Science.gov

Sample records for animal radionuclide imaging

  1. Small Animal Radionuclide Imaging With Focusing Gamma-Ray Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R; Decker, T; Epstein, M; Ziock, K; Pivovaroff, M J; Craig, W W; Jernigan, J G; Barber, W B; Christensen, F E; Funk, T; Hailey, C J; Hasegawa, B H; Taylor, C

    2004-02-27

    Significant effort currently is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. While physiological function in small animals can be localized and imaged using conventional radionuclide imaging techniques such as single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), these techniques inherently are limited to spatial resolutions of 1-2 mm. For this reason, we are developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system (SARIS) using grazing incidence optics to focus gamma-rays emitted by {sup 125}I and other radiopharmaceuticals. We have developed a prototype optic with sufficient accuracy and precision to focus the 27.5 keV photons from {sup 125}I onto a high-resolution imaging detector. Experimental measurements from the prototype have demonstrated that the optic can focus X-rays from a microfocus X-ray tube to a spot having physical dimensions (approximately 1500 microns half-power diameter) consistent with those predicted by theory. Our theoretical and numerical analysis also indicate that an optic can be designed and build that ultimately can achieve 100 {micro}m spatial resolution with sufficient efficiency to perform in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animal.

  2. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  3. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis. PMID:25589808

  4. Radionuclide imaging of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide procedures frequently are performed as part of the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. Degenerative joint disease, fracture, and orthopedic hardware decrease the specificity of the bone scan, making it less useful in these situations. Gallium-67 scintigraphy was often used as an adjunct to bone scintigraphy for diagnosing osteomyelitis. However, now it is used primarily for spinal infections when (18)F-FDG imaging cannot be performed. Except for the spine, in vitro-labeled leukocyte imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. Leukocytes accumulate in bone marrow as well as in infection. Performing complementary bone marrow imaging with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid facilitates the differentiation between osteomyelitis and normal marrow and improves test overall accuracy. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, such as (99m)Tc-besilesomab and (99m)Tc-sulesomab, were developed to eliminate the disadvantages associated with in vitro-labeled leukocytes. These agents, however, have their own shortcomings and are not widely available. As biotin is used as a growth factor by certain bacteria, (111)In-biotin is useful to diagnose spinal infections. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, can differentiate infection from sterile inflammation and may be useful to monitor response to treatment. (18)F-FDG is extremely useful in the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Sensitivity in excess of 95% and specificity ranging from 75%-99% have been reported. (18)F-FDG is the radionuclide test of choice for spinal infection. The test is sensitive, with a high negative predictive value, and reliably differentiates degenerative from infectious vertebral body end-plate abnormalities. Data on the accuracy of (18)F-FDG for diagnosing diabetic pedal

  5. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  6. Radionuclide Imaging of Cardiovascular Infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fozia Zahir; James, Jackie; Memmott, Matthew J; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2016-02-01

    Owing to expanding clinical indications, cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are being increasingly used. Despite improved surgical techniques and the use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, the rate of CIED-related infection is also increasing. Infection is a potentially serious complication, with clinical manifestations ranging from surgical site infection and local symptoms in the region of the generator pocket to fulminant endocarditis. The utility of radionuclide imaging as a stand-alone noninvasive diagnostic imaging test in patients with suspected endocarditis has been less frequently examined. This article summarizes the recent advances in radionuclide imaging for evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular infections.

  7. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; da Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  8. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  9. Radionuclide imaging in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by interruption or significant impairment of blood supply to the brain, which leads to a cascade of metabolic and molecular alterations resulting in functional disturbance and morphologic damage. The changes in regional cerebral blood flow and regional metabolism can be assessed by radionuclide imaging, especially SPECT and PET. SPECT and PET have broadened our understanding of flow and metabolic thresholds critical for maintenance of brain function and morphology: PET was essential in the transfer of the concept of the penumbra to clinical stroke and thereby had a great impact on developing treatment strategies. Receptor ligands can be applied as early markers of irreversible neuronal damage and can predict the size of the final infarcts, which is important for decisions on invasive therapy in large ("malignant") infarction. With SPECT and PET, the reserve capacity of the blood supply can be tested in obstructive arteriosclerosis, which is essential for planning interventions. The effect of a stroke on surrounding and contralateral primarily unaffected tissue can be investigated, helping to understand symptoms caused by disturbance in functional networks. Activation studies are useful to demonstrate alternative pathways to compensate for lesions and to test the effect of rehabilitative therapy. Radioisotope studies help to detect neuroinflammation and its effect on extension of tissue damage. Despite the limitations of broad clinical application of radionuclide imaging, this technology has a great impact on research in cerebrovascular diseases and still has various applications in the management of stroke. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  10. Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution

    DOEpatents

    Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2012-12-18

    A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

  11. Optimized time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in small animal tumor models.

    PubMed

    Haeck, Joost; Bol, Karin; Bison, Sander; van Tiel, Sandra; Koelewijn, Stuart; de Jong, Marion; Veenland, Jifke; Bernsen, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Anti-tumor efficacy of targeted peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) relies on several factors, including functional tumor vasculature. Little is known about the effect of PRRT on tumor vasculature. With dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI, functional vasculature is imaged and quantified using contrast agents. In small animals DCE-MRI is a challenging application. We optimized a clinical sequence for fast hemodynamic acquisitions, time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS), to obtain DCE-MRI images at both high spatial and high temporal resolution in mice and rats. Using TRICKS, functional vasculature was measured prior to PRRT and longitudinally to investigate the effect of treatment on tumor vascular characteristics. Nude mice bearing H69 tumor xenografts and rats bearing syngeneic CA20948 tumors were used to study perfusion following PRRT administration with (177) lutetium octreotate. Both semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters were calculated. Treatment efficacy was measured by tumor-size reduction. Optimized TRICKS enabled MRI at 0.032 mm(3) voxel size with a temporal resolution of less than 5 s and large volume coverage, a substantial improvement over routine pre-clinical DCE-MRI studies. Tumor response to therapy was reflected in changes in tumor perfusion/permeability parameters. The H69 tumor model showed pronounced changes in DCE-derived parameters following PRRT. The rat CA20948 tumor model showed more heterogeneity in both treatment outcome and perfusion parameters. TRICKS enabled the acquisition of DCE-MRI at both high temporal resolution (Tres ) and spatial resolutions relevant for small animal tumor models. With the high Tres enabled by TRICKS, accurate pharmacokinetic data modeling was feasible. DCE-MRI parameters revealed changes over time and showed a clear relationship between tumor size and Ktrans .

  12. Radionuclide imaging in drug development.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Alan C; Frier, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive tracers have made an immense contribution to the understanding of human physiology and pathology. At the start of the 21st century nuclear imaging has emerged as the main metabolic imaging modality which is of growing importance in drug development and clinical pharmacology. Using techniques adapted from those undertaken in clinical radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine facilities drug molecules and carrier systems may be radiolabelled and their release, biodistribution and uptake may be visualized in human subjects. Imaging studies are capable of locating the uptake of specific receptors in the brain, the site of disintegration of a tablet in the GI tract, the penetration of a nebulized solution into the lung and the residence time of an eye drop on the cornea. The technology uses suitable gamma emitting radionuclides such as 99mTc, 111In, 123I and 153Sm, which may be imaged with a gamma camera or positron emitters such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F for positron emission tomography (PET). Positron emitters are more appropriate for the direct labeling of drug molecules rather than metals such a 99mTc or 111In. A particular asset of these techniques is that the in vivo distribution and kinetics of a radiolabelled pharmaceutical formulation may be quantified. In this way correlation between the observed pharmacological effects and the precise site of delivery may be made. A powerful feature of nuclear molecular imaging is the evaluation of drug delivery systems in patient groups for whom the treatment is intended. Such studies not only provide data on the nature and characteristics of a product, such as reliability and reproducibility, but can demonstrate proof of principle for the new generation of targeted therapeutics. Imaging data are increasingly being used in product registration dossiers for submission to Regulatory Authorities.

  13. The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Beatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Bouron, Alexandre; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    increased suicides, as well as modification of preferred nesting sites, reduced hatching success and fecundity in birds that live in the Chernobyl zone. No significant effect from caesium exposure was shown in laboratory experiments with rats, but few studies were conducted. Data on radioactive cadmium are not available in the literature, but the effects of its metallic form have been well studied. Cadmium induces mental retardation and psychomotor alterations in exposed populations and increases anxiety in rats, leading to depression. Cadmium exposure also results in well-documented effects on feeding and burrowing behavior in several invertebrate species (crustaceans, gastropods, annelids, bivalves) and on different kinds of fish behavior (swimming activity, fast-start response, antipredatory behavior). Cobalt induces memory deficits in humans and may be involved in Alzheimer's disease; gamma irradiation by cobalt also decreases fecundity and alters mating behavior in insects. Collectively, data are lacking or are meagre on radionuclide pollutants, and a better knowledge of their actions on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control animal behavior is needed.

  14. Imaging Transgene Expression with Radionuclide Imaging Technologies1

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, SS; Herschman, HR; Cherry, SR; Barrio, JR; Satyamurthy, N; Toyokuni, T; Phelps, ME; Larson, SM; Balaton, J; Finn, R; Sadelain, M; Tjuvajev, J

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A variety of imaging technologies are being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Noninvasive, repetitive and quantitative imaging of gene expression will help both to facilitate human gene therapy trials and to allow for the study of animal models of molecular and cellular therapy. Radionuclide approaches using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the most mature of the current imaging technologies and offer many advantages for imaging gene expression compared to optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches. These advantages include relatively high sensitivity, full quantitative capability (for PET), and the ability to extend small animal assays directly into clinical human applications. We describe a PET scanner (micro PET) designed specifically for studies of small animals. We review “marker/reporter gene” imaging approaches using the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and the dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) genes. We describe and contrast several radiolabeled probes that can be used with the HSV1-tk reporter gene both for SPECT and for PET imaging. We also describe the advantages/disadvantages of each of the assays developed and discuss future animal and human applications. PMID:10933072

  15. Folate-receptor-targeted radionuclide imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Mathias, Carla J; Green, Mark A

    2004-04-29

    The cell-membrane folate receptor is a potential molecular target for tumor-selective drug delivery, including delivery of radiolabeled folate-chelate conjugates for diagnostic imaging. This review surveys the growing literature on tumor imaging with radionuclide agents targeted to the folate receptor. Successful folate-receptor targeting has been reported, both in vitro and in vivo, using a variety of radionuclides that are suitable for clinical diagnostic imaging (67Ga, 111In, 99mTc, 66Ga, and 64Cu). While none of these agents has, to date, been demonstrated to have clinical efficacy as a diagnostic tool, existing data indicates that it is feasible to noninvasively assess (at least qualitatively) tissue folate receptor levels by external radionuclide imaging.

  16. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  17. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Velchik, M G

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable.

  18. Advances in radionuclide imaging of cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kouranos, V; Wells, A U; Sharma, R; Underwood, S R; Wechalekar, K

    2015-09-01

    Radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis has advanced significantly in recent years. This article is based on published clinical guidelines, literature review and our collective clinical experience. Gallium-67 scintigraphy is among the diagnostic criteria for cardiac involvement in systemic sarcoidosis, and it is strongly associated with response to treatment. However, fluorine-18, 2-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is now preferred both for diagnosis and for assessing prognosis. Most data are from small observational studies that are potentially biased. Quantitative imaging to assess changes in disease activity in response to treatment may lead to FDG-PET having an important routine role in managing cardiac sarcoidosis. Larger prospective studies are required, particularly to assess the effectiveness of radionuclide imaging in improving clinical management and outcome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Breast-Dedicated Radionuclide Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Hsu, David F C; Freese, David L; Levin, Craig S

    2016-02-01

    Breast-dedicated radionuclide imaging systems show promise for increasing clinical sensitivity for breast cancer while minimizing patient dose and cost. We present several breast-dedicated coincidence-photon and single-photon camera designs that have been described in the literature and examine their intrinsic performance, clinical relevance, and impact. Recent tracer development is mentioned, results from recent clinical tests are summarized, and potential areas for improvement are highlighted.

