Science.gov

Sample records for animal radionuclide imaging

  1. Small Animal Radionuclide Imaging With Focusing Gamma-Ray Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R; Decker, T; Epstein, M; Ziock, K; Pivovaroff, M J; Craig, W W; Jernigan, J G; Barber, W B; Christensen, F E; Funk, T; Hailey, C J; Hasegawa, B H; Taylor, C

    2004-02-27

    Significant effort currently is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. While physiological function in small animals can be localized and imaged using conventional radionuclide imaging techniques such as single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), these techniques inherently are limited to spatial resolutions of 1-2 mm. For this reason, we are developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system (SARIS) using grazing incidence optics to focus gamma-rays emitted by {sup 125}I and other radiopharmaceuticals. We have developed a prototype optic with sufficient accuracy and precision to focus the 27.5 keV photons from {sup 125}I onto a high-resolution imaging detector. Experimental measurements from the prototype have demonstrated that the optic can focus X-rays from a microfocus X-ray tube to a spot having physical dimensions (approximately 1500 microns half-power diameter) consistent with those predicted by theory. Our theoretical and numerical analysis also indicate that an optic can be designed and build that ultimately can achieve 100 {micro}m spatial resolution with sufficient efficiency to perform in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animal.

  2. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  3. Radionuclide imaging of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide procedures frequently are performed as part of the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. Degenerative joint disease, fracture, and orthopedic hardware decrease the specificity of the bone scan, making it less useful in these situations. Gallium-67 scintigraphy was often used as an adjunct to bone scintigraphy for diagnosing osteomyelitis. However, now it is used primarily for spinal infections when (18)F-FDG imaging cannot be performed. Except for the spine, in vitro-labeled leukocyte imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. Leukocytes accumulate in bone marrow as well as in infection. Performing complementary bone marrow imaging with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid facilitates the differentiation between osteomyelitis and normal marrow and improves test overall accuracy. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, such as (99m)Tc-besilesomab and (99m)Tc-sulesomab, were developed to eliminate the disadvantages associated with in vitro-labeled leukocytes. These agents, however, have their own shortcomings and are not widely available. As biotin is used as a growth factor by certain bacteria, (111)In-biotin is useful to diagnose spinal infections. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, can differentiate infection from sterile inflammation and may be useful to monitor response to treatment. (18)F-FDG is extremely useful in the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Sensitivity in excess of 95% and specificity ranging from 75%-99% have been reported. (18)F-FDG is the radionuclide test of choice for spinal infection. The test is sensitive, with a high negative predictive value, and reliably differentiates degenerative from infectious vertebral body end-plate abnormalities. Data on the accuracy of (18)F-FDG for diagnosing diabetic pedal

  4. Radionuclide Imaging of Cardiovascular Infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fozia Zahir; James, Jackie; Memmott, Matthew J; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2016-02-01

    Owing to expanding clinical indications, cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are being increasingly used. Despite improved surgical techniques and the use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, the rate of CIED-related infection is also increasing. Infection is a potentially serious complication, with clinical manifestations ranging from surgical site infection and local symptoms in the region of the generator pocket to fulminant endocarditis. The utility of radionuclide imaging as a stand-alone noninvasive diagnostic imaging test in patients with suspected endocarditis has been less frequently examined. This article summarizes the recent advances in radionuclide imaging for evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular infections.

  5. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; da Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  6. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  7. Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution

    DOEpatents

    Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2012-12-18

    A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

  8. Optimized time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in small animal tumor models.

    PubMed

    Haeck, Joost; Bol, Karin; Bison, Sander; van Tiel, Sandra; Koelewijn, Stuart; de Jong, Marion; Veenland, Jifke; Bernsen, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Anti-tumor efficacy of targeted peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) relies on several factors, including functional tumor vasculature. Little is known about the effect of PRRT on tumor vasculature. With dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI, functional vasculature is imaged and quantified using contrast agents. In small animals DCE-MRI is a challenging application. We optimized a clinical sequence for fast hemodynamic acquisitions, time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS), to obtain DCE-MRI images at both high spatial and high temporal resolution in mice and rats. Using TRICKS, functional vasculature was measured prior to PRRT and longitudinally to investigate the effect of treatment on tumor vascular characteristics. Nude mice bearing H69 tumor xenografts and rats bearing syngeneic CA20948 tumors were used to study perfusion following PRRT administration with (177) lutetium octreotate. Both semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters were calculated. Treatment efficacy was measured by tumor-size reduction. Optimized TRICKS enabled MRI at 0.032 mm(3) voxel size with a temporal resolution of less than 5 s and large volume coverage, a substantial improvement over routine pre-clinical DCE-MRI studies. Tumor response to therapy was reflected in changes in tumor perfusion/permeability parameters. The H69 tumor model showed pronounced changes in DCE-derived parameters following PRRT. The rat CA20948 tumor model showed more heterogeneity in both treatment outcome and perfusion parameters. TRICKS enabled the acquisition of DCE-MRI at both high temporal resolution (Tres ) and spatial resolutions relevant for small animal tumor models. With the high Tres enabled by TRICKS, accurate pharmacokinetic data modeling was feasible. DCE-MRI parameters revealed changes over time and showed a clear relationship between tumor size and Ktrans .

  9. Radionuclide imaging in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by interruption or significant impairment of blood supply to the brain, which leads to a cascade of metabolic and molecular alterations resulting in functional disturbance and morphologic damage. The changes in regional cerebral blood flow and regional metabolism can be assessed by radionuclide imaging, especially SPECT and PET. SPECT and PET have broadened our understanding of flow and metabolic thresholds critical for maintenance of brain function and morphology: PET was essential in the transfer of the concept of the penumbra to clinical stroke and thereby had a great impact on developing treatment strategies. Receptor ligands can be applied as early markers of irreversible neuronal damage and can predict the size of the final infarcts, which is important for decisions on invasive therapy in large ("malignant") infarction. With SPECT and PET, the reserve capacity of the blood supply can be tested in obstructive arteriosclerosis, which is essential for planning interventions. The effect of a stroke on surrounding and contralateral primarily unaffected tissue can be investigated, helping to understand symptoms caused by disturbance in functional networks. Activation studies are useful to demonstrate alternative pathways to compensate for lesions and to test the effect of rehabilitative therapy. Radioisotope studies help to detect neuroinflammation and its effect on extension of tissue damage. Despite the limitations of broad clinical application of radionuclide imaging, this technology has a great impact on research in cerebrovascular diseases and still has various applications in the management of stroke.

  10. The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Beatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Bouron, Alexandre; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    increased suicides, as well as modification of preferred nesting sites, reduced hatching success and fecundity in birds that live in the Chernobyl zone. No significant effect from caesium exposure was shown in laboratory experiments with rats, but few studies were conducted. Data on radioactive cadmium are not available in the literature, but the effects of its metallic form have been well studied. Cadmium induces mental retardation and psychomotor alterations in exposed populations and increases anxiety in rats, leading to depression. Cadmium exposure also results in well-documented effects on feeding and burrowing behavior in several invertebrate species (crustaceans, gastropods, annelids, bivalves) and on different kinds of fish behavior (swimming activity, fast-start response, antipredatory behavior). Cobalt induces memory deficits in humans and may be involved in Alzheimer's disease; gamma irradiation by cobalt also decreases fecundity and alters mating behavior in insects. Collectively, data are lacking or are meagre on radionuclide pollutants, and a better knowledge of their actions on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control animal behavior is needed.

  11. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  12. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Velchik, M G

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable.

  13. Breast-Dedicated Radionuclide Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Hsu, David F C; Freese, David L; Levin, Craig S

    2016-02-01

    Breast-dedicated radionuclide imaging systems show promise for increasing clinical sensitivity for breast cancer while minimizing patient dose and cost. We present several breast-dedicated coincidence-photon and single-photon camera designs that have been described in the literature and examine their intrinsic performance, clinical relevance, and impact. Recent tracer development is mentioned, results from recent clinical tests are summarized, and potential areas for improvement are highlighted.

  14. Radionuclide imaging of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Boerman, Otto C

    2009-12-01

    Angiogenesis is a multistep process regulated by pro- and antiangiogenic factors. In order to grow and metastasize, tumors need a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. For growth beyond 1-2 mm in size, tumors are dependent on angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis is a new cancer treatment strategy that is now widely investigated clinically. Researchers have begun to search for objective measures that indicate pharmacologic responses to antiangiogenic drugs. Therefore, there is a great interest in techniques to visualize angiogenesis in growing tumors noninvasively. Several markers have been described that are preferentially expressed on newly formed blood vessels in tumors (alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and its receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen) and in the extracellular matrix surrounding newly formed blood vessels (extra domain B of fibronectin, Tenascin-C, matrix metalloproteinases, and Robo-4). Several ligands targeting these markers have been tested as a radiotracer for imaging angiogenesis in tumors. The potential of some of these tracers, such as radiolabeled cyclic RGD peptides and radiolabeled anti-PSMA antibodies, has already been tested in cancer patients, while for markers such as Robo-4, the ligand has not yet been identified. In this review, an overview on the currently used nuclear imaging probes for noninvasive visualization of tumor angiogenesis is given.

  15. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders.

    PubMed

    Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Boersma, Hendrikus H; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as (99m)Tc-nanocolloid, (99m)Tc-sulphur colloid, (111)In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed.

  16. Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Infection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    There are numerous imaging tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs are routinely performed, because even when not diagnostic, they provide an anatomic overview of the region of interest that could influence subsequent procedure selection and interpretation. MRI is sensitive and provides superb anatomic detail. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. (67)Ga is used primarily for spondylodiskitis. Although in vitro labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide test of choice for complicating osteomyelitis such as diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection, it is not useful for spondylodiskitis. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments have limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for spondylodiskitis. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of the antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin are promising infection-specific agents. (18)F-FDG is the radiopharmaceutical of choice for spondylodiskitis. Its role in diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection is not established. Preliminary data suggest (68)Ga may be useful in musculoskeletal infection. (124)I-fialuridine initially showed promise as an infection-specific radiopharmaceutical, but subsequent investigations were disappointing. The development of PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging systems, which combine anatomic and functional imaging, has revolutionized diagnostic imaging. These hybrid systems are redefining the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected or known infection and inflammation by improving diagnostic accuracy and influencing patient management.

  17. Optimizing diagnosis in Parkinson's disease: Radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Stoessl, A Jon

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and other disorders characterized by basal ganglia dysfunction are often associated with limited structural imaging changes that might assist in the clinical or research setting. Radionuclide imaging has been used to assess characteristic functional changes. Presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in PD can be revealed through the imaging of different steps in the process of dopamine synthesis and storage: L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, Vesicular Monoamine Transporter type 2 (VMAT2) binding or its reuptake via the dopamine transporter (DAT). Postsynaptic dopamine dysfunction can also be studied with a variety of different tracers that primarily assess D2-like dopamine receptor availability. The function of other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine can be imaged as well, giving important information about the underlying pathophysiologic process of PD and its complications. The imaging of metabolic activity and pathologic changes has also provided great advances in the field. Together, these techniques have allowed for a better understanding of PD, may be of aid for differentiating PD from other forms of parkinsonism and will undoubtedly be useful for the establishment of new therapeutic targets.

  18. Radionuclide imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu Juan; Li, XianFeng; Ren, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically. These novel methods are useful in diagnosis and therapy of TC, but also have unavoidable adverse effects. In this review, we will discuss the development of nuclear medicine in TC examination and treatment.

  19. New Trends in Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Guang-Uei; Wang, Yuh-Feng; Su, Hung-Yi; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Ko, Chi-Lun; Yen, Ruoh-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been widely used clinically as one of the major functional imaging modalities for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) for decades. Ample evidence has supported the use of MPI as a useful and important tool in the diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment planning for CAD. Although popular in the United States, MPI has become the most frequently used imaging modality among all nuclear medicine tests in Taiwan. However, it should be acknowledged that MPI SPECT does have its limitations. These include false-positive results due to certain artifacts, false-negative due to balanced ischemia, complexity and adverse reaction arising from current pharmacological stressors, time consuming nature of the imaging procedure, no blood flow quantitation and relatively high radiation exposure. The purpose of this article was to review the recent trends in nuclear cardiology, including the utilization of positron emission tomography (PET) for MPI, new stressor, new SPECT camera with higher resolution and higher sensitivity, dynamic SPECT protocol for blood flow quantitation, new software of phase analysis for evaluation of LV dyssynchrony, and measures utilized for reducing radiation exposure of MPI. PMID:27122946

  20. Radionuclide-labeled nanostructures for In Vivo imaging of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Kim, Minho; Hartman, Kevin L.; Kang, Keon Wook; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2015-05-01

    Molecular imaging plays an important role in the non-invasive diagnosis and the guiding or monitoring of disease treatment. Different imaging modalities have been developed, and each method possesses unique strengths. While a variety of molecules have been used previously in nuclear imaging, the exceptional properties of nanostructures in recent research enable the deployment of accurate and efficient diagnostic agents using radionuclide-nanostructures. This review focuses on the radionuclide labeling strategies of various nanostructures and their applications for multimodality tumor imaging.

  1. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Hepatobiliary and Gastrointestinal System Imaging.

    PubMed

    Low, Chen Sheng; Ahmed, Haseeb; Notghi, Alp

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclide imaging for the hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal system covers a wide range of different indications and imaging techniques. This wide variety allows the different functional assessments of both systems. Therefore, the understanding of each technique and its indications is essential. Cholescintigraphy is a well-established method in the assessment of acute and chronic cholecystitis. It also has a role in the detection of biliary atresia. The assessment of gastrointestinal transit is also well-established in radionuclide imaging for functional investigation of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding with radionuclide imaging is also standard practice. This article aims to review the pitfalls and limitations in all of these areas.

  2. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  3. Radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hoon; Pahk, Kisoo; Kim, Sungeun; Lee, Soon Hyuck; Song, Sang Heon; Choe, Jae Gol

    2015-08-01

    Oseteoid osteoma is a well-known type of benign bone-forming tumor, which has previously been diagnosed using plain radiograph imaging. However, diagnosis of osteoid osteoma may be delayed due to ambiguities on plain radiograph images; despite the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this type of misdiagnosis is not uncommon. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of radionuclide imaging scans for the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma, as this form of imaging was proposed to be a more sensitive test. The characteristics of 18 cases of osteoid osteoma were analyzed based on diagnostic imaging and the time from initial recognition of symptoms by the patient to diagnosis. Diagnostic modalities included plain radiograph, computed tomography (CT), MRI and radionuclide imaging. Among the 18 patients, 14 patients had unique positive findings in plain radiographs. The mean duration between initial cognition of symptoms to the diagnosis for these patients was 5.2 months (range, 3.8-9.3 months). A total of 4 patients exhibited no radiographic abnormalities in the initial plain radiographs and were diagnosed a mean of 18.5 months (range, 17-20 months) following the onset of symptoms. Overall, radionuclide imaging was performed on 16 patients and all of the cases demonstrated positive findings. In these cases, 28.6% of osteoid osteoma patients with clinical indications revealed no abnormal findings in plain radiographs. Therefore, in situations such as these, radionuclide imaging may be a useful indicator for diagnosis, as these results have demonstrated that it positively identified all cases of osteoid osteoma. In addition, the results of the present study indicated that if the radionuclide imaging was positive, CT scan was a more valuable diagnostic tool, whereas if the radionuclide imaging was negative, MRI should be recommended for the diagnosis of other undiscovered disease entities.

  4. An experimental study on the application of radionuclide imaging in repair of the bone defect.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weimin; Wang, Daping; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lu, Wei; Liu, Jianquan; Peng, Liangquan; Li, Hao; Han, Yun; Zeng, Yanjun

    2011-08-01

    The aim of our study was to validate the effect of radionuclide imaging in early monitoring of the bone's reconstruction, the animal model of bone defect was made on the rabbits repaired with HA artificial bone. The ability of bone defect repair was evaluated by using radionuclide bone imaging at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The results indicate that the experimental group stimulated more bone formation than that of the control group. The differences of the bone reconstruction ability were statistically significant (p<0.05). The nano-HA artificial has good bone conduction, and it can be used for the treatment of bone defects. Radionuclide imaging may be an effective and first choice method for the early monitoring of the bone's reconstruction.

  5. Novel Applications of Radionuclide Imaging in Peripheral Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Mitchel R; Sinusas, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a progressive atherosclerotic disease that leads to stenosis or occlusion of blood vessels supplying the lower extremities. Current diagnostic imaging techniques commonly focus on evaluation of anatomy or blood flow at the macrovascular level and do not permit assessment of the underlying pathophysiology associated with disease progression or treatment response. Molecular imaging with radionuclide-based approaches can offer novel insight into PVD by providing noninvasive assessment of biological processes such as angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. This article discusses emerging radionuclide-based imaging approaches that have potential clinical applications in the evaluation of PVD progression and treatment.

  6. Oncogene mRNA Imaging with Radionuclide-PNA-Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, Eric

    2008-03-19

    New cancer gene hybridization probes to carry radionuclides were made. Noninvasive technetium-99m gamma imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated, followed by noninvasive technetium-99m imaging of MYC cancer gene activity. Noninvasive imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated with a positron-emitting copper-64 probe, followed by noninvasive positron imaging of IRS1 cancer gene activity.

  7. Software phantom for the synthesis of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography images.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-de-Jesus, Oscar; Yanez-Suarez, Oscar; Jimenez-Angeles, Luis; Vallejo-Venegas, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the novel design of a software phantom for the evaluation of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography systems. Through singular value decomposition, the data matrix corresponding to an equilibrium image series is decomposed into both spatial and temporal fundamental components that can be parametrized. This parametric model allows for the application of user-controlled conditions related to a desired dynamic behavior. Being invertible, the decomposition is used to regenerate the radionuclide image series, which is then translated into a DICOM ventriculography file that can be read by commercial equipment.

  8. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Biassoni, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    The article presents common pitfalls encountered in pediatric radionuclide renography, illustrated with clinical cases. It is important to recognize normal variants. A good acquisition technique is essential. Correlation with other imaging techniques, with the clinical background and symptoms, is critical. A clear clinical question is essential: based on the question and knowing the strengths and weaknesses of each test, the test which can best answer the question can be selected. Awareness of the pitfalls of radionuclide renography helps avoid errors of interpretation and allows the selection of the most helpful test for clinical management.

  9. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Howard, B J; Sanzharova, N; Fesenko, E

    2015-04-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1-3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated.

  10. EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Hesse, B; Lindhardt, T B; Acampa, W; Anagnostopoulos, C; Ballinger, J; Bax, J J; Edenbrandt, L; Flotats, A; Germano, G; Stopar, T Gmeiner; Franken, P; Kelion, A; Kjaer, A; Le Guludec, D; Ljungberg, M; Maenhout, A F; Marcassa, C; Marving, J; McKiddie, F; Schaefer, W M; Stegger, L; Underwood, R

    2008-04-01

    Radionuclide imaging of cardiac function represents a number of well-validated techniques for accurate determination of right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and LV volumes. These first European guidelines give recommendations for how and when to use first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, gated PET, and studies with non-imaging devices for the evaluation of cardiac function. The items covered are presented in 11 sections: clinical indications, radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry, study acquisition, RV EF, LV EF, LV volumes, LV regional function, LV diastolic function, reports and image display and reference values from the literature of RVEF, LVEF and LV volumes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to "prevailing or general consensus". The guidelines are designed to assist in the practice of referral to, performance, interpretation and reporting of nuclear cardiology studies for the evaluation of cardiac performance.

  11. Complications of renal transplantation: evaluation with US and radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Brown, E D; Chen, M Y; Wolfman, N T; Ott, D J; Watson, N E

    2000-01-01

    Following renal transplantation, patients are often evaluated with ultrasonography (US) or radionuclide imaging to assess renal function and the presence of possible complications. Both modalities are inexpensive, noninvasive, and nonnephrotoxic. A basic understanding of the surgical techniques commonly used for renal transplantation is useful when imaging these patients in order to recognize complications and to direct further imaging or intervention. The most frequent complications of renal transplantation include perinephric fluid collections; decreased renal function; and abnormalities of the vasculature, collecting system, and renal parenchyma. Perinephric fluid collections are common following transplantation, and their clinical significance depends on the type, location, size, and growth of the fluid collection, features that are well-evaluated with US. Causes of diminished renal function include acute tubular necrosis, rejection, and toxicity from medications. Radionuclide imaging is the most useful modality for assessing renal function. Vascular complications of transplantation include occlusion or stenosis of the arterial or venous supply, arteriovenous fistulas, and pseudoaneurysms. Although the standard for evaluating these vascular complications is angiography, US is an excellent noninvasive method for screening. Other transplant complications such as abnormalities of the collecting system and renal parenchyma are well-evaluated with both radionuclide imaging and US.

  12. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna].

  13. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 2. Transfer to milk.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N; Barnett, C L

    2007-01-01

    An overview of original information available from Russian language papers on radionuclide transfer to milk is provided. Most of the data presented have not been taken into account in international reviews. The transfer coefficient (F(m)) values for radioactive isotopes of strontium, caesium and iodine are in good agreement with those previously published. The Russian language data, often based on experiments with many animals, constitute a considerable increase to the available data for many less well-studied radionuclides. In some instances, the Russian language data suggest changes in recommended values (e.g. Zr and Ru). The information presented here substantially increases the amount of available data on radionuclide transfer to milk and will be included in the current revision of the IAEA TRS Handbook of parameter values for radionuclide transfer.

  14. Gamma-Ray Focusing Optics for Small Animal Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivovaroff, M. J.; Barber, W. C.; Craig, W. W.; Hasegawa, B. H.; Ramsey, B. D.; Taylor, C.

    2004-01-01

    There is a well-established need for high-resolution radionuclide imaging techniques that provide non-invasive measurement of physiological function in small animals. We, therefore, have begun developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system using grazing incidence mirrors to focus low-energy gamma-rays emitted by I-125, and other radionuclides. Our initial prototype optic, fabricated from thermally-formed glass, demonstrated a resolution of 1500 microns, consistent with the performance predicted by detailed simulations. More recently, we have begun constructing mirrors using a replication technique that reduces low spatial frequency errors in the mirror surface, greatly improving the resolution. Each technique offers particular advantages: e.g., multilayer coatings are easily deposited on glass, while superior resolution is possible with replicated optics. Scaling the results from our prototype optics, which only have a few nested shells, to system where the lens has a full complement of several tens of nested shells, a sensitivity of approx. 1 cps/micro Ci is possible, with the exact number dependent on system magnification and radionuclide species. (Higher levels of efficiency can be obtained with multi-optic imaging systems.) The gamma-ray lens will achieve a resolution as good as 100 microns, independent of the final sensitivity. The combination of high spatial resolution and modest sensitivity will enable in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animals.

  15. Recent Advances of Radionuclide-based Molecular Imaging of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kazuma, Soraya M.; Sultan, Deborah; Zhao, Yongfeng; Detering, Lisa; You, Meng; Luehmann, Hannah P.; Abdalla, Dulcineia S.P.; Liu, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease characterized by the development of multifocal plaque lesions within vessel walls and extending into the vascular lumen. The disease takes decades to develop symptomatic lesions, affording opportunities for accurate detection of plaque progression, analysis of risk factors responsible for clinical events, and planning personalized treatment. Of the available molecular imaging modalities, radionuclide-based imaging strategies have been favored due to their sensitivity, quantitative detection and pathways for translational research. This review summarizes recent advances of radiolabeled small molecules, peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles for atherosclerotic plaque imaging during disease progression. PMID:26369676

  16. Radionuclide imaging of rare congenital renal fusion anomalies.

    PubMed

    Volkan, Bilge; Ceylan, Emel; Kiratli, Pinar Ozgen

    2003-03-01

    Demonstration of a congenital renal anomaly plays an important role in the treatment of patients with renal infection. These patients are prone to infections because of coexisting urinary tract anomalies such as duplicated ureter, ureter opening anomalies, and urinary stasis. Assessment of renal parenchymal damage resulting from acute or chronic renal infection is the primary indication for radionuclide imaging with Tc-99m DMSA. In addition, this technique allows congenital anomalies to be identified. The authors review congenital renal fusion anomalies identified in children through Tc-99m DMSA imaging. They conclude that Tc-99m DMSA imaging can reveal important diagnostic information about various congenital anomalies, including fusion anomalies.

  17. Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging in acute pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, G.; Morillo, G.; Alonso, M.; Isikoff, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The symptoms and clinical course of patients with acute pyelonephritis are variable; likewise, urinalysis, blood cultures, and excretory urography may be normal or equivocal. The ability of gallium-67 to accumulate in areas of active inflammation was useful in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in 12 cases. A multiplane tomographic scanner was used for imaging four of these patients. Initial experience with this scanner is also discussed.

  18. Radionuclide bone imaging in the pediatric patient

    SciTech Connect

    Celinski, E.M.; Locko, R.C.

    1983-06-01

    This is the second of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine. After reading and studying the article, the nuclear medicine technologist will be able to: (1) discuss the uptake mechanism of Tc-99m-labeled phosphate compounds used for bone imaging; (2) compare normal distribution of bone tracer in children and in adults; (3) discuss important technical considerations for performing bone scintigraphy in children; and (4) identify and discuss clinical applications of bone scintigraphy in children. Information about CEU(VOICE) credit appears immediately following this article.

  19. Radionuclide Imaging Technologies for Biological Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Calvin R.; Reid, Chantal D.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2014-05-14

    The main objective of this project is to develop technologies and experimental techniques for studying the dynamics of physiological responses of plants to changes in their interface with the local environment and to educate a new generation of scientists in an interdisciplinary environment of biology, physics and engineering. Also an important goal is to perform measurements to demonstrate the new data that can be produced and made available to the plant-biology community using the imaging technologies and experimental techniques developed in this project. The study of the plant-environment interface includes a wide range of topics in plant physiology, e.g., the root-soil interface, resource availability, impact of herbivores, influence of microbes on root surface, and responses to toxins in the air and soil. The initial scientific motivation for our work is to improve understanding of the mechanisms for physiological responses to abrupt changes in the local environment, in particular, the responses that result in short-term adjustments in resource (e.g., sugars, nutrients and water) allocations. Data of time-dependent responses of plants to environmental changes are essential in developing mechanistic models for substance intake and resource allocation. Our approach is to use radioisotope tracing techniques to study whole-plant and plant organ (e.g., leaves, stems, roots) dynamical responses to abrupt changes in environmental conditions such as concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, nutrient availability and lighting. To this aim we are collaborating with the Radiation Detector and Imaging Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory Facility (JLab) to develop gamma-ray and beta particle imaging systems optimized for plant studies. The radioisotope tracing measurements are conducted at the Phytotron facility at Duke University. The Phytotron is a controlled environment plant research facility with a variety of plant growth chambers. One chamber

  20. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Beierwaltes, W.H.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, /sup 131/I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search.

  1. Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

  2. Radionuclide-Based Cancer Imaging Targeting the Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Sun, Jiangtao; Cai, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), highly expressed in many cancer types, is an important target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide-based imaging techniques (gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] and positron emission tomography [PET]) have been extensively explored for CEA-targeted cancer imaging both preclinically and clinically. Briefly, these studies can be divided into three major categories: antibody-based, antibody fragment-based and pretargeted imaging. Radiolabeled anti-CEA antibodies, reported the earliest among the three categories, typically gave suboptimal tumor contrast due to the prolonged circulation life time of intact antibodies. Subsequently, a number of engineered anti-CEA antibody fragments (e.g. Fab’, scFv, minibody, diabody and scFv-Fc) have been labeled with a variety of radioisotopes for CEA imaging, many of which have entered clinical investigation. CEA-Scan (a 99mTc-labeled anti-CEA Fab’ fragment) has already been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for cancer imaging. Meanwhile, pretargeting strategies have also been developed for CEA imaging which can give much better tumor contrast than the other two methods, if the system is designed properly. In this review article, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of radionuclide-based cancer imaging targeting CEA. Generally, isotopes with short half-lives (e.g. 18F and 99mTc) are more suitable for labeling small engineered antibody fragments while the isotopes with longer half-lives (e.g. 123I and 111In) are needed for antibody labeling to match its relatively long circulation half-life. With further improvement in tumor targeting efficacy and radiolabeling strategies, novel CEA-targeted agents may play an important role in cancer patient management, paving the way to “personalized medicine”. PMID:19578524

  3. Differential diagnostic features of the radionuclide scrotal image.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, F S

    1977-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of scrotal lesions is aided by correlating radionuclide images with clinical findings. Subacute torsion is associated with peripheral hyperemia and can be mistaken for an inflammatory process; however, in a review of 128 studies, torsion and orchiectomy were the only processes encountered which had a center truly devoid of activity on the tissue phase compared to the normal side. Other lesions such as acute inflammation, abscess, hematoma, and hemorrhagic tumor may superficially appear to lack central activity but invariably contain at least as much activity when compared to the normal side.

  4. Radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.; Podoloff, D.A.; Lowry, P.A.; Harle, T.S. )

    1989-01-01

    Despite controversy over its exact role, radionuclide imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of having osteomyelitis. The differentiation between osteomyelitis and cellulitis is best accomplished by using a three-phase technique using Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Frequently, it is necessary to obtain multiple projections and magnification views to adequately assess suspected areas. It is recommended that a Ga-67 or In-111 leukocyte scan be performed in those cases where osteomyelitis is strongly suspected clinically and the routine bone scan is equivocal or normal. Repeated bone scan after 48 to 72 h may demonstrate increased radioactivity in the case of early osteomyelitis with the initial photon-deficient lesion. In-111 leukocyte imaging is useful for the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis complicating recent fracture or operation, but must be used in conjunction with clinical and radiographic correlation. The recognition of certain imaging patterns appears helpful to separate osteomyelitis from septic arthritis or cellulitis. 83 references.

  5. Imaging quality of (44)Sc in comparison with five other PET radionuclides using Derenzo phantoms and preclinical PET.

    PubMed

    Bunka, Maruta; Müller, Cristina; Vermeulen, Christiaan; Haller, Stephanie; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger; van der Meulen, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    PET is the favored nuclear imaging technique because of the high sensitivity and resolution it provides, as well as the possibility for quantification of accumulated radioactivity. (44)Sc (T1/2=3.97h, Eβ(+)=632keV) was recently proposed as a potentially interesting radionuclide for PET. The aim of this study was to investigate the image quality, which can be obtained with (44)Sc, and compare it with five other, frequently employed PET nuclides using Derenzo phantoms and a small-animal PET scanner. The radionuclides were produced at the medical cyclotron at CRS, ETH Zurich ((11)C, (18)F), at the Injector II research cyclotron at CRS, PSI ((64)Cu, (89)Zr, (44)Sc), as well as via a generator system ((68)Ga). Derenzo phantoms, containing solutions of each of these radionuclides, were scanned using a GE Healthcare eXplore VISTA small-animal PET scanner. The image resolution was determined for each nuclide by analysis of the intensity signal using the reconstructed PET data of a hole diameter of 1.3mm. The image quality of (44)Sc was compared to five frequently-used PET radionuclides. In agreement with the positron range, an increasing relative resolution was determined in the sequence of (68)Ga<(44)Sc<(89)Zr<(11)C<(64)Cu<(18)F. The performance of (44)Sc was in agreement with the theoretical expectations based on the energy of the emitted positrons.

  6. Three-phase radionuclide bone imaging in sports medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Rupani, H.D.; Holder, L.E.; Espinola, D.A.; Engin, S.I.

    1985-07-01

    Three-phase radionuclide bone (TPB) imaging was performed on 238 patients with sports-related injuries. A wide variety of lesions was encountered, but the most frequent lesions seen were stress fractures of the lower part of the leg at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the posterior tibial cortex (42 of 79 lesions). There were no differences in the type, location, or distribution of lesions between males and females or between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. In 110 cases, bone stress lesions were often diagnosed when radiographs were normal, whereas subacute or chronic soft-tissue abnormalities had few specific scintigraphic features. TPB imaging provides significant early diagnostic information about bone stress lesions. Normal examination results (53 cases) exclude underlying osseous pathologic conditions.

  7. The role of radionuclide imaging in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Vinay; Ching, Gilbert; Heller, Gary V

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of heart failure (HF) is increasing and it remains the only area in cardiovascular disease wherein hospitalization rates and mortalities have worsened in the past 25 years. This review is provided to assess the role of radionuclide imaging in HF. The focus is on three aspects: the value of nuclear imaging to distinguish ischemic from non-ischemic etiologies; risk stratification of patients with HF with evaluation of candidates for specific treatment strategies; and the role of cardiac neuronal imaging in patients with HF. Distinguishing ischemic from non-ischemic cardiomyopathy is important because patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy can potentially have dramatic improvement with revascularization. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has excellent reported sensitivity and negative predictive value in the detection of coronary artery disease in HF patients. SPECT imaging is also useful in establishing treatment strategies in patients with HF, including those with new onset CHF. Cardiac neuronal imaging of mIBG is particularly helpful in risk stratification of patients with HF. The modality can be used to monitor the response to therapy as dysfunctional mIBG uptake may show improvement with pharmacological treatment.

  8. Radionuclide Imaging of Neurohormonal System of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A.; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included. PMID:25825596

  9. Radionuclide imaging of neurohormonal system of the heart.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A; Javadi, Mehrbod S; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included.

  10. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: 3. Transfer to muscle.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-03-01

    Over 150 publications reporting studies conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide transfer coefficients (F(f)) to the muscle of domestic animals from experiments using chronic administration, often for long timescales in large scale experiments. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews. The values derived have been compared with expected values reported by the IAEA's Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) where possible. The information presented here has been used in the current updating of parameters recommended for environmental assessments by the IAEA. Many of the reported values are for Sr due to the Mayak accident and Cs due to the Chernobyl accident. Nevertheless, the reported data for a wide range of radionuclides, in particular for Ru, Sb, and Zn markedly improve the extent of available data.

  11. Renal radionuclide imaging, an evergreen forty years old.

    PubMed

    De Palma, D; Santos, A I

    2014-07-01

    Urinary tract congenital abnormalities (UCA) and febrile infections (UTI) are, respectively, 2 of the commonest congenital and acquired health problems in childhood. In both, radionuclide imaging still represent a cornerstone of diagnostic imaging, although the involved techniques are more or less the same from the early '80 s. During the last 2 decades, published papers focused on a deep revision about the optimal use and usefulness of such imaging tools in affected children, with the aim of reducing invasiveness, radiation burden and costs without losing efficacy. This approach leads to different results. In UCA, no consensus for a diagnostic algorithm was up to now reached, whilst, about febrile UTIs, guidelines were published in 2007 by the UK's National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) and by the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR), in 2011 by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), and in 2012 by the Italian Society of Paediatric Nephrology (SINP). Nevertheless, new data continuously arise and the scientific debate always revives. Every imaging tool now available has its own strengths and weaknesses, and so all published guidelines. All this body of knowledge must be critically analysed for obtaining a complete, up-to-date and flexible overview about these "always hot" topics.

  12. Clinical applications of radionuclide imaging in the evaluation and management of patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Partington, Sara L; Valente, Anne Marie; Landzberg, Michael; Grant, Frederick; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive testing of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) began in the 1950s with the introduction of radionuclide studies to assess shunt fractions, pulmonary blood flow, and ventricular contractile function. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have since replaced radionuclide imaging in many of these roles. Concurrently, percutaneous and surgical repairs of complex CHD evolved, creating new roles for radionuclide imaging. In this paper on applications of radionuclide imaging in CHD, we review the multiple mechanisms for myocardial ischemia in CHD. We critically compare optimal radionuclide imaging techniques to other imaging modalities for assessing ischemia in CHD. We present the current role of nuclear imaging for assessing viability and pulmonary blood flow. We highlight the value added by advances in dedicated cardiac SPECT scanners, novel reconstruction software, and cardiac PET in performing low-dose radionuclide imaging in CHD. Finally, we discuss the emerging clinical indications for radionuclide imaging in CHD including coronary flow reserve assessment and evaluation of cardiovascular prosthesis and device infections.

  13. Imaging regional renal function parameters using radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yi

    A compartmental model is given for evaluating kidney function accurately and noninvasively. This model is cast into a parallel multi-compartment structure and each pixel region (picture element) of kidneys is considered as a single kidney compartment. The loss of radionuclide tracers from the blood to the kidney and from the kidney to the bladder are modelled in great detail. Both the uptake function and the excretion function of the kidneys can be evaluated pixel by pixel, and regional diagnostic information on renal function is obtained. Gamma Camera image data are required by this model and a screening test based renal function measurement is provided. The regional blood background is subtracted from the kidney region of interest (ROI) and the kidney regional rate constants are estimated analytically using the Kuhn-Pucker multiplier method in convex programming by considering the input/output behavior of the kidney compartments. The detailed physiological model of the peripheral compartments of the system, which is not available for most radionuclide tracers, is not required in the determination of the kidney regional rate constants and the regional blood background factors within the kidney ROI. Moreover, the statistical significance of measurements is considered to assure the improved statistical properties of the estimated kidney rate constants. The relations between various renal function parameters and the kidney rate constants are established. Multiple renal function measurements can be found from the renal compartmental model. The blood radioactivity curve and the regional (or total) radiorenogram determining the regional (or total) summed behavior of the kidneys are obtained analytically with the consideration of the statistical significance of measurements using convex programming methods for a single peripheral compartment system. In addition, a new technique for the determination of 'initial conditions' in both the blood compartment and the kidney

  14. Radionuclide fluxes at a plant manufacturing dicalcium phosphate for domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Gäfvert, T; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2001-01-01

    We have studied a phosphate rock plant which produces dicalcium phosphate (DCP), used as a source of calcium and phosphorus for domestic animals. A by-product in the manufacturing process is calcium chloride which is used in the oil industry, the food industry and as road-salt. The objectives of our study were to describe the fluxes of radionuclides from the 238U decay series and to estimate the radiation doses to workers at the plant. The radionuclides in the phosphate rock were found to be in secular radioactive equilibrium with 238U, with an average activity concentration of 837 Bq kg-1. Separation and concentration processes were observed at different stages in the plant. Most of the 226Ra was found in the calcium chloride, while the major part of the 238U, about 950 Bq kg-1, was found in the dicalcium phosphate. The annual occupational effective dose to the workers was found to be below the 1 mSv limit recommended by ICRP (1991a) for the public. This study has shown a good example of an important non-nuclear industry with a high input of natural radionuclides with several conceivable pathways to man.

  15. Comparison of CT scanning and radionuclide imaging in liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.L.; Esposito, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    Early experience with body CT suggested its usefulness in many diagnostic problems; jaundice, renal and pancreatic masses, and in the evaluation of relatively inaccessible parts of the body, such as the retroperitineum, mediastinum, and pelvis. Investigation of hepatic disease by CT was not unexpectedly compared to radionuclide liver scanning, the major preexisting modality for imaging the liver. In the evaluation of the jaundiced patient, CT rapidly assumed a major role, providing more specific information about the liver than the RN liver scan, as well as demonstrating adjacent organs. CT differentiate obstructive from non-obstructive jaundice. With respect to mass lesions of the liver, the RN liver scan is more sensitive than CT but less specific. The abnormalities on an isotope image of the liver consist of normal variants in configuration, extrinsic compression by adjacent structures, cysts, hemangiomata, abscesses, and neoplasms. These suspected lesions may then be better delineated by the CT image, and a more precise diagnosis made. The physiologic information provided by the RN liver scan is an added facet which is helpful in the patient with diffuse hepatic disease. The CT image will be normal in many of these patients, however, hemochromatosis and fatty infiltration lend themselves especially to density evaluation by CT. The evaluation of lymphoma is more thorough with CT. Structures other than the liver, such as lymph nodes, are visualized. Gallium, however, provides additional isotopic information in patients with lymphoma, and in addition, is known to be useful in the investigation of a febrile patient with an abscess. Newer isotopic agents expand hepatic imaging in other directions, visualizing the biliary tree and evaluating the jaundiced patient.

  16. Imaging the inside of a tumour: a review of radionuclide imaging and theranostics targeting intracellular epitopes.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Bart

    2014-04-01

    Molecular imaging of tumour tissue focusses mainly on extracellular epitopes such as tumour angiogenesis or signal transduction receptors expressed on the cell membrane. However, most biological processes that define tumour phenotype occur within the cell. In this mini-review, an overview is given of the various techniques to interrogate intracellular events using molecular imaging with radiolabelled compounds. Additionally, similar targeting techniques can be employed for radionuclide therapy using Auger electron emitters, and recent advances in Auger electron therapy are discussed.

  17. Correlation of diagnostic ultrasound and radionuclide imaging in scrotal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Kaplan, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of scrotal ultrasound imaging (SU) and radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) in 43 patients (pts), age: 16-75. Twenty-two of them complained of scrotal pain; 18 had a scrotal mass; and 4 had a history of trauma. The final diagnoses were conformed by surgery (n = 21) and long-term follow-up (n = 22) and included 4 late phase and 1 early testicular torsion (TT), 11 acute epididymitis (AE), 4 subacute epididymitis (SE), 5 malignant tumors, 3 testicular atrophy, 2 intratesticular hematomas, 10 hydroceles or other cystic lesions, and miscellaneous. In pts with scrotal pain, 3/4 with late phase TT were correctly diagnosed, while one pt with early TT and 11/15 with AE or SE were not diagnosed by SU. All of them were correctly diagnosed with RSI except one with scrotal cyst. SU was able to separate cystic masses (n = 10) from solid masses (n = 6), but cannot separate malignant from benign lesions. SU was excellent in detecting 19 hydroceles and 2 intratesticular hematomas, while 3 lesions < 1 cm. were not seen in RSI. The authors concluded that SU is useful in pts with scrotal mass to separate solid from cystic lesions. However, SU is unable to differentiate the acute epididymitis from early testicular torsion. In pts with acute scrotal pain, SU is not helpful and RSI should still be the first study performed.

  18. Collecting and Animating Online Satellite Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Describes how to generate automated classroom resources from the Internet. Topics covered include viewing animated satellite weather images using file transfer protocol (FTP); sources of images on the Internet; shareware available for viewing images; software for automating image retrieval; procedures for animating satellite images; and storing…

  19. Prosthetic joint infections: radionuclide state-of-the-art imaging.

    PubMed

    Gemmel, Filip; Van den Wyngaert, Hans; Love, Charito; Welling, M M; Gemmel, Paul; Palestro, Christopher J

    2012-05-01

    Prosthetic joint replacement surgery is performed with increasing frequency. Overall the incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and subsequently prosthesis revision failure is estimated to be between 1 and 3%. Differentiating infection from aseptic mechanical loosening, which is the most common cause of prosthetic failure, is especially important because of different types of therapeutic management. Despite a thorough patient history, physical examination, multiple diagnostic tests and complex algorithms, differentiating PJI from aseptic loosening remains challenging. Among imaging modalities, radiographs are neither sensitive nor specific and cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are limited by hardware-induced artefacts. Radionuclide imaging reflects functional rather than anatomical changes and is not hampered by the presence of a metallic joint prosthesis. As a result scintigraphy is currently the modality of choice in the investigation of suspected PJI. Unfortunately, there is no true consensus about the gold standard technique since there are several drawbacks and limitations inherent to each modality. Bone scintigraphy (BS) is sensitive for identifying the failed joint replacement, but cannot differentiate between infection and aseptic loosening. Combined bone/gallium scintigraphy (BS/GS) offers modest improvement over BS alone for diagnosing PJI. However, due to a number of drawbacks, BS/GS has generally been superseded by other techniques but it still may have a role in neutropenic patients. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy remains the gold standard technique for diagnosing neutrophil-mediated processes. It seems to be that combined in vitro labelled leucocyte/bone marrow scintigraphy (LS/BMS), with an accuracy of about 90%, is currently the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing PJI. There are, however, significant limitations using in vitro labelled leucocytes and considerable effort

  20. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Planar and Hybrid Bone Imaging.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Marafi, Fahad; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Van der Wall, Hans; Fogelman, Ignac

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclide (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine studies and helps in the diagnosis of different pathologies relating to the musculoskeletal system. With its increasing utility in clinical practice, it becomes more important to be aware of various limitations of this imaging modality to avoid false interpretation. It is necessary to be able to recognize various technical, radiopharmaceutical, and patient-related artifacts that can occur while carrying out a bone scan. Furthermore, several normal variations of tracer uptake may mimic pathology and should be interpreted cautiously. There is an important limitation of a bone scan in metastatic disease evaluation as the inherent mechanism of tracer uptake is not specific for tumor but primarily relies on an osteoblastic response. Thus, it is crucial to keep in mind uptake in benign lesions, which can resemble malignant pathologies. The utility of a planar bone scan in benign orthopedic diseases, especially at sites with complex anatomy, is limited owing to lack of precise anatomical information. SPECT/CT has been significantly helpful in these cases. With wider use of PET/CT and reintroduction of the (18)F-fluoride bone scan, increasing knowledge of potential pitfalls on an (18)F-fluoride bone scan and (18)F-FDG-PET/CT will help in improving the accuracy of clinical reports.

  1. Towards molecular imaging and treatment of disease with radionuclides: the role of inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Blower, Phil

    2006-04-14

    Molecular imaging and radiotherapy using radionuclides is a rapidly expanding field of medicine and medical research. This article highlights the development of the role of inorganic chemistry in designing and producing the radiopharmaceuticals on which this interdisciplinary science depends.

  2. Development of a triple modality small animal planar imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Weisenberger, Z. Lee, S. Majewski, B. Kross, V. Popov, B. Welch, R. Wojcik, C. Zorn

    2006-02-01

    Recently small animal research utilizing nuclear medicine based imaging has been combined with structural anatomical imaging from x-ray radiography providing a powerful tool for animal researchers. The addition of a third modality is the goal of our instrumentation development. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and Case Western Reserve University have been collaborating on the development of a planar imaging system which in addition to radiopharmaceutical based functional imaging and x-ray radiography structural imaging also allows for the in vivo bioluminescence imaging thus providing another functional imaging modality. For the gamma camera we use is a Hamamatsu position sensitive photomultiplier tube coupled to a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillator array with individual crystal elements 1 mm × 1 mm × 5 mm in size and a 0.25 mm septum between each element. The gamma camera has a 10 cm diameter active area and can be used for 125I, 99mT and 111In radionuclide imaging. To acquire anatomical information we are using a Rad-Icon Shad-o-Box X-ray detector that provides a field of view of 5 cm × 10 cm. The x-ray source is a Source-Ray compact x-ray generator. We are using a Princeton Instruments cooled CCD based detector for the imaging of the bio-distribution of bioluminescence. All three imaging instruments will be integrated into a single light tight / x-ray tight enclosure.

  3. Use of radionuclide renal imaging for clinical followup after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Michaels, E K; Pavel, D G; Orellana, P; Montes, A; Olea, E

    1992-09-01

    Patients treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) are usually evaluated by excretory urography within 1 month after treatment to determine the clearance of stone debris and rule out asymptomatic obstruction. In an attempt to obtain more precise functional information, we used 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and 131iodine-hippurate radionuclide renal imaging studies, and a plain abdominal radiograph as the initial followup study after ESWL of 64 kidneys in 55 patients. Of 53 kidneys studied within 60 days after ESWL 42 had abnormal radionuclide renal imaging studies demonstrating pelviocaliceal stasis, excretory delay or poor function, 8 of which required subsequent interventions for obstructing stone debris. Five patients had excretory delay after ESWL that was unexpected based on a pre-ESWL excretory urogram showing normal function without dilation. A subset of 23 patients with large stone burden or anatomical deformity from a prior operation had baseline radionuclide renal imaging studies before ESWL; function improved in 4 and worsened in 5 by radionuclide renal imaging studies after completion of treatment. A total of 19 patients had radionuclide renal imaging studies earlier (within 17 days) after ESWL because of poor function and/or large stone burden, and as expected they had evidence of obstruction from stone debris, which necessitated further followup. Our experience suggests that followup of ESWL by radionuclide renal imaging studies provides specific functional information that is of particular value in the management of patients with obstructing stone debris and/or diminished renal function. Radionuclide renal imaging studies may also reveal unsuspected obstruction or functional impairment after ESWL of uncomplicated stones, and is recommended as routine followup after ESWL.

  4. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  5. Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1984-06-04

    A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  6. In vivo Noninvasive Small Animal Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyewon; Hong, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    The remarkable efforts that are made on molecular imaging technologies demonstrate its potential importance and range of applications. The generation of disease-specific animal models, and the developments of target-specific probes and genetically encoded reporters are another important component. Continued improvements in the instrumentation, the identification of novel targets and genes, and the availability of improved imaging probes should be made. Multimodal imaging probes should provide easier transitions between laboratory studies, including small animal studies and clinical applications. Here, we reviewed basic strategies of noninvasive in vivo imaging methods in small animals to introducing the concept of molecular imaging. PMID:24159487

  7. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  8. Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Elyaderani, M.K.; Gabriele, O.F.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in hepatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys.

  9. Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Elyaderani, M.K.; Gabriele, O.F.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in heptatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys.

  10. Testicular torsion and epididymitis demonstrated by radionuclide angiograms and static imaging.

    PubMed

    Hankins, A J

    1979-10-01

    Radionuclide testicular angiography and static images were performed using technetium 99m sodium pertechnetate in an effort to differentiate between testicular torsion and acute epididymitis in 12 patients. The diagnosis of testicular torsion was made in four cases that were confirmed at surgery. Acute epididymitis or acute epididymo-orchitis was diagnosed six times. These patients were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics leading to a subsidence of their clinical symptomatology during therapy with no sequelae. The radionuclide angiogram and static image changes of chronic epididymitis are also discussed.Radionuclide testicular angiograms and static images can be significant benefits in addition to the clinical and physical findings to distinguish between testicular torsion and acute and chronic epididymitis.

  11. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of renal transplant failure

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.S.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Waxman, A.D.; Crues, J.V. III

    1988-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was compared with radionuclide scintigraphy (RNS) in 16 patients with renal transplants undergoing renal failure to determine which modality could best discriminate between rejection, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and cyclosporin nephrotoxicity (CN). Although all rejecting transplants had reduced corticomedullary differentiation (CMD) on T1-weighted MR images, four of five cases of ATN had appearances that could not be distinguished from rejection. A normal CMD suggests nonrejection, but diminished CMD is nonspecific. Tc-99m DTPA/I-131 hippuran RNS was superior to MRI in differentiating rejection from ATN. Although ATN and CN have similar RNS patterns, this distinction can usually be made based on the clinical time course. Other potential uses of MRI in the evaluation of the renal transplants are discussed.

  12. Applications of penetrating radiation for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Wu, Max C.; Iwata, Koji; Hwang, Andrew B.; Wong, Kenneth H.; Barber, William C.; Dae, Michael W.; Sakdinawat, Anne E.

    2002-11-01

    Researchers long have relied on research involving small animals to unravel scientific mysteries in the biological sciences, and to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in the medical and health sciences. Within the past 2 decades, new techniques have been developed to manipulate the genome of the mouse, allowing the development of transgenic and knockout models of mammalian and human disease, development, and physiology. Traditionally, much biological research involving small animals has relied on the use of invasive methods such as organ harvesting, tissue sampling, and autoradiography during which the animal was sacrificed to perform a single measurement. More recently, imaging techniques have been developed that assess anatomy and physiology in the intact animal, in a way that allows the investigator to follow the progression of disease, or to monitor the response to therapeutic interventions. Imaging techniques that use penetrating radiation at millimeter or submillimeter levels to image small animals include x-ray computed tomography (microCT), single-photon emission computed tomography (microSPECT), and imaging positron emission computed tomography (microPET). MicroCT generates cross-sectional slices which reveal the structure of the object with spatial resolution in the range of 50 to 100 microns. MicroSPECT and microPET are radionuclide imaging techniques in which a radiopharmaceutical is injected into the animal that is accumulated to metabolism, blood flow, bone remodeling, tumor growth, or other biological processes. Both microSPECT and microPET offer spatial resolutions in the range of 1-2 millimeters. However, microPET records annihilation photons produced by a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical using electronic coincidence, and has a sensitivity approximately two orders of magnitude better than microSPECT, while microSPECT is compatible with gamma-ray emitting radiopharmaceuticals that are less expensive and more readily available

  13. Pulp cell tracking by radionuclide imaging for dental tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Souron, Jean-Baptiste; Petiet, Anne; Decup, Franck; Tran, Xuan Vinh; Lesieur, Julie; Poliard, Anne; Le Guludec, Dominique; Letourneur, Didier; Chaussain, Catherine; Rouzet, Francois; Opsahl Vital, Sibylle

    2014-03-01

    Pulp engineering with dental mesenchymal stem cells is a promising therapy for injured teeth. An important point is to determine the fate of implanted cells in the pulp over time and particularly during the early phase following implantation. Indeed, the potential engraftment of the implanted cells in other organs has to be assessed, in particular, to evaluate the risk of inducing ectopic mineralization. In this study, our aim was to follow by nuclear imaging the radiolabeled pulp cells after implantation in the rat emptied pulp chamber. For that purpose, indium-111-oxine (¹¹¹In-oxine)-labeled rat pulp cells were added to polymerizing type I collagen hydrogel to obtain a pulp equivalent. This scaffold was implanted in the emptied pulp chamber space in the upper first rat molar. Labeled cells were then tracked during 3 weeks by helical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography performed on a dual modality dedicated small animal camera. Negative controls were performed using lysed radiolabeled cells obtained in a hypotonic solution. In vitro data indicated that ¹¹¹In-oxine labeling did not affect cell viability and proliferation. In vivo experiments allowed a noninvasive longitudinal follow-up of implanted living cells for at least 3 weeks and indicated that SPECT signal intensity was related to implanted cell integrity. Notably, there was no detectable systemic release of implanted cells from the tooth. In addition, histological analysis of the samples showed mitotically active fibroblastic cells as well as neoangiogenesis and nervous fibers in pulp equivalents seeded with entire cells, whereas pulp equivalents prepared from lysed cells were devoid of cell colonization. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that efficient labeling of pulp cells can be achieved and, for the first time, that these cells can be followed up after implantation in the tooth by nuclear imaging. Furthermore, it appears that grafted cells retained the label

  14. Physiological considerations in radionuclide imaging of the penis during impotence therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Fink, S.; Burger, R.H.; Netto, I.C.; Palmer, J.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of intracorporeal drugs in the treatment of impotence has advanced our understanding of erectile physiology. Radionuclide imaging of the penis (nuclear penogram) has provided clinicians with a noninvasive, objective measure of blood flow and blood pool changes during erection and with assistance in the quantitative documentation of therapeutic effect. 39 references.

