and disadvantages-in which translational progresses have been made by using bioactive sutures or tissue engineering that combines biomaterials with cells and growth factors to efficiently treat transections or large defects of Achilles and flexor tendons.

  12. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  13. SU-C-BRE-01: 3D Conformal Micro Irradiation Results of Four Treatment Sites for Preclinical Small Animal and Clinical Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S; Yaddanapudi, S; Rangaraj, D; Izaguirre, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Small animal irradiation can provide preclinical insights necessary for clinical advancement. In order to provide clinically relevant data, these small animal irradiations must be designed such that the treatment methods and results are comparable to clinical protocols, regardless of variations in treatment size and modality. Methods: Small animal treatments for four treatment sites (brain, liver, lung and spine) were investigated, accounting for change in treatment energy and target size. Up to five orthovoltage (300kVp) beams were used in the preclinical treatments, using circular, square, and conformal tungsten apertures, based on the treatment site. Treatments were delivered using the image guided micro irradiator (microIGRT). The plans were delivered to a mouse sized phantom and dose measurements in axial and coronal planes were performed using radiochromic film. The results of the clinical and preclinical protocols were characterized in terms of conformality number, CTV coverage, dose nonuniformity ratio, and organ at risk sparing. Results: Preclinical small animal treatment conformality was within 1–16% of clinical results for all treatment sites. The volume of the CTV receiving 100% of the prescription dose was typically within 10% of clinical values. The dose non-uniformity was consistently higher for preclinical treatments compared to clinical treatments, indicating hot spots in the target. The ratios of the mean dose in the target to the mean dose in an organ at risk were comparable if not better for preclinical versus clinical treatments. Finally, QUANTEC dose constraints were applied and the recommended morbidity limits were satisfied in each small animal treatment site. Conclusion: We have shown that for four treatment sites, preclinical 3D conformal small animal treatments can be clinically comparable if clinical protocols are followed. Using clinical protocols as the standard, preclinical irradiation methods can be altered and iteratively

  14. 2010 ACVIM small animal consensus statement on leptospirosis: diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sykes, J E; Hartmann, K; Lunn, K F; Moore, G E; Stoddard, R A; Goldstein, R E

    2011-01-01

    This report offers a consensus opinion on the diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of leptospirosis in dogs, an important zoonosis. Clinical signs of leptospirosis in dogs relate to development of renal disease, hepatic disease, uveitis, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Disease may follow periods of high rainfall, and can occur in dogs roaming in proximity to water sources, farm animals, or wildlife, or dogs residing in suburban environments. Diagnosis is based on acute and convalescent phase antibody titers by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), with or without use of polymerase chain reaction assays. There is considerable interlaboratory variation in MAT results, and the MAT does not accurately predict the infecting serogroup. The recommended treatment for optimal clearance of the organism from renal tubules is doxycycline, 5 mg/kg p.o. q12h, for 14 days. Annual vaccination can prevent leptospirosis caused by serovars included in the vaccine and is recommended for dogs at risk of infection.

  15. Successful treatment of advanced Ebola virus infection with T-705 (favipiravir) in a small animal model.

    PubMed

    Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Wurr, Stephanie; Rieger, Toni; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Günther, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a vaccine nor an effective antiviral treatment is available for use in humans. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the pyrazinecarboxamide derivative T-705 (favipiravir) against Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) in vitro and in vivo. T-705 suppressed replication of Zaire EBOV in cell culture by 4log units with an IC90 of 110μM. Mice lacking the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR(-)(/)(-)) were used as in vivo model for Zaire EBOV-induced disease. Initiation of T-705 administration at day 6 post infection induced rapid virus clearance, reduced biochemical parameters of disease severity, and prevented a lethal outcome in 100% of the animals. The findings suggest that T-705 is a candidate for treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

  16. Modeling rainfall-induced release of manure constituents from surface-applied liquid dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Release kinetics of manure constituents (MC) is an important mechanism affecting overland and subsurface transport of manure-borne contaminants. Present release models adequately describe the rainfall-induced release of MC from surface-applied solid manure, but these models are not applicable for li...

  17. Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...

  18. A novel phosphorus biofertilizer based on cattle manure and phytases-nanoclay complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, Daniel; Jorquera, Milko; Greiner, Ralf; Velasquez, Gabriela; Mora, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    Phytate and other phytase labile organic phosphorus (P) are abundant in both soils and manures. These recalcitrant forms of P accumulate in soils by their interaction with mineral particles. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of treating cattle manure with phytases stabilized in allophanic nanoclays, as a novel P biofertilization technology for crops grown in volcanic soils (Andisol). Two Andisols and two manures with contrasting inorganic Pcontent were used: Low P soil from Piedras Negras series (SPN-LP); High P soil from Freire Series (SF-HP); Low P Waste (WPN-LP); High P Waste (WF-HP). The used Andisols and manures were incubated with phytase-nanoclay complexes and the inorganic P was determined in the NaOH-EDTA and bicarbonate extracts. The WPN-LP was also inoculated with an alkaline β-propeller phytase (BPP) producing bacterium. The incubated SPN-LP and SPN-LP-WPN-LP mixture were evaluated for their P supplying capacity to wheat plants under greenhouse conditions. Our resultsindicated that the treatment of cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays resulted in a significant (P≤0.0.5) increase in the inorganic P. The use of phytase treated cattle manure increased 10% plant dry weight and 39% P concentration in wheat plants under greenhouse conditions, being equivalent to a P fertilizer dose of about 150 kg of P ha-1. In the case of low P cattle manure inoculated with BPP producing bacterium, inorganic P increased 10% in soil extracts (NaOH EDTA and Bicarbonate). However, the application of this treated manure did not result in a significant response to wheat growth and P acquisition. Our results suggest that this novel approach of incubating cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays enhances organic P cycling and P nutrition of plants grown under P-deficient soils.

  19. Image Guided Small Animal Radiation Research Platform: Calibration of Treatment Beam Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Ford, Eric; Iordachita, Iulian; Wong, John; Kazanzides, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression, and response to therapy, with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a portable system for precision irradiation with beam sizes down to approximately 0.5 mm and optimally planned radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. This paper focuses on the geometric calibration of the system for high-precision irradiation. A novel technique for calibration of the treatment beam is presented, which employs an x-ray camera whose precise positioning need not be known. Using the camera system we acquired a digitally reconstructed 3D “star shot” for gantry calibration, and then developed a technique to align each beam to a common isocenter with the robotic animal positioning stages. The calibration incorporates localization by cone-beam CT guidance. Uncorrected offsets of the beams with respect to the calibration origin ranged from 0.4 mm to 5.2 mm. With corrections, these alignments can be brought to within < 1 mm. The calibration technique was used to deliver a stereotactic-like arc treatment to a phantom constructed with EBT Gafchromic films. All beams were shown to intersect at a common isocenter with a measured beam (FWHM) of approximately 1.07 mm using the 0.5 mm collimated beam. The desired positioning accuracy of the SARRP is 0.25 mm and the results indicate an accuracy of 0.2 mm. To fully realize the radiation localization capabilities of the SARRP, precise geometric calibration is required, as with any such system. The x-ray camera-based technique presented here provides a straightforward and semi-automatic method for system calibration. PMID:19141881

  20. Image-guided small animal radiation research platform: calibration of treatment beam alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Ford, Eric; Iordachita, Iulian; Wong, John; Kazanzides, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression and response to therapy with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) is a portable system for precision irradiation with beam sizes down to approximately 0.5 mm and optimally planned radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. This paper focuses on the geometric calibration of the system for high-precision irradiation. A novel technique for the calibration of the treatment beam is presented, which employs an x-ray camera whose precise positioning need not be known. Using the camera system we acquired a digitally reconstructed 3D 'star shot' for gantry calibration and then developed a technique to align each beam to a common isocenter with the robotic animal positioning stages. The calibration incorporates localization by cone-beam CT guidance. Uncorrected offsets of the beams with respect to the calibration origin ranged from 0.4 mm to 5.2 mm. With corrections, these alignment errors can be reduced to the sub-millimeter range. The calibration technique was used to deliver a stereotactic-like arc treatment to a phantom constructed with EBT Gafchromic films. All beams were shown to intersect at a common isocenter with a measured beam (FWHM) of approximately 1.07 mm using the 0.5 mm collimated beam. The desired positioning accuracy of the SARRP is 0.25 mm and the results indicate an accuracy of 0.2 mm. To fully realize the radiation localization capabilities of the SARRP, precise geometric calibration is required, as with any such system. The x-ray camera-based technique presented here provides a straightforward and semi-automatic method for system calibration.

  1. Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil-polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Amadi, A. ) Ue Bari, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    The use of poultry manure for amelioration of oil-polluted soil was investigated by growing maize (Zea mays L.) under two experimental conditions: increasing the poultry manure rate from 0-20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} at 0.03 L/kg oil treatment level; and increasing the rate of oil treatment from 0-0.2 between the rate of poultry manure added and the enhancement of maize growth. But only a 16-kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure rate and above exerted some beneficial effects on the maize growth relative to the unpolluted, unamended soil. Conversely, increasing oil concentration, regardless of the poultry manure level added, depressed maize growth, but only at oil levels of 0.03 L/kg. A positive correlation was recorded between maize height and leaf area growing in oil-treated soil amended with different poultry manure rates and growing in oil-treated amended with 20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure. Amending oil-contaminated soils with poultry manure, should possibly improve soil fertility and maize production.

  2. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smolensky, Dmitriy; Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27784990

  3. Does manure management affect the latent greenhouse gas emitting potential of livestock manures?

    PubMed

    Pratt, Chris; Redding, Matthew; Hill, Jaye; Jensen, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    With livestock manures being increasingly sought as alternatives to costly synthetic fertilisers, it is imperative that we understand and manage their associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we provide the first dedicated assessment into how the GHG emitting potential of various manures responds to the different stages of the manure management continuum (e.g., from feed pen surface vs stockpiled). The research is important from the perspective of manure application to agricultural soils. Manures studied included: manure from beef feedpen surfaces and stockpiles; poultry broiler litter (8-week batch); fresh and composted egg layer litter; and fresh and composted piggery litter. Gases assessed were methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), the two principal agricultural GHGs. We employed proven protocols to determine the manures' ultimate CH4 producing potential. We also devised a novel incubation experiment to elucidate their N2O emitting potential; a measure for which no established methods exist. We found lower CH4 potentials in manures from later stages in their management sequence compared with earlier stages, but only by a factor of 0.65×. Moreover, for the beef manures this decrease was not significant (P<0.05). Nitrous oxide emission potential was significantly positively (P<0.05) correlated with C/N ratios yet showed no obvious relationship with manure management stage. Indeed, N2O emissions from the composted egg manure were considerably (13×) and significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the fresh egg manure. Our study demonstrates that manures from all stages of the manure management continuum potentially entail significant GHG risk when applied to arable landscapes. Efforts to harness manure resources need to account for this.

  4. Utilization and environmental management of residues from intensive animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manures are traditional sources of nutrients in agriculture. Under proper management, manures provide nutrients to soil, reducing or eliminating the use of commercial fertilizers, as well as organic carbon that improves soil physical properties and soil health. However, excessive application ...

  5. [Effects of turning frequency on emission of greenhouse gas and ammonia during swine manure windrow composting].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen-Yang; Li, Hong-Mei; Wei, Yuan-Song; Zhong, Jia; Zheng, Jia-Xi; Han, Sheng-Hui; Wan, He-Feng

    2014-02-01

    It is of great concern for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of animal manure management in China due to the extreme lack of GHG emission data during animal manure composting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of turning frequency on the emission of GHG (CH4, N2O) and NH3 during swine manure windrow composting through on-site observation of a full scale test in Beijing. Results showed that the turning frequency had significant impacts on the emission of both GHG and ammonia, which did not only increase the emission of GHG and ammonia, but also increased the percentage of total nitrogen loss due to NH3 emission (42.2% at turning once a week and 70.05% at turning twice a week, respectively). Compared with N2O emission, CH4 emission was the main contributor to Global Warming Potentials (GWPs).

  6. Effect of farmyard manure rate on water erosion of a Mediterranean soil: determination of the critical point of inefficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annabi, Mohamed; Bahri, Haithem; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cultivation of soils, using multiple soil tillage, led to the decrease of their organic matter content and structural stability in several cultivated area of the Mediterranean countries. In these degraded soils, the addition of organic products, traditionally the animal manure, should improve soil health among them the resistance of soil to water erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate after 1 year of the addition to a cambisoil different doses of farmyard manure on soil organic matter content, on microbial activity and on aggregate stability (proxy to soil resistance to water erosion). The statistical process (bilinear model) was used to found a point at which the addition of the organic product no longer influences the soil resistance to erosion. The farmyard manure issued from a cow breeding was composted passively during 4 months and used to amend a small plots of a cultivated cambisol (silty-clay texture, 0.9% TOC) located in the northeast of Tunisia (Morneg region). The manure was intimately incorporate to the soil. The manure organic matter content was 31%, and its isohumic coefficient was 49%. Twelve dose of manure were tested: from 0 to 220 t C.ha-1. The experiment was started on September 2011. In November 2012, soil sampling was done and soil organic carbon content (Walkley-Black method) and soil aggregate stability (wet method of Le Bissonnais) were assessed. A laboratory incubations of soil+manure mixtures, with the same proportions as tested in the field conditions, was carried at 28°C and at 75% of the mixture field capacity water retention. Carbon mineralization was monitored during three months incubation. Results show that the addition of farmyard manure stimulated the microbial activity proportionally to the added dose. This activation is due to the presence of easily biodegradable carbon in the manure, which increases with increasing manure dose. On the other hand, the addition of manure increased the aggregate stability with

  7. Preclinical imaging and treatment of cancer: the use of animal models beyond rodents.

    PubMed

    Axiak-Bechtel, S M; Maitz, C A; Selting, K A; Bryan, J N

    2015-09-01

    The development of novel radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging and therapy of neoplastic diseases relies on accurate and reproducible animal models. Rodent models are often used to demonstrate the proof-of-principle tracer and therapeutic agent development, but their small size can make tissue sampling challenging. The dosimetry of decay emissions in the much smaller rodent tumors do not model dosimetry in human tumors well. In addition, rodent models of cancer represent a simplified version of a very complex process. Spontaneous tumors are heterogenous and the response to intervention can be unpredictable; tumor cells can adopt alternate signaling pathways and modify their interaction with the microenvironment. These inconsistencies, while present in humans, are difficult to fully reproduce in a genetically-engineered rodent model. Companion animals, primarily dogs and cats, offer translational models that more accurately reflect the intricate nature of spontaneous neoplasia in humans. Their larger size facilitates tissue and blood sampling when needed, and allows radiopharmaceutical tracers to be studied on human-scale imaging systems to better mimic the clinical application of the agent. This article will review the growing body of literature surrounding the use of radiopharmaceutical agents for both imaging and therapy in companion dogs and cats. Previous investigations have been performed both for the advancement of routine, high-level veterinary care, and in the context of translational research from which the results of imaging and treatment can be readily applied to people. Studies utilizing the spontaneously occurring cancer model in companion animals involving positron emission tomography, radiotracers, dosimetry, theranostics, targeted radiopharmaceuticals, brachytherapy, and boron neutron capture therapy are discussed.