  20. Radionuclide imaging of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Boerman, Otto C

    2009-12-01

    Angiogenesis is a multistep process regulated by pro- and antiangiogenic factors. In order to grow and metastasize, tumors need a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. For growth beyond 1-2 mm in size, tumors are dependent on angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis is a new cancer treatment strategy that is now widely investigated clinically. Researchers have begun to search for objective measures that indicate pharmacologic responses to antiangiogenic drugs. Therefore, there is a great interest in techniques to visualize angiogenesis in growing tumors noninvasively. Several markers have been described that are preferentially expressed on newly formed blood vessels in tumors (alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and its receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen) and in the extracellular matrix surrounding newly formed blood vessels (extra domain B of fibronectin, Tenascin-C, matrix metalloproteinases, and Robo-4). Several ligands targeting these markers have been tested as a radiotracer for imaging angiogenesis in tumors. The potential of some of these tracers, such as radiolabeled cyclic RGD peptides and radiolabeled anti-PSMA antibodies, has already been tested in cancer patients, while for markers such as Robo-4, the ligand has not yet been identified. In this review, an overview on the currently used nuclear imaging probes for noninvasive visualization of tumor angiogenesis is given.

  1. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    PubMed Central

    Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. PMID:20625724

  2. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders.

    PubMed

    Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Boersma, Hendrikus H; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as (99m)Tc-nanocolloid, (99m)Tc-sulphur colloid, (111)In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed.

  3. Whole animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L

    2010-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be used to investigate the whole animal, oftentimes in a single exam which provides opportunities to perform longitudinal studies and dynamic imaging of the same subject, and hence minimizes the experimental variability, requirement for the number of animals, and the time to perform a given experiment. Whole animal imaging can be performed by a number of techniques including x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, fluorescence imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, among others. Individual imaging techniques provide different kinds of information regarding the structure, metabolism, and physiology of the animal. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, and none serves every purpose of image acquisition from all regions of an animal. In this review, a broad overview of basic principles, available contrast mechanisms, applications, challenges, and future prospects of many imaging techniques employed for whole animal imaging is provided. Our main goal is to briefly describe the current state of art to researchers and advanced students with a strong background in the field of animal research.

  4. Whole animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be used to investigate the whole animal, oftentimes in a single exam which provides opportunities to perform longitudinal studies and dynamic imaging of the same subject, and hence minimizes the experimental variability, requirement for the number of animals, and the time to perform a given experiment. Whole animal imaging can be performed by a number of techniques including x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, fluorescence imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, among others. Individual imaging techniques provide different kinds of information regarding the structure, metabolism, and physiology of the animal. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, and none serves every purpose of image acquisition from all regions of an animal. In this review, a broad overview of basic principles, available contrast mechanisms, applications, challenges, and future prospects of many imaging techniques employed for whole animal imaging is provided. Our main goal is to briefly describe the current state of art to researchers and advanced students with a strong background in the field of animal research. PMID:20836038

  5. Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Infection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    There are numerous imaging tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs are routinely performed, because even when not diagnostic, they provide an anatomic overview of the region of interest that could influence subsequent procedure selection and interpretation. MRI is sensitive and provides superb anatomic detail. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. (67)Ga is used primarily for spondylodiskitis. Although in vitro labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide test of choice for complicating osteomyelitis such as diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection, it is not useful for spondylodiskitis. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments have limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for spondylodiskitis. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of the antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin are promising infection-specific agents. (18)F-FDG is the radiopharmaceutical of choice for spondylodiskitis. Its role in diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection is not established. Preliminary data suggest (68)Ga may be useful in musculoskeletal infection. (124)I-fialuridine initially showed promise as an infection-specific radiopharmaceutical, but subsequent investigations were disappointing. The development of PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging systems, which combine anatomic and functional imaging, has revolutionized diagnostic imaging. These hybrid systems are redefining the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected or known infection and inflammation by improving diagnostic accuracy and influencing patient management. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  6. Optimizing diagnosis in Parkinson's disease: Radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Stoessl, A Jon

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and other disorders characterized by basal ganglia dysfunction are often associated with limited structural imaging changes that might assist in the clinical or research setting. Radionuclide imaging has been used to assess characteristic functional changes. Presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in PD can be revealed through the imaging of different steps in the process of dopamine synthesis and storage: L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, Vesicular Monoamine Transporter type 2 (VMAT2) binding or its reuptake via the dopamine transporter (DAT). Postsynaptic dopamine dysfunction can also be studied with a variety of different tracers that primarily assess D2-like dopamine receptor availability. The function of other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine can be imaged as well, giving important information about the underlying pathophysiologic process of PD and its complications. The imaging of metabolic activity and pathologic changes has also provided great advances in the field. Together, these techniques have allowed for a better understanding of PD, may be of aid for differentiating PD from other forms of parkinsonism and will undoubtedly be useful for the establishment of new therapeutic targets.

  7. Radionuclide imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu Juan; Li, XianFeng; Ren, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically. These novel methods are useful in diagnosis and therapy of TC, but also have unavoidable adverse effects. In this review, we will discuss the development of nuclear medicine in TC examination and treatment.

  8. Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

    1981-10-01

    Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone.

  9. Somatostatin receptor based imaging and radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Caiyun; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) belong to the typical 7-transmembrane domain family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Five distinct subtypes (termed SSTR1-5) have been identified, with SSTR2 showing the highest affinity for natural SST and synthetic SST analogs. Most neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have high expression levels of SSTRs, which opens the possibility for tumor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled SST analogs. A number of tracers have been developed for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of NETs with impressive results, which facilitates the applications of human SSTR subtype 2 (hSSTr2) reporter gene based imaging and therapy in SSTR negative or weakly positive tumors to provide a novel approach for the management of tumors. The hSSTr2 gene can act as not only a reporter gene for in vivo imaging, but also a therapeutic gene for local radionuclide therapy. Even a second therapeutic gene can be transfected into the same tumor cells together with hSSTr2 reporter gene to obtain a synergistic therapeutic effect. However, additional preclinical and especially translational and clinical researches are needed to confirm the value of hSSTr2 reporter gene based imaging and therapy in tumors.

  10. Somatostatin Receptor Based Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) belong to the typical 7-transmembrane domain family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Five distinct subtypes (termed SSTR1-5) have been identified, with SSTR2 showing the highest affinity for natural SST and synthetic SST analogs. Most neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have high expression levels of SSTRs, which opens the possibility for tumor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled SST analogs. A number of tracers have been developed for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of NETs with impressive results, which facilitates the applications of human SSTR subtype 2 (hSSTr2) reporter gene based imaging and therapy in SSTR negative or weakly positive tumors to provide a novel approach for the management of tumors. The hSSTr2 gene can act as not only a reporter gene for in vivo imaging, but also a therapeutic gene for local radionuclide therapy. Even a second therapeutic gene can be transfected into the same tumor cells together with hSSTr2 reporter gene to obtain a synergistic therapeutic effect. However, additional preclinical and especially translational and clinical researches are needed to confirm the value of hSSTr2 reporter gene based imaging and therapy in tumors. PMID:25879040

  11. New Trends in Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Guang-Uei; Wang, Yuh-Feng; Su, Hung-Yi; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Ko, Chi-Lun; Yen, Ruoh-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been widely used clinically as one of the major functional imaging modalities for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) for decades. Ample evidence has supported the use of MPI as a useful and important tool in the diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment planning for CAD. Although popular in the United States, MPI has become the most frequently used imaging modality among all nuclear medicine tests in Taiwan. However, it should be acknowledged that MPI SPECT does have its limitations. These include false-positive results due to certain artifacts, false-negative due to balanced ischemia, complexity and adverse reaction arising from current pharmacological stressors, time consuming nature of the imaging procedure, no blood flow quantitation and relatively high radiation exposure. The purpose of this article was to review the recent trends in nuclear cardiology, including the utilization of positron emission tomography (PET) for MPI, new stressor, new SPECT camera with higher resolution and higher sensitivity, dynamic SPECT protocol for blood flow quantitation, new software of phase analysis for evaluation of LV dyssynchrony, and measures utilized for reducing radiation exposure of MPI. PMID:27122946

  12. Radionuclide-labeled nanostructures for In Vivo imaging of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Kim, Minho; Hartman, Kevin L.; Kang, Keon Wook; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2015-05-01

    Molecular imaging plays an important role in the non-invasive diagnosis and the guiding or monitoring of disease treatment. Different imaging modalities have been developed, and each method possesses unique strengths. While a variety of molecules have been used previously in nuclear imaging, the exceptional properties of nanostructures in recent research enable the deployment of accurate and efficient diagnostic agents using radionuclide-nanostructures. This review focuses on the radionuclide labeling strategies of various nanostructures and their applications for multimodality tumor imaging.

  13. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Hepatobiliary and Gastrointestinal System Imaging.

    PubMed

    Low, Chen Sheng; Ahmed, Haseeb; Notghi, Alp

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclide imaging for the hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal system covers a wide range of different indications and imaging techniques. This wide variety allows the different functional assessments of both systems. Therefore, the understanding of each technique and its indications is essential. Cholescintigraphy is a well-established method in the assessment of acute and chronic cholecystitis. It also has a role in the detection of biliary atresia. The assessment of gastrointestinal transit is also well-established in radionuclide imaging for functional investigation of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding with radionuclide imaging is also standard practice. This article aims to review the pitfalls and limitations in all of these areas.

  14. [Radionuclide biokinetics as a function of the age of experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Kalistratova, V S; Zalikin, G A; Nisimov, P G; Zaikina, T I; Titova, O I; Spiridonov, A V; Arsenin, S A

    1996-01-01

    Behaviour of radionuclides with different distribution types in the organism of animals of various ages was studied. Depending on the age of experimental animals, an essential difference in biokinetic parameters such as coefficients of absorbtion from gastro-intestinal tract, distribution and retention levels in critical organs, retention and excretion rates of radionuclides was found.

  15. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  16. Basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Schacht, R.A.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1982-11-01

    Four cases of basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging are presented. Bilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two patients were probably related to methanol intoxication and meningoencephalitis, and unilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two other patients were presumably due to cerebral atherosclerosis and/or hypertension. Various causes and mechanisms of basal ganglia infarction as well as positive findings of radionuclide brain imaging are briefly reviewed.

  17. Cardiac Radionuclide Imaging in Rodents: A Review of Methods, Results, and Factors at Play

    PubMed Central

    Cicone, Francesco; Viertl, David; Quintela Pousa, Ana Maria; Denoël, Thibaut; Gnesin, Silvano; Scopinaro, Francesco; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Prior, John O.

    2017-01-01

    The interest around small-animal cardiac radionuclide imaging is growing as rodent models can be manipulated to allow the simulation of human diseases. In addition to new radiopharmaceuticals testing, often researchers apply well-established probes to animal models, to follow the evolution of the target disease. This reverse translation of standard radiopharmaceuticals to rodent models is complicated by technical shortcomings and by obvious differences between human and rodent cardiac physiology. In addition, radionuclide studies involving small animals are affected by several extrinsic variables, such as the choice of anesthetic. In this paper, we review the major cardiac features that can be studied with classical single-photon and positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, namely, cardiac function, perfusion and metabolism, as well as the results and pitfalls of small-animal radionuclide imaging techniques. In addition, we provide a concise guide to the understanding of the most frequently used anesthetics such as ketamine/xylazine, isoflurane, and pentobarbital. We address in particular their mechanisms of action and the potential effects on radionuclide imaging. Indeed, cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism can all be significantly affected by varying anesthetics and animal handling conditions. PMID:28424774

  18. Recent Advances in Molecular Image-Guided Cancer Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Duo; Sun, Xianlei; Gao, Liquan; Liu, Zhaofei

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-targeted radionuclide therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies, especially those resistant to conventional therapies. However, to improve the use of targeted radionuclide therapy for the management of cancer patients, the in vivo behaviors, dosimetry, and efficacy of radiotherapeutic agents need to be well characterized and monitored. Molecular imaging, which is a powerful tool for the noninvasive characterization and quantification of biological processes in living subjects at the cellular and molecular levels, plays an important role in the guidance of cancer radionuclide therapy. In this review, we introduce the radiotherapeutics for cancer-targeted therapy and summarize the most recent evidence supporting the use of molecular imaging to guide cancer radionuclide therapy.