  15. Multi-modality imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastis, Georgios Anthony

    Over the last few years there has been a great demand for noninvasive, dedicated, small-animal imaging systems for biomedical research applications. In this dissertation we will discuss the development and performance of two gamma-ray systems and a dual modality CT/SPECT system. Initially we introduce FASTSPECT, a stationary, scintillator-based, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system that was originally built as a brain imager. We discuss its transformation into a small-animal imaging system and validate its performance by presenting high-resolution images of phantoms and animals. Furthermore, we discuss the development of an in vivo imaging protocol for rat myocardial models using FASTSPECT. The infarct size obtained from the images is quantified and compared with the myocardial infarct size measured from histology. Semiconductor detectors can exhibit good spatial and energy resolution, and therefore offer a promising alternative to scintillation technology. We discuss the performance of a semiconductor detector system, previously developed in our group, for planar and tomographic imaging of small animals. The same gamma-ray detector is used in a dual modality system for imaging mice. The system combines an anatomical imaging modality, x-ray CT, with a functional modality, SPECT. We present the development of the CT/SPECT system and illustrate its performance by presenting high-resolution images of phantoms and mice. Finally, we introduce a procedure for evaluating estimation methods without the use of a gold standard.

  16. New Strategies for 0.5 mm Resolution, High Sensitivity, Multi- Radionuclide Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Craig S.

    2015-02-28

    This project constitutes a 0.5-millimeter resolution radionuclide detector system built from CZT. (1) A novel dual-crystal photon detector module design with cross-strip electrode patterns was developed; (2) The module mechanical assembly was built; (3) A data acquisition (DAQ) chain for the module was produced; (4) A software tool was developed to incorporate novel time and energy measurement calibration techniques. (5) A small multi-detector prototype of the radionuclide imaging system was built from this module for system-level characterizations.

  17. The role of radionuclide imaging in epilepsy, Part 1: Sporadic temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Chugani, Harry T

    2013-10-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common yet diverse neurologic disorders, affecting almost 1%-2% of the population. Presently, radionuclide imaging such as PET and SPECT is not used in the primary diagnosis or evaluation of recent-onset epilepsy. However, it can play a unique and important role in certain specific situations, such as in noninvasive presurgical localization of epileptogenic brain regions in intractable-seizure patients being considered for epilepsy surgery. Radionuclide imaging can be particularly useful if MR imaging is either negative for lesions or shows several lesions of which only 1 or 2 are suspected to be epileptogenic and if electroencephalogram changes are equivocal or discordant with the structural imaging. Similarly, PET and SPECT can also be useful for evaluating the functional integrity of the rest of the brain and may provide useful information on the possible pathogenesis of the neurocognitive and behavioral abnormalities frequently observed in these patients.

  18. The Role of Radionuclide Imaging in Epilepsy, Part 1: Sporadic Temporal and Extratemporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Chugani, Harry T

    2017-03-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common yet diverse neurologic disorders, affecting almost 1%-2% of the population. Presently, radionuclide imaging such as PET and SPECT is not used in the primary diagnosis or evaluation of recent-onset epilepsy. However, it can play a unique and important role in certain specific situations, such as in noninvasive presurgical localization of epileptogenic brain regions in intractable-seizure patients being considered for epilepsy surgery. Radionuclide imaging can be particularly useful if MR imaging is either negative for lesions or shows several lesions of which only 1 or 2 are suspected to be epileptogenic and if electroencephalogram changes are equivocal or discordant with the structural imaging. Similarly, PET and SPECT can also be useful for evaluating the functional integrity of the rest of the brain and may provide useful information on the possible pathogenesis of the neurocognitive and behavioral abnormalities frequently observed in these patients.

  19. Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury.

  20. Vesicorectal fistula detected on direct radionuclide cystography--importance of fecal matter imaging.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Atena; Sadeghi, Ramin; Saeedi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    We report an 11 year old male patient with the history of imperforate anus, which was repaired surgically 4 years ago. He has been complaining of intermittent passing of urine into the rectum recently. The vesicorectal fistula in this patient was proven by imaging of the fecal matter post direct radionuclide cystography study. Our case showed that nuclear medicine imaging can be extended to unanimated objects such as patients' excrements or fluids with important diagnostic yields.

  1. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  2. Need for routine delayed radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging in patients with intercurrent disease

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    A retrospective review was made of all radionuclide hepatobiliary studies performed in a major trauma center over a 27-month period and correlated with the patients' clinical course. In a population of 42 patients (27 of whom were on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)) who had severe intercurrent illness (primarily trauma), and an additional 18 patients who had hepatocellular dysfunction, hepatobiliary imaging confirmed a patent cystic duct in 43 of 60 patients (72%). Of 17 patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder, four had surgically proved acute cholecystitis. The presence of gallstones, wall thickening, or sludge on sonograms did not correlate with cystic duct patency, and was not specific for acute cholecystitis. Though gallbladder function is compromised in the population with severe intercurrent disease, radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging is still valuable; it can confirm a patent systic duct in at least 72% of patients if routine imaging is continued for up to 24 hours.

  3. Radionuclide imaging and ultrasound in liver/spleen trauma: a prospective comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.; Simeone, J.F.; McKusick, K.A.; Winzelberg, G.G.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-11-01

    In a prospective blind study of liver/spleen trauma, 32 consecutive patients were evaluated by radionuclide imaging (/sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid) and gray-scale ultrasound. Six patients (19%) had inadequate sonograms due to injuries and pain. Thirteen (41%) were normal, 13 (41%) were abnormal with one technique or the other, and there was a discrepancy in 2 (6%). Of the 13 abnormal patients, 1 had a lacerated spleen, 2 had angiographic confirmation of a subcapsular hematoma, and 10 showed resolution on follow-up. Two patients with left-sided trauma had abnormal radionuclide scans of the liver; sonograms were initially normal in one of them, but subsequent imaging confirmed the abnormality. The authors feel that imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid should be the primary screening examination for liver/spleen trauma.

  4. Comparison of ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of acute and chronic cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.; McGahan, J.P.

    1982-12-01

    Seventy-five patients with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant who were subsequently confirmed operatively and histologically to have acute or chronic cholecystitis underwent radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree, ultrasonography, and/or computerized tomography before operation. fifty-eight of the patients had acute cholecystitis and 17 had chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Analysis of our data indicates that ultrasonography is an accurate and better screening test than cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, but it is less accurate in the detection of acute cholecystitis. On the other hand, radionuclide imaging is highly sensitive and specific in the early diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but it is poor in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis unless the cystic duct is obstructed. CT scanning is more expensive than ultrasonography but may be extremely helpful in problematic cases such as the diagnosis of the cause in biliary obstruction or in imaging of the pancreas.

  5. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Imaging in Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Esmail, Abdulredha A H; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Navalkissoor, Shaunak; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Fogelman, Ignac

    2015-09-01

    Several different techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging modalities are commonly used in nuclear medicine for studies of endocrine organs. Nuclear medicine is used in the management of benign and malignant thyroid, parathyroid, and neuroendocrine disorders. Thus, it is essential to acknowledge pitfalls and the limitations of nuclear medicine imaging for accurate diagnosis and patient management.

  6. Noninvasive assessment of right ventricular function: will there be resurgence in radionuclide imaging techniques?

    PubMed

    Ramani, Gautam V; Gurm, Gagandeep; Dilsizian, Vasken; Park, Myung H

    2010-03-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function is increasingly being recognized as an important prognostic marker in multiple cardiopulmonary disease states, including congestive heart failure, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Accurate and reproducible measures of RV function, although technically challenging, are highly relevant in the clinical setting. Radionuclide techniques (eg, first-pass radionuclide angiography for quantifying RV systolic function) were developed nearly 40 years ago. More recently, MRI and transthoracic echocardiography have become the diagnostic imaging techniques of choice for the noninvasive evaluation of RV function. However, developments in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT systems have greatly improved the image quality and contrast resolution of radionuclide imaging of the heart, allowing for coregistered physiologic and anatomical information of the right ventricle in three dimensions. These improvements in cardiac imaging provide new opportunities for assessing RV myocardial perfusion, function, and anatomy in the same setting. Such imaging approaches may in the future provide assistance with proactive disease management, including early diagnosis of impending RV dysfunction in high-risk patients and for guiding decisions to initiate and/or modify treatments.

  7. Hyperparathyroidism: comparison of MR imaging with radionuclide scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, W.W.; Higgins, C.B.; Fisher, M.R.; Ling, M.; Okerlund, M.D.; Clark, O.H.

    1987-05-01

    Twenty-three patients with hyperparathyroidism were evaluated preoperatively with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Twenty patients also underwent thallium-201/technetium-99m scintigraphy. Of 22 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, 12 had persistent or recurrent disease. One had secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal disease. MR imaging allowed accurate localization of abnormal parathyroid glands in 64% evaluated prospectively and 82% evaluated retrospectively. Scintigraphy allowed localization of 60% evaluated prospectively and 70% retrospectively. The two imaging modalities together allowed detection of 68% evaluated prospectively and 91% retrospectively. MR imaging allowed detection of two of five mediastinal adenomas evaluated prospectively and four of five retrospectively. In patients who underwent both imaging studies, MR was more successful in those with previous neck surgery (73% evaluated prospectively and 91% retrospectively) than in those with no prior surgery (57% prospectively and 71% retrospectively). Scintigraphy allowed accurate localization in 64% evaluated prospectively and 64% retrospectively in patients with previous surgery versus 57% prospectively and 86% retrospectively in patients with no prior neck surgery. Four false-positive results were obtained with MR imaging and three with scintigraphy. MR imaging was useful for parathyroid localization in patients with hyperparathyroidism, particularly in patients requiring additional surgery.

  8. How Phoenix Creates Color Images (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This simple animation shows how a color image is made from images taken by Phoenix.

    The Surface Stereo Imager captures the same scene with three different filters. The images are sent to Earth in black and white and the color is added by mission scientists.

    By contrast, consumer digital cameras and cell phones have filters built in and do all of the color processing within the camera itself.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Bioluminescence imaging in live cells and animals.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jack K; Berglund, Ken; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Gross, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    The use of bioluminescent reporters in neuroscience research continues to grow at a rapid pace as their applications and unique advantages over conventional fluorescent reporters become more appreciated. Here, we describe practical methods and principles for detecting and imaging bioluminescence from live cells and animals. We systematically tested various components of our conventional fluorescence microscope to optimize it for long-term bioluminescence imaging. High-resolution bioluminescence images from live neurons were obtained with our microscope setup, which could be continuously captured for several hours with no signs of phototoxicity. Bioluminescence from the mouse brain was also imaged noninvasively through the intact skull with a conventional luminescence imager. These methods demonstrate how bioluminescence can be routinely detected and measured from live cells and animals in a cost-effective way with common reagents and equipment.

  10. Radionuclide imaging of the liver in human fascioliasis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, J.V.; Bermudez, R.H.

    1984-08-01

    The clinical, laboratory, and scintigraphic findings in four cases of human fascioliasis are described. Acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, and weight loss in a person who has ingested watercress constitutes the clinical syndrome often seen. Eosinophilia and alteration in liver function tests, particularly alkaline phosphatase are frequent. Tc-99m sulfur colloid images showed hepatomegaly in four patients, focal defects in two, splenomegaly in three, and increased splenic uptake in two. Gallium citrate (Ga 67) images show increased uptake in the focal lesions in two of two. Sonographic imaging showed focal lucent abnormality in one of three. Liver biopsy findings were nonspecific. The differential diagnosis from other invasive parasitic diseases is discussed. A possible role of hepatic imaging in the evaluation of fascioliasis is suggested.

  11. [Radionuclide imaging of neurendocrine tumors: biological basis and diagnostic results].

    PubMed

    Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Mallardo, Vania; Rossi, Michele; Vaccaro, Andrea; Raucci, Antonio; Della Vecchi, Nicoletta; Romano, Giovanna; Califano, Teresa; Schillirò, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Many radiopharmaceuticals have been successfully used in nuclear medicine to detect neuroendocrine tumors, and many of them are based on a specific mechanism of uptake, while others are non-specific probes. This "review" focuses on the clinical applications of metaiodobenzylguanidine, (111)In-pentreotide and positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. New avances in diagnostic imaging will be discussed. Molecular imaging serves these diagnostic functions and provides powerful means for non-invasively detecting disease.

  12. Optical tomographic imaging of small animals.

    PubMed

    Hielscher, Andreas H

    2005-02-01

    Diffuse optical tomography is emerging as a viable new biomedical imaging modality. Using visible and near-infrared light this technique can probe the absorption and scattering properties of biological tissues. The main applications are currently in brain, breast, limb and joint imaging; however, optical tomographic imaging of small animals is attracting increasing attention. This interest is fuelled by recent advances in the transgenic manipulation of small animals that has led to many models of human disease. In addition, an ever increasing number of optically reactive biochemical markers has become available, which allow diseases to be detected at the molecular level long before macroscopic symptoms appear. The past three years have seen an array of novel technological developments that have led to the first optical tomographic studies of small animals in the areas of cerebral ischemia and cancer.

  13. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Adults.

    PubMed

    Keramida, Georgia; James, Jacqueline M; Prescott, Mary C; Peters, Adrien Michael

    2015-09-01

    To understand pitfalls and limitations in adult renography, it is necessary to understand firstly the physiology of the kidney, especially the magnitude and control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular fluid flow rate, and secondly the pharmacokinetics and renal handling of the three most often used tracers, Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The kidneys may be imaged dynamically with Tc-99m-MAG3 or Tc-99m-DTPA, with or without diuretic challenge, or by static imaging with Tc-99m-DMSA. Protocols are different according to whether the kidney is native or transplanted. Quantitative analysis of dynamic data includes measurement of renal vascularity (important for the transplanted kidney), absolute tracer clearance rates, differential renal function (DRF) and response to diuretic challenge. Static image reveals functional renal parenchymal damage, both focal and global, is useful in the clinical management of obstructive uropathy, renal stone disease and hypertension (under angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition), and is the preferred technique for determining DRF. Diagnosis based on morphological appearances is important in transplant management. Even though nuclear medicine is now in the era of hybrid imaging, renal imaging remains an important subspecialty in nuclear medicine and requires a sound basing in applied physiology, the classical supporting discipline of nuclear medicine.

  14. Awake Animal Imaging Motion Tracking Software

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, James

    2010-03-15

    The Awake Animal Motion Tracking Software code calculates the 3D movement of the head motion of a live, awake animal during a medical imaging scan. In conjunction with markers attached to the head, images acquired from multiple cameras are processed and marker locations precisely determined. Using off-line camera calibration data, the 3D positions of the markers are calculated along with a 6 degree of freedom position and orientation (pose) relative to a fixed initial position. This calculation is performed in real time at frame rates up to 30 frames per second. A time stamp with microsecond accuracy from a time base source is attached to each pose measurement.

  15. Radionuclide Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, F.; Knapp, F. F. (Russ)

    Radionuclide generator systems continue to play a key role in providing both diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for various applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional cardiology. Although many parent/daughter pairs have been evaluated as radionuclide generator systems, there are a relatively small number of generators, which are currently in routine clinical and research use. Essentially every conceivable approach has been used for parent/separation strategies, including sublimation, thermochromatographic separation, solvent extraction, and adsorptive column chromatography. The most widely used radionuclide generator for clinical applications is the 99Mo/99mTc generator system, but recent years have seen an enormous increase in the use of generators to provide therapeutic radionuclides, which has paralleled the development of complementary technologies for targeting agents for therapy and in the general increased interest in the use of unsealed therapeutic radioactive sources. More recently, use of the 68Ge/68Ga generator is showing great potential as a source of positron-emitting 68Ga for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Key advantages for the use of radionuclide generators include reasonable costs, the convenience of obtaining the desired daughter radionuclide on demand, and availability of the daughter radionuclide in high specific activity, no-carrier added form.

  16. Incidental vesicocolic fistula on routine bone scintigraphy: Value of additional delayed images and direct radionuclide cystography.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myung-Hee; Tae Lim, Seok; Jin Jeong, Young; Wook Kim, Dong; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Yim, Chang-Yeol

    2010-09-01

    An unexpected vesicocolic fistula can be detected incidentally on routine bone scintigraphy. A 55-year-old man who had a radical colectomy for carcinoma of the sigmoid colon 1 year previously underwent bone scintigraphy to evaluate bone metastasis. Whole-body images showed an abnormal accumulation of radioactivity in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, but the radioactivity did not precisely define a structure. Additional delayed images obtained after 15 and 24 hours of the initial image localized a vesicocolic fistula. Subsequent radionuclide cystography confirmed leakage of the radioactivity from the bladder.

  17. The assessment of regional skeletal metabolism: studies of osteoporosis treatments using quantitative radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Blake, Glen M; Frost, Michelle L; Moore, Amelia E B; Siddique, Musib; Fogelman, Ignac

    2011-01-01

    Studies of bone remodeling using bone biopsy and biochemical markers of bone turnover play an important role in research studies to investigate the effect of new osteoporosis treatments on bone quality. Quantitative radionuclide imaging using either positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 sodium fluoride or gamma camera studies with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate provides a novel tool for studying bone metabolism that complements conventional methods, such as bone turnover markers (BTMs). Unlike BTMs, which measure the integrated response to treatment across the whole skeleton, radionuclide imaging can distinguish the changes occurring at sites of particular clinical interest, such as the spine or proximal femur. Radionuclide imaging can be used to measure either bone uptake or (if done in conjunction with blood sampling) bone plasma clearance. Although the latter is more complicated to perform, unlike bone uptake, it provides a measurement that is specific to the bone metabolic activity at the measurement site. Treatment with risedronate was found to cause a decrease in bone plasma clearance, whereas treatment with the bone anabolic agent teriparatide caused an increase. Studies of teriparatide are of particular interest because the treatment has different effects at different sites in the skeleton, with a substantially greater response in the flat bone of the skull and cortical bone in the femur compared with the lumbar spine. Future studies should include investigations of osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical fractures of the femur to examine the associated regional changes in bone metabolism and to throw light on the underlying pathologies.

  18. Radionuclide thyroid imaging in the newborn with suspected hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Yoosufani, Z.; Karimeddini, M.K.; Spencer, R.P.; Ratzan, S.K.

    1985-05-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with thyroid imaging in newborns with suspected congenital hypothyroidism. The infants were selected through a hypothyroidism screening program. There were 19 infants (14 females, 5 males) from 2 to 8 weeks of age with a blood T4 <6 ..mu..g/dl. Thyroid imaging was performed with either IV or IM injection of 0.5 to 1 mCi of Tc 99m pertechnetate using a gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. Salivary glands and stomach were also imaged for assessing the presence of the transport system. In 6 infants (32%) no thyroid tissue was visualized (thyroid hypoplasia). Four infants (21%) showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual or sublingual area. Two infants (10%) had evidence of goiter. The remaining 7 infants (37%) had normal appearing glands in size and position. TSH values were markedly elevated (> 100 ..mu mu../ml) in all 10 patients with hypoplastic or ectopic thyroid. Two patients were subsequently found to have normal thyroid function (one with TBG deficiency and one with transient hypothyroidism). Thyroidal as well as salivary gland trapping of the radiotracer in these two infants was clearly less than that of adults suggesting immaturity of the transport/trapping mechanism. All 4 patients with ectopic thyroid had markedly increased uptake of the radiotracer. All other patients with elevated TSH levels had increased uptake of the radiotracer as compared to the normals. They conclude that thyroid scanning is an important tool in delineating the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism.

  19. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively 3 mm FWHM and 10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  20. Synthetic copolymer kit for radionuclide blood-pool imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, A.A. Jr.; Callahan, R.J.; Wilkinson, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    A synthetic blood pool imaging agent labeled with {sup 99m}Tc is reported. The agent, methoxypolyethylene glycolpoly-L-Iysyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate monoamide was synthesized from a covalent graft copolymer of methoxypolyethylene glycol succinate (molecular weight 5.1 kD) with subsequent modification of the product with diethylenetriamineacetyl residues. The polymer was formulated into a kit that contained Sn(II) and sodium acetate for radiolabeling with {sup 99m}Tc. Biodistribution studies were performed in rats. Blood-pool imaging and blood clearance determination was carried out in rabbits and in a rhesus monkey. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled agent [specific activity greater than 3.7 GBq/mg; radiochemical purity more than 98% by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)] demonstrated remarkable stability in solution (pH 5.5-6.5) with no radioactive products of degradation detectable by HPLC even at 24 hr postlabeling. The agent exhibited prolonged circulation in the blood with a half-life of 31.5 hr in rabbits. Bio-distribution in rats showed a lack of substantial accumulation of the agent in the reticuloendothelial system. Sequential acquisitions were performed in a rhesus monkey. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled polymer kit was compared with the {sup 99m}Tc-red blood cells (RBCs) labeled in vitro. Both methods produced similar heart-to-lung ratios. The ratios remained essentially unchanged for up to 15 hr postinjection. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled methaxypolyethylene glycol-poly-L-lysyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate monoamide is an attractive alternative to radiolabeled RBCs for blood pool imaging applications. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Progress of Focusing X-ray and Gamma-ray Optics for Small Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovaroff, M J; Funk, T; Barber, W C; Ramsey, B D; Hasegawa, B H

    2005-08-05

    Significant effort is currently being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. Ideally, one would like to discern these functional and metabolic relationships with in vivo radionuclide imaging at spatial resolutions approaching those that can be obtained using the anatomical imaging techniques (i.e., <100 {micro}m), which would help to answer outstanding questions in many areas of biomedicine. In this paper, we report progress on our effort to develop high-resolution focusing X-ray and gamma-ray optics for small-animal radionuclide imaging. The use of reflective optics, in contrast to methods that rely on absorptive collimation like single- or multiple-pinhole cameras, decouples spatial resolution from sensitivity (efficiency). Our feasibility studies have refined and applied ray-tracing routines to design focusing optics for small animal studies. We also have adopted a replication technique to manufacture the X-ray mirrors, and which in experimental studies have demonstrated a spatial resolution of {approx}190 {micro}m. We conclude that focusing optics can be designed and fabricated for gamma-ray energies, and with spatial resolutions, and field of view suitable for in vivo biological studies. While the efficiency of a single optic is limited, fabrication methods now are being developed that may make it possible to develop imaging systems with multiple optics that could collect image data over study times that would be practical for performing radionuclide studies of small animals.

  2. Breast imaging technology: Recent advances in imaging endogenous or transferred gene expression utilizing radionuclide technologies in living subjects - applications to breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Frank; Sam Gambhir, Sanjiv

    2001-01-01

    A variety of imaging technologies is being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Two technologies that use radiolabeled isotopes are single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). A relatively high sensitivity, a full quantitative tomographic capability, and the ability to extend small animal imaging assays directly into human applications characterize radionuclide approaches. Various radiolabeled probes (tracers) can be synthesized to target specific molecules present in breast cancer cells. These include antibodies or ligands to target cell surface receptors, substrates for intracellular enzymes, antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probes for targeting mRNA, probes for targeting intracellular receptors, and probes for genes transferred into the cell. We briefly discuss each of these imaging approaches and focus in detail on imaging reporter genes. In a PET reporter gene system for in vivo reporter gene imaging, the protein products of the reporter genes sequester positron emitting reporter probes. PET subsequently measures the PET reporter gene dependent sequestration of the PET reporter probe in living animals. We describe and review reporter gene approaches using the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase and the dopamine type 2 receptor genes. Application of the reporter gene approach to animal models for breast cancer is discussed. Prospects for future applications of the transgene imaging technology in human gene therapy are also discussed. Both SPECT and PET provide unique opportunities to study animal models of breast cancer with direct application to human imaging. Continued development of new technology, probes and assays should help in the better understanding of basic breast cancer biology and in the improved management of breast cancer patients. PMID:11250742

  3. The need for routine delayed radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging in patients with intercurrent disease

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    A retrospective review was made of all radionuclide hepatobiliary studies performed in a major trauma center over a 27-month period and correlated with the patients' clinical course. In a population of 42 patients (27 of whom were on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)) who had severe intercurrent illness (primarily trauma), and an additional 18 patients who had hepatocellular dysfunction, hepatobiliary imaging confirmed a patent cystic duct in 43 of 60 patients (72%). Fourteen of these 43 patients (33%) had gallbladder visualization at later than one hour after radiotracer administration, and seven of these 14 required imaging from four to 24 hours. Of 17 patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder, four had surgically proved acute cholecystitis. Images of nine of the remaining 13 patients with gallbladder nonvisualization were not obtained for 24 hours. The presence of gallstones, wall thickening, or sludge on sonograms did not correlate with cystic duct patency, and was not specific for acute cholecystitis. Though gallbladder function is compromised in the population with severe intercurrent disease, radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging is still valuable; it can confirm a patent cystic duct in at least 72% of patients if routine imaging is continued for up to 24 hours.

  4. An automated voxelized dosimetry tool for radionuclide therapy based on serial quantitative SPECT/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Price A.; Kron, Tomas; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Hofman, Michael S.; Hogg, Annette; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To create an accurate map of the distribution of radiation dose deposition in healthy and target tissues during radionuclide therapy.Methods: Serial quantitative SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4, 24, and 72 h for 28 {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) administrations in 17 patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Deformable image registration was combined with an in-house programming algorithm to interpolate pharmacokinetic uptake and clearance at a voxel level. The resultant cumulated activity image series are comprised of values representing the total number of decays within each voxel's volume. For PRRT, cumulated activity was translated to absorbed dose based on Monte Carlo-determined voxel S-values at a combination of long and short ranges. These dosimetric image sets were compared for mean radiation absorbed dose to at-risk organs using a conventional MIRD protocol (OLINDA 1.1).Results: Absorbed dose values to solid organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) were within 10% using both techniques. Dose estimates to marrow were greater using the voxelized protocol, attributed to the software incorporating crossfire effect from nearby tumor volumes.Conclusions: The technique presented offers an efficient, automated tool for PRRT dosimetry based on serial post-therapy imaging. Following retrospective analysis, this method of high-resolution dosimetry may allow physicians to prescribe activity based on required dose to tumor volume or radiation limits to healthy tissue in individual patients.

  5. Imaging of Ancient Egyptian Animal Mummies.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Lidija M; Atherton-Woolham, Stephanie D; Adams, Judith E

    2015-01-01

    Human mummies have long been studied by using imaging as a primary investigative method. Mummified animal remains from ancient Egypt are less well researched, yet much can be learned about species diversity and the methods of preservation. Noninvasive imaging methods enable mummy bundles to remain intact, with no detrimental physical effects, thus ensuring protection of a valuable archaeological resource. This article is based on the research experience gathered during 13 years (2000-2012) with 152 animal mummies held in the collections of 17 museums in the United Kingdom. Conventional radiography, computed radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography (CT) available in the clinical setting were used to assess the value of each imaging modality in the study of animal mummies and related material. Radiography proved to be an excellent research method that provided initial insight into the contents of the mummy bundle, and CT contributed additional useful detail in some cases. Paleoradiologic analyses enabled information on mummy bundle contents to be proved, including the nature of the skeletal remains and the methods of mummification. An optimum method involving radiography and CT is described.

  6. Role of radionuclide imaging for diagnosis of device and prosthetic valve infections.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Jean-François; Philippon, François; Trottier, Mikaël; Tessier, Michel

    2016-09-26

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remain a diagnostic challenge. Cardiac imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with CIED infection or PVE. Over the past few years, cardiac radionuclide imaging has gained a key role in the diagnosis of these patients, and in assessing the need for surgery, mainly in the most difficult cases. Both (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) and radiolabelled white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (WBC SPECT/CT) have been studied in these situations. In their 2015 guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis, the European Society of Cardiology incorporated cardiac nuclear imaging as part of their diagnostic algorithm for PVE, but not CIED infection since the data were judged insufficient at the moment. This article reviews the actual knowledge and recent studies on the use of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and WBC SPECT/CT in the context of CIED infection and PVE, and describes the technical aspects of cardiac radionuclide imaging. It also discusses their accepted and potential indications for the diagnosis and management of CIED infection and PVE, the limitations of these tests, and potential areas of future research.

  7. Beta camera for static and dynamic imaging of charged-particle emitting radionuclides in biologic samples.

    PubMed

    Ljunggren, K; Strand, S E

    1990-12-01

    A detection system based on microchannel plates has been constructed to image charged particles emitted by radionuclides in biomedical samples. This technique has significant advantages over conventional film autoradiography for investigating the distribution of radiolabeled compounds: shorter acquisition times due to the high sensitivity, easier sample handling, direct quantification and the ability to perform dynamic studies. The detector performance shows a spatial resolution of 0.9 mm for carbon-14 (14C) (0.156 MeV), good linearity and homogeneity. The noise level is below 50/(cm2.sec). Successful imaging with this system has been performed with beta-emitters 14C, sulfur-35 (35S), iodine-131 (131I), yttrium-90 (90Y), and positron emitters gallium-68 (68Ga), and fluorine-18 (18F). Dynamic studies of axonal transport of 35S-methionine in a nerve, and static images of 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibodies in slices of tumors are presented. The system shows promise for rapid quantitative imaging of charged-particle emitting radionuclides in small biologic samples.

  8. Role of radionuclide imaging for diagnosis of device and prosthetic valve infections

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Jean-François; Philippon, François; Trottier, Mikaël; Tessier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remain a diagnostic challenge. Cardiac imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with CIED infection or PVE. Over the past few years, cardiac radionuclide imaging has gained a key role in the diagnosis of these patients, and in assessing the need for surgery, mainly in the most difficult cases. Both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and radiolabelled white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (WBC SPECT/CT) have been studied in these situations. In their 2015 guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis, the European Society of Cardiology incorporated cardiac nuclear imaging as part of their diagnostic algorithm for PVE, but not CIED infection since the data were judged insufficient at the moment. This article reviews the actual knowledge and recent studies on the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT and WBC SPECT/CT in the context of CIED infection and PVE, and describes the technical aspects of cardiac radionuclide imaging. It also discusses their accepted and potential indications for the diagnosis and management of CIED infection and PVE, the limitations of these tests, and potential areas of future research. PMID:27721936

  9. PSMA Ligands for Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Clinical Status.

    PubMed

    Lütje, Susanne; Heskamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Alexander S; Poeppel, Thorsten D; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A M W; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra; Bockisch, Andreas; Gotthardt, Martin; Rijpkema, Mark; Boerman, Otto C

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men worldwide, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. At present, imaging of PCa has become increasingly important for staging, restaging, and treatment selection. Until recently, choline-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) represented the state-of-the-art radionuclide imaging technique for these purposes. However, its application is limited to patients with high PSA levels and Gleason scores. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising new target for specific imaging of PCa, because it is upregulated in the majority of PCa. Moreover, PSMA can serve as a target for therapeutic applications. Currently, several small-molecule PSMA ligands with excellent in vivo tumor targeting characteristics are being investigated for their potential in theranostic applications in PCa. Here, a review of the recent developments in PSMA-based diagnostic imaging and therapy in patients with PCa with radiolabeled PSMA ligands is provided.

  10. First Results of Small Animal Imaging Spect Detector for Cardiovascular Disease Studies on Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliozzi, M. L.; Ballerini, M.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Cusanno, F.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Santavenere, F.; Torrioli, S.; Veneroni, P.; Majewsky, S.; Mok, S. P. G.; Tsui, B. M. W.; Wang, Y.; Marano, G.; Musumeci, M.; Palazzesi, S.; Ciccariello, G.; de Vincentis, G.; Accorsi, R.

    2008-06-01

    We have developed a compact, open, Dual Head pinhole SPECT system for high resolution molecular imaging with radionuclides of mice, dedicated mainly to preclinical study of stem cells capability to recover myocardial infarction. The gamma detector is made of pinhole tungsten collimators, pixellated scintillators, matrix of multi-anode PMTs and individual channel readout. Measurements have been performed on phantoms and live mice devoted initially to test and calibrate the system and to optimize protocols. The implemented system and the first results will be presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of our dedicated SPECT detector for small animal imaging.

  11. Comparative placental transfer, localization, and effects of radionuclides in experimental animal and human pregnancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sikov, M.R.; Meznarich, H.K.; Traub, R.J.

    1991-11-01

    Estimating radiation doses to the human embryo/fetus from radionuclides and predicting effects requires extrapolation of data from studies of laboratory species, with scaling for species-specific developmental stage and gestational time relationships and maturities at birth. Combinations of fetal-to-maternal ratios of concentrations, patterns of deposition, transfer kinetics, and compartmental and physiologic models are used to predict radioactivity levels and radiation doses to the conceptus. There is agreement between values expressing fractional transfer across the placenta ({theta}) with tabulated values for fractional absorption (f{sub 1}) from gastrointestinal (GI) tract or lung for most substances commonly involved in metabolic processes. A tendency toward disagreement for some other materials is thought to involve explanations based on their physicochemistry, toxicity, or the influence of target tissue development on placental transfer kinetics.

  12. Relationship of brain imaging with radionuclides and with x-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1981-03-03

    Because of high sensitivity and specificity for altered local cerebral structure, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the preferred initial diagnostic imaging study under most circumstances when cerebral disease is suspected. CT has no competitor for detecting fresh intracerebral hemorrhage. Radionuclide imaging (RN) scan is preferred when relative perfusion is to be assessed, in patients allergic to contrast media, and when an adequate CT study is not technically possible. (RN) plays an important complementary role to CT, especially for patients suspected of subacute or chronic subdura hematoma, cerebral infarction, arteriovenous malformations, meningitis, encephalitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, or when CT findings are inconclusive. When CT is not available, RN serves as a good screening study for suspected cerebral tumor, infection, recent infarction, arteriovenous malformation, and chronic subdural hematoma. Future improvement in radionuclide imaging by means of emission composition potential. The compound plating approacl threshold for all the investigated transistors and fast neutron spectra lies within the raal. The value of the potential slightly changes with the coordinate change in this region, i.e. the charge on a collecting electrode is not practically guided up to a certain moment of time during the movement of nonequilibrium carriers.

  13. Improving the quantity, quality and transparency of data used to derive radionuclide transfer parameters for animal products. 1. Goat milk.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Wells, C; Barnett, C L

    2016-04-01

    Under the MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency), there has been an initiative to improve the derivation, provenance and transparency of transfer parameter values for radionuclides. The approach taken for animal products is outlined here and the first revised table for goat milk is provided. Data from some references used in TRS 472 were removed and reasons given for removal. Particular efforts were made to improve the number of CR (concentration ratio) values which have some advantages over transfer coefficients. There is little difference in most of the new CR and Fm (transfer coefficient) values for goat milk compared with those in TRS 472. In TRS 472, 21 CR values were reported for goat milk. In the 2015 dataset for goat milk CR values for a further 14 elements are now included. The CR and Fm values for only one element (Co) were removed.

  14. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial perfusion and viability in assessment of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.; Shah, P.K.

    1989-07-18

    Technical advances in radionuclide imaging have important implications for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Single-photon emission computerized tomography with thallium 201 (TI-201) offers greater accuracy than planar imaging in detecting, localizing and sizing myocardial perfusion defects. Use of single-photon emission computerized tomography with TI-201 should allow for a more accurate assessment of prognosis after myocardial infarction. A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, provides a number of advantages over TI-201, including higher quality images, lack of redistribution, and the ability to assess first-pass ventricular function. Applications of TI-201 and technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile include assessment of arterial patency and myocardial salvage immediately after thrombolytic therapy, detection of resting ischemia after thrombolytic therapy, targeting of subsets of patients for further intervention, and predischarge assessment to predict the future course of patients after an acute myocardial infarction.

  15. Polydopamine Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Versatile Platform with Radionuclide Labeling for Multimodal Tumor Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, He; Chao, Yu; Liu, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Pan, Jian; Guo, Wanliang; Wu, Jizhi; Sheng, Mao; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with various unique properties have attracted great attention in cancer theranostics. Herein, SWNTs are coated with a shell of polydopamine (PDA), which is further modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG). The PDA shell in the obtained SWNT@PDA-PEG could chelate Mn2+, which together with metallic nanoparticulate impurities anchored on SWNTs offer enhanced both T1 and T2 contrasts under magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Meanwhile, also utilizing the PDA shell, radionuclide 131I could be easily labeled onto SWNT@PDA-PEG, enabling nuclear imaging and radioisotope cancer therapy. As revealed by MR & gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of SWNT@PDA-131I-PEG is observed after systemic administration into mice. By further utilizing the strong near-infarared (NIR) absorbance of SWNTs, NIR-triggered photothermal therapy in combination with 131I-based radioisotope therapy is realized in our animal experiments, in which a remarkable synergistic antitumor therapeutic effect is observed compared to monotherapies. Our work not only presents a new type of theranostic nanoplatform based on SWNTs, but also suggests the promise of PDA coating as a general approach to modify nano-agents and endow them with highly integrated functionalities. PMID:27570554

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Affibody Molecules for Radionuclide Imaging of in Vivo Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Garousi, Javad; Honarvar, Hadis; Andersson, Ken G; Mitran, Bogdan; Orlova, Anna; Buijs, Jos; Löfblom, John; Frejd, Fredrik Y; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2016-11-07

    Overexpression of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is documented for chronically hypoxic malignant tumors as well as for normoxic renal cell carcinoma. Radionuclide molecular imaging of CAIX would be useful for detection of hypoxic areas in malignant tumors, for patients' stratification for CAIX-targeted therapies, and for discrimination of primary malignant and benign renal tumors. Earlier, we have reported feasibility of in vivo radionuclide based imaging of CAIX expressing tumors using Affibody molecules, small affinity proteins based on a nonimmunoglobulin scaffold. In this study, we compared imaging properties of several anti-CAIX Affibody molecules having identical scaffold parts and competing for the same epitope on CAIX, but having different binding paratopes. Four variants were labeled using residualizing (99m)Tc and nonresidualizing (125)I labels. All radiolabeled variants demonstrated high-affinity detection of CAIX-expressing cell line SK-RC-52 in vitro and specific accumulation in SK-RC-52 xenografts in vivo. (125)I-labeled conjugates demonstrated much lower radioactivity uptake in kidneys but higher radioactivity concentration in blood compared with (99m)Tc-labeled counterparts. Although all variants cleared rapidly from blood and nonspecific compartments, there was noticeable difference in their biodistribution. The best variant for imaging of expression of CAIX in disseminated cancer was (99m)Tc-(HE)3-ZCAIX:2 providing tumor uptake of 16.3 ± 0.9% ID/g and tumor-to-blood ratio of 44 ± 7 at 4 h after injection. For primary renal cell carcinoma, the most promising imaging candidate was (125)I-ZCAIX:4 providing tumor-kidney ratio of 2.1 ± 0.5. In conclusion, several clones of scaffold proteins should be evaluated to select the best variant for development of an imaging probe with optimal sensitivity for the intended application.

  17. Registration of serial SPECT/CT images for three-dimensional dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjögreen-Gleisner, K.; Rueckert, D.; Ljungberg, M.

    2009-10-01

    For radionuclide therapy, individual patient pharmacokinetics can be measured in three dimensions by sequential SPECT imaging. Accurate registration of the time series of images is central for voxel-based calculations of the residence time and absorbed dose. In this work, rigid and non-rigid methods are evaluated for registration of 6-7 SPECT/CT images acquired over a week, in anatomical regions from the head-and-neck region down to the pelvis. A method for calculation of the absorbed dose, including a voxel mass determination from the CT images, is also described. Registration of the SPECT/CT images is based on a CT-derived spatial transformation. Evaluation is focused on the CT registration accuracy, and on its impact on values of residence time and absorbed dose. According to the CT evaluation, the non-rigid method produces a more accurate registration than the rigid one. For images of the residence time and absorbed dose, registration produces a sharpening of the images. For volumes-of-interest, the differences between rigid and non-rigid results are generally small. However, the non-rigid method is more consistent for regions where non-rigid patient movements are likely, such as in the head-neck-shoulder region.

  18. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.

    2006-02-01

    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  19. Imaging, Mapping and Monitoring Environmental Radionuclide Transport Using Compton-Geometry Gamma Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, J. W.; Dormand, J.; Cooper, J.; Judson, D.; Boston, A. J.; Bankhead, M.; Onda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The legacy to-date of the nuclear disaster at Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan, has emphasised the fundamental importance of high quality radiation measurements in soils and plant systems. Current-generation radiometers based on coded-aperture collimation are limited in their ability to locate sources of radiation in three dimensions, and require a relatively long measurement time due to the poor efficiency of the collimation system. The quality of data they can provide to support biogeochemical process models in such systems is therefore often compromised. In this work we report proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the potential of an alternative approach in the measurement of environmentally-important radionuclides (in particular 137Cs) in quartz sand and soils from the Fukushima exclusion zone. Compton-geometry imaging radiometers harness the scattering of incident radiation between two detectors to yield significant improvements in detection efficiency, energy resolution and spatial location of radioactive sources in a 180° field of view. To our knowledge we are reporting its first application to environmentally-relevant systems at low activity, dispersed sources, with significant background radiation and, crucially, movement over time. We are using a simple laboratory column setup to conduct one-dimensional transport experiments for 139Ce and 137Cs in quartz sand and in homogenized repacked Fukushima soils. Polypropylene columns 15 cm length with internal diameter 1.6 cm were filled with sand or soil and saturated slowly with tracer-free aqueous solutions. Radionuclides were introduced as 2mL pulses (step-up step-down) at the column inlet. Data were collected continuously throughout the transport experiment and then binned into sequential time intervals to resolve the total activity in the column and its progressive movement through the sand/soil. The objective of this proof-of-concept work is to establish detection limits, optimise image reconstruction

  20. Fluorescence lifetime contrast in small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Sun, LuZhe; Herman, Brian A.

    2007-02-01

    Early detection of primary tumors is the key for effective therapeutic intervention and successful patient survival. Small animal models emulating human diseases are powerful tools for our comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of tumor formation and metastasis to distant sites. Our long-term goal is to develop a non-invasive, multiphoton-fluorescence lifetime imaging (MP-FLIM) modality that can precisely quantify these steps in animal tumor models at a very early stage. The specific hypothesis is that fluorescence lifetime can be employed as reliable contrast parameter for providing higher detection sensitivity as compared with conventional intensity-based tumor imaging approaches and therefore it is possible to detect smaller tumor volumes (early detection) than those achieved by other prevailing methods. We base this hypothesis on our recent observations that (1) fluorescence lifetime is "intrinsic" to the fluorophore and its measurement is not affected by concentration and/or spectral artifacts as in intensity-based methods, (2) multiphoton excitation can enable increased tissue penetrability and reduced phototoxicity and (3) MP-FLIM approach can discriminate background autofluorescence from the fluorescent proteins in thick tissues thereby achieving a ten-fold increase in signal-to-background ratio over the intensity-based approaches. We present our preliminary data to support this hypothesis in primary tumor detection in nu/nu athymic mouse models.

  1. Animal imaging studies of potential brain damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatley, S. J.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rice, O.

    To date, animal studies have not been able to predict the likelihood of problems in human neurological health due to HZE particle exposure during space missions outside the Earth's magnetosphere. In ongoing studies in mice, we have demonstrated that cocaine stimulated locomotor activity is reduced by a moderate dose (120 cGy) of 1 GeV 56Fe particles. We postulate that imaging experiments in animals may provide more sensitive and earlier indicators of damage due to HZE particles than behavioral tests. Since the small size of the mouse brain is not well suited to the spatial resolution offered by microPET, we are now repeating some of our studies in a rat model. We anticipate that this will enable us to identify imaging correlates of behavioral endpoints. A specific hypothesis of our studies is that changes in the metabolic rate for glucose in striatum of animals will be correlated with alterations in locomotor activity. We will also evaluate whether the neuroprotective drug L-deprenyl reduces the effect of radiation on locomotor activity. In addition, we will conduct microPET studies of brain monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B in rats before and at various times after irradiation with HZE particles. The hypothesis is that monoamine oxidase A, which is located in nerve terminals, will be unchanged or decreased after irradiation, while monoamine oxidase B, which is located in glial cells, will be increased after irradiation. Neurochemical effects that could be measured using PET could in principle be applied in astronauts, in terms of detecting and monitoring subtle neurological damage that might have occurred during long space missions. More speculative uses of PET are in screening candidates for prolonged space missions (for example, for adequate reserve in critical brain circuits) and in optimizing medications to treat impairments after missions.

  2. Measurements of natural radionuclides in human teeth and animal bones as markers of radiation exposure from soil in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almayahi, B. A.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to estimate the radioactive accumulation of the radionuclides 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th in extracted human teeth, animal bones, and soil. The natural radionuclides were measured by high-purity germanium spectroscopy in extracted human teeth and animal bones from people and animals living in different states in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula. The average 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th concentrations in teeth were found to be 12.31±7.27 Bq g-1, 0.48±0.21 Bq g-1, 0.56±0.21 Bq g-1, 0.55±0.23 Bq g-1, 1.82±1.28 Bq g-1, and 0.50±0.14 Bq g-1, respectively. The corresponding concentrations in bones were found to be 3.79±0.81 Bq g-1, 0.07±0.02 Bq g-1, 0.08±0.02 Bq g-1, 0.16±0.04 Bq g-1, 0.51±1.08 Bq g-1, and 0.06±0.02 Bq g-1, respectively. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations in teeth from smokers were higher than those in non-smokers, and the corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in female teeth than in male teeth. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in teeth than in bones. A positive correlation was found between radionuclides in both teeth and bone samples.

  3. Image guidance, treatment planning and evaluation of cancer interstitial focal therapy using liposomal radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Steve William

    Focally ablative therapy of cancer has gained significant interest recently. Improvements in diagnostic techniques have created possibilities for treatment which were once clinically unfeasible. Imaging must be capable of allowing accurate diagnosis, staging and planning upon initiation of therapy. Recent improvements in MRI and molecular imaging techniques have made it possible to accurately localize lesions and in so doing, improve the accuracy of proposed focal treatments. Using multimodality imaging it is now possible to target, plan and evaluate interstitial focal treatment using liposome encapsulated beta emitting radionuclides in a variety of cancer types. Since most absorbed dose is deposited early and heterogeneously in beta-radionuclide therapy, investigation of the resultant molecular and cellular events during this time is important for evaluating treatment efficacy. Additionally, investigating a multifocal entity such as prostate cancer is helpful for determining whether MRI is capable of discriminating the proper lesion for therapy. Correlation of MRI findings with histopathology can further improve the accuracy of interstitial focal radionuclide therapy by providing non-invasive surrogates for tissue compartment sizes. In the application of such therapies, compartmental sizes are known to heavily influence the distribution of injected agents. This has clear dosimetric implications with the potential to significantly alter the efficacy of treatment. The hypothesis of this project was that multimodality imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), autoradiography (AR), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be used to target, plan, and evaluate interstitial focal therapy with non-sealed source, liposome-encapsulated 186Re beta emitting radionuclides. The specific aims of this project were to 1) Identify suitable targets for interstitial focal therapy. This was done by retrospectively analyzing MRI data to characterize the tumor

  4. U-SPECT-BioFluo: an integrated radionuclide, bioluminescence, and fluorescence imaging platform

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In vivo bioluminescence, fluorescence, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging provide complementary information about biological processes. However, to date these signatures are evaluated separately on individual preclinical systems. In this paper, we introduce a fully integrated bioluminescence-fluorescence-SPECT platform. Next to an optimization in logistics and image fusion, this integration can help improve understanding of the optical imaging (OI) results. Methods An OI module was developed for a preclinical SPECT system (U-SPECT, MILabs, Utrecht, the Netherlands). The applicability of the module for bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging was evaluated in both a phantom and in an in vivo setting using mice implanted with a 4 T1-luc + tumor. A combination of a fluorescent dye and radioactive moiety was used to directly relate the optical images of the module to the SPECT findings. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was compared to the localization of the fluorescence signal in the tumors. Results Both the phantom and in vivo mouse studies showed that superficial fluorescence signals could be imaged accurately. The SPECT and bioluminescence images could be used to place the fluorescence findings in perspective, e.g. by showing tracer accumulation in non-target organs such as the liver and kidneys (SPECT) and giving a semi-quantitative read-out for tumor spread (bioluminescence). Conclusions We developed a fully integrated multimodal platform that provides complementary registered imaging of bioluminescent, fluorescent, and SPECT signatures in a single scanning session with a single dose of anesthesia. In our view, integration of these modalities helps to improve data interpretation of optical findings in relation to radionuclide images. PMID:25386389

  5. Radionuclide scrotal imaging: further experience with 210 patients. Part I. Anatomy, pathophysiology, and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.

    1983-08-01

    Ten years' experience with radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) to evaluate perfusion of the scrotal contents has confirmed the value of this examination. In 1973, Nadel et al. first proposed using sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) to diagnose testicular torsion. By the end of 1982, more than thirty articles have been published on this topic, with most emphasizing the usefulness of RSI in managing patients with acute scrotal pain. The present communication describes our findings in 210 patients, not previously reported. There were four groups with relatively distinct clinical presentations: (a) acute scrotal pain, (b) chronic scrotal pain, (c) scrotal injury, and (d) scrotal mass. The anatomic and pathophysiologic bases for the scan findings will be emphasized. We discuss the staging of testicular torsion; viability of the compromised testicle; variability in the presentation of acute infection; anatomy of trauma, varicocele, and inguinal hernia; and the correlation with scrotal sonography.

  6. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. I. Comparison of milk and meat from dairy cows and goats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.E.; Ward, G.M.; Ennis, M.E. Jr.; Boamah, K.N.

    1988-02-01

    The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for /sup 99/Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for /sup 99/Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for /sup 133/Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude.

  7. Improving the quantity, quality and transparency of data used to derive radionuclide transfer parameters for animal products. 2. Cow milk.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Wells, C; Barnett, C L; Howard, D C

    2017-02-01

    Under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments) Programme, there has been an initiative to improve the derivation, provenance and transparency of transfer parameter values for radionuclides from feed to animal products that are for human consumption. A description of the revised MODARIA 2016 cow milk dataset is described in this paper. As previously reported for the MODARIA goat milk dataset, quality control has led to the discounting of some references used in IAEA's Technical Report Series (TRS) report 472 (IAEA, 2010). The number of Concentration Ratio (CR) values has been considerably increased by (i) the inclusion of more literature from agricultural studies which particularly enhanced the stable isotope data of both CR and Fm and (ii) by estimating dry matter intake from assumed liveweight. In TRS 472, the data for cow milk were 714 transfer coefficient (Fm) values and 254 CR values describing 31 elements and 26 elements respectively. In the MODARIA 2016 cow milk dataset, Fm and CR values are now reported for 43 elements based upon 825 data values for Fm and 824 for CR. The MODARIA 2016 cow milk dataset Fm values are within an order of magnitude of those reported in TRS 472. Slightly bigger changes are seen in the CR values, but the increase in size of the dataset creates greater confidence in them. Data gaps that still remain are identified for elements with isotopes relevant to radiation protection.