  8. Pathophysiology, treatment, and animal and cellular models of human ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Trent M; Thundyil, John; Tang, Sung-Chun; Sobey, Christopher G; Taylor, Stephen M; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2011-01-25

    Stroke is the world's second leading cause of mortality, with a high incidence of severe morbidity in surviving victims. There are currently relatively few treatment options available to minimize tissue death following a stroke. As such, there is a pressing need to explore, at a molecular, cellular, tissue, and whole body level, the mechanisms leading to damage and death of CNS tissue following an ischemic brain event. This review explores the etiology and pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, and provides a general model of such. The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemic injury is explained, and experimental animal models of global and focal ischemic stroke, and in vitro cellular stroke models, are described in detail along with experimental strategies to analyze the injuries. In particular, the technical aspects of these stroke models are assessed and critically evaluated, along with detailed descriptions of the current best-practice murine models of ischemic stroke. Finally, we review preclinical studies using different strategies in experimental models, followed by an evaluation of results of recent, and failed attempts of neuroprotection in human clinical trials. We also explore new and emerging approaches for the prevention and treatment of stroke. In this regard, we note that single-target drug therapies for stroke therapy, have thus far universally failed in clinical trials. The need to investigate new targets for stroke treatments, which have pleiotropic therapeutic effects in the brain, is explored as an alternate strategy, and some such possible targets are elaborated. Developing therapeutic treatments for ischemic stroke is an intrinsically difficult endeavour. The heterogeneity of the causes, the anatomical complexity of the brain, and the practicalities of the victim receiving both timely and effective treatment, conspire against developing effective drug therapies. This should in no way be a disincentive to research, but instead, a clarion call to

  9. Enhancement of Apoptosis by Titanium Alloy Internal Fixations during Microwave Treatments for Fractures: An Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Ye, Dongmei; Feng, Xianxuan; Fu, Tengfei; Bai, Yuehong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Microwaves are used in one method of physical therapy and can increase muscle tissue temperature which is useful for improving muscle, tendon and bone injuries. In the study, we sought to determine whether titanium alloy internal fixations influence apoptosis in tissues subjected to microwave treatments at 2,450 MHz and 40 W during the healing of fractures because this issue is not yet fully understood. Methods In this study, titanium alloy internal fixations were used to treat 3.0-mm transverse osteotomies in the middle of New Zealand rabbits’ femurs. After the operation, 30-day microwave treatments were applied to the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies 3 days after the operation. The changes in the temperatures of the muscle tissues in front of the implants or the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies were measured during the microwave treatments. To characterize the effects of titanium alloy internal fixations on apoptosis in the muscles after microwave treatment, we performed TUNEL assays, fluorescent real-time (quantitative) PCR, western blotting analyses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection and transmission electron microscopy examinations. Results The temperatures were markedly increased in the animals with the titanium alloy implants. Apoptosis in the muscle cells of the implanted group was significantly more extensive than that in the non-implanted control group at different time points. Transmission electron microscopy examinations of the skeletal muscles of the implanted groups revealed muscular mitochondrial swelling, vacuolization. ROS, Bax and Hsp70 were up-regulated, and Bcl-2 was down-regulated in the implanted group. Conclusion Our results suggest that titanium alloy internal fixations caused greater muscular tissue cell apoptosis following 2,450 MHz, 40 W microwave treatments in this rabbit femur fracture models. PMID:26132082

  10. Poultry manure runoff and its influence on fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Dutta, S.; Inamdar, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Land application of poultry manure as a substitute for synthetic fertilizer is a common practice in states like Delaware which have a surplus of this animal waste. However, this practice can generate large amounts of labile DOM and nutrients in agricultural runoff that can cause eutrophication of downstream aquatic ecosystems. We determined the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and the quality of DOM for a cropland receiving poultry manure in the coastal plain soils of Delaware. Manure was applied at the rate of 9 Mg ha-1 in the spring (March 10) of 2010 to an agricultural field planted in corn. Sampling was performed for surface runoff and soil waters at four landscape positions - field edge, upper and lower riparian zones and the stream. Sampling was conducted for eight storm events, one before manure application and seven after (March through July spanning over 100 days). DOM quality was characterized using spectrofluorometric techniques and the development of a site-specific PARAFAC model. DOC and DIN concentrations in surface runoff ranged from 18.1 to 77.2 mg/l and 4.2 to 22.6 mg/l, respectively. The percent of protein-like and humic-like DOM in surface runoff ranged between 3.9 to 23.5% and 12.3 to 41.6%, respectively. Highest concentrations of DOC and DIN were observed at the field edge and lowest in the stream. Protein-like and humic-like DOM decreased from the field edge to stream in surface runoff and soil waters. Temporally, both humic-like and protein-like DOM showed significant increases in storm runoff following manure application. After manure application, humic-like DOM increased by 70% while protein-like DOM increased by more than 200% in surface runoff indicating elevated content of labile DOM in poultry manure. These concentrations remained high for more than 60 days following manure application. Protein-like DOM was significantly correlated with nitrate-nitrogen (r = 0.43; p < 0

  11. Toxic effect of single treatment with bromantane on neurological status of experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Iezhitsa, I N; Spasov, A A; Bugaeva, L I; Morozov, I S

    2002-04-01

    Neurotoxicological profile of actoprotector bromantane was studied on rats using S. Irwin's protocol of multi-test observation. The drug in doses of 30-300 mg/kg stimulated and in doses of 600-9,600 mg/kg suppressed behavioral activity. Spontaneous motor activity increased after single treatment with bromantane in doses of 30-300 mg/kg, did not change after treatment in doses of 600 mg/kg, and was inhibited after treatment in doses above 600 mg/kg. In doses of 300-600 mg/kg the drug reduced pain sensitivity threshold and in doses above 600 mg/kg elevated the pain threshold and tactile sensitivity and reaction to knock. Bromantane induced mydriasis in all studied doses; in doses above 10 g/kg the preparation induced blepharoptosis. In doses above 5 g/kg bromantane slightly increased respiration rate and depth (Kussmaul-like respiration). In some animals bromantane in high doses induced regurgitation, diarrhea, and polyuria. Rectal temperature decreased by 0.5-1 degrees C after virtually all doses. Behavioral effects of bromantane in doses of 30 and 600 mg/kg were associated with stimulation of the central dopamine and suppression of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic structures, n-cholinolytic effects of bromantane was more pronounced at a dose of 30 mg/kg than at a dose of 600 mg/kg.

  12. Cocaine choice procedures in animals, humans, and treatment-seekers: Can we bridge the divide?

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Stoops, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder chronically self-administer cocaine to the detriment of other rewarding activities, a phenomenon best modeled in laboratory drug-choice procedures. These procedures can evaluate the reinforcing effects of drugs versus comparably valuable alternatives under multiple behavioral arrangements and schedules of reinforcement. However, assessing drug-choice in treatment-seeking or abstaining humans poses unique challenges: for ethical reasons, these populations typically cannot receive active drugs during research studies. Researchers have thus needed to rely on alternative approaches that approximate drug-choice behavior or assess more general forms of decision-making, but whether these alternatives have relevance to real-world drug-taking that can inform clinical trials is not well-understood. In this mini-review, we (A) summarize several important modulatory variables that influence cocaine choice in nonhuman animals and non-treatment seeking humans; (B) discuss some of the ethical considerations that could arise if treatment-seekers are enrolled in drug-choice studies; (C) consider the efficacy of alternative procedures, including non-drug-related decision-making and ‘simulated’ drug-choice (a choice is made, but no drug is administered) to approximate drug choice; and (D) suggest opportunities for new translational work to bridge the current divide between preclinical and clinical research. PMID:26432174

  13. Cocaine choice procedures in animals, humans, and treatment-seekers: Can we bridge the divide?

    PubMed

    Moeller, Scott J; Stoops, William W

    2015-11-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder chronically self-administer cocaine to the detriment of other rewarding activities, a phenomenon best modeled in laboratory drug-choice procedures. These procedures can evaluate the reinforcing effects of drugs versus comparably valuable alternatives under multiple behavioral arrangements and schedules of reinforcement. However, assessing drug-choice in treatment-seeking or abstaining humans poses unique challenges: for ethical reasons, these populations typically cannot receive active drugs during research studies. Researchers have thus needed to rely on alternative approaches that approximate drug-choice behavior or assess more general forms of decision-making, but whether these alternatives have relevance to real-world drug-taking that can inform clinical trials is not well-understood. In this mini-review, we (A) summarize several important modulatory variables that influence cocaine choice in nonhuman animals and non-treatment seeking humans; (B) discuss some of the ethical considerations that could arise if treatment-seekers are enrolled in drug-choice studies; (C) consider the efficacy of alternative procedures, including non-drug-related decision-making and 'simulated' drug-choice (a choice is made, but no drug is administered) to approximate drug choice; and (D) suggest opportunities for new translational work to bridge the current divide between preclinical and clinical research.

  14. Gene therapy for the treatment of AIDS: animal models and human clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Amado, R G; Mitsuyasu, R T; Zack, J A

    1999-05-15

    Although antiretroviral drug therapy has had a significant impact on the natural history of HIV infection, complete virus eradication still remains an unattainable goal. Drug-mediated virological control only occurs transiently, in part as a result of the development of drug resistance. Gene therapy for the treatment of AIDS is a promising area of research that has as its goal the replacement of the HIV-infected cellular pool with cells engineered to resist virus replication. A variety of anti-HIV genes have been designed and tested in laboratory systems, and available results from pilot clinical trials demonstrate the safety and feasibility of this approach. Obstacles to effective application of this technology include partial protection of HIV resistance genes, lack of effective vectoring systems, and unregulated gene expression. Herein, we review recent advances in transduction methods, data from in vivo preclinical studies in relevant animal models, and emerging results derived from pilot clinical gene therapy studies.

  15. Evaluating animal-assisted therapy in group treatment for child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Tracy J; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child Advocacy Center participated in the study. Results indicate that children in the groups that included therapy dogs showed significant decreases in trauma symptoms including anxiety, depression, anger, post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociation, and sexual concerns. In addition, results show that children who participated in the group with therapeutic stories showed significantly more change than the other groups. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  16. Dairy manure applications and soil health implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy manure applications can potentially improve soil health by adding organic matter (OM) to the soil. However, intensive dairy manure applications can cause salt accumulations on arid, irrigated soils, impairing soil health, which can reduce crop growth and yield. Soil organic matter, a major c...

  17. Dairy Manure Nutrients: Variable But Valuable

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing the nutrient content of manure is essential for doing nutrient management planning for dairy farms. Summaries of over 14,000 dairy manure samples from Wisconsin and 2,300 from Vermont over a 10 to 15-year period showed average values that were consistent with UW-Extension book values but dif...

  18. Dairy Manure Nutrients: Variable, But Valuable

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing the nutrient content of manure is essential for doing nutrient management planning for dairy farms. Summaries of over 14,000 dairy manure samples from Wisconsin and 2,300 from Vermont over a 10 to 15-year period showed average values that were consistent with UW-Extension book values but dif...

  19. Tracing copper derived from pig manure in calcareous soils and soil leachates by 65Cu labeling.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Anne; He, Yao; Siemens, Jan; Welp, Gerhard; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Münker, Carsten; Xue, Qiaoyun; Lin, Xianyong; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-04-07

    Copper is used as a growth promoter in animal husbandry, resulting in high Cu concentrations in animal manure. We tested whether Cu would be mobilized in soils receiving excessive loads of manure, both from recently added and from aged fractions. To discriminate between these Cu sources, manure was labeled with (65)Cu. After soil application of 0, 15, and 30 Mg manure ha(-1), leachate was collected in free-draining lysimeters (40 cm depth) under undisturbed soil over a 53 day period. Determining the total amounts of Cu and the fractions of (65)Cu in leachate and the soil profile enabled us to trace the translocation of Cu derived from labeled manure. More than 84% of the applied Cu was retained in the top 2 cm of soil. Less than 0.01% of the applied Cu was detected overall in the leachate. Of this amount, however, 38% (± 8.9 SE) was leached within 8 days after application. The total Cu concentration in leachates (32-164 μg L(-1)) frequently exceeded the Chinese groundwater quality standard of 50 μg L(-1). The added (65)Cu, however, accounted for less than 3.6% of the total Cu leaching load, suggesting that Cu from older sources and/or geological background controls contamination, regardless of current land management.

  20. Greenhouse gas emission from the total process of swine manure composting and land application of compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuansong; Wan, Hefeng; Wu, Yulong; Zheng, Jiaxi; Han, Shenghui; Zheng, Bofu

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal manure management are of great concern in China. However, there are still great uncertainties about China's GHG inventory due to the GHG emission factors partly used default values from the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The purpose of this study was to use a case study in Beijing to determine the regional GHG emission factors based on the combination of swine manure composting and land application of the compost with both on-site examination and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results showed that the total GHG emission factor was 240 kgCO2eq tDS-1 (dry solids), including the direct GHG emission factor of 115 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for swine manure composting and 48 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for land application of the compost. Among the total GHG emissions of 5.06 kgCH4 tDS-1 and 0.13 kgN2O tDS-1, the swine manure composting contributed approximately 89% to CH4 emissions while land application accounted for 92% of N2O emission. Meanwhile, the GHG emission profile from the full process in Beijing in 2015 and 2020 was predicted by the scenario analysis. The composting and land application is a cost-effective way for animal manure management in China considering GHG emissions.