  19. Radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hoon; Pahk, Kisoo; Kim, Sungeun; Lee, Soon Hyuck; Song, Sang Heon; Choe, Jae Gol

    2015-08-01

    Oseteoid osteoma is a well-known type of benign bone-forming tumor, which has previously been diagnosed using plain radiograph imaging. However, diagnosis of osteoid osteoma may be delayed due to ambiguities on plain radiograph images; despite the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this type of misdiagnosis is not uncommon. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of radionuclide imaging scans for the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma, as this form of imaging was proposed to be a more sensitive test. The characteristics of 18 cases of osteoid osteoma were analyzed based on diagnostic imaging and the time from initial recognition of symptoms by the patient to diagnosis. Diagnostic modalities included plain radiograph, computed tomography (CT), MRI and radionuclide imaging. Among the 18 patients, 14 patients had unique positive findings in plain radiographs. The mean duration between initial cognition of symptoms to the diagnosis for these patients was 5.2 months (range, 3.8-9.3 months). A total of 4 patients exhibited no radiographic abnormalities in the initial plain radiographs and were diagnosed a mean of 18.5 months (range, 17-20 months) following the onset of symptoms. Overall, radionuclide imaging was performed on 16 patients and all of the cases demonstrated positive findings. In these cases, 28.6% of osteoid osteoma patients with clinical indications revealed no abnormal findings in plain radiographs. Therefore, in situations such as these, radionuclide imaging may be a useful indicator for diagnosis, as these results have demonstrated that it positively identified all cases of osteoid osteoma. In addition, the results of the present study indicated that if the radionuclide imaging was positive, CT scan was a more valuable diagnostic tool, whereas if the radionuclide imaging was negative, MRI should be recommended for the diagnosis of other undiscovered disease entities.

  20. An experimental study on the application of radionuclide imaging in repair of the bone defect.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weimin; Wang, Daping; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lu, Wei; Liu, Jianquan; Peng, Liangquan; Li, Hao; Han, Yun; Zeng, Yanjun

    2011-08-01

    The aim of our study was to validate the effect of radionuclide imaging in early monitoring of the bone's reconstruction, the animal model of bone defect was made on the rabbits repaired with HA artificial bone. The ability of bone defect repair was evaluated by using radionuclide bone imaging at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The results indicate that the experimental group stimulated more bone formation than that of the control group. The differences of the bone reconstruction ability were statistically significant (p<0.05). The nano-HA artificial has good bone conduction, and it can be used for the treatment of bone defects. Radionuclide imaging may be an effective and first choice method for the early monitoring of the bone's reconstruction.

  1. An experimental study on the application of radionuclide imaging in repair of the bone defect

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weimin; Wang, Daping; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lu, Wei; Liu, Jianquan; Peng, Liangquan; Li, Hao; Han, Yun; Zeng, Yanjun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to validate the effect of radionuclide imaging in early monitoring of the bone’s reconstruction, the animal model of bone defect was made on the rabbits repaired with HA artificial bone. The ability of bone defect repair was evaluated by using radionuclide bone imaging at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The results indicate that the experimental group stimulated more bone formation than that of the control group. The differences of the bone reconstruction ability were statistically significant (p<0.05). The nano-HA artificial has good bone conduction, and it can be used for the treatment of bone defects. Radionuclide imaging may be an effective and first choice method for the early monitoring of the bone’s reconstruction. PMID:21875418

  2. Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Gann; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lee, Te-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, α-, β-, and γ-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients. PMID:20811605

  3. Novel Applications of Radionuclide Imaging in Peripheral Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a progressive atherosclerotic disease that leads to stenosis or occlusion of blood vessels supplying the lower extremities. Current diagnostic imaging techniques commonly focus on evaluation of anatomy or blood flow at the macrovascular level and do not permit assessment of the underlying pathophysiology associated with disease progression or treatment response. Molecular imaging with radionuclide-based approaches, such as PET and SPECT, can offer novel insight into PVD by providing non-invasive assessment of biological processes such as angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. This review discusses emerging radionuclide-based imaging approaches that have potential clinical applications in the evaluation of PVD progression and treatment. PMID:26590787

  4. Novel Applications of Radionuclide Imaging in Peripheral Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Mitchel R; Sinusas, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a progressive atherosclerotic disease that leads to stenosis or occlusion of blood vessels supplying the lower extremities. Current diagnostic imaging techniques commonly focus on evaluation of anatomy or blood flow at the macrovascular level and do not permit assessment of the underlying pathophysiology associated with disease progression or treatment response. Molecular imaging with radionuclide-based approaches can offer novel insight into PVD by providing noninvasive assessment of biological processes such as angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. This article discusses emerging radionuclide-based imaging approaches that have potential clinical applications in the evaluation of PVD progression and treatment.

  5. Freeman and Johnson's clinical radionuclide imaging, Volume 3 update

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    This work presents the latest developments in nuclear medical imaging. An update of the 3rd edition text/reference published last year, it features coverage of labeled antibodies for diagnosis and treatment, labeled cellular elements, gastrointestinal function, nuclear endocrinology, and single photon emission tomography. Recent technical developments in radionuclide imaging of these specific areas are covered.

  6. Personalized Dosimetry for Radionuclide Therapy Using Molecular Imaging Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ljungberg, Michael; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    For treatment of systemic malignancies, when external radiation therapy is not applicable, radionuclide therapy can be an alternative. In this form of therapy, radionuclides are administered to the patient, often in a form where the radionuclide is labelled to a molecule that plays the active part in the localization of the tumor. Since the aim is to impart lethal damage to tumor cells while maintaining possible side-effects to normal tissues at tolerable levels, a proper and accurate personalized dosimetry should be a pre-requisite. In radionuclide therapy, there is a need to measure the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in vivo, as well as its re-distribution over time, in order estimate the total energy released in radioactive decays and subsequent charged-particle interactions, governing the absorbed dose to different organs and tumors. Measurements are usually performed by molecular imaging, more specifically planar and SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) imaging, combined with CT. This review describes the different parts in the dosimetry chain of radionuclide therapy. Emphasis is given to molecular imaging tools and the requirements for determining absorbed doses from quantitative planar and SPECT images. As example solutions to the different problems that need to be addressed in such a dosimetric chain, we describe our tool, Lundadose, which is a set of methods that we have developed for personalized dosimetry. PMID:28536392

  7. Oncogene mRNA Imaging with Radionuclide-PNA-Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, Eric

    2008-03-19

    New cancer gene hybridization probes to carry radionuclides were made. Noninvasive technetium-99m gamma imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated, followed by noninvasive technetium-99m imaging of MYC cancer gene activity. Noninvasive imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated with a positron-emitting copper-64 probe, followed by noninvasive positron imaging of IRS1 cancer gene activity.

  8. Value of radionuclide imaging techniques in assessing cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.R.; Boucher, C.A.

    1980-12-18

    Radionuclide imaging techniques add an important dimension to the diagnosis, classification and management of myocardial disease. The gated blood pool scan provides information allowing determination of the functional type of cardiomyopathy (congestive, restrictive or hypertrophic) as well as evaluation of ventricular performance. Myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium-201 is useful in distinguishing congestive cardiomyopathy from severe coronary artery disease and also in depicting septal abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Radionuclide techniques also prove useful in following progression of disease and in evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  9. Software phantom for the synthesis of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography images.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-de-Jesus, Oscar; Yanez-Suarez, Oscar; Jimenez-Angeles, Luis; Vallejo-Venegas, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the novel design of a software phantom for the evaluation of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography systems. Through singular value decomposition, the data matrix corresponding to an equilibrium image series is decomposed into both spatial and temporal fundamental components that can be parametrized. This parametric model allows for the application of user-controlled conditions related to a desired dynamic behavior. Being invertible, the decomposition is used to regenerate the radionuclide image series, which is then translated into a DICOM ventriculography file that can be read by commercial equipment.

  10. EANM 2012 guidelines for radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Henri J.; Hindié, Elif; Guillet, Benjamin A.; Neumann, Hartmut P.; Walz, Martin K.; Opocher, Giuseppe; de Herder, Wouter W.; Boedeker, Carsten C.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Chiti, Arturo; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Pacak, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) involves various functional imaging techniques and approaches for accurate diagnosis, staging and tumour characterization. The purpose of the present guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in performing, interpreting and reporting the results of the currently available SPECT and PET imaging approaches. These guidelines are intended to present information specifically adapted to European practice. Methods Guidelines from related fields, issued by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine and the Society of Nuclear Medicine, were taken into consideration and are partially integrated within this text. The same was applied to the relevant literature, and the final result was discussed with leading experts involved in the management of patients with PCC/PGL. The information provided should be viewed in the context of local conditions, laws and regulations. Conclusion Although several radionuclide imaging modalities are considered herein, considerable focus is given to PET imaging which offers high sensitivity targeted molecular imaging approaches. PMID:22926712

  11. Radionuclide imaging of liposomal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, Tessa; Laverman, Peter; Metselaar, Josbert M; Storm, Gert; Boerman, Otto C

    2016-09-01

    Ever since their discovery, liposomes have been radiolabeled to monitor their fate in vivo. Despite extensive preclinical studies, only a limited number of radiolabeled liposomal formulations have been examined in patients. Since they can play a crucial role in patient management, it is of importance to enable translation of radiolabeled liposomes into the clinic. Liposomes have demonstrated substantial advantages as drug delivery systems and can be efficiently radiolabeled. Potentially, radiolabeled drug-loaded liposomes form an elegant theranostic system, which can be tracked in vivo using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. In this review, we discuss important aspects of liposomal research with a focus on the use of radiolabeled liposomes and their potential role in drug delivery and monitoring therapeutic effects. Radiolabeled drug-loaded liposomes have been poorly investigated in patients and no radiolabeled liposomes have been approved for use in clinical practice. Evaluation of the risks, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity is necessary to meet pharmaceutical and commercial requirements. It remains to be demonstrated whether the results found in animal studies translate to humans before radiolabeled liposomes can be implemented into clinical practice.

  12. Impact of functional genomics and proteomics on radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Haberkorn, Uwe; Altmann, Annette; Mier, Walter; Eisenhut, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of gene function following the completion of human genome sequencing may be performed using radionuclide imaging procedures. These procedures are needed for the evaluation of genetically manipulated animals or newly designed biomolecules, which requires a thorough understanding of physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. The experimental approaches will involve many new technologies, including in vivo imaging with single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. Nuclear medicine procedures may be applied for the determination of gene function and regulation using established and new tracers, or using in vivo reporter genes, such as genes encoding enzymes, receptors, antigens, or transporters. Visualization of in vivo reporter gene expression can be performed using radiolabeled substrates, antibodies, or ligands. Combinations of specific promoters and in vivo reporter genes may deliver information about the regulation of the corresponding genes. Furthermore, protein-protein interactions and activation of signal transduction pathways may be visualized noninvasively. The role of radiolabeled antisense molecules for the analysis of messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) content has to be investigated. However, possible applications are therapeutic intervention using triplex oligonucleotides with therapeutic isotopes, which can be brought near to specific deoxyribonucleic acid sequences to induce deoxyribonucleic acid strand breaks at selected loci. Imaging of labeled siRNA makes sense if these are used for therapeutic purposes to assess the delivery of these new drugs to their target tissue. Pharmacogenomics will identify new surrogate markers for therapy monitoring, which may represent potential new tracers for imaging. Drug distribution studies for new therapeutic biomolecules are needed at least during preclinical stages of drug development. New treatment modalities, such as gene therapy with suicide genes, will need

  13. Ascites causing a false-positive radionuclide liver image

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.G. Jr.; Christie, J.H.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Wicks, J.D.

    1983-02-01

    False-positive radionuclide liver images can occur due to impingement on the liver by adjacent normal anatomic structures or adjacent pathologic masses or fluid collections. A patient with ascites in the anterior subphrenic space had an apparent cold lesion in the left lobe of the liver. Ultrasonography demonstrated a normal left lobe and localized the fluid collection.

  14. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Biassoni, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    The article presents common pitfalls encountered in pediatric radionuclide renography, illustrated with clinical cases. It is important to recognize normal variants. A good acquisition technique is essential. Correlation with other imaging techniques, with the clinical background and symptoms, is critical. A clear clinical question is essential: based on the question and knowing the strengths and weaknesses of each test, the test which can best answer the question can be selected. Awareness of the pitfalls of radionuclide renography helps avoid errors of interpretation and allows the selection of the most helpful test for clinical management.

  15. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Howard, B J; Sanzharova, N; Fesenko, E

    2015-04-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1-3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated.

  16. EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Hesse, B; Lindhardt, T B; Acampa, W; Anagnostopoulos, C; Ballinger, J; Bax, J J; Edenbrandt, L; Flotats, A; Germano, G; Stopar, T Gmeiner; Franken, P; Kelion, A; Kjaer, A; Le Guludec, D; Ljungberg, M; Maenhout, A F; Marcassa, C; Marving, J; McKiddie, F; Schaefer, W M; Stegger, L; Underwood, R

    2008-04-01

    Radionuclide imaging of cardiac function represents a number of well-validated techniques for accurate determination of right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and LV volumes. These first European guidelines give recommendations for how and when to use first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, gated PET, and studies with non-imaging devices for the evaluation of cardiac function. The items covered are presented in 11 sections: clinical indications, radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry, study acquisition, RV EF, LV EF, LV volumes, LV regional function, LV diastolic function, reports and image display and reference values from the literature of RVEF, LVEF and LV volumes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to "prevailing or general consensus". The guidelines are designed to assist in the practice of referral to, performance, interpretation and reporting of nuclear cardiology studies for the evaluation of cardiac performance.