  8. Radionuclide imaging of inflammation and infection in the acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Love, Charito; Palestro, Christopher J

    2013-03-01

    Although infection may be suggested by signs and symptoms such as fever, pain, general malaise, and abnormal laboratory results, imaging tests often are used to confirm its presence. Morphologic imaging tests identify structural alterations of tissues or organs that result from a combination of microbial invasion and the inflammatory response of the host. Functional imaging studies use minute quantities of radioactive material, which are taken up directly by cells, tissues, and organs, or are attached to substances that subsequently migrate to the region of interest. Bone scintigraphy is extremely sensitive and can be positive within 2 days after the onset of symptoms. With an accuracy of more than 90%, 3-phase bone scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing osteomyelitis in unviolated bone. In patients with acute renal failure, gallium imaging facilitates the differentiation of acute interstitial nephritis from acute tubular necrosis. Gallium imaging also is useful in the evaluation of pulmonary infections and inflammation. Many opportunistic infections affect the lungs, and a normal gallium scan of the chest excludes infection with a high degree of certainty, especially when the chest x-ray is negative. In the human immunodeficiency virus positive patient, lymph node uptake usually is associated with mycobacterial disease or lymphoma. Focal pulmonary parenchymal uptake suggests bacterial pneumonia. Diffuse pulmonary uptake suggests an opportunistic pneumonia. Gallium imaging provides useful information about other acute respiratory conditions, including radiation pneumonitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. In vitro labeled leukocyte imaging with indium-111 and technetium-99m labeled leukocytes is useful in various acute care situations. The test facilitates the differentiation of normal postoperative changes from infection and is useful for diagnosing prosthetic vascular graft infection. In inflammatory bowel disease, labeled leukocyte

  9. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT: 2015 revision.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Hein J; Acampa, Wanda; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Ballinger, Jim; Bengel, Frank; De Bondt, Pieter; Buechel, Ronny R; Cuocolo, Alberto; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L F; Flotats, Albert; Hacker, Marcus; Hindorf, Cecilia; Kaufmann, Philip A; Lindner, Oliver; Ljungberg, Michael; Lonsdale, Markus; Manrique, Alain; Minarik, David; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Slart, Riemer H J A; Trägårdh, Elin; de Wit, Tim C; Hesse, Birger

    2015-11-01

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated 2015 procedural guidelines are highlighted, focusing on the important changes related to new instrumentation with improved image information and the possibility to reduce radiation exposure, which is further discussed in relation to the recent developments of new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Introduction of the selective coronary vasodilator regadenoson and the use of coronary CT-contrast agents for hybrid imaging with SPECT/CT angiography are other important areas for nuclear cardiology that were not included in the previous guidelines. A large number of minor changes have been described in more detail in the fully revised version available at the EANM home page: http://eanm.org/publications/guidelines/2015_07_EANM_FINAL_myocardial_perfusion_guideline.pdf .

  10. Diagnostic value of radionuclide scanning and ultrasonography in thyroid developmental anomaly imaging.

    PubMed

    Ruchała, Marek; Szczepanek, Ewelina; Sowiński, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid is particularly prone to morphogenetic variability. Developmental failure of the thyroid gland is in 85% of cases the underlying cause of congenital hypothyroidism, diagnosed at birth with a frequency of 1:3000-1:4000 newborns. However, the incidence of less severe developmental variants of the thyroid is much higher. Determination of the aetiology of congenital hypothyroidism is crucial for predicting its severity and outcome as well as impacts dose of L-thyroxine during substitution. Thyroid imaging is necessary to establish diagnosis, and it involves mainly thyroid ultrasound examination and scintiscan. Awareness of both the advantages and limitations of sonographic and scintigraphic imaging are central to the successful interpretation of their results and reasonable recommendation of these procedures for patients with thyroid developmental anomalies of different age and clinical picture. Hence, the aim of this review is to provide the most important and up-to-date information on the place of radionuclide scanning and ultrasonography in visualization of different thyroid developmental abnormalities.

  11. Review of Russian-language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 4. Transfer to poultry.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-10-01

    Data on radionuclide transfer to domestic chickens and ducks obtained from research performed in the former Soviet Union were reviewed to provide transfer coefficient values (Ff) to poultry and edible egg contents. The majority of the data are from experiments with (90)Sr and (137)Cs, reflecting the importance of these radionuclides after global fallout and major radiation accidents. Data for (3)H, (54)Mn, (59)Fe, (60)Co, (22)Na (65)Zn, (131)I and U are also given. The values derived have been compared with those in the current IAEA Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) and the recent revision which incorporates the values from this paper. The Russian-language data give improved estimates for many radionuclides and the revised handbook is now based on the better quality data given for chronic administration.

  12. Improved dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy using nonrigid registration on sequential SPECT images

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Edwin C. I.; Mok, Greta S. P.; Wu, Nien-Yun; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Song, Na

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Voxel-level and patient-specific 3D dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) typically involves serial nuclear medicine scans. Misalignment of the images can result in reduced dosimetric accuracy. Since the scans are typically performed over a period of several days, there will be patient movement between scans and possible nonrigid organ deformation. This work aims to implement and evaluate the use of nonrigid image registration on a series of quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) images for TRT dosimetry. Methods: A population of 4D extended cardiac torso phantoms, comprised of three In-111 Zevalin biokinetics models and three anatomical variations, was generated based on the patient data. The authors simulated QSPECT acquisitions at five time points. At each time point, individual organ and whole-body deformation between scans were modeled by translating/rotating organs and the body up to 5°/voxels, keeping ≤5% difference in organ volume. An analytical projector was used to generate realistic noisy projections for a medium energy general purpose collimator. Projections were reconstructed using OS-EM algorithm with geometric collimator detector response, attenuation, and scatter corrections. The QSPECT images were registered using organ-based nonrigid image registration method. The cumulative activity in each voxel was obtained by integrating the activity over time. Dose distribution images were obtained by convolving the cumulative activity images with a Y-90 dose kernel. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) for organs-of-interest were analyzed. Results: After nonrigid registration, the mean differences in organ doses compared to the case without misalignment were improved from (−15.50 ± 5.59)% to (−2.12 ± 1.05)% and (−7.28 ± 2.30)% to (−0.23 ± 0.71)% for the spleen and liver, respectively. For all organs, the cumulative DVHs showed improvement after nonrigid registration and the normalized absolute error of differential DVHs ranged from 6.79% to

  13. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  14. Speech, Image, Action: Animating Tales from Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Challenges two assumptions: that children are naturally disposed toward the animated cartoon, and that translating Shakespeare's plays into this medium automatically simplifies and gives them child appeal. Examines the confusions and cross-purposes that surrounded the making of the "Animated Tales" videos, and argues that there are…

  15. Mechanical ventilation for imaging the small animal lung.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Laurence W; Johnson, G Allan

    2002-01-01

    This review emphasizes some of the challenges and benefits of in vivo imaging of the small animal lung. Because mechanical ventilation plays a key role in high-quality, high-resolution imaging of the small animal lung, the article focuses particularly on the problems of ventilation support, control of breathing motion and lung volume, and imaging during different phases of the breathing cycle. Solutions for these problems are discussed primarily in relation to magnetic resonance imaging, both conventional proton imaging and the newer, hyperpolarized helium imaging of pulmonary airways. Examples of applications of these imaging solutions to normal and diseased lung are illustrated in the rat and guinea pig. Although difficult to perform, pulmonary imaging in the small animal can be a valuable source of information not only for the normal lung, but also for the lung challenged by disease.

  16. Method and apparatus for animal positioning in imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjioannou, Arion-Xenofon; Stout, David B.; Silverman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for imaging an animal includes a first mounting surface, a bed sized to support the animal and releasably secured to or integral with the first mounting surface. The apparatus also includes a plurality of straps, each having a first end in a fixed position relative to the bed and a second end for tightening around a limb of the animal. A method for in-vivo imaging of an animal includes providing an animal that has limbs, providing a first mounting surface, and providing a bed removably secured to or integral with the mounting surface and sized to support the animal as well as being coupled to a plurality of straps. The method also includes placing the animal on the bed between the plurality of straps and tightening at least two of the plurality of straps around at least two of the limbs such that the animal is substantially secured in place relative to the bed.

  17. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  18. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelley, Martin; Parsons, David; Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen

    2010-07-23

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mmx1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 {mu}m and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice.There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging.Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the

  19. An image guided small animal stereotactic radiotherapy system

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Hao; Udayakumar, Thirupandiyur S.; Johnson, Perry B.; Dogan, Nesrin; Pollack, Alan; Yang, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Small animal radiotherapy studies should be performed preferably on irradiators capable of focal tumor irradiation and healthy tissue sparing. In this study, an image guided small animal arc radiation treatment system (iSMAART) was developed which can achieve highly precise radiation targeting through the utilization of onboard cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance. The iSMAART employs a unique imaging and radiation geometry where animals are positioned upright. It consists of a stationary x-ray tube, a stationary flat panel detector, and a rotatable and translational animal stage. System performance was evaluated in regards to imaging, image guidance, animal positioning, and radiation targeting using phantoms and tumor bearing animals. The onboard CBCT achieved good signal, contrast, and sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The iodine contrast CBCT accurately delineated orthotopic prostate tumors. Animal positioning was evaluated with ∼0.3 mm vertical displacement along superior-inferior direction. The overall targeting precision was within 0.4 mm. Stereotactic radiation beams conformal to tumor targets can be precisely delivered from multiple angles surrounding the animal. The iSMAART allows radiobiology labs to utilize an image guided precision radiation technique that can focally irradiate tumors while sparing healthy tissues at an affordable cost. PMID:26958942

  20. Microtomography with sandwich detectors for small-animal bone imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D.; Youn, H.; Cho, S.; Kim, H. K.

    2016-10-01

    An x-ray radiographic system consisting of two detectors in tandem, or a sandwich detector, can produce dual-energy image from a single-shot exposure. Subtraction of two images obtained from the two detectors can produce a sharper image through an unsharp masking effect if the two images are formed at different spatial resolutions. This is indeed possible by incorporating different thicknesses of x-ray conversion layers in the detectors. In this study, we have developed a microtomography system with a sandwich detector in pursuit of high-resolution bone-enhanced small-animal imaging. The results show that the bone-enhanced images reconstructed from the dual-energy projection data provide higher visibility of bone details than the conventionally reconstructed images. The microtomography with the single-shot dual-energy sandwich detector will be useful for the high-resolution bone-enhanced small-animal imaging.

  1. Synthesis, radiolabeling and preliminary in vivo evaluation of multimodal radiotracers for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of pigmented melanoma.

    PubMed

    Billaud, Emilie M F; Maisonial-Besset, Aurélie; Rbah-Vidal, Latifa; Vidal, Aurélien; Besse, Sophie; Béquignat, Jean-Baptiste; Decombat, Caroline; Degoul, Françoise; Audin, Laurent; Deloye, Jean-Bernard; Dollé, Frédéric; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Tarrit, Sébastien; Galmier, Marie-Josèphe; Borel, Michèle; Auzeloux, Philippe; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Chezal, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-06

    Melanin pigment represents an attractive target to address specific treatment to melanoma cells, such as cytotoxic radionuclides. However, less than half of the patients have pigmented metastases. Hence, specific marker is required to stratify this patient population before proceeding with melanin-targeted radionuclide therapy. In such a context, we developed fluorinated analogues of a previously studied melanin-targeting ligand, N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-6-iodoquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (ICF01012). These latter can be labeled either with (18)F or (131)I/(125)I for positron emission tomography imaging (melanin-positive patient selection) and targeted radionuclide therapy purposes. Here we describe the syntheses, radiosyntheses and preclinical evaluations on melanoma-bearing mice model of several iodo- and fluoro(hetero)aromatic derivatives of the ICF01012 scaffold. After preliminary planar gamma scintigraphic and positron emission tomography imaging evaluations, [(125)I]- and [(18)F]-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-4-fluoro-3-iodobenzamides ([(125)I]4, [(18)F]4) were found to be chemically and biologically stable with quite similar tumor uptakes at 1 h p.i. (9.7 ± 2.6% ID/g and 6.8 ± 1.9% ID/g, respectively).

  2. Development of a combined microSPECT/CT system for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingshan

    Modern advances in the biomedical sciences have placed increased attention on small animals such as mice and rats as models of human biology and disease in biological research and pharmaceutical development. Their small size and fast breeding rate, their physiologic similarity to human, and, more importantly, the availability of sophisticated genetic manipulations, all have made mice and rats the laboratory mammals of choice in these experimental studies. However, the increased use of small animals in biomedical research also calls for new instruments that can measure the anatomic and metabolic information noninvasively with adequate spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity to facilitate these studies. This dissertation describes the engineering development of a combined single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) system dedicated for small animals imaging. The system aims to obtain both the anatomic and metabolic images with submillimeter spatial resolution in a way that the data can be correlated to provide improved image quality and to offer more complete biological evaluation for biomedical studies involving small animals. The project requires development of complete microSPECT and microCT subsystems. Both subsystems are configured with a shared gantry and animal bed with integrated instrumentation for data acquisition and system control. The microCT employs a microfocus X-ray tube and a CCD-based detector for low noise, high resolution imaging. The microSPECT utilizes three semiconductor detectors coupled with pinhole collimators. A significant contribution of this dissertation project is the development of iterative algorithms with geometrical compensation that allows radionuclide images to be reconstructed at submillimeter spatial resolution, but with significantly higher detection efficiency than conventional methods. Both subsystems are capable of helical scans, offering lengthened field of view and improved

  3. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  4. Cardiovascular imaging: what have we learned from animal models?

    PubMed

    Santos, Arnoldo; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Villalba, María; López-Melgar, Beatriz; España, Samuel; Mateo, Jesús; Mota, Ruben A; Jiménez-Borreguero, Jesús; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has become an indispensable tool for patient diagnosis and follow up. Probably the wide clinical applications of imaging are due to the possibility of a detailed and high quality description and quantification of cardiovascular system structure and function. Also phenomena that involve complex physiological mechanisms and biochemical pathways, such as inflammation and ischemia, can be visualized in a non-destructive way. The widespread use and evolution of imaging would not have been possible without animal studies. Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results. In this review, we will critically describe the contribution of animal models to the use of biomedical imaging in cardiovascular medicine. We will discuss the characteristics of the most frequent models used in/for imaging studies. We will cover the major findings of animal studies focused in the cardiovascular use of the repeatedly used imaging techniques in clinical practice and experimental studies. We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases. In these diseases, imaging research using animals has allowed the study of aspects such as: ventricular size, shape, global function, and wall thickening, local myocardial function, myocardial perfusion, metabolism and energetic assessment, infarct quantification, vascular lesion characterization, myocardial fiber structure, and myocardial calcium uptake. Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models.

  5. Cardiovascular imaging: what have we learned from animal models?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Arnoldo; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Villalba, María; López-Melgar, Beatriz; España, Samuel; Mateo, Jesús; Mota, Ruben A.; Jiménez-Borreguero, Jesús; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has become an indispensable tool for patient diagnosis and follow up. Probably the wide clinical applications of imaging are due to the possibility of a detailed and high quality description and quantification of cardiovascular system structure and function. Also phenomena that involve complex physiological mechanisms and biochemical pathways, such as inflammation and ischemia, can be visualized in a non-destructive way. The widespread use and evolution of imaging would not have been possible without animal studies. Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results. In this review, we will critically describe the contribution of animal models to the use of biomedical imaging in cardiovascular medicine. We will discuss the characteristics of the most frequent models used in/for imaging studies. We will cover the major findings of animal studies focused in the cardiovascular use of the repeatedly used imaging techniques in clinical practice and experimental studies. We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases. In these diseases, imaging research using animals has allowed the study of aspects such as: ventricular size, shape, global function, and wall thickening, local myocardial function, myocardial perfusion, metabolism and energetic assessment, infarct quantification, vascular lesion characterization, myocardial fiber structure, and myocardial calcium uptake. Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models. PMID:26539113

  6. Application of coregistration for imaging of animal models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jupp, Bianca; O'Brien, Terence J

    2007-01-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the utilization of small animal imaging for epilepsy research. In vivo imaging studies have the potential to provide important insights into the structural and functional correlates of the development and progression of epilepsy in these models. However, the small size of the rodent brain means that anatomic resolution is often relatively poor for many imaging modalities, particularly those providing functional information such as positron emission tomography. Coregistration of these images with those of higher structural resolution, such as MRI, provides an attractive approach to this problem, and also allows correlations between structural and functional imaging data. Image coregistration is commonly utilized in clinical research and practice. However, its application for small animal images has been, to date, relatively under utilized and largely unvalidated. The current review aims to provide an overview of image coregistration methods, particularly for MRI and PET, and their application to imaging of small animal models of epilepsy. Methodological advantages and potential traps are highlighted.

  7. The scope and potentials of functional radionuclide imaging towards advancing personalized medicine in oncology: emphasis on PET-CT.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral heterogeneity within a given patient cohort has been a major challenge in clinical practice and is probably most prominently observed in the field of oncology. This has been the prime impetus of the cutting-edge preclinical and clinical research studies over recent times, many of which seek to further stratify patients based on patients' genetic, proteomic, and metabolic profile (the three key components of "-omics" research), in order to select the appropriate therapy according to an individual's best-fit. Data from functional radionuclide imaging particularly that obtained from PET-CT, with regard to characterization of an individual's tumor phenotype, can play a very important role in answering some of the critical decision-making questions on an individual basis. The role of molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, and planar radionuclide technologies is not confined to early response assessment of administered therapeutics (which is its major benefit compared to conventional methods), rather it has a much broader perspective and encompasses multiple steps in decision making steps of patient management. The immense impact of the radionuclide-based molecular imaging techniques on the selection of an appropriate treatment (at initial diagnosis, during therapy, or after therapy) or in defining the tumor biology has been documented and increasingly recognized through both large and small-scale studies. However, there has been relatively less systematic effort towards the development of a successful and definitive clinical model of "personalized cancer medicine" (based on accurate disease triaging on an individual basis) by the medical community that would be suitable for routine adoption. In this paper, an endeavor has been made to explore the potential of this approach and underscore the areas that would require further critical evaluation to make this a reality.

  8. It's Not Easy Being Green: Student Recall of Plant and Animal Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Olzak, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that people are less interested in studying plants than animals. We tested whether university students would selectively recall more animal images than plant images even when equally-nameable plant and animal images were presented for equal lengths of time. Animal and plant images were pre-tested and 14 animal-plant pairs…

  9. Intravital Fluorescence Excitation in Whole-Animal Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, Joel N.; Kong, Ying; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-animal fluorescence imaging with recombinant or fluorescently-tagged pathogens or cells enables real-time analysis of disease progression and treatment response in live animals. Tissue absorption limits penetration of fluorescence excitation light, particularly in the visible wavelength range, resulting in reduced sensitivity to deep targets. Here, we demonstrate the use of an optical fiber bundle to deliver light into the mouse lung to excite fluorescent bacteria, circumventing tissue absorption of excitation light in whole-animal imaging. We present the use of this technology to improve detection of recombinant reporter strains of tdTomato-expressing Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) bacteria in the mouse lung. A microendoscope was integrated into a whole-animal fluorescence imager to enable intravital excitation in the mouse lung with whole-animal detection. Using this technique, the threshold of detection was measured as 103 colony forming units (CFU) during pulmonary infection. In comparison, the threshold of detection for whole-animal fluorescence imaging using standard epi-illumination was greater than 106 CFU. PMID:26901051

  10. Intravital Fluorescence Excitation in Whole-Animal Optical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Nooshabadi, Fatemeh; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Bixler, Joel N; Kong, Ying; Cirillo, Jeffrey D; Maitland, Kristen C

    2016-01-01

    Whole-animal fluorescence imaging with recombinant or fluorescently-tagged pathogens or cells enables real-time analysis of disease progression and treatment response in live animals. Tissue absorption limits penetration of fluorescence excitation light, particularly in the visible wavelength range, resulting in reduced sensitivity to deep targets. Here, we demonstrate the use of an optical fiber bundle to deliver light into the mouse lung to excite fluorescent bacteria, circumventing tissue absorption of excitation light in whole-animal imaging. We present the use of this technology to improve detection of recombinant reporter strains of tdTomato-expressing Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) bacteria in the mouse lung. A microendoscope was integrated into a whole-animal fluorescence imager to enable intravital excitation in the mouse lung with whole-animal detection. Using this technique, the threshold of detection was measured as 103 colony forming units (CFU) during pulmonary infection. In comparison, the threshold of detection for whole-animal fluorescence imaging using standard epi-illumination was greater than 106 CFU.

  11. Angular domain fluorescence imaging for small animal research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; Belton, Michelle; Kaminska, Bozena; Chapman, Glenn H.; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a novel macroscopic fluorescent imaging technique called angular domain fluorescence imaging (ADFI) applicable to the detection of fluorophores embedded in biological tissues. The method exploits the collimation detection capabilities of an angular filter array (AFA). The AFA uses the principle of acceptance angle filtration to extract minimally scattered photons emitted from fluorophores deep within tissue. Our goal was to develop an ADFI system for imaging near-infrared fluorescent markers for small animal imaging. According to the experimental results, the ADFI system offered higher resolution and contrast compared to a conventional lens and lens-pinhole fluorescent detection system. Furthermore, ADFI of a hairless mouse injected with a fluorescent bone marker revealed vertebral structural and morphometric data that correlated well with data derived from volumetric x-ray computed tomography images. The results suggested that ADFI is a useful technique for submillimeter mapping of the distribution of fluorescent biomarkers in small animals.

  12. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  13. Visual images in Luigi Galvani's path to animal electricity.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The scientific endeavor that led Luigi Galvani to his hypothesis of "animal electricity," i.e., of an electricity present in a condition of disequilibrium between the interior and the exterior of excitable animal fibers, is reviewed here with particular emphasis to the role played by visual images in Galvani's path of discovery. In 1791 Galvani formulated his model of neuromuscular physiology on the base of the image of a muscle and a nerve fiber together as in a "minute animal Leyden jar." This was the last instance of a series of physical models that accompanied Galvani's experimental efforts in the search of a theory capable of accounting for the electric nature of nerve conduction in spite of the many objections formulated in the eighteenth century against a possible role of electricity in animal physiology.

  14. CNS Animal fMRI imaging in Pain and Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino

    2010-01-01

    Animal imaging of brain systems offers exciting opportunities to better understand the neurobiology of pain and analgesia. Overall functional studies have lagged behind human studies as a result of technical issues including the use of anesthesia. Now that many of these issues have been overcome including the possibility of imaging awake animals, there are new opportunities to study whole brain systems neurobiology of acute and chronic pain as well as analgesic effects on brain systems de novo (using pharmacological MRI) or testing in animal models of pain. Understanding brain networks in these areas may provide new insights into translational science, and use neural networks as a “language of translation” between preclinical to clinical models. In this review we evaluate the role of functional and anatomical imaging in furthering our understanding in pain and analgesia. PMID:21126534

  15. Live-Animal Imaging of Renal Function by Multiphoton Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kenneth W.; Sutton, Timothy A.; Sandoval, Ruben M.

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy, microscopy of living animals, is a powerful research technique that combines the resolution and sensitivity found in microscopic studies of cultured cells with the relevance and systemic influences of cells in the context of the intact animal. The power of intravital microscopy has recently been extended with the development of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy systems capable of collecting optical sections from deep within the kidney at subcellular resolution, supporting high-resolution characterizations of the structure and function of glomeruli, tubules, and vasculature in the living kidney. Fluorescent probes are administered to an anesthetized, surgically prepared animal, followed by image acquisition for up to 3 hr. Images are transferred via a high-speed network to specialized computer systems for digital image analysis. This general approach can be used with different combinations of fluorescent probes to evaluate processes such as glomerular permeability, proximal tubule endocytosis, microvascular flow, vascular permeability, mitochondrial function, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis. PMID:23042524

  16. High-Resolution and Animal Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcari, Nicola; Guerra, AlbertoDel

    During the last decade we have observed a growing interest in "in vivo" imaging techniques for small animals. This is due to the necessity of studying biochemical processes at a molecular level for pharmacology, genetic, and pathology investigations. This field of research is usually called "molecular imaging."Advances in biological understanding have been accompanied by technological advances in instrumentation and techniques and image-reconstruction software, resulting in improved image quality, visibility, and interpretation. The main technological challenge is then the design of systems with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity.

  17. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C

    2014-06-07

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter

  18. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 Dual Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion/Innervation Imaging Using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM Collimator

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric. C.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulation and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter modeling

  19. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C.

    2014-06-01

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter

  20. Validation of an Animal Isolation Imaging Chamber for Use in Animal Biosafety Level-3 Containment

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, T. Scott; Frothingham, Richard; Sempowski, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Live imaging of animals infected with pathogenic microbes poses a contamination risk to equipment, personnel and other animals. A Caliper animal isolation chamber designed for the IVIS® Spectrum imaging system was tested as a containment device for mice infected with microbes assigned to animal biosafety level-3 (ABSL-3). A testing protocol was developed by adapting two published standards to test other equipment in high containment environments. The protocol included quantitative leak-testing of the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, soap bubble testing of the animal isolation chamber, and pressure decay testing of the complete containment system. HEPA filters were > 99.999% efficient (< 0.001% leakage). When attached to the Spectrum at the normal flow rate of oxygen/anesthetic mix (0.25 L/min), the chamber was positively pressurized at 0.11 inches of water (in H2O). No leaks were detected by soap bubble testing at flow rates of 0.25 L/min to 2.0 L/min, generating pressures up to 2.90 in H2O. (26-fold increase over normal operating pressure). The complete containment system passed pressure decay testing at 2.0 in H2O by sustaining 95% of the initial pressure over a 30 minute period. The Caliper animal isolation chamber provides appropriate isolation for the IVIS® Spectrum imaging system. When used as a containment device, it must undergo periodic performance testing, as described here, since it operates under positive pressure. The chamber is an appropriate component of ABSL-3 containment when combined with proper administrative controls and work practices. The testing protocol described here can be used to validate containment devices for other imaging systems or animal species. PMID:23226978

  1. Validation of an Animal Isolation Imaging Chamber for Use in Animal Biosafety Level-3 Containment.

    PubMed

    Alderman, T Scott; Frothingham, Richard; Sempowski, Gregory D

    2010-01-01

    Live imaging of animals infected with pathogenic microbes poses a contamination risk to equipment, personnel and other animals. A Caliper animal isolation chamber designed for the IVIS(®) Spectrum imaging system was tested as a containment device for mice infected with microbes assigned to animal biosafety level-3 (ABSL-3). A testing protocol was developed by adapting two published standards to test other equipment in high containment environments. The protocol included quantitative leak-testing of the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, soap bubble testing of the animal isolation chamber, and pressure decay testing of the complete containment system. HEPA filters were > 99.999% efficient (< 0.001% leakage). When attached to the Spectrum at the normal flow rate of oxygen/anesthetic mix (0.25 L/min), the chamber was positively pressurized at 0.11 inches of water (in H(2)O). No leaks were detected by soap bubble testing at flow rates of 0.25 L/min to 2.0 L/min, generating pressures up to 2.90 in H(2)O. (26-fold increase over normal operating pressure). The complete containment system passed pressure decay testing at 2.0 in H(2)O by sustaining 95% of the initial pressure over a 30 minute period.The Caliper animal isolation chamber provides appropriate isolation for the IVIS(®) Spectrum imaging system. When used as a containment device, it must undergo periodic performance testing, as described here, since it operates under positive pressure. The chamber is an appropriate component of ABSL-3 containment when combined with proper administrative controls and work practices. The testing protocol described here can be used to validate containment devices for other imaging systems or animal species.

  2. Nuclear medical imaging using β+γ coincidences from 44Sc radio-nuclide with liquid xenon as detection medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grignon, C.; Barbet, J.; Bardiès, M.; Carlier, T.; Chatal, J. F.; Couturier, O.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Faivre, A.; Ferrer, L.; Girault, S.; Haruyama, T.; Le Ray, P.; Luquin, L.; Lupone, S.; Métivier, V.; Morteau, E.; Servagent, N.; Thers, D.

    2007-02-01

    We report on a new nuclear medical imaging technique based on the measurement of the emitter location in the three dimensions with a few mm spatial resolution using β+γ emitters. Such measurement could be realized thanks to a new kind of radio-nuclides which emit a γ-ray quasi-simultaneously with the β+ decay. The most interesting radio-nuclide candidate, namely 44Sc, will be potentially produced at the Nantes cyclotron ARRONAX. The principle is to reconstruct the intersection of the classical line of response (obtained with a standard PET camera) with the direction cone defined by the third γ-ray. The emission angle measurement of this additional γ-ray involves the use of a Compton telescope for which a new generation of camera based on a liquid xenon (LXe) time projection chamber is considered. GEANT3 simulations of a large acceptance LXe Compton telescope combined with a commercial micro-PET (LSO crystals) have been performed and the obtained results will be presented. They demonstrate that a good image can be obtained from the accumulation of each three-dimensional measured position. A spatial resolution of 2.3 mm has been reached with an injected activity of 0.5 MBq for a 44Sc point source emitter.

  3. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Tsuji, Osahiko; Hanyu, Aki; Okada, Seiji; Yasuda, Akimasa; Fukano, Takashi; Akazawa, Chihiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Imamura, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Okano, Hirotaka James; and others

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  4. ADAPT, a Novel Scaffold Protein-Based Probe for Radionuclide Imaging of Molecular Targets That Are Expressed in Disseminated Cancers.

    PubMed

    Garousi, Javad; Lindbo, Sarah; Nilvebrant, Johan; Åstrand, Mikael; Buijs, Jos; Sandström, Mattias; Honarvar, Hadis; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Hober, Sophia

    2015-10-15

    Small engineered scaffold proteins have attracted attention as probes for radionuclide-based molecular imaging. One class of these imaging probes, termed ABD-Derived Affinity Proteins (ADAPT), has been created using the albumin-binding domain (ABD) of streptococcal protein G as a stable protein scaffold. In this study, we report the development of a clinical lead probe termed ADAPT6 that binds HER2, an oncoprotein overexpressed in many breast cancers that serves as a theranostic biomarker for several approved targeting therapies. Surface-exposed amino acids of ABD were randomized to create a combinatorial library enabling selection of high-affinity binders to various proteins. Furthermore, ABD was engineered to enable rapid purification, to eradicate its binding to albumin, and to enable rapid blood clearance. Incorporation of a unique cysteine allowed site-specific conjugation to a maleimido derivative of a DOTA chelator, enabling radionuclide labeling, ¹¹¹In for SPECT imaging and ⁶⁸Ga for PET imaging. Pharmacologic studies in mice demonstrated that the fully engineered molecule (111)In/⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-(HE)3-ADAPT6 was specifically bound and taken up by HER2-expressing tumors, with a high tumor-to-normal tissue ratio in xenograft models of human cancer. Unbound tracer underwent rapid renal clearance followed by high renal reabsorption. HER2-expressing xenografts were visualized by gamma-camera or PET at 1 hour after infusion. PET experiments demonstrated feasibility for discrimination of xenografts with high or low HER2 expression. Our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of ADAPT probes for noninvasive in vivo imaging.

  5. Beta Emitter Radionuclides (90Sr) Contamination in Animal Feed: Validation and Application of a Radiochemical Method by Ultra Low Level Liquid Scintillation Counting

    PubMed Central

    Iammarino, Marco; dell’Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    90Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. 90Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer (137Cs and 90Sr) from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats) was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of 90Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of 90Sr (<0.01 Bq Kg–1). All samples analysed showed a 90Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg–1). In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg–1), followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg–1) and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg–1). In fact, all samples were characterized by 90Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that 90Sr is a possible carcinogen for human. PMID:27800378

  6. Beta Emitter Radionuclides ((90)Sr) Contamination in Animal Feed: Validation and Application of a Radiochemical Method by Ultra Low Level Liquid Scintillation Counting.

    PubMed

    Iammarino, Marco; dell'Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio

    2015-02-03

    (90)Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. (90)Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer ((137)Cs and (90)Sr) from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats) was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of (90)Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of (90)Sr (<0.01 Bq Kg(-1)). All samples analysed showed a (90)Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg(-1)). In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg(-1)), followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg(-1)) and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg(-1)). In fact, all samples were characterized by (90)Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that (90)Sr is a possible carcinogen for human.

  7. Anatomic and functional imaging of tagged molecules in animals

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2007-04-24

    A novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired. The apparatus comprises a combination of an IR laser profilometry system and gamma, PET and/or SPECT, imaging system, all mounted on a rotating gantry, that permits simultaneous acquisition of positional and orientational information and functional images of an unrestrained subject that are registered, i.e. integrated, using image processing software to produce a functional image of the subject without the use of restraints or anesthesia. The functional image thus obtained can be registered with a previously or subsequently obtained X-ray CT image of the subject. The use of the system described herein permits functional imaging of a subject in an unrestrained/non-anesthetized condition thereby reducing the stress on the subject and eliminating any potential interference with the functional testing that such stress might induce.

  8. Inside Out: Modern Imaging Techniques to Reveal Animal Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Wang, Tobias; Agger, Peter; Andersen, Jonas L.; Knudsen, Peter S.; Rasmussen, Anne S.; Uhrenholt, Lars; Pedersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Animal anatomy has traditionally relied on detailed dissections to produce anatomical illustrations, but modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT, now represent an enormous resource that allows for fast non-invasive visualizations of animal anatomy in living animals. These modalities also allow for creation of three-dimensional representations that can be of considerable value in the dissemination of anatomical studies. In this methodological review, we present our experiences using MRI, CT and μCT to create advanced representation of animal anatomy, including bones, inner organs and blood vessels in a variety of animals, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and spiders. The images have a similar quality to most traditional anatomical drawings and are presented together with interactive movies of the anatomical structures, where the object can be viewed from different angles. Given that clinical scanners found in the majority of larger hospitals are fully suitable for these purposes, we encourage biologists to take advantage of these imaging techniques in creation of three-dimensional graphical representations of internal structures. PMID:21445356

  9. Transmission line based thermoacoustic imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Murad; Kellnberger, Stephan; Sergiadis, George; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-06-01

    We have generated high resolution images of RF-Contrast in small animals using nearfield thermoacoustic system. This enables us to see some anatomical features of a mouse such as the heart, the spine and the boundary. OCIS codes: (000.0000) General; (000.0000) General [8-pt. type. For codes, see www.opticsinfobase.org/submit/ocis.

  10. Pharmacokinetic digital phantoms for accuracy assessment of image-based dosimetry in (177)Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Brolin, Gustav; Gustafsson, Johan; Ljungberg, Michael; Gleisner, Katarina Sjögreen

    2015-08-07

    Patient-specific image-based dosimetry is considered to be a useful tool to limit toxicity associated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). To facilitate the establishment and reliability of absorbed-dose response relationships, it is essential to assess the accuracy of dosimetry in clinically realistic scenarios. To this end, we developed pharmacokinetic digital phantoms corresponding to patients treated with (177)Lu-DOTATATE. Three individual voxel phantoms from the XCAT population were generated and assigned a dynamic activity distribution based on a compartment model for (177)Lu-DOTATATE, designed specifically for this purpose. The compartment model was fitted to time-activity data from 10 patients, primarily acquired using quantitative scintillation camera imaging. S values for all phantom source-target combinations were calculated based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Combining the S values and time-activity curves, reference values of the absorbed dose to the phantom kidneys, liver, spleen, tumours and whole-body were calculated. The phantoms were used in a virtual dosimetry study, using Monte-Carlo simulated gamma-camera images and conventional methods for absorbed-dose calculations. The characteristics of the SPECT and WB planar images were found to well represent those of real patient images, capturing the difficulties present in image-based dosimetry. The phantoms are expected to be useful for further studies and optimisation of clinical dosimetry in (177)Lu PRRT.

  11. Pharmacokinetic digital phantoms for accuracy assessment of image-based dosimetry in 177Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brolin, Gustav; Gustafsson, Johan; Ljungberg, Michael; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina

    2015-08-01

    Patient-specific image-based dosimetry is considered to be a useful tool to limit toxicity associated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). To facilitate the establishment and reliability of absorbed-dose response relationships, it is essential to assess the accuracy of dosimetry in clinically realistic scenarios. To this end, we developed pharmacokinetic digital phantoms corresponding to patients treated with 177Lu-DOTATATE. Three individual voxel phantoms from the XCAT population were generated and assigned a dynamic activity distribution based on a compartment model for 177Lu-DOTATATE, designed specifically for this purpose. The compartment model was fitted to time-activity data from 10 patients, primarily acquired using quantitative scintillation camera imaging. S values for all phantom source-target combinations were calculated based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Combining the S values and time-activity curves, reference values of the absorbed dose to the phantom kidneys, liver, spleen, tumours and whole-body were calculated. The phantoms were used in a virtual dosimetry study, using Monte-Carlo simulated gamma-camera images and conventional methods for absorbed-dose calculations. The characteristics of the SPECT and WB planar images were found to well represent those of real patient images, capturing the difficulties present in image-based dosimetry. The phantoms are expected to be useful for further studies and optimisation of clinical dosimetry in 177Lu PRRT.

  12. In vivo imaging of small animal models by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shuoqi; Yang, Ran; Xiong, Jingwei; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Li, Changhui; Ren, Qiushi

    2012-02-01

    Small animal models, such as zebrafish, drosophila, C. elegan, is considered to be important models in comparative biology and diseases researches. Traditional imaging methods primarily employ several optical microscopic imaging modalities that rely on fluorescence labeling, which may have potential to affect the natural physiological progress. Thus a label-free imaging method is desired. Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) is an emerging biomedical imaging method that combines optical contrast with ultrasonic detection, which is highly sensitive to the optical absorption contrast of living tissues, such as pigments, the vasculature and other optically absorbing organs. In this work, we reported the whole body label-free imaging of zebrafish larvae and drosophila pupa by PAM. Based on intrinsic optical absorption contrast, high resolution images of pigments, microvasculature and several other major organs have been obtained in vivo and non-invasively, and compared with their optical counterparts. We demonstrated that PAM has the potential to be a powerful non-invasive imaging method for studying larvae and pupa of various animal models.

  13. Intrinsic Feature Pose Measurement for Awake Animal SPECT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Lee, Seung Joon; Weisenberger, A G; Stolin, A; McKisson, J; Smith, M F

    2009-01-01

    New developments have been made in optical motion tracking for awake animal imaging that measures 3D position and orientation (pose) for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system. Ongoing SPECT imaging research has been directed towards head motion measurement for brain studies in awake, unrestrained mice. In contrast to previous results using external markers, this work extracts and tracks intrinsic features from multiple camera images and computes relative pose from the tracked features over time. Motion tracking thus far has been limited to measuring extrinsic features such as retro-reflective markers applied to the mouse s head. While this approach has been proven to be accurate, the additional animal handling required to attach the markers is undesirable. A significant improvement in the procedure is achieved by measuring the pose of the head without extrinsic markers using only the external surface appearance. This approach is currently being developed with initial results presented here. The intrinsic features measurement extracts discrete, sparse natural features from 2D images such as eyes, nose, mouth and other visible structures. Stereo correspondence between features for a camera pair is determined for calculation of 3D positions. These features are also tracked over time to provide continuity for surface model fitting. Experimental results from live images are presented.

  14. Noninvasive imaging of protein-protein interactions in living animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luker, Gary D.; Sharma, Vijay; Pica, Christina M.; Dahlheimer, Julie L.; Li, Wei; Ochesky, Joseph; Ryan, Christine E.; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2002-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions control transcription, cell division, and cell proliferation as well as mediate signal transduction, oncogenic transformation, and regulation of cell death. Although a variety of methods have been used to investigate protein interactions in vitro and in cultured cells, none can analyze these interactions in intact, living animals. To enable noninvasive molecular imaging of protein-protein interactions in vivo by positron-emission tomography and fluorescence imaging, we engineered a fusion reporter gene comprising a mutant herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase and green fluorescent protein for readout of a tetracycline-inducible, two-hybrid system in vivo. By using micro-positron-emission tomography, interactions between p53 tumor suppressor and the large T antigen of simian virus 40 were visualized in tumor xenografts of HeLa cells stably transfected with the imaging constructs. Imaging protein-binding partners in vivo will enable functional proteomics in whole animals and provide a tool for screening compounds targeted to specific protein-protein interactions in living animals.

  15. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Weersink, Robert A.; Ansell, Steve; Wang, An; Wilson, Graham; Shah, Duoaud; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  16. A micro-scale random-walk model for radionuclide migration based on image analysis-derived modelling grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhard Falck, W.; Vokal, Vratko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a random-walk transport model for the migration of radionuclides in hard-rocks at the grain scale. The physics of diffusion are reviewed and it is described how they are translated into the appropriate model algorithm. Further, the algorithm for recognising solid grain boundaries during the migration step is discussed. The model grid is derived from the analysis of images obtained by optical micro-photography and from autoradiography of hardrock samples impregnated with 14C-marked resins. Sample calculations for tracer-transport cases and simple reaction, i.e. precipitation cases are presented. It is envisaged to couple the code with a geochemical speciation code at a later stage.

  17. Radionuclide angiography and blood pool imaging to assess skin ulcer healing prognosis in patients with peripheral vascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Several non-invasive diagnostic techniques including segmental limb blood pressures, skin fluoresence, and photo plethysmography, have been evaluated as predictors of skin ulcer healing in patients with peripheral vascular disease, but none are widely used. Using 20mCi of Tc-99m phosphate compounds, four phase bone scans were obtained, including (1) radionuclide angiogram (2) blood pool image (3) 2 hour and 4-6 hour static images and (4) 24 hour static delayed images. The first two phases were used to assess vacularity to the region of distal extremity ulceration; the last two phases evaluated presence or absence of osteomyelitis. Studies were performed in 30 patients with non-healing ulcers of the lower extremities. Perfusion to the regions of ulceration on images was graded as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite (presumed normal) limb or some other normal reference area. Hypervascular response was interpreted as good prognosis for healing unless osteomyelitis was present. Clinicians followed patients for 14 days to assess limb healing with optimum care. If there was no improvement, angiography and/or surgery (reconstructive surgery, sympathectomy, or amputation) was done. Results showed: sensitivity for predicting ulcer healing was 94%, specificity 89%. Patients who failed to heal their ulcers showed reduced perfusion, no hypervascular response, or osteomyelitis. Microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing appear predictable by this technique.

  18. Induced renal artery stenosis in rabbits: magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, and radionuclide determination of blood volume and blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.G.; Tobin, M.; LeVeen, R.; Tomaczewski, J.; Alavi, A.; Staum, M.; Kundel, H.

    1988-03-01

    To investigate the ability of MRI to detect alterations due to renal ischemia, a rabbit renal artery stenosis (RAS) model was developed. Seven rabbits had RAS induced by surgically encircling the artery with a polyethylene band which had a lumen of 1 mm, 1 to 2 weeks prior to imaging. The stenosis was confirmed by angiography, and the rabbits were then imaged in a 1.4 T research MRI unit. T1 was calculated using four inversion recovery sequences with different inversion times. Renal blood flow, using /sup 113/Sn-microspheres, and regional water content by drying were then measured. The average T1 of the inner medulla was shorter for the ischemia (1574 msec) than for the contralateral kidney (1849 msec), while no change ws noted in the cortex. Ischemic kidneys had less distinct outer medullary zones on IR images with TI = 600 msec than did contralateral or control kidneys. Blood flow to both the cortex and medulla were markedly reduced in ischemic kidneys compared with contralateral kidneys (119.5 vs. 391 ml/min/100 gm for cortex and 19.8 vs. 50.8 ml/min/100 gm for medulla). Renal water and blood content were less affected. Our rabbit model of renal artery stenosis with MRI, radionuclide, and angiographic correlation has the potential to increase our understanding of MR imaging of the rabbit kidney.

  19. Imaging of cerebrovascular pathology in animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Klohs, Jan; Rudin, Markus; Shimshek, Derya R.; Beckmann, Nicolau

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition as well as Aβ transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of Aβ on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature. PMID:24659966

  20. A Time Domain Fluorescence Tomography System for Small Animal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Scott B.; Dunn, Andrew K.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the application of a time domain diffuse fluorescence tomography system for whole body small animal imaging. The key features of the system are the use of point excitation in free space using ultrashort laser pulses and noncontact detection using a gated, intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Mouse shaped epoxy phantoms, with embedded fluorescent inclusions, were used to verify the performance of a recently developed asymptotic lifetime-based tomography algorithm. The asymptotic algorithm is based on a multiexponential analysis of the decay portion of the data. The multiexponential model is shown to enable the use of a global analysis approach for a robust recovery of the lifetime components present within the imaging medium. The surface boundaries of the imaging volume were acquired using a photogrammetric camera integrated with the imaging system, and implemented in a Monte-Carlo model of photon propagation in tissue. The tomography results show that the asymptotic approach is able to separate axially located fluorescent inclusions centered at depths of 4 and 10 mm from the surface of the mouse phantom. The fluorescent inclusions had distinct lifetimes of 0.5 and 0.95 ns. The inclusions were nearly overlapping along the measurement axis and shown to be not resolvable using continuous wave (CW) methods. These results suggest the practical feasibility and advantages of a time domain approach for whole body small animal fluorescence molecular imaging, particularly with the use of lifetime as a contrast mechanism. PMID:18672432

  1. Direct radionuclide cystography imaging in colovesical fistula due to inguinal hernia operation complication.

    PubMed

    Tamam, Muge; Yavuz, Hatice Sümeyye; Hacimahmutoğlu, Serafettin; Mülazimoğlu, Mehmet; Kacar, Tulay; Ozpacaci, Tevfik

    2009-09-01

    Colovesical fistula is an abnormal connection between the enteric and urinary systems, usually sigmoid colon, caused by various conditions. One cause of colovesical fistula is iatrogenic injury, such as induced by inguinal hernia surgery. We present a case of colovesical fistula. A 57-year-old male was admitted to a local hospital with complaints of dysuria and pneumaturia. He had a past history of total extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair operation 7 years previously for bilateral inguinal hernia. The case was assessed with radiologic and scintigraphic techniques. Radiologic techniques (plain abdominal radiography, intravenous pyelogram, ultrasound examination, double-contrast barium enema, CT, MRI) were inadequate to determine the colovesical fistula. The colovesical fistula was visualized with direct radionuclide voiding cystography as an alternative scintigraphic method.

  2. Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  3. Dual-headed SPECT for awake animal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Joon; Weisenberger, A G; McKisson, J; Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Smith, M F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract- Motion-corrected awake animal imaging is needed for normal-state investigations of models of neurological disease and brain activity. The awake animal brain SPECT/CT system, AwakeSPECT at Johns Hopkins University has in the past used a single gamma camera for imaging. Enhancements have been made by adding a pinhole collimator to the second gamma camera at the opposite side which has been previously equipped parallel hole collimator. Geometry calibration was performed using a custom built quality control phantom containing three Co-57 point sources and applied to the tomographic reconstruction code. Hot-rod phantom scans with Tc-99m were performed to test sensitivity and resolution improvements. The reconstruction results show significant resolution and sensitivity improvements.

  4. Dual-headed SPECT for awake animal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    S. Lee, B. Kross, D. Weisenberger, J. McKisson, J.S. Goddard, J.S. Baba, M.S. Smith

    2012-02-01

    Motion-corrected awake animal imaging is needed for normal-state investigations of models of neurological disease and brain activity. The awake animal brain SPECT/CT system, AwakeSPECT at Johns Hopkins University has in the past used a single gamma camera for imaging. Enhancements have been made by adding a pinhole collimator to the second gamma camera at the opposite side which has been previously equipped parallel hole collimator. Geometry calibration was performed using a custom built quality control phantom containing three Co-57 point sources and applied to the tomographic reconstruction code. Hot-rod phantom scans with Tc-99m were performed to test sensitivity and resolution improvements. The reconstruction results show significant resolution and sensitivity improvements.

  5. Animal models and high field imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Öz, Gülin; Tkáč, Ivan; Uğurbil, Kamil

    2013-09-01

    A plethora of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques developed in the last two decades provide unique and noninvasive measurement capabilities for studies of basic brain function and brain diseases in humans. Animal model experiments have been an indispensible part of this development. MR imaging and spectroscopy measurements have been employed in animal models, either by themselves or in combination with complementary and often invasive techniques, to enlighten us about the information content of such MR methods and/or verify observations made in the human brain. They have also been employed, with or independently of human efforts, to examine mechanisms underlying pathological developments in the brain, exploiting the wealth of animal models available for such studies. In this endeavor, the desire to push for ever-higher spatial and/or spectral resolution, better signal-to-noise ratio, and unique image contrast has inevitably led to the introduction of increasingly higher magnetic fields. As a result, today, animal model studies are starting to be conducted at magnetic fields ranging from ~ 11 to 17 Tesla, significantly enhancing the armamentarium of tools available for the probing brain function and brain pathologies.

  6. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Mansoor, Awais; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Jain, Sanjay; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases. PMID:26133591

  7. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ziyue; Mansoor, Awais; Mollura, Daniel J.; Bagci, Ulas; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Jain, Sanjay; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases.

  8. A dual micro-CT system for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, C. T.; Johnston, S.; Johnson, B.; Lin, M.; Hedlund, L. W.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2008-03-01

    Micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality usually used to assess morphology in small animals. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that functional micro-CT imaging is also possible. This paper describes a dual micro-CT system with two fixed x-ray/detectors developed to address such challenging tasks as cardiac or perfusion studies in small animals. A two-tube/detector system ensures simultaneous acquisition of two projections, thus reducing scanning time and the number of contrast injections in perfusion studies by a factor of two. The system is integrated with software developed in-house for cardio-respiratory monitoring and gating. The sampling geometry was optimized for 88 microns in such a way that the geometric blur of the focal spot matches the Nyquist sample at the detector. A geometric calibration procedure allows one to combine projection data from the two chains into a single reconstructed volume. Image quality was measured in terms of spatial resolution, uniformity, noise, and linearity. The modulation transfer function (MTF) at 10% is 3.4 lp/mm for single detector reconstructions and 2.3 lp/mm for dual tube/detector reconstructions. We attribute this loss in spatial resolution to the compounding of slight errors in the separate single chain calibrations. The dual micro-CT system is currently used in studies for morphological and functional imaging of both rats and mice.

  9. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide and Hybrid Imaging in Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Israel, Ora; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2015-11-01

    Both the referring clinician and the nuclear medicine specialist must be aware of the main known or potential pitfalls that can occur in infection and inflammation imaging. They must decide in consensus which tracer and which imaging protocol should be used for a specific indication. This article provides an overview of all the pitfalls and limitations of nuclear medicine techniques to image infections and inflammation. Both general pitfalls and pitfalls in specific clinical entities are discussed.

  10. Whole-animal imaging with high spatio-temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhetri, Raghav; Amat, Fernando; Wan, Yinan; Höckendorf, Burkhard; Lemon, William C.; Keller, Philipp J.

    2016-03-01

    We developed isotropic multiview (IsoView) light-sheet microscopy in order to image fast cellular dynamics, such as cell movements in an entire developing embryo or neuronal activity throughput an entire brain or nervous system, with high resolution in all dimensions, high imaging speeds, good physical coverage and low photo-damage. To achieve high temporal resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time, IsoView microscopy rapidly images large specimens via simultaneous light-sheet illumination and fluorescence detection along four orthogonal directions. In a post-processing step, these four views are then combined by means of high-throughput multiview deconvolution to yield images with a system resolution of ≤ 450 nm in all three dimensions. Using IsoView microscopy, we performed whole-animal functional imaging of Drosophila embryos and larvae at a spatial resolution of 1.1-2.5 μm and at a temporal resolution of 2 Hz for up to 9 hours. We also performed whole-brain functional imaging in larval zebrafish and multicolor imaging of fast cellular dynamics across entire, gastrulating Drosophila embryos with isotropic, sub-cellular resolution. Compared with conventional (spatially anisotropic) light-sheet microscopy, IsoView microscopy improves spatial resolution at least sevenfold and decreases resolution anisotropy at least threefold. Compared with existing high-resolution light-sheet techniques, such as lattice lightsheet microscopy or diSPIM, IsoView microscopy effectively doubles the penetration depth and provides subsecond temporal resolution for specimens 400-fold larger than could previously be imaged.

  11. Potential clinical impact of radionuclide imaging technologies: highlights of the ITBS 2003 meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itti, Roland

    2004-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are major determinants of progress in Nuclear Medicine. Besides 18FDG, the most common PET tracer, several other molecules are under evaluation, such as 18F-fluoride for bone studies, numerous ligands for neurotransmission, 18F-DOPA for neuro-endocrine tumors or generator produced 68Ga-peptides for various cancers. Nuclear medicine gradually changes for "molecular imaging" and medical imaging, which was at the beginning mainly anatomic, has progressed in the direction of functional and metabolic imaging. The present challenge is to achieve some degree of "in vivo" biochemistry or even histology or genetics. The importance of anatomic/functional image fusion justifies the development of combined PET-CT instrumentation, whose objectives have to be discussed in terms of anatomical landmarks and/or additional clinical information. The question of "hard" or "soft" image co-registration remains open, involving not only CT, but also SPECT or MRI. Development of dedicated imaging devices, whether single photon or positron, is of major interest for breast imaging, allowing optimal imaging conditions, with results definitely superior to classical gamma-cameras or PET. The patient population concerned with scintimammography is still controversial, as well as the imaging modalities: FDG or sestaMIBI, planar or tomographic, scintillators or semi-conductors, and the research field remains open. This is also valid for external or per-operative probe systems for tumor or lymph nodes localization.