  1. The case from animal studies for balanced binocular treatment strategies for human amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Donald E; Duffy, Kevin R

    2014-03-01

    Although amblyopia typically manifests itself as a monocular condition, its origin has long been linked to unbalanced neural signals from the two eyes during early postnatal development, a view confirmed by studies conducted on animal models in the last 50 years. Despite recognition of its binocular origin, treatment of amblyopia continues to be dominated by a period of patching of the non-amblyopic eye that necessarily hinders binocular co-operation. This review summarizes evidence from three lines of investigation conducted on an animal model of deprivation amblyopia to support the thesis that treatment of amblyopia should instead focus upon procedures that promote and enhance binocular co-operation. First, experiments with mixed daily visual experience in which episodes of abnormal visual input were pitted against normal binocular exposure revealed that short exposures of the latter offset much longer periods of abnormal input to allow normal development of visual acuity in both eyes. Second, experiments on the use of part-time patching revealed that purposeful introduction of episodes of binocular vision each day could be very beneficial. Periods of binocular exposure that represented 30-50% of the daily visual exposure included with daily occlusion of the non-amblyopic could allow recovery of normal vision in the amblyopic eye. Third, very recent experiments demonstrate that a short 10 day period of total darkness can promote very fast and complete recovery of visual acuity in the amblyopic eye of kittens and may represent an example of a class of artificial environments that have similar beneficial effects. Finally, an approach is described to allow timing of events in kitten and human visual system development to be scaled to optimize the ages for therapeutic interventions.

  2. Copper and Zn uptake by radish and pakchoi as affected by application of livestock and poultry manures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong-Mei; Hao, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Yu-Jun; Dong, Yuan-Hua; Cang, Long

    2005-04-01

    Environmental safety of agricultural utilization of livestock and poultry manures from intensive farming is attracting great attention because the manures often contain high concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Pot experiments, in which a pig manure (PM), a chicken manure (CM) and a commercial organic manure (OM) with different concentrations of Cu and Zn to simulate soil metal accumulation by manure application for different times were utilized in a garden soil at a rate of 2% (W/W), were conducted to study the effect of application of these livestock and poultry manures on growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) as well as their Cu and Zn uptake. The results exhibit that the manures except the PM improved the growth of radish and pakchoi. The difference of biomass among the same manure treatments containing different concentrations of Cu and Zn, however, was insignificant. In addition, application of the livestock and poultry manures significantly increased soil pHs and electric conductivities (EC) compared with the control, which is ascribed that these manures had high pH and contained large amounts of inorganic ions. The available soil Zn concentrations in the PM were higher than that in the CM and OM, and the extractable soil Cu concentrations in the three manures were almost the same after radish growth in the garden soil but were different after pakchoi growth. Zinc and Cu concentrations in the radish and pakchoi tissues increased when the soil Zn and Cu concentrations increased by manures application, but were still within a safe value. An except is the treatment PM4 in which the Zn concentration of the above-ground part of radish was 28.7 mg kg-1, exceeding the Chinese Food Hygiene Standard of 20 mg kg-1 based on fresh weight. Good correlation was obtained between the extractable soil Zn (or Cu) concentrations extracted by 1.0 mol l-1 NH4NO3 and the Zn (or Cu) concentrations in radish and pakchoi tissues

  3. Effect of manure under different nitrogen application rates on winter wheat production and soil fertility in dryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. Q.; Yu, X. Y.; Zhai, B. N.; Jin, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    Exploring an effective fertilization practice is crucial for achieving a sustainable dryland winter wheat cropping system. Following a split-plot design, this study was conducted to investigate the combined effect of manure (-M or +M; main plot) and various rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 kg N ha-1; sub plot) on grain yield, water and N use efficiencies of winter wheat, and soil nutrients. The results showed that the treatments with manure improved the grain yield by 8%, and WUE by 10% relative to that without manure throughout the study years. The highest winter wheat yield and WUE were both recorded in the M+N225 treatment, which were not significantly different from those for M+N75 and M+N150 treatment. In contrast, high levels of N fertilizer (> 150 kg N ha-1) combined with manure not only caused a reduction in the N use efficiency (NUE), but it also caused an increase in the soil residual nitrate-N (from 43.7 to 188.9 kg ha-1) relative to without manure. After three years of continuous cropping, the treatment combining manure with 150 kg N ha-1 fertilizer had the highest SOM, available P and available K, which was 24%, 379% and 102% higher than that for unfertilized treatment (CK), and 10%, 267%, and 55% higher than that for without manure, respectively. Thus, the combination of manure (17.5 t ha-1 poultry or 30 t ha-1 pig manure) with 75-150 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer is recommended for improving winter wheat yield, water and N use efficiencies, and reducing soil nitrate-N residue as well.

  4. Bioluminescent bacteria assay of veterinary drugs in excreta of food-producing animals.

    PubMed

    Bolelli, L; Bobrovová, Z; Ferri, E; Fini, F; Menotta, S; Scandurra, S; Fedrizzi, G; Girotti, S

    2006-09-11

    The residues of pharmacological treatments on food-producing animals, present in the manure dispersed on agricultural land, can impact environmental and human health through toxic, genotoxic, and drug-resistance development effects. Biotoxicity assays can easily reveal the presence of noxious substances and those based on bioluminescent bacteria (BLB) are particularly simple and rapid. A BLB assay was developed as microplate format by using various strains of Vibrio sp. and was employed to evaluate their response to pure antibiotic solutions and to residues extracted from excreta of antibiotic treated pigs and turkeys. The residues were quantified by HPLC analysis. The BLB assay can be proposed as an easy-to-perform screening tool to assess the presence of residues due to undeclared current, or recently ended, pharmacological treatments, as well as to evaluate their permanence in manure.

  5. Stimulation of N2 O emission by manure application to agricultural soils may largely offset carbon benefits: a global meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Minghua; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Shijie; Zhu, Xinyu; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2017-01-31

    Animal manure application as organic fertilizer does not only sustain agricultural productivity and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but also affects soil nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. However, given that the sign and magnitude of manure effects on soil N2 O emissions is uncertain, the net climatic impact of manure application in arable land is unknown. Here, we performed a global meta-analysis using field experimental data published in peer-reviewed journals prior to December 2015. In this meta-analysis we quantified the responses of N2 O emissions to manure application relative to synthetic N fertilizer application from individual studies and analyzed manure characteristics, experimental duration, climate and soil properties as explanatory factors. Manure application significantly increased N2 O emissions by an average 32.7% (95% confidence interval: 5.1-58.2%) compared to application of synthetic N fertilizer alone. The significant stimulation of N2 O emissions occurred following cattle and poultry manure applications, subsurface manure application and raw manure application. Furthermore, the significant stimulatory effects on N2 O emissions were also observed for warm temperate climate, acid soils (pH < 6.5) and soil texture classes of sandy loam and clay loam. Average direct N2 O emission factors (EFs) of 1.87% and 0.24% were estimated for upland soils and rice paddy soils receiving manure application, respectively. Although manure application increased SOC stocks, our study suggested that the benefit of increasing SOC stocks as GHG sinks could be largely offset by stimulation of soil N2 O emissions and aggravated by CH4 emissions if, particularly for rice paddy soils, the stimulation of CH4 emissions by manure application was taken into account. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Turning manure into biochar through thermochemical conversion has the potential to become an exciting new way to handle waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The livestock sector remains vigilant to address effective manure treatment that also safeguards natural resources. Livestock operations must balance business concerns, efficient energy management and environmental stewardship. Fortunately, thermochemical conversion technologies for converting lives...

  7. [GIS-based analysis of the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-xia; Li, Wei; Han, Wei; Yang, Ming; Dong, Yun-she; Lin, Chun-ye; Zhang, Feng-song; Xiong, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    As an important industrial and grain production base of China, livestock and poultry industry have been rapidly developed in the northeastern provinces. With the rapid increasing amount of animal production, how to handle the huge amount of animal manure has become a critical issue for local government. A quantitative analysis based on geographic information system (GIS) combining the biophysical, environmental, social and economic factors was applied to determine the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces. The results show that a farmland area of 211942.7 km2, accounting for 78.9% of the cultivated land in three northeastern provinces, is estimated to be suitable for manure application. The suitable farmlands are mostly distributed in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces. Proximity to residential area, water body and roads are identified as the primary factors influencing the manure application, while rainfall is the main factor to generate discrepancies in different areas. Furthermore, the future potential capacity for animal production in three provinces was forecasted based on the areas of suitable land and the population of existing livestock production. Among 36 cities of three provinces, the big variation is observed, Siping City is overproducing 1.813 million heads of pig unit at present, but Qiqihaer City still has the potential to rear 11.203 million heads of pig unit. Overall, eastern region of the study area holds the high potential for animal production with a surplus capacity of 2.842 million heads of pig unit, the potential of the typical mountain and forest areas is only 10% of eastern region, however. In contrast, in half of western region (central Liaoning province and central Jilin Province), their animal populations have exceeded the land carrying capacity. Therefore, we strongly suggest a site-specific animal production and manure application guide to achieve a sustainable development of livestock production in the

  8. Distillers by-product cattle diets enhance reduced sulfur gas fluxes from feedlot soils and manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times duri...

  9. CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MANURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA and the USDA convened a three-day Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures, and Other Organic By-Products on June 4-6, 2001 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the effe...

  10. Enhanced reduced sulfur emission from manures of beef cattle fed distiller's byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced sulfur compounds are normal products of manure decomposition which are emitted from confined animal feeding operations (CAFO). These compounds not only contribute to nuisance odors, but with recent EPA regulations, H2S emissions in excess of 100 lbs per day must be reported by the livestock...

  11. Characterization of manure from conventional and phytase transgenic pigs by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-point phosphorus (P) pollution from animal manure is becoming a serious global problem. The current solution for the swine industry is including the enzyme phytase as a component of the cereal grain diet. A very real possibility in the future is the production of transgenic pigs that express phy...

  12. Trans-disciplinary soil science research: Impacts of dairy nutrition on manure chemistry and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The on-going trend of consolidation and intensification of animal agriculture requires a greater dependence on purchased feed. Larger livestock farms and more imported feed can result in the excretion of manure nutrients that may surpass the recycling capacity of local land, air, and water resource...

  13. Improving N and P estimates for swine manure lagoon irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management plans (NMPs) for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) require a record of N and P loads from manure land-applications, including irrigation with lagoon water. Mississippi regulations require nutrient records for lagoon irrigation water be based on at least one annual analy...

  14. Survival of Salmonella spp. in dried turkey manure and persistence on spinach leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns about the microbiological safety of fresh produce has attracted attention in the past three decades due to multiple foodborne outbreaks. Animal manure contaminated with enteric pathogens has been identified as an important pre-harvest pathogen source. This study investigated the survival of...

  15. A fast analytic dose calculation method for arc treatments for kilovoltage small animal irradiators.

    PubMed

    Marco-Rius, I; Wack, L; Tsiamas, P; Tryggestad, E; Berbeco, R; Hesser, J; Zygmanski, P

    2013-09-01

    Arc treatments require calculation of dose for collections of discrete gantry angles. The sampling of angles must balance between short computation time of small angle sets and the better calculation reliability of large sets. In this paper, an analytical formula is presented that allows calculation of dose delivered during continuous rotation of the gantry. The formula holds valid for continuous short arcs of up to about 30° and is derived by integrating a dose formula over gantry angles within a small angle approximation. Doses for longer arcs may be obtained in terms of doses for shorter arcs. The formula is derived with an empirical beam model in water and extended to inhomogeneous media. It is validated with experimental data obtained by applying arc treatment using kV small animal irradiator to a phantom of solid water and lung-equivalent material. The results are a promising step towards efficient 3D dose calculation and inverse planning purposes. In principle, this method also applies to VMAT dose calculation and optimization but requires extensions.

  16. Phosphorus leaching in manure-amended Atlantic Coastal Plain soils.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jennifer S; Coale, Frank J

    2005-01-01

    Targeting the sources of phosphorus (P) and transport pathways of drainage from agricultural land will assist in the reduction of P loading to surface waters. Our research investigated the vertical movement of P from dairy manure and broiler litter through four Atlantic Coastal Plain soils. A randomized split-plot design with two main-plot tillage treatments (no tillage [NT] and chisel tillage [CH]) and five manure P rate split-plot treatments was used at each location. The split-plot P rates were 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1). Four consecutive years of manure application began at all sites 5 yr before sampling. Soils were sampled to a depth of 150 cm from each split plot in seven depth increments and analyzed for soil test phosphorus (STP), water-extractable soil phosphorus (WSP), and degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS). The DPS of the 0- to 15-cm depths confirmed that at the 100 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) application rate, all sites exceeded the threshold for P saturation (30%). At depths greater than 30 cm, DPS was typically below the 30% saturation threshold. The DPS change points ranged from 25 to 34% for the 0- to 90-cm depths. Our research concluded that the risk of P leaching through the matrix of the Atlantic Coastal Plain soils studied was not high; however, P leaching via macropore bypass may contribute to P loss from these soils.

  17. Solids and nutrient removal from flushed swine manure using polyacrylamides

    SciTech Connect

    Vanotti, M.B.; Hunt, P.G.