  17. Complications of renal transplantation: evaluation with US and radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Brown, E D; Chen, M Y; Wolfman, N T; Ott, D J; Watson, N E

    2000-01-01

    Following renal transplantation, patients are often evaluated with ultrasonography (US) or radionuclide imaging to assess renal function and the presence of possible complications. Both modalities are inexpensive, noninvasive, and nonnephrotoxic. A basic understanding of the surgical techniques commonly used for renal transplantation is useful when imaging these patients in order to recognize complications and to direct further imaging or intervention. The most frequent complications of renal transplantation include perinephric fluid collections; decreased renal function; and abnormalities of the vasculature, collecting system, and renal parenchyma. Perinephric fluid collections are common following transplantation, and their clinical significance depends on the type, location, size, and growth of the fluid collection, features that are well-evaluated with US. Causes of diminished renal function include acute tubular necrosis, rejection, and toxicity from medications. Radionuclide imaging is the most useful modality for assessing renal function. Vascular complications of transplantation include occlusion or stenosis of the arterial or venous supply, arteriovenous fistulas, and pseudoaneurysms. Although the standard for evaluating these vascular complications is angiography, US is an excellent noninvasive method for screening. Other transplant complications such as abnormalities of the collecting system and renal parenchyma are well-evaluated with both radionuclide imaging and US.

  18. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna].

  19. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 2. Transfer to milk.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N; Barnett, C L

    2007-01-01

    An overview of original information available from Russian language papers on radionuclide transfer to milk is provided. Most of the data presented have not been taken into account in international reviews. The transfer coefficient (F(m)) values for radioactive isotopes of strontium, caesium and iodine are in good agreement with those previously published. The Russian language data, often based on experiments with many animals, constitute a considerable increase to the available data for many less well-studied radionuclides. In some instances, the Russian language data suggest changes in recommended values (e.g. Zr and Ru). The information presented here substantially increases the amount of available data on radionuclide transfer to milk and will be included in the current revision of the IAEA TRS Handbook of parameter values for radionuclide transfer.

  20. Recent Advances of Radionuclide-based Molecular Imaging of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kazuma, Soraya M.; Sultan, Deborah; Zhao, Yongfeng; Detering, Lisa; You, Meng; Luehmann, Hannah P.; Abdalla, Dulcineia S.P.; Liu, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease characterized by the development of multifocal plaque lesions within vessel walls and extending into the vascular lumen. The disease takes decades to develop symptomatic lesions, affording opportunities for accurate detection of plaque progression, analysis of risk factors responsible for clinical events, and planning personalized treatment. Of the available molecular imaging modalities, radionuclide-based imaging strategies have been favored due to their sensitivity, quantitative detection and pathways for translational research. This review summarizes recent advances of radiolabeled small molecules, peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles for atherosclerotic plaque imaging during disease progression. PMID:26369676

  1. Radionuclide imaging of rare congenital renal fusion anomalies.

    PubMed

    Volkan, Bilge; Ceylan, Emel; Kiratli, Pinar Ozgen

    2003-03-01

    Demonstration of a congenital renal anomaly plays an important role in the treatment of patients with renal infection. These patients are prone to infections because of coexisting urinary tract anomalies such as duplicated ureter, ureter opening anomalies, and urinary stasis. Assessment of renal parenchymal damage resulting from acute or chronic renal infection is the primary indication for radionuclide imaging with Tc-99m DMSA. In addition, this technique allows congenital anomalies to be identified. The authors review congenital renal fusion anomalies identified in children through Tc-99m DMSA imaging. They conclude that Tc-99m DMSA imaging can reveal important diagnostic information about various congenital anomalies, including fusion anomalies.

  2. Radionuclide imaging of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Daniel F; Alavi, Abass

    2003-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal condition for which treatment is highly effective. The diagnosis of PE can be challenging and often requires diagnostic imaging. For many years, chest radiographs and ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy have been the primary imaging modalities used in the evaluation of patients with suspected acute PE. The combination of clinical assessment, plus results of V/Q scintigraphy and a noninvasive venous study of the lower extremities can provide clinicians with the information needed to direct treatment in the majority of patients with suspected PE. More recently, advances in computerized tomography (CT) angiography have allowed for the direct visualization of PE, and this technique has emerged as an important diagnostic test in the evaluation of patients with suspected PE. Proponents suggest that CT angiography should be used as the first line imaging test in patients with suspected PE. Others suggest that V/Q scanning should remain as the first line diagnostic imaging test and that CT angiography should be used in patient's in whom the diagnosis remains uncertain. The combination of CT angiography and CT venography has the potential to provide a single comprehensive study of patients with suspected venous thromboembolism.

  3. Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging in acute pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, G.; Morillo, G.; Alonso, M.; Isikoff, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The symptoms and clinical course of patients with acute pyelonephritis are variable; likewise, urinalysis, blood cultures, and excretory urography may be normal or equivocal. The ability of gallium-67 to accumulate in areas of active inflammation was useful in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in 12 cases. A multiplane tomographic scanner was used for imaging four of these patients. Initial experience with this scanner is also discussed.

  4. Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging in acute pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, G. Jr.; Morillo, G.; Alonso, M.; Isikoff, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The symptoms and clinical course of patients with acute pyelonephritis are variable; likewise, urinalysis, blood cultures, and excretory urography may be normal or equivocal. The ability of gallium-67 to accumulate in areas of active inflammation was useful in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in 12 cases. A multiplane tomographic scanner was used for imaging four of these patients. Initial experience with this scanner is also discussed.

  5. Radionuclide bone imaging in the pediatric patient

    SciTech Connect

    Celinski, E.M.; Locko, R.C.

    1983-06-01

    This is the second of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine. After reading and studying the article, the nuclear medicine technologist will be able to: (1) discuss the uptake mechanism of Tc-99m-labeled phosphate compounds used for bone imaging; (2) compare normal distribution of bone tracer in children and in adults; (3) discuss important technical considerations for performing bone scintigraphy in children; and (4) identify and discuss clinical applications of bone scintigraphy in children. Information about CEU(VOICE) credit appears immediately following this article.

  6. Gamma-Ray Focusing Optics for Small Animal Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivovaroff, M. J.; Barber, W. C.; Craig, W. W.; Hasegawa, B. H.; Ramsey, B. D.; Taylor, C.

    2004-01-01

    There is a well-established need for high-resolution radionuclide imaging techniques that provide non-invasive measurement of physiological function in small animals. We, therefore, have begun developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system using grazing incidence mirrors to focus low-energy gamma-rays emitted by I-125, and other radionuclides. Our initial prototype optic, fabricated from thermally-formed glass, demonstrated a resolution of 1500 microns, consistent with the performance predicted by detailed simulations. More recently, we have begun constructing mirrors using a replication technique that reduces low spatial frequency errors in the mirror surface, greatly improving the resolution. Each technique offers particular advantages: e.g., multilayer coatings are easily deposited on glass, while superior resolution is possible with replicated optics. Scaling the results from our prototype optics, which only have a few nested shells, to system where the lens has a full complement of several tens of nested shells, a sensitivity of approx. 1 cps/micro Ci is possible, with the exact number dependent on system magnification and radionuclide species. (Higher levels of efficiency can be obtained with multi-optic imaging systems.) The gamma-ray lens will achieve a resolution as good as 100 microns, independent of the final sensitivity. The combination of high spatial resolution and modest sensitivity will enable in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animals.

  7. Radionuclide Imaging Technologies for Biological Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Calvin R.; Reid, Chantal D.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2014-05-14

    The main objective of this project is to develop technologies and experimental techniques for studying the dynamics of physiological responses of plants to changes in their interface with the local environment and to educate a new generation of scientists in an interdisciplinary environment of biology, physics and engineering. Also an important goal is to perform measurements to demonstrate the new data that can be produced and made available to the plant-biology community using the imaging technologies and experimental techniques developed in this project. The study of the plant-environment interface includes a wide range of topics in plant physiology, e.g., the root-soil interface, resource availability, impact of herbivores, influence of microbes on root surface, and responses to toxins in the air and soil. The initial scientific motivation for our work is to improve understanding of the mechanisms for physiological responses to abrupt changes in the local environment, in particular, the responses that result in short-term adjustments in resource (e.g., sugars, nutrients and water) allocations. Data of time-dependent responses of plants to environmental changes are essential in developing mechanistic models for substance intake and resource allocation. Our approach is to use radioisotope tracing techniques to study whole-plant and plant organ (e.g., leaves, stems, roots) dynamical responses to abrupt changes in environmental conditions such as concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, nutrient availability and lighting. To this aim we are collaborating with the Radiation Detector and Imaging Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory Facility (JLab) to develop gamma-ray and beta particle imaging systems optimized for plant studies. The radioisotope tracing measurements are conducted at the Phytotron facility at Duke University. The Phytotron is a controlled environment plant research facility with a variety of plant growth chambers. One chamber

  8. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Beierwaltes, W.H.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, /sup 131/I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search.

  9. Sequential radionuclide bone imaging in avascular pediatric hip conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Minikel, J.; Sty, J.; Simons, G.

    1983-05-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed on six patients with various hip conditions. Initial bone images revealed diminished uptake of isotope /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Following therapeutic intervention, repeat bone scans revealed normal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Subsequent radiographs revealed that avascular necrosis had not occurred. There are two types of avascularity: the potentially reversible, and the irreversible. Attempts should be made toward early recognition of the potentially reversible avascular insult. With early recognition, surgical reconstruction prior to osteophyte death may result in revascularization. If this can be accomplished, avascular necrosis can be avoided.

  10. Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

  11. Differential diagnostic features of the radionuclide scrotal image.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, F S

    1977-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of scrotal lesions is aided by correlating radionuclide images with clinical findings. Subacute torsion is associated with peripheral hyperemia and can be mistaken for an inflammatory process; however, in a review of 128 studies, torsion and orchiectomy were the only processes encountered which had a center truly devoid of activity on the tissue phase compared to the normal side. Other lesions such as acute inflammation, abscess, hematoma, and hemorrhagic tumor may superficially appear to lack central activity but invariably contain at least as much activity when compared to the normal side.

  12. Radionuclide-Based Cancer Imaging Targeting the Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Sun, Jiangtao; Cai, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), highly expressed in many cancer types, is an important target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide-based imaging techniques (gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] and positron emission tomography [PET]) have been extensively explored for CEA-targeted cancer imaging both preclinically and clinically. Briefly, these studies can be divided into three major categories: antibody-based, antibody fragment-based and pretargeted imaging. Radiolabeled anti-CEA antibodies, reported the earliest among the three categories, typically gave suboptimal tumor contrast due to the prolonged circulation life time of intact antibodies. Subsequently, a number of engineered anti-CEA antibody fragments (e.g. Fab’, scFv, minibody, diabody and scFv-Fc) have been labeled with a variety of radioisotopes for CEA imaging, many of which have entered clinical investigation. CEA-Scan (a 99mTc-labeled anti-CEA Fab’ fragment) has already been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for cancer imaging. Meanwhile, pretargeting strategies have also been developed for CEA imaging which can give much better tumor contrast than the other two methods, if the system is designed properly. In this review article, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of radionuclide-based cancer imaging targeting CEA. Generally, isotopes with short half-lives (e.g. 18F and 99mTc) are more suitable for labeling small engineered antibody fragments while the isotopes with longer half-lives (e.g. 123I and 111In) are needed for antibody labeling to match its relatively long circulation half-life. With further improvement in tumor targeting efficacy and radiolabeling strategies, novel CEA-targeted agents may play an important role in cancer patient management, paving the way to “personalized medicine”. PMID:19578524

  13. Radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.; Podoloff, D.A.; Lowry, P.A.; Harle, T.S. )

    1989-01-01

    Despite controversy over its exact role, radionuclide imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of having osteomyelitis. The differentiation between osteomyelitis and cellulitis is best accomplished by using a three-phase technique using Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Frequently, it is necessary to obtain multiple projections and magnification views to adequately assess suspected areas. It is recommended that a Ga-67 or In-111 leukocyte scan be performed in those cases where osteomyelitis is strongly suspected clinically and the routine bone scan is equivocal or normal. Repeated bone scan after 48 to 72 h may demonstrate increased radioactivity in the case of early osteomyelitis with the initial photon-deficient lesion. In-111 leukocyte imaging is useful for the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis complicating recent fracture or operation, but must be used in conjunction with clinical and radiographic correlation. The recognition of certain imaging patterns appears helpful to separate osteomyelitis from septic arthritis or cellulitis. 83 references.