  12. Longitudinal Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Afonso C.; Liu, Junjie V.; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Leoni, Renata F.; Merkle, Hellmut; Mackel, Julie B.; Zhang, Xian Feng; Nascimento, George C.; Stefanovic, Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has had an essential role in furthering our understanding of brain physiology and function. fMRI techniques are nowadays widely applied in neuroscience research, as well as in translational and clinical studies. The use of animal models in fMRI studies has been fundamental in helping elucidate the mechanisms of cerebral blood flow regulation, and in the exploration of basic neuroscience questions, such as the mechanisms of perception, behavior, and cognition. Because animals are inherently noncompliant, most fMRI performed to date have required the use of anesthesia, which interferes with brain function and compromises interpretability and applicability of results to our understanding of human brain function. An alternative approach that eliminates the need for anesthesia involves training the animal to tolerate physical restraint during the data acquisition. In the present work we review these two different approaches to obtaining fMRI data from animal models, with a specific focus on the acquisition of longitudinal data from the same subjects. PMID:21279608

  13. Television image compression and small animal remote monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Jackson, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    It was shown that a subject can reliably discriminate a difference in video image quality (using a specific commercial product) for image compression levels ranging from 384 kbits per second to 1536 kbits per second. However, their discriminations are significantly influenced by whether or not the TV camera is stable or moving and whether or not the animals are quiescent or active, which is correlated with illumination level (daylight versus night illumination, respectively). The highest video rate used here was 1.54 megabits per second, which is about 18 percent of the so-called normal TV resolution of 8.4MHz. Since this video rate was judged to be acceptable by 27 of the 34 subjects (79 percent), for monitoring the general health and status of small animals within their illuminated (lights on) cages (regardless of whether the camera was stable or moved), it suggests that an immediate Space Station Freedom to ground bandwidth reduction of about 80 percent can be tolerated without a significant loss in general monitoring capability. Another general conclusion is that the present methodology appears to be effective in quantifying visual judgments of video image quality.

  14. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  15. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  16. Scatter and crosstalk corrections for {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I dual-radionuclide imaging using a CZT SPECT system with pinhole collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Peng; Hutton, Brian F.; Holstensson, Maria; Ljungberg, Michael; Hendrik Pretorius, P.; Prasad, Rameshwar; Liu, Chi; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi; Thorn, Stephanie L.; Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The energy spectrum for a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has a low energy tail due to incomplete charge collection and intercrystal scattering. Due to these solid-state detector effects, scatter would be overestimated if the conventional triple-energy window (TEW) method is used for scatter and crosstalk corrections in CZT-based imaging systems. The objective of this work is to develop a scatter and crosstalk correction method for {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I dual-radionuclide imaging for a CZT-based dedicated cardiac SPECT system with pinhole collimators (GE Discovery NM 530c/570c). Methods: A tailing model was developed to account for the low energy tail effects of the CZT detector. The parameters of the model were obtained using {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I point source measurements. A scatter model was defined to characterize the relationship between down-scatter and self-scatter projections. The parameters for this model were obtained from Monte Carlo simulation using SIMIND. The tailing and scatter models were further incorporated into a projection count model, and the primary and self-scatter projections of each radionuclide were determined with a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) iterative estimation approach. The extracted scatter and crosstalk projections were then incorporated into MLEM image reconstruction as an additive term in forward projection to obtain scatter- and crosstalk-corrected images. The proposed method was validated using Monte Carlo simulation, line source experiment, anthropomorphic torso phantom studies, and patient studies. The performance of the proposed method was also compared to that obtained with the conventional TEW method. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and line source experiment demonstrated that the TEW method overestimated scatter while their proposed method provided more accurate scatter estimation by considering the low energy tail effect. In the phantom study, improved defect contrasts were

  17. Small Animal Imaging Center Design: The Facility at the UCLA Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stout, David B.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Lawson, Timothy P.; Silverman, Robert W.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Phelps, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The growing number of mouse and rat experiments, coupled with advances in small-animal imaging systems such as microPET®, optical, microCAT™, microMR, ultrasound and microSPECT, has necessitated a common technical center for imaging small animals. Procedures At the UCLA Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, we have designed and built a facility to support the research interests of a wide range of investigators from multiple disciplines. Requirements to satisfy both research and regulatory oversight have been critically examined. Support is provided for investigator training, study scheduling, data acquisition, archiving, image display, and analysis. Results The center has been in operation for more than 18 months, supporting more than 13,000 individual imaging procedures. Conclusions We have created a facility that maximizes our resource utilization while providing optimal investigator support, as well as the means to continually improve the quality and diversity of the science by integrating physical and biological sciences. PMID:16261425

  18. Radionuclide imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation in heart failure: unlocking untapped potential.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shuchita; Amanullah, Aman

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with sympathetic overactivity, which contributes to disease progression and arrhythmia development. Cardiac sympathetic innervation imaging can be performed using radiotracers that are taken up in the presynaptic nerve terminal of sympathetic nerves. The commonly used radiotracers are (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-mIBG) for planar and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging, and (11)C-hydroxyephedrine for positron emission tomography imaging. Sympathetic innervation imaging has been used in assessing prognosis, response to treatment, risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death and prediction of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with HF. Other potential applications of these techniques are in patients with chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy, predicting myocardial recovery in patients with left ventricular assist devices, and assessing reinnervation following cardiac transplantation. There is a lack of standardization with respect to technique of (123)I-mIBG imaging that needs to be overcome for the imaging modality to gain popularity in clinical practice.

  19. The mangrove pump: The tidal flushing of animal burrows in a tropical mangrove forest determined from radionuclide budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas C.; Clark, Jordan F.; Hancock, Gary J.

    2013-02-01

    Intertidal mangrove forests contribute significantly to biogeochemical solute budgets of tropical and subtropical coastlines. A significant part of the biogeochemical cycling in mangrove ecosystems occurs within the subsurface of the forest floor. This subsurface source and the 'offshore' sink are linked by the tidally-driven movement of water through the mangrove forest floor. The tidal circulation through animal macro-burrows in the Coral Creek mangrove forest (area 3 km2) on Hinchinbrook Island (Australia) is documented by constructing mass balances of isotopes of radium and radon measured in the creek in 1997 and 2005 respectively. Isotope activities in burrows were found to be significantly greater than in the adjacent mangrove creek (e.g. for 222Rn, 680-1750 and 30-170 Bq m-3 in burrows and creek respectively). From isotope mass balances, a daily water circulation flux through burrows of 30.4 ± 4.7 L m-2 of forest floor is calculated. This study quantifies the underlying physical process, i.e. the tidal flushing of burrows, that supports significant and continuous exports of soluble organic and inorganic matter from mangrove forest floors to the coastal ocean. The potential significance of the circulation flux estimate is illustrated by up-scaling of the forest-scale estimates to the mangrove forests in the entire central Great Barrier Reef. This extrapolation indicates that the annual water flux circulated by this tidally-driven 'mangrove pump' is equivalent to as much as 20% (16-22%) of the total annual river discharge along the ca. 400 km long coastline of this region.

  20. Quantitative tomographic imaging of intermolecular FRET in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vivek; Chen, Jin; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a nonradiative transfer of energy between two fluorescent molecules (a donor and an acceptor) in nanometer range proximity. FRET imaging methods have been applied to proteomic studies and drug discovery applications based on intermolecular FRET efficiency measurements and stoichiometric measurements of FRET interaction as quantitative parameters of interest. Importantly, FRET provides information about biomolecular interactions at a molecular level, well beyond the diffraction limits of standard microscopy techniques. The application of FRET to small animal imaging will allow biomedical researchers to investigate physiological processes occurring at nanometer range in vivo as well as in situ. In this work a new method for the quantitative reconstruction of FRET measurements in small animals, incorporating a full-field tomographic acquisition system with a Monte Carlo based hierarchical reconstruction scheme, is described and validated in murine models. Our main objective is to estimate the relative concentration of two forms of donor species, i.e., a donor molecule involved in FRETing to an acceptor close by and a nonFRETing donor molecule. PMID:23243567

  1. Bioluminescence imaging of fungal biofilm development in live animals.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, Greetje; Kucharíková, Soňa; Van Dijck, Patrick; Himmelreich, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Fungal biofilms formed on various types of medical implants represent a major problem for hospitalized patients. These biofilms and related infections are usually difficult to treat because of their resistance to the classical antifungal drugs. Animal models are indispensable for investigating host-pathogen interactions and for identifying new antifungal targets related to biofilm development. A limited number of animal models is available that can be used for testing novel antifungal drugs in vivo against C. albicans, one of the most common pathogens causing fungal biofilms. Fungal load in biofilms in these models is traditionally analyzed postmortem, requiring host sacrifice and enumeration of microorganisms from individual biofilms in order to evaluate the amount of colony forming units and the efficacy of antifungal treatment. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) made compatible with small animal models for in vivo biofilm formation is a valuable noninvasive tool to follow-up biofilm development and its treatment longitudinally, reducing the number of animals needed for such studies. Due to the nondestructive and noninvasive nature of BLI, the imaging procedure can be repeated in the same animal, allowing follow-up of the biofilm growth in vivo without removing the implanted device or detaching the biofilm from its substrate. The method described here introduces BLI of C. albicans biofilm formation in vivo on subcutaneously implanted catheters in mice. One of the main challenges to overcome for BLI of fungi is the hampered intracellular substrate delivery through the fungal cell wall, which is managed by using extracellularly located Gaussia luciferase. Although detecting a quantifiable in vivo BLI signal from biofilms formed on the inside of implanted catheters is challenging, BLI proved to be a practical tool in the study of fungal biofilms. This method describing the use of BLI for in vivo follow-up of device-related fungal biofilm formation has the potential for

  2. Radiological and Radionuclide Imaging of Degenerative Disease of the Facet Joints.

    PubMed

    Shur, Natalie; Corrigan, Alexis; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Desai, Amidevi; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    The facet joint has been increasingly implicated as a potential source of lower back pain. Diagnosis can be challenging as there is not a direct correlation between facet joint disease and clinical or radiological features. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and current imaging modality options in the context of degenerative facet joint disease. We describe each modality in turn with a pictorial review using current evidence. Newer hybrid imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provide additional information relative to the historic gold standard magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnostic benefits of SPECT/CT include precise localization and characterization of spinal lesions and improved diagnosis for lower back pain. It may have a role in selecting patients for local therapeutic injections, as well as guiding their location with increased precision.

  3. Radiological and Radionuclide Imaging of Degenerative Disease of the Facet Joints

    PubMed Central

    Shur, Natalie; Corrigan, Alexis; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Desai, Amidevi; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    The facet joint has been increasingly implicated as a potential source of lower back pain. Diagnosis can be challenging as there is not a direct correlation between facet joint disease and clinical or radiological features. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and current imaging modality options in the context of degenerative facet joint disease. We describe each modality in turn with a pictorial review using current evidence. Newer hybrid imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provide additional information relative to the historic gold standard magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnostic benefits of SPECT/CT include precise localization and characterization of spinal lesions and improved diagnosis for lower back pain. It may have a role in selecting patients for local therapeutic injections, as well as guiding their location with increased precision. PMID:26170560

  4. TU-F-12A-06: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING) - A Novel Catheter-Based Radionuclide Imaging System to Characterize Atherosclerotic Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, R; Kosuge, H; Carpenter, C; Pratx, G; Sun, C; McConnell, M; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Atherosclerosis underlies coronary artery diseases, the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. In this study, we developed a novel catheter-based radionuclide imaging (CRI) system to image 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), a radionuclide, a marker of vascular inflammation, in murine carotid arteries and characterized the system for spatial resolution from multiple scintillating materials. Methods: The catheter system includes 35 mm and 8 mm fixed focal length lenses, which are subsequently connected to a CMOS camera and fiber holder. The distal ferrule of an image bundle is terminated with a wide-angle lens. The novelty of this system is a scintillating balloon with a crystal tip in the front of the wide angle lens to image light from the decay of 18F-FDG emission signal. The scintillating balloon is fabricated from 1mL of silicone RTV catalyst mixed with 1 mL base and 50 mg/mL calcium fluoride doped with Europium (CaF2:Eu). To identify the optimal scintillating materials with respect to resolution, we calculated modulation transfer function (MTF) of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet doped with Cerium (YAG:Ce), anthracene, and CaF2:Eu phosphors using a thin line optical phantom (Fig. 1a-1b). Macrophage-rich FVB murine atherosclerotic carotid plaque model (n = 4) was used in ex vivo experiments. Confirmatory imaging was also performed by an external optical imaging system (IVIS-200). Results: Analysis of the different phosphors (Fig 1b) showed that CaF2:Eu enabled the best resolution of 1.2μm. The CRI system visualized 18F-FDG in atherosclerotic plaques (Fig. 1d). The ligated left carotid (LR) artery exhibited 4× higher 18F-FDG signal intensity compared to the non-ligated right carotid (negative control) artery (1.65×10{sup 2} ±4.07×10{sup 1} vs. 4.44×10{sup 1}±2.17×10{sup 0}, A.U., p = 0.005) and confirmed with IVIS-200 (Fig. 1d). Conclusion: This CRI system enables high-resolution and sensitive detection of 18F-FDG uptake by murine

  5. Angle correction for small animal tumor imaging with spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanyu; Tabassum, Syeda; Piracha, Shaheer; Nandhu, Mohan Sobhana; Viapiano, Mariano; Roblyer, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) is a widefield imaging technique that allows for the quantitative extraction of tissue optical properties. SFDI is currently being explored for small animal tumor imaging, but severe imaging artifacts occur for highly curved surfaces (e.g. the tumor edge). We propose a modified Lambertian angle correction, adapted from the Minnaert correction method for satellite imagery, to account for tissue surface angles up to 75°. The method was tested in a hemisphere phantom study as well as a small animal tumor model. The proposed method reduced µa and µs` extraction errors by an average of 64% and 16% respectively compared to performing no angle correction, and provided more physiologically agreeable optical property and chromophore values on tumors. PMID:27375952

  6. Gate simulation of Compton Ar-Xe gamma-camera for radionuclide imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubov, L. Yu; Belyaev, V. N.; Berdnikova, A. K.; Bolozdynia, A. I.; Akmalova, Yu A.; Shtotsky, Yu V.

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulations of cylindrical Compton Ar-Xe gamma camera are described in the current report. Detection efficiency of cylindrical Ar-Xe Compton camera with internal diameter of 40 cm is estimated as1-3%that is 10-100 times higher than collimated Anger’s camera. It is shown that cylindrical Compton camera can image Tc-99m radiotracer distribution with uniform spatial resolution of 20 mm through the whole field of view.

  7. Sensitivity of radionuclide brain imaging and computerized transaxial tomography in detecting subdural hematoma

    SciTech Connect

    Razzak, M.A.; Mudarris, F.; Christie, J.H.

    1980-04-01

    In a series of 23 patients with surgically proven subdural hematoma of durations ranging between two days to seven months, the detection rate of Tc-99m-pertechnetate brain imaging was higher than computerized transaxial tomography (CT). With dynamic perfusion scanning, the detection rate was 71.5%. In contrast, CT demonstrated the hematoma in 52% of the cases. Lastly, the result of CT scanning was dependent on the size of the subdural hematoma as evaluated at the time of operation.

  8. Radionuclide 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Zhao, Lingzhou; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Shen, Mingwu; Zhao, Jinhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and labeling of radioactive iodine-131 (131I). The generated multifunctional 131I-G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers were characterized via different methods. We show that prior to 131I labeling, the G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers conjugated with approximately 9.4 HPAO moieties per dendrimer are noncytotoxic at a concentration up to 20 μM and are able to target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors (FAR), thanks to the modified FA ligands. In the presence of a phenol group, radioactive 131I is able to be efficiently labeled onto the dendrimer platform with good stability and high radiochemical purity, and render the platform with an ability for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an FAR-overexpressing xenografted tumor model in vivo. The designed strategy to use the facile dendrimer nanotechnology may be extended to develop various radioactive theranostic nanoplatforms for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of different types of cancer.We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and

  9. The role of radionuclide imaging in epilepsy, part 2: epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Chugani, Harry T

    2013-11-01

    PET and SPECT can play an important role in the evaluation of various epileptic syndromes, particularly those with unknown causes, by revealing various underlying abnormalities that may not be fully appreciated from MR imaging studies. In some cases, PET and SPECT provide crucial data that guide surgical resections of the epileptogenic zone for medically refractory epilepsy. In other cases, these neuroimaging modalities preclude a surgical option and can guide genetic studies. Longitudinal PET and SPECT studies may increase our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of epilepsy syndromes and provide a clearer picture of the natural history of neurologic progression.

  10. The Role of Radionuclide Imaging in Epilepsy, Part 2: Epilepsy Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Chugani, Harry T

    2017-03-01

    PET and SPECT can play an important role in the evaluation of various epileptic syndromes, particularly those with unknown causes, by revealing various underlying abnormalities that may not be fully appreciated from MR imaging studies. In some cases, PET and SPECT provide crucial data that guide surgical resections of the epileptogenic zone for medically refractory epilepsy. In other cases, these neuroimaging modalities preclude a surgical option and can guide genetic studies. Longitudinal PET and SPECT studies may increase our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of epilepsy syndromes and provide a clearer picture of the natural history of neurologic progression.

  11. Image animation for theme enhancement and change detection. [LANDSAT 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Animated displays are useful in enhancing subtle temporally related changes in scenes viewed by satellites capable of providing repetitive coverage. The detectability of fixed features is also improved through the help of the powerful visual integration process. To expedite the process of assembling and displaying well-registered, time-lapse sequences and to provide means for making quantitative measurements of radiances, displacements, and areas, an electronic satellite image analysis console was constructed. During the LANDSAT-1 program, this equipment was applied to the needs of a number of earth resource investigators with interests principally related to dynamic hydrology. The measurement of the areal extent of snow cover within defined drainage basins is discussed as a representative applications example.

  12. Optimising rigid motion compensation for small animal brain PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler-Bickell, Matthew G.; Zhou, Lin; Kyme, Andre Z.; De Laat, Bart; Fulton, Roger R.; Nuyts, Johan

    2016-10-01

    Motion compensation (MC) in PET brain imaging of awake small animals is attracting increased attention in preclinical studies since it avoids the confounding effects of anaesthesia and enables behavioural tests during the scan. A popular MC technique is to use multiple external cameras to track the motion of the animal’s head, which is assumed to be represented by the motion of a marker attached to its forehead. In this study we have explored several methods to improve the experimental setup and the reconstruction procedures of this method: optimising the camera-marker separation; improving the temporal synchronisation between the motion tracker measurements and the list-mode stream; post-acquisition smoothing and interpolation of the motion data; and list-mode reconstruction with appropriately selected subsets. These techniques have been tested and verified on measurements of a moving resolution phantom and brain scans of an awake rat. The proposed techniques improved the reconstructed spatial resolution of the phantom by 27% and of the rat brain by 14%. We suggest a set of optimal parameter values to use for awake animal PET studies and discuss the relative significance of each parameter choice.

  13. Simultaneous acquisition of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data and positron emission tomography (PET) images with a prototype MR-compatible, small animal PET imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Velan, S. Sendhil; Lemieux, Susan; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2007-06-01

    Multi-modality imaging (such as PET-CT) is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET, fused with anatomical images created by MRI, allow the correlation of form with function. Perhaps more exciting than the combination of anatomical MRI with PET, is the melding of PET with MR spectroscopy (MRS). Thus, two aspects of physiology could be combined in novel ways to produce new insights into the physiology of normal and pathological processes. Our team is developing a system to acquire MRI images and MRS spectra, and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype MR-compatible PET system consists of two opposed detector heads (appropriate in size for small animal imaging), operating in coincidence mode with an active field-of-view of ˜14 cm in diameter. Each detector consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a 2-m long fiber optic light guide to a single position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. The use of light guides allows these magnetic field-sensitive elements of the PET imager to be positioned outside the strong magnetic field of our 3T MRI scanner. The PET scanner imager was integrated with a 12-cm diameter, 12-leg custom, birdcage coil. Simultaneous MRS spectra and PET images were successfully acquired from a multi-modality phantom consisting of a sphere filled with 17 brain relevant substances and a positron-emitting radionuclide. There were no significant changes in MRI or PET scanner performance when both were present in the MRI magnet bore. This successful initial test demonstrates the potential for using such a multi-modality to obtain complementary MRS and PET data.

  14. The role of radionuclide imaging in the surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hindié, Elif; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Tabarin, Antoine; Rubello, Domenico; Morelec, Isabelle; Wagner, Tristan; Henry, Jean-François; Taïeb, David

    2015-05-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a frequent and potentially debilitating endocrine disorder for which surgery is the only curative treatment. The modalities of parathyroid surgery have changed over the last 2 decades, as conventional bilateral neck exploration is no longer the only surgical approach. Parathyroid scintigraphy plays a major role in defining the surgical strategy, given its ability to orient a targeted (focused) parathyroidectomy and to recognize ectopic locations or multiglandular disease. This review, which represents a collaborative effort between nuclear physicians, endocrinologists, and endocrine surgeons, emphasizes the importance of performing imaging before any surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism, even in the case of conventional bilateral neck exploration. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of targeted parathyroidectomy and the performance of various scintigraphic protocols to guide limited surgery. We also discuss the optimal strategy to localize the offending gland before reoperation for persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Finally, we describe the potential applications of novel PET tracers, with special emphasis on (18)F-fluorocholine.

  15. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging.

    PubMed

    McGhee, John

    2010-02-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist's approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation.

  16. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist’s approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation. PMID:20002229

  17. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  18. Engineering an antibody with picomolar affinity to DOTA chelates of multiple radionuclides for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Orcutt, Kelly Davis; Slusarczyk, Adrian L; Cieslewicz, Maryelise; Ruiz-Yi, Benjamin; Bhushan, Kumar R; Frangioni, John V; Wittrup, K Dane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT), a bifunctional antibody is administered and allowed to pre-localize to tumor cells. Subsequently, a chelated radionuclide is administered and captured by cell-bound antibody while unbound hapten clears rapidly from the body. We aim to engineer high-affinity binders to DOTA chelates for use in PRIT applications. Methods We mathematically modeled antibody and hapten pharmacokinetics to analyze hapten tumor retention as a function of hapten binding affinity. Motivated by model predictions, we used directed evolution and yeast surface display to affinity mature the 2D12.5 antibody to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), reformatted as a single chain variable fragment (scFv). Results Modeling predicts that for high antigen density and saturating bsAb dose, a hapten binding affinity of 100 picomolar (pM) is needed for near-maximal hapten retention. We affinity matured 2D12.5 with an initial binding constant of about 10 nanomolar (nM) to DOTA-yttrium chelates. Affinity maturation resulted in a 1000-fold affinity improvement to biotinylated DOTA-yttrium, yielding an 8.2 ± 1.9 picomolar binder. The high-affinity scFv binds DOTA complexes of lutetium and gadolinium with similar picomolar affinity and indium chelates with low nanomolar affinity. When engineered into a bispecific antibody construct targeting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), pretargeted high-affinity scFv results in significantly higher tumor retention of a 111In-DOTA hapten compared to pretargeted wild-type scFv in a xenograft mouse model. Conclusions We have engineered a versatile, high-affinity DOTA-chelate-binding scFv. We anticipate it will prove useful in developing pretargeted imaging and therapy protocols to exploit the potential of a variety of radiometals. PMID:21315278

  19. Radionuclide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

  20. A fast full-body fluorescence/bioluminescence imaging system for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Hyun Keol; Jia, Jingfei; Fong, Christopher; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2013-03-01

    Whole body in vivo optical imaging of small animals has widened its applications and increased the capabilities for preclinical researches. However, most commercial and prototype optical imaging systems are camera-based systems using epi- or trans- illumination mode, with limited views of small animals. And for more accurate tomographic image reconstruction, additional data and information of a target animal is necessary. To overcome these issues, researchers have suggested several approaches such as maximizing the detection area or using the information of other highresolution modalities such as CT, MRI or Ultrasound, or using multi-spectral signals. As one of ways to maximizing the detection area of a target animal, we present a new fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging system for small animals, which can image entire surface of a target animal simultaneously. This system uses double mirror reflection scheme and it consists of input unit, imaging unit with two conical mirrors, the source illumination part and the surface scanner, and the detection unit with an intensified CCD camera system. Two conical mirrors are configured that a larger size mirror captures a target animal surface, and a smaller size mirror projects this captured image onto a CCD camera with one acquisition. With this scheme, we could capture entire surface of a target animal simultaneously and improve back reflection issue between a mirror and an animal surface of a single conical mirror scheme. Additionally, we could increase accessibility to an animal for multi-modality integration by providing unobstructed space around a target animal.

  1. Advances in comparative physiology from high-speed imaging of animal and fluid motion.

    PubMed

    Lauder, George V; Madden, Peter G A

    2008-01-01

    Since the time of Muybridge and Marey in the last half of the nineteenth century, studies of animal movement have relied on some form of high-speed or stop-action imaging to permit analysis of appendage and body motion. In the past ten years, the advent of megapixel-resolution high-speed digital imaging with maximal framing rates of 250 to 100,000 images per second has allowed new views of musculoskeletal function in comparative physiology that now extend to imaging flow around moving animals and the calculation of fluid forces produced by animals moving in fluids. In particular, the technique of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) has revolutionized our ability to understand how moving animals generate fluid forces and propel themselves through air and water. DPIV algorithms generate a matrix of velocity vectors through the use of image cross-correlation, which can then be used to calculate the force exerted on the fluid as well as locomotor work and power. DPIV algorithms can also be applied to images of moving animals to calculate the velocity of different regions of the moving animal, providing a much more detailed picture of animal motion than can traditional digitizing methods. Although three-dimensional measurement of animal motion is now routine, in the near future model-based kinematic reconstructions and volumetric analyses of animal-generated fluid flow patterns will provide the next step in imaging animal biomechanics and physiology.

  2. Synthesis, radiofluorination, and in vivo evaluation of novel fluorinated and iodinated radiotracers for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Billaud, Emilie M F; Rbah-Vidal, Latifa; Vidal, Aurélien; Besse, Sophie; Tarrit, Sébastien; Askienazy, Serge; Maisonial, Aurélie; Moins, Nicole; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Auzeloux, Philippe

    2013-11-14

    Our project deals with a multimodal approach using a single fluorinated and iodinated melanin-targeting structure and offering both imaging (positron emission tomography (PET)/fluorine-18) and treatment (targeted radionuclide therapy/iodine-131) of melanoma. Six 6-iodoquinoxaline-2-carboxamide derivatives with various side chains bearing fluorine were synthesized and radiofluorinated, and their in vivo biodistribution was studied by PET imaging in B16Bl6 primary melanoma-bearing mice. Among this series, [(18)F]8 emerged as the most promising compound. [(18)F]8 was obtained by a fully automated radiosynthesis process within 57 min with an overall radiochemical yield of 21%, decay-corrected. PET imaging of [(18)F]8 demonstrated very encouraging results as early as 1 h postinjection with high tumor uptake (14.33% ± 2.11% ID/g), high contrast (11.04 ± 2.87 tumor-to-muscle ratio), and favorable clearance properties. These results, associated with the previously reported pharmacokinetic properties and dosimetry of 8, make it a potential agent for both PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

  3. Images of Animals: Interpreting Three-Dimensional, Life-Sized 'Representations' of Animals--Zoo, Museum and Robotic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    A visit to the natural history museum is part of many pupils' educational program. One way of investigating what children learn about animals is to examine the mental models they reveal through their talk when they come face to face with animal representations. In this study, representations were provided by: (1) robotic models in a museum; (2)…

  4. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir; Sanjiv , Pritha; Ray

    2009-04-28

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  5. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  6. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    SciTech Connect

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2015-07-14

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  7. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Kang-Hsin Wang, Ken; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal (‘tubular’ geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal (‘pancake’ geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry

  8. Evaluation of a Cone Beam Computed Tomography Geometry for Image Guided Small Animal Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-01-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal (“tubular” geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal (“pancake” geometry). The small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Notwithstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e., pancake and tubular geometry

  9. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-07

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal ('tubular' geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal ('pancake' geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry, respectively.

  10. Multi-Modal Optical Imaging of the Cerebellum in Animals.

    PubMed

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Sacconi, Leonardo; Silvestri, Ludovico; Knott, Graham; Pavone, Francesco S

    2015-10-17

    Thanks to their flexibility, optical techniques could be the key to explore anatomy, plasticity, and functionality of the cerebellum. As an example, an in vivo analysis of the dynamic remodeling of cerebellar axons by nonlinear microscopy can provide fundamental insights of the mechanism that promotes neuronal regeneration. Several studies showed that damaged climbing fibers are capable of regrowing also in adult animals. The investigation of the time-lapse dynamics of degeneration and regeneration of these axons within their complex environment can be performed by time-lapse two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging in vivo. Here, we show that single axonal branches can be dissected by laser axotomy, thus avoiding collateral damage to the adjacent dendrite and the formation of a persistent glial scar. Despite the very small denervated area, the injured axons consistently reshaped the connectivity with surrounding neurons and sprouted new branches through the intact surroundings. Correlative light and electron microscopy revealed that the sprouted branch contains large numbers of vesicles, with varicosities in the close vicinity of Purkinje dendrites. By using an RNA interference approach, we found that downregulating GAP-43 causes a significant increase in the turnover of presynaptic boutons and hampers the generation of reactive sprouts. Further, we report how nonlinear microscopy in combination with novel voltage sensitive dyes or transgenic mice allow optical registrations of action potential across a population of neurons opening promising prospective in understanding brain functionality. Finally, we describe novel implementations of light-sheet microscopy to resolve neuronal anatomy in whole cerebellum with cellular resolution. The understanding gained from these complementary optical methods may provide a deeper comprehension of the cerebellum.

  11. Detection of pork and poultry meat and bone meals in animal feed using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal feed with meat and bone meal (MBM) has been the source of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and other livestock animals. Many countries have banned the use MBM as an animal feed ingredient. Spectral imaging techniques have shown potential for rapid assessment and authentication...

  12. Development of an optical imaging platform for functional imaging of small animals using wide-field excitation

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vivek; Chen, Jin; Intes, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The design and characterization of a time-resolved functional imager using a wide-field excitation scheme for small animal imaging is described. The optimal operation parameters are established based on phantom studies. The performance of the platform for functional imaging and the simultaneous 3D reconstruction of absorption and scattering coefficients is investigated in vitro. PMID:21258454

  13. Personalized image-based radiation dosimetry for routine clinical use in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: pretherapy experience.

    PubMed

    Celler, Anna; Grimes, Joshua; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Birkenfeld, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific dose calculations are not routinely performed for targeted radionuclide therapy procedures, partly because they are time consuming and challenging to perform. However, it is becoming widely recognized that a personalized dosimetry approach can help plan treatment and improve understanding of the dose-response relationship. In this chapter, we review the procedures and essential elements of an accurate internal dose calculation and propose a simplified approach that is aimed to be practical for use in a busy nuclear medicine department.

  14. Radionuclide (131)I labeled reduced graphene oxide for nuclear imaging guided combined radio- and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Yi, Xuan; Huang, Min; Ning, Ping; Liu, Teng; Ge, Cuicui; Chai, Zhifang; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Nano-graphene and its derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine, including their applications in cancer theranostics. In this work, we develop 131I labeled, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated reduced nano-graphene oxide (RGO), obtaining 131I-RGO-PEG for nuclear imaging guided combined radiotherapy and photothermal therapy of cancer. Compared with free 131I, 131IRGO- PEG exhibits enhanced cellular uptake and thus improved radio-therapeutic efficacy against cancer cells. As revealed by gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of 131I-RGO-PEG is observed after its intravenous injection. While RGO exhibits strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and could induce effective photothermal heating of tumor under NIR light irradiation, 131I is able to emit high-energy X-ray to induce cancer killing as the result of radio ionization effect. By utilizing the combined photothermal therapy and radiotherapy, both of which are delivered by a single agent 131IRGO- PEG, effective elimination of tumors is achieved in our animal tumor model experiments. Toxicology studies further indicate that 131I-RGO-PEG induces no appreciable toxicity to mice at the treatment dose. Our work demonstrates the great promise of combing nuclear medicine and photothermal therapy as a novel therapeutic strategy to realize synergistic efficacy in cancer treatment.

  15. Radionuclide injury to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

  16. Image quality assessment for CT used on small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Isabela Paredes; Agulles-Pedrós, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Image acquisition on a CT scanner is nowadays necessary in almost any kind of medical study. Its purpose, to produce anatomical images with the best achievable quality, implies the highest diagnostic radiation exposure to patients. Image quality can be measured quantitatively based on parameters such as noise, uniformity and resolution. This measure allows the determination of optimal parameters of operation for the scanner in order to get the best diagnostic image. A human Phillips CT scanner is the first one minded for veterinary-use exclusively in Colombia. The aim of this study was to measure the CT image quality parameters using an acrylic phantom and then, using the computational tool MatLab, determine these parameters as a function of current value and window of visualization, in order to reduce dose delivery by keeping the appropriate image quality.

  17. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  18. Functional imaging of tumor vascular network in small animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Madar-Balakirski, Noa; Kuznetsov, Yuri; Meglinski, Igor; Harmelin, Alon

    2011-07-01

    In current report we present synchronized in vivo imaging of tumor vascular network and tumor microenvironment obtained by combined use of Dynamic Light Scattering Imaging, Spectrally Enhanced Microscopy, and Fluorescence Intravital Microscopy. Dynamic Light Scattering Imaging is used for functional imaging of the vascular network and blood microcirculation. Spectrally Enhanced Microscopy provides information regarding blood vessel topography. Fluorescence Intravital Microscopy is used for imaging of tumor microvasculature and tumor microenvironment. These well known modalities have been comprehensively validated in the past and are widely used in various bio-medical applications. As shown here, their combined application has great potential for studies of vascular biology. This multi-modal non-invasive diagnostic technique expands our current capacity to investigate blood microcirculation and tumor angiogenesis in vivo, thereby contributing to the development of cancer research and treatment.

  19. Oral and dental imaging equipment and techniques for small animals.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Curt R; Brigden, Glenn M

    2013-05-01

    In the diagnosis and treatment of oral and dental diseases in dogs and cats, digital intraoral radiography offers many advantages over the use of standard dental radiographic film, including rapid image generation, easier exposure correction, enhancement, and paperless storage. Digital image receptors can be divided into 2 main types, direct digital systems using charged coupled devices and complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensors, and indirect digital systems using phosphor plates with a computerized scanner. Each system is paired with a computer software system to allow handling, visualization, enhancement, sharing, and archiving of the images.

  20. Unsupervised analysis of small animal dynamic Cerenkov luminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Boschi, Federico

    2011-12-01

    Clustering analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to dynamic Cerenkov luminescence images (dCLI). In order to investigate the performances of the proposed approaches, two distinct dynamic data sets obtained by injecting mice with 32P-ATP and 18F-FDG were acquired using the IVIS 200 optical imager. The k-means clustering algorithm has been applied to dCLI and was implemented using interactive data language 8.1. We show that cluster analysis allows us to obtain good agreement between the clustered and the corresponding emission regions like the bladder, the liver, and the tumor. We also show a good correspondence between the time activity curves of the different regions obtained by using CA and manual region of interest analysis on dCLIT and PCA images. We conclude that CA provides an automatic unsupervised method for the analysis of preclinical dynamic Cerenkov luminescence image data.

  1. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of osteosarcoma on animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Menglei; Ye, Fei; Hu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the commonest primary malignant tumor of bone, and the second highest cause of cancer-related death in the paediatric age group. Although there are several methods for osteosarcoma detection, e.g. X-ray, CT, MRI and bone scan, they are not satisfied methods because they can hardly detect osteosarcoma in early stage. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging hybrid imaging modality that is noninvasive, nonionizing, with high sensitivity, satisfactory imaging depth and good temporal and spatial resolution. In order to explore this new method to detect osteosarcoma, we established SD rat models with osteosarcoma and utilized PAI to reconstruct the osteosarcoma image in vivo. This is the first time detecting osteosarcoma in vivo using PAI, and the results suggested that PAI has potential clinical application for detecting osteosarcoma in the early stage.

  2. Photoacoustic molecular imaging of small animals in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xueyi; Li, Meng-Lin; Oh, Jung-Taek; Ku, Geng; Wang, Wei; Li, Chun; Similache, Sergiu; Lungu, Gina F.; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-02-01

    Molecular imaging is a newly emerging field in which the modern tools of molecular and cell biology have been married to state-of-the-art technologies for noninvasive imaging. The study of molecular imaging will lead to better methods for understanding biological processes as well as diagnosing and managing disease. Here we present noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography (PAT)-based molecular imaging of αvβ3 integrin in a nude mouse U87 brain tumor. PAT combines high optical absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution by employing short laser pulses to generate acoustic waves in biological tissues through thermoelastic expansion. Spectroscopic PAT-based molecular imaging offers the separation of the contributions from different absorbers based on the differences in optical absorption spectra among those absorbers. In our case, in the near infrared (NIR) range, oxy-heamoglobin (O2Hb), deoxy-heamoglobin (HHb) and the injected αvβ3-targeted peptide-ICG conjugated NIR fluorescent contrast agent are the three main absorbers. Therefore, with the excitation by multiple wavelength laser pulses, spectroscopic PAT-based molecular imaging not only provides the level of the contrast agent accumulation in the U87 glioblastoma tumor, which is related to the metabolism and angiogenesis of the tumor, but also offers the information on tumor angiogenesis and tumor hypoxia.

  3. Evaluation of energy spectral information in nuclear imaging and investigation of protein binding of cationic radionuclides by lactoferrin. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, P. B.

    1980-06-10

    Construction of an Anger camera-computer system which allows collection of both the position and energy signals from events detected by the scintillation camera has been completed. The system allows correction of energy response non-uniformity of the detector and facilitates research related to effects of energy discrimination in radionuclide scintigraphy. The system consists of electronic hardware to transmit and digitize the energy signal, software to record and process that signal in conjunction with spatial positioning signals, and additional hardware for recording the processed images so that they can be evaluated by observers. Preliminary results indicate that the system is useful in evaluating clinical images. Assymetric (eccentric) energy windows do improve image quality and are of value in improving detection of lesions on liver scintigraphs. The mechanisms by which Ga-67 is taken up in infection and tumor has been elucidated, and the uptake of radiogallium in microorganisms as a function of its interaction with siderophores was also studied. The primary function of these low molecular weight compounds is to trap ferric ion. However, gallium may be substituted for ferric ion and becomes trapped within the microorganism. The uptake of radiogallium by neutrophils and the role that lactoferrin plays in both intracellular localization of radiogallium and subsequent deposition of the radionuclide at sites of infection were also studied. Investigation of ferric ion analogs reveals definate differences in the affinity of these metals for binding molecules which helps explain their biologic activity. While ferric ion has the strongest affinity for such molecules, gallium has very high affinity for siderophores, moderate affinity for lactoferrin, and lower affinity for transferrin. The relative affinity of indium for these molecules is in approximately the reverse order.

  4. Comparison of exercise radionuclide angiography with thallium SPECT imaging for detection of significant narrowing of the left circumflex coronary artery

    SciTech Connect

    Dilsizian, V.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Freedman, N.M.; Bacharach, S.L.; Bonow, R.O. )

    1991-08-01

    Although quantitation of exercise thallium tomograms has enhanced the noninvasive diagnosis and localization of coronary artery disease, the detection of stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery remains suboptimal. Because posterolateral regional wall motion during exercise is well assessed by radionuclide angiography, this study determined whether regional dysfunction of the posterolateral wall during exercise radionuclide angiography is more sensitive in identifying left circumflex disease than thallium perfusion abnormalities assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). One hundred ten consecutive patients with CAD were studied, of whom 70 had a significant stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery or a major obtuse marginal branch. Both regional function and segmental thallium activity of the posterolateral wall were assessed using visual and quantitative analysis. Left ventricular regional function was assessed objectively by dividing the left ventricular region of interest into 20 sectors; the 8 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral free wall were used to assess function in the left circumflex artery distribution. Similarly, using circumferential profile analysis of short-axis thallium tomograms, left ventricular myocardial activity was subdivided into 64 sectors; the 16 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral region were used to assess thallium perfusion abnormalities in the left circumflex artery territory. Qualitative posterolateral wall motion analysis detected 76% of patients with left circumflex coronary artery stenosis, with a specificity of 83%, compared with only 44% by qualitative thallium tomography (p less than 0.001) and a specificity of 92%.

  5. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Reptiles, Rodents, and Lagomorphs for Clinical Diagnosis and Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    Głodek, Joanna; Adamiak, Zbigniew; Przeworski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    MRI is a great diagnostic tool for evaluating exotic animals, particularly in clinical practice and in research with animal models. Here we review various aspects of MRI of reptiles, rodents, and lagomorphs, including the indications for this modality, the preparation of subjects, and protocols for imaging various organs and the musculoskeletal system. Protocols for the anesthesia and immobilization of subjects to facilitate their imaging are discussed also. PMID:27298246

  7. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging: development, characterization, and imaging in inducted animals

    PubMed Central

    Sarcinelli, Michelle Alvares; Albernaz, Marta de Souza; Szwed, Marzena; Iscaife, Alexandre; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Junqueira, Mara de Souza; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; da Silva, Emerson Oliveira; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies as polymeric nanoparticles are quite interesting and endow this new drug category with many advantages, especially by reducing the number of adverse reactions and, in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, also reducing the amount of radiation (dose) administered to the patient. In this study, a nanoradiopharmaceutical was developed using polylactic acid (PLA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/montmorillonite (MMT)/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) for breast cancer imaging. In order to confirm the nanoparticle formation, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were performed. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle and biodistribution with 99mTc in healthy and inducted animals were also measured. The results from atomic force microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were spherical, with a size range of ~200–500 nm. The dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that over 90% of the nanoparticles produced had a size of 287 nm with a zeta potential of −14,6 mV. The cytotoxicity results demonstrated that the nanoparticles were capable of reaching breast cancer cells. The biodistribution data demonstrated that the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with 99mTc have great renal clearance and also a high uptake by the lesion, as ~45% of the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles injected were taken up by the lesion. The data support PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab labeled with 99mTc nanoparticles as nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging. PMID:27713638

  8. Development of computational small animal models and their applications in preclinical imaging and therapy research.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    The development of multimodality preclinical imaging techniques and the rapid growth of realistic computer simulation tools have promoted the construction and application of computational laboratory animal models in preclinical research. Since the early 1990s, over 120 realistic computational animal models have been reported in the literature and used as surrogates to characterize the anatomy of actual animals for the simulation of preclinical studies involving the use of bioluminescence tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, microcomputed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging. Other applications include electromagnetic field simulation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation dosimetry, and the development and evaluation of new methodologies for multimodality image coregistration, segmentation, and reconstruction of small animal images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the history and fundamental technologies used for the development of computational small animal models with a particular focus on their application in preclinical imaging as well as nonionizing and ionizing radiation dosimetry calculations. An overview of the overall process involved in the design of these models, including the fundamental elements used for the construction of different types of computational models, the identification of original anatomical data, the simulation tools used for solving various computational problems, and the applications of computational animal models in preclinical research. The authors also analyze the characteristics of categories of computational models (stylized, voxel-based, and boundary representation) and discuss the technical challenges faced at the present time as well as research needs in the future.

  9. Development of computational small animal models and their applications in preclinical imaging and therapy research

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-01-15

    The development of multimodality preclinical imaging techniques and the rapid growth of realistic computer simulation tools have promoted the construction and application of computational laboratory animal models in preclinical research. Since the early 1990s, over 120 realistic computational animal models have been reported in the literature and used as surrogates to characterize the anatomy of actual animals for the simulation of preclinical studies involving the use of bioluminescence tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, microcomputed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging. Other applications include electromagnetic field simulation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation dosimetry, and the development and evaluation of new methodologies for multimodality image coregistration, segmentation, and reconstruction of small animal images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the history and fundamental technologies used for the development of computational small animal models with a particular focus on their application in preclinical imaging as well as nonionizing and ionizing radiation dosimetry calculations. An overview of the overall process involved in the design of these models, including the fundamental elements used for the construction of different types of computational models, the identification of original anatomical data, the simulation tools used for solving various computational problems, and the applications of computational animal models in preclinical research. The authors also analyze the characteristics of categories of computational models (stylized, voxel-based, and boundary representation) and discuss the technical challenges faced at the present time as well as research needs in the future.

  10. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  11. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  12. Diagnosis and screening of small hepatocellular carcinomas. Comparison of radionuclide imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography, hepatic angiography, and alpha 1-fetoprotein assay

    SciTech Connect

    Takashima, T.; Matsui, O.; Suzuki, M.; Ida, M.

    1982-12-01

    Twenty-nine small (less than 5 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas in 18 patients were examined by radionuclide imaging (RN), ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), hepatic angiography, and serum alpha 1-fetoprotein (AFP) assay. Sensitivity was 39% with RN, 50% with US, 56% with CT, and 94% with angiography, including infusion hepatic angiography (IHA). Lesions larger than 3 cm could be detected by all of these methods; those between 2 and 3 cm were generally shown by US and CT but not RN. IHA was essential for diagnosis of lesions less than 2 cm, which were otherwise difficult or impossible to detect except with angiography. As a screening method, AFP was best, followed by US and CT. The authors recommend using AFP and US to minimize expense and radiation exposure. In questionable cases, IHA should be performed.

  13. Diagnosis and screening of small hepatocellular carcinomas: comparison of radionuclide imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography, hepatic angiography, and. cap alpha. /sub 1/-fetoprotein assay

    SciTech Connect

    Takashima, T.; Matsui, O.; Suzuki, M.; Ida, M.

    1982-12-01

    Twenty-nine small (<5 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas in 18 patients were examined by radionuclide imaging (RN), ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), hepatic angiography, and serum ..cap alpha../sub 1/-fetoprotein (AFP) assay. Sensitivity was 39% with RN, 50% with US, 56% with CT, and 94% with angiography, including infusion hepatic angiography (IHA). Lesions larger than 3 cm could be detected by all of these methods; those between 2 and 3 cm were generally shown by US and CT but not RN. IHA was essential for diagnosis of lesions less than 2 cm, which were otherwise difficult or impossible to detect except with angiography. As a screening method, AFP was best, followed by US and CT. The authors recommend using AFP and US to minimize expense and radiation exposure. In questionable cases, IHA should be performed.

  14. Material decomposition and virtual non-contrast imaging in photon counting computed tomography: an animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, R.; Polster, C.; Kappler, S.; Pietsch, H.; Jost, G.; Hahn, K.; Schöck, F.; Sedlmair, M.; Allmendinger, T.; Schmidt, B.; Krauss, B.; Flohr, T. G.

    2016-03-01

    The energy resolving capabilities of Photon Counting Detectors (PCD) in Computed Tomography (CT) facilitate energy-sensitive measurements. The provided image-information can be processed with Dual Energy and Multi Energy algorithms. A research PCD-CT firstly allows acquiring images with a close to clinical configuration of both the X-ray tube and the CT-detector. In this study, two algorithms (Material Decomposition and Virtual Non-Contrast-imaging (VNC)) are applied on a data set acquired from an anesthetized rabbit scanned using the PCD-CT system. Two contrast agents (CA) are applied: A gadolinium (Gd) based CA used to enhance contrasts for vascular imaging, and xenon (Xe) and air as a CA used to evaluate local ventilation of the animal's lung. Four different images are generated: a) A VNC image, suppressing any traces of the injected Gd imitating a native scan, b) a VNC image with a Gd-image as an overlay, where contrast enhancements in the vascular system are highlighted using colored labels, c) another VNC image with a Xe-image as an overlay, and d) a 3D rendered image of the animal's lung, filled with Xe, indicating local ventilation characteristics. All images are generated from two images based on energy bin information. It is shown that a modified version of a commercially available dual energy software framework is capable of providing images with diagnostic value obtained from the research PCD-CT system.

  15. Small animal imaging platform for quantitative assessment of short-wave infrared-emitting contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Philip; Mingozzi, Marco; Higgins, Laura M.; Ganapathy, Vidya; Zevon, Margot; Riman, Richard E.; Roth, Charles M.; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2015-03-01

    We report the design, calibration, and testing of a pre-clinical small animal imaging platform for use with short-wave infrared (SWIR) emitting contrast agents. Unlike materials emitting at visible or near-infrared wavelengths, SWIR-emitting agents require detection systems with sensitivity in the 1-2 μm wavelength region, beyond the range of commercially available small animal imagers. We used a collimated 980 nm laser beam to excite rare-earth-doped NaYF4:Er,Yb nanocomposites, as an example of a SWIR emitting material under development for biomedical imaging applications. This beam was raster scanned across the animal, with fluorescence in the 1550 nm wavelength region detected by an InGaAs area camera. Background adjustment and intensity non-uniformity corrections were applied in software. The final SWIR fluorescence image was overlaid onto a standard white-light image for registration of contrast agent uptake with respect to anatomical features.

  16. Optical methods and integrated systems for brain imaging in awake, untethered animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, Kartikeya

    Imaging is a powerful tool for biomedical research offering non-contact and minimally or non-invasive means of investigating at multiple scales---from single molecules to large populations of cells. Imaging in awake, behaving animals is an emerging field that offers the additional advantage of being able to study physiological processes and structures in a more natural state than what is possible in tissue slices or even in anesthetized animals. To date, most imaging in awake animals has used optical fiber bundles or electrical cables to transfer signals to traditional imaging-system components. However, the fibers or cables tether the animal and greatly limit the kind and duration of animal behavior that can be studied using imaging methods. This work involves three distinct yet related approaches to fulfill the goal of imaging in unanesthetized, unrestrained animals---optical techniques for functional and structural imaging, development of novel photodetectors and the design of miniaturized imaging systems. I hypothesized that the flow within vessels might act as a contrast-enhancing agent and improve the visualization of vascular architecture using laser speckle imaging. When imaging rodent cerebral vasculature I saw a two to four fold increase in the contrast-to-noise ratios and was able to visualize 10--30% more vascular features over reflectance techniques. I designed a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) photodetector array that was comparable in sensitivity and noise performance to cooled CCD sensors, able to image fluorescence from a single cell, while running at faster frame rates. Next, I designed an imaging system weighing under 6 grams and occupying less than 4 cm3. The system incorporated multispectral illumination, adjustable focusing optics and the high-sensitivity CMOS imager. I was able to implement a variety of optical modalities with the system and performed reflectance, fluorescence, spectroscopic and laser speckle imaging with my

  17. A semi-automated single day image differencing technique to identify animals in aerial imagery.

    PubMed

    Terletzky, Pat; Ramsey, Robert Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Our research presents a proof-of-concept that explores a new and innovative method to identify large animals in aerial imagery with single day image differencing. We acquired two aerial images of eight fenced pastures and conducted a principal component analysis of each image. We then subtracted the first principal component of the two pasture images followed by heuristic thresholding to generate polygons. The number of polygons represented the number of potential cattle (Bos taurus) and horses (Equus caballus) in the pasture. The process was considered semi-automated because we were not able to automate the identification of spatial or spectral thresholding values. Imagery was acquired concurrently with ground counts of animal numbers. Across the eight pastures, 82% of the animals were correctly identified, mean percent commission was 53%, and mean percent omission was 18%. The high commission error was due to small mis-alignments generated from image-to-image registration, misidentified shadows, and grouping behavior of animals. The high probability of correctly identifying animals suggests short time interval image differencing could provide a new technique to enumerate wild ungulates occupying grassland ecosystems, especially in isolated or difficult to access areas. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt to use standard change detection techniques to identify and enumerate large ungulates.

  18. Imaging cell biology in live animals: ready for prime time.

    PubMed

    Weigert, Roberto; Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat

    2013-06-24

    Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy is one of the main tools used to image subcellular structures in living cells. Yet for decades it has been applied primarily to in vitro model systems. Thanks to the most recent advancements in intravital microscopy, this approach has finally been extended to live rodents. This represents a major breakthrough that will provide unprecedented new opportunities to study mammalian cell biology in vivo and has already provided new insight in the fields of neurobiology, immunology, and cancer biology.

  19. 100 years of radionuclide metrology.

    PubMed

    Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

    2014-05-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics.

  20. Best practices for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in common large animal research models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joni; Hampshire, Victoria

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has proven to be useful for the study of cardiovascular physiology in health and disease; it provides important data and information about healthy and diseased states in humans and animals, and it facilitates the safe characterization and positioning of medical devices during cardiovascular applications. Looking to the future, magnetic resonance imaging will continue to play a formative role in biomedical research and applications. Here, we discuss how to avoid common pitfalls and provide safe transport, anesthetic support and physiologic support for animals that are used in dedicated or shared cardiovascular imaging facilities.

  1. How Relevant Are Imaging Findings in Animal Models of Movement Disorders to Human Disease?

    PubMed

    Bannon, Darryl; Landau, Anne M; Doudet, Doris J

    2015-08-01

    The combination of novel imaging techniques with the use of small animal models of disease is often used in attempt to understand disease mechanisms, design potential clinical biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, and develop novel methods with translatability to human clinical conditions. However, it is clear that most animal models are deficient when compared to the complexity of human diseases: they cannot sufficiently replicate all the features of multisystem disorders. Furthermore, some practical differences may affect the use or interpretation of animal imaging to model human conditions such as the use of anesthesia, various species differences, and limitations of methodological tools. Nevertheless, imaging animal models allows us to dissect, in interpretable bits, the effects of one system upon another, the consequences of variable neuronal losses or overactive systems, the results of experimental treatments, and we can develop and validate new methods. In this review, we focus on imaging modalities that are easily used in both human subjects and animal models such as positron emission and magnetic resonance imaging and discuss aging and Parkinson's disease as prototypical examples of preclinical imaging studies.