    1999-12-01

    Most of the organic nutrients and reduced carbon (C) materials in liquid swine manure are contained in fine suspended particles that are not separated by available mechanical separators. Treatment with polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers prior to mechanical removal or gravity settling has the potential for enhancing solids-liquid separation, thus concentrating nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and organic C. In this work, the authors determined PAM charge and density characteristics most desirable for swine wastewater applications and established the optimum chemical requirement. Treatments were applied to flushed manure from two swine operations in North Carolina. Cationic PAMs significantly increased solids separation while performance of neutral and anionic types was not different from a control. Cationic PAMs with moderate-charge density (20%) were more effective than polymers with higher charge density. Flocs were large and effectively retained with a 1-mm screen. Optimum PAM rate varied with the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in the liquid manure; 26 and 79 mg PAM/L for samples containing 1.5 and 4.1 g TSS/L, respectively. Corresponding TSS removal efficiencies were 90 to 94%. In contrast, screening without PAM treatment captured only 5 to 14% of the suspended solids. Polymer usage rate was consistent and averaged 2.0{degree} based on weight of dry solids produced. Volatile suspended solids (VSS) were highly correlated with TSS and comprised 79.5% of TSS. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic nutrient concentrations in the effluent were also significantly decreased by PAM treatment. The decrease of COD concentration, an important consideration for odor control, was linearly related with removal of suspended solids, at a rate of 2.0 g COD/g TSS and 2.6 g COD/g VSS. Removal efficiency of organic N and P followed approximately a 1:1 relationship with removal efficiency of TSS. Chemical cost to capture 90% of the suspended solids was estimated to be $0.026 per

  18. Hardwood biochar and manure co-application to a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Stromberger, M E; Lentz, R D; Dungan, R S

    2016-01-01

    Biochar may affect the mineralization rate of labile organic C sources such as manures via microbial community shifts, and subsequently affect nutrient release. In order to ascertain the positive or negative priming effect of biochar on manure, dairy manure (2% by wt.) and a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar were applied (0%, 1%, 2%, and 10% by wt.) to a calcareous soil. Destructive sampling occurred at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months to monitor for changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, bacterial populations, and microbial community structure. Overall results showed that increasing biochar application rate improved the soil water content, which may be beneficial in limited irrigation or rainfall areas. Biochar application increased soil organic C content and plant-available Fe and Mn, while a synergistic biochar-manure effect increased plant-available Zn. Compared to the other rates, the 10% biochar application lowered concentrations of NO3-N; effects appeared masked at lower biochar rates due to manure application. Over time, soil NO3-N increased likely due to manure N mineralization, yet soil NO3-N in the 10% biochar rate remained lower as compared to other treatments. In the presence of manure, only the 10% biochar application caused subtle microbial community structure shifts by increasing the relative amounts of two fatty acids associated with Gram-negative bacteria and decreasing Gram-positive bacterial fatty acids, each by ∼1%. Our previous findings with biochar alone suggested an overall negative priming effect with increasing biochar application rates, yet when co-applied with manure the negative priming effect was eliminated.

  19. Soil microbial response to tetracycline in two different soils amended with cow manure.

    PubMed

    Chessa, Luigi; Pusino, Alba; Garau, Giovanni; Mangia, Nicoletta Pasqualina; Pinna, Maria Vittoria

    2016-03-01

    High amounts of antibiotics are introduced in the soil environment by manure amendment, which is the most important spreading route in soil, with a potential ecotoxicological impact on the environment. The objectives of this study were (a) to assess the tetracycline (Tc) bioavailability in a clay and in a sandy soil, and (b) to evaluate the effects of the Tc and cow manure on the structure and function of soil microbial communities. Clay and sandy soils were spiked with Tc at the concentrations of 100 and 500 mg Tc kg(-1) soil, and were amended or not with cow manure. The clay soil showed greater Tc sorption capacity and bioavailable Tc was between 0.157 and 4.602 mg kg(-1) soil. Tc dose and time-dependent effects on soil microbial communities were investigated by fluorescein diacetate activity, phospholipid fatty acids analysis, as well as by Biolog community level physiological profile and microbial counts at 2, 7 and 60 days after Tc and/or manure addition. The added Tc caused detrimental effect on the microbial activity and structure, particularly in the short term at the highest concentrations. However, the Tc effect was transient' it decreased after 7 days and totally disappeared within 60 days. Cow manure shifted the bacterial structure in both soils, increased the microbial activity in clay soil and contributed to recover the microbial structure in Tc-spiked manure treatments.

  20. Responses of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita to Green Manures and Supplemental Urea in Glasshouse Culture

    PubMed Central

    Crow, W. T.; Guertal, E. A.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.

    1996-01-01

    The recent loss of many effective nematicides has led to renewed interest in alternative methods of nematode management. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rapeseed and velvetbean green manures, and supplemental urea, on the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita. Green manures were incorporated with M. arenaria-infested soil using rates totaling 200,300, and 400 mg N/kg soil. Squash plants grown in this soil were evaluated using a gall index and plant dry weight. A second experiment tested ratios of rapeseed green manure to urea resulting in rates of 50, 100, and 150 mg N/kg soil on viability ofM. incognita eggs and degree of galling on squash test plants. A third experiment examined combinations of velvetbean green manure and urea resulting in rates of 100, 200, and 300 mg N/kg soil on viability of M. incognita eggs. When applied at rates of 200, 300, and 400 mg N/kg soil, rapeseed green manure was more effective than velvetbean green manure at reducing galling of squash roots caused by M. arenaria. Decreased viability of M. incognita eggs was observed from treatments that received rates ≥ 1200 mg N/kg soil with higher percentages of N from urea. PMID:19277190

  1. Electricity generation and nutrients removal from high-strength liquid manure by air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Nelson, Chad; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are widely tested to recover electrical energy from waste streams containing organic matter. When high-strength wastewater, such as liquid animal manure, is used as a medium, inhibition on anode and cathode catalysts potentially impairs the effectiveness of MFC performance in power generation and pollutant removal. This study evaluated possible inhibitive effects of liquid swine manure components on MFC power generation, improved liquid manure-fed MFCs performance by pretreatment (dilution and selective adsorption), and modeled the kinetics of organic matter and nutrients removal kinetics. Parameters monitored included pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations. The removals of VFA and TAN were efficient, indicated by the short half-life times of 4.99 and 7.84 d, respectively. The mechanism for phosphate decrease was principally the salt precipitation on cathode, but the removal was incomplete after 42-d operation. MFC with an external resistor of 2.2 kΩ and fed with swine wastewater generated relatively small power (28.2 μW), energy efficiency (0.37%) and Coulombic efficiency (1.5%). Dilution of swine wastewater dramatically improved the power generation as the inhibitory effect was decreased. Zeolite and granular activated carbon were effective in the selective adsorption of ammonia or organic matter in swine wastewater, and so substantially improved the power generation, energy efficiency, and Coulombic efficiency. A smaller external resistor in the circuit was also observed to promote the organic matter degradation and thus to shorten the treatment time. Overall, air-cathode MFCs are promising for generating electrical power from livestock wastewater and meanwhile reducing the level of organic matter and nutrients.

  2. Application of wastewater from paper and food seasoning industries with green manure to increase soil organic carbon: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Ching; Arun, A B; Rekha, P D; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2008-09-01

    This laboratory scale experiment was designed to study the suitability of organic wastes from paper and food seasoning industries to improve the soil organic carbon for rice cultivation. Lignin-rich wastewater from paper industry and nitrogen-rich effluent from a food industry at suitably lower concentrations were used at two levels of green manure to enhance the soil organic carbon fraction over time. Both the groups of soils with or without Sesbania were incubated under submerged condition at 25 degrees C for 15 days. Wastewaters from paper industry (WP), food industry (WS), and a combination of WP+WS were added separately to both the treatment groups in flasks. After 103 days of incubation, from all the three treatments and control, total organic carbon and alkali-soluble organic carbon fractions were analyzed. Results indicated that in all the three treatments containing green manure amended with industrial wastewaters, the organic carbon content increased significantly. The alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction was increased by 59% in the soil amended with green manure containing WS and by 31% in the treatment without green manure compared to control. The paper mill waste water namely, WP, increased the organic carbon only in the soil containing green manure by 63%. The combined treatment of WP+WS with green manure increased alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction by 90% compared to control, while in the treatment without green manure, the organic carbon increase was 71%. Overall, the combined treatment WP+WS with green manure could increase the alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction more than all other treatments. Hence, wastewater rich in organics from paper and food industries can be efficiently used to temporarily increase the soil organic carbon content.

  3. Dutch dairy farms after milk quota abolition: Economic and environmental consequences of a new manure policy.

    PubMed

    Klootwijk, C W; Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; de Boer, I J M

    2016-10-01

    The abolition of the Dutch milk quota system has been accompanied by the introduction of a new manure policy to limit phosphate production (i.e., excretion via manure) on expanding dairy farms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these recent policy changes on the farm structure, management, labor income, nitrogen and phosphate surpluses, and greenhouse gas emissions of an average Dutch dairy farm. The new manure policy requires that any increase in phosphate production be partly processed and partly applied to additional farmland. In addition, phosphate quotas have been introduced. Herein, we used a whole-farm optimization model to simulate an average farm before and after quota abolition and introduction of the new manure policy. The objective function of the model maximized labor income. We combined the model with a farm nutrient balance and life-cycle assessment to determine environmental impact. Based on current prices, increasing the number of cows after quota abolition was profitable until manure processing or additional land was required to comply with the new manure policy. Manure processing involved treatment so that phosphate was removed from the national manure market. Farm intensity in terms of milk per hectare increased by about 4%, from 13,578kg before quota abolition to 14,130kg after quota abolition. Labor income increased by €505/yr. When costs of manure processing decreased from €13 to €8/t of manure or land costs decreased from €1,187 to €573/ha, farm intensity could increase up to 20% until the phosphate quota became limiting. Farms that had already increased their barn capacity to prepare for expansion after milk quota abolition could benefit from purchasing extra phosphate quota to use their full barn capacity. If milk prices increased from €355 to €420/t, farms could grow unlimited, provided that the availability of external inputs such as labor, land, barn capacity, feed, and phosphate quota at current

  4. Effect of feedlot manure collection techniques on ultimate methane yield

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Hills, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Beef cattle manure collected from unpaved dirt feedlots has a significantly reduced energy production potential due to low organic content and dirt contamination. In laboratory batch fermentors beef feedlot manure of various ages was digested. The study showed that compared with fresh manure gas production at 100%, aged manure produced between 16 and 73% of the gas per kilogram of volatile solids added. More than one-half of the nitrogen was lost after the manure had aged three months. The resulting economic advantage of fresh manure over aged manure for energy and nitrogen recovery would be from $26 to $61/head/y.

  5. Pathophysiology, treatment, and animal and cellular models of human ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the world's second leading cause of mortality, with a high incidence of severe morbidity in surviving victims. There are currently relatively few treatment options available to minimize tissue death following a stroke. As such, there is a pressing need to explore, at a molecular, cellular, tissue, and whole body level, the mechanisms leading to damage and death of CNS tissue following an ischemic brain event. This review explores the etiology and pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, and provides a general model of such. The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemic injury is explained, and experimental animal models of global and focal ischemic stroke, and in vitro cellular stroke models, are described in detail along with experimental strategies to analyze the injuries. In particular, the technical aspects of these stroke models are assessed and critically evaluated, along with detailed descriptions of the current best-practice murine models of ischemic stroke. Finally, we review preclinical studies using different strategies in experimental models, followed by an evaluation of results of recent, and failed attempts of neuroprotection in human clinical trials. We also explore new and emerging approaches for the prevention and treatment of stroke. In this regard, we note that single-target drug therapies for stroke therapy, have thus far universally failed in clinical trials. The need to investigate new targets for stroke treatments, which have pleiotropic therapeutic effects in the brain, is explored as an alternate strategy, and some such possible targets are elaborated. Developing therapeutic treatments for ischemic stroke is an intrinsically difficult endeavour. The heterogeneity of the causes, the anatomical complexity of the brain, and the practicalities of the victim receiving both timely and effective treatment, conspire against developing effective drug therapies. This should in no way be a disincentive to research, but instead, a clarion call to

  6. Clays Can Decrease Gaseous Nutrient Losses from Soil-Applied Livestock Manures.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Chris; Redding, Matthew; Hill, Jaye; Brown, Grant; Westermann, Maren

    2016-03-01

    Clays could underpin a viable agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement technology given their affinity for nitrogen and carbon compounds. We provide the first investigation into the efficacy of clays to decrease agricultural nitrogen GHG emissions (i.e., NO and NH). Via laboratory experiments using an automated closed-vessel analysis system, we tested the capacity of two clays (vermiculite and bentonite) to decrease NO and NH emissions and organic carbon losses from livestock manures (beef, pig, poultry, and egg layer) incorporated into an agricultural soil. Clay addition levels varied, with a maximum of 1:1 to manure (dry weight). Cumulative gas emissions were modeled using the biological logistic function, with 15 of 16 treatments successfully fitted ( < 0.05) by this model. When assessing all of the manures together, NH emissions were lower (×2) at the highest clay addition level compared with no clay addition, but this difference was not significant ( = 0.17). Nitrous oxide emissions were significantly lower (×3; < 0.05) at the highest clay addition level compared with no clay addition. When assessing manures individually, we observed generally decreasing trends in NH and NO emissions with increasing clay addition, albeit with widely varying statistical significance between manure types. Most of the treatments also showed strong evidence of increased C retention with increasing clay additions, with up to 10 times more carbon retained in treatments containing clay compared with treatments containing no clay. This preliminary assessment of the efficacy of clays to mitigate agricultural GHG emissions indicates strong promise.

  7. Short communication. The role of animal-sourced insulin in the treatment of type 1 diabetes and its availability.

    PubMed

    Klein, A V; Taylor, E; Legaré, C; Vu, D; Griffiths, E

    2014-07-01

    As a result of a number of factors, the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes has moved away from using insulin of beef or pork origin to using recombinant (biosynthetic) insulin preparations. However, some people with type 1 diabetes can manage their diabetes better using animal-sourced insulin. Despite dwindling options and decreased production, animal-sourced insulin (and pork insulin in particular) is still available on the Canadian market. This communication describes the actions taken by Health Canada with respect to the availability of animal insulin.