  14. Three-phase radionuclide bone imaging in sports medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Rupani, H.D.; Holder, L.E.; Espinola, D.A.; Engin, S.I.

    1985-07-01

    Three-phase radionuclide bone (TPB) imaging was performed on 238 patients with sports-related injuries. A wide variety of lesions was encountered, but the most frequent lesions seen were stress fractures of the lower part of the leg at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the posterior tibial cortex (42 of 79 lesions). There were no differences in the type, location, or distribution of lesions between males and females or between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. In 110 cases, bone stress lesions were often diagnosed when radiographs were normal, whereas subacute or chronic soft-tissue abnormalities had few specific scintigraphic features. TPB imaging provides significant early diagnostic information about bone stress lesions. Normal examination results (53 cases) exclude underlying osseous pathologic conditions.

  15. Imaging quality of (44)Sc in comparison with five other PET radionuclides using Derenzo phantoms and preclinical PET.

    PubMed

    Bunka, Maruta; Müller, Cristina; Vermeulen, Christiaan; Haller, Stephanie; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger; van der Meulen, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    PET is the favored nuclear imaging technique because of the high sensitivity and resolution it provides, as well as the possibility for quantification of accumulated radioactivity. (44)Sc (T1/2=3.97h, Eβ(+)=632keV) was recently proposed as a potentially interesting radionuclide for PET. The aim of this study was to investigate the image quality, which can be obtained with (44)Sc, and compare it with five other, frequently employed PET nuclides using Derenzo phantoms and a small-animal PET scanner. The radionuclides were produced at the medical cyclotron at CRS, ETH Zurich ((11)C, (18)F), at the Injector II research cyclotron at CRS, PSI ((64)Cu, (89)Zr, (44)Sc), as well as via a generator system ((68)Ga). Derenzo phantoms, containing solutions of each of these radionuclides, were scanned using a GE Healthcare eXplore VISTA small-animal PET scanner. The image resolution was determined for each nuclide by analysis of the intensity signal using the reconstructed PET data of a hole diameter of 1.3mm. The image quality of (44)Sc was compared to five frequently-used PET radionuclides. In agreement with the positron range, an increasing relative resolution was determined in the sequence of (68)Ga<(44)Sc<(89)Zr<(11)C<(64)Cu<(18)F. The performance of (44)Sc was in agreement with the theoretical expectations based on the energy of the emitted positrons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radionuclide Therapies in Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kendi, A Tuba; Moncayo, Valeria M; Nye, Jonathon A; Galt, James R; Halkar, Raghuveer; Schuster, David M

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances and applications of radionuclide therapy. Individualized precision medicine, new treatments, and the evolving role of radionuclide therapy are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health impacts of large releases of radionuclides. Impacts on plant and animal populations.

    PubMed

    Whicker, F W

    1997-01-01

    Historical experiments and observations in radioactively contaminated environments have documented radiation impacts on natural plant communities and animal populations. General findings from these studies are reviewed. Despite much information on the response of individual organisms to radiation in the laboratory, the database is more limited and the interpretations more complex for natural populations and communities exposed to radionuclides. These complications are discussed as they pertain to plants and animals in natural environments. Paradigms concerning the recovery of radiation-damaged communities and ecosystems, and areas of needed research are discussed.

  18. The role of radionuclide imaging in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Vinay; Ching, Gilbert; Heller, Gary V

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of heart failure (HF) is increasing and it remains the only area in cardiovascular disease wherein hospitalization rates and mortalities have worsened in the past 25 years. This review is provided to assess the role of radionuclide imaging in HF. The focus is on three aspects: the value of nuclear imaging to distinguish ischemic from non-ischemic etiologies; risk stratification of patients with HF with evaluation of candidates for specific treatment strategies; and the role of cardiac neuronal imaging in patients with HF. Distinguishing ischemic from non-ischemic cardiomyopathy is important because patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy can potentially have dramatic improvement with revascularization. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has excellent reported sensitivity and negative predictive value in the detection of coronary artery disease in HF patients. SPECT imaging is also useful in establishing treatment strategies in patients with HF, including those with new onset CHF. Cardiac neuronal imaging of mIBG is particularly helpful in risk stratification of patients with HF. The modality can be used to monitor the response to therapy as dysfunctional mIBG uptake may show improvement with pharmacological treatment.

  19. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: 3. Transfer to muscle.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-03-01

    Over 150 publications reporting studies conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide transfer coefficients (F(f)) to the muscle of domestic animals from experiments using chronic administration, often for long timescales in large scale experiments. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews. The values derived have been compared with expected values reported by the IAEA's Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) where possible. The information presented here has been used in the current updating of parameters recommended for environmental assessments by the IAEA. Many of the reported values are for Sr due to the Mayak accident and Cs due to the Chernobyl accident. Nevertheless, the reported data for a wide range of radionuclides, in particular for Ru, Sb, and Zn markedly improve the extent of available data.

  20. Radionuclide Imaging of Neurohormonal System of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A.; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included. PMID:25825596

  1. Radionuclide imaging of neurohormonal system of the heart.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A; Javadi, Mehrbod S; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included.

  2. Renal radionuclide imaging, an evergreen forty years old.

    PubMed

    De Palma, D; Santos, A I

    2014-07-01

    Urinary tract congenital abnormalities (UCA) and febrile infections (UTI) are, respectively, 2 of the commonest congenital and acquired health problems in childhood. In both, radionuclide imaging still represent a cornerstone of diagnostic imaging, although the involved techniques are more or less the same from the early '80 s. During the last 2 decades, published papers focused on a deep revision about the optimal use and usefulness of such imaging tools in affected children, with the aim of reducing invasiveness, radiation burden and costs without losing efficacy. This approach leads to different results. In UCA, no consensus for a diagnostic algorithm was up to now reached, whilst, about febrile UTIs, guidelines were published in 2007 by the UK's National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) and by the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR), in 2011 by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), and in 2012 by the Italian Society of Paediatric Nephrology (SINP). Nevertheless, new data continuously arise and the scientific debate always revives. Every imaging tool now available has its own strengths and weaknesses, and so all published guidelines. All this body of knowledge must be critically analysed for obtaining a complete, up-to-date and flexible overview about these "always hot" topics.

  3. Clinical applications of radionuclide imaging in the evaluation and management of patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Partington, Sara L; Valente, Anne Marie; Landzberg, Michael; Grant, Frederick; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive testing of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) began in the 1950s with the introduction of radionuclide studies to assess shunt fractions, pulmonary blood flow, and ventricular contractile function. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have since replaced radionuclide imaging in many of these roles. Concurrently, percutaneous and surgical repairs of complex CHD evolved, creating new roles for radionuclide imaging. In this paper on applications of radionuclide imaging in CHD, we review the multiple mechanisms for myocardial ischemia in CHD. We critically compare optimal radionuclide imaging techniques to other imaging modalities for assessing ischemia in CHD. We present the current role of nuclear imaging for assessing viability and pulmonary blood flow. We highlight the value added by advances in dedicated cardiac SPECT scanners, novel reconstruction software, and cardiac PET in performing low-dose radionuclide imaging in CHD. Finally, we discuss the emerging clinical indications for radionuclide imaging in CHD including coronary flow reserve assessment and evaluation of cardiovascular prosthesis and device infections.

  4. Imaging regional renal function parameters using radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yi

    A compartmental model is given for evaluating kidney function accurately and noninvasively. This model is cast into a parallel multi-compartment structure and each pixel region (picture element) of kidneys is considered as a single kidney compartment. The loss of radionuclide tracers from the blood to the kidney and from the kidney to the bladder are modelled in great detail. Both the uptake function and the excretion function of the kidneys can be evaluated pixel by pixel, and regional diagnostic information on renal function is obtained. Gamma Camera image data are required by this model and a screening test based renal function measurement is provided. The regional blood background is subtracted from the kidney region of interest (ROI) and the kidney regional rate constants are estimated analytically using the Kuhn-Pucker multiplier method in convex programming by considering the input/output behavior of the kidney compartments. The detailed physiological model of the peripheral compartments of the system, which is not available for most radionuclide tracers, is not required in the determination of the kidney regional rate constants and the regional blood background factors within the kidney ROI. Moreover, the statistical significance of measurements is considered to assure the improved statistical properties of the estimated kidney rate constants. The relations between various renal function parameters and the kidney rate constants are established. Multiple renal function measurements can be found from the renal compartmental model. The blood radioactivity curve and the regional (or total) radiorenogram determining the regional (or total) summed behavior of the kidneys are obtained analytically with the consideration of the statistical significance of measurements using convex programming methods for a single peripheral compartment system. In addition, a new technique for the determination of 'initial conditions' in both the blood compartment and the kidney

  5. Radionuclide fluxes at a plant manufacturing dicalcium phosphate for domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Gäfvert, T; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2001-01-01

    We have studied a phosphate rock plant which produces dicalcium phosphate (DCP), used as a source of calcium and phosphorus for domestic animals. A by-product in the manufacturing process is calcium chloride which is used in the oil industry, the food industry and as road-salt. The objectives of our study were to describe the fluxes of radionuclides from the 238U decay series and to estimate the radiation doses to workers at the plant. The radionuclides in the phosphate rock were found to be in secular radioactive equilibrium with 238U, with an average activity concentration of 837 Bq kg-1. Separation and concentration processes were observed at different stages in the plant. Most of the 226Ra was found in the calcium chloride, while the major part of the 238U, about 950 Bq kg-1, was found in the dicalcium phosphate. The annual occupational effective dose to the workers was found to be below the 1 mSv limit recommended by ICRP (1991a) for the public. This study has shown a good example of an important non-nuclear industry with a high input of natural radionuclides with several conceivable pathways to man.

  6. Comparison of CT scanning and radionuclide imaging in liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.L.; Esposito, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    Early experience with body CT suggested its usefulness in many diagnostic problems; jaundice, renal and pancreatic masses, and in the evaluation of relatively inaccessible parts of the body, such as the retroperitineum, mediastinum, and pelvis. Investigation of hepatic disease by CT was not unexpectedly compared to radionuclide liver scanning, the major preexisting modality for imaging the liver. In the evaluation of the jaundiced patient, CT rapidly assumed a major role, providing more specific information about the liver than the RN liver scan, as well as demonstrating adjacent organs. CT differentiate obstructive from non-obstructive jaundice. With respect to mass lesions of the liver, the RN liver scan is more sensitive than CT but less specific. The abnormalities on an isotope image of the liver consist of normal variants in configuration, extrinsic compression by adjacent structures, cysts, hemangiomata, abscesses, and neoplasms. These suspected lesions may then be better delineated by the CT image, and a more precise diagnosis made. The physiologic information provided by the RN liver scan is an added facet which is helpful in the patient with diffuse hepatic disease. The CT image will be normal in many of these patients, however, hemochromatosis and fatty infiltration lend themselves especially to density evaluation by CT. The evaluation of lymphoma is more thorough with CT. Structures other than the liver, such as lymph nodes, are visualized. Gallium, however, provides additional isotopic information in patients with lymphoma, and in addition, is known to be useful in the investigation of a febrile patient with an abscess. Newer isotopic agents expand hepatic imaging in other directions, visualizing the biliary tree and evaluating the jaundiced patient.

  7. Imaging the inside of a tumour: a review of radionuclide imaging and theranostics targeting intracellular epitopes.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Bart

    2014-04-01

    Molecular imaging of tumour tissue focusses mainly on extracellular epitopes such as tumour angiogenesis or signal transduction receptors expressed on the cell membrane. However, most biological processes that define tumour phenotype occur within the cell. In this mini-review, an overview is given of the various techniques to interrogate intracellular events using molecular imaging with radiolabelled compounds. Additionally, similar targeting techniques can be employed for radionuclide therapy using Auger electron emitters, and recent advances in Auger electron therapy are discussed.