  2. Multiplane spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging of small animals in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully developed a multiscale acoustic-resolution photoacoustic tomography system in a single imaging platform. By switching between ultrasound transducers (center frequencies 5 and 40 MHz) and optical condensers, we have photoacoustically imaged microvasculatures of small animals in vivo at different scales. Further, we have extended the field of view of our imaging system to entire bodies of small animals. At different imaging planes, we have noninvasively imaged the major blood vessels (e.g., descending aorta, intercostal vessels, cephalic vessels, brachial vessels, femoral vessels, popliteal vessels, lateral marginal vessels, cranial mesenteric vessels, mammalian vessels, carotid artery, jugular vein, subclavian vessels, iliac vessels, and caudal vessels) as well as intact internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver, kidney, intestine, cecum, and spinal cord) of the animals in vivo. The spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging clearly reveals the spectral responses of the internal structures. Similar to other existing preclinical whole-body imaging systems, this whole-body photoacoustic tomography can be a useful tool for small-animal research.

  3. Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stanley N.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

  4. In Vivo Stabilization of a Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist Enhances PET Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy of Prostate Cancer in Preclinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Chatalic, Kristell L S; Konijnenberg, Mark; Nonnekens, Julie; de Blois, Erik; Hoeben, Sander; de Ridder, Corrina; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; van Gent, Dik C; Nock, Berthold A; Maina, Theodosia; van Weerden, Wytske M; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    A single tool for early detection, accurate staging, and personalized treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) would be a major breakthrough in the field of PCa. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) targeting peptides are promising probes for a theranostic approach for PCa overexpressing GRPR. However, the successful application of small peptides in a theranostic approach is often hampered by their fast in vivo degradation by proteolytic enzymes, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Here we show for the first time that co-injection of a NEP inhibitor (phosphoramidon (PA)) can lead to an impressive enhancement of diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of the theranostic (68)Ga-/(177)Lu-JMV4168 GRPR-antagonist. Co-injection of PA (300 µg) led to stabilization of (177)Lu-JMV4168 in murine peripheral blood. In PC-3 tumor-bearing mice, PA co-injection led to a two-fold increase in tumor uptake of (68)Ga-/(177)Lu-JMV4168, 1 h after injection. In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (68)Ga-JMV4168, PA co-injection substantially enhanced PC-3 tumor signal intensity. Radionuclide therapy with (177)Lu-JMV4168 resulted in significant regression of PC-3 tumor size. Radionuclide therapy efficacy was confirmed by production of DNA double strand breaks, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Increased survival rates were observed in mice treated with (177)Lu-JMV4168 plus PA as compared to those without PA. This data shows that co-injection of the enzyme inhibitor PA greatly enhances the theranostic potential of GRPR-radioantagonists for future application in PCa patients.

  5. In Vivo Stabilization of a Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist Enhances PET Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy of Prostate Cancer in Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chatalic, Kristell L.S.; Konijnenberg, Mark; Nonnekens, Julie; de Blois, Erik; Hoeben, Sander; de Ridder, Corrina; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; van Gent, Dik C.; Nock, Berthold A.; Maina, Theodosia; van Weerden, Wytske M.; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    A single tool for early detection, accurate staging, and personalized treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) would be a major breakthrough in the field of PCa. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) targeting peptides are promising probes for a theranostic approach for PCa overexpressing GRPR. However, the successful application of small peptides in a theranostic approach is often hampered by their fast in vivo degradation by proteolytic enzymes, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Here we show for the first time that co-injection of a NEP inhibitor (phosphoramidon (PA)) can lead to an impressive enhancement of diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of the theranostic 68Ga-/177Lu-JMV4168 GRPR-antagonist. Co-injection of PA (300 µg) led to stabilization of 177Lu-JMV4168 in murine peripheral blood. In PC-3 tumor-bearing mice, PA co-injection led to a two-fold increase in tumor uptake of 68Ga-/177Lu-JMV4168, 1 h after injection. In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 68Ga-JMV4168, PA co-injection substantially enhanced PC-3 tumor signal intensity. Radionuclide therapy with 177Lu-JMV4168 resulted in significant regression of PC-3 tumor size. Radionuclide therapy efficacy was confirmed by production of DNA double strand breaks, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Increased survival rates were observed in mice treated with 177Lu-JMV4168 plus PA as compared to those without PA. This data shows that co-injection of the enzyme inhibitor PA greatly enhances the theranostic potential of GRPR-radioantagonists for future application in PCa patients. PMID:26722377

  6. Hardware-specific image compression techniques for the animation of CFD data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Stephen C.; Moorhead, Robert J., II

    1992-06-01

    The visualization and animation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data is vital in understanding the varied parameters that exist in the solution field. Scientists need accurate and efficient visualization techniques. The animation of CFD data is not only computationally expensive but also expensive in the allocation of memory, both RAM and disk. Preserving animations of the CFD data visualizations is useful, since recreation of the animation is expensive when dealing with extremely large data structures. Researchers of CFD data may wish to follow a particle trace over an experimental fuselage design, but are unable to retain the animation for efficient retrieval without rendering or consuming a considerable amount of disk space. The spatial image resolution is reduced from 1280 X 1024 to 512 X 480 in going from the workstation format to a video format, therefore, a desire to save these animations on disk results. Saving on disk allows the animation to maintain the spatial and intensity quality of the rendered image and allows the display of the animation at approximately 30 frames/sec, the standard video rate. The goal is to develop optimal image compression algorithms that allow visualization animations, captures as independent RGB images, to be recorded to tape or disk. If recorded to disk, the image sequence is compressed in non-realtime with a technique which allows subsequent decompression at approximately 30 frames/sec to simulate the temporal resolution of video. Initial compression is obtained through mapping RGB colors in each frame to a 12-bit colormap image. The colormap is animation sequence dependent and is created by histogramming the colors in the animation sequence and mapping those colors with relation to specific regions of the L*a*b* color coordinate system to take advantage of the uniform nature of the L*a*b* color system. Further compression is obtained by taking interframe differences, specifically comparing respective blocks between

  7. A comparison of animated versus static images in an instructional multimedia presentation.

    PubMed

    Daly, C J; Bulloch, J M; Ma, M; Aidulis, D

    2016-06-01

    Sophisticated three-dimensional animation and video compositing software enables the creation of complex multimedia instructional movies. However, if the design of such presentations does not take account of cognitive load and multimedia theories, then their effectiveness as learning aids will be compromised. We investigated the use of animated images versus still images by creating two versions of a 4-min multimedia presentation on vascular neuroeffector transmission. One version comprised narration and animations, whereas the other animation comprised narration and still images. Fifty-four undergraduate students from level 3 pharmacology and physiology undergraduate degrees participated. Half of the students watched the full animation, and the other half watched the stills only. Students watched the presentation once and then answered a short essay question. Answers were coded and marked blind. The "animation" group scored 3.7 (SE: 0.4; out of 11), whereas the "stills" group scored 3.2 (SE: 0.5). The difference was not statistically significant. Further analysis of bonus marks, awarded for appropriate terminology use, detected a significant difference in one class (pharmacology) who scored 0.6 (SE: 0.2) versus 0.1 (SE: 0.1) for the animation versus stills group, respectively (P = 0.04). However, when combined with the physiology group, the significance disappeared. Feedback from students was extremely positive and identified four main themes of interest. In conclusion, while increasing student satisfaction, we do not find strong evidence in favor of animated images over still images in this particular format. We also discuss the study design and offer suggestions for further investigations of this type.

  8. A dual RF resonator system for high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, R; Bodgdanov, G; King, J; Allard, A; Ferris, C F

    2004-01-30

    A new apparatus has been developed that integrates an animal restrainer arrangement for small animals with an actively tunable/detunable dual radio-frequency (RF) coil system for in vivo anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals at 4.7 T. The radio-frequency coil features an eight-element microstrip line configuration that, in conjunction with a segmented outer copper shield, forms a transversal electromagnetic (TEM) resonator structure. Matching and active tuning/detuning is achieved through fixed/variable capacitors and a PIN diode for each resonator element. These components along with radio-frequency chokes (RFCs) and blocking capacitors are placed on two printed circuit boards (PCBs) whose copper coated ground planes form the front and back of the volume coil and are therefore an integral part of the resonator structure. The magnetic resonance signal response is received with a dome-shaped single-loop surface coil that can be height-adjustable with respect to the animal's head. The conscious animal is immobilized through a mechanical arrangement that consists of a Plexiglas body tube and a head restrainer. This restrainer has a cylindrical holder with a mouthpiece and position screws to receive and restrain the head of the animal. The apparatus is intended to perform anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging in conscious animals such as mice, rats, hamsters, and marmosets. Cranial images acquired from fully conscious rats in a 4.7 T Bruker 40 cm bore animal scanner underscore the feasibility of this approach and bode well to extend this system to the imaging of other animals.

  9. Imaging Techniques for Small Animal Models of Pulmonary Disease: MR Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) of the small animal lung has become a valuable research tool, especially for preclinical studies. MRM offers a noninvasive and nondestructive tool for imaging small animals longitudinally and at high spatial resolution. We summarize some of the technical and biologic problems and solutions associated with imaging the small animal lung and describe several important pulmonary disease applications. A major advantage of MR is direct imaging of the gas spaces of the lung using breathable gases such as helium and xenon. When polarized, these gases become rich MR signal sources. In animals breathing hyperpolarized helium, the dynamics of gas distribution can be followed and airway constrictions and obstructions can be detected. Diffusion coefficients of helium can be calculated from diffusion-sensitive images, which can reveal micro-structural changes in the lungs associated with pathologies such as emphysema and fibrosis. Unlike helium, xenon in the lung is absorbed by blood and exhibits different frequencies in gas, tissue, or erythrocytes. Thus, with MR imaging, the movement of xenon gas can be tracked through pulmonary compartments to detect defects of gas transfer. MRM has become a valuable tool for studying morphologic and functional changes in small animal models of lung diseases. PMID:17325972

  10. Revealing glacier flow and surge dynamics from animated satellite image sequences: examples from the Karakoram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, F.

    2015-04-01

    Although animated images are very popular on the Internet, they have so far found only limited use for glaciological applications. With long time-series of satellite images becoming increasingly available and glaciers being well recognized for their rapid changes and variable flow dynamics, animated sequences of multiple satellite images reveal glacier dynamics in a time-lapse mode, making the otherwise slow changes of glacier movement visible and understandable for a wide public. For this study animated image sequences were created from freely available image quick-looks of orthorectified Landsat scenes for four regions in the central Karakoram mountain range. The animations play automatically in a web-browser and might help to demonstrate glacier flow dynamics for educational purposes. The animations revealed highly complex patterns of glacier flow and surge dynamics over a 15-year time period (1998-2013). In contrast to other regions, surging glaciers in the Karakoram are often small (around 10 km2), steep, debris free, and advance for several years at comparably low annual rates (a few hundred m a-1). The advance periods of individual glaciers are generally out of phase, indicating a limited climatic control on their dynamics. On the other hand, nearly all other glaciers in the region are either stable or slightly advancing, indicating balanced or even positive mass budgets over the past few years to decades.

  11. A time-resolved multi-wavelength fluorescence diffuse optical tomography system for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renee; Poulet, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    A tomographic approach, relying on diffuse near infrared photons to image the optical properties of tissues and the inner distribution of fluorescent probes is described. The method should improve the spatial resolution and quantification of fluorescence signals, thanks to multiple-projection acquisitions and to a reconstruction procedure using the principles of diffuse optical tomography. The scanner assembled uses picosecond laser diodes, an eight-anode photo-multiplier tube (PMT) and time-correlated single photon counting. Two sets of laser heads, each operating at four wavelengths, are fitted with furcated optical fibers, providing two sequential sources of light positioned on the animal or object studied. Multimode optical fibers are used to detect light at eight output points on the animal or object. These fibers are connected to the PMT, with an air-gap allowing the insertion of an optical filter to reject the excitation wavelength. The light sources and detectors can be rotated to increase the number of projections recorded. For the reconstruction process, the coordinates of the body surface of the animal to be imaged are necessary. These are acquired by interferometry, using a conoscope and an XY scanning system, before the animal is entered in the scanner. The profiles measured at the excitation wavelengths are used to compute absorption and reduced scattering images and perfusion/oxygenation images of the animal. Fluorescence images, free from diffusion and absorption artefacts, can then be computed with a-priori knowledge of the optical images of the animal. The scanner, its performances and images of light-scattering and fluorescent phantoms are presented.

  12. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  13. An automated robot arm system for small animal tissue biopsy under dual-image modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. H.; Wu, T. H.; Lin, M. H.; Yang, C. C.; Guo, W. Y.; Wang, Z. J.; Chen, C. L.; Lee, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor cell biology in vivo is one of the most important goals of molecular imaging. Imaging procedures could be inter-subject performed repeatedly at different investigating stages; thereby need not sacrifice small animals during the entire study period. Thus, the ultimate goal of this study was to design a stereotactic image-guided system for small animals and integrated it with an automatic robot arm for in vivo tissue biopsy analysis. The system was composed of three main parts, including one small animal stereotactic frame, one imaging-fusion software and an automatic robot arm system. The system has been thoroughly evaluated with three components; the robot position accuracy was 0.05±0.02 mm, the image registration accuracy was 0.37±0.18 mm and the system integration was satisfactorily within 1.20±0.39 mm of error. From these results, the system demonstrated sufficient accuracy to guide the micro-injector from the planned delivery routes into practice. The entire system accuracy was limited by the image fusion and orientation procedures, due to its nature of the blurred PET imaging obtained from the small objects. The primary improvement is to acquire as higher resolution as possible the fused imaging for localizing the targets in the future.

  14. A Protective Eye Shield for Prevention of Media Opacities during Small Animal Ocular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Brent A.; Kaul, Charles; Hollyfield, Joe G.

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and other non-invasive imaging techniques are increasingly used in eye research to document disease-related changes in rodent eyes. Corneal dehydration is a major contributor to the formation of ocular opacities that can limit the repeated application of these techniques to individual animals. General anesthesia is usually required for imaging, which is accompanied by the loss of the blink reflex. As a consequence, the tear film cannot be maintained, drying occurs and the cornea becomes dehydrated. Without supplemental hydration, structural damage to the cornea quickly follows. Soon thereafter, anterior lens opacities can also develop. Collectively these changes ultimately compromise image quality, especially for studies involving repeated use of the same animal over several weeks or months. To minimize these changes, a protective shield was designed for mice and rats that prevent ocular dehydration during anesthesia. The eye shield, along with a semi-viscous ophthalmic solution, is placed over the corneas as soon as the anesthesia immobilizes the animal. Eye shields are removed for only the brief periods required for imaging and then reapplied before the fellow eye is examined. As a result, the corneal surface of each eye is exposed only for the time required for imaging. The device and detailed methods described here minimize the corneal and lens changes associated with ocular surface desiccation. When these methods are used consistently, high quality images can be obtained repeatedly from individual animals. PMID:25245081

  15. Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Löck, Steffen; Dietrich, Antje; Fursov, Andriy; Haase, Robert; Lukas, Mathias; Rimarzig, Bernd; Sobiella, Manfred; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Bütof, Rebecca; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks.

  16. Development of a high frame rate ultrasonic system for cardiac imaging in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Yen, Jesse T.; Feng, Ching; Shung, K. Kirk

    2006-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a well established technology for echocardiography on humans. For cardiac imaging in small animals whose hearts beat at a rate higher than 300 beats per minute, the spatial and temporal resolution of current clinical ultrasonic scanners are far from ideal and simply inadequate for such applications. In this research, a real-time high frequency ultrasound imaging system was developed with a frame rate higher than 80 frames per second (fps) for cardiac applications in small animals. The device has a mechanical sector scanner using magnetic drive mechanism to reduce moving parts and ensure longevity. A very lightweight (< 0.28 g) single element transducer was specially designed and constructed for this research to achieve a frame rate of at least 80 fps. The 30-50 MHz transducers swept through an arc at the end of a pendulum for imaging the heart of small animals. The imaging electronics consisted of a low noise pulser/receiver, a high-speed data acquisition board, and digital signal processing algorithms. In vivo results on mouse embryos showed that real time ultrasound imaging at frame rate exceeding 80 fps could demonstrate detailed depiction of cardiac function with a spatial resolution of around 50 microns, which allows researchers to fully examine and monitor small animal cardiac functions.

  17. Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Optical brain imaging has seen 30 years of intense development, and has grown into a rich and diverse field. In-vivo imaging using light provides unprecedented sensitivity to functional changes through intrinsic contrast, and is rapidly exploiting the growing availability of exogenous optical contrast agents. Light can be used to image microscopic structure and function in vivo in exposed animal brain, while also allowing noninvasive imaging of hemodynamics and metabolism in a clinical setting. This work presents an overview of the wide range of approaches currently being applied to in-vivo optical brain imaging, from animal to man. Techniques include multispectral optical imaging, voltage sensitive dye imaging and speckle-flow imaging of exposed cortex, in-vivo two-photon microscopy of the living brain, and the broad range of noninvasive topography and tomography approaches to near-infrared imaging of the human brain. The basic principles of each technique are described, followed by examples of current applications to cutting-edge neuroscience research. In summary, it is shown that optical brain imaging continues to grow and evolve, embracing new technologies and advancing to address ever more complex and important neuroscience questions. PMID:17994863

  18. Low-light imaging system for luminescence probes in living animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Masafumi

    1999-07-01

    The combination of a very high gain image intensifier, a CCD camera and an image processor which eliminates read out noise of the CCD camera, enables one to detect single photon events by photon counting imaging. The detected photons are then counted in the image processor to generate an image. The image intensifier is also designed to minimize dark noise that determines the sensitivity limit. The photon counting imaging system can be used as a standard intensified CCD camera by lowering the gain of the intensifier. This is useful for focusing and getting an image of the entire object in brightfield, which is used as the reference for the luminescent image. This is a very flexible imagin system used to monitor luminescence; such as gene expression, genetically modified luminescent microorganisms, ATP from microorganisms and luminescence from aequorin stimulated by calcium ions. This system also makes it possible to see luminescence generated inside of small animals through their skin without harming them and it is becoming an important tool for In-Vivo monitoring of small animals. In this paper, we discuss recent technique of photon counting imaging.

  19. Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Elizabeth M C

    2007-01-01

    Optical brain imaging has seen 30 years of intense development, and has grown into a rich and diverse field. In-vivo imaging using light provides unprecedented sensitivity to functional changes through intrinsic contrast, and is rapidly exploiting the growing availability of exogenous optical contrast agents. Light can be used to image microscopic structure and function in vivo in exposed animal brain, while also allowing noninvasive imaging of hemodynamics and metabolism in a clinical setting. This work presents an overview of the wide range of approaches currently being applied to in-vivo optical brain imaging, from animal to man. Techniques include multispectral optical imaging, voltage sensitive dye imaging and speckle-flow imaging of exposed cortex, in-vivo two-photon microscopy of the living brain, and the broad range of noninvasive topography and tomography approaches to near-infrared imaging of the human brain. The basic principles of each technique are described, followed by examples of current applications to cutting-edge neuroscience research. In summary, it is shown that optical brain imaging continues to grow and evolve, embracing new technologies and advancing to address ever more complex and important neuroscience questions.

  20. Dual-modal (OIS/LSCI) imager of cerebral cortex in freely moving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongyang; Miao, Peng; Liu, Qi; Li, Yao; Tong, Shanbao

    2012-03-01

    Optical intrinsic signals (OIS) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) have been used for years in the study of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and hemodynamic responses to the neural activity under functional stimulation. So far, most in vivo rodent experiments are based on the anesthesia model when the animals are in unconscious and restrained conditions. The influences of anesthesia on the neural activity have been documented in literature. In this study, we designed a miniature head-mounted dual-modal imager in freely moving animals that could monitor in real time the coupling of local oxygen consumption and blood perfusion of CBF by integrating different imaging modalities of OIS and LSCI. The system facilitates the study the cortical hemodynamics and neural-hemodynamic coupling in real time in freely moving animals.

  1. Optimal self-calibration of tomographic reconstruction parameters in whole-body small animal optoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Subhamoy; Nasonova, Elena; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In tomographic optoacoustic imaging, multiple parameters related to both light and ultrasound propagation characteristics of the medium need to be adequately selected in order to accurately recover maps of local optical absorbance. Speed of sound in the imaged object and surrounding medium is a key parameter conventionally assumed to be uniform. Mismatch between the actual and predicted speed of sound values may lead to image distortions but can be mitigated by manual or automatic optimization based on metrics of image sharpness. Although some simple approaches based on metrics of image sharpness may readily mitigate distortions in the presence of highly contrasting and sharp image features, they may not provide an adequate performance for smooth signal variations as commonly present in realistic whole-body optoacoustic images from small animals. Thus, three new hybrid methods are suggested in this work, which are shown to outperform well-established autofocusing algorithms in mouse experiments in vivo. PMID:25431756

  2. Small animal imaging using a flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPD-CBCT) imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, David L.; Ning, Ruola; Yu, Yong; Lu, Xianghua; Wood, Ronald W.; Reeder, Jay E.; Johnson, Aimee M.

    2005-04-01

    Flat panel detector-based cone beam CT (FPD-CBCT) imaging system prototypes have been constructed based on modified clinical CT scanners (a modified GE 8800 CT system and a modified GE HighSpeed Advantage (HSA) spiral CT system) each with a Varian PaxScan 2520 imager. The functions of the electromechanical and radiographic subsystems of the CT system were controlled through specially made hardware, software and data acquisition modules to perform animal cone beam CT studies. Small animal (mouse) imaging studies were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of an optimized CBCT imaging system to have the capability to perform longitudinal studies to monitor the progression of cancerous tumors or the efficacy of treatments. Radiographic parameters were optimized for fast (~10 second) scans of live mice to produce good reconstructed image quality with dose levels low enough to avoid any detectable radiation treatment to the animals. Specifically, organs in the pelvic region were clearly imaged and contrast studies showed the feasibility to visualize small vasculature and space-filling bladder tumors. In addition, prostate and mammary tumors were monitored in volume growth studies.

  3. Design of a multimodal fibers optic system for small animal optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Pagliazzi, Marco; Boschi, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Small animals optical imaging systems are widely used in pre-clinical research to image in vivo the bio-distribution of light emitting probes using fluorescence or bioluminescence modalities. In this work we presented a set of simulated results of a novel small animal optical imaging module based on a fibers optics matrix, coupled with a position sensitive detector, devoted to acquire bioluminescence and Cerenkov images. Simulations were performed using GEANT 4 code with the GAMOS architecture using the tissue optics plugin. Results showed that it is possible to image a 30 × 30 mm region of interest using a fiber optics array containing 100 optical fibers without compromising the quality of the reconstruction. The number of fibers necessary to cover an adequate portion of a small animal is thus quite modest. This design allows integrating the module with magnetic resonance (MR) in order to acquire optical and MR images at the same time. A detailed model of the mouse anatomy, obtained by segmentation of 3D MRI images, will improve the quality of optical 3D reconstruction.

  4. In Vivo Small Animal Imaging using Micro-CT and Digital Subtraction Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Badea, C.T.; Drangova, M.; Holdsworth, D.W.; Johnson, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Small animal imaging has a critical role in phenotyping, drug discovery, and in providing a basic understanding of mechanisms of disease. Translating imaging methods from humans to small animals is not an easy task. The purpose of this work is to review in vivo X-ray based small animal imaging, with a focus on in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We present the principles, technologies, image quality parameters and types of applications. We show that both methods can be used not only to provide morphological, but also functional information, such as cardiac function estimation or perfusion. Compared to other modalities, x-ray based imaging is usually regarded as being able to provide higher throughput at lower cost and adequate resolution. The limitations are usually associated with the relatively poor contrast mechanisms and potential radiation damage due to ionizing radiation, although the use of contrast agents and careful design of studies can address these limitations. We hope that the information will effectively address how x-ray based imaging can be exploited for successful in vivo preclinical imaging. PMID:18758005

  5. A Novel Restraining Device for Small Animal Imaging Exams: Validation in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Carlos Henrique; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; de Souza, Sérgio; Machado, Fernanda; Guedes, Fábio; Monteiro, André; Schanaider, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop, validate, and patent a Restraining Device for Small Animal Imaging Exams (RDSAIE) that allows exams to be comfortably conducted without risks to animals and professionals. Methods. A RDSAIE with a mobile cover and shelf was built with transparent acrylic material. A total of six anesthetized rabbits were used to perform the following imaging exams of the skull: Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Scintigraphy. Results. The device showed great functionality and full visibility of the animal behavior, which remained fully stabilized and immobilized in either the horizontal or vertical position without the need for a person to remain in the test room to assist them. The procedures were performed without difficulty, and images of good resolution and without artifacts were obtained. Conclusion. The RDSAIE is comfortable, safe, efficient, and ergonomic. It allows the easy placement of animals in different body positions, including the vertical, the maintenance of postural stability, and full visibility. It may be constructed for animals heavier than 4 kg and it is adaptable for translational studies in anima nobile. PMID:26114109

  6. Multimodality imaging combination in small animal via point-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. C.; Wu, T. H.; Lin, M. H.; Huang, Y. H.; Guo, W. Y.; Chen, C. L.; Wang, T. C.; Yin, W. H.; Lee, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    We present a system of image co-registration in small animal study. Marker-based registration is chosen because of its considerable advantage that the fiducial feature is independent of imaging modality. We also experimented with different scanning protocols and different fiducial marker sizes to improve registration accuracy. Co-registration was conducted using rat phantom fixed by stereotactic frame. Overall, the co-registration accuracy was in sub-millimeter level and close to intrinsic system error. Therefore, we conclude that the system is an accurate co-registration method to be used in small animal studies.

  7. Continuous monitoring of arthritis in animal models using optical imaging modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Taeyoon; Yoon, Hyung-Ju; Lee, Saseong; Jang, Won Seuk; Jung, Byungjo; Kim, Wan-Uk

    2014-10-01

    Given the several difficulties associated with histology, including difficulty in continuous monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the feasibility of optical imaging modalities-cross-polarization color (CPC) imaging, erythema index (EI) imaging, and laser speckle contrast (LSC) imaging-for continuous evaluation and monitoring of arthritis in animal models. C57BL/6 mice, used for the evaluation of arthritis, were divided into three groups: arthritic mice group (AMG), positive control mice group (PCMG), and negative control mice group (NCMG). Complete Freund's adjuvant, mineral oil, and saline were injected into the footpad for AMG, PCMG, and NCMG, respectively. LSC and CPC images were acquired from 0 through 144 h after injection for all groups. EI images were calculated from CPC images. Variations in feet area, EI, and speckle index for each mice group over time were calculated for quantitative evaluation of arthritis. Histological examinations were performed, and the results were found to be consistent with those from optical imaging analysis. Thus, optical imaging modalities may be successfully applied for continuous evaluation and monitoring of arthritis in animal models.

  8. Small-animal whole-body imaging using a photoacoustic full ring array system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun; Guo, Zijian; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    In this report, we present a novel 3D photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring transducer array, received photoacoustic signals primarily from a 2-mm-thick slice. The light was generated by a pulse laser, and can either illuminate from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side, using a conical lens and an optical condenser. The PACT system was capable of acquiring an in-plane image in 1.6 s; by scanning the sample in the elevational direction, a 3D tomographic image could be constructed. We tested the system by imaging a cylindrical phantom made of human hairs immersed in a scattering medium. The reconstructed image achieved an in-plane resolution of 0.1 mm and an elevational resolution of 1 mm. After deconvolution in the elevational direction, the 3D image was found to match well with the phantom. The system was also used to image a baby mouse in situ; the spinal cord and ribs can be seen easily in the reconstructed image. Our results demonstrate that the PACT system has the potential to be used for fast small-animal whole-body tomographic imaging.

  9. Experimental protocols for behavioral imaging: seeing animal models of drug abuse in a new light.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Alexandra R; Talan, Amanda; Schiffer, Wynne K

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral neuroimaging is a rapidly evolving discipline that represents a marriage between the fields of behavioral neuroscience and preclinical molecular imaging. This union highlights the changing role of imaging in translational research. Techniques developed for humans are now widely applied in the study of animal models of brain disorders such as drug addiction. Small animal or preclinical imaging allows us to interrogate core features of addiction from both behavioral and biological endpoints. Snapshots of brain activity allow us to better understand changes in brain function and behavior associated with initial drug exposure, the emergence of drug escalation, and repeated bouts of drug withdrawal and relapse. Here we review the development and validation of new behavioral imaging paradigms and several clinically relevant radiotracers used to capture dynamic molecular events in behaving animals. We will discuss ways in which behavioral imaging protocols can be optimized to increase throughput and quantitative methods. Finally, we discuss our experience with the practical aspects of behavioral neuroimaging, so investigators can utilize effective animal models to better understand the addicted brain and behavior.

  10. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V. Wee; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2014-01-01

    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS. PMID:24936425

  11. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V Wee; Dunn, Jeff F

    2014-01-01

    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  12. Motion quantification during multi-photon functional imaging in behaving animals

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingjie; Little, Justin P.; Cui, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging in behaving animals is essential to understanding brain function. However, artifacts resulting from animal motion, including locomotion, can severely corrupt functional measurements. To dampen tissue motion, we designed a new optical window with minimal optical aberrations. Using the newly developed high-speed continuous volumetric imaging system based on an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens, we quantified motion of the cerebral cortex and hippocampal surface during two-photon functional imaging in behaving mice. We find that the out-of-plane motion is generally greater than the axial dimension of the point-spread-function during mouse locomotion, which indicates that high-speed continuous volumetric imaging is necessary to minimize motion artifacts. PMID:27699129

  13. Small-Animal Molecular Imaging for Preclinical Cancer Research: .μPET and μ.SPECT.

    PubMed

    Cuccurullo, Vincenzo; Di Stasio, Giuseppe D; Schillirò, Maria L; Mansi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Due to different sizes of humans and rodents, the performance of clinical imaging devices is not enough for a scientifically reliable evaluation in mice and rats; therefore dedicated small-animal systems with a much higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, compared to the ones used in humans, are required. Smallanimal imaging represents a cutting-edge research method able to approach an enormous variety of pathologies in which animal models of disease may be used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the human condition and/or to allow a translational pharmacological (or other) evaluation of therapeutic tools. Molecular imaging, avoiding animal sacrifice, permits repetitive (i.e. longitudinal) studies on the same animal which becomes its own control. In this way also the over time evaluation of disease progression or of the treatment response is enabled. Many different rodent models have been applied to study almost all kind of human pathologies or to experiment a wide series of drugs and/or other therapeutic instruments. In particular, relevant information has been achieved in oncology by in vivo neoplastic phenotypes, obtained through procedures such as subcutaneous tumor grafts, surgical transplantation of solid tumor, orthotopic injection of tumor cells into specific organs/sites of interest, genetic modification of animals to promote tumor-genesis; in this way traditional or innovative treatments, also including gene therapy, of animals with a cancer induced by a known carcinogen may be experimented. Each model has its own disadvantage but, comparing different studies, it is possible to achieve a panoramic and therefore substantially reliable view on the specific subject. Small-animal molecular imaging has become an invaluable component of modern biomedical research that will gain probably an increasingly important role in the next few years.

  14. Synthesis of heterodimer radionuclide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance and single-photon emission computed tomography dual-modality imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Jian; Wang, Jiaqing; Chong, Yu; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yaoyao; Tang, Minghua; Li, Yonggang; Ge, Cuicui; Pan, Yue; Gu, Hongwei

    2015-02-01

    We report a facile synthesis of bifunctional Fe3O4-Ag125I heterodimers for use as dual-modality imaging agents in magnetic resonance (MR) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We introduced 125I, which is a clinically used radioisotope, as a SPECT reporter, into Fe3O4-Ag heterodimer nanoparticles to provide a new type of bifunctional contrast agent for MRI and SPECT imaging.We report a facile synthesis of bifunctional Fe3O4-Ag125I heterodimers for use as dual-modality imaging agents in magnetic resonance (MR) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We introduced 125I, which is a clinically used radioisotope, as a SPECT reporter, into Fe3O4-Ag heterodimer nanoparticles to provide a new type of bifunctional contrast agent for MRI and SPECT imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of general experimental procedures, TEM image. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07255c

  15. Design of an Image Fusion Phantom for a Small Animal microPET/CT Scanner Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava-García, Dante; Alva-Sánchez, Héctor; Murrieta-Rodríguez, Tirso; Martínez-Dávalos, Arnulfo; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    Two separate microtomography systems recently developed at Instituto de Física, UNAM, produce anatomical (microCT) and physiological images (microPET) of small animals. In this work, the development and initial tests of an image fusion method based on fiducial markers for image registration between the two modalities are presented. A modular Helix/Line-Sources phantom was designed and constructed; this phantom contains fiducial markers that can be visualized in both imaging systems. The registration was carried out by solving the rigid body alignment problem of Procrustes to obtain rotation and translation matrices required to align the two sets of images. The microCT/microPET image fusion of the Helix/Line-Sources phantom shows excellent visual coincidence between different structures, showing a calculated target-registration-error of 0.32 mm.

  16. Development of visible and NIR imaging equipment for small animals with smart pad.

    PubMed

    Eum, Nyeon Sik; Han, Jung Hyun; Seong, Ki Woong; Lee, Jong Ha; Park, Hee Joon

    2014-01-01

    The portable visible and near-infrared (NIR) imaging equipment for a pre-clinical test with small animals was designed and developed in this paper. The developed equipment is composed of a CCD camera, a focusing lens, an objective lens, a NIR band pass filter and a NIR filter driving motor. An NIR ray is mainly used for imaging equipment because it has high light penetration depth in biological tissue. Therefore, NIR fluorescent agents are available for chemical conjugation to targeting molecules in vivo. This equipment can provide a visible image, NIR image and merged image simultaneously. A communication system was specifically established to check obtained images through a smart pad in real time. It is less dependent on space and time than the conventional system.

  17. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Tissue Inflammation Using an Animal Model of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Warram, Jason M.; Wang, Dezhi; Ratnayaka, Sithira; Traylor, Amie; Agarwal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular ultrasound (US) imaging for monitoring the early inflammatory effects following acute kidney injury. Procedures A population of rats underwent 30 min of renal ischemia (acute kidney injury, N=6) or sham injury (N=4) using established surgical methods. Animals were divided and molecular US imaging was performed during the bolus injection of a targeted microbubble (MB) contrast agent to either P-selectin or vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Imaging was performed before surgery and 4 and 24 h thereafter. After manual segmentation of renal tissue space, the molecular US signal was calculated as the difference between time-intensity curve data before MB injection and after reaching steady-state US image enhancement. All animals were terminated after the 24 h imaging time point and kidneys excised for immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Results Renal inflammation was analyzed using molecular US imaging. While results using the P-selectin and VCAM-1 targeted MBs were comparable, it appears that the former was more sensitive to biomarker expression. All molecular US imaging measures had a positive correlation with IHC findings. Conclusions Acute kidney injury is a serious disease in need of improved noninvasive methods to help diagnose the extent of injury and monitor the tissue throughout disease progression. Molecular US imaging appears well suited to address this challenge and more research is warranted. PMID:25905474

  18. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor. PMID:26720879

  19. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  20. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  1. Aerial-image enables diagrams and animation to be inserted in motion pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, S. J., Jr.; Tressel, G. W.

    1967-01-01

    Aerial-image unit makes it possible to insert diagrams and animation into live motion pictures, and also lift an element from a confusing background by suppressing general details. The unit includes a combination of two separate lens systems, the camera-projector system and the field lens system.

  2. Estimation of Enterococci Input from Bathers and Animals on A Recreational Beach Using Camera Images

    PubMed Central

    D, Wang John; M, Solo-Gabriele Helena; M, Abdelzaher Amir; E, Fleming Lora

    2010-01-01

    Enterococci, are used nationwide as a water quality indicator of marine recreational beaches. Prior research has demonstrated that enterococci inputs to the study beach site (located in Miami, FL) are dominated by non-point sources (including humans and animals). We have estimated their respective source functions by developing a counting methodology for individuals to better understand their non-point source load impacts. The method utilizes camera images of the beach taken at regular time intervals to determine the number of people and animal visitors. The developed method translates raw image counts for weekdays and weekend days into daily and monthly visitation rates. Enterococci source functions were computed from the observed number of unique individuals for average days of each month of the year, and from average load contributions for humans and for animals. Results indicate that dogs represent the larger source of enterococci relative to humans and birds. PMID:20381094

  3. Fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography and nuclear imaging system for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, I.-Chih; Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay; Rasmussen, John C.; Zhu, Banghe; Azhdarinia, Ali; Yan, Shikui; Smith, Anne M.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2012-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence is an alternative modality for molecular imaging that has been demonstrated in animals and recently in humans. Fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography (FEOT) using continuous wave or frequency domain photon migration techniques could be used to provide quantitative molecular imaging in vivo if it could be validated against "gold-standard," nuclear imaging modalities, using dual-labeled imaging agents. Unfortunately, developed FEOT systems are not suitable for incorporation with CT/PET/SPECT scanners because they utilize benchtop devices and require a large footprint. In this work, we developed a miniaturized fluorescence imaging system installed in the gantry of the Siemens Inveon PET/CT scanner to enable NIR transillumination measurements. The system consists of a CCD camera equipped with NIR sensitive intensifier, a diode laser controlled by a single board compact controller, a 2-axis galvanometer, and RF circuit modules for homodyne detection of the phase and amplitude of fluorescence signals. The performance of the FEOT system was tested and characterized. A mouse-shaped solid phantom of uniform optical properties with a fluorescent inclusion was scanned using CT, and NIR fluorescence images at several projections were collected. The method of high-order approximation to the radioactive transfer equation was then used to reconstruct the optical images. Dual-labeled agents were also used on a tumor bearing mouse to validate the results of the FEOT against PET/CT image. The results showed that the location of the fluorophore obtained from the FEOT matches the location of tumor obtained from the PET/CT images. Besides validation of FEOT, this hybrid system could allow multimodal molecular imaging (FEOT/PET/CT) for small animal imaging.

  4. UCD-SPI: Un-Collimated Detector Single-Photon Imaging System for Small Animal and Plant Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Katherine Leigh

    Medical imaging systems using single gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes implement collimators in order to form images. However, a tradeoff in sensitivity is inherent in the use of collimators, and modern preclinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems detect a very small fraction of emitted gamma-rays (<0.3%). We have built a collimator-less system, which can reach sensitivity of 40% for 99mTc imaging, while still producing images of sufficient spatial resolution for certain applications in "thin" objects such as mice, small plants, and well plates used for in vitro experiments. This flexible geometry un-collimated detector single-photon imaging (UCD-SPI) system consists of two large (5 cm x 10 cm), thin (3 mm and 5 mm), closely spaced, pixelated scintillation detectors of either NaI(Tl), CsI(Na), or BGO. The detectors are read out by two adjacent Hamamatsu H8500 multichannel photomultiplier tubes. The detector heads enable the interchange of scintillation detectors of different materials and thicknesses to optimize performance for a wide range of gamma-ray energies and imaging subjects. The detectors are horizontally oriented for animal imaging, and for plant imaging the system is rotated on its side to orient the detectors vertically. While this un-collimated detector system is unable to approach the sub-mm spatial resolution obtained by the most advanced preclinical pinhole SPECT systems, the high sensitivity could enable significant and new use in molecular imaging applications which do not require good spatial resolution- for example, screening applications for drug development (small animals), for material transport and sequestration studies for phytoremediation (plants), or for counting radiolabeled cells in vitro (well plates).

  5. Analyzer-based imaging of spinal fusion in an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. E.; Beavis, R. C.; Fiorella, David; Schültke, E.; Allen, L. A.; Juurlink, B. H.; Zhong, Z.; Chapman, L. D.

    2008-05-01

    Analyzer-based imaging (ABI) utilizes synchrotron radiation sources to create collimated monochromatic x-rays. In addition to x-ray absorption, this technique uses refraction and scatter rejection to create images. ABI provides dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging techniques. Twenty-one adult male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups to undergo the following interventions: (1) non-injured control, (2) decortication alone, (3) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and (4) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and interspinous wiring. Surgical procedures were performed at the L5-6 level. Animals were killed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the intervention and the spine muscle blocks were excised. Specimens were assessed for the presence of fusion by (1) manual testing, (2) conventional absorption radiography and (3) ABI. ABI showed no evidence of bone fusion in groups 1 and 2 and showed solid or possibly solid fusion in subjects from groups 3 and 4 at 6 weeks. Metal artifacts were not present in any of the ABI images. Conventional absorption radiographs did not provide diagnostic quality imaging of either the graft material or fusion masses in any of the specimens in any of the groups. Synchrotron-based ABI represents a novel imaging technique which can be used to assess spinal fusion in a small animal model. ABI produces superior image quality when compared to conventional radiographs.

  6. Monitoring tumor growth and treatment in small animals with magnetic resonance and optical tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masciotti, J.; Provenzano, F.; Papa, J.; Klose, A.; Hur, J.; Gu, X.; Yamashiro, D.; Kandel, J.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2006-02-01

    Small animal models are employed to simulate disease in humans and to study its progression, what factors are important to the disease process, and to study the disease treatment. Biomedical imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Optical Tomography make it possible to non-invasively monitor the progression of diseases in living small animals and study the efficacy of drugs and treatment protocols. MRI is an established imaging modality capable of obtaining high resolution anatomical images and along with contrast agents allow the studying of blood volume. Optical tomography, on the other hand, is an emerging imaging modality, which, while much lower in spatial resolution, can separate the effects of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and blood volume with high temporal resolution. In this study we apply these modalities to imaging the growth of kidney tumors and then there treatment by an anti-VEGF agent. We illustrate how these imaging modalities have their individual uses, but can still supplement each other and cross validation can be performed.

  7. Radionuclide imaging of the spleen with heat denatured technetium-99m RBC when the splenic reticuloendothelial system seems impaired

    SciTech Connect

    Owunwanne, A.; Halkar, R.; Al-Rasheed, A.; Abubacker, K.C.; Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1988-03-01

    Imaging of the spleen of 10 patients who had been hematologically diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia (SCA) was studied with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid and heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs. In all ten patients, there was faint or nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid. However, with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs, nine spleens were well visualized, and the uptake was homogenous. One spleen had two patchy areas of uptake. The results indicate that when splenic phagocytic function is impaired as reflected by nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid, it is still possible to image such a spleen with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs

  8. A Novel Ideal Radionuclide Imaging System for Non-invasively Cell Monitoring built on Baculovirus Backbone by Introducing Sleeping Beauty Transposon.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Pan, Yu; Ju, Huijun; Zhou, Jinxin; Cheng, Dengfeng; Shi, Hongcheng; Zhang, Yifan

    2017-03-06

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is an attractive tool in stable transgene integration both in vitro and in vivo; and we introduced SB transposon into recombinant sodium-iodide symporter baculovirus system (Bac-NIS system) to facilitate long-term expression of recombinant sodium-iodide symporter. In our study, two hybrid baculovirus systems (Bac-eGFP-SB-NeoR and Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR) were successfully constructed and used to infect U87 glioma cells. After G418 selection screening, the Bac-eGFP-SB-NeoR-U87 cells remained eGFP positive, at the 18(th) and 196(th) day post transfection (96.03 ± 0.21% and 97.43 ± 0.81%), while eGFP positive population declined significantly at 18 days in cells transfected with unmodified baculovirus construct. NIS gene expression by Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR-U87 cells was also maintained for 28 weeks as determined by radioiodine uptake assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western Blot (WB) assay. When transplanted in mice, Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR-U87 cells also expressed NIS gene stably as monitored by SPECT imaging for 43 days until the tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed. Herein, we showed that incorporation of SB in Bac-NIS system (hybrid Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR) can achieve a long-term transgene expression and can improve radionuclide imaging in cell tracking and monitoring in vivo.

  9. A Novel Ideal Radionuclide Imaging System for Non-invasively Cell Monitoring built on Baculovirus Backbone by Introducing Sleeping Beauty Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jing; Pan, Yu; Ju, Huijun; Zhou, Jinxin; Cheng, Dengfeng; Shi, Hongcheng; Zhang, Yifan

    2017-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is an attractive tool in stable transgene integration both in vitro and in vivo; and we introduced SB transposon into recombinant sodium-iodide symporter baculovirus system (Bac-NIS system) to facilitate long-term expression of recombinant sodium-iodide symporter. In our study, two hybrid baculovirus systems (Bac-eGFP-SB-NeoR and Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR) were successfully constructed and used to infect U87 glioma cells. After G418 selection screening, the Bac-eGFP-SB-NeoR-U87 cells remained eGFP positive, at the 18th and 196th day post transfection (96.03 ± 0.21% and 97.43 ± 0.81%), while eGFP positive population declined significantly at 18 days in cells transfected with unmodified baculovirus construct. NIS gene expression by Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR-U87 cells was also maintained for 28 weeks as determined by radioiodine uptake assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western Blot (WB) assay. When transplanted in mice, Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR-U87 cells also expressed NIS gene stably as monitored by SPECT imaging for 43 days until the tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed. Herein, we showed that incorporation of SB in Bac-NIS system (hybrid Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR) can achieve a long-term transgene expression and can improve radionuclide imaging in cell tracking and monitoring in vivo. PMID:28262785

  10. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    SciTech Connect

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  11. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-05-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50% when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25% when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30%, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50%) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the use of resolution

  12. The anterior bias in visual art: the case of images of animals.

    PubMed

    Bertamini, Marco; Bennett, Kate M; Bode, Carole

    2011-11-01

    Composition is an important topic in visual art. The literature suggests a bias for objects on the right side (Levy, 1976) and two additional biases with respect to positioning of objects within a rectangular frame: a Centre bias and an Inward bias (Palmer, Gardner, & Wickens, 2008). We analysed images of animals from three datasets of works of art: two datasets were from artists well known for their portraits of animals (Bewick, Stubbs) and the third was a medieval bestiary. There was no overall displacement of the subject to the right or to the left of the picture. However, we found a bias consisting of more space in front compared to behind the animal, consistent with Palmer at al.'s findings and with their definition of an Inward bias. Because our animals never face towards the centre we use the term Anterior bias. In addition, we found a modulation of this bias on the basis of the facing direction of the animal, consisting of a stronger Anterior bias for left-facing animals. This asymmetry may originate from a combination of an Anterior bias and a Right bias. Finally, with respect to size we found that the size of the animals predicted the proportion of the picture occupied, an effect known as "canonical size".

  13. Fluorescence guided lymph node biopsy in large animals using direct image projection device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringhausen, Elizabeth; Wang, Tylon; Pitts, Jonathan; Akers, Walter J.

    2016-03-01

    The use of fluorescence imaging for aiding oncologic surgery is a fast growing field in biomedical imaging, revolutionizing open and minimally invasive surgery practices. We have designed, constructed, and tested a system for fluorescence image acquisition and direct display on the surgical field for fluorescence guided surgery. The system uses a near-infrared sensitive CMOS camera for image acquisition, a near-infra LED light source for excitation, and DLP digital projector for projection of fluorescence image data onto the operating field in real time. Instrument control was implemented in Matlab for image capture, processing of acquired data and alignment of image parameters with the projected pattern. Accuracy of alignment was evaluated statistically to demonstrate sensitivity to small objects and alignment throughout the imaging field. After verification of accurate alignment, feasibility for clinical application was demonstrated in large animal models of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Indocyanine green was injected subcutaneously in Yorkshire pigs at various locations to model sentinel lymph node biopsy in gynecologic cancers, head and neck cancer, and melanoma. Fluorescence was detected by the camera system during operations and projected onto the imaging field, accurately identifying tissues containing the fluorescent tracer at up to 15 frames per second. Fluorescence information was projected as binary green regions after thresholding and denoising raw intensity data. Promising results with this initial clinical scale prototype provided encouraging results for the feasibility of optical projection of acquired luminescence during open oncologic surgeries.

  14. Real-time Awake Animal Motion Tracking System for SPECT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Lee, Seung Joon; Weisenberger, A G; Stolin, A; McKisson, J; Smith, M F

    2008-01-01

    Enhancements have been made in the development of a real-time optical pose measurement and tracking system that provides 3D position and orientation data for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system for awake, unanesthetized, unrestrained small animals. Three optical cameras with infrared (IR) illumination view the head movements of an animal enclosed in a transparent burrow. Markers placed on the head provide landmark points for image segmentation. Strobed IR LED s are synchronized to the cameras and illuminate the markers to prevent motion blur for each set of images. The system using the three cameras automatically segments the markers, detects missing data, rejects false reflections, performs trinocular marker correspondence, and calculates the 3D pose of the animal s head. Improvements have been made in methods for segmentation, tracking, and 3D calculation to give higher speed and more accurate measurements during a scan. The optical hardware has been installed within a Siemens MicroCAT II small animal scanner at Johns Hopkins without requiring functional changes to the scanner operation. The system has undergone testing using both phantoms and live mice and has been characterized in terms of speed, accuracy, robustness, and reliability. Experimental data showing these motion tracking results are given.

  15. In vivo imaging of small animals with optical tomography and near-infrared fluorescent probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Matthew R.; Shibata, Yasushi; Kruskal, Jonathan B.; Lenkinski, Robert E.

    2002-06-01

    A developmental optical tomography has been designed for imaging small animals in vivo using near IR fluorophores. The system employs epi-illumination via a 450 W Xe arc lamp, filtered and collimated to illuminate a 10 cm square movable stage. Emission light is filtered then collected by a high- resolution, high quantum efficiency, cooled CCD camera. Stage movement and image acquisition are under the control of a personal computer running system integration and automation software. During an experiment, the anesthetized animal is secured to the stage and up to 200 projections can be acquired over 180 degrees rotation. Angular sampling of the light distribution at a point on the surface is used to determine relative contributions form ballistic and diffuse photons. We have employed the system to investigate a number of applications of in-vivo fluorescent imaging. In dynamic studies, hepatic function has been visualized in nude mice following intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) and cerebrospinal fluid flow as been measured by injection of ICG-lipoprotein conjugate in the subarachnoid space of the lumbar spine followed by dynamic imaging of the brain. Further applications in physiological imaging, cancer detection, and molecular imaging are under investigation in our laboratory.

  16. Chronic wide-field imaging of brain hemodynamics in behaving animals

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Peng; Zhang, Lingke; Li, Miao; Zhang, Yiguang; Feng, Shihan; Wang, Qihong; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2016-01-01

    Chronically monitoring cerebral activities in awake and freely moving status is very important in physiological and pathological studies. We present a novel standalone micro-imager for monitoring the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and total hemoglobin (HbT) activities in freely moving animals using the laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and optical intrinsic signal (OIS) methods. A new cranial window method, using contact lens and wide field optics, is also proposed to achieve the chronic and wide-field imaging of rat’s cerebral cortex. The hemodynamic activities of rats’ cortex were measured for the first time without restriction of cables or fibers in awake and behaving animals. Chronic imaging showed the increase of CBF and HbT in motor cortex when the rats were climbing on the cage wall. Interestingly, the CBF activation of supplying vessel was smaller than that of parenchyma. Furthermore, after the climbing, CBF demonstrated fully return to the baseline while HbT showed a delayed recovery. The standalone micro-imager technology provides new possibilities of brain imaging in cognitive neuroscience studies. PMID:28101429

  17. Using human brain imaging studies as a guide toward animal models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bolkan, S S; Carvalho Poyraz, F; Kellendonk, C

    2016-05-03

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous and poorly understood mental disorder that is presently defined solely by its behavioral symptoms. Advances in genetic, epidemiological and brain imaging techniques in the past half century, however, have significantly advanced our understanding of the underlying biology of the disorder. In spite of these advances clinical research remains limited in its power to establish the causal relationships that link etiology with pathophysiology and symptoms. In this context, animal models provide an important tool for causally testing hypotheses about biological processes postulated to be disrupted in the disorder. While animal models can exploit a variety of entry points toward the study of schizophrenia, here we describe an approach that seeks to closely approximate functional alterations observed with brain imaging techniques in patients. By modeling these intermediate pathophysiological alterations in animals, this approach offers an opportunity to (1) tightly link a single functional brain abnormality with its behavioral consequences, and (2) to determine whether a single pathophysiology can causally produce alterations in other brain areas that have been described in patients. In this review we first summarize a selection of well-replicated biological abnormalities described in the schizophrenia literature. We then provide examples of animal models that were studied in the context of patient imaging findings describing enhanced striatal dopamine D2 receptor function, alterations in thalamo-prefrontal circuit function, and metabolic hyperfunction of the hippocampus. Lastly, we discuss the implications of findings from these animal models for our present understanding of schizophrenia, and consider key unanswered questions for future research in animal models and human patients.