  8. Effects of crystalline amino acid supplementation to the diet on odor from pig manure.

    PubMed

    Le, P D; Aarnink, A J A; Jongbloed, A W; van der Peet Schwering, C M C; Ogink, N W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of specific crystalline AA supplementation to a diet on odor emission, odor intensity, odor hedonic tone, and ammonia emission from pig manure, and on manure characteristics (pH; ammonia N; total nitrogen; sulfurous, indolic, and phenolic compounds; and VFA concentrations). An experiment was conducted with growing pigs (n = 18) in a randomized complete block design, with 3 treatments in 6 blocks. Treatment groups were (1) a 15%-CP basal diet with 3 times the requirement of sulfur-containing AA (14.2 g/kg of diet, as-fed basis); (2) the basal diet with 2 times the requirement of Trp and Phe+Tyr (2.9 and 20.4 g/kg of diet, respectively, as-fed basis); and (3) the basal diet with AA supplementation to levels sufficient for maximum protein gain. Pigs with an initial BW of 41.2 +/- 0.8 kg were individually penned in partly slatted floor pens and offered a daily feed allowance of 2.8 times the maintenance requirement for NE (293 kJ/kg of BW(0.75)). Feed was mixed with water at 1:2.5 (wt/wt). Feces and urine of each pig was allowed to accumulate in separate manure pits under the slatted floor. After an adaptation period of 2 wk, and after cleaning the manure pits, manure was subsequently collected. In wk 5 of the collection period, separate samples were collected directly from each manure pit for odor, ammonia, and manure composition analyses. Air samples were analyzed for odor concentration and for hedonic tone and odor intensity above the odor detection threshold. Results showed that supplementing crystalline S-containing AA in surplus of the requirement increased odor emission (P < 0.001) and odor intensity (P < 0.05) and reduced odor hedonic tone (P < 0.05) from the air above the manure pits. Supplementing crystalline Trp, Tyr, and Phe in surplus of the recommended requirements did not affect odor emission, odor intensity, or odor hedonic tone. Regardless of dietary treatment, all pigs had similar performance

  9. Effects of twenty percent corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on heifer performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Cole, N A; Jenkins, K H; Meyer, B E; McCollum, F T; Preece, S L M; Auvermann, B W; Heflin, K R; MacDonald, J C

    2012-12-01

    Two hundred sixty-four crossbred heifers (initial BW = 354 kg ± 0.5) were used to determine effects of corn processing method and wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn (SFC)- and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 20% WDGS (0SFC, 20SFC, 0DRC, and 20DRC, respectively). Heifers averaged 154 d on feed and were marketed in 3 groups. There were no interactions between corn processing method and WDGS detected (P ≥ 0.29) for any performance or carcass response variables. Heifers fed diets containing WDGS tended to have greater final BW (P = 0.10) and increased G:F (P = 0.08) compared with heifers fed diets without WDGS. Heifers fed SFC-based diets consumed 7% less feed (P < 0.01) and were 9% more efficient (P < 0.01) than heifers fed DRC-based diets. Carcass characteristics were not affected by corn processing method or WDGS inclusion (P ≥ 0.16). Intakes of OM, N, P, and K were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for heifers fed DRC-based diets than those fed SFC-based diets, which resulted in greater net accumulation of the nutrients in the manure (P ≤ 0.04). Heifers fed diets containing WDGS had greater (P < 0.01) intakes of N, P, and K than heifers fed diets without WDGS. As a result, a greater net accumulation of P and K (P ≤ 0.03) and N (P = 0.10) were present in the manure from cattle fed diets containing WDGS compared with those fed diets without WDGS. There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.16) between corn processing and WDGS on N volatilization losses. Nitrogen volatilization losses from manure (expressed as a percentage of intake and g·heifer(-1)·d(-1)) were greater (P < 0.01) for heifers fed SFC-based diets than heifers fed DRC-based diets. Feeding DRC-based finishing diets to heifers

  10. Effect of minerals on activity of microbial uricase to reduce ammonia volatilization in poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Patterson, P H

    2003-02-01

    Inhibition of microbial uricase in poultry manure is critical to reduce NH3 volatilization, because hydrolysis of uric acid by microbial uricase is the first step in the production of NH3 gas in poultry manure. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of minerals on uricase activity and NH3 volatilization from poultry manure. In Experiment 1, an in vitro enzyme assay was used to evaluate the effects of Zn, Cu, Mg, and Mn on the activity of microbial uricase. There were three treatments: uricase, uricase + minerals, and uricase preincubated with minerals. Uric acid concentration was measured at 293 nm with a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that Zn and Cu greatly blocked the activity of microbial uricase (>90% inhibition), whereas Mg and Mn were less inhibitory. Experiment 2 was designed to evaluate the effect of ZnSO4 on the growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms by an in vitro assay. There were three treatments: control, ZnSO4 (10 mM), and ZnSO4 (50 mM). The results indicated that ZnSO4 significantly reduced the number of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms compared to the control. In Experiment 3, an NH3-trapping system was used to evaluate the effect of different levels of ZnSO4 on NH3 volatilization and nitrogen retention in poultry manure. Poultry manure (300 g) was mixed with 0, 0.15, 0.3, 1.5, 3, or 6 g ZnSO4 to create manure concentrations of Zn at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, or 2% (wt/wt), respectively. The 1 and 2% ZnSO4 treatments significantly increased manure uric acid and total nitrogen retention by reducing NH3 volatilization compared to the control during the 3-wk incubation.

  11. Does monensin in chicken manure from poultry farms pose a threat to soil invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Zižek, Suzana; Hrženjak, Rok; Kalcher, Gabrijela Tavčar; Srimpf, Karin; Semrov, Neva; Zidar, Primož

    2011-04-01

    Monensin is a carboxylic polyether ionophore used in the poultry industry as a coccidiostat. It enters the environment via manure from broiler farms. In spite of its potential presence in the environment, information concerning monensin residues in manure and soil and its toxicity to soil organisms are insufficient. In the present study, two beneficial soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and woodlice (Porcellio scaber), were used to assess the toxicity of monensin. Animals were exposed to a range of monensin concentrations via soil or food. Earthworm reproduction was found to be the most susceptible endpoint (NOEC=3.5 mg kg(-1) dry soil; EC(50)=12.7 mg kg(-1) dry soil), while no adverse effects were recorded in isopods (NOEC⩾849mgkg(-1) dry soil, NOEC⩾357mgkg(-1) dry food). The obtained toxicity data were compared with potential concentrations of monensin in soil. In view of this, manure from broiler chickens treated with monensin at a poultry farm was sampled. According to monensin and nitrogen concentrations in the chicken manure and the degradation time of monensin, the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was calculated. PEC of monensin is around 0.013 mg kg(-1) soil if manure is used after 3 months of composting and 0.05 mg kg(-1) soil if used without storage. Data for earthworm reproduction was used to estimate the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC). If fresh chicken manure is applied to terrestrial ecosystems, the risk quotient (PEC/PNEC ratio) is above 1, which indicates that monensin might pose an environmental risk under certain conditions. To prevent this, it is strongly recommended to compost chicken manure for several months before using it as fertiliser.

  12. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p < 0.001) quadratically from -31??? to -15 ???. The relationship between cumulative ammonia losses and ??15N of manure was highly significant (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76). In Exp. 2, using a mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Physical-Chemical Properties on Ammonia Emissions of Dairy Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of totalsolids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant rolesin the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study.Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  14. Lab-assay for estimating methane emissions from deep-pit swine manure storages.

    PubMed

    Andersen, D S; Van Weelden, M B; Trabue, S L; Pepple, L M

    2015-08-15

    Methane emission is an important tool in the evaluation of manure management systems due to the potential impact it has on global climate change. Field procedures used for estimating methane emission rates require expensive equipment, are time consuming, and highly variable between farms. The purpose of this paper is to report a simple laboratory procedure for estimating methane emission from stored manure. The test developed was termed a methane production rate (MPR) assay as it provides a short-term biogas production measurement. The MPR assay incubation time is short (3d), requires no sample preparation in terms of inoculation or dilution of manure, is incubated at room temperature, and the manure is kept stationary. These conditions allow for high throughput of samples and were chosen to replicate the conditions within deep-pit manure storages. In brief, an unaltered aliquot of manure was incubated at room temperature for a three-days to assay the current rate of methane being generated by the manure. The results from this assay predict an average methane emission factor of 12.2 ± 8.1 kg CH4 head(-1) yr(-1) per year, or about 5.5 ± 3.7 kg CH4 per finished animal, both of which compare well to literature values of 5.5 ± 1.1 kg CH4 per finished pig for deep-pit systems (Liu et al., 2013). The average methane flux across all sites and months was estimated to be 22 ± 17 mg CH4 m(-2)-min(-1), which is within literature values for deep-pit systems ranging from 0.24 to 63 mg CH4 m(-2)-min(-1) (Park et al., 2006) and similar to the 15 mg CH4 m(-2)-min(-1) estimated by (Zahn et al., 2001).

  15. Delineating Effects of Ionic Strength and Suspended Solids on Ammonia Volatilization from Dairy Manure Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of total solids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant roles in the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study. Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  16. Sewage sludge and liquid pig manure as possible sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hölzel, Christina S; Schwaiger, Karin; Harms, Katrin; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Kunz, Anne; Meyer, Karsten; Müller, Christa; Bauer, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) - used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 - were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics including several "reserve drugs". E. coli (n=613) from pig manure were at a significantly higher degree resistant to streptomycin, doxycycline, spectinomycin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol than E. coli (n=116) from sewage sludge. Enterococci (Ent. faecalis, n=387, and Ent. faecium, n=183) from pig manure were significantly more often resistant to high levels of doxycycline, rifampicin, erythromycin, and streptomycin than Ent. faecalis (n=44) and Ent. faecium (n=125) from sewage sludge. Significant differences in enterococcal resistance were also seen for tylosin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin high level, fosfomycin, clindamicin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. By contrast, aminopenicillins were more effective in enterococci from pig manure, and mean MIC-values of piperacillin+tazobactam and third generation cefalosporines were significantly lower in E. coli from pig manure than in E. coli from sewage sludge. 13.4% (E. coli) to 25.3% (Ent. faecium) of pig manure isolates were high-level multiresistant to substances from more than three different classes of antimicrobial agents. In sewage sludge, high-level-multiresistance reached from 0% (Ent. faecalis) to 16% (Ent. faecium). High rates of (multi-) resistant bacteria in pig manure emphasize the need for a prudent - cautious - use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  17. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum.

  18. Transport of Manure Constituents in Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, D.; Guber, A.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Sikora, L. M.; Nemes, A.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2005-12-01

    Fecal coliforms (FC) are often used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria contamination of surface water from surface-applied manure. Manure constituents other than FC may serve as natural tracers of bacterial contamination provided the rates of release from manure and surface transport mechanisms are similar. The objective of this work was to compare fecal coliforms (FC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble phosphorus (P) transport from dissolving manure applied on hillslopes with different soil texture and surface cover conditions under simulated rainfall. Two-by-six meters runoff plots were set in triplicate on vegetated and bare 20% slopes with sandy loam and clay loam soils at the ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. Fresh bovine manure was applied at the top 30-cm wide strip, and at 50 cm x 30 cm miniplots in the immediate vicinity of runoff plots. Rainfall (ca. 6 cm per hour) was simulated for 1 hour on bare plots and for 1.5 hours on vegetated plots. Runoff was collected from gutters at the edge of runoff plots and miniplots at five-min intervals. In general, the volume of runoff was less from vegetated plots than from bare plots, and was less from sandy loam plots than from clay loam plots. Partitioning of fecal coliforms between runoff and suspended sediment was quantified using the partitioning coefficient Kd. The Kd values were greater for the sandy loam plot than the clay loam soil. The value of the partitioning coefficient increased from spring to fall at all plots. Release kinetics of FC and soluble P were similar. The fast release stage of about 20 minutes was followed by aa relatively slow release stage. Both soil texture and vegetation significantly affected transport of the manure constituents. More than 70% of manure FC and OC were transported with runoff over bare plots, and less than 15% over vegetation plots. Overall, manure-borne P appears to be a promising potential tracer for assessing of manure-borne bacteria transport.

  19. Impact of fiber source and feed particle size on swine manure properties related to spontaneous foam formation during anaerobic decomposition.

    PubMed

    Van Weelden, M B; Andersen, D S; Kerr, B J; Trabue, S L; Pepple, L M

    2016-02-01

    Foam accumulation in deep-pit manure storage facilities is of concern for swine producers because of the logistical and safety-related problems it creates. A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the impact of feed grind size, fiber source, and manure inoculation on foaming characteristics. Animals were fed: (1) C-SBM (corn-soybean meal): (2) C-DDGS (corn-dried distiller grains with solubles); and (3) C-Soybean Hull (corn-soybean meal with soybean hulls) with each diet ground to either fine (374 μm) or coarse (631 μm) particle size. Two sets of 24 pigs were fed and their manure collected. Factors that decreased feed digestibility (larger grind size and increased fiber content) resulted in increased solids loading to the manure, greater foaming characteristics, more particles in the critical particle size range (2-25 μm), and a greater biological activity/potential.

  20. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Vuolo, Francieli; Petronilho, Fabricia; Sonai, Beatriz; Ritter, Cristiane; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A.; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Asthma represents a public health problem and traditionally is classified as an atopic disease, where the allergen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reversible obstruction of airways. Studies have demonstrated the presence of T-helper 2 lymphocytes in the lung of patients with asthma. These cells are involved in cytokine production that regulates immunoglobulin synthesis. Recognizing that T cell interaction with antigens/allergens is key to the development of inflammatory diseases, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabidiol (CBD) in this setting. Asthma was induced in 8-week-old Wistar rats by ovalbumin (OVA). In the last 2 days of OVA challenge animals received CBD (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and were killed 24 hours after. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were determinate in the serum. CBD treatment was able to decrease the serum levels of all analyzed cytokines except for IL-10 levels. CBD seems to be a potential new drug to modulate inflammatory response in asthma. PMID:26101464

  1. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Vuolo, Francieli; Petronilho, Fabricia; Sonai, Beatriz; Ritter, Cristiane; Hallak, Jaime E C; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Asthma represents a public health problem and traditionally is classified as an atopic disease, where the allergen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reversible obstruction of airways. Studies have demonstrated the presence of T-helper 2 lymphocytes in the lung of patients with asthma. These cells are involved in cytokine production that regulates immunoglobulin synthesis. Recognizing that T cell interaction with antigens/allergens is key to the development of inflammatory diseases, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabidiol (CBD) in this setting. Asthma was induced in 8-week-old Wistar rats by ovalbumin (OVA). In the last 2 days of OVA challenge animals received CBD (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and were killed 24 hours after. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were determinate in the serum. CBD treatment was able to decrease the serum levels of all analyzed cytokines except for IL-10 levels. CBD seems to be a potential new drug to modulate inflammatory response in asthma.