  8. Correlation of diagnostic ultrasound and radionuclide imaging in scrotal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Kaplan, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of scrotal ultrasound imaging (SU) and radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) in 43 patients (pts), age: 16-75. Twenty-two of them complained of scrotal pain; 18 had a scrotal mass; and 4 had a history of trauma. The final diagnoses were conformed by surgery (n = 21) and long-term follow-up (n = 22) and included 4 late phase and 1 early testicular torsion (TT), 11 acute epididymitis (AE), 4 subacute epididymitis (SE), 5 malignant tumors, 3 testicular atrophy, 2 intratesticular hematomas, 10 hydroceles or other cystic lesions, and miscellaneous. In pts with scrotal pain, 3/4 with late phase TT were correctly diagnosed, while one pt with early TT and 11/15 with AE or SE were not diagnosed by SU. All of them were correctly diagnosed with RSI except one with scrotal cyst. SU was able to separate cystic masses (n = 10) from solid masses (n = 6), but cannot separate malignant from benign lesions. SU was excellent in detecting 19 hydroceles and 2 intratesticular hematomas, while 3 lesions < 1 cm. were not seen in RSI. The authors concluded that SU is useful in pts with scrotal mass to separate solid from cystic lesions. However, SU is unable to differentiate the acute epididymitis from early testicular torsion. In pts with acute scrotal pain, SU is not helpful and RSI should still be the first study performed.

  9. Prosthetic joint infections: radionuclide state-of-the-art imaging.

    PubMed

    Gemmel, Filip; Van den Wyngaert, Hans; Love, Charito; Welling, M M; Gemmel, Paul; Palestro, Christopher J

    2012-05-01

    Prosthetic joint replacement surgery is performed with increasing frequency. Overall the incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and subsequently prosthesis revision failure is estimated to be between 1 and 3%. Differentiating infection from aseptic mechanical loosening, which is the most common cause of prosthetic failure, is especially important because of different types of therapeutic management. Despite a thorough patient history, physical examination, multiple diagnostic tests and complex algorithms, differentiating PJI from aseptic loosening remains challenging. Among imaging modalities, radiographs are neither sensitive nor specific and cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are limited by hardware-induced artefacts. Radionuclide imaging reflects functional rather than anatomical changes and is not hampered by the presence of a metallic joint prosthesis. As a result scintigraphy is currently the modality of choice in the investigation of suspected PJI. Unfortunately, there is no true consensus about the gold standard technique since there are several drawbacks and limitations inherent to each modality. Bone scintigraphy (BS) is sensitive for identifying the failed joint replacement, but cannot differentiate between infection and aseptic loosening. Combined bone/gallium scintigraphy (BS/GS) offers modest improvement over BS alone for diagnosing PJI. However, due to a number of drawbacks, BS/GS has generally been superseded by other techniques but it still may have a role in neutropenic patients. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy remains the gold standard technique for diagnosing neutrophil-mediated processes. It seems to be that combined in vitro labelled leucocyte/bone marrow scintigraphy (LS/BMS), with an accuracy of about 90%, is currently the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing PJI. There are, however, significant limitations using in vitro labelled leucocytes and considerable effort

  10. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Planar and Hybrid Bone Imaging.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Marafi, Fahad; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Van der Wall, Hans; Fogelman, Ignac

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclide (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine studies and helps in the diagnosis of different pathologies relating to the musculoskeletal system. With its increasing utility in clinical practice, it becomes more important to be aware of various limitations of this imaging modality to avoid false interpretation. It is necessary to be able to recognize various technical, radiopharmaceutical, and patient-related artifacts that can occur while carrying out a bone scan. Furthermore, several normal variations of tracer uptake may mimic pathology and should be interpreted cautiously. There is an important limitation of a bone scan in metastatic disease evaluation as the inherent mechanism of tracer uptake is not specific for tumor but primarily relies on an osteoblastic response. Thus, it is crucial to keep in mind uptake in benign lesions, which can resemble malignant pathologies. The utility of a planar bone scan in benign orthopedic diseases, especially at sites with complex anatomy, is limited owing to lack of precise anatomical information. SPECT/CT has been significantly helpful in these cases. With wider use of PET/CT and reintroduction of the (18)F-fluoride bone scan, increasing knowledge of potential pitfalls on an (18)F-fluoride bone scan and (18)F-FDG-PET/CT will help in improving the accuracy of clinical reports.

  11. Towards molecular imaging and treatment of disease with radionuclides: the role of inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Blower, Phil

    2006-04-14

    Molecular imaging and radiotherapy using radionuclides is a rapidly expanding field of medicine and medical research. This article highlights the development of the role of inorganic chemistry in designing and producing the radiopharmaceuticals on which this interdisciplinary science depends.

  12. Collecting and Animating Online Satellite Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Describes how to generate automated classroom resources from the Internet. Topics covered include viewing animated satellite weather images using file transfer protocol (FTP); sources of images on the Internet; shareware available for viewing images; software for automating image retrieval; procedures for animating satellite images; and storing…

  13. Dynamic radionuclide determination of regional left ventricular wall motion using a new digital imaging device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, P.; Kirch, D.

    1975-01-01

    In 47 men with arteriographically defined coronary artery disease comparative studies of left ventricular ejection fraction and segmental wall motion were made with radionuclide data obtained from the image intensifier camera computer system and with contrast cineventriculography. The radionuclide data was digitized and the images corresponding to left ventricular end-diastole and end-systole were identified from the left ventricular time-activity curve. The left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic images were subtracted to form a silhouette difference image which described wall motion of the anterior and inferior left ventricular segments. The image intensifier camera allows manipulation of dynamically acquired radionuclide data because of the high count rate and consequently improved resolution of the left ventricular image.

  14. Requisites for successful theranostics with radionuclide-based reporter gene imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2014-05-01

    Radionuclide-based theranostic strategy has been widely used in diagnosis and treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism or differentiated thyroid cancer for a long time, and sodium iodide symporter gene is the radionuclide-based reporter gene used in theranostics. Theranostics, which is a promising approach, offering the ideal combination of accurate diagnosis and successful therapy in various clinical fields, is expected to become a key area of personalized medicine. Rapid advancements in biotechnologies using theranostic reporter genes and theranostic radiochemistry have led to development of the concept of theranostics using radionuclide-based imaging reporter genes; the theranostic approach is almost ready for application in a limited arena of clinics. In order to fulfill both the diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, theranostics with radionuclide-based imaging reporter requires use of successful combinations of various components, such as radionuclide-based reporter genes, promoters/enhancers that regulate expression of reporter genes, delivery vectors/vehicles, imaging or therapeutic probes and prodrugs, transductional and transcriptional targeting strategies, transgene amplification systems, etc. In this review, overview and recent updates on theranostics using radionuclide-based imaging reporter genes will be discussed.

  15. Development of a triple modality small animal planar imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Weisenberger, Z. Lee, S. Majewski, B. Kross, V. Popov, B. Welch, R. Wojcik, C. Zorn

    2006-02-01

    Recently small animal research utilizing nuclear medicine based imaging has been combined with structural anatomical imaging from x-ray radiography providing a powerful tool for animal researchers. The addition of a third modality is the goal of our instrumentation development. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and Case Western Reserve University have been collaborating on the development of a planar imaging system which in addition to radiopharmaceutical based functional imaging and x-ray radiography structural imaging also allows for the in vivo bioluminescence imaging thus providing another functional imaging modality. For the gamma camera we use is a Hamamatsu position sensitive photomultiplier tube coupled to a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillator array with individual crystal elements 1 mm × 1 mm × 5 mm in size and a 0.25 mm septum between each element. The gamma camera has a 10 cm diameter active area and can be used for 125I, 99mT and 111In radionuclide imaging. To acquire anatomical information we are using a Rad-Icon Shad-o-Box X-ray detector that provides a field of view of 5 cm × 10 cm. The x-ray source is a Source-Ray compact x-ray generator. We are using a Princeton Instruments cooled CCD based detector for the imaging of the bio-distribution of bioluminescence. All three imaging instruments will be integrated into a single light tight / x-ray tight enclosure.

  16. Use of radionuclide renal imaging for clinical followup after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Michaels, E K; Pavel, D G; Orellana, P; Montes, A; Olea, E

    1992-09-01

    Patients treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) are usually evaluated by excretory urography within 1 month after treatment to determine the clearance of stone debris and rule out asymptomatic obstruction. In an attempt to obtain more precise functional information, we used 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and 131iodine-hippurate radionuclide renal imaging studies, and a plain abdominal radiograph as the initial followup study after ESWL of 64 kidneys in 55 patients. Of 53 kidneys studied within 60 days after ESWL 42 had abnormal radionuclide renal imaging studies demonstrating pelviocaliceal stasis, excretory delay or poor function, 8 of which required subsequent interventions for obstructing stone debris. Five patients had excretory delay after ESWL that was unexpected based on a pre-ESWL excretory urogram showing normal function without dilation. A subset of 23 patients with large stone burden or anatomical deformity from a prior operation had baseline radionuclide renal imaging studies before ESWL; function improved in 4 and worsened in 5 by radionuclide renal imaging studies after completion of treatment. A total of 19 patients had radionuclide renal imaging studies earlier (within 17 days) after ESWL because of poor function and/or large stone burden, and as expected they had evidence of obstruction from stone debris, which necessitated further followup. Our experience suggests that followup of ESWL by radionuclide renal imaging studies provides specific functional information that is of particular value in the management of patients with obstructing stone debris and/or diminished renal function. Radionuclide renal imaging studies may also reveal unsuspected obstruction or functional impairment after ESWL of uncomplicated stones, and is recommended as routine followup after ESWL.

  17. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  18. Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1984-06-04

    A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  19. Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.G.; Abrams, M.J.; Davison, A.

    1984-06-05

    A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  20. Radiolabeling strategies for radionuclide imaging of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Esther; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Laere, Koen; Deroose, Christophe M

    2015-04-01

    The interest in the use of stem cells as a source for therapy has increased dramatically over the last decades. Different stem cell types have been tested in both in vitro and in vivo models, because of their properties such as differentiation potential, trophic effects and immune modulatory properties. To further optimize the use of different stem cell types for the treatment of disease in a clinical setting, it is necessary to know more about the in vivo behavior of these cells following engraftment. Until now, the golden standard to preclinically evaluate cell therapy was histology, which is an invasive method as the animals need to be sacrificed. This hampers the generation of dynamic information and results in only one single point in time available for analysis per animal. For more information regarding cell migration, in situ persistence, viability, proliferation and differentiation, molecular imaging can be used for imaging cells after transplantation dynamically and longitudinally, in a noninvasive way. With this technology, it becomes possible to track cells within the same subjects over a long period of time.

  1. Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Elyaderani, M.K.; Gabriele, O.F.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in hepatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys.

  2. Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Elyaderani, M.K.; Gabriele, O.F.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in heptatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys.

  3. Radionuclide imaging technologies and their use in evaluating asthma drug deposition in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stephen P; Pitcairn, Gary R; Hirst, Peter H; Rankin, Lisa

    2003-07-18

    Whole lung and regional lung deposition of inhaled asthma drugs in the lungs can be quantified using either two-dimensional or three-dimensional radionuclide imaging methods. The two-dimensional method of gamma scintigraphy has been the most widely used, and is currently considered the industry standard, but the three-dimensional methods (SPECT, single photon emission computed tomography; and PET, positron emission tomography) give superior regional lung deposition data and will undoubtedly be used more frequently in future. Recent developments in radionuclide imaging are described, including an improved algorithm for assessing regional lung deposition in gamma scintigraphy, and a patent-protected radiolabelling method (TechneCoat), applicable to both gamma scintigraphy and SPECT. Radionuclide imaging data on new inhaled asthma products provide a milestone assessment, and the data form a bridge between in vitro testing and a full clinical trials program, allowing the latter to be entered with increased confidence.

  4. Testicular torsion and epididymitis demonstrated by radionuclide angiograms and static imaging.

    PubMed

    Hankins, A J

    1979-10-01

    Radionuclide testicular angiography and static images were performed using technetium 99m sodium pertechnetate in an effort to differentiate between testicular torsion and acute epididymitis in 12 patients. The diagnosis of testicular torsion was made in four cases that were confirmed at surgery. Acute epididymitis or acute epididymo-orchitis was diagnosed six times. These patients were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics leading to a subsidence of their clinical symptomatology during therapy with no sequelae. The radionuclide angiogram and static image changes of chronic epididymitis are also discussed.Radionuclide testicular angiograms and static images can be significant benefits in addition to the clinical and physical findings to distinguish between testicular torsion and acute and chronic epididymitis.