  18. Live predators, robots, and computer-animated images elicit differential avoidance responses in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G; Chiarotti, Flavia; Butail, Sachit; Macrì, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Emotional disturbances constitute a major health issue affecting a considerable portion of the population in western countries. In this context, animal models offer a relevant tool to address the underlying biological determinants and to screen novel therapeutic strategies. While rodents have traditionally constituted the species of choice, zebrafish are now becoming a viable alternative. As zebrafish gain momentum in biomedical sciences, considerable efforts are being devoted to developing high-throughput behavioral tests. Here, we present a comparative study of zebrafish behavioral response to fear-evoking stimuli offered via three alternative methodologies. Specifically, in a binary-choice test, we exposed zebrafish to an allopatric predator Astronotus ocellatus, presented in the form of a live subject, a robotic replica, and a computer-animated image. The robot's design and operation were inspired by the morphology and tail-beat motion of its live counterpart, thereby offering a consistent three-dimensional stimulus to focal fish. The computer-animated image was also designed after the live subject to replicate its appearance. We observed that differently from computer-animated images, both the live predator and its robotic replica elicited robust avoidance response in zebrafish. In addition, in response to the robot, zebrafish exhibited increased thrashing behavior, which is considered a valid indicator of fear. Finally, inter-individual response to a robotic stimulus is more consistent than that shown in response to live stimuli and animated images, thereby increasing experimental statistical power. Our study supports the view that robotic stimuli can constitute a promising experimental tool to elicit targeted behavioral responses in zebrafish.

  19. A small animal holding fixture system with positional reproducibility for longitudinal multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokuryo, Daisuke; Kimura, Yuichi; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga; Kawamura, Kazunori; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Kanno, Iwao; Aoki, Ichio

    2010-07-01

    This study presents a combined small animal holding fixture system, termed a 'bridge capsule', which provides for small animal re-fixation with positional reproducibility. This system comprises separate holding fixtures for the head and lower body and a connecting part to a gas anesthesia system. A mouse is fixed in place by the combination of a head fixture with a movable part made from polyacetal resin, a lower body fixture made from vinyl-silicone and a holder for the legs and tail. For re-fixation, a similar posture could be maintained by the same holding fixtures and a constant distance between the head and lower body fixtures is maintained. Artifacts caused by the bridge capsule system were not observed on magnetic resonance (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. The average position differences of the spinal column and the iliac body before and after re-fixation for the same modality were approximately 1.1 mm. The difference between the MRI and PET images was approximately 1.8 mm for the lower body fixture after image registration using fiducial markers. This system would be useful for longitudinal, repeated and multimodal imaging experiments requiring similar animal postures.

  20. Revealing glacier flow and surge dynamics from animated satellite image sequences: examples from the Karakoram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, F.

    2015-11-01

    Although animated images are very popular on the internet, they have so far found only limited use for glaciological applications. With long time series of satellite images becoming increasingly available and glaciers being well recognized for their rapid changes and variable flow dynamics, animated sequences of multiple satellite images reveal glacier dynamics in a time-lapse mode, making the otherwise slow changes of glacier movement visible and understandable to the wider public. For this study, animated image sequences were created for four regions in the central Karakoram mountain range over a 25-year time period (1990-2015) from freely available image quick-looks of orthorectified Landsat scenes. The animations play automatically in a web browser and reveal highly complex patterns of glacier flow and surge dynamics that are difficult to obtain by other methods. In contrast to other regions, surging glaciers in the Karakoram are often small (10 km2 or less), steep, debris-free, and advance for several years to decades at relatively low annual rates (about 100 m a-1). These characteristics overlap with those of non-surge-type glaciers, making a clear identification difficult. However, as in other regions, the surging glaciers in the central Karakoram also show sudden increases of flow velocity and mass waves travelling down glacier. The surges of individual glaciers are generally out of phase, indicating a limited climatic control on their dynamics. On the other hand, nearly all other glaciers in the region are either stable or slightly advancing, indicating balanced or even positive mass budgets over the past few decades.

  1. Update on radionuclide imaging in hepatobiliary disease. [/sup 99m/Tc-labelled acetanilide iminodracetic acid analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthall, L.

    1981-05-01

    The recent introduction of technetium Tc 99m-labeled acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-IDA) analogues has facilitated the clincal study of the bile flow pathways. A variety of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA derivaties are under investigation. Basically all are metabolized by the hepatocyte and immediately thereafter excreted unconjugated into the biliary tract. Of the various derivatives tested, e.g., dimethyl (lidofenin), diethyl, paraisopropyl (iprofenin), parabutyl (butilfenin), and diisopropyl (disofenin), the last named is the best universal agent at this time. By serial liver imaging the patency of the cystic duct and the integrity of altered cholangiointestinal anatomy can be assessed, leakage of bile and gastric reflux can be disclosed, and medical and surgical jaundice can be distinguished.

  2. Differential Visual Processing of Animal Images, with and without Conscious Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weina; Drewes, Jan; Peatfield, Nicholas A.; Melcher, David

    2016-01-01

    The human visual system can quickly and efficiently extract categorical information from a complex natural scene. The rapid detection of animals in a scene is one compelling example of this phenomenon, and it suggests the automatic processing of at least some types of categories with little or no attentional requirements (Li et al., 2002, 2005). The aim of this study is to investigate whether the remarkable capability to categorize complex natural scenes exist in the absence of awareness, based on recent reports that “invisible” stimuli, which do not reach conscious awareness, can still be processed by the human visual system (Pasley et al., 2004; Williams et al., 2004; Fang and He, 2005; Jiang et al., 2006, 2007; Kaunitz et al., 2011a). In two experiments, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to animal and non-animal/vehicle stimuli in both aware and unaware conditions in a continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm. Our results indicate that even in the “unseen” condition, the brain responds differently to animal and non-animal/vehicle images, consistent with rapid activation of animal-selective feature detectors prior to, or outside of, suppression by the CFS mask. PMID:27790106

  3. Multiple routes to mental animation: language and functional relations drive motion processing for static images.

    PubMed

    Coventry, Kenny R; Christophel, Thomas B; Fehr, Thorsten; Valdés-Conroy, Berenice; Herrmann, Manfred

    2013-08-01

    When looking at static visual images, people often exhibit mental animation, anticipating visual events that have not yet happened. But what determines when mental animation occurs? Measuring mental animation using localized brain function (visual motion processing in the middle temporal and middle superior temporal areas, MT+), we demonstrated that animating static pictures of objects is dependent both on the functionally relevant spatial arrangement that objects have with one another (e.g., a bottle above a glass vs. a glass above a bottle) and on the linguistic judgment to be made about those objects (e.g., "Is the bottle above the glass?" vs. "Is the bottle bigger than the glass?"). Furthermore, we showed that mental animation is driven by functional relations and language separately in the right hemisphere of the brain but conjointly in the left hemisphere. Mental animation is not a unitary construct; the predictions humans make about the visual world are driven flexibly, with hemispheric asymmetry in the routes to MT+ activation.

  4. Time-gated perturbation Monte Carlo for whole body functional imaging in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin; Intes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a time-resolved functional imaging method based on Monte Carlo model for whole-body functional imaging of small animals. To improve the spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of the functional map, a Bayesian hierarchical method with a high resolution spatial prior is applied to guide the optical reconstructions. Simulated data using the proposed approach are employed on an anatomically accurate mouse model where the optical properties range and volume limitations of the diffusion equation model exist. We investigate the performances of using time-gated data type and spatial priors to quantitatively image the functional parameters of multiple organs. Accurate reconstructions of the two main functional parameters of the blood volume and the relative oxygenation are demonstrated by using our method. Moreover, nonlinear optode settings guided by anatomical prior is proved to be critical to imaging small organs such as the heart. PMID:19997176

  5. Performance evaluation of a very high resolution small animal PET imager using silicon scatter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-June; Rogers, W. Leslie; Huh, Sam; Kagan, Harris; Honscheid, Klaus; Burdette, Don; Chesi, Enrico; Lacasta, Carlos; Llosa, Gabriela; Mikuz, Marko; Studen, Andrej; Weilhammer, Peter; Clinthorne, Neal H.

    2007-05-01

    A very high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for small animal imaging based on the idea of inserting a ring of high-granularity solid-state detectors into a conventional PET scanner is under investigation. A particularly interesting configuration of this concept, which takes the form of a degenerate Compton camera, is shown capable of providing sub-millimeter resolution with good sensitivity. We present a Compton PET system and estimate its performance using a proof-of-concept prototype. A prototype single-slice imaging instrument was constructed with two silicon detectors 1 mm thick, each having 512 1.4 mm × 1.4 mm pads arranged in a 32 × 16 array. The silicon detectors were located edgewise on opposite sides and flanked by two non-position sensitive BGO detectors. The scanner performance was measured for its sensitivity, energy, timing, spatial resolution and resolution uniformity. Using the experimental scanner, energy resolution for the silicon detectors is 1%. However, system energy resolution is dominated by the 23% FWHM BGO resolution. Timing resolution for silicon is 82.1 ns FWHM due to time-walk in trigger devices. Using the scattered photons, time resolution between the BGO detectors is 19.4 ns FWHM. Image resolution of 980 µm FWHM at the center of the field-of-view (FOV) is obtained from a 1D profile of a 0.254 mm diameter 18F line source image reconstructed using the conventional 2D filtered back-projection (FBP). The 0.4 mm gap between two line sources is resolved in the image reconstructed with both FBP and the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. The experimental instrument demonstrates sub-millimeter resolution. A prototype having sensitivity high enough for initial small animal images can be used for in vivo studies of small animal models of metabolism, molecular mechanism and the development of new radiotracers.

  6. Potential applications of flat-panel volumetric CT in morphologic and functional small animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Greschus, Susanne; Kiessling, Fabian; Lichy, Matthias P; Moll, Jens; Mueller, Margareta M; Savai, Rajkumar; Rose, Frank; Ruppert, Clemens; Günther, Andreas; Luecke, Marcus; Fusenig, Norbert E; Semmler, Wolfhard; Traupe, Horst

    2005-08-01

    Noninvasive radiologic imaging has recently gained considerable interest in basic and preclinical research for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic efficacy. In this report, we introduce flat-panel volumetric computed tomography (fpVCT) as a powerful new tool for noninvasive imaging of different organ systems in preclinical research. The three-dimensional visualization that is achieved by isotropic high-resolution datasets is illustrated for the skeleton, chest, abdominal organs, and brain of mice. The high image quality of chest scans enables the visualization of small lung nodules in an orthotopic lung cancer model and the reliable imaging of therapy side effects such as lung fibrosis. Using contrast-enhanced scans, fpVCT displayed the vascular trees of the brain, liver, and kidney down to the subsegmental level. Functional application of fpVCT in dynamic contrast-enhanced scans of the rat brain delivered physiologically reliable data of perfusion and tissue blood volume. Beyond scanning of small animal models as demonstrated here, fpVCT provides the ability to image animals up to the size of primates.

  7. Hyperpolarized noble gas magnetic resonance imaging of the animal lung: Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santyr, Giles E.; Lam, Wilfred W.; Parra-Robles, Juan M.; Taves, Timothy M.; Ouriadov, Alexei V.

    2009-05-01

    Hyperpolarized noble gas (HNG) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a very promising noninvasive tool for the investigation of animal models of lung disease, particularly to follow longitudinal changes in lung function and anatomy without the accumulated radiation dose associated with x rays. The two most common noble gases for this purpose are H3e (helium 3) and X129e (xenon 129), the latter providing a cost-effective approach for clinical applications. Hyperpolarization is typically achieved using spin-exchange optical pumping techniques resulting in ˜10 000-fold improvement in available magnetization compared to conventional Boltzmann polarizations. This substantial increase in polarization allows high spatial resolution (<1 mm) single-slice images of the lung to be obtained with excellent temporal resolution (<1 s). Complete three-dimensional images of the lungs with 1 mm slice thickness can be obtained within reasonable breath-hold intervals (<20 s). This article provides an overview of the current methods used in HNG MR imaging with an emphasis on ventilation studies in animals. Special MR hardware and software considerations are described in order to use the strong but nonrecoverable magnetization as efficiently as possible and avoid depolarization primarily by molecular oxygen. Several applications of HNG MR imaging are presented, including measurement of gross lung anatomy (e.g., airway diameters), microscopic anatomy (e.g., apparent diffusion coefficient), and a variety of functional parameters including dynamic ventilation, alveolar oxygen partial pressure, and xenon diffusing capacity.

  8. Radionuclide removal by apatite

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Moore, Robert C.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a growing body of research supports widespread future reliance on apatite for radioactive waste cleanup. Apatite is a multi-functional radionuclide sorbent that lowers dissolved radionuclide concentrations by surface sorption, ion exchange, surface precipitation, and by providing phosphate to precipitate low-solubility radionuclide-containing minerals. Natural apatites are rich in trace elements, and apatite’s stability in the geologic record suggest that radionuclides incorporated into apatite, whether in a permeable reactive barrier or a waste form, are likely to remain isolated from the biosphere for long periods of time. Here we outline the mineralogic and surface origins of apatite-radionuclide reactivity and show how apatites might be used to environmental advantage in the future.

  9. Radionuclide removal by apatite

    DOE PAGES

    Rigali, Mark J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Moore, Robert C.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a growing body of research supports widespread future reliance on apatite for radioactive waste cleanup. Apatite is a multi-functional radionuclide sorbent that lowers dissolved radionuclide concentrations by surface sorption, ion exchange, surface precipitation, and by providing phosphate to precipitate low-solubility radionuclide-containing minerals. Natural apatites are rich in trace elements, and apatite’s stability in the geologic record suggest that radionuclides incorporated into apatite, whether in a permeable reactive barrier or a waste form, are likely to remain isolated from the biosphere for long periods of time. Here we outline the mineralogic and surface origins of apatite-radionuclide reactivity andmore » show how apatites might be used to environmental advantage in the future.« less

  10. High-frequency chirp ultrasound imaging with an annular array for ophthalmologic and small-animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Mamou, Jonathan; Aristizábal, Orlando; Silverman, Ronald H; Ketterling, Jeffrey A; Turnbull, Daniel H

    2009-07-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU, >20 MHz) is an attractive means of obtaining fine-resolution images of biological tissues for ophthalmologic, dermatological and small-animal imaging applications. Even with current improvements in circuit designs and high-frequency equipment, HFU has two inherent limitations. First, HFU images have a limited depth-of-field (DOF) because of the short wavelength and the low fixed F-number of conventional HFU transducers. Second, HFU is usually limited to shallow imaging because of the significant attenuation in most tissues. In a previous study, a five-element annular array with a 17-MHz center frequency was excited using chirp-coded signals, and a synthetic-focusing algorithm was used to extend the DOF and increase penetration depth. In the present study, a similar approach with two different five-element annular arrays operating near a center frequency of 35 MHz is implemented and validated. Following validation studies, the chirp-imaging methods were applied to imaging vitreous-hemorrhage-mimicking phantoms and mouse embryos. Images of the vitreous phantom showed increased sensitivity using the chirp method compared with a standard monocycle imaging method, and blood droplets could be visualized 4mm deeper into the phantom. Three-dimensional datasets of 12.5-day-old mouse embryo heads were acquired in utero using chirp and conventional excitations. Images were formed and brain ventricles were segmented and reconstructed in three dimensions. The brain ventricle volumes for the monocycle excitation exhibited artifacts that were not apparent on the chirp-based dataset reconstruction.

  11. Assessment and interpretation of radiopharmaceutical joint imaging in an animal model of arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenspire, K.L.; Blau, M.; Kennedy, A.C.; Green, F.A.

    1981-05-01

    An animal model of arthritis in the rabbit was employed to assess the radioactivity contribution of joint tissues to externally monitored scintigram positivity. Bone contained the greatest total amount of radioactivity whether the imaging agent was technetium pertechnetate or pyrophosphate, although the greatest percent increase in the arthritis joints over control joints was seen in synovium. Mid-shaft bone in the same region as the arthritic joint also showed increased radioactivity compared with control.

  12. GATE simulation of a new design of pinhole SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzun Ozsahin, D.; Bläckberg, L.; El Fakhri, G.; Sabet, H.

    2017-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging has gained an increased interest over the past decade since it is an excellent tool for developing new drugs and tracers. Therefore, there is a huge effort on the development of cost-effective SPECT detectors with high capabilities. The aim of this study is to simulate the performance characteristics of new designs for a cost effective, stationary SPECT system dedicated to small animal imaging with a focus on mice brain. The conceptual design of this SPECT system platform, Stationary Small Animal SSA-SPECT, is to use many pixelated CsI:TI detector modules with 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm pixels in order to achieve excellent intrinsic detector resolution where each module is backed by a single pinhole collimator with 0.3 mm hole diameter. In this work, we present the simulation results of four variations of the SSA-SPECT platform where the number of detector modules and FOV size is varied while keeping the detector size and collimator hole size constant. Using the NEMA NU-4 protocol, we performed spatial resolution, sensitivity, image quality simulations followed by a Derenzo-like phantom evaluation. The results suggest that all four SSA-SPECT systems can provide better than 0.063% system sensitivity and < 1.5 mm FWHM spatial resolution without resolution recovery or other correction techniques. Specifically, SSA-SPECT-1 showed a system sensitivity of 0.09% in combination with 1.1 mm FWHM spatial resolution.

  13. Edge co-occurrences can account for rapid categorization of natural versus animal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrinet, Laurent U.; Bednar, James A.

    2015-06-01

    Making a judgment about the semantic category of a visual scene, such as whether it contains an animal, is typically assumed to involve high-level associative brain areas. Previous explanations require progressively analyzing the scene hierarchically at increasing levels of abstraction, from edge extraction to mid-level object recognition and then object categorization. Here we show that the statistics of edge co-occurrences alone are sufficient to perform a rough yet robust (translation, scale, and rotation invariant) scene categorization. We first extracted the edges from images using a scale-space analysis coupled with a sparse coding algorithm. We then computed the “association field” for different categories (natural, man-made, or containing an animal) by computing the statistics of edge co-occurrences. These differed strongly, with animal images having more curved configurations. We show that this geometry alone is sufficient for categorization, and that the pattern of errors made by humans is consistent with this procedure. Because these statistics could be measured as early as the primary visual cortex, the results challenge widely held assumptions about the flow of computations in the visual system. The results also suggest new algorithms for image classification and signal processing that exploit correlations between low-level structure and the underlying semantic category.

  14. Iterative image reconstruction for planar small animal imaging with a multipinhole collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mark

    2002-07-01

    A method to reconstruct images from planar multipinhole single photon projection data using the iterative maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm has been developed. The projection and backprojection steps in the algorithm are accomplished using raytracing through each of the pinholes. The method was applied to a Tc-99m syringe and box phantom study and to a Tc- 99m sestamibi cardiac study in a Sprague-Dawley rat. Projection data were acquired using a custom-built detector whose key components were a pixellated array of 1x1x5 mm' NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals, a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube and a four pinhole array. For the phantom study the syringe:box activity concentration ratio was 5:1. Syringe contrast with background was 0.22 in the projection image and 0.59 in the reconstructed image. The reconstructed rat cardiac image shows improved visualization of the left ventricular myocardium. These results are a step toward the practicalapplication of high re

  15. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Small animal SPECT and its place in the matrix of molecular imaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meikle, Steven R.; Kench, Peter; Kassiou, Michael; Banati, Richard B.

    2005-11-01

    Molecular imaging refers to the use of non-invasive imaging techniques to detect signals that originate from molecules, often in the form of an injected tracer, and observe their interaction with a specific cellular target in vivo. Differences in the underlying physical principles of these measurement techniques determine the sensitivity, specificity and length of possible observation of the signal, characteristics that have to be traded off according to the biological question under study. Here, we describe the specific characteristics of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) relative to other molecular imaging technologies. SPECT is based on the tracer principle and external radiation detection. It is capable of measuring the biodistribution of minute (<10-10 molar) concentrations of radio-labelled biomolecules in vivo with sub-millimetre resolution and quantifying the molecular kinetic processes in which they participate. Like some other imaging techniques, SPECT was originally developed for human use and was subsequently adapted for imaging small laboratory animals at high spatial resolution for basic and translational research. Its unique capabilities include (i) the ability to image endogenous ligands such as peptides and antibodies due to the relative ease of labelling these molecules with technetium or iodine, (ii) the ability to measure relatively slow kinetic processes (compared with positron emission tomography, for example) due to the long half-life of the commonly used isotopes and (iii) the ability to probe two or more molecular pathways simultaneously by detecting isotopes with different emission energies. In this paper, we review the technology developments and design tradeoffs that led to the current state-of-the-art in SPECT small animal scanning and describe the position SPECT occupies within the matrix of molecular imaging technologies.

  17. In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging for Longitudinal Monitoring of Inflammation in Animal Models of Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Gutowski, Michal B.; Wilson, Leslie; Van Gelder, Russell N.; Pepple, Kathryn L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We develop a quantitative bioluminescence assay for in vivo longitudinal monitoring of inflammation in animal models of uveitis. Methods Three models of experimental uveitis were induced in C57BL/6 albino mice: primed mycobacterial uveitis (PMU), endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU), and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Intraperitoneal injection of luminol sodium salt, which emits light when oxidized, provided the bioluminescence substrate. Bioluminescence images were captured by a PerkinElmer In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS) Spectrum and total bioluminescence was analyzed using Living Image software. Bioluminescence on day zero was compared to bioluminescence on the day of peak inflammation for each model. Longitudinal bioluminescence imaging was performed in EIU and EAU. Results In the presence of luminol, intraocular inflammation generates detectable bioluminescence in three mouse models of uveitis. Peak bioluminescence in inflamed PMU eyes (1.46 × 105 photons/second [p/s]) was significantly increased over baseline (1.47 × 104 p/s, P = 0.01). Peak bioluminescence in inflamed EIU eyes (3.18 × 104 p/s) also was significantly increased over baseline (1.09 × 104 p/s, P = 0.04), and returned to near baseline levels by 48 hours. In EAU, there was a nonsignificant increase in bioluminescence at peak inflammation. Conclusions In vivo bioluminescence may be used as a noninvasive, quantitative measure of intraocular inflammation in animal models of uveitis. Primed mycobacterial uveitis and EIU are both acute models with robust anterior inflammation and demonstrated significant changes in bioluminescence corresponding with peak inflammation. Experimental autoimmune uveitis is a more indolent posterior uveitis and generated a more modest bioluminescent signal. In vivo imaging system bioluminescence is a nonlethal, quantifiable assay that can be used for monitoring inflammation in animal models of uveitis. PMID:28278321

  18. An investigation of the challenges in reconstructing PET images of a freely moving animal.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mahmood; Kyme, Andre; Zhou, Victor; Fulton, Roger; Meikle, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Imaging the brain of a freely moving small animal using positron emission tomography (PET) while simultaneously observing its behaviour is an important goal for neuroscience. While we have successfully demonstrated the use of line-of-response (LOR) rebinning to correct the head motion of confined animals, a large proportion of events may need to be discarded because they either 'miss' the detector array after transformation or fall out of the acceptance range of a sinogram. The proportion of events that would have been measured had motion not occurred, so-called 'lost events', is expected to be even larger for freely moving animals. Moreover, the data acquisition in the case of a freely moving animal is further complicated by a complex attenuation field. The aims of this study were (a) to characterise the severity of the 'lostevents' problem for the freely moving animal scenario, and(b) to investigate the relative impact of attenuation correction errors on quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. A phantom study was performed to simulate the uncorrelated motion of a target and non-target sourcevolume. A small animal PET scanner was used to acquirelist-mode data for different sets of phantom positions. The list-mode data were processed using the standard LOR rebinning approach, and multiple frame variants of this designed to reduce discarded events. We found that LOR rebinning caused up to 86 % 'lost events', and artifacts that we attribute to incomplete projections, when applied to a freely moving target. This fraction was reduced by up to 18 % using the variant approaches, resulting in slightly reduced image artifacts. The effect of the non-target compartment on attenuation correction of the target volume was surprisingly small. However, for certain poses where the target and non-target volumes are aligned transaxially in the field-of-view, the attenuation problem becomes more complex and sophisticated correction methods will be required. We conclude that

  19. Feasibility study of small animal imaging using clinical PET/CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin; Chen, Chia-Lin; Wang, Ze-Jing; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Liu, Dai-Wei; Lee, Jason J. S.

    2007-02-01

    The feasibility of small animal imaging using a clinical positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy- D-glucose (FDG) was evaluated. Two protocols in PET/CT system, single-mouse high-resolution mode (SHR) and multi-mouse high throughput mode (MHT) protocol were employed to investigate the ability of the scanner and also explored the performance differences between microPET and clinical PET/CT. In this study, we have found that even the clinical PET/CT scanner could not compete with the microPET scanner, especially in spatial resolution; the high-resolution CT image could advance the anatomical information to sub-millimeter level. Besides, CT-based attenuation correction can improve the image uniformity characteristics and quantification accuracy, and the large bore of a human whole-body scanner broadens the possibility of high throughput studies. Considering all the benefits, clinical PET/CT imaging might be a potential alternative for small animal study.

  20. Mid-Range Coil Array for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Small Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, S. E.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2008-08-11

    The vast majority of articles on MRI RF coils over the past two decades have focused on large coils, where sample losses dominate, or on micro-coils, where sample and capacitor losses are negligible. Few have addressed the mid-range coils, seen in the majority of small-animal applications, where all the sources of loss are important, for example, mouse brain and body coils from 125 to 750 MHz. We developed a four-saddle coil array for magnetic resonance imaging of small animals. The saddle coil elements in the array were evenly distributed to cover the rat's head. The coil array was tuned to the resonant frequency of 170 MHz. Due to the close proximity of the coil elements, it was necessary to decouple the coil array using nonmagnetic trimmers and, it was operated in the transceiver mode and quadrature-driven. To test the coil array performance at high field, phantom images were acquired with our saddle coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. Ex vivo brain images of a rat were also acquired, and proved the feasibility of the scaled version of a saddle coil array and, its compatibility with standard pulse sequences when used in a high field magnetic resonance imager.

  1. Quantitative Diagnosis of Tongue Cancer from Histological Images in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    We developed a chemically-induced oral cancer animal model and a computer aided method for tongue cancer diagnosis. The animal model allows us to monitor the progress of the lesions over time. Tongue tissue dissected from mice was sent for histological processing. Representative areas of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue from tongue sections were captured for classifying tumor and non-tumor tissue. The image set used in this paper consisted of 214 color images (114 tumor and 100 normal tissue samples). A total of 738 color, texture, morphometry and topology features were extracted from the histological images. The combination of image features from epithelium tissue and its constituent nuclei and cytoplasm has been demonstrated to improve the classification results. With ten iteration nested cross validation, the method achieved an average sensitivity of 96.5% and a specificity of 99% for tongue cancer detection. The next step of this research is to apply this approach to human tissue for computer aided diagnosis of tongue cancer. PMID:27656036

  2. Comparative assessment of fluorescent proteins for in vivo imaging in an animal model system

    PubMed Central

    Heppert, Jennifer K.; Dickinson, Daniel J.; Pani, Ariel M.; Higgins, Christopher D.; Steward, Annette; Ahringer, Julie; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent protein tags are fundamental tools used to visualize gene products and analyze their dynamics in vivo. Recent advances in genome editing have expedited the precise insertion of fluorescent protein tags into the genomes of diverse organisms. These advances expand the potential of in vivo imaging experiments and facilitate experimentation with new, bright, photostable fluorescent proteins. Most quantitative comparisons of the brightness and photostability of different fluorescent proteins have been made in vitro, removed from biological variables that govern their performance in cells or organisms. To address the gap, we quantitatively assessed fluorescent protein properties in vivo in an animal model system. We generated transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains expressing green, yellow, or red fluorescent proteins in embryos and imaged embryos expressing different fluorescent proteins under the same conditions for direct comparison. We found that mNeonGreen was not as bright in vivo as predicted based on in vitro data but is a better tag than GFP for specific kinds of experiments, and we report on optimal red fluorescent proteins. These results identify ideal fluorescent proteins for imaging in vivo in C. elegans embryos and suggest good candidate fluorescent proteins to test in other animal model systems for in vivo imaging experiments. PMID:27385332

  3. Quantitative diagnosis of tongue cancer from histological images in an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo G.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    We developed a chemically-induced oral cancer animal model and a computer aided method for tongue cancer diagnosis. The animal model allows us to monitor the progress of the lesions over time. Tongue tissue dissected from mice was sent for histological processing. Representative areas of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue from tongue sections were captured for classifying tumor and non-tumor tissue. The image set used in this paper consisted of 214 color images (114 tumor and 100 normal tissue samples). A total of 738 color, texture, morphometry and topology features were extracted from the histological images. The combination of image features from epithelium tissue and its constituent nuclei and cytoplasm has been demonstrated to improve the classification results. With ten iteration nested cross validation, the method achieved an average sensitivity of 96.5% and a specificity of 99% for tongue cancer detection. The next step of this research is to apply this approach to human tissue for computer aided diagnosis of tongue cancer.

  4. A Novel Side-Bridged Hybrid Phosphonate/Acetate Pendant Cyclam: Synthesis, Characterization, and 64Cu Small Animal PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, C. Andrew; Regino, Celeste A. S.; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Wong, Karen J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Kelley, James A.; Lai, Christopher C.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2008-01-01

    Copper-64 (t½ = 12.7 hr; β+: 0.653 MeV, 17.4%; β−: 0.578 MeV, 39%) is produced in a biomedical cyclotron and has applications in both imaging and therapy. Macrocyclic chelators are widely used as bifunctional chelators to bind copper radionuclides to antibodies and peptides owing to their relatively high kinetic stability. A novel side-bridged cyclam featuring both pendant acetate and phosphonate groups was synthesized using a Kabachnik-Fields approach followed by hydrobromic acid deprotection. The Cu(II) complex of the novel ligand was synthesized, radiolabeling with 64Cu was demonstrated, and in vitro (serum) stability was performed. In addition, in vivo distribution and clearance of the 64Cu-labeled complex was visualized by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. This novel chelate may be useful in 64Cu-mediated diagnostic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging as well as targeted radiotherapeutic applications. PMID:19101152

  5. A portable device for small animal SPECT imaging in clinical gamma-cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, P.; Silva-Rodríguez, J.; González-Castaño, D. M.; Pino, F.; Sánchez, M.; Herranz, M.; Iglesias, A.; Lois, C.; Ruibal, A.

    2014-07-01

    Molecular imaging is reshaping clinical practice in the last decades, providing practitioners with non-invasive ways to obtain functional in-vivo information on a diversity of relevant biological processes. The use of molecular imaging techniques in preclinical research is equally beneficial, but spreads more slowly due to the difficulties to justify a costly investment dedicated only to animal scanning. An alternative for lowering the costs is to repurpose parts of old clinical scanners to build new preclinical ones. Following this trend, we have designed, built, and characterized the performance of a portable system that can be attached to a clinical gamma-camera to make a preclinical single photon emission computed tomography scanner. Our system offers an image quality comparable to commercial systems at a fraction of their cost, and can be used with any existing gamma-camera with just an adaptation of the reconstruction software.

  6. Phase contrast x-ray velocimetry of small animal lungs: optimising imaging rates

    PubMed Central

    Murrie, R. P.; Paganin, D. M.; Fouras, A.; Morgan, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases affect a vast portion of the world’s population. One of the key difficulties in accurately diagnosing and treating chronic lung disease is our inability to measure dynamic motion of the lungs in vivo. Phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) allows us to image the lungs in high resolution by exploiting the difference in refractive indices between tissue and air. Combining PCXI with x-ray velocimetry (XV) allows us to track the local motion of the lungs, improving our ability to locate small regions of disease under natural ventilation conditions. Via simulation, we investigate the optimal imaging speed and sequence to capture lung motion in vivo in small animals using XV on both synchrotron and laboratory x-ray sources, balancing the noise inherent in a short exposure with motion blur that results from a long exposure. PMID:26819819

  7. A prototype instrument for single pinhole small animal adaptive SPECT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Melanie; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2008-01-01

    The authors have designed and constructed a small-animal adaptive SPECT imaging system as a prototype for quantifying the potential benefit of adaptive SPECT imaging over the traditional fixed geometry approach. The optical design of the system is based on filling the detector with the region of interest for each viewing angle, maximizing the sensitivity, and optimizing the resolution in the projection images. Additional feedback rules for determining the optimal geometry of the system can be easily added to the existing control software. Preliminary data have been taken of a phantom with a small, hot, offset lesion in a flat background in both adaptive and fixed geometry modes. Comparison of the predicted system behavior with the actual system behavior is presented, along with recommendations for system improvements. PMID:18561667

  8. A microcomputed tomography guided fluorescence tomography system for small animal molecular imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kepshire, Dax; Gruber, Josiah; Hypnarowski, Justin; Leblond, Frederic; Pogue, Brian W.; Mincu, Niculae; Hutchins, Michael; Khayat, Mario; Dehghani, Hamid

    2009-04-15

    A prototype small animal imaging system was created for coupling fluorescence tomography (FT) with x-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT). The FT system has the potential to provide synergistic information content resultant from using microCT images as prior spatial information and then allows overlay of the FT image onto the original microCT image. The FT system was designed to use single photon counting to provide maximal sensitivity measurements in a noncontact geometry. Five parallel detector locations are used, each allowing simultaneous sampling of the fluorescence and transmitted excitation signals through the tissue. The calibration and linearity range performance of the system are outlined in a series of basic performance tests and phantom studies. The ability to image protoporphyrin IX in mouse phantoms was assessed and the system is ready for in vivo use to study biological production of this endogenous marker of tumors. This multimodality imaging system will have a wide range of applications in preclinical cancer research ranging from studies of the tumor microenvironment and treatment efficacy for emerging cancer therapeutics.

  9. Small animal optoacoustic tomography system for molecular imaging of contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Richard; Liopo, Anton; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-03-01

    We developed a new and improved Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-3D for preclinical research applications in small animal models. The advancements include (i) a new stabilized imaging module with a more homogeneous illumination of the mouse yielding a better spatial resolution (<0.2 mm) and (ii) a new low noise amplifier incorporated into the ultrasonic probe and providing the noise equivalent pressure around 2 Pa resulting in increased signal-to-noise ratio and the optical absorption sensitivity of about 0.15 cm-1. We also improved scan time and the image reconstruction times. This prototype has been commercialized for a number of biomedical research applications, such as imaging vascularization and measuring hemoglobin / oxyhemoglobin distribution in the organs as well as imaging exogenous or endogenous optoacoustic contrast agents. As examples, we present in vivo experiments using phantoms and mice with and without tumor injected with contrast agents with indocyanine green (ICG). LOIS-3D was capable of detecting ~1-2 pmole of the ICG, in tissues with relatively low blood content. With its high sensitivity and excellent spatial resolution LOIS-3D is an advanced alternative to fluorescence and bioluminescence based modalities for molecular imaging in live mice.

  10. A microcomputed tomography guided fluorescence tomography system for small animal molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kepshire, Dax; Mincu, Niculae; Hutchins, Michael; Gruber, Josiah; Dehghani, Hamid; Hypnarowski, Justin; Leblond, Frederic; Khayat, Mario; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    A prototype small animal imaging system was created for coupling fluorescence tomography (FT) with x-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT). The FT system has the potential to provide synergistic information content resultant from using microCT images as prior spatial information and then allows overlay of the FT image onto the original microCT image. The FT system was designed to use single photon counting to provide maximal sensitivity measurements in a noncontact geometry. Five parallel detector locations are used, each allowing simultaneous sampling of the fluorescence and transmitted excitation signals through the tissue. The calibration and linearity range performance of the system are outlined in a series of basic performance tests and phantom studies. The ability to image protoporphyrin IX in mouse phantoms was assessed and the system is ready for in vivo use to study biological production of this endogenous marker of tumors. This multimodality imaging system will have a wide range of applications in preclinical cancer research ranging from studies of the tumor microenvironment and treatment efficacy for emerging cancer therapeutics. PMID:19405660

  11. A dual-use imaging system for pre-clinical small animal radiation research.

    PubMed

    Meng Li; Xingchi He; Eslami, Sohrab; Ken Kang-Hsin Wang; Bin Zhang; Wong, John; Iordachita, Iulian

    2015-01-01

    The current cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system on the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) is less effective in localizing soft-tissue targets. On the contrary, molecular optical imaging techniques, such as bioluminescence tomography (BLT) and fluorescence tomography (FT), can provide high contrast soft tissue images to complement CBCT and offer functional information. In this study, we present a dual-use optical imaging system that enables BLT/FT for both on-board and stand-alone applications. The system consists of a mobile cart and an imaging unit. Multi-projection optical images can be acquired in a range of -90°~90° angles. An optical fiber driven by an X-Y-Z Cartesian stage serves as an excitation light source specifically for FT. Our results show that the accuracy and reproducibility of the system meets the requirements set by the pre-clinical workflow (<;0.1 mm and 0.5 degree error). Preliminary experiments demonstrate the feasibility of bioluminescent imaging in a tissue-simulating phantom with a luminescent source embedded. In a considerable light-tight environment, we can achieve average background optical intensity significantly lower than the luminescent signal (<; 5%).

  12. Phase-selective image reconstruction of the lungs in small animals using micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S. M.; Perez, B. A.; Kirsch, D. G.; Badea, C. T.

    2010-04-01

    Gating in small animal imaging can compensate for artifacts due to physiological motion. This paper presents a strategy for sampling and image reconstruction in the rodent lung using micro-CT. The approach involves rapid sampling of freebreathing mice without any additional hardware to detect respiratory motion. The projection images are analyzed postacquisition to derive a respiratory signal, which is used to provide weighting factors for each projection that favor a selected phase of the respiration (e.g. end-inspiration or end-expiration) for the reconstruction. Since the sampling cycle and the respiratory cycle are uncorrelated, the sets of projections corresponding to any of the selected respiratory phases do not have a regular angular distribution. This drastically affects the image quality of reconstructions based on simple filtered backprojection. To address this problem, we use an iterative reconstruction algorithm that combines the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique with Total Variation minimization (SART-TV). At each SART-TV iteration, backprojection is performed with a set of weighting factors that favor the desired respiratory phase. To reduce reconstruction time, the algorithm is implemented on a graphics processing unit. The performance of the proposed approach was investigated in simulations and in vivo scans of mice with primary lung cancers imaged with our in-house developed dual tube/detector micro-CT system. We note that if the ECG signal is acquired during sampling, the same approach could be used for phase-selective cardiac imaging.

  13. In vivo functional chronic imaging of a small animal model using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has been validated as a valuable tool for label-free volumetric microvascular imaging. More importantly, the advantages of noninvasiveness and measurement consistency suggest the use of OR-PAM for chronic imaging of intact microcirculation. Here, such chronic imaging is demonstrated for the first time by monitoring the healing process of laser-induced microvascular lesions in a small animal model in vivo. The central part of a 1 mm by 1 mm region in a nude mouse ear was treated under a continuous-wave laser to create a microvascular lesion for chronic study. The region of interest was imaged before the laser treatment, immediately after the treatment, and throughout the healing process using both the authors’ OR-PAM system and a commercial transmission-mode optical microscope. Three-dimensional microvascular morphology and blood oxygenation information were imaged simultaneously at capillary-level resolution. Transmission-mode optical microscopic images were acquired for comparison. OR-PAM has potential important applications in microcirculatory physiology or pathophysiology, tumor angiogenesis, laser microsurgery, and neuroscience. PMID:19610320

  14. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Preclinical imaging and treatment of cancer: the use of animal models beyond rodents.

    PubMed

    Axiak-Bechtel, S M; Maitz, C A; Selting, K A; Bryan, J N

    2015-09-01

    The development of novel radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging and therapy of neoplastic diseases relies on accurate and reproducible animal models. Rodent models are often used to demonstrate the proof-of-principle tracer and therapeutic agent development, but their small size can make tissue sampling challenging. The dosimetry of decay emissions in the much smaller rodent tumors do not model dosimetry in human tumors well. In addition, rodent models of cancer represent a simplified version of a very complex process. Spontaneous tumors are heterogenous and the response to intervention can be unpredictable; tumor cells can adopt alternate signaling pathways and modify their interaction with the microenvironment. These inconsistencies, while present in humans, are difficult to fully reproduce in a genetically-engineered rodent model. Companion animals, primarily dogs and cats, offer translational models that more accurately reflect the intricate nature of spontaneous neoplasia in humans. Their larger size facilitates tissue and blood sampling when needed, and allows radiopharmaceutical tracers to be studied on human-scale imaging systems to better mimic the clinical application of the agent. This article will review the growing body of literature surrounding the use of radiopharmaceutical agents for both imaging and therapy in companion dogs and cats. Previous investigations have been performed both for the advancement of routine, high-level veterinary care, and in the context of translational research from which the results of imaging and treatment can be readily applied to people. Studies utilizing the spontaneously occurring cancer model in companion animals involving positron emission tomography, radiotracers, dosimetry, theranostics, targeted radiopharmaceuticals, brachytherapy, and boron neutron capture therapy are discussed.

  16. Motion gated small animal imaging with a flat-panel CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasruck, M.; Bartling, S.; Dinkel, J.; Kiessling, F.; Semmler, W.; Stierstorfer, K.; Schmidt, B.

    2008-03-01

    Small animal CT gains increasing interest in preclinical research. However, physiological motion compensation like in clinical CT has seldom been employed so far. We present different methods of retrospective motion correction for small animal imaging despite their high respiratory and heart rate. Beside respiratory gating alone the combination of respiratory and simultaneous cardiac gating is shown. In vivo data are acquired with an experimental flat-panel based CT scanner*(Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim Germany). Whole mice or rats fit in the available FOV of 25 * 25 * 4 cm 3, while acquisition rate is 100fps. Extrinsic gating is realized by tracing the physiological motion from a small animal monitoring system with a pneumatic pillow for respiratory motion and ECG for heart motion. At the alternative intrinsic method, the lung motion is directly correlated to the movement of the center of gravity in the acquired projection data. As an advantage of the second method the even low preparation effort per scan is reduced. As long as the rotation time of the gantry is far below the cycle time of heart or the lung a multi-segment reconstruction is used in both methods. Motion artifacts are largely suppressed after gating. While in non gated images, the diaphragm, heart contours, bronchi and lung vessels are already visible, they are more sharply defined in the gated datasets. Four-dimensional assessment of lung motion is possible and lung volume in several phases such as peak inspiration and expiration could be segmented, quantified and compared.

  17. Apoptosis imaging studies in various animal models using radio-iodinated peptide.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Wonjung; Ha, Yeong Su; Soni, Nisarg; Lee, Woonghee; Park, Se-Il; Ahn, Heesu; An, Gwang Il; Kim, In-San; Lee, Byung-Heon; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis has a role in many medical disorders and treatments; hence, its non-invasive evaluation is one of the most riveting research topics. Currently annexin V is used as gold standard for imaging apoptosis. However, several drawbacks, including high background, slow body clearance, make it a suboptimum marker for apoptosis imaging. In this study, we radiolabeled the recently identified histone H1 targeting peptide (ApoPep-1) and evaluated its potential as a new apoptosis imaging agent in various animal models. ApoPep-1 (CQRPPR) was synthesized, and an extra tyrosine residue was added to its N-terminal end for radiolabeling. This peptide was radiolabeled with (124)I and (131)I and was tested for its serum stability. Surgery- and drug-induced apoptotic rat models were prepared for apoptosis evaluation, and PET imaging was performed. Doxorubicin was used for xenograft tumor treatment in mice, and the induced apoptosis was studied. Tumor metabolism and proliferation were assessed by [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT PET imaging and compared with ApoPep-1 after doxorubicin treatment. The peptide was radiolabeled at high purity, and it showed reasonably good stability in serum. Cell death was easily imaged by radiolabeled ApoPep-1 in an ischemia surgery model. And, liver apoptosis was more clearly identified by ApoPep-1 rather than [(124)I]annexin V in cycloheximide-treated models. Three doxorubicin doses inhibited tumor growth, which was evaluated by 30-40% decreases of [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT PET uptake in the tumor area. However, ApoPep-1 demonstrated more than 200% increase in tumor uptake after chemotherapy, while annexin V did not show any meaningful uptake in the tumor compared with the background. Biodistribution data were also in good agreement with the microPET imaging results. All of the experimental data clearly demonstrated high potential of the radiolabeled ApoPep-1 for in vivo apoptosis imaging.

  18. Anaesthesia and physiological monitoring during in vivo imaging of laboratory rodents: considerations on experimental outcomes and animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of imaging technologies has dramatically increased the efficiency of preclinical studies, enabling a powerful, non-invasive and clinically translatable way for monitoring disease progression in real time and testing new therapies. The ability to image live animals is one of the most important advantages of these technologies. However, this also represents an important challenge as, in contrast to human studies, imaging of animals generally requires anaesthesia to restrain the animals and their gross motion. Anaesthetic agents have a profound effect on the physiology of the animal and may thereby confound the image data acquired. It is therefore necessary to select the appropriate anaesthetic regime and to implement suitable systems for monitoring anaesthetised animals during image acquisition. In addition, repeated anaesthesia required for longitudinal studies, the exposure of ionising radiations and the use of contrast agents and/or imaging biomarkers may also have consequences on the physiology of the animal and its response to anaesthesia, which need to be considered while monitoring the animals during imaging studies. We will review the anaesthesia protocols and monitoring systems commonly used during imaging of laboratory rodents. A variety of imaging modalities are used for imaging rodents, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, high frequency ultrasound and optical imaging techniques such as bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging. While all these modalities are implemented for non-invasive in vivo imaging, there are certain differences in terms of animal handling and preparation, how the monitoring systems are implemented and, importantly, how the imaging procedures themselves can affect mammalian physiology. The most important and critical adverse effects of anaesthetic agents are depression of respiration, cardiovascular system disruption and

  19. Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

    1981-10-01

    A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

  20. Image quality phantom and parameters for high spatial resolution small-animal SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Eric P.; Harteveld, Anita A.; Meeuwis, Antoi P. W.; Disselhorst, Jonathan A.; Beekman, Freek J.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Boerman, Otto C.

    2011-10-01

    At present, generally accepted standards to characterize small-animal single photon emission tomographs (SPECT) do not exist. Whereas for small-animal positron emission tomography (PET), the NEMA NU 4-2008 guidelines are available, such standards are still lacking for small-animal SPECT. More specifically, a dedicated image quality (IQ) phantom and corresponding IQ parameters are absent. The structures of the existing PET IQ phantom are too large to fully characterize the sub-millimeter spatial resolution of modern multi-pinhole SPECT scanners, and its diameter will not fit into all scanners when operating in high spatial resolution mode. We therefore designed and constructed an adapted IQ phantom with smaller internal structures and external diameter, and a facility to guarantee complete filling of the smallest rods. The associated IQ parameters were adapted from NEMA NU 4. An additional parameter, effective whole-body sensitivity, was defined since this was considered relevant in view of the variable size of the field of view and the use of multiple bed positions as encountered in modern small-animal SPECT scanners. The usefulness of the phantom was demonstrated for 99mTc in a USPECT-II scanner operated in whole-body scanning mode using a multi-pinhole mouse collimator with 0.6 mm pinhole diameter.

  1. [The image of animal magnetism in fictional literature: the cases of Poe, Doyle and Du Maurier].

    PubMed

    Bonet Safont, Juan Marcos

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we focus on the social image of the phenomenon known as mesmerism, or animal magnetism, through analysis of the works: The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar (1845) by Edgar Allan Poe, The Great Keinplatz Experiment (1885) by Conan Doyle and Trilby (1894) by George Du Maurier. We describe the stereotype of the mesmerist and the uses of mesmerism observed. We pay attention to the spaces and actors of the mesmeric transcript presented in the stories. We consider the reception of these stories by the public and the relationship of the authors with mesmeric and hypnotic knowledge. Nowadays, academic researchers in the discipline of psychology publish articles and books on popular myths about hypnosis in attempts to depict the distorted images related to this phenomenon. This distorted image of the hypnotic process and the hypnotist derives from "circus" hypnotism shows (stage hypnosis), the cinema, television and fictional literature. Works of fiction represent a unique and invaluable source of information, ideas, speculations, concerns and opportunities around animal magnetism and hypnosis, and the exploration and analysis of this literature is an essential chapter in any historical study of this topic. We see how the literary use of mesmerism by Poe, Doyle and Du Maurier is not chance or peripheral, with all three being intellectually interested in and stimulated by these ideas.

  2. A comparison between a time domain and continuous wave small animal optical imaging system.

    PubMed

    Keren, S; Gheysens, O; Levin, C S; Gambhir, S S

    2008-01-01

    We present a phantom study to evaluate the performance of the eXplore Optix (Advanced Research Technologies-GE Healthcare), the first commercially available time-domain tomography system for small animal fluorescence imaging, and compare its capabilities with the widely used IVIS 200 (Xenogen Corporation-Caliper) continuous wave planar imaging system. The eXplore Optix, based on point-wise illumination and collection scheme, is found to be a log order more sensitive with significantly higher detection depth and spatial resolution as compared with the wide-area illumination IVIS 200 under the conditions tested. A time-resolved detection system allows the eXplore Optix to measure the arrival time distribution of fluorescence photons. This enables fluorescence lifetime measurement, absorption mapping, and estimation of fluorescent inclusion depth, which in turn is used by a reconstruction algorithm to calculate the volumetric distribution of the fluorophore concentration. An increased acquisition time and lack of ability to image multiple animals simultaneously are the main drawbacks of the eXplore Optix as compared with the IVIS 200.

  3. A restraint-free small animal SPECT imaging system with motion tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, A.G.; Gleason, S.S.; Goddard, J.; Kross, B.; Majewski, S.; Meikle, S.R.; Paulus, M.J.; Pomper, M.; Popov, V.; Smith, M.F.; Welch, B.L.; Wojcik, R.

    2005-06-01

    We report on an approach toward the development of a high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system to image the biodistribution of radiolabeled tracers such as Tc-99m and I-125 in unrestrained/unanesthetized mice. An infrared (IR)-based position tracking apparatus has been developed and integrated into a SPECT gantry. The tracking system is designed to measure the spatial position of a mouse's head at a rate of 10-15 frames per second with submillimeter accuracy. The high-resolution, gamma imaging detectors are based on pixellated NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator arrays, position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes, and novel readout circuitry requiring fewer analog-digital converter (ADC) channels while retaining high spatial resolution. Two SPECT gamma camera detector heads based upon position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes have been built and installed onto the gantry. The IR landmark-based pose measurement and tracking system is under development to provide animal position data during a SPECT scan. The animal position and orientation data acquired by the tracking system will be used for motion correction during the tomographic image reconstruction.

  4. A small animal image guided irradiation system study using 3D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xin; Admovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    In a high resolution image-guided small animal irradiation platform, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is integrated with an irradiation unit for precise targeting. Precise quality assurance is essential for both imaging and irradiation components. The conventional commissioning techniques with films face major challenges due to alignment uncertainty and labour intensive film preparation and scanning. In addition, due to the novel design of this platform the mouse stage rotation for CBCT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for irradiation. Because these two rotations are associated with different mechanical systems, discrepancy between rotation isocenters exists. In order to deliver x-ray precisely, it is essential to verify coincidence of the imaging and the irradiation isocenters. A 3D PRESAGE dosimeter can provide an excellent tool for checking dosimetry and verifying coincidence of irradiation and imaging coordinates in one system. Dosimetric measurements were performed to obtain beam profiles and percent depth dose (PDD). Isocentricity and coincidence of the mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated with starshots acquired using PRESAGE dosimeters. A single PRESAGE dosimeter can provide 3 -D information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies.

  5. Imaging of Small Animal Peripheral Artery Disease Models: Recent Advancements and Translational Potential

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jenny B.; Phillips, Evan H.; Riggins, Ti’Air E.; Sangha, Gurneet S.; Chakraborty, Sreyashi; Lee, Janice Y.; Lycke, Roy J.; Hernandez, Clarissa L.; Soepriatna, Arvin H.; Thorne, Bradford R. H.; Yrineo, Alexa A.; Goergen, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a broad disorder encompassing multiple forms of arterial disease outside of the heart. As such, PAD development is a multifactorial process with a variety of manifestations. For example, aneurysms are pathological expansions of an artery that can lead to rupture, while ischemic atherosclerosis reduces blood flow, increasing the risk of claudication, poor wound healing, limb amputation, and stroke. Current PAD treatment is often ineffective or associated with serious risks, largely because these disorders are commonly undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Active areas of research are focused on detecting and characterizing deleterious arterial changes at early stages using non-invasive imaging strategies, such as ultrasound, as well as emerging technologies like photoacoustic imaging. Earlier disease detection and characterization could improve interventional strategies, leading to better prognosis in PAD patients. While rodents are being used to investigate PAD pathophysiology, imaging of these animal models has been underutilized. This review focuses on structural and molecular information and disease progression revealed by recent imaging efforts of aortic, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease models in mice, rats, and rabbits. Effective translation to humans involves better understanding of underlying PAD pathophysiology to develop novel therapeutics and apply non-invasive imaging techniques in the clinic. PMID:25993289

  6. An x-ray image guidance system for small animal stereotactic irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K. H.; Pidikiti, R.; Stojadinovic, S.; Speiser, M.; Seliounine, S.; Saha, D.; Solberg, T. D.