  2. Nutrients in runoff from a furrow-irrigated field after incorporating inorganic fertilizer or manure.

    PubMed

    Lentz, R D; Lehrsch, G A

    2010-01-01

    Use of dairy manure to supply crop nutrients is gaining broader acceptance as the cost of fertilizer rises. However, there are concerns regarding manure's effect on water quality. In 2003 and 2004, we measured sediment, NO3-N, NH4-N, K, dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total P (TP) concentrations in runoff from furrow irrigated field plots (6-7 irrigations yr(-1)) cropped to corn (Zea mays L.) in the semiarid climate of southern Idaho. Annual treatments included 13 (Year 1) and 34 Mg ha(-1) (Year 2) stockpiled dairy manure (M); 78 (Year 1) and 195 kg N ha(-1) (Year 2) inorganic N fertilizer (F); or control-no amendment (C). Available N in manure applied each year was similar to amounts applied in fertilizer. Constituent concentrations (mg L(-1)) in runoff ranged widely among all treatments: sediment, 10 to 50,000; NO3-N, 0 to 4.07; NH4-N, 0 to 2.28; K, 3.6 to 46.4; DRP, 0.02 to 14.3; and TP, 0.03 to 41.5. Over both years, fertilizer and manure treatments increased irrigation mean values (averaged across irrigations) for NO3-N runoff concentrations (M = 0.30, F = 0.26, C = 0.21 mg L(-1)) and mass losses (M = 0.50, F = 0.42, C = 0.33 kg ha(-1)) relative to the control. Over both years, the manure treatment also increased mean irrigation runoff concentrations of DRP (M = 0.19, F = 0.09, C = 0.08 mg L(-1)) and K (M = 1.13, F = 0.79, C = 0.62 mg L(-1)) compared with fertilizer and control plots. Average DRP and K runoff mass losses were 2.0 to 2.4 times greater in manure treatments than in control plots. Neither F or M affected season-long cumulative infiltration. Runoff DRP and inorganic-N losses appeared to be influenced more by the timing of the amendment application and environmental conditions than by the quantity of nutrients applied. Nutrient additions to furrow irrigated soils, whether from fertilizer or manure, can potentially increase nutrient losses in irrigation runoff, with the degree of impact depending on the nutrient, amount, and timing of application and

  3. Thiosulfate and manure amendment with water application and tarp on 1,3-dichloropropene emission reductions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jason A; Gao, Suduan; Qin, Ruijun; Trout, Thomas J; Hanson, Bradley D

    2008-01-15

    Reducing fumigant emissions is required for minimizing bystander risk and environmental impact. Effective and economic field management methods including commonly used surface sealing technique and soil amendments are needed for achieving emission reductions. This research determined the effectiveness of ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) and composted manure amendments to surface soil in combination with water application or high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp on reducing emissions of 1,3-D from soil columns. Surface treatments included an untreated control, water seal (single water application at time of fumigant injection), ATS amendments at 1:1 and 2:1 molar ratio of ATS:fumigant, composted steer manure at 3.5 kg m(-2), and HDPE tarp over 1:1 ATS or the manure amendment. Cumulative 1,3-D emission loss over two weeks was greatest for the control (52% of applied). The HDPE tarp over ATS and manure treatments had the lowest 1,3-D emissions at 24 and 16%, respectively. Treatments with ATS or manure alone reduced 1,3-D emissions (29-39%) more effectively than water seal (43%) and further benefit was gained with the addition of HDPE tarp. Amendment of surface soil with organic materials shows greater potential in minimizing fumigant emissions than with chemicals with the need for a better understanding of the organic-fumigant reaction mechanism.

  4. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester)

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days) < Salmonella sp. (133 days) from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days. PMID:25026086

  5. Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures in the USA: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective alternative fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided and possible end-use applications for methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

  6. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  7. Sequestration of manure-applied sulfadiazine residues in soils.

    PubMed

    Förster, M; Laabs, V; Lamshöft, M; Groeneweg, J; Zühlke, S; Spiteller, M; Krauss, M; Kaupenjohann, M; Amelung, W

    2009-03-15

    It is not the total but the (bio)accessible concentration of veterinary medicines that determines their toxicity in the environment. We elucidate the changes in (bio)accessibility of manure-applied sulfadiazine (SDZ) with increasing contact time in soil. Fattening pigs were medicated with 14C-labeled SDZ, and the contaminated manure (fresh and aged) was amended to 2 soil types (Cambisol, Luvisol) and incubated for 218 days at 10 degrees C in the dark. Antibiotic residues of different bioaccessibility were approached by sequential extractions with 0.01 M CaCl2 (CaCl2 fraction), methanol (MeOH fraction), and finally acetonitrile/water (residual fraction, microwave extraction at 150 degrees C). In each fraction, total radioactivity, SDZ, and its major metabolites were quantified. The results showed that both SDZ and,to a lesser extent 4-hydroxysulfadiazine (4-OH-SDZ) were rapidly reformed from N-acetylsulfadiazine (N-ac-SDZ) during the first 2-4 weeks after fresh manure application, i.e., the N-acetylated metabolite does not sequester in soil to a significant extent Yet, the water and methanol extractable SDZ and 4-OH-SDZ also dissipated rapidly (DT50 = 6.0-32 days) for the fresh manure treatment with similar rate constants for both soil types. In the residual fractions, however, the concentrations of both compounds increased with time. We conclude that the residual fraction comprises the sequestered pool of SDZ and its hydroxylated metabolite. There they are entrapped and may persist in soil for several years. Including the residual fraction into fate studies thus yields dissipation half-lives of SDZ which exceed those previously reported for sulfonamides by a factor of about 100.

  8. Occurrence of (fluoro)quinolones and (fluoro)quinolone resistance in soil receiving swine manure for 11 years.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yonggang; Yu, Wantai; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Hua

    2015-10-15

    Because of the widespread use of antibiotics in animal breeding, the agricultural application of animal manure can lead to the introduction of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes to the soil and surrounding environment, which may pose a threat to public health. In this study, we investigated the status of (fluoro)quinolone (FQ) residues and FQ resistance levels in soil with and without receiving long-term swine manure. Six FQs (pipemidic acid, lomefloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin) were only detected in manured soil, with individual concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 27.2 μg kg(-1) and increasing with the increase in swine manure application rates. Higher load rates of swine manure yielded a higher number of ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIPr) bacteria after spreading. A total of 24 CIPr bacterial isolates were obtained from the tested soil, which belonged to four phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) or were related to nine different genera. Only 18 isolates from manured soil were positive for five plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrD, qepA, oqxA, and oqxB). To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in FQ-resistant bacteria from the soil environment. A similar result was observed for the total DNA from soil, with the exception of aac(6')-Ib being detected in the control sample. The absolute and relative abundances of total PMQR genes also increased with fertilization quantity. Significant correlations were observed between FQ resistance levels and FQ concentrations. These results indicated that the agricultural application of swine manure led to FQ residues and enhanced FQ resistance. This investigation provides baseline data on FQ resistance profiles in soils receiving long-term swine manure.

  9. Human Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates demonstrate ability to recover infectivity following penicillin treatment whereas animal isolates do not.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anu; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae strains have recently been demonstrated to have substantially different capacities to enter and recover from IFN-γ-induced persistence, depending on whether they are from human or animal host sources. Here, we examined the ability of two human and two animal strains to enter and be rescued from penicillin-induced persistence. The ability to form inclusions after the addition of penicillin was much reduced in the two animal isolates (koala LPCoLN, bandicoot B21) compared to the two human isolates (respiratory AR39 and heart A03). The penicillin treatment resulted in a dose-dependent loss of infectious progeny for all isolates, with the human strains failing to produce infectious progeny at lower doses of penicillin than the animal strains. The most remarkable finding however was the contrasting ability of the isolates to recover infectious progeny production after rescue by removal of the penicillin (at 72 h) and continued culture. The animal isolates both showed virtually no recovery from the penicillin treatment conditions. In contrast, the human isolates showed a significant ability to recovery infectivity, with the heart isolate (A03) showing the most marked recovery. Combined, these data further support the hypothesis that the ability to establish and recover from persistence appears to be enhanced in human C. pneumoniae strains compared to animal strains.

  10. Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improving cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms for animal models.

    PubMed

    Moore, Holly; Geyer, Mark A; Carter, Cameron S; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-11-01

    Over the past two decades, the awareness of the disabling and treatment-refractory effects of impaired cognition in schizophrenia has increased dramatically. In response to this still unmet need in the treatment of schizophrenia, the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative was developed. The goal of CNTRICS is to harness cognitive neuroscience to develop a brain-based set of tools for measuring cognition in schizophrenia and to test new treatments. CNTRICS meetings focused on development of tasks with cognitive construct validity for use in both human and animal model studies. This special issue presents papers discussing the cognitive testing paradigms selected by CNTRICS for animal model systems. These paradigms are designed to measure cognitive constructs within the domains of perception, attention, executive function, working memory, object/relational long-term memory, and social/affective processes.

  11. Inactivation of human pathogens during phase II composting of manure-based mushroom growth substrate.

    PubMed

    Weil, Jennifer D; Cutter, Catherine N; Beelman, Robert B; LaBorde, Luke F

    2013-08-01

    Commercial production of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) requires a specialized growth substrate prepared from composted agricultural by-products. Because horse and poultry manures are widely used in substrate formulations, there is a need to determine the extent to which the composting process is capable of eliminating human pathogens. In this study, partially composted substrate was inoculated with a pathogen cocktail (log 10⁶ to 10⁸ CFU/g) containing Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. Pathogen and indicator-organism reductions were followed at temperatures that typically occurred during a standard 6-day phase II pasteurization and conditioning procedure. Controlled-temperature water bath studies at 48.8, 54.4, and 60°C demonstrated complete destruction of the three pathogens after 36.0, 8.0, and 0.5 h, respectively. Destruction of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 at 54.4°C occurred more slowly than E. coli, total coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and Salmonella. Microbial reductions that occurred during a standard 6-day phase II pasteurization and conditioning treatment were studied in a small-scale mushroom production research facility. After phase II composting, E. coli, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae were below detectable levels, and inoculated pathogens were not detected by direct plating or by enrichment. The results of this study show that a phase II composting process can be an effective control measure for eliminating risks associated with the use of composted animal manures during mushroom production. Growers are encouraged to validate and verify their own composting processes through periodic microbial testing for pathogens and to conduct studies to assure uniform distribution of substrate temperatures during phase II.

  12. Dissimilatory Iron Reduction and Odor Indicator Abatement by Biofilm Communities in Swine Manure Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gonzalez, Hugo A.; Bruns, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Animal waste odors arising from products of anaerobic microbial metabolism create community relations problems for livestock producers. We investigated a novel approach to swine waste odor reduction: the addition of FeCl3, a commonly used coagulant in municipal wastewater treatment, to stimulate degradation of odorous compounds by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB). Two hypotheses were tested: (i) FeCl3 is an effective source of redox-active ferric iron (Fe3+) for dissimilatory reduction by bacteria indigenous to swine manure, and (ii) dissimilatory iron reduction results in significant degradation of odorous compounds within 7 days. Our results demonstrated that Fe3+ from FeCl3 was reduced biologically as well as chemically in laboratory microcosms prepared with prefiltered swine manure slurry and limestone gravel, which provided pH buffering and a substrate for microbial biofilm development. Addition of a 1-g liter−1 equivalent concentration of Fe3+ from FeCl3, but not from presynthesized ferrihydrite, caused initial, rapid solids flocculation, chemical Fe3+ reduction, and Eh increase, followed by a 2-day lag period. Between 2 and 6 days of incubation, increases in Fe2+ concentrations were accompanied by significant reductions in concentrations of volatile fatty acids used as odor indicators. Increases in Fe2+ concentrations between 2 and 6 days did not occur in FeCl3-treated microcosms that were sterilized by gamma irradiation or amended with NaN3, a respiratory inhibitor. DNA sequences obtained from rRNA gene amplicons of bacterial communities in FeCl3-treated microcosms were closely related to Desulfitobacterium spp., which are known representatives of DIRB. Use of iron respiration to abate wastewater odors warrants further investigation. PMID:16151075

  13. Effect of aluminum chloride and dietary phytase on relative ammonia losses from swine manure.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Moore, P A; Haggard, B E; Maxwells, C V; Daniel, T C; VanDevander, K; Davis, M E

    2004-02-01

    Ammonia (NH3) losses from swine manure contribute to odor problems, decrease animal productivity, and increase the risk of acid rain deposition. This study was conducted to determine whether aluminum chloride (AlCl3) or dietary manipulation with phytase could decrease relative NH3 losses from swine manure. Twenty-four pens of nursery pigs were used in two trials, and the pigs were fed normal or phytase-supplemented (500 IU/kg) diets. Aluminum chloride was added to manure pits (1.9 x 1.2 x 0.5 m) under each pen at 0, 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75% (vol:vol) of final manure volume. Manure pH and NH3 losses (measured by relative NH3 flux) were determined twice weekly. The addition of AlCl3 at 0.75% decreased (P < 0.05) manure pH from 7.48 to 6.69. Phytase decreased (P < 0.05) manure pH to 7.07 compared with 7.12 in the normal diet manure. Aluminum chloride administered at 0.75% without phytase reduced (P < 0.05) relative NH3 losses 52% for the entire 6-wk period. Relative NH3 losses were decreased (P < 0.05) from 109 mg of NH3/(m2 x h) in pens containing pigs fed the normal diet without AlCl3 to 81 mg of NH3/(m2 x h) in pens housing pigs administered the phytase diet, a 26% reduction. When the phytase diet and 0.75% AlCl3 additions were used in combination, relative NH3 losses were reduced (P < 0.05) by 60% compared with pens of pigs fed the control diet without AlCl3. Decreases in manure pH were likely responsible for the observed reduction in NH3 losses. Multiple regression was performed with relative rates of NH3 losses as the dependent variable and rate of AlCl3 addition, diet, and manure pH as independent variables. The model was tested using a stepwise regression (P < 0.001), and results indicated that the most important factors determining NH3 losses were manure pH and diet. However, the contribution of AlCl3 cannot be discounted. When manure pH was regressed against AlCl3 and dietary phytase, AlCl3 levels accounted for 64% of the variation in manure pH (P < 0