  5. Radionuclide imaging in the post-genomic era.

    PubMed

    Haberkorn, Uwe; Altmann, Annette

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of gene function, which follows the completion of human genome sequencing, may be performed using the tools of the genome program. These tools represent high-throughput methods evaluating changes in the expression of many or all genes of an organism at the same time in order to investigate genetic pathways for normal development and disease. They describe proteins on a proteome-wide scale, thereby, creating a new way of doing cell research which results in the determination of three dimensional protein structures and the description of protein networks. These descriptions may then be used for the design of new hypotheses and experiments in the traditional physiological, biochemical, and pharmacological sense. The evaluation of genetically manipulated animals or new designed biomolecules will require a thorough understanding of physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology and the experimental approaches will involve many new technologies including in vivo imaging with SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET). Nuclear medicine procedures may be applied for the determination of gene function and regulation using established and new tracers or using in vivo reporter genes such as genes encoding enzymes, receptors, antigens, or transporters. Pharmacogenomics will identify new surrogate markers for therapy monitoring which may represent potential new tracers for imaging. Also drug distribution studies for new therapeutic biomolecules are needed at least during preclinical stages of drug development. Finally, new biomolecules will be developed by bioengineering methods, which may be used for isotope-based diagnosis and treatment of disease. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Somatostatin receptors as targets for nuclear medicine imaging and radionuclide treatment.

    PubMed

    Maecke, Helmut R; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2011-06-01

    Radiolabeled peptides have been an important class of compounds in radiopharmaceutical sciences and nuclear medicine for more than 20 years. Despite strong research efforts, only somatostatin-based radiopeptides have a real impact on patient care, diagnostically and therapeutically. [(111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid(0)]octreotide is commercially available for imaging. Imaging was highly improved by the introduction of PET radionuclides such as (68)Ga, (64)Cu, and (18)F. Two peptides are successfully used in targeted radionuclide therapy when bound to DOTA and labeled with (90)Y and (177)Lu.

  7. In vivo Noninvasive Small Animal Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyewon; Hong, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    The remarkable efforts that are made on molecular imaging technologies demonstrate its potential importance and range of applications. The generation of disease-specific animal models, and the developments of target-specific probes and genetically encoded reporters are another important component. Continued improvements in the instrumentation, the identification of novel targets and genes, and the availability of improved imaging probes should be made. Multimodal imaging probes should provide easier transitions between laboratory studies, including small animal studies and clinical applications. Here, we reviewed basic strategies of noninvasive in vivo imaging methods in small animals to introducing the concept of molecular imaging. PMID:24159487

  8. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  9. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of renal transplant failure

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.S.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Waxman, A.D.; Crues, J.V. III

    1988-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was compared with radionuclide scintigraphy (RNS) in 16 patients with renal transplants undergoing renal failure to determine which modality could best discriminate between rejection, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and cyclosporin nephrotoxicity (CN). Although all rejecting transplants had reduced corticomedullary differentiation (CMD) on T1-weighted MR images, four of five cases of ATN had appearances that could not be distinguished from rejection. A normal CMD suggests nonrejection, but diminished CMD is nonspecific. Tc-99m DTPA/I-131 hippuran RNS was superior to MRI in differentiating rejection from ATN. Although ATN and CN have similar RNS patterns, this distinction can usually be made based on the clinical time course. Other potential uses of MRI in the evaluation of the renal transplants are discussed.

  10. Small-animal research imaging devices.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eugene J; Herbst, Lawrence; Jelicks, Linda A; Koba, Wade; Theele, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The scientific study of living animals may be dated to Aristotle's original dissections, but modern animal studies are perhaps a century in the making, and advanced animal imaging has emerged only during the past few decades. In vivo imaging now occupies a growing role in the scientific research paradigm. Imaging of small animals has been particularly useful to help understand human molecular biology and pathophysiology using rodents, especially using genetically engineered mice (GEM) with spontaneous diseases that closely mimic human diseases. Specific examples of GEM models of veterinary diseases exist, but in general, GEM for veterinary research has lagged behind human research applications. However, the development of spontaneous disease models from GEM may also hold potential for veterinary research. The imaging techniques most widely used in small-animal research are CT, PET, single-photon emission CT, MRI, and optical fluorescent and luminescent imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiological considerations in radionuclide imaging of the penis during impotence therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Fink, S.; Burger, R.H.; Netto, I.C.; Palmer, J.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of intracorporeal drugs in the treatment of impotence has advanced our understanding of erectile physiology. Radionuclide imaging of the penis (nuclear penogram) has provided clinicians with a noninvasive, objective measure of blood flow and blood pool changes during erection and with assistance in the quantitative documentation of therapeutic effect. 39 references.

  12. Pulp cell tracking by radionuclide imaging for dental tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Souron, Jean-Baptiste; Petiet, Anne; Decup, Franck; Tran, Xuan Vinh; Lesieur, Julie; Poliard, Anne; Le Guludec, Dominique; Letourneur, Didier; Chaussain, Catherine; Rouzet, Francois; Opsahl Vital, Sibylle

    2014-03-01

    Pulp engineering with dental mesenchymal stem cells is a promising therapy for injured teeth. An important point is to determine the fate of implanted cells in the pulp over time and particularly during the early phase following implantation. Indeed, the potential engraftment of the implanted cells in other organs has to be assessed, in particular, to evaluate the risk of inducing ectopic mineralization. In this study, our aim was to follow by nuclear imaging the radiolabeled pulp cells after implantation in the rat emptied pulp chamber. For that purpose, indium-111-oxine (¹¹¹In-oxine)-labeled rat pulp cells were added to polymerizing type I collagen hydrogel to obtain a pulp equivalent. This scaffold was implanted in the emptied pulp chamber space in the upper first rat molar. Labeled cells were then tracked during 3 weeks by helical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography performed on a dual modality dedicated small animal camera. Negative controls were performed using lysed radiolabeled cells obtained in a hypotonic solution. In vitro data indicated that ¹¹¹In-oxine labeling did not affect cell viability and proliferation. In vivo experiments allowed a noninvasive longitudinal follow-up of implanted living cells for at least 3 weeks and indicated that SPECT signal intensity was related to implanted cell integrity. Notably, there was no detectable systemic release of implanted cells from the tooth. In addition, histological analysis of the samples showed mitotically active fibroblastic cells as well as neoangiogenesis and nervous fibers in pulp equivalents seeded with entire cells, whereas pulp equivalents prepared from lysed cells were devoid of cell colonization. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that efficient labeling of pulp cells can be achieved and, for the first time, that these cells can be followed up after implantation in the tooth by nuclear imaging. Furthermore, it appears that grafted cells retained the label

  13. Pulp Cell Tracking by Radionuclide Imaging for Dental Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Souron, Jean-Baptiste; Petiet, Anne; Decup, Franck; Tran, Xuan Vinh; Lesieur, Julie; Poliard, Anne; Le Guludec, Dominique; Letourneur, Didier; Chaussain, Catherine; Rouzet, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Pulp engineering with dental mesenchymal stem cells is a promising therapy for injured teeth. An important point is to determine the fate of implanted cells in the pulp over time and particularly during the early phase following implantation. Indeed, the potential engraftment of the implanted cells in other organs has to be assessed, in particular, to evaluate the risk of inducing ectopic mineralization. In this study, our aim was to follow by nuclear imaging the radiolabeled pulp cells after implantation in the rat emptied pulp chamber. For that purpose, indium-111-oxine (111In-oxine)-labeled rat pulp cells were added to polymerizing type I collagen hydrogel to obtain a pulp equivalent. This scaffold was implanted in the emptied pulp chamber space in the upper first rat molar. Labeled cells were then tracked during 3 weeks by helical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography performed on a dual modality dedicated small animal camera. Negative controls were performed using lysed radiolabeled cells obtained in a hypotonic solution. In vitro data indicated that 111In-oxine labeling did not affect cell viability and proliferation. In vivo experiments allowed a noninvasive longitudinal follow-up of implanted living cells for at least 3 weeks and indicated that SPECT signal intensity was related to implanted cell integrity. Notably, there was no detectable systemic release of implanted cells from the tooth. In addition, histological analysis of the samples showed mitotically active fibroblastic cells as well as neoangiogenesis and nervous fibers in pulp equivalents seeded with entire cells, whereas pulp equivalents prepared from lysed cells were devoid of cell colonization. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that efficient labeling of pulp cells can be achieved and, for the first time, that these cells can be followed up after implantation in the tooth by nuclear imaging. Furthermore, it appears that grafted cells retained the label and

  14. New Strategies for 0.5 mm Resolution, High Sensitivity, Multi- Radionuclide Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Craig S.

    2015-02-28

    This project constitutes a 0.5-millimeter resolution radionuclide detector system built from CZT. (1) A novel dual-crystal photon detector module design with cross-strip electrode patterns was developed; (2) The module mechanical assembly was built; (3) A data acquisition (DAQ) chain for the module was produced; (4) A software tool was developed to incorporate novel time and energy measurement calibration techniques. (5) A small multi-detector prototype of the radionuclide imaging system was built from this module for system-level characterizations.

  15. The role of radionuclide imaging in epilepsy, Part 1: Sporadic temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Chugani, Harry T

    2013-10-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common yet diverse neurologic disorders, affecting almost 1%-2% of the population. Presently, radionuclide imaging such as PET and SPECT is not used in the primary diagnosis or evaluation of recent-onset epilepsy. However, it can play a unique and important role in certain specific situations, such as in noninvasive presurgical localization of epileptogenic brain regions in intractable-seizure patients being considered for epilepsy surgery. Radionuclide imaging can be particularly useful if MR imaging is either negative for lesions or shows several lesions of which only 1 or 2 are suspected to be epileptogenic and if electroencephalogram changes are equivocal or discordant with the structural imaging. Similarly, PET and SPECT can also be useful for evaluating the functional integrity of the rest of the brain and may provide useful information on the possible pathogenesis of the neurocognitive and behavioral abnormalities frequently observed in these patients.

  16. Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury.

  17. Applications of penetrating radiation for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Wu, Max C.; Iwata, Koji; Hwang, Andrew B.; Wong, Kenneth H.; Barber, William C.; Dae, Michael W.; Sakdinawat, Anne E.

    2002-11-01

    Researchers long have relied on research involving small animals to unravel scientific mysteries in the biological sciences, and to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in the medical and health sciences. Within the past 2 decades, new techniques have been developed to manipulate the genome of the mouse, allowing the development of transgenic and knockout models of mammalian and human disease, development, and physiology. Traditionally, much biological research involving small animals has relied on the use of invasive methods such as organ harvesting, tissue sampling, and autoradiography during which the animal was sacrificed to perform a single measurement. More recently, imaging techniques have been developed that assess anatomy and physiology in the intact animal, in a way that allows the investigator to follow the progression of disease, or to monitor the response to therapeutic interventions. Imaging techniques that use penetrating radiation at millimeter or submillimeter levels to image small animals include x-ray computed tomography (microCT), single-photon emission computed tomography (microSPECT), and imaging positron emission computed tomography (microPET). MicroCT generates cross-sectional slices which reveal the structure of the object with spatial resolution in the range of 50 to 100 microns. MicroSPECT and microPET are radionuclide imaging techniques in which a radiopharmaceutical is injected into the animal that is accumulated to metabolism, blood flow, bone remodeling, tumor growth, or other biological processes. Both microSPECT and microPET offer spatial resolutions in the range of 1-2 millimeters. However, microPET records annihilation photons produced by a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical using electronic coincidence, and has a sensitivity approximately two orders of magnitude better than microSPECT, while microSPECT is compatible with gamma-ray emitting radiopharmaceuticals that are less expensive and more readily available

  18. Vesicorectal fistula detected on direct radionuclide cystography--importance of fecal matter imaging.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Atena; Sadeghi, Ramin; Saeedi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    We report an 11 year old male patient with the history of imperforate anus, which was repaired surgically 4 years ago. He has been complaining of intermittent passing of urine into the rectum recently. The vesicorectal fistula in this patient was proven by imaging of the fecal matter post direct radionuclide cystography study. Our case showed that nuclear medicine imaging can be extended to unanimated objects such as patients' excrements or fluids with important diagnostic yields.

  19. Radionuclide imaging and ultrasound in liver/spleen trauma: a prospective comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.; Simeone, J.F.; McKusick, K.A.; Winzelberg, G.G.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-11-01

    In a prospective blind study of liver/spleen trauma, 32 consecutive patients were evaluated by radionuclide imaging (/sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid) and gray-scale ultrasound. Six patients (19%) had inadequate sonograms due to injuries and pain. Thirteen (41%) were normal, 13 (41%) were abnormal with one technique or the other, and there was a discrepancy in 2 (6%). Of the 13 abnormal patients, 1 had a lacerated spleen, 2 had angiographic confirmation of a subcapsular hematoma, and 10 showed resolution on follow-up. Two patients with left-sided trauma had abnormal radionuclide scans of the liver; sonograms were initially normal in one of them, but subsequent imaging confirmed the abnormality. The authors feel that imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid should be the primary screening examination for liver/spleen trauma.

  20. Comparison of ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of acute and chronic cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.; McGahan, J.P.