    2010-12-01

    An x-ray image-guided small animal stereotactic irradiator was developed and characterized to enable tumor visualization and accurate target localization for small field, high dose irradiation. The system utilizes a custom collimation system, a motorized positioning system (x, y, θ), a digital imaging panel and operating software, and is integrated with a commercial x-ray unit. The essential characteristics of the irradiator include small radiation fields (1-10 mm), high dose rate (>10 Gy min-1) and submillimeter target localization. The software enables computer-controlled image acquisition, stage motion and target localization providing simple and precise automated target localization. The imaging panel was characterized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. Overall localization accuracy and precision were assessed. SNR, CNR and spatial resolution are 24 dB, 21 dB and 2.8 lp mm-1, respectively, and localization accuracy is approximately 65 µm with 6 µm precision. With the aid of image guidance, system performance was subsequently used to evaluate radiation response in a rat orthotopic lung tumor effectively sparing normal tissues and in a mouse normal lung. The capabilities of 3D treatment and cone-beam computed tomography are presented for 3D localization and delivery as a work in progress.

  7. Optically detunable, inductively coupled coil for self-gating in small animal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Korn, Matthias; Umathum, Reiner; Schulz, Jessica; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bock, Michael

    2011-03-01

    An inductively coupled coil concept is presented, which improves the compensation of physiological motion by the self-gating (SG) technique. The animal is positioned in a conventional volume coil encompassing the whole animal. A small, resonant surface coil (SG-coil) is placed on the thorax so that its sensitive region includes the heart. Via inductive coupling the SG-coil amplifies selectively the MR signal of the beating heart. With an optical detuning mechanism, this coupling can be switched off during acquisition of the MR image information, whereas it is active during SG data sampling to provide the physiological information. In vivo experiments on a mouse show an amplification of the SG signal by at least 40%.

  8. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior.

  9. Genetically encoded molecular biosensors to image histone methylation in living animals.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Thillai V; Foygel, Kira; Gelovani, Juri G; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2015-01-20

    Post-translational addition of methyl groups to the amino terminal tails of histone proteins regulates cellular gene expression at various stages of development and the pathogenesis of cellular diseases, including cancer. Several enzymes that modulate these post-translational modifications of histones are promising targets for development of small molecule drugs. However, there is no promising real-time histone methylation detection tool currently available to screen and validate potential small molecule histone methylation modulators in small animal models. With this in mind, we developed genetically encoded molecular biosensors based on the split-enzyme complementation approach for in vitro and in vivo imaging of lysine 9 (H3-K9 sensor) and lysine 27 (H3-K27 sensor) methylation marks of histone 3. These methylation sensors were validated in vitro in HEK293T, HepG2, and HeLa cells. The efficiency of the histone methylation sensor was assessed by employing methyltransferase inhibitors (Bix01294 and UNC0638), demethylase inhibitor (JIB-04), and siRNA silencing at the endogenous histone K9-methyltransferase enzyme level. Furthermore, noninvasive bioluminescence imaging of histone methylation sensors confirmed the potential of these sensors in monitoring histone methylation status in response to histone methyltransferase inhibitors in living animals. Experimental results confirmed that the developed H3-K9 and H3-K27 sensors are specific and sensitive to image the drug-induced histone methylation changes in living animals. These novel histone methylation sensors can facilitate the in vitro screening and in vivo characterization of new histone methyltransferase inhibitors and accelerate the pace of introduction of epigenetic therapies into the clinic.

  10. Performance evaluation of the microPET P4: a PET system dedicated to animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Y. C.; Chatziioannou, A.; Siegel, S.; Young, J.; Newport, D.; Goble, R. N.; Nutt, R. E.; Cherry, S. R.

    2001-07-01

    The microPET Primate 4-ring system (P4) is an animal PET tomograph with a 7.8 cm axial extent, a 19 cm diameter transaxial field of view (FOV) and a 22 cm animal port. The system is composed of 168 detector modules, each with an 8×8 array of 2.2×2.2×10 mm3 lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals, arranged as 32 crystal rings 26 cm in diameter. The detector crystals are coupled to a Hamamatsu R5900-C8 PS-PMT via a 10 cm long optical fibre bundle. The detectors have a timing resolution of 3.2 ns, an average energy resolution of 26%, and an average intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.75 mm. The system operates in 3D mode without inter-plane septa, acquiring data in list mode. The reconstructed image spatial resolution ranges from 1.8 mm at the centre to 3 mm at 4 cm radial offset. The tomograph has a peak system sensitivity of 2.25% at the centre of the FOV with a 250-750 keV energy window. The noise equivalent count rate peaks at 100-290 kcps for representative object sizes. Images from two phantoms and three different types of laboratory animal demonstrate the advantage of the P4 system over the original prototype microPET, including its threefold improvement in sensitivity and a large axial FOV sufficient to image an entire mouse in a single bed position.

  11. A diurnal animation of thermal images from a day-night pair

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    2000-01-01

    Interpretation of thermal images is often complicated because the physical property information is contained in both the spatial and temporal variations of the data and thermal models are necessary to extract and display this information. A linearized radiative transfer solution to the surface flux has been used to derive a function that is invariant with respect to thermal inertia. This relationship makes it possible to predict the temperature variation at any time in the diurnal cycle using only two distinct measurements (e.g., noon and midnight). An animation can then be constructed from a pair of day-night images to view both the spatial and temporal temperature changes throughout the diurnal cycle. A more complete solution for the invariant function, using the method of Laplace transforms and based on the linearized solution, was introduced. These results indicate that the linear model does not provide a sufficiently accurate estimate. Using standard conditions (latitude 30??, solar declination 0??, acquisition times at noon and midnight), this new relationship was used to predict temperature throughout the diurnal cycle to an rms error of 0.2??C, which is close to the system noise of most thermal scanners. The method was further extended to include the primary effects of topographic slope with similar accuracy. The temperature was computed at 48 equally spaced times in the diurnal cycle with this algorithm using a co-registered day and night TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) data pair (330 pixels, 450 lilies) acquired of the Carlin, Nevada, area and a co-registered DEM (Digital Elevation Model). (Any reader can view the results by downloading the animation file from an identified tip site). The results illustrate the power of animation to display subtle temporal and spatial temperature changes, which can provide clues to structural controls and material property differences. This 'visual change' approach could significantly increase the use of

  12. A comparison of traffic estimates of nocturnal flying animals using radar, thermal imaging, and acoustic recording.

    PubMed

    Horton, Kyle G; Shriver, W Gregory; Buler, Jeffrey J

    2015-03-01

    There are several remote-sensing tools readily available for the study of nocturnally flying animals (e.g., migrating birds), each possessing unique measurement biases. We used three tools (weather surveillance radar, thermal infrared camera, and acoustic recorder) to measure temporal and spatial patterns of nocturnal traffic estimates of flying animals during the spring and fall of 2011 and 2012 in Lewes, Delaware, USA. Our objective was to compare measures among different technologies to better understand their animal detection biases. For radar and thermal imaging, the greatest observed traffic rate tended to occur at, or shortly after, evening twilight, whereas for the acoustic recorder, peak bird flight-calling activity was observed just prior to morning twilight. Comparing traffic rates during the night for all seasons, we found that mean nightly correlations between acoustics and the other two tools were weakly correlated (thermal infrared camera and acoustics, r = 0.004 ± 0.04 SE, n = 100 nights; radar and acoustics, r = 0.14 ± 0.04 SE, n = 101 nights), but highly variable on an individual nightly basis (range = -0.84 to 0.92, range = -0.73 to 0.94). The mean nightly correlations between traffic rates estimated by radar and by thermal infrared camera during the night were more strongly positively correlated (r = 0.39 ± 0.04 SE, n = 125 nights), but also were highly variable for individual nights (range = -0.76 to 0.98). Through comparison with radar data among numerous height intervals, we determined that flying animal height above the ground influenced thermal imaging positively and flight call detections negatively. Moreover, thermal imaging detections decreased with the presence of cloud cover and increased with mean ground flight speed of animals, whereas acoustic detections showed no relationship with cloud cover presence but did decrease with increased flight speed. We found sampling methods to be positively correlated when comparing mean nightly

  13. Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the “Holy Gray”

    PubMed Central

    Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Tennvall, J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. Review This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose–response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. Developments In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally. PMID:17268773

  14. Mass spectrometry imaging of therapeutics from animal models to three-dimensional cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Hummon, Amanda B

    2015-10-06

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful label-free technique for the investigation of the spatial distribution of molecules at complex surfaces and has been widely used in the pharmaceutical sciences to understand the distribution of different drugs and their metabolites in various biological samples, ranging from cell-based models to tissues. Here, we review the current applications of MSI for drug studies in animal models, followed by a discussion of the novel advances of MSI in three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures for accurate, efficient, and high-throughput analyses to evaluate therapeutics.

  15. NEIGHBOUR-IN: Image processing software for spatial analysis of animal grouping

    PubMed Central

    Caubet, Yves; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Animal grouping is a very complex process that occurs in many species, involving many individuals under the influence of different mechanisms. To investigate this process, we have created an image processing software, called NEIGHBOUR-IN, designed to analyse individuals’ coordinates belonging to up to three different groups. The software also includes statistical analysis and indexes to discriminate aggregates based on spatial localisation of individuals and their neighbours. After the description of the software, the indexes computed by the software are illustrated using both artificial patterns and case studies using the spatial distribution of woodlice. The added strengths of this software and methods are also discussed. PMID:26261448

  16. NEIGHBOUR-IN: Image processing software for spatial analysis of animal grouping.

    PubMed

    Caubet, Yves; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Animal grouping is a very complex process that occurs in many species, involving many individuals under the influence of different mechanisms. To investigate this process, we have created an image processing software, called NEIGHBOUR-IN, designed to analyse individuals' coordinates belonging to up to three different groups. The software also includes statistical analysis and indexes to discriminate aggregates based on spatial localisation of individuals and their neighbours. After the description of the software, the indexes computed by the software are illustrated using both artificial patterns and case studies using the spatial distribution of woodlice. The added strengths of this software and methods are also discussed.

  17. In vivo confocal imaging of the retina in animal models using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Mathias W; Beck, Susanne C; Pereyra-Muñoz, Naira; Dangel, Susann; Tsai, Jen-Yue; Luhmann, Ulrich F O; van de Pavert, Serge A; Wijnholds, Jan; Samardzija, Marijana; Wenzel, Andreas; Zrenner, Eberhart; Narfström, Kristina; Fahl, Edda; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Acar, Niyazi; Tonagel, Felix

    2005-12-01

    Scanning-laser ophthalmoscopy is a technique for confocal imaging of the eye in vivo. The use of lasers of different wavelengths allows to obtain information about specific tissues and layers due to their reflection and transmission characteristics. In addition, fluorescent dyes excitable in the blue and infrared range offer a unique access to the vascular structures associated with each layer. In animal models, a further enhancement in specificity can be obtained by GFP expression under control of tissue-specific promotors. Important fields of application are studies in retinal degenerations and the follow-up of therapeutic intervention.

  18. In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging (BLI): Noninvasive Visualization and Interrogation of Biological Processes in Living Animals

    PubMed Central

    Close, Dan M.; Xu, Tingting; Sayler, Gary S.; Ripp, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is increasingly being utilized as a method for modern biological research. This process, which involves the noninvasive interrogation of living animals using light emitted from luciferase-expressing bioreporter cells, has been applied to study a wide range of biomolecular functions such as gene function, drug discovery and development, cellular trafficking, protein-protein interactions, and especially tumorigenesis, cancer treatment, and disease progression. This article will review the various bioreporter/biosensor integrations of BLI and discuss how BLI is being applied towards a new visual understanding of biological processes within the living organism. PMID:22346573

  19. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Therapeutics from Animal Models to Three-Dimensional Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful label-free technique for the investigation of the spatial distribution of molecules at complex surfaces and has been widely used in the pharmaceutical sciences to understand the distribution of different drugs and their metabolites in various biological samples, ranging from cell-based models to tissues. Here, we review the current applications of MSI for drug studies in animal models, followed by a discussion of the novel advances of MSI in three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures for accurate, efficient and high-throughput analyses to evaluate therapeutics. PMID:26084404

  20. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  1. Experience and distribution of attention: Pet exposure and infants’ scanning of animal images

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Karinna B.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Although infants’ cognitions about the world must be influenced by experience, little research has directly assessed the relation between everyday experience and infants’ visual cognition in the laboratory. Eye-tracking procedures were used to measure 4-month-old infants’ eye-movements as they visually investigated a series of images. Infants with pet experience (N = 27) directed a greater proportion of their looking at the most informative region of animal stimuli—the head—than did infants without such experience (N = 21); the two groups of infants did not differ in their scanning of images of human faces or vehicles. Thus, infants’ visual cognitions are influenced by everyday experience, and theories of cognitive development in infancy must account for the effect of experience on development. PMID:25663827

  2. Combined system of fluorescence diffuse optical tomography and microcomputed tomography for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoquan; Gong, Hui; Quan, Guotao; Deng, Yong; Luo, Qingming

    2010-05-01

    We developed a dual-modality system that combines fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) and flat panel detector-based microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) to simultaneously reveal molecular and structural information in small animals. In fDOT, a 748 nm diode laser was used as an excitation source, while a cooled charge coupled device camera was adopted to collect transmission fluorescence. In micro-CT, a flat panel detector based on amorphous silicon, with active area of 13×13 cm2, and a microfocus x-ray tube were used. The fDOT system was mounted orthogonally to the micro-CT and the projection images were acquired without rotation of the sample, which is different from the method used for micro-CT alone. Both the finite element method and the algebraic reconstruction technique were used to reconstruct images from the fDOT. Phantom data showed that the resolution of the fDOT system was about 3 mm at an imaging depth of 7 mm. Quantitative error was no more than 5% and imaging sensitivity for 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-etramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide bis-oleate (DiR-BOA) was estimated to be higher than 100 nM at a depth of 7 mm. Calculations of the phantom's center of mass showed that the location accuracy of fDOT was about 0.7 mm. We applied a Feldkamp algorithm to reconstruct the micro-CT image. By measuring the presampled modulation transfer function with a 30 μm tungsten thread, we estimated that the micro-CT has a resolution of 5 mm-1 when the field of view was 6.5 cm. Our results indicate the uniformity of the transaxial micro-CT image and the contrast-to-noise ratio was measured as 1.95 for a radiation dose of 1 cGy. A non-image-based method was employed for merging images from the two imaging modalities. A nude mouse with DiR-BOA, imaged ex vivo, was used to validate the feasibility of the dual-modality system.

  3. A clinical gamma camera-based pinhole collimated system for high resolution small animal SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Mejia, J; Galvis-Alonso, O Y; Castro, A A de; Braga, J; Leite, J P; Simões, M V

    2010-12-01

    The main objective of the present study was to upgrade a clinical gamma camera to obtain high resolution tomographic images of small animal organs. The system is based on a clinical gamma camera to which we have adapted a special-purpose pinhole collimator and a device for positioning and rotating the target based on a computer-controlled step motor. We developed a software tool to reconstruct the target's three-dimensional distribution of emission from a set of planar projections, based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. We present details on the hardware and software implementation. We imaged phantoms and heart and kidneys of rats. When using pinhole collimators, the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the imaging system depend on parameters such as the detector-to-collimator and detector-to-target distances and pinhole diameter. In this study, we reached an object voxel size of 0.6 mm and spatial resolution better than 2.4 and 1.7 mm full width at half maximum when 1.5- and 1.0-mm diameter pinholes were used, respectively. Appropriate sensitivity to study the target of interest was attained in both cases. Additionally, we show that as few as 12 projections are sufficient to attain good quality reconstructions, a result that implies a significant reduction of acquisition time and opens the possibility for radiotracer dynamic studies. In conclusion, a high resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system was developed using a commercial clinical gamma camera, allowing the acquisition of detailed volumetric images of small animal organs. This type of system has important implications for research areas such as Cardiology, Neurology or Oncology.

  4. Micro-CT images reconstruction and 3D visualization for small animal studying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hui; Liu, Qian; Zhong, Aijun; Ju, Shan; Fang, Quan; Fang, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    A small-animal x-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) system has been constructed to screen laboratory small animals and organs. The micro-CT system consists of dual fiber-optic taper-coupled CCD detectors with a field-of-view of 25x50 mm2, a microfocus x-ray source, a rotational subject holder. For accurate localization of rotation center, coincidence between the axis of rotation and centre of image was studied by calibration with a polymethylmethacrylate cylinder. Feldkamp"s filtered back-projection cone-beam algorithm is adopted for three-dimensional reconstruction on account of the effective corn-beam angle is 5.67° of the micro-CT system. 200x1024x1024 matrix data of micro-CT is obtained with the magnification of 1.77 and pixel size of 31x31μm2. In our reconstruction software, output image size of micro-CT slices data, magnification factor and rotation sample degree can be modified in the condition of different computational efficiency and reconstruction region. The reconstructed image matrix data is processed and visualization by Visualization Toolkit (VTK). Data parallelism of VTK is performed in surface rendering of reconstructed data in order to improve computing speed. Computing time of processing a 512x512x512 matrix datasets is about 1/20 compared with serial program when 30 CPU is used. The voxel size is 54x54x108 μm3. The reconstruction and 3-D visualization images of laboratory rat ear are presented.

  5. Preclinical molecular imaging: development of instrumentation for translational research with small laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Jorge; Miranda, Ana Claudia Camargo; Durante, Ana Claudia Ranucci; de Oliveira, Larissa Rolim; de Barboza, Marycel Rosa Felisa Figols; Rosell, Katerin Taboada; Jardim, Daniele Pereira; Campos, Alexandre Holthausen; dos Reis, Marilia Alves; Catanoso, Marcela Forli; Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth; Cabral, Francisco Romero

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To present the result of upgrading a clinical gamma-camera to be used to obtain in vivo tomographic images of small animal organs, and its application to register cardiac, renal and neurological images. Methods: An updated version of the miniSPECT upgrading device was built, which is composed of mechanical, electronic and software subsystems. The device was attached to a Discovery VH (General Electric Healthcare) gamma-camera, which was retired from the clinical service and installed at the Centro de Imagem Pré-Clínica of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. The combined system was characterized, determining operational parameters, such as spatial resolution, magnification, maximum acceptable target size, number of projections, and acquisition and reconstruction times. Results: Images were obtained with 0.5mm spatial resolution, with acquisition and reconstruction times between 30 and 45 minutes, using iterative reconstruction with 10 to 20 iterations and 4 projection subsets. The system was validated acquiring in vivo tomographic images of the heart, kidneys and brain of normal animals (mice and adult rats), using the radiopharmaceuticals technetium-labeled hexakis-2-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-Sestamibi), technetium-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-labeled hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). Conclusion: This kind of application, which consists in the adaptation for an alternative objective of already existing instrumentation, resulted in a low-cost infrastructure option, allowing to carry out large scale in vivo studies with enhanced quality in several areas, such as neurology, nephrology, cardiology, among others. PMID:27759832

  6. Un-collimated single-photon imaging system for high-sensitivity small animal and plant imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Katherine L.; Judenhofer, Martin S.; Cherry, Simon R.; Mitchell, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    In preclinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system development the primary objective has been to improve spatial resolution by using novel parallel-hole or multi-pinhole collimator geometries. However, such high-resolution systems have relatively poor sensitivity (typically 0.01-0.1%). In contrast, a system that does not use collimators can achieve very high-sensitivity. Here we present a high-sensitivity un-collimated detector single-photon imaging (UCD-SPI) system for the imaging of both small animals and plants. This scanner consists of two thin, closely spaced, pixelated scintillator detectors that use NaI(Tl), CsI(Na), or BGO. The performance of the system has been characterized by measuring sensitivity, spatial resolution, linearity, detection limits, and uniformity. With 99mTc (140 keV) at the center of the field of view (20 mm scintillator separation), the sensitivity was measured to be 31.8% using the NaI(Tl) detectors and 40.2% with CsI(Na). The best spatial resolution (FWHM when the image formed as the geometric mean of the two detector heads, 20 mm scintillator separation) was 19.0 mm for NaI(Tl) and 11.9 mm for CsI(Na) at 140 keV, and 19.5 mm for BGO at 1116 keV, which is somewhat degraded compared to the cm-scale resolution obtained with only one detector head and a close source. The quantitative accuracy of the system’s linearity is better than 2% with detection down to activity levels of 100 nCi. Two in vivo animal studies (a renal scan using 99mTc MAG-3 and a thyroid scan with 123I) and one plant study (a 99mTcO4- xylem transport study) highlight the unique capabilities of this UCD-SPI system. From the renal scan, we observe approximately a one thousand-fold increase in sensitivity compared to the Siemens Inveon SPECT/CT scanner. UCD-SPI is useful for many imaging tasks that do not require excellent spatial resolution, such as high-throughput screening applications, simple radiotracer uptake studies in tumor

  7. Automated Method for Small-Animal PET Image Registration with Intrinsic Validation

    PubMed Central

    Pascau, Javier; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Michaelides, Michael; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Volkow, Nora D.; Vaquero, Juan José; Soto-Montenegro, Maria Luisa; Desco, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We propose and compare different registration approaches to align small-animal PET studies and a procedure to validate the results by means of objective registration consistency measurements. Procedures: We have applied a registration algorithm based on information theory, using different approaches to mask the reference image. The registration consistency allows for the detection of incorrect registrations. This methodology has been evaluated on a test dataset (FDG-PET rat brain images). Results: The results show that a multiresolution two-step registration approach based on the use of the whole image at the low resolution step, while masking the brain at the high resolution step, provides the best robustness (87.5% registration success) and highest accuracy (0.67-mm average). Conclusions: The major advantages of our approach are minimal user interaction and automatic assessment of the registration error, avoiding visual inspection of the results, thus facilitating the accurate, objective, and rapid analysis of large groups of rodent PET images. PMID:18670824

  8. In-vivo high resolution corneal imaging and analysis on animal models for clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jesmond; Shinoj, V. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.; Baskaran, M.; Aung, Tin

    2015-07-01

    A simple and low cost optical probe system for the high resolution imaging of the cornea is proposed, based on a Gaussian beam epi-illumination configuration. Corneal topography is obtained by moving the scanning spot across the eye in a raster fashion whereas pachymetry data is achieved by reconstructing the images obtained at different depths. The proposed prototype has been successfully tested on porcine eye samples ex vivo and subsequently on laboratory animals, such as the New Zealand White Rabbit, in vivo. This proposed system and methodology pave the way for realizing a simple and inexpensive optical configuration for pachymetry and keratometry readings, with achievable resolution up to the cellular level. This novel and non-contact high resolution imaging modality demonstrates high intraobserver reproducibility and repeatability. Together with its sophisticated data analysis strategies and safety profile, it is believed to complement existing imaging modalities in the assessment and evaluation of corneal diseases, which enable a decrease in morbidity and improvement in the effectiveness of subsequent treatment.

  9. Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Dev K; Rufaihah, Abdul J; Zhang, Yong

    2008-03-01

    Upconversion fluorescence imaging technique with excitation in the near-infrared (NIR) region has been used for imaging of biological cells and tissues. This has several advantages, including absence of photo-damage to living organisms, very low auto-fluorescence, high detection sensitivity, and high light penetration depth in biological tissues. In this report we demonstrate the use of a new upconversion fluorophore, lanthanide doped nanocrystals, for imaging of cells and some deep tissues in animal. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanoparticles were synthesized, which produce very strong upconversion fluorescence when excited at 980 nm by a NIR laser. The nanoparticles were shown to be stable in physiologic buffered saline (PBS), non-toxic to bone marrow stem cells, and resistant to photo-bleaching. The nanoparticles delivered into some cell lines or injected intradermally and intramuscularly into some tissues either near the body surface or deep in the body of rats showed visible fluorescence, when exposed to a 980 nm NIR laser. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first demonstration of use of upconversion fluorophores for cellular and tissue imaging.

  10. Small Animal In Vivo X-Ray Tomosynthesis: Anatomical Relevance of the Reconstructed Images.

    PubMed

    Barquero, H; Brasse, D

    2016-02-01

    Whole body X-ray micro-Digital Tomosynthesis (micro-DT) for small animal imaging is introduced in this work. Such a system allows to deal with geometrical constraints that do not allow to use a micro-CT system as well as to reduce the radiological dose compared to a micro-CT scan. Data was simulated using the Digimouse anatomical model of the mouse with the designed system. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm regularized by Total Variation norm (TV) minimization was used to reconstruct images. Parameters for the reconstruction were optimized and the algorithm performance was evaluated quantitatively. High contrast tissues were subsequently segmented by thresholding the image. Quantitative analysis of the segmented domains indicates that a relevant anatomical information can possibly be extracted from micro-DT images. Indeed the Dice's coefficient values are greater than 0.8 for the segmented High Contrast Tissues compared to the phantom, which indicates an important overlap between the domains. The volume of the segmented tissues is over-estimated for the bones and skin-with 1.313 and 1.113 ratios of the estimated over reference volumes, respectively-and under-estimated in the case of the lungs with a 0.762 ratio. The mean point to surface distance is inferior to the voxel size of 400 μm, for the three segmented tissues. These results are very encouraging and let us consider micro-DT as an alternative to micro-CT to deal with geometrical constraints.

  11. Design and implementation of a calibrated hyperspectral small-animal imager: Practical and theoretical aspects of system optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavesley, Silas Josiah

    Pre-clinical imaging has been an important development within the bioscience and pharmacology fields. A rapidly growing area within these fields is small animal fluorescence imaging, in which molecularly targeted fluorescent probes are used to non-invasively image internal events on a gross anatomical scale. Small-animal fluorescence imaging has transitioned from a research technique to pre-clinical technology very quickly, due to its molecular specificity, low cost, and relative ease of use. In addition, its potential uses in gene therapy and as a translational technology are becoming evident. This thesis outlines the development of an alternative modality for small animal/tissue imaging, using hyperspectral techniques to enable the collection of fluorescence images at different excitation and emission wavelengths. In specific, acousto-optical tunable filters (AOTFs) were used to construct emission-wavelength-scanning and excitation-wavelength-scanning small animal fluorescence imagers. Statistical, classification, and unmixing algorithms have been employed to extract specific fluorescent-dye information from hyperspectral image sets. In this work, we have designed and implemented hyperspectral imaging and analysis techniques to remove background autofluorescence from the desired fluorescence signal, resulting in highly specific and localized fluorescence. Therefore, in practice, it is possible to more accurately pin-point the location and size of diagnostic anatomical markers (e.g. tumors) labeled with fluorescent probes. Furthermore, multiple probes can be individually distinguished. In addition to imaging hardware and acquisition and analysis software, we have designed an optical tissue phantom for quality control and inter-system comparison. The phantom has been modeled using Monte Carlo techniques. The culmination of this work results in an understanding of the advantages and complexities in applying hyperspectral techniques to small animal fluorescence

  12. Atmospheric Data, Images, and Animations from Lidar Instruments used by the University of Wisconsin Lidar Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Space Science and Engineering Center is a research and development center affiliated with the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Graduate School. Its primary focus is on geophysical research and technology to enhance understanding of the atmosphere of Earth, the other planets in the Solar System, and the cosmos. SSEC develops new observing tools for spacecraft, aircraft, and ground-based platforms, and models atmospheric phenomena. The Center receives, manages and distributes huge amounts of geophysical data and develops software to visualize and manipulate these data for use by researchers and operational meteorologists all over the world.[Taken from About SSEC at http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/overview/] A huge collection of data products, images, and animations comes to the SSEC from the University of Wisconsin Lidar Group. Contents of this collection include: • An archive of thousands of Lidar images acquired before 2004 • Arctic HSRL, MMCR, PAERI, MWR, Radiosonde, and CRAS forecast data Data after May 1, 2004 • MPEG animations and Lidar Multiple Scattering Models

  13. Field flatteners fabricated with a rapid prototyper for K-edge subtraction imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Honglin; Bewer, Brian; Florin Gh. Popescu, Bogdan; Nichol, Helen; Chapman, Dean

    2008-04-01

    One of the difficulties in X-ray imaging is the need to record a wide dynamic range of intensities on the detector. For example, some rays may miss the object being imaged entirely while others may suffer many orders of magnitude attenuation in passing through. In K-edge subtraction (KES) [E. Rubenstein, et al., Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97 (1985) 27.] imaging subtle differences in transmission through an object about the absorption edge of an element are used to create an image of the projected density of that element. This is done by a logarithmic subtraction of images acquired with energies above and below the absorption edge. For KES, the detector must register this transmitted intensity range in a linear manner for the subtraction method to be successful. The range of intensities which may strike the detector has inspired the concept of a field flattener. A field flattener is a device placed in the beam path that attenuates the input monochromatic beam to equalize X-ray absorption due to differences in the density of soft and hard tissues of an object before it passes through the object and thus achieves a flattened image. This removes the need for a wide dynamic range linear detector and allows detectors with modest performance to be used successfully in KES applications. The field flattener improves the S/ N ratio since X-ray exposures can be increased up to detector saturation. However, a field flattener removes anatomical information from each raw image (above or below K-edge) that may provide useful landmarks. Using rapid prototyping technology, two sets of field flatteners were fabricated and used in a KES experiment. This paper describes the procedure to design and fabricate field flatteners based on animal images from X-ray computed tomography (CT). Analysis of experimental data and KES images of a rat head with and without the field flattener are also presented. The results show a promising improvement of S/ N ratio using a field flattener

  14. Impact of extraneous mispositioned events on motion-corrected brain SPECT images of freely moving animals

    SciTech Connect

    Angelis, Georgios I. Ryder, William J.; Bashar, Rezaul; Meikle, Steven R.; Fulton, Roger R.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain imaging of freely moving small animals would allow a wide range of important neurological processes and behaviors to be studied, which are normally inhibited by anesthetic drugs or precluded due to the animal being restrained. While rigid body motion of the head can be tracked and accounted for in the reconstruction, activity in the torso may confound brain measurements, especially since motion of the torso is more complex (i.e., nonrigid) and not well correlated with that of the head. The authors investigated the impact of mispositioned events and attenuation due to the torso on the accuracy of motion corrected brain images of freely moving mice. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of a realistic voxelized mouse phantom and a dual compartment phantom were performed. Each phantom comprised a target and an extraneous compartment which were able to move independently of each other. Motion correction was performed based on the known motion of the target compartment only. Two SPECT camera geometries were investigated: a rotating single head detector and a stationary full ring detector. The effects of motion, detector geometry, and energy of the emitted photons (hence, attenuation) on bias and noise in reconstructed brain regions were evaluated. Results: The authors observed two main sources of bias: (a) motion-related inconsistencies in the projection data and (b) the mismatch between attenuation and emission. Both effects are caused by the assumption that the orientation of the torso is difficult to track and model, and therefore cannot be conveniently corrected for. The motion induced bias in some regions was up to 12% when no attenuation effects were considered, while it reached 40% when also combined with attenuation related inconsistencies. The detector geometry (i.e., rotating vs full ring) has a big impact on the accuracy of the reconstructed images, with the full ring detector being more

  15. Stable Small Animal Mechanical Ventilation for Dynamic Lung Imaging to Support Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Lamm, W. J.

    2011-11-08

    Pulmonary computational fluid dynamics models require 3D images to be acquired over multiple points in the dynamic breathing cycle, with no breath holds or changes in ventilatory mechanics. With small animals, these requirements result in long imaging times ({approx}90 minutes), over which lung mechanics, such as compliance, can gradually change if not carefully monitored and controlled. These changes, caused by derecruitment of parenchymal tissue, are manifested as an upward drift in peak inspiratory pressure or by changes in the pressure waveform and/or lung volume over the course of the experiment. We demonstrate highly repeatable mechanical ventilation in anesthetized rats over a long duration for pulmonary CT imaging throughout the dynamic breathing cycle. We describe significant updates to a basic commercial ventilator that was acquired for these experiments. Key to achieving consistent results was the implementation of periodic deep breaths, or sighs, of extended duration to maintain lung recruitment. In addition, continuous monitoring of breath-to-breath pressure and volume waveforms and long-term trends in peak inspiratory pressure and flow provide diagnostics of changes in breathing mechanics.

  16. Development of a PET Scanner for Simultaneously Imaging Small Animals with MRI and PET

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Christopher J; Goertzen, Andrew L; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Bishop, Daryl; Stortz, Greg; Kozlowski, Piotr; Retière, Fabrice; Zhang, Xuezhu; Sossi, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and staging of cancer. Combined PET and X-ray computed tomography (PET-CT) scanners are now the modality of choice in cancer treatment planning. More recently, the combination of PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being explored in many sites. Combining PET and MRI has presented many challenges since the photo-multiplier tubes (PMT) in PET do not function in high magnetic fields, and conventional PET detectors distort MRI images. Solid state light sensors like avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) and more recently silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) are much less sensitive to magnetic fields thus easing the compatibility issues. This paper presents the results of a group of Canadian scientists who are developing a PET detector ring which fits inside a high field small animal MRI scanner with the goal of providing simultaneous PET and MRI images of small rodents used in pre-clinical medical research. We discuss the evolution of both the crystal blocks (which detect annihilation photons from positron decay) and the SiPM array performance in the last four years which together combine to deliver significant system performance in terms of speed, energy and timing resolution. PMID:25120157

  17. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  18. Computational methods in radionuclide dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardiès, M.; Myers, M. J.

    1996-10-01

    The various approaches in radionuclide dosimetry depend on the size and spatial relation of the sources and targets considered in conjunction with the emission range of the radionuclide used. We present some of the frequently reported computational techniques on the basis of the source/target size. For whole organs, or for sources or targets bigger than some centimetres, the acknowledged standard was introduced 30 years ago by the MIRD committee and is still being updated. That approach, based on the absorbed fraction concept, is mainly used for radioprotection purposes but has been updated to take into account the dosimetric challenge raised by therapeutic use of vectored radiopharmaceuticals. At this level, the most important computational effort is in the field of photon dosimetry. On the millimetre scale, photons can often be disregarded, and images/0031-9155/41/10/007/img5.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> or electron dosimetry is generally reported. Heterogeneities at this level are mainly above the cell level, involving groups of cell or a part of an organ. The dose distribution pattern is often calculated by generalizing a point source dose distribution, but direct calculation by Monte Carlo techniques is also frequently reported because it allows media of inhomogeneous density to be considered. At the cell level, images/0031-9155/41/10/007/img6.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> and electron (low-range images/0031-9155/41/10/007/img5.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> or Auger) are the predominant emissions examined. Heterogeneities in the dose distribution are taken into account, mainly to determine the mean dose at the nucleus. At the DNA level, Auger electrons or images/0031-9155/41/10/007/img6.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-particles are considered from a microdosimetric point of view. These studies are often connected with radiobiological experiments on radionuclide toxicity.

  19. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  20. RODES software for dose assessment of rats and mice contaminated with radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Maxime; Miloudi, Hanane; Autret, Gwennhael; Balvay, Daniel; Desbrée, Aurélie; Blanchardon, Eric; Bertho, Jean-Marc

    2017-03-20

    In order to support animal experiments of chronic radionuclides intake with realistic dosimetry, voxel-based three-dimensional computer models of mice and rats of both sexes and three ages were built from magnetic resonance imaging. Radiation transport of mono-energetic photons of 11 energies and electrons of 7 energies was simulated with MCNPX 2.6c to assess specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of energy emitted from 13 source regions and absorbed in 28 target regions. RODES software was developed to combine SAF with radiation emission spectra and user-supplied biokinetic data to calculate organ absorbed doses per nuclear transformation of radionuclides in source regions (S-factors) and for specific animal experiments with radionuclides. This article presents the design of RODES software including the simulation of the particles in the created rodent voxel phantoms. SAF and S-factor values were compared favourably with published results from similar studies. The results are discussed for rodents of different ages and sexes.

  1. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ding, Xuan; Dutta, Debaditya; Singh, Vijay P.; Kim, Kang

    2014-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using US-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5-14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13-24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n = 10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n = 10) with low fat content (4.8 ± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ˜3 s and ˜9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively, to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (-0.065 ± 0.079%) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those measured in control livers (-0.124 ± 0

  2. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Ding, Xuan; Dutta, Debaditya; Singh, Vijay P; Kim, Kang

    2014-02-21

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using US-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5-14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13-24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n = 10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n = 10) with low fat content (4.8 ± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ∼ 3 s and ∼ 9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively, to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (-0.065 ± 0.079%) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those measured in control livers (-0.124 ± 0

  3. Targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    De Nardo, Sally J.

    2006-10-01

    Although radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been effective in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) as a single agent, solid tumors have shown less clinically significant therapeutic response to RIT alone. The clinical impact of RIT or other forms of targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors depends on the development of a high therapeutic index (TI) for the tumor vs. normal tissue effect, and the implementation of RIT as part of synergistic combined modality therapy (CMRIT). Preclinical and clinical studies have provided a wealth of information, and new prototypes or paradigms have shed light on future possibilities in many instances. Evidence suggests that combination and sequencing of RIT in CMRIT appropriately can provide effective treatment for many solid tumors. Vascular targets provide RIT enhancement opportunities and nanoparticles may prove to be effective carriers for RIT combined with intracellular drug delivery or alternating magnetic frequency (AMF) induced thermal tumor necrosis. The sequence and timing of combined modality treatments will be of critical importance to achieve synergy for therapy while minimizing toxicity. Fortunately, the radionuclide used for RIT also provides a signal useful for nondestructive quantitation of the influence of sequence and timing of CMRIT on events in animals and patients. This can be readily accomplished clinically using quantitative high-resolution imaging (e.g., positron emission tomography [PET])

  4. Non-contact small animal fluorescence imaging system for simultaneous multi-directional angular-dependent data acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Hyun Keol; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Lee, Francis Young-In; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel non-contact small animal fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) imaging system. At the heart of the system is a new mirror-based imaging head that was designed to provide 360-degree measurement data from an entire animal surface in one step. This imaging head consists of two conical mirrors, which considerably reduce multiple back reflections between the animal and mirror surfaces. These back reflections are common in existing mirror-based imaging heads and tend to degrade the quality of raw measurement data. In addition, the introduction of a novel ray-transfer operator allows for the inclusion of the angular dependent data in the image reconstruction process, which results in higher image resolution. We describe in detail the system design and implementation of the hardware components as well as the transport-theory-based image reconstruction algorithm. Using numerical simulations, measurements on a well-defined phantom and a live animal, we evaluate the system performance and show the advantages of our approach. PMID:25071965

  5. Non-contact small animal fluorescence imaging system for simultaneous multi-directional angular-dependent data acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Hyun Keol; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Lee, Francis Young-In; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2014-07-01

    We present a novel non-contact small animal fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) imaging system. At the heart of the system is a new mirror-based imaging head that was designed to provide 360-degree measurement data from an entire animal surface in one step. This imaging head consists of two conical mirrors, which considerably reduce multiple back reflections between the animal and mirror surfaces. These back reflections are common in existing mirror-based imaging heads and tend to degrade the quality of raw measurement data. In addition, the introduction of a novel ray-transfer operator allows for the inclusion of the angular dependent data in the image reconstruction process, which results in higher image resolution. We describe in detail the system design and implementation of the hardware components as well as the transport-theory-based image reconstruction algorithm. Using numerical simulations, measurements on a well-defined phantom and a live animal, we evaluate the system performance and show the advantages of our approach.

  6. Therapeutic imaging window of cerebral infarction revealed by multisequence magnetic resonance imaging: An animal and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Hu, Hui; He, Zhanping; Han, Xiangjun; Chen, Jing; Tu, Rong

    2012-11-05

    In this study, we established a Wistar rat model of right middle cerebral artery occlusion and observed pathological imaging changes (T2-weighted imaging [T2WI], T2FLAIR, and diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) following cerebral infarction. The pathological changes were divided into three phases: early cerebral infarction, middle cerebral infarction, and late cerebral infarction. In the early cerebral infarction phase (less than 2 hours post-infarction), there was evidence of intracellular edema, which improved after reperfusion. This improvement was defined as the ischemic penumbra. In this phase, a high DWI signal and a low apparent diffusion coefficient were observed in the right basal ganglia region. By contrast, there were no abnormal T2WI and T2FLAIR signals. For the middle cerebral infarction phase (2-4 hours post-infarction), a mixed edema was observed. After reperfusion, there was a mild improvement in cell edema, while the angioedema became more serious. A high DWI signal and a low apparent diffusion coefficient signal were observed, and some rats showed high T2WI and T2FLAIR signals. For the late cerebral infarction phase (4-6 hours post-infarction), significant angioedema was visible in the infarction site. After reperfusion, there was a significant increase in angioedema, while there was evidence of hemorrhage and necrosis. A mixed signal was observed on DWI, while a high apparent diffusion coefficient signal, a high T2WI signal, and a high T2FLAIR signal were also observed. All 86 cerebral infarction patients were subjected to T2WI, T2FLAIR, and DWI. MRI results of clinic data similar to the early infarction phase of animal experiments were found in 51 patients, for which 10 patients (10/51) had an onset time greater than 6 hours. A total of 35 patients had MRI results similar to the middle and late infarction phase of animal experiments, of which eight patients (8/35) had an onset time less than 6 hours. These data suggest that defining the

  7. Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use.

  8. An Asymmetric Birdcage Coil for Small-animal MR Imaging at 7T.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Han, Sang-Doc; Seo, Jeung-Hoon; Heo, Phil; Yoo, Dongkyeom; Im, Geun Ho; Lee, Jung Hee

    2016-09-30

    The birdcage (BC) coil is currently being utilized for uniform radiofrequency (RF) transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) or Tx-only configuration in many magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications, but insufficient magnetic flux (|B1|) density and their non-uniform distribution still exists in high-field (HF) environments. We demonstrate that the asymmetric birdcage (ABC) transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) volume coil, which is a modified standard birdcage (SBC) coil with the end ring split into two halves, is suitable for improving the |B1| sensitivity in 7T small-animal MR imaging. Cylindrical SBC and ABC coils with 35 mm diameter were constructed and bench tested for mouse body MR imaging at 300 MHz using a 7T scanner. To assess the ABC coil performance, computational electromagnetic (EM) simulation and 7T MR experiment were performed by using a cylindrical phantom and in vivo mouse body and quantitatively compared with the SBC coil in terms of |B1| distribution, RF transmit (|B1(+)|) field, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The bench measurements of the two BC coils are similar, yielding a quality value (Q-value) of 74.42 for the SBC coil and 77.06 for the ABC coil. The computational calculation results clearly show that the proposed ABC coil offers superior |B1| field and |B1(+)| field sensitivity in the central axial slice compared with the SBC coil. There was also high SNR and uniformly distributed flip angle (FA) under the loaded condition of mouse body in the 7T experiment. Although ABC geometry allows a further increase in the |B1| field and |B1(+)| field sensitivity in only the central axial slice, the geometrical modification of the SBC coil can make a high performance RF coil feasible in the central axial slice and also make target imaging possible in the diagonal direction.

  9. Differentiation between normal and tumor vasculature of animal and human glioma by FTIR imaging.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Katia; Pineau, Raphael; Eimer, Sandrine; Vital, Anne; Loiseau, Hugues; Déléris, Gérard

    2010-12-01

    Malignant gliomas are very aggressive tumors, highly angiogenic and invading heterogeneously the surrounding brain parenchyma, making their resection very difficult. To overcome the limits of current diagnostic imaging techniques used for gliomas, we proposed using FTIR imaging, with a spatial resolution from 6 to 10 μm, to provide molecular information for their histological examination, based on discrimination between normal and tumor vasculature. Differentiation between normal and tumor blood vessel spectra by hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on tissue sections obtained from xenografted brain tumors of Rag-gamma mice 28 days after intracranial implantation of glioma cells, as well as for human brain tumors obtained in clinics. Classical pathological examination and immunohistochemistry were performed in parallel to the FTIR spectral imaging of brain tissues. First on the animal model, classification of FTIR spectra of blood vessels could be performed using spectral intervals based on fatty acyl (3050-2800 cm(-1)) and carbohydrate (1180-950 cm(-1)) absorptions, with the formation of two clusters corresponding to healthy and tumor parts of the tissue sections. Further data treatments on these two spectral intervals provided interpretable information about the molecular contents involved in the differentiation between normal and tumor blood vessels, the latter presenting a higher level of fatty acyl chain unsaturation and an unexpected loss of absorption from osidic residues. This classification method was further successfully tested on human glioma tissue sections. These findings demonstrate that FTIR imaging could highlight discriminant molecular markers to distinguish between normal and tumor vasculature, and help to delimitate areas of corresponding tissue.

  10. Three-dimensional optical tomographic brain imaging in small animals, part 1: hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Bluestone, A Y; Stewart, M; Lasker, J; Abdoulaev, G S; Hielscher, A H

    2004-01-01

    studies demonstrate the potential and limitations of our diffuse optical imager for visualizing global and focal hemodynamic phenomenon three dimensionally in the brains of small animals.

  11. Near infrared FRET using wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging in live animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingling; Abe, Ken; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

    2013-06-01

    One of the challenges in anti-cancer drug delivery systems is to quantitatively discriminate non-specific receptorindependent tumor accumulation from receptor-mediated uptake into the tumor cells. To overcome this challenge, we develop a new near infrared fluorescence resonance energy transfer fluorescence lifetime imaging (NIR FRET FLIM) technique with wide-field illumination strategies to validate and characterize cellular uptake in both cancer cells and normal cells with different donor-acceptor ratios in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that NIR FRET FLIM can quantitatively distinguish receptor-bound from unbound donor in live animals with high sensitivity and high accuracy. Thus, it has a great potential for the quantitative detection of targeted delivery systems for diagnostic and therapeutic use.

  12. High-speed imaging reveals neurophysiological links to behavior in an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Airan, Raag D; Meltzer, Leslie A; Roy, Madhuri; Gong, Yuqing; Chen, Han; Deisseroth, Karl

    2007-08-10

    The hippocampus is one of several brain areas thought to play a central role in affective behaviors, but the underlying local network dynamics are not understood. We used quantitative voltage-sensitive dye imaging to probe hippocampal dynamics with millisecond resolution in brain slices after bidirectional modulation of affective state in rat models of depression. We found that a simple measure of real-time activity-stimulus-evoked percolation of activity through the dentate gyrus relative to the hippocampal output subfield-accounted for induced changes in animal behavior independent of the underlying mechanism of action of the treatments. Our results define a circuit-level neurophysiological endophenotype for affective behavior and suggest an approach to understanding circuit-level substrates underlying psychiatric disease symptoms.

  13. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-05-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities.

  14. BEEtag: A Low-Cost, Image-Based Tracking System for the Study of Animal Behavior and Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Crall, James D.; Gravish, Nick; Mountcastle, Andrew M.; Combes, Stacey A.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge common to studies of animal movement, behavior, and ecology is the collection of high-quality datasets on spatial positions of animals as they change through space and time. Recent innovations in tracking technology have allowed researchers to collect large and highly accurate datasets on animal spatiotemporal position while vastly decreasing the time and cost of collecting such data. One technique that is of particular relevance to the study of behavioral ecology involves tracking visual tags that can be uniquely identified in separate images or movie frames. These tags can be located within images that are visually complex, making them particularly well suited for longitudinal studies of animal behavior and movement in naturalistic environments. While several software packages have been developed that use computer vision to identify visual tags, these software packages are either (a) not optimized for identification of single tags, which is generally of the most interest for biologists, or (b) suffer from licensing issues, and therefore their use in the study of animal behavior has been limited. Here, we present BEEtag, an open-source, image-based tracking system in Matlab that allows for unique identification of individual animals or anatomical markers. The primary advantages of this system are that it (a) independently identifies animals or marked points in each frame of a video, limiting error propagation, (b) performs well in images with complex backgrounds, and (c) is low-cost. To validate the use of this tracking system in animal behavior, we mark and track individual bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) and recover individual patterns of space use and activity within the nest. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of this software package and its application to the study of animal movement, behavior, and ecology. PMID:26332211

  15. BEEtag: A Low-Cost, Image-Based Tracking System for the Study of Animal Behavior and Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Crall, James D; Gravish, Nick; Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge common to studies of animal movement, behavior, and ecology is the collection of high-quality datasets on spatial positions of animals as they change through space and time. Recent innovations in tracking technology have allowed researchers to collect large and highly accurate datasets on animal spatiotemporal position while vastly decreasing the time and cost of collecting such data. One technique that is of particular relevance to the study of behavioral ecology involves tracking visual tags that can be uniquely identified in separate images or movie frames. These tags can be located within images that are visually complex, making them particularly well suited for longitudinal studies of animal behavior and movement in naturalistic environments. While several software packages have been developed that use computer vision to identify visual tags, these software packages are either (a) not optimized for identification of single tags, which is generally of the most interest for biologists, or (b) suffer from licensing issues, and therefore their use in the study of animal behavior has been limited. Here, we present BEEtag, an open-source, image-based tracking system in Matlab that allows for unique identification of individual animals or anatomical markers. The primary advantages of this system are that it (a) independently identifies animals or marked points in each frame of a video, limiting error propagation, (b) performs well in images with complex backgrounds, and (c) is low-cost. To validate the use of this tracking system in animal behavior, we mark and track individual bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) and recover individual patterns of space use and activity within the nest. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of this software package and its application to the study of animal movement, behavior, and ecology.

  16. Frequency Domain Fluorescent Molecular Tomography and Molecular Probes for Small Animal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujala, Naresh Gandhi

    Fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) is a noninvasive biomedical optical imaging that enables 3-dimensional quantitative determination of fluorochromes distributed in biological tissues. There are three methods for imaging large volume tissues based on different light sources: (a) using a light source of constant intensity, through a continuous or constant wave, (b) using a light source that is intensity modulated with a radio frequency (RF), and (c) using ultrafast pulses in the femtosecond range. In this study, we have developed a frequency domain fluorescent molecular tomographic system based on the heterodyne technique, using a single source and detector pair that can be used for small animal imaging. In our system, the intensity of the laser source is modulated with a RF frequency to produce a diffuse photon density wave in the tissue. The phase of the diffuse photon density wave is measured by comparing the reference signal with the signal from the tissue using a phasemeter. The data acquisition was performed by using a Labview program. The results suggest that we can measure the phase change from the heterogeneous inside tissue. Combined with fiber optics and filter sets, the system can be used to sensitively image the targeted fluorescent molecular probes, allowing the detection of cancer at an early stage. We used the system to detect the tumor-targeting molecular probe Alexa Fluor 680 and Alexa Fluor 750 bombesin peptide conjugates in phantoms as well as mouse tissues. We also developed and evaluated fluorescent Bombesin (BBN) probes to target gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors for optical molecular imaging. GRP receptors are over-expressed in several types of human cancer cells, including breast, prostate, small cell lung, and pancreatic cancers. BBN is a 14 amino acid peptide that is an analogue to human gastrin-releasing peptide that binds specifically to GRPr receptors. BBN conjugates are significant in cancer detection and therapy. The

  17. A novel optical detector concept for dedicated and multi-modality in vivo small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Jörg; Schulz, Ralf B.; Unholtz, Daniel; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2007-07-01

    An optical detector suitable for inclusion in tomographic arrangements for non-contact in vivo bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging applications is proposed. It consists of a microlens array (MLA) intended for field-of-view definition, a large-field complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chip for light detection, a septum mask for cross-talk suppression, and an exchangeable filter to block excitation light. Prototype detector units with sensitive areas of 2.5 cm x 5 cm each were assembled. The CMOS sensor constitutes a 512 x 1024 photodiode matrix at 48 μm pixel pitch. Refractive MLAs with plano-convex lenses of 480 μm in diameter and pitch were selected resulting in a 55 x 105 lens matrix. The CMOS sensor is aligned on the focal plane of the MLA at 2.15mm distance. To separate individual microlens images an opaque multi-bore septum mask of 2.1mm in thickness and bore diameters of 400 μm at 480 μm pitch, aligned with the lens pattern, is placed between MLA and CMOS. Intrinsic spatial detector resolution and sensitivity was evaluated experimentally as a function of detector-object distance. Due to its small overall dimensions such detectors can be favorably packed for tomographic imaging (optical diffusion tomography, ODT) yielding complete 2 π field-of-view coverage. We also present a design study of a device intended to simultaneously image positron labeled substrates (positron emission tomography, PET) and optical molecular probes in small animals such as mice and rats. It consists of a cylindrical allocation of optical detector units which form an inner detector ring while PET detector blocks are mounted in radial extension, those gaining complementary information in a single, intrinsically coregistered experimental data acquisition study. Finally, in a second design study we propose a method for integrated optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which yields in vivo functional/molecular information that is intrinsically registered with the

  18. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) study of rotating cylindrical filters for animal cell perfusion processes.