  14. New Insights into Therapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Peritoneal Fibrosis: Learning from Histochemical Analyses of Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Mineaki; Nishino, Tomoya; Obata, Yoko; Ozono, Yoshiyuki; Koji, Takehiko; Kohno, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a fatal complication that can occur in patients undergoing long-term peritoneal dialysis. It is characterized by bowel obstruction and marked sclerotic thickening of the peritoneal membrane. Although the mechanisms underlying the development of EPS are complex, angiogenesis, inflammation, and peritoneal fibrosis are known to be essential factors. Now, several animal models that exhibit EPS have pathophysiology similar to that of human EPS and have been proposed for use in research to provide insights into it. Recent histochemical methods also help us to understand the pathophysiology of EPS. Advances in basic research based on the findings in those animal models have enabled the development of several strategies for the prevention and treatment of EPS. We describe here interventional studies in some animal models for peritoneal fibrosis, one of the histological disorders findings characteristic to EPS, and we highlight the need for a sophisticated animal model that closely resembles human conditions. PMID:25392567

  15. Animal‐to‐Human Dose Translation of Obiltoxaximab for Treatment of Inhalational Anthrax Under the US FDA Animal Rule

    PubMed Central

    Mondick, J; Serbina, N; Casey, LS; Carpenter, SE; French, J; Guttendorf, R

    2016-01-01

    Obiltoxaximab, a monoclonal antibody against protective antigen (PA), is approved for treatment of inhalational anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Animal Rule. The human dose was selected and justified by comparing observed obiltoxaximab exposures in healthy and infected New Zealand White rabbits and cynomolgus macaques to observed exposures in healthy humans, to simulated exposures in healthy and infected humans, and to serum PA levels in infected animals. In humans, at 16 mg/kg intravenous, obiltoxaximab AUC was >2 times that in animals, while maximum serum concentrations were comparable to those in animals and were maintained in excess of the concentration required for PA neutralization in infected animals for 2–3 weeks. Obiltoxaximab 16 mg/kg in humans provided exposure beyond that of 16 mg/kg in animals, ensuring a sufficient duration of PA neutralization to allow for adaptive immunity development. Our approach to dose translation may be applicable to other agents being developed under the Animal Rule. PMID:27925405

  16. Subsurface application enhances benefits of manure redistribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable nutrient management requires redistribution of livestock manure from nutrient-excess areas to nutrient-deficit areas. Field experiments were conducted to assess agronomic and environmental effects of different poultry litter application methods (surface vs. subsurface) and timings (fall ...

  17. Rheological properties of dairy cattle manure.

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Hamed M; van Loon, Wilko K P; Zeeman, Grietje; Bot, Gerard P A

    2005-03-01

    Rheological properties are important for the design and modelling of handling and treating fluids. In the present study, the viscosity of liquid manure (about 10% total solids) was measured at different shear rates (2.38-238 s(-1)). The effect of temperature on the viscosity at different shear rates was also studied. The results showed that manure has non-Newtonian flow properties, because the viscosity strongly depended on the applied shear rate. The results showed also that manure behaves like real plastic materials. The power-law model of the shear stress and the rate of shear showed that the magnitude of the consistency coefficient decreased while increasing the temperature, with high values of the determination coefficient. Moreover, the results showed that the Arrhenius-type model fitted the temperature effect on manure viscosity very well (R2 at least 0.95) with calculated activation energy of 17.0+/-0.3 kJ mol(-1).

  18. Hygienisation and Nutrient Conservation of Sewage Sludge or Cattle Manure by Lactic Acid Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A.; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S.; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E.

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15–57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production. PMID:25786255

  19. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production.

  20. Facilitating Spatial Perspective Taking through Animation: Evidence from an Aptitude-Treatment-Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munzer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the facilitating function of animations for spatial perspective taking. The task demanded to estimate directions to memorized objects in a spatial scene from an imagined position and orientation within the scene. Static pictures which required imagined reorientation of the self were compared to animations showing the…

  1. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  2. Macrocyclic lactones in the treatment and control of parasitism in small companion animals.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Thomas J; Lok, James B

    2012-05-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) have many anti-parasitic applications in small companion animal medicine. They were first developed as chemoprophylactics against heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection to be applied monthly for retroactive killing of third- and fourth-stage larvae. ML-containing products formulated for oral (ivermectin, milbemycin oxime), topical (selamectin, moxidectin) or injectable sustained release (moxidectin, ivermectin) are approved for heartworm prevention in dogs or cats. Clearance of microfilariae and gradual or "soft" killing of adult heartworms constitute increasingly prevalent extra-label uses of MLs against D. immitis. Some commercial ML formulations contain sufficient levels of active ingredient (milbemycin oxime, selamectin, moxidectin) to support additional label claims against gastrointestinal nematode parasites such as hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.) and ascarid round worms (Toxocara spp. and Toxascaris leonina). Beyond these approved applications, safe, extra-label uses of MLs against nematodes parasitizing the urinary tract, such as Capillaria spp., and parasites of the tissues, such as Dipetalonema reconditum, Dirofilaria repens, Thelazia spp. and Spirocerca lupi, in dogs and cats as well as exotic pets have been reported. MLs as a group have intrinsic insecticidal and acaricidal activity, and topical or otic formulations of certain compounds (selamectin, moxidectin, milbemycin oxime or ivermectin) are approved for treatment and control of fleas, certain ixodid ticks, sarcoptiform and demodectic mange mites and psoroptiform ear mites. Extra-label applications of MLs against ectoparasites include notoedric mange mites, dermanyssids such as Ornythonussus bacoti, numerous species of fur mite (e.g. Cheyletiella spp. and Lynxacarus) and trombiculids ("chiggers") in cats, dogs and nontraditional or exotic pets.

  3. Combined treatment with interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial radiotherapy in an animal tumor model.

    PubMed

    Ruifrok, A C; Levendag, P C; Lakeman, R F; Deurloo, I K; Visser, A G

    1991-06-01

    An interstitial hyperthermia system operating at 27 MHz has been developed at the Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center. To test this system in combination with interstitial radiotherapy and to study the interactions of interstitial radiotherapy and interstitial hyperthermia, animal experiments were performed using rhabdomyosarcoma type R1 transplanted in the flanks of female Wag/Rij rats. Using the 27 MHz system, it appeared feasible to obtain hyperthermic temperatures. In this experiment a thermal dose of 44 degrees C for 30 minutes was delivered by controlling the temperature at the periphery of the tumor to 44 degrees C. The interstitial heating applicators were inserted in four standard afterloading catheters implanted with a fixed spacing of 7 mm; the same catheters were used for the radioactive sources for interstitial radiotherapy treatment following the interstitial hyperthermia sessions. Interstitial radiotherapy was given by means of four Ir192 wires with an average activity of 4.5.10(7) Bq/cm. Minimum tumor doses of 20 to 115 Gy with a mean dose rate of 47 cGy/hour were applied. Interstitial hyperthermia alone resulted in a growth delay (GD1) of 6 +/- 2 days without significant reduction of tumor volume. The 50% tumor cure dose after interstitial radiotherapy alone was 95 +/- 9 Gy. Combination of interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial radiotherapy resulted in reduction of the 50% tumor cure dose to 48 +/- 13 Gy. The dose-effect data for cure for these modalities are compared to existing data for external irradiation and external hyperthermia in the same tumor model. It was found that the addition of hyperthermia to different modes of irradiation, that is, either to single dose or protracted radiotherapy, results in a common level of radiosensitivity through impaired repair of sublethal damage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the 27 MHz heating system in achieving hyperthermic temperatures; in the combined modality experiments a thermal

  4. Evaluation of an integrated constructed wetland to manage pig manure under Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Nehmtow, Julie; Rabier, Jacques; Giguel, Raphaël; Coulomb, Bruno; Farnet, Anne Marie; Perissol, Claude; Alary, Arnaud; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Pig manure is a complex mixture with excessive nutrients such as ammonium, microbial pathogens and may contain contaminants such as antibiotics. Conventional pig manure management practices caused water contamination. Sludge treatment wetland has been evaluated to determine its potential use under Mediterranean climate aiming at a parsimonious use of water and preventing water contamination, two major steps to preserve water resources in the Mediterranean Basin. Preliminary NH4-N degradation was tested using aeration process and/or addition of commercial bacterial products. Aeration alone appeared to be sufficient to ensure nitrogen transformation of the pig manure at lab small-scale (10 L) and medium-scale (300 L). Selected plant species e.g., Carex hispida for use in the integrated constructed wetland tolerated the nitrogen content after aeration enabling their use in a treatment vertical bed.

  5. Bone changes due to glucocorticoid application in an ovariectomized animal model for fracture treatment in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lill, C A; Gerlach, U V; Eckhardt, C; Goldhahn, J; Schneider, E

    2002-05-01

    In a pilot experiment comparing four different modalities for inducing osteoporosis in the sheep, a combination of ovariectomy, calcium/vitamin D-restricted diet and steroid administration was found to generate the highest decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of the present study was to quantify the outcome of this triple treatment in an animal model of osteoporosis in terms of alteration in bone mass, bone structure and bone mechanics. A total of 32 sheep were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 (age 3-5 years) was used as a normal control. Group 2 (age 7-9 years) was ovariectomized, fed a calcium/vitamin D-restricted diet and injected with methylprednisolone (MP) over 7 months (22 weeks MP solution, 6 weeks MP suspension). The BMD at the distal radius and tibia was determined preoperatively and at repeated intervals bilaterally using quantitative computed tomography. Steroid blood levels were determined 4 and 24 h after selected injections. BMD was measured at L3 and L4 after 7 months. Biopsies were taken from iliac crests, vertebral bodies and femoral heads, and bone structure parameters investigated by three-dimensional micro-CT. Compressive mechanical properties of cancellous bone were determined from biopsies of vertebral bodies and femoral heads. After 7 months of osteoporosis induction the BMD of cancellous bone decreased 36 +/- 3% in the radius and 39 +/- 4% in the tibia. Steroid blood levels 24 h after injection of MP suspension were significantly higher than after injection of MP solution. Changes in structural parameters of cancellous bone from the iliac crest, lumbar spine and femoral head in group 2 indicated osteoporosis-associated changes. In group 2 there was a significant reduction in BMD of the lumbar spine and a significant reduction in stiffness and failure load in compression testing of biopsies of lumbar vertebrae. In sheep, changes in the structural parameters of bone such as trabecular number and separation during osteoporosis

  6. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures: Processes and energetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an emerging technology for thermochemically converting biomass and waste materials into value-added carbonaceous char called hydrochar. HTC is well suited to manage wet feedstocks streams because pre-drying prior to processing is not required as with gasification...

  7. Mixing rare earth elements with manures to control phosphorus loss in runoff and track manure fate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. We evaluated the effect of mixing two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride and ytterbium chloride, with poultr...

  8. Effect of feedlot manure collection techniques on ultimate methane yield

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Hills, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Beef-cattle manure collected from unpaved dirt feedlots has a significantly decreased energy-production potential due to low organic content and dirt contamination. In laboratory batch fermentors beef-feedlot manure of various ages was digested. Compared with fresh manure-gas production at 100%, aged manure produced 16-73% of the gas/kg of volatile solids added. More than 1/2 of the N was lost after the manure had aged 3 months. Economic benefits of CH/sub 4/ and N recovery from manure of different ages are discussed.

  9. Effect of liquid swine manure rate, incorporation, and timing of rainfall on phosphorus loss with surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brett L; Mallarino, Antonio P

    2008-01-01

    Excessive manure phosphorus (P) application increases risk of P loss from fields. This study assessed total runoff P (TPR), bioavailable P (BAP), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentrations and loads in surface runoff after liquid swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure application with or without incorporation into soil and different timing of rainfall. Four replicated manure P treatments were applied in 2002 and in 2003 to two Iowa soils testing low in P managed with corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations. Total P applied each time was 0 to 80 kg P ha(-1) at one site and 0 to 108 kg P ha(-1) at the other. Simulated rainfall was applied within 24 h of P application or after 10 to 16 d and 5 to 6 mo. Nonincorporated manure P increased DRP, BAP, and TPR concentrations and loads linearly or exponentially for 24-h and 10- to 16-d runoff events. On average for the 24-h events, DRP, BAP, and TPR concentrations were 5.4, 4.7, and 2.2 times higher, respectively, for nonincorporated manure than for incorporated manure; P loads were 3.8, 7.7, and 3.6 times higher; and DRP and BAP concentrations were 54% of TPR for nonincorporated manure and 22 to 25% for incorporated manure. A 10- to 16-d rainfall delay resulted in DRP, BAP, and TPR concentrations that were 3.1, 2.7, and 1.1 times lower, respectively, than for 24-h events across all nonincorporated P rates, sites, and years, whereas runoff P loads were 3.8, 3.6, and 1.6 times lower, respectively. A 5- to 6-mo simulated rainfall delay reduced runoff P to levels similar to control plots. Incorporating swine manure when the probability of immediate rainfall is high reduces the risk of P loss in surface runoff; however, this benefit sharply decreases with time.

  10. Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste--The effects of trace element addition.

    PubMed

    Nordell, Erik; Nilsson, Britt; Nilsson Påledal, Sören; Karisalmi, Kaisa; Moestedt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Manure is one of the most common substrates for biogas production. Manure from dairy- and swine animals are often considered to stabilize the biogas process by contributing nutrients and trace elements needed for the biogas process. In this study two lab-scale reactors were used to evaluate the effects of trace element addition during co-digestion of manure from swine- and dairy animals with industrial waste. The substrate used contained high background concentrations of both cobalt and nickel, which are considered to be the most important trace elements. In the reactor receiving additional trace elements, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was 89% lower than in the control reactor. The lower VFA concentration contributed to a more digested digestate, and thus lower methane emissions in the subsequent storage. Also, the biogas production rate increased with 24% and the biogas production yield with 10%, both as a result of the additional trace elements at high organic loading rates. All in all, even though 50% of the feedstock consisted of manure, trace element addition resulted in multiple positive effects and a more reliable process with stable and high yield.

  11. Hyperaccumulator oilcake manure as an alternative for chelate-induced phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated alluvial soils.

    PubMed

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The ability of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure as compared to chelates was investigated by growing Calendula officinalis L for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated alluvial soil. The combinatorial treatment T6 [2.5 g kg(-1) oilcake manure+5 mmol kg(-1) EDDS] caused maximum cadmium accumulation in root, shoot and flower up to 5.46, 4.74 and 1.37 mg kg(-1) and lead accumulation up to 16.11, 13.44 and 3.17 mg kg(-1), respectively at Naini dump site, Allahabad (S3). The treatment showed maximum remediation efficiency for Cd (RR=0.676%) and Pb (RR=0.202%) at Mumfordganj contaminated site (S2). However, the above parameters were also observed at par with the treatment T5 [2.5 g kg(-1) oilcake manure +2 g kg(-1) humic acid]. Applied EDDS altered chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and carotene contents of plants while application of oilcake manure enhanced their contents in plant by 3.73-8.65%, 5.81-17.65%, and 7.04-17.19%, respectively. The authors conclude that Calendula officinalis L has potential to be safely grown in moderately Cd and Pb-contaminated soils and application of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure boosts the photosynthetic pigments of the plant, leading to enhanced clean-up of the cadmium and lead-contaminated soils. Hence, the hyperaccumulator oilcake manure should be preferred over chelates for sustainable phytoremediation through soil-plant rhizospheric process.

  12. Acrylamide formation in vegetable oils and animal fats during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Daniali, G; Jinap, S; Hajeb, P; Sanny, M; Tan, C P

    2016-12-01

    The method of liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry was utilized and modified to confirm and quantify acrylamide in heating cooking oil and animal fat. Heating asparagine with various cooking oils and animal fat at 180°C produced varying amounts of acrylamide. The acrylamide in the different cooking oils and animal fat using a constant amount of asparagine was measured. Cooking oils were also examined for peroxide, anisidine and iodine values (or oxidation values). A direct correlation was observed between oxidation values and acrylamide formation in different cooking oils. Significantly less acrylamide was produced in saturated animal fat than in unsaturated cooking oil, with 366ng/g in lard and 211ng/g in ghee versus 2447ng/g in soy oil, followed by palm olein with 1442ng/g.

  13. Effects of pig manure and wheat straw on growth of mung bean seedlings grown in aluminium toxicity soil.

    PubMed

    Shen, Q R; Shen, Z G

    2001-02-01

    Crop production in red soil areas may be limited by Al toxicity. A possible alternative to ameliorate Al toxicity is the application of such organic manure as crop straw and animal manure. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic materials on the alleviation of Al toxicity in acid red soil. Ground wheat straw, pig manure or CaCO3 were mixed with the soil and incubated, at 85% of water holding capacity and 25 degrees C, for 8 weeks. After the incubation, 14 seedlings of mung bean (Phaseolus aures Roxb) were allowed to grow for 12 days. Results showed that application of organic material or CaCO3 increased soil pH and decreased soil monomeric inorganic Al concentrations. Growth of mung bean seedling was improved sustantially by the application of organic material or CaCO3. Pig manure or wheat straw was more effective in ameliorating Al toxicity than was CaCO3. Mung bean plants receiving pig manure or wheat straw contained relatively high concentrations of P, Ca and K in their leaves. It is suggested that the beneficial effect of organic manure on mung bean is likely due to decreasing concentrations of monomeric inorganic Al concentrations in soil solution and improvement of mineral nutrition.

  14. Survival of multidrug-resistant bacteria in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk.

    PubMed

    Beneragama, Nilmini; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Lateef, Suraju A; Yamashiro, Takaki; Ihara, Ikko; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2013-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion is considered as a promising method to manage animal waste with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Current research was conducted to investigate the survival of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) resistant to three groups of antibiotics: (i) cefazolin, neomycin, vancomycin, kanamycin (group 1); (ii) penicillin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin (group 2); and (iii) cefazolin, neomycin, vancomycin, kanamycin, penicillin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin (group 3), in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk at 37°C and 55°C for 22 days, respectively. The population densities of three groups of MDRB on peptone, tryptone, yeast and glucose agar plates incubated at 30°C for 7 days before and after digestion showed 100% destruction in both digestates at thermophilic temperature. Overall reduction of more than 90% of three groups of MDRB was observed in mesophilic digestion with no significant differences (P > 0.05) between manure and milk mixture. Co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk always produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher total gas and methane gas than digestion of manure alone at both temperatures. Gas production in each case was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in thermophilic digestion than in mesophilic digestion. The results demonstrate that thermophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk offers more benefits in terms of the environment and economy.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus in swine manure and soil.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongqi; Griffin, Timothy S; Honeycutt, C Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Organic phosphorus (Po) exists in many chemical forms that differ in their susceptibility to hydrolysis and, therefore, bioavailability to plants and microorganisms. Identification and quantification of these forms may significantly contribute to effective agricultural P management. Phosphatases catalyze reactions that release orthophosphate (Pi) from Po compounds. Alkaline phosphatase in tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phytase in potassium acetate buffer (pH 5.0), and nuclease P1 in potassium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) can be used to classify and quantify Po in animal manure. Background error associated with different pH and buffer systems is observed. In this study, we improved the enzymatic hydrolysis approach and tested its applicability for investigating Po in soils, recognizing that soil and manure differ in numerous physicochemical properties. We applied (i) acid phosphatase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), (ii) acid phosphatases from both potato and wheat germ, and (iii) both enzymes plus nuclease P1 to identify and quantify simple labile monoester P, phytate (myo-inositol hexakis phosphate)-like P, and DNA-like P, respectively, in a single pH/buffer system (100 mM sodium acetate, pH 5.0). This hydrolysis procedure released Po in sequentially extracted H2O, NaHCO3, and NaOH fractions of swine (Sus scrofa) manure, and of three sandy loam soils. Further refinement of the approach may provide a universal tool for evaluating hydrolyzable Po from a wide range of sources.

  16. Effects of nitrocompounds on uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Weeks, L J; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J; Dunkley, K; Ricke, S C

    2009-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of nitrocompounds on growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure. There were three treatments: control, 100 mM nitropropanol (NPL), and 100 mM nitropropionic acid (NPC). The mixed laying hen manure was divided into 3 groups and incubated at 23 degrees C for 7 days. On Days 0, 3, and 7, samples were collected to measure the quantity of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, total nitrogen retention, and microbial community changes. Both nitrocompounds significantly reduced growth of the uric acid-utilizing microorganisms on Day 3 (P < 0.05). Inhibitory effects of both nitrocompounds remained until Day 7 when the experiment was terminated. NPL treatment retained significantly more manure nitrogen compared to the control on both Days 3 and 7. Manure nitrogen levels of NPC treatment were also significantly higher than the control on Day 7. We further investigated the effects of NPL and NPC on microbial community changes during a 7-day incubation. NPC treatment and control on Day 7 exhibited 94% community similarity. NPC on Day 3 and NPL on Day 7 also showed high community similarity (approximately 94%). Control on Day 0 and Day 7 yielded less than 80% community similarity. Control and NPL treatment groups on Day 3 gave the lowest community similarity (approximately 64%) compared to the other groups. This result indicated that incubation time and treatment moderately influenced microbial community changes. In summary, these results indicate that both nitrocompounds increased manure nitrogen retention by inhibiting the growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, and that NPL and NPC could be used as manure treatments in order to reduce ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention in poultry manure. Moreover, nitrocompounds may have potential as feed additives to reduce ammonia volatilization.

  17. Occurrence and distribution of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, and nitrofurans in livestock manure and amended soils of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jie; Wan, Weining; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Chong; Mu, Quanhua; Qin, Songyan; Luo, Yi

    2015-03-01

    A feasible and rapid analysis for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides (SAs), tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs), macrolides (MACs) and nitrofurans (NFs) in livestock manure and soils was established by solid-phase extraction (SPE)-ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A total of 32 manure and 17 amended soil samples from the Liaoning and Tianjin areas in Northern China were collected for analysis. The largest detected frequencies and concentrations in manure samples were those of TCs (3326.6 ± 12,302.6 μg/kg), followed by FQs (411.3 ± 1453.4 μg/kg), SAs (170.6 ± 1060.2 μg/kg), NFs (85.1 ± 158.1 μg/kg), and MACs (1.4 ± 4.8 μg/kg). In general, veterinary antibiotics (VAs) were detected with higher concentrations in swine and chicken manure than in cattle manure, reflecting the heavy usage of VAs in swine and chicken husbandry in the studied area. Furthermore, higher residues of antibiotics were found in piglet and fattening swine manure than in sow manure. In addition, TCs were the most frequently (100%) detected antibiotics in amended soil with higher concentrations (up to 10,967.1 μg/kg) than any other VAs. The attenuation of SAs was more obvious than TCs in amended soil after fertilization, which can most likely be attributed to the stronger sorption of TCs than SAs to soil organic matter through cation exchange. This study illustrated the prevalence of TCs detected in both animal manure and fertilized agricultural soils in Northern China, which may increase the risk to human health through the food chain. Thus, TCs should be given more attention in the management of veterinary usage in livestock husbandry.

  18. Drug delivery systems for ovarian cancer treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Raavé, René; de Vries, Rob B.M.; Massuger, Leon F.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.

    2015-01-01

    Current ovarian cancer treatment involves chemotherapy that has serious limitations, such as rapid clearance, unfavorable biodistribution and severe side effects. To overcome these limitations, drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to encapsulate chemotherapeutics for delivery to tumor cells. However, no systematic assessment of the efficacy of chemotherapy by DDS compared to free chemotherapy (not in a DDS) has been performed for animal studies. Here, we assess the efficacy of chemotherapy in DDS on survival and tumor growth inhibition in animal studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE (via OvidSP) to systematically identify studies evaluating chemotherapeutics encapsulated in DDS for ovarian cancer treatment in animal studies. Studies were assessed for quality and risk of bias. Study characteristics were collected and outcome data (survival/hazard ratio or tumor growth inhibition) were extracted and used for meta-analyses. Meta-analysis was performed to identify and explore which characteristics of DDS influenced treatment efficacy. A total of 44 studies were included after thorough literature screening (2,735 studies found after initial search). The risk of bias was difficult to assess, mainly because of incomplete reporting. A total of 17 studies (377 animals) and 16 studies (259 animals) could be included in the meta-analysis for survival and tumor growth inhibition, respectively. In the majority of the included studies chemotherapeutics entrapped in a DDS significantly improved efficacy over free chemotherapeutics regarding both survival and tumor growth inhibition. Subgroup analyses, however, revealed that cisplatin entrapped in a DDS did not result in additional tumor growth inhibition compared to free cisplatin, although it did result in improved survival. Micelles did not show a significant tumor growth inhibition compared to free chemotherapeutics, which indicates that micelles may not be a suitable DDS for ovarian cancer treatment. Other

  19. Drug delivery systems for ovarian cancer treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies.

    PubMed

    Raavé, René; de Vries, Rob B M; Massuger, Leon F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Daamen, Willeke F

    2015-01-01

    Current ovarian cancer treatment involves chemotherapy that has serious limitations, such as rapid clearance, unfavorable biodistribution and severe side effects. To overcome these limitations, drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to encapsulate chemotherapeutics for delivery to tumor cells. However, no systematic assessment of the efficacy of chemotherapy by DDS compared to free chemotherapy (not in a DDS) has been performed for animal studies. Here, we assess the efficacy of chemotherapy in DDS on survival and tumor growth inhibition in animal studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE (via OvidSP) to systematically identify studies evaluating chemotherapeutics encapsulated in DDS for ovarian cancer treatment in animal studies. Studies were assessed for quality and risk of bias. Study characteristics were collected and outcome data (survival/hazard ratio or tumor growth inhibition) were extracted and used for meta-analyses. Meta-analysis was performed to identify and explore which characteristics of DDS influenced treatment efficacy. A total of 44 studies were included after thorough literature screening (2,735 studies found after initial search). The risk of bias was difficult to assess, mainly because of incomplete reporting. A total of 17 studies (377 animals) and 16 studies (259 animals) could be included in the meta-analysis for survival and tumor growth inhibition, respectively. In the majority of the included studies chemotherapeutics entrapped in a DDS significantly improved efficacy over free chemotherapeutics regarding both survival and tumor growth inhibition. Subgroup analyses, however, revealed that cisplatin entrapped in a DDS did not result in additional tumor growth inhibition compared to free cisplatin, although it did result in improved survival. Micelles did not show a significant tumor growth inhibition compared to free chemotherapeutics, which indicates that micelles may not be a suitable DDS for ovarian cancer treatment. Other

  20. The effect of phosphogypsum on greenhouse gas emissions during cattle manure composting.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiying; Larney, Francis J; Chang, Chi; Travis, Greg R; Nichol, Connie K; Bremer, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, reduces N losses when added to composting livestock manure, but its impact on greenhouse gas emissions is unclear. The objective of this research was to assess the effects of PG addition on greenhouse gas emissions during cattle feedlot manure composting. Sand was used as a filler material for comparison. The seven treatments were PG10, PG20, PG30, S10, S20, and S30, representing the rate of PG or sand addition at 10, 20, or 30% of manure dry weight and a check treatment (no PG or sand) with three replications. The manure treatments were composted in open windrows and turned five times during a 134-d period. Addition of PG significantly increased electrical conductivity (EC) and decreased pH in the final compost. Total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and mineral nitrogen contents in the final composted product were not affected by the addition of PG or sand. From 40 to 54% of initial TC was lost during composting, mostly as CO(2), with CH(4) accounting for <14%. The addition of PG significantly reduced CH(4) emissions, which decreased exponentially with the compost total sulfur (TS) content. The emission of N(2)O accounted for <0.2% of initial TN in the manure, increasing as compost pH decreased from alkaline to near neutral. Based on the total greenhouse gas budget, PG addition reduced greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)-C equivalent) during composting of livestock manure by at least 58%, primarily due to reduced CH(4) emission.