    PubMed

    Figueredo-Cardero, Alvio; Chico, Ernesto; Castilho, Leda; de Andrade Medronho, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the main fluid flow features inside a rotating cylindrical filtration (RCF) system used as external cell retention device for animal cell perfusion processes were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The motivation behind this work was to provide experimental fluid dynamic data for such turbulent flow using a high-permeability filter, given the lack of information about this system in the literature. The results shown herein gave evidence that, at the boundary between the filter mesh and the fluid, a slip velocity condition in the tangential direction does exist, which had not been reported in the literature so far. In the RCF system tested, this accounted for a fluid velocity 10% lower than that of the filter tip, which could be important for the cake formation kinetics during filtration. Evidence confirming the existence of Taylor vortices under conditions of turbulent flow and high permeability, typical of animal cell perfusion RCF systems, was obtained. Second-order turbulence statistics were successfully calculated. The radial behavior of the second-order turbulent moments revealed that turbulence in this system is highly anisotropic, which is relevant for performing numerical simulations of this system.

  19. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gallbladder radionuclide scan is a test that uses radioactive material to check gallbladder function. It is also used ... for bile duct blockage or leak. How the Test is Performed ... called a gamma emitting tracer into a vein. This material collects mostly in the liver. It will then ...

  20. Non-invasive optical imaging of tumor growth in intact animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinling; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2003-12-01

    We describe here a system for rapidly visualizing tumor growth in intact rodent mice that is simple, rapid, and eminently accessible and repeatable. We have established new rodent tumor cell line -- SP2/0-GFP cells that stably express high level of green fluorescent protein (GFP) by transfected with a plasmid that encoded GFP using electroporation and selected with G418 for 3 weeks. 1 x 104 - 1x107 SP2/0-GFP mouse melanoma cells were injected s.c. in the ears and legs of 6- to 7-week-old syngeneic male BALB/c mice, and optical images visualized real-time the engrafted tumor growth. The tumor burden was monitored over time by cryogenically cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera focused through a stereo microscope. The results show that the fluorescence intensity of GFP-expressing tumor is comparably with the tumor growth and/or depress. This in vivo optical imaging based on GFP is sensitive, external, and noninvasive. It affords continuous visual monitoring of malignant growth within intact animals, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating antineoplastic therapies.

  1. Degron protease blockade sensor to image epigenetic histone protein methylation in cells and living animals.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Thillai V; Foygel, Kira; Devulapally, Rammohan; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2015-01-16

    Lysine methylation of histone H3 and H4 has been identified as a promising therapeutic target in treating various cellular diseases. The availability of an in vivo assay that enables rapid screening and preclinical evaluation of drugs that potentially target this cellular process will significantly expedite the pace of drug development. This study is the first to report the development of a real-time molecular imaging biosensor (a fusion protein, [FLuc2]-[Suv39h1]-[(G4S)3]-[H3-K9]-[cODC]) that can detect and monitor the methylation status of a specific histone lysine methylation mark (H3-K9) in live animals. The sensitivity of this sensor was assessed in various cell lines, in response to down-regulation of methyltransferase EHMT2 by specific siRNA, and in nude mice with lysine replacement mutants. In vivo imaging in response to a combination of methyltransferase inhibitors BIX01294 and Chaetocin in mice reveals the potential of this sensor for preclinical drug evaluation. This biosensor thus has demonstrated its utility in the detection of H3-K9 methylations in vivo and potential value in preclinical drug development.

  2. Design and engineering aspects of a high resolution positron tomograph for small animal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lecomte, R.; Cadorette, J.; Richard, P.; Rodrique, S.; Rouleau, D. . Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology)

    1994-08-01

    The authors describe the Sherbrooke positron emission tomograph, a very high resolution device dedicated to dynamic imaging of small laboratory animals. Its distinctive features are: small discrete scintillation detectors based on avalanche photodiodes (APD) to achieve uniform, isotropic, very high spatial resolution; parallel processing for low deadtime and high count rate capability; multispectral data acquisition hardware to improve sensitivity and scatter correction; modularity to allow design flexibility and upgradability. The system implements the clam-shell'' sampling scheme and a rotating rod transmission source. All acquisition parameters can be adjusted under computer control. Temperature stability at the detector site is ensured by the use of thermoelectric modules. The initial system consists of one layer of 256 modules (two rings of detectors) defining 3 image slices in a 118 mm diameter by 10.5 mm thick field. The axial field can be extended to 50 mm using 4 layers of modules (8 rings of detectors). The design constraints and engineering aspects of an APD-based PET scanner are reviewed and preliminary results are reported.

  3. Dual-Energy Technique at Low Tube Voltages for Small Animal Imaging*

    PubMed Central

    CHO, Seungryong; SIDKY, Emil Y; BIAN, Junguo; PAN, Xiaochuan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of dual-energy method for image contrast enhancement in small animal studies using a low kV X-ray radiographic system. A robust method for X-ray spectrum estimation from transmission measurements, based on expectation-maximization (EM) method, is applied to an X-ray specimen radiographic system for dual energy imaging of a mouse. From transmission measurements of two known attenuators at two different X-ray tube voltages, the X-ray energy spectra are reconstructed using the EM-based method. From the spectra information thus obtained, the transmission data for bone and soft tissue in terms of various thicknesses are generated. Two polynomial functions of transmission data are then sought for to fit the inverted thicknesses of bone and soft-tissue. Scatters in cone-beam projection data acquired at two X-ray energies were corrected. From the scatter-corrected data, a bone thickness map is separated from a soft-tissue thickness map by use of the polynomial functions. PMID:20589233

  4. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  5. Real-time landmark-based unrestrained animal tracking system for motion-corrected PET/SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Goddard; S.S. Gleason; M.J. Paulus; Stanislaw Majewski; Vladimir Popov; Mark Smith; Andrew Weisenberger; Benjamin Welch; Randolph Wojcik

    2003-08-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Jefferson Lab and are collaborating to develop a new high-resolution single photon emission tomography (SPECT) instrument to image unrestrained laboratory animals. This technology development will allow functional imaging studies to be performed on the animals without the use of anesthetic agents. This technology development could have eventual clinical applications for performing functional imaging studies on patients that cannot remain still (Parkinson's patients, Alzheimer's patients, small children, etc.) during a PET or SPECT scan. A key component of this new device is the position tracking apparatus. The tracking apparatus is an integral part of the gantry and designed to measure the spatial position of the animal at a rate of 10-15 frames per second with sub-millimeter accuracy. Initial work focuses on brain studies where anesthetic agents or physical restraint can significantly impact physiologic processes.

  6. Dosimetry for spectral molecular imaging of small animals with MARS-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganet, Noémie; Anderson, Nigel; Bell, Stephen; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phil; Carbonez, Pierre; Cook, Nicholas; Cotterill, Tony; Marsh, Steven; Panta, Raj Kumar; Laban, John; Walker, Sophie; Yeabsley, Adam; Damet, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The Medipix All Resolution Scanner (MARS) spectral CT is intended for small animal, pre-clinical imaging and uses an x-ray detector (Medipix) operating in single photon counting mode. The MARS system provides spectrometric information to facilitate differentiation of tissue types and bio-markers. For longitudinal studies of disease models, it is desirable to characterise the system's dosimetry. This dosimetry study is performed using three phantoms each consisting of a 30 mm diameter homogeneous PMMA cylinder simulating a mouse. The imaging parameters used for this study are derived from those used for gold nanoparticle identification in mouse kidneys. Dosimetry measurement are obtained with thermo-luminescent Lithium Fluoride (LiF:CuMgP) detectors, calibrated in terms of air kerma and placed at different depths and orientations in the phantoms. Central axis TLD air kerma rates of 17.2 (± 0.71) mGy/min and 18.2 (± 0.75) mGy/min were obtained for different phantoms and TLD orientations. Validation measurements were acquired with a pencil ionization chamber, giving an air-kerma rate of 20.3 (±1) mGy/min and an estimated total air kerma of 81.2 (± 4) mGy for a 720 projection acquisition. It is anticipated that scanner design improvements will significantly decrease future dose requirements. The procedures developed in this work will be used for further dosimetry calculations when optimizing image acquisition for the MARS system as it undergoes development towards human clinical applications.

  7. Imaging dopamine release with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and (11)C-raclopride in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinal D; Lee, Dianne E; Alexoff, David L; Dewey, Stephen L; Schiffer, Wynne K

    2008-07-01

    We investigated an imaging strategy that provides simultaneous measurements of radiotracer binding and behavior in awake, freely moving animals. In this strategy, animals are injected intravenously (i.v.) through a catheterized line and permitted to move freely for 30 min during uptake of the imaging agent, in this case 11C-raclopride. After this Awake Uptake period, animals are anesthetized and scanned for 25 min. We tested the utility of this strategy for measuring changes in striatal 11C-raclopride binding under control conditions (awake and freely moving in the home cage) and with several drug challenges: a loading dose of unlabeled raclopride, pretreatment with methamphetamine (METH) or pretreatment with gamma-vinyl-GABA [S+-GVG] followed by METH. An additional group of animals underwent a stress paradigm that we have previously shown increases brain dopamine. For drug challenge experiments, the change in 11C-raclopride binding was compared to data from animals that were anesthetized for the uptake period ("Anesthetized Uptake") and full time activity curves were used to calculate 11C-raclopride binding. Regardless of the drug treatment protocol, there was no difference in 11C-raclopride striatum to cerebellum ratio between the Awake versus the Anesthetized Uptake conditions. Awake and Anesthetized groups demonstrated over 90% occupancy of dopamine receptors with a loading dose of cold raclopride, both groups demonstrated approximately 30% reduction in 11C-raclopride binding from METH pretreatment and this effect was modulated to the same degree by GVG under both uptake conditions. Restraint during Awake Uptake decreased 11C-raclopride binding by 29%. These studies support a unique molecular imaging strategy in which radiotracer uptake occurs in freely moving animals, after which they are anesthetized and scanned. This imaging strategy extends the applicability of small animal PET to include functional neurotransmitter imaging and the neurochemical correlates

  8. Anatomical and metabolic small-animal whole-body imaging using ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Due to the wide use of animals for human disease studies, small animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose metabolic information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image coregistration, the spatial resolution of the metabolic imaging modality is not improved. We present a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography (RC-PACT) system that can provide both assessments in a single modality. Utilizing the novel design of confocal full-ring light delivery and ultrasound transducer array detection, RC-PACT provides full-view cross-sectional imaging with high spatial resolution. Scanning along the orthogonal direction provides three-dimensional imaging. While the mouse anatomy was imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, the glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose. Through mouse tumor models, we demonstrate that RC-PACT may be a paradigm shifting imaging method for preclinical research.

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  11. Development of automatic movement analysis system for a small laboratory animal using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Satoshi; Kawasue, Kikuhito; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2013-03-01

    Activity analysis in a small laboratory animal is an effective procedure for various bioscience fields. The simplest way to obtain animal activity data is just observation and recording manually, even though this is labor intensive and rather subjective. In order to analyze animal movement automatically and objectivity, expensive equipment is usually needed. In the present study, we develop animal activity analysis system by means of a template matching method with video recorded movements in laboratory animal at a low cost.

  12. A method to quantify movement activity of groups of animals using automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianyu; Yu, Haizhen; Liu, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Most physiological and environmental changes are capable of inducing variations in animal behavior. The behavioral parameters have the possibility to be measured continuously in-situ by a non-invasive and non-contact approach, and have the potential to be used in the actual productions to predict stress conditions. Most vertebrates tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, shoals, bands, packs of conspecific individuals. Under culture conditions, the livestock or fish are in groups and interact on each other, so the aggregate behavior of the group should be studied rather than that of individuals. This paper presents a method to calculate the movement speed of a group of animal in a enclosure or a tank denoted by body length speed that correspond to group activity using computer vision technique. Frame sequences captured at special time interval were subtracted in pairs after image segmentation and identification. By labeling components caused by object movement in difference frame, the projected area caused by the movement of every object in the capture interval was calculated; this projected area was divided by the projected area of every object in the later frame to get body length moving distance of each object, and further could obtain the relative body length speed. The average speed of all object can well respond to the activity of the group. The group activity of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were quantified based on these methods. High UIA level condition elicited a marked increase in school activity at the first hour (P<0.05) exhibiting an avoidance reaction (trying to flee from high UIA condition), and then decreased gradually.

  13. Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.

    1983-02-01

    Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

  14. PATHWAY: a simulation model of radionuclide-transport through agricultural food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, T.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Otis, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    PATHWAY simulates the transport of radionuclides from fallout through an agricultural ecosystem. The agro-ecosystem is subdivided into several land management units, each of which is used either for grazing animals, for growing hay, or for growing food crops. The model simulates the transport of radionuclides by both discrete events and continuous, time-dependent processes. The discrete events include tillage of soil, harvest and storage of crops,and deposition of fallout. The continuous processes include the transport of radionuclides due to resuspension, weathering, rain splash, percolation, leaching, adsorption and desorption of radionuclides in the soil, root uptake, foliar absorption, growth and senescence of vegetation, and the ingestion assimilation, and excretion of radionuclides by animals. Preliminary validation studies indicate that the model dynamics and simulated values of radionuclide concentrations in several agricultural products agree well with measured values when the model is driven with site specific data on deposition from world-wide fallout.

  15. In vivo small animal imaging for early assessment of therapeutic efficacy of photodynamic therapy for prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Baowei; Wang, Hesheng; Chen, Xiang; Meyers, Joseph; Mulvilhill, John; Feyes, Denise; Edgehouse, Nancy; Duerk, Jeffrey L.; Pretlow, Thomas G.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2007-03-01

    We are developing in vivo small animal imaging techniques that can measure early effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for prostate cancer. PDT is an emerging therapeutic modality that continues to show promise in the treatment of cancer. At our institution, a new second-generation photosensitizing drug, the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, has been developed and evaluated at the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center. In this study, we are developing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that provide therapy monitoring and early assessment of tumor response to PDT. We generated human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice. For the imaging experiments, we used a highfield 9.4-T small animal MR scanner (Bruker Biospec). High-resolution MR images were acquired from the treated and control tumors pre- and post-PDT and 24 hr after PDT. We utilized multi-slice multi-echo (MSME) MR sequences. During imaging acquisitions, the animals were anesthetized with a continuous supply of 2% isoflurane in oxygen and were continuously monitored for respiration and temperature. After imaging experiments, we manually segmented the tumors on each image slice for quantitative image analyses. We computed three-dimensional T2 maps for the tumor regions from the MSME images. We plotted the histograms of the T2 maps for each tumor pre- and post-PDT and 24 hr after PDT. After the imaging and PDT experiments, we dissected the tumor tissues and used the histologic slides to validate the MR images. In this study, six mice with human prostate cancer tumors were imaged and treated at the Case Center for Imaging Research. The T2 values of treated tumors increased by 24 +/- 14% 24 hr after the therapy. The control tumors did not demonstrate significant changes of the T2 values. Inflammation and necrosis were observed within the treated tumors 24 hour after the treatment. Preliminary results show that Pc 4-PDT is effective for the treatment of human prostate cancer in mice. The small animal MR

  16. In Vivo Small Animal Imaging for Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fei, Baowei; Wang, Hesheng; Chen, Xiang; Meyers, Joseph; Mulvihill, John; Feyes, Denise; Edgehouse, Nancy; Duerk, Jeffrey L; Pretlow, Thomas G; Oleinick, Nancy L

    2007-03-29

    We are developing in vivo small animal imaging techniques that can measure early effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for prostate cancer. PDT is an emerging therapeutic modality that continues to show promise in the treatment of cancer. At our institution, a new second-generation photosensitizing drug, the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, has been developed and evaluated at the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center. In this study, we are developing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that provide therapy monitoring and early assessment of tumor response to PDT. We generated human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice. For the imaging experiments, we used a high-field 9.4-T small animal MR scanner (Bruker Biospec). High-resolution MR images were acquired from the treated and control tumors pre- and post-PDT and 24 hr after PDT. We utilized multi-slice multi-echo (MSME) MR sequences. During imaging acquisitions, the animals were anesthetized with a continuous supply of 2% isoflurane in oxygen and were continuously monitored for respiration and temperature. After imaging experiments, we manually segmented the tumors on each image slice for quantitative image analyses. We computed three-dimensional T2 maps for the tumor regions from the MSME images. We plotted the histograms of the T2 maps for each tumor pre- and post-PDT and 24 hr after PDT. After the imaging and PDT experiments, we dissected the tumor tissues and used the histologic slides to validate the MR images. In this study, six mice with human prostate cancer tumors were imaged and treated at the Case Center for Imaging Research. The T2 values of treated tumors increased by 24 ± 14% 24 hr after the therapy. The control tumors did not demonstrate significant changes of the T2 values. Inflammation and necrosis were observed within the treated tumors 24 hour after the treatment. Preliminary results show that Pc 4-PDT is effective for the treatment of human prostate cancer in mice. The small animal MR

  17. Osteoid osteoma: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.A.; Hattner, R.S.; Vogler, J.B.

    1984-06-01

    The double-density sign, seen on radionuclide bone scans, is described for diagnosing osteoid osteomas and for localizing the nidus. Its use in differentiating the nidus of an osteoid osteoma from osteomyelitis is also described. The utility of computed tomography in localization of the nidus is also illustrated. The double-density sign was helpful in diagnosing seven cases of surgically confirmed osteoid osteoma.

  18. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography for in-vivo three-dimensional retinal imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Marco; Wehbe, Hassan; Jiao, Shuliang; Gregori, Giovanni; Jockovich, Maria E.; Hackam, Abigail; Duan, Yuanli; Puliafito, Carmen A.

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the application of ultrahigh-resolution Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) for non contact in vivo imaging of the retina of small animals and quantitative retinal information extraction using 3D segmentation of the OCT images. An ultrahigh-resolution SD-OCT system was specifically designed for in vivo retinal imaging of small animal. En face fundus image was constructed from the measured OCT data, which enables precise registration of the OCT images on the fundus. 3D segmentation algorithms were developed for the calculation of retinal thickness map. High quality OCT images of the retina of mice (B6/SJLF2 for normal retina, Rho -/- for photoreceptor degeneration and LH BETAT AG for retinoblastoma) and rats (Wistar for normal retina) were acquired, where all the retinal layers can be clearly recognized. The calculated retinal thickness map makes successful quantitative comparison of the retinal thickness distribution between normal and degenerative mouse retina. The capabilities of the OCT system provide a valuable tool for longitudinal studies of small animal models of ocular diseases.

  19. Hardware, software, and scanning issues encountered during small animal imaging of photodynamic therapy in the athymic nude rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Nathan; Sharma, Rahul; Varghai, Davood; Spring-Robinson, Chandra; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Muzic, Raymond F., Jr.; Dean, David

    2007-02-01

    Small animal imaging devices are now commonly used to study gene activation and model the effects of potential therapies. We are attempting to develop a protocol that non-invasively tracks the affect of Pc 4-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a human glioma model using structural image data from micro-CT and/or micro-MR scanning and functional data from 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) micro-PET imaging. Methods: Athymic nude rat U87-derived glioma was imaged by micro-PET and either micro-CT or micro-MR prior to Pc 4-PDT. Difficulty insuring animal anesthesia and anatomic position during the micro-PET, micro-CT, and micro-MR scans required adaptation of the scanning bed hardware. Following Pc 4-PDT the animals were again 18F-FDG micro-PET scanned, euthanized one day later, and their brains were explanted and prepared for H&E histology. Histology provided the gold standard for tumor location and necrosis. The tumor and surrounding brain functional and structural image data were then isolated and coregistered. Results: Surprisingly, both the non-PDT and PDT groups showed an increase in tumor functional activity when we expected this signal to disappear in the group receiving PDT. Co-registration of the functional and structural image data was done manually. Discussion: As expected, micro-MR imaging provided better structural discrimination of the brain tumor than micro-CT. Contrary to expectations, in our preliminary analysis 18F-FDG micro-PET imaging does not readily discriminate the U87 tumors that received Pc 4-PDT. We continue to investigate the utility of micro-PET and other methods of functional imaging to remotely detect the specificity and sensitivity of Pc 4-PDT in deeply placed tumors.

  20. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry to investigate endogenous peptides in an animal model of Usher's disease.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Bijon; Dickhut, Clarissa; Mielke, Svenja; Krüger, Jonas; Just, Ingo; Glage, Silke; Meier, Martin; Wedekind, Dirk; Pich, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Imaging MS (MSI) has emerged as a valuable tool to study the spatial distribution of biomolecules in the brain. Herein, MALDI-MSI was used to determine the distribution of endogenous peptides in a rat model of Usher's disease. This rare disease is considered as a leading cause of deaf-blindness in humans worldwide. Cryosections of brain tissue were analyzed by MALDI-MSI to differentiate between healthy and diseased rats. MSI results were highly reproducible. Tissue-specific peptides were identified by MS/MS using LC-Orbitrap and MALDI-TOF/TOF analyses. These peptides were proposed for histological classification due to their particular spatial distribution in the brain, for example, substantia nigra, corpus callosum, and hippocampus. Several endogenous peptides showed significantly increased ion densities, particularly in the colliculi superiores and in the substantia nigra of diseased rats, including peptides derived from Fsd1, dystrobrevin-β, and ProSAAS. Furthermore, several proteolytic degradation products of the myelin basic protein were identified, of which one peptide is most likely mediated by calpain-2. Our findings contribute to the characterization of this animal model and include possible peptide markers of disease.

  1. Monitoring of small lymphatics function under different impact on animal model by integrated optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Chowdhury, Parimal; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2004-08-01

    The digital transmission microscopy is very informative, noninvasive for vessels, simple and available method for studying and measuring lymph microvessels function in vivo. Rat mesentery can use as promising animal model of lymph microvessels in vivo. Such imaging system allowed visualizing the entire lymphangion (with input and output valves), its wall, lymphatic valves, lymph flow as well as single cells in flow; obtaining anew basic information on lymph microcirculation and quantitative data on lymphatic function including indexes of phasic contractions and valve function, the quantitative parameters of lymph-flow velocity. Rat mesentery is good model to create different types of lymphedemas in acute and chronic experiments. The obtained data revealed that significant edema started immediately after lymph node dissection in one-half of cases and was accompanied by lymphatic disturbances. The greatest degree of edema was found after 1 week. After 4 weeks, the degree of edema sometimes decreased, but functional lymphatic disturbances progressed. Nicotine had significant direct dose-dependent effect on microlymphatic function at the acute local application, but the same dose of this drug was not effect on microcirculation in chronic intoxication. Despite yielding interesting data, transmittance microscopy had some limitations when applied to microcirculation studies. The problems could be solved at the application of integrated measuring technique.

  2. Luminescent imaging technology as an opportunity to reduce and refine animal experiments: Light at the end of the tunnel?

    PubMed

    Hagelschuer, Ina; Hauff, Peter; Strube, Anne; Käkönen, Sanna-Maria; von Degenfeld, Georges

    2009-01-01

    In vivo luminescent imaging technology was introduced in experimental life science research several years ago and has rapidly gained wide acceptance. By making use of this technology substantially more information can be gained from animal experiments than was previously possible. The concept of the 3Rs describes the aim to Refine, Reduce and Replace animal models in research. The goal of the present paper is to systematically investigate the impact of luminescent imaging on the 3Rs. In particular, three examples of applications are explained in detail so as to be accessible to the reader unfamiliar with the procedure. The examples are subsequently analysed for and categorised according to their concrete effect on animal welfare as defined by the 3Rs.

  3. Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J. ); Ainsworth, Calvin C. ); Driver, Crystal J. ); Cataldo, Dominic A. )

    1998-12-01

    The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

  4. Applying an animal model to quantify the uncertainties of an image-based 4D-CT algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Greg; Wang, Kevin; Battista, Jerry; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use an animal model to quantify the spatial displacement uncertainties and test the fundamental assumptions of an image-based 4D-CT algorithm in vivo. Six female Landrace cross pigs were ventilated and imaged using a 64-slice CT scanner (GE Healthcare) operating in axial cine mode. The breathing amplitude pattern of the pigs was varied by periodically crimping the ventilator gas return tube during the image acquisition. The image data were used to determine the displacement uncertainties that result from matching CT images at the same respiratory phase using normalized cross correlation (NCC) as the matching criteria. Additionally, the ability to match the respiratory phase of a 4.0 cm subvolume of the thorax to a reference subvolume using only a single overlapping 2D slice from the two subvolumes was tested by varying the location of the overlapping matching image within the subvolume and examining the effect this had on the displacement relative to the reference volume. The displacement uncertainty resulting from matching two respiratory images using NCC ranged from 0.54 ± 0.10 mm per match to 0.32 ± 0.16 mm per match in the lung of the animal. The uncertainty was found to propagate in quadrature, increasing with number of NCC matches performed. In comparison, the minimum displacement achievable if two respiratory images were matched perfectly in phase ranged from 0.77 ± 0.06 to 0.93 ± 0.06 mm in the lung. The assumption that subvolumes from separate cine scan could be matched by matching a single overlapping 2D image between to subvolumes was validated. An in vivo animal model was developed to test an image-based 4D-CT algorithm. The uncertainties associated with using NCC to match the respiratory phase of two images were quantified and the assumption that a 4.0 cm 3D subvolume can by matched in respiratory phase by matching a single 2D image from the 3D subvolume was validated. The work in this paper shows the image-based 4D

  5. A three-dimensional multispectral fluorescence optical tomography imaging system for small animals based on a conical mirror design

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changqing; Mitchell, Gregory S.; Dutta, Joyita; Ahn, Sangtae; Leahy, Richard M.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a three dimensional (3D) multispectral fluorescence optical tomography small animal imaging system with an innovative geometry using a truncated conical mirror, allowing simultaneous viewing of the entire surface of the animal by an EMCCD camera. A conical mirror collects photons approximately three times more efficiently than a flat mirror. An x-y mirror scanning system makes it possible to scan a collimated excitation laser beam to any location on the mouse surface. A pattern of structured light incident on the small animal surface is used to extract the surface geometry for reconstruction. A finite element based algorithm is applied to model photon propagation in the turbid media and a preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method is used to solve the large linear system matrix. The reconstruction algorithm and the system feasibility are evaluated by phantom experiments. These experiments show that multispectral measurements improve the spatial resolution of reconstructed images. Finally, an in vivo imaging study of a xenograft tumor in a mouse shows good correlation of the reconstructed image with the location of the fluorescence probe as determined by subsequent optical imaging of cryosections of the mouse. PMID:19399136

  6. [Dependence of uniformity on the radionuclide in SPECT: test methods].

    PubMed

    Kalnischke, Heiko; Grebe, Gerhard; Zander, Andreas; Munz, Dieter Ludwig; Geworski, Lilli

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate test methods to clarify whether the non-uniformity of a gamma camera depends on individual radionuclides, and whether it is necessary to measure a separate correction matrix for each radionuclide used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Two methods were devised to verify the nuclide-dependence of the gamma camera. In order to test the energy correction of the detectors, the first approach was based on the evaluation of the intrinsic non-uniformity and on the production of images with asymmetrical energy window. The second method was based on the production of correction matrices for different radionuclides, as well as on the subsequent application to phantom data that were also generated with different radionuclides. The investigation of a dualhead gamma camera produced the same results with both methods. One detector head was found to be weakly dependent on the radionuclide, due to the insufficient quality of energy correction. In this case, the phantom or patient data should be corrected using a uniformity correction matrix measured with the same radionuclide. The second detector remained nuclide-independent; in this case the uniformity correction matrix acquired for only one radionuclide was sufficient.

  7. Pixel selection for near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) discrimination between fish and terrestrial animal species in animal protein by-product meals.

    PubMed

    Riccioli, Cecilia; Pérez-Marín, Dolores; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio; Saeys, Wouter; Garrido-Varo, Ana

    2011-07-01

    This paper proposes a method based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for discriminating between terrestrial and fish species in animal protein by-products used in livestock feed. Four algorithms (Mahalanobis distance, Kennard-Stone, spatial interpolation, and binning) were compared in order to select an appropriate subset of pixels for further partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The method was applied to a set of 50 terrestrial and 40 fish meals analyzed in the 1000-1700 nm range. Models were then tested using an external validation set comprising 45 samples (25 fish and 20 terrestrial). The PLS-DA models obtained using the four subset-selection algorithms yielded a classification accuracy of 99.80%, 99.79%, 99.85%, and 99.61%, respectively. The results represent a first step for the analysis of mixtures of species and suggest that NIR-CI, providing valuable information on the origin of animal components in processed animal proteins, is a promising method that could be used as part of the EU feed control program aimed at eradicating and preventing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and related diseases.

  8. Choline molecular imaging with small-animal PET for monitoring tumor cellular response to photodynamic therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Baowei; Wang, Hesheng; Wu, Chunying; Meyers, Joseph; Xue, Liang-Yan; MacLennan, Gregory; Schluchter, Mark

    2009-02-01

    We are developing and evaluating choline molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) for monitoring tumor response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in animal models. Human prostate cancer (PC-3) was studied in athymic nude mice. A second-generation photosensitizer Pc 4 was used for PDT in tumor-bearing mice. MicroPET images with 11C-choline were acquired before PDT and 48 h after PDT. Time-activity curves of 11C-choline uptake were analyzed before and after PDT. For treated tumors, normalized choline uptake decreased significantly 48 h after PDT, compared to the same tumors pre-PDT (p <~ 0.001). However, for the control tumors, normalized choline uptake increased significantly (p <~ 0.001). PET imaging with 11C-choline is sensitive to detect early tumor response to PDT in the animal model of human prostate cancer.

  9. Images of Soft-bodied Animals with External Hard Shell: 3D Visualization of the Embedded Soft Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Akatsuka, Takao; Tromba, Giuliana

    2004-05-12

    Images of soft-bodied animals (snails) of various types with external hard shell are obtained for 25, 27 and 29 keV synchrotron X-rays. The SYRMEP facility at Elettra,Trieste, Italy and the associated detection system has been used for the image acquisition. The interior properties of the embedded soft tissue are analysed utilizing the software. From the reconstructed images, the soft tissue distribution, void spaces associated with the soft tissue and external hard shell are identified. 3D images are reconstructed at these energies and optimum energy is chosen based on the quality of the image for further analysis. The optimum energy allowed us to visualize the visibility of low absorbing details and interior microstructure of the embedded soft tissue.

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  11. Monte Carlo-based evaluation of S-values in mouse models for positron-emitting radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    In addition to being a powerful clinical tool, Positron emission tomography (PET) is also used in small laboratory animal research to visualize and track certain molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease and neurological disorders in living small animal models of disease. However, dosimetric characteristics in small animal PET imaging are usually overlooked, though the radiation dose may not be negligible. In this work, we constructed 17 mouse models of different body mass and size based on the realistic four-dimensional MOBY mouse model. Particle (photons, electrons and positrons) transport using the Monte Carlo method was performed to calculate the absorbed fractions and S-values for eight positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Y-86 and I-124). Among these radionuclides, O-15 emits positrons with high energy and frequency and produces the highest self-absorbed S-values in each organ, while Y-86 emits γ-rays with high energy and frequency which results in the highest cross-absorbed S-values for non-neighbouring organs. Differences between S-values for self-irradiated organs were between 2% and 3%/g difference in body weight for most organs. For organs irradiating other organs outside the splanchnocoele (i.e. brain, testis and bladder), differences between S-values were lower than 1%/g. These appealing results can be used to assess variations in small animal dosimetry as a function of total-body mass. The generated database of S-values for various radionuclides can be used in the assessment of radiation dose to mice from different radiotracers in small animal PET experiments, thus offering quantitative figures for comparative dosimetry research in small animal models.

  12. Multi-institutional dosimetric and geometric commissioning of image-guided small animal irradiators

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, P. E.; Granton, P. V.; Hoof, S. van; Hermans, J.; Gasparini, A.; Jelveh, S.; Clarkson, R.; Kaas, J.; Wittkamper, F.; Sonke, J.-J.; Verhaegen, F.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric and geometric properties of a commercial x-ray based image-guided small animal irradiation system, installed at three institutions and to establish a complete and broadly accessible commissioning procedure. Methods: The system consists of a 225 kVp x-ray tube with fixed field size collimators ranging from 1 to 44 mm equivalent diameter. The x-ray tube is mounted opposite a flat-panel imaging detector, on a C-arm gantry with 360° coplanar rotation. Each institution performed a full commissioning of their system, including half-value layer, absolute dosimetry, relative dosimetry (profiles, percent depth dose, and relative output factors), and characterization of the system geometry and mechanical flex of the x-ray tube and detector. Dosimetric measurements were made using Farmer-type ionization chambers, small volume air and liquid ionization chambers, and radiochromic film. The results between the three institutions were compared. Results: At 225 kVp, with 0.3 mm Cu added filtration, the first half value layer ranged from 0.9 to 1.0 mm Cu. The dose-rate in-air for a 40 × 40 mm{sup 2} field size, at a source-to-axis distance of 30 cm, ranged from 3.5 to 3.9 Gy/min between the three institutions. For field sizes between 2.5 mm diameter and 40 × 40 mm{sup 2}, the differences between percent depth dose curves up to depths of 3.5 cm were between 1% and 4% on average, with the maximum difference being 7%. The profiles agreed very well for fields >5 mm diameter. The relative output factors differed by up to 6% for fields larger than 10 mm diameter, but differed by up to 49% for fields ≤5 mm diameter. The mechanical characteristics of the system (source-to-axis and source-to-detector distances) were consistent between all three institutions. There were substantial differences in the flex of each system. Conclusions: With the exception of the half-value layer, and mechanical properties, there were significant differences between the

  13. The management of painful bone metastases with an emphasis on radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Hillegonds, Darren J.; Franklin, Stephen; Shelton, David K.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Vijayakumar, Vani

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review provides an update on the management of painful bone metastases, with an emphasis on radionuclide therapy, and introduces oligometastases and quantitative imaging evaluations for clinical trials. METHODS: The current use of radionuclides, alone and in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy for painful bone metastases, is discussed, including toxicity, cost and overall outcomes. RESULTS: Radionuclide therapy is shown to be a useful and cost-effective means of alleviating bone pain in metastatic disease and may be more effective when combined with chemotherapy, bisphosphonates and radiation therapy. Early use of radionuclides in pain therapy may limit cancer progression by inhibiting oligometastases development. Thus, radionuclides can significantly decrease patient morbidity, prolong patient survival, and may decrease the occurrence of new bone metastases. CONCLUSION: Palliative pain therapy is critical for effectively managing bone metastases, with treatment options including analgesics, external beam radiotherapy, chemotherapy and radionuclides. Radionuclide therapy is underutilized. Recent studies using radionuclides with chemotherapy and bisphosponates, or using newer radionuclides or combinations of radionuclides and treatment paradigms (e.g., higher activities, repetitive or cyclic administration, chemo sensitization, chemo supplementation), are encouraging. A comprehensive, inter-disciplinary clinical approach is needed. Clinical collaborations will optimize radionuclide therapy for pain palliation and increase awareness of its benefits. PMID:17668645

  14. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Darne, Chinmay D.; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Smith, Anne M.; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2012-01-01

    The work presented herein describes system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens microPET/CT commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 μM IRDye800CW and 68Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. 3-D mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP3) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate FDPM approach. Finally, PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The results obtained validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging. PMID:23171509

  15. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darne, Chinmay D.; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Smith, Anne M.; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2012-12-01

    The work presented herein describes the system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens micro positron emission tomography/computed tomography (microPET/CT) commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 µM IRDye800CW and 68Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. Three-dimensional mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP3) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate the FDPM approach. Finally, the PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The obtained results validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging.

  16. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography.

    PubMed

    Darne, Chinmay D; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C; Smith, Anne M; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2012-12-21

    The work presented herein describes the system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens micro positron emission tomography/computed tomography (microPET/CT) commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 µM IRDye800CW and ⁶⁸Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. Three-dimensional mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP₃) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate the FDPM approach. Finally, the PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The obtained results validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging.

  17. Genetic parameters of Visual Image Analysis primal cut carcass traits of commercial prime beef slaughter animals.

    PubMed

    Moore, K L; Mrode, R; Coffey, M P

    2017-03-15

    Visual Image analysis (VIA) of carcass traits provides the opportunity to estimate carcass primal cut yields on large numbers of slaughter animals. This allows carcases to be better differentiated and farmers to be paid based on the primal cut yields. It also creates more accurate genetic selection due to high volumes of data which enables breeders to breed cattle that better meet the abattoir specifications and market requirements. In order to implement genetic evaluations for VIA primal cut yields, genetic parameters must first be estimated and that was the aim of this study. Slaughter records from the UK prime slaughter population for VIA carcass traits was available from two processing plants. After edits, there were 17 765 VIA carcass records for six primal cut traits, carcass weight as well as the EUROP conformation and fat class grades. Heritability estimates after traits were adjusted for age ranged from 0.32 (0.03) for EUROP fat to 0.46 (0.03) for VIA Topside primal cut yield. Adjusting the VIA primal cut yields for carcass weight reduced the heritability estimates, with estimates of primal cut yields ranging from 0.23 (0.03) for Fillet to 0.29 (0.03) for Knuckle. Genetic correlations between VIA primal cut yields adjusted for carcass weight were very strong, ranging from 0.40 (0.06) between Fillet and Striploin to 0.92 (0.02) between Topside and Silverside. EUROP conformation was also positively correlated with the VIA primal cuts with genetic correlation estimates ranging from 0.59 to 0.84, whereas EUROP fat was estimated to have moderate negative correlations with primal cut yields, estimates ranged from -0.11 to -0.46. Based on these genetic parameter estimates, genetic evaluation of VIA primal cut yields can be undertaken to allow the UK beef industry to select carcases that better meet abattoir specification and market requirements.

  18. SU-E-U-02: The Development of a Practical Ultrasonic System for Cross-Sectional Imaging of Small Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Kamp, J; Malyarenko, E; Chen, D; Wydra, A; Maev, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of developing a practical medium frequency ultrasound tomography method for small animal imaging. The ability to produce cross-sectional or full body images of a live small animal using a low-cost tabletop ultrasound scanner without any special license would be very beneficial to long term biological studies, where repeated scanning is often required over an extended period of time. Methods: The cross sectional images were produced by compounding multiple B-scans of a laboratory phantom or an animal acquired at different projection angles. Two imaging systems were used to test the concept. The first system included a programmable 64-channel phased array controller driving a 128-channel, 5–10 MHz linear probe to produce 143 B-Mode projections of the spinning object. The second system designed and manufactured in house, produced 64 or 128 B-Mode projections with a single unfocused 8 MHz transducer scanning with a 0.116 mm step size. Results: The phased array system provided good penetration through the phantoms/mice (with the exception of the lungs) and allowed to acquire data in a very short time. The cross-sectional images have enough resolution and dynamic range to detect both high- and low-contrast organs. The single transducer system takes longer to scan, and the data require more sophisticated processing. To date, our images allow seeing details as small as 1–2 mm in the phantoms and in small animals, with the contrast mostly due to highly reflecting bones and air inclusions. Conclusion: The work indicates that very detailed and anatomically correct images can be created by relatively simple and inexpensive means. With more advanced algorithms and improved system design, scan time can be reduced considerably, enabling high-resolution full 3D imaging. This will allow for quick and easy scans that can help monitor tumor growth and/or regression without contributing any dose to the animal. The authors would like to acknowledge

  19. A computational pipeline for quantification of pulmonary infections in small animal models using serial PET-CT imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide. In order to better understand and treat them, an accurate evaluation using multi-modal imaging techniques for anatomical and functional characterizations is needed. For non-invasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), there have been many engineering improvements that have significantly enhanced the resolution and contrast of the images, but there are still insufficient computational algorithms available for researchers to use when accurately quantifying imaging data from anatomical structures and functional biological processes. Since the development of such tools may potentially translate basic research into the clinic, this study focuses on the development of a quantitative and qualitative image analysis platform that provides a computational radiology perspective for pulmonary infections in small animal models. Specifically, we designed (a) a fast and robust automated and semi-automated image analysis platform and a quantification tool that can facilitate accurate diagnostic measurements of pulmonary lesions as well as volumetric measurements of anatomical structures, and incorporated (b) an image registration pipeline to our proposed framework for volumetric comparison of serial scans. This is an important investigational tool for small animal infectious disease models that can help advance researchers’ understanding of infectious diseases. Methods We tested the utility of our proposed methodology by using sequentially acquired CT and PET images of rabbit, ferret, and mouse models with respiratory infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), H1N1 flu virus, and an aerosolized respiratory pathogen (necrotic TB) for a total of 92, 44, and 24 scans for the respective studies with half of the scans from CT and the other half from PET. Institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal

  20. Evaluation of liver function and electroacupuncture efficacy of animals with alcoholic liver injury by the novel imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Song, Xiao-jing; Li, Shun-yue; Wang, Shu-you; Chen, Bing-jun; Bai, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Li-mei

    2016-01-01

    Imaging methods to evaluate hepatic microcirculation (HM) and liver function (LF) by directly monitoring overall liver tissue remain lacking. This study establish imaging methods for LF that combines Laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI) and in vivo optical imaging (IVOI) technologies to investigate changes of hepatic microcirculation and reserve function in the animals gavaged with 50% ethanol (15 ml/kg·bw) for a model of acute alcoholic liver injury (ALI), and for evaluation of electroacupuncture (EA) effect. The liver blood perfusion and indocyanine green (ICG) distribution were observe by LSPI and IVOI separately. After EA, the livers were collected to measure the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), thromboxane A (TXA2), prostacyclin (PGI2) and endothelin (ET). The acquisitions of newly established LSPI of liver and ICG in vivo fluorescence imaging (ICG-IVFI), combining the results of other indexes showed: hepatic microcirculation perfusion (HMP) significantly reduced, ICG metabolism reduced, and ALT/AST increased in animal model with acute ALI. EA can reverse these changes. The use of LSPI of liver and ICG-IVFI, which was novel imaging methods for LF established in this study, could display the LF characteristics of ALI and the EA efficacy. PMID:27443832

  1. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  2. Whole-animal imaging of bacterial infection using endoscopic excitation of β-lactamase (BlaC)-specific fluorogenic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooshabadi, Fatemeh; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Cheng, Yunfeng; Xie, Hexin; Rao, Jianghong; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide. The slow growth rate of Mtb limits progress toward understanding tuberculosis including diagnosis of infections and evaluating therapeutic efficacy. Development of near-infrared (NIR) β-lactamase (BlaC)-specific fluorogenic substrate has made a significant breakthrough in the whole-animal imaging to detect Mtb infection. The reporter enzyme fluorescence (REF) system using a BlaC-specific fluorogenic substrate has improved the detection sensitivity in whole-animal optical imaging down to ~104 colony forming units (CFU) of bacteria, about 100-fold improvement over recombinant strains. However, improvement of detection sensitivity is strongly needed for clinical diagnosis of early stage infection at greater tissue depth. In order to improve detection sensitivity, we have integrated a fiber-based microendoscpe into a whole-animal imaging system to transmit the excitation light from the fiber bundle to the fluorescent target directly and measure fluorescent level using BlaC-specific REF substrate in the mouse lung. REF substrate, CNIR800, was delivered via aerosol route to the pulmonary infected mice with M. bovis BCG strain at 24 hours post-infection and groups of mice were imaged at 1-4 hours post-administration of the substrate using the integrated imaging system. In this study we evaluated the kinetics of CNIR800 substrate using REF technology using the integrated imaging system. Integration of these technologies has great promise for improved detection sensitivity allowing pre-clinical imaging for evaluation of new therapeutic agents.

  3. In vivo Cerenkov luminescence imaging: a new tool for molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gregory S; Gill, Ruby K; Boucher, David L; Li, Changqing; Cherry, Simon R

    2011-11-28

    Cerenkov radiation is a phenomenon where optical photons are emitted when a charged particle moves faster than the speed of light for the medium in which it travels. Recently, we and others have discovered that measurable visible light due to the Cerenkov effect is produced in vivo following the administration of β-emitting radionuclides to small animals. Furthermore, the amounts of injected activity required to produce a detectable signal are consistent with small-animal molecular imaging applications. This surprising observation has led to the development of a new hybrid molecular imaging modality known as Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI), which allows the spatial distribution of biomolecules labelled with β-emitting radionuclides to be imaged in vivo using sensitive charge-coupled device cameras. We review the physics of Cerenkov radiation as it relates to molecular imaging, present simulation results for light intensity and spatial distribution, and show an example of CLI in a mouse cancer model. CLI allows many common radiotracers to be imaged in widely available in vivo optical imaging systems, and, more importantly, provides a pathway for directly imaging β(-)-emitting radionuclides that are being developed for therapeutic applications in cancer and that are not readily imaged by existing methods.

  4. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT∕CT and PET∕CT scanners. PMID:18697529

  5. Multi-modal molecular diffuse optical tomography system for small animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, James A.; Basevi, Hector R. A.; Frampton, Jon; Styles, Iain B.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    A multi-modal optical imaging system for quantitative 3D bioluminescence and functional diffuse imaging is presented, which has no moving parts and uses mirrors to provide multi-view tomographic data for image reconstruction. It is demonstrated that through the use of trans-illuminated spectral near infrared measurements and spectrally constrained tomographic reconstruction, recovered concentrations of absorbing agents can be used as prior knowledge for bioluminescence imaging within the visible spectrum. Additionally, the first use of a recently developed multi-view optical surface capture technique is shown and its application to model-based image reconstruction and free-space light modelling is demonstrated. The benefits of model-based tomographic image recovery as compared to 2D planar imaging are highlighted in a number of scenarios where the internal luminescence source is not visible or is confounding in 2D images. The results presented show that the luminescence tomographic imaging method produces 3D reconstructions of individual light sources within a mouse-sized solid phantom that are accurately localised to within 1.5mm for a range of target locations and depths indicating sensitivity and accurate imaging throughout the phantom volume. Additionally the total reconstructed luminescence source intensity is consistent to within 15% which is a dramatic improvement upon standard bioluminescence imaging. Finally, results from a heterogeneous phantom with an absorbing anomaly are presented demonstrating the use and benefits of a multi-view, spectrally constrained coupled imaging system that provides accurate 3D luminescence images. PMID:24954977

  6. Three-dimensional image and spatial spectrum analysis of behavior of small animal erythrocytes in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui Chi; Shen, Wen-Tai; Kong, Yu-Han; Chuang, Chun-Hao

    2008-02-01

    Because of the softness of membrane, erythrocytes (red blood cell, RBC) have different shapes while being immersed in buffer with different osmotic pressure. While affecting by different viruses and illnesses, RBC may change its shape, or its membrane may become rigid. Moreover, RBC will ford and stretch when it is trapped by optical tweezers. Therefore, the behaviors of RBC in optical tweezers raise more discussion. In this report, we set up an optical tweezers to trap RBC of small animals like feline and canine. By adding a long working distance objective to collect the side-viewing image, a 3-D image system was constructed to detect the motion of trapped RBC. To improve the image quality for side-view, an aperture and narrow glass plate were used. From the video of these images and their spatial spectrum, the shape of trapped RBC was studied.

  7. A small animal PET based on GAPDs and charge signal transmission approach for hybrid PET-MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jihoon; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Hu, Wei; Jung, Jin Ho; Huh, Yoonsuk; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2011-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) employing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) and charge signal transmission approach was developed for small animal imaging. Animal PET contained 16 LYSO and GAPD detector modules that were arranged in a 70 mm diameter ring with an axial field of view of 13 mm. The GAPDs charge output signals were transmitted to a preamplifier located remotely using 300 cm flexible flat cables. The position decoder circuits (PDCs) were used to multiplex the PET signals from 256 to 4 channels. The outputs of the PDCs were digitized and further-processed in the data acquisition unit. The cross-compatibilities of the PET detectors and MRI were assessed outside and inside the MRI. Experimental studies of the developed full ring PET were performed to examine the spatial resolution and sensitivity. Phantom and mouse images were acquired to examine the imaging performance. The mean energy and time resolution of the PET detector were 17.6% and 1.5 ns, respectively. No obvious degradation on PET and MRI was observed during simultaneous PET-MRI data acquisition. The measured spatial resolution and sensitivity at the CFOV were 2.8 mm and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, a 3 mm diameter line source was clearly resolved in the hot-sphere phantom images. The reconstructed transaxial PET images of the mouse brain and tumor displaying the glucose metabolism patterns were imaged well. These results demonstrate GAPD and the charge signal transmission approach can allow the development of high performance small animal PET with improved MR compatibility.

  8. Integration of AdaptiSPECT, a small-animal adaptive SPECT imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Chaix, Cécile; Kovalsky, Stephen; Kosmider, Matthew; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    AdaptiSPECT is a pre-clinical adaptive SPECT imaging system under final development at the Center for Gamma-ray Imaging. The system incorporates multiple adaptive features: an adaptive aperture, 16 detectors mounted on translational stages, and the ability to switch between a non-multiplexed and a multiplexed imaging configuration. In this paper, we review the design of AdaptiSPECT and its adaptive features. We then describe the on-going integration of the imaging system. PMID:26347197

  9. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  10. Small-animal microangiography using phase-contrast X-ray imaging and gas as contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundström, Ulf; Larsson, Daniel H.; Westermark, Ulrica K.; Burvall, Anna; Hertz, Hans M.

    2014-03-01

    We use propagation-based phase-contrast X-ray imaging with gas as contrast agent to visualize the microvasculature in small animals like mice and rats. The radiation dose required for absorption X-ray imaging is proportional to the minus fourth power of the structure size to be detected. This makes small vessels impossible to image at reasonable radiation doses using the absorption of conventional iodinated contrast agents. Propagation-based phase contrast gives enhanced contrast for high spatial frequencies by moving the detector away from the sample to let phase variations in the transmitted X-rays develop into intensity variations at the detector. Blood vessels are normally difficult to observe in phase contrast even with iodinated contrast agents as the density difference between blood and most tissues is relatively small. By injecting gas into the blood stream this density difference can be greatly enhanced giving strong phase contrast. One possible gas to use is carbon dioxide, which is a clinically accepted X-ray contrast agent. The gas is injected into the blood stream of patients to temporarily displace the blood in a region and thereby reduce the X-ray absorption in the blood vessels. We have shown that this method can be used to image blood vessels down to 8 μm in diameter in mouse ears. The low dose requirements of this method indicate a potential for live small-animal imaging and longitudinal studies of angiogenesis.

  11. Preclinical imaging and translational animal models of cancer for accelerated clinical implementation of nanotechnologies and macromolecular agents.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Raquel; Spence, Tara; Huang, Huang; Allen, Christine

    2015-12-10

    The majority of animal models of cancer have performed poorly in terms of predicting clinical performance of new therapeutics, which are most often first evaluated in patients with advanced, metastatic disease. The development and use of metastatic models of cancer may enhance clinical translatability of preclinical studies focused on the development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and macromolecular therapeutics, potentially accelerating their clinical implementation. It is recognized that the development and use of such models are not without challenge. Preclinical imaging tools offer a solution by allowing temporal and spatial characterization of metastatic lesions. This paper provides a review of imaging methods applicable for evaluation of novel therapeutics in clinically relevant models of advanced cancer. An overview of currently utilized models of oncology in small animals is followed by image-based development and characterization of visceral metastatic cancer models. Examples of imaging tools employed for metastatic lesion detection, evaluation of anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential and biodistribution of novel therapies, as well as the co-development and/or use of imageable surrogates of response, are also discussed. While the focus is on development of macromolecular and nanotechnology-based therapeutics, examples with small molecules are included in some cases to illustrate concepts and approaches that can be applied in the assessment of nanotechnologies or macromolecules.

  12. Performance evaluation of a compact PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system for small animal imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qingyang; Wang, Shi; Ma, Tianyu; Wu, Jing; Liu, Hui; Xu, Tianpeng; Xia, Yan; Fan, Peng; Lyu, Zhenlei; Liu, Yaqiang

    2015-06-01

    PET, SPECT and CT imaging techniques are widely used in preclinical small animal imaging applications. In this paper, we present a compact small animal PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system. A dual-functional, shared detector design is implemented which enables PET and SPECT imaging with a same LYSO ring detector. A multi-pinhole collimator is mounted on the system and inserted into the detector ring in SPECT imaging mode. A cone-beam CT consisting of a micro focus X-ray tube and a CMOS detector is implemented. The detailed design and the performance evaluations are reported in this paper. In PET imaging mode, the measured NEMA based spatial resolution is 2.12 mm (FWHM), and the sensitivity at the central field of view (CFOV) is 3.2%. The FOV size is 50 mm (∅)×100 mm (L). The SPECT has a spatial resolution of 1.32 mm (FWHM) and an average sensitivity of 0.031% at the center axial, and a 30 mm (∅)×90 mm (L) FOV. The CT spatial resolution is 8.32 lp/mm @10%MTF, and the contrast discrimination function value is 2.06% with 1.5 mm size cubic box object. In conclusion, a compact, tri-modality PET/SPECT/CT system was successfully built with low cost and high performance.

  13. Cone Beam X-Ray Luminescence Tomography Imaging Based on KA-FEM Method for Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongmei; Meng, Fanzhen; Zhao, Fengjun

    2016-01-01

    Cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography can realize fast X-ray luminescence tomography imaging with relatively low scanning time compared with narrow beam X-ray luminescence tomography. However, cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography suffers from an ill-posed reconstruction problem. First, the feasibility of experiments with different penetration and multispectra in small animal has been tested using nanophosphor material. Then, the hybrid reconstruction algorithm with KA-FEM method has been applied in cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography for small animals to overcome the ill-posed reconstruction problem, whose advantage and property have been demonstrated in