    1982-12-01

    Seventy-five patients with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant who were subsequently confirmed operatively and histologically to have acute or chronic cholecystitis underwent radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree, ultrasonography, and/or computerized tomography before operation. fifty-eight of the patients had acute cholecystitis and 17 had chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Analysis of our data indicates that ultrasonography is an accurate and better screening test than cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, but it is less accurate in the detection of acute cholecystitis. On the other hand, radionuclide imaging is highly sensitive and specific in the early diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but it is poor in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis unless the cystic duct is obstructed. CT scanning is more expensive than ultrasonography but may be extremely helpful in problematic cases such as the diagnosis of the cause in biliary obstruction or in imaging of the pancreas.

  1. Need for routine delayed radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging in patients with intercurrent disease

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    A retrospective review was made of all radionuclide hepatobiliary studies performed in a major trauma center over a 27-month period and correlated with the patients' clinical course. In a population of 42 patients (27 of whom were on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)) who had severe intercurrent illness (primarily trauma), and an additional 18 patients who had hepatocellular dysfunction, hepatobiliary imaging confirmed a patent cystic duct in 43 of 60 patients (72%). Of 17 patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder, four had surgically proved acute cholecystitis. The presence of gallstones, wall thickening, or sludge on sonograms did not correlate with cystic duct patency, and was not specific for acute cholecystitis. Though gallbladder function is compromised in the population with severe intercurrent disease, radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging is still valuable; it can confirm a patent systic duct in at least 72% of patients if routine imaging is continued for up to 24 hours.

  2. The radionuclide molecular imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuren; Beheshti, Mohsen

    2005-03-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a large group of neoplasms deriving from pluripotent stem cells or from differentiated neuroendocrine cells that are characterized by the expression of different peptides and biogenic amines. These rare tumors tend to grow slowly and are notoriously difficult to localize, at least in the early stages. Diagnostics involve blood, urine and biochemical examination as well as imaging modalities. Imaging is achieved by a variety of techniques such as radiological morphological imaging methods, for example, sonography, computerized tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), angiography and finally, nuclear functional imaging methods such as metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS), vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor scintigraphy (VIPRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) using (18)F labeled deoxyglucose (FDG) and fluorinated dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) as a radioisotopic marker. (131)I-labeled MIBG is a well-established radiopharmaceutical for localization and therapy of phechromocytoma and paraganglioma. The majority of neuroendocrine tumors possess a high density of somatostatin receptors. This observation provided the basis for the development of various radiolabeled somatostatin peptide analogs as imaging agents and therapeutics in nuclear medicine. FDG-PET is now performed in a wide variety of tumors and indications, including diagnosis, staging, re-staging and evaluation of the response to treatment. (18)F-DOPA-PET may be useful if (18)F-FDG-PET scan result is negative. (99m)Tc-pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA-V) or (99m)Tc sestamibi ((99m)Tc-MIBI) or (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin is used only for diagnosis of certain NETs such as medullary thyroid cancer. The expiences with other nuclear medicinie imaging and therapy modalities such as cholecystokinin (CCK)-B/gastrin-receptors, bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide receptor scintigraphy are still limited, and further

  3. Multi-modality imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastis, Georgios Anthony

    Over the last few years there has been a great demand for noninvasive, dedicated, small-animal imaging systems for biomedical research applications. In this dissertation we will discuss the development and performance of two gamma-ray systems and a dual modality CT/SPECT system. Initially we introduce FASTSPECT, a stationary, scintillator-based, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system that was originally built as a brain imager. We discuss its transformation into a small-animal imaging system and validate its performance by presenting high-resolution images of phantoms and animals. Furthermore, we discuss the development of an in vivo imaging protocol for rat myocardial models using FASTSPECT. The infarct size obtained from the images is quantified and compared with the myocardial infarct size measured from histology. Semiconductor detectors can exhibit good spatial and energy resolution, and therefore offer a promising alternative to scintillation technology. We discuss the performance of a semiconductor detector system, previously developed in our group, for planar and tomographic imaging of small animals. The same gamma-ray detector is used in a dual modality system for imaging mice. The system combines an anatomical imaging modality, x-ray CT, with a functional modality, SPECT. We present the development of the CT/SPECT system and illustrate its performance by presenting high-resolution images of phantoms and mice. Finally, we introduce a procedure for evaluating estimation methods without the use of a gold standard.

  4. Noninvasive assessment of right ventricular function: will there be resurgence in radionuclide imaging techniques?

    PubMed

    Ramani, Gautam V; Gurm, Gagandeep; Dilsizian, Vasken; Park, Myung H

    2010-03-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function is increasingly being recognized as an important prognostic marker in multiple cardiopulmonary disease states, including congestive heart failure, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Accurate and reproducible measures of RV function, although technically challenging, are highly relevant in the clinical setting. Radionuclide techniques (eg, first-pass radionuclide angiography for quantifying RV systolic function) were developed nearly 40 years ago. More recently, MRI and transthoracic echocardiography have become the diagnostic imaging techniques of choice for the noninvasive evaluation of RV function. However, developments in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT systems have greatly improved the image quality and contrast resolution of radionuclide imaging of the heart, allowing for coregistered physiologic and anatomical information of the right ventricle in three dimensions. These improvements in cardiac imaging provide new opportunities for assessing RV myocardial perfusion, function, and anatomy in the same setting. Such imaging approaches may in the future provide assistance with proactive disease management, including early diagnosis of impending RV dysfunction in high-risk patients and for guiding decisions to initiate and/or modify treatments.

  5. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Imaging in Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Esmail, Abdulredha A H; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Navalkissoor, Shaunak; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Fogelman, Ignac

    2015-09-01

    Several different techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging modalities are commonly used in nuclear medicine for studies of endocrine organs. Nuclear medicine is used in the management of benign and malignant thyroid, parathyroid, and neuroendocrine disorders. Thus, it is essential to acknowledge pitfalls and the limitations of nuclear medicine imaging for accurate diagnosis and patient management.

  6. Cognitive impairment in degenerative parkinsonisms: role of radionuclide brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Arnaldi, D; Morbelli, S; Morrone, E; Campus, C; Nobili, Flavio

    2012-02-01

    Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian syndromes is gaining increased clinical significance. The neurochemical and neuropathological basis in the various parkinsonian forms and even in an individual patient are not fully elucidated yet and could be heterogeneous. Loss of dopaminergic, cholinergic and noradrenergic innervation has been suggested to be the underlying neurochemical deficits for cognitive impairment and dementia in PD, but the onset of cognitive impairment and the progression to dementia may not share the same underlying neurochemical basis. Similarly, pathological evidence is also heterogeneous, ranging from subcortical pathology, limbic or cortical Lewy body type degeneration, and Alzheimer's type pathology that can be found even in the same patient with PD dementia (PDD). Typically, the prototype of early cognitive deficit in PD is a dysexecutive syndrome, but other cognitive domains are more involved when dementia develops, mainly including visuospatial, language and memory dysfunction. Functional radionuclide neuroimaging, by means of single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography, are contributing to characterize the topographic cortical pattern of cognitive impairment, as well as to define the underlying neurochemical deficit. Lastly, the advent of amyloid PET may help clarifying the meaning of amyloid load in diffuse Lewy body disease and PDD. Knowing the neurochemical and pathophysiological substrate of cognitive deficit in patients with PD or other degenerative Parkinsonisms may help the clinician in understanding the clinical condition of an individual patient in order to plan pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention. The introduction of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for therapy of PDD is an example of information integration between clinical-neuropsychological and pathophysiological-neurochemical aspects obtained also with the key contribution of functional

  7. Radionuclide probes for molecular imaging of pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhanhong; Kandeel, Fouad

    2010-08-30

    Islet transplantation is a promising treatment option for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, the fate of the graft over time remains difficult to follow, due to the lack of available tools capable of monitoring graft rejection and inflammation prior to islet graft loss. Due to the challenges imposed by the location of the pancreas and the sparsely dispersed beta-cell population within the pancreas, currently, the clinical verification of beta-cell abnormalities can only be obtained indirectly via metabolic studies, which typically is not possible until after a significant deterioration in islet function has already occurred. The development of non-invasive imaging methods for the assessment of the pancreatic beta-cells, however, offers the potential for the early detection of beta-cell dysfunction prior to the clinical onset of T1D and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Ideal islet imaging agents would have an acceptable residence time in the human body, be capable of providing high-resolution images with minimal uptake in surrounding tissues (e.g., the liver), would not be toxic to islets, and would not require pre-treatment of islets prior to transplantation. A variety of currently available imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and nuclear imaging have been tested for the study of beta-cell diseases. In this article, we summarize the recent advances made in nuclear imaging techniques for non-invasive imaging of pancreatic beta-cells. The use of radioactive probes for islet imaging is also discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Radionuclide Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, F.; Knapp, F. F. (Russ)

    Radionuclide generator systems continue to play a key role in providing both diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for various applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional cardiology. Although many parent/daughter pairs have been evaluated as radionuclide generator systems, there are a relatively small number of generators, which are currently in routine clinical and research use. Essentially every conceivable approach has been used for parent/separation strategies, including sublimation, thermochromatographic separation, solvent extraction, and adsorptive column chromatography. The most widely used radionuclide generator for clinical applications is the 99Mo/99mTc generator system, but recent years have seen an enormous increase in the use of generators to provide therapeutic radionuclides, which has paralleled the development of complementary technologies for targeting agents for therapy and in the general increased interest in the use of unsealed therapeutic radioactive sources. More recently, use of the 68Ge/68Ga generator is showing great potential as a source of positron-emitting 68Ga for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Key advantages for the use of radionuclide generators include reasonable costs, the convenience of obtaining the desired daughter radionuclide on demand, and availability of the daughter radionuclide in high specific activity, no-carrier added form.

  9. Hyperparathyroidism: comparison of MR imaging with radionuclide scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, W.W.; Higgins, C.B.; Fisher, M.R.; Ling, M.; Okerlund, M.D.; Clark, O.H.

    1987-05-01

    Twenty-three patients with hyperparathyroidism were evaluated preoperatively with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Twenty patients also underwent thallium-201/technetium-99m scintigraphy. Of 22 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, 12 had persistent or recurrent disease. One had secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal disease. MR imaging allowed accurate localization of abnormal parathyroid glands in 64% evaluated prospectively and 82% evaluated retrospectively. Scintigraphy allowed localization of 60% evaluated prospectively and 70% retrospectively. The two imaging modalities together allowed detection of 68% evaluated prospectively and 91% retrospectively. MR imaging allowed detection of two of five mediastinal adenomas evaluated prospectively and four of five retrospectively. In patients who underwent both imaging studies, MR was more successful in those with previous neck surgery (73% evaluated prospectively and 91% retrospectively) than in those with no prior surgery (57% prospectively and 71% retrospectively). Scintigraphy allowed accurate localization in 64% evaluated prospectively and 64% retrospectively in patients with previous surgery versus 57% prospectively and 86% retrospectively in patients with no prior neck surgery. Four false-positive results were obtained with MR imaging and three with scintigraphy. MR imaging was useful for parathyroid localization in patients with hyperparathyroidism, particularly in patients requiring additional surgery.

  10. Radionuclide imaging of the liver in human fascioliasis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, J.V.; Bermudez, R.H.

    1984-08-01

    The clinical, laboratory, and scintigraphic findings in four cases of human fascioliasis are described. Acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, and weight loss in a person who has ingested watercress constitutes the clinical syndrome often seen. Eosinophilia and alteration in liver function tests, particularly alkaline phosphatase are frequent. Tc-99m sulfur colloid images showed hepatomegaly in four patients, focal defects in two, splenomegaly in three, and increased splenic uptake in two. Gallium citrate (Ga 67) images show increased uptake in the focal lesions in two of two. Sonographic imaging showed focal lucent abnormality in one of three. Liver biopsy findings were nonspecific. The differential diagnosis from other invasive parasitic diseases is discussed. A possible role of hepatic imaging in the evaluation of fascioliasis is suggested.

  11. [Radionuclide imaging of neurendocrine tumors: biological basis and diagnostic results].

    PubMed

    Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Mallardo, Vania; Rossi, Michele; Vaccaro, Andrea; Raucci, Antonio; Della Vecchi, Nicoletta; Romano, Giovanna; Califano, Teresa; Schillirò, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Many radiopharmaceuticals have been successfully used in nuclear medicine to detect neuroendocrine tumors, and many of them are based on a specific mechanism of uptake, while others are non-specific probes. This "review" focuses on the clinical applications of metaiodobenzylguanidine, (111)In-pentreotide and positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. New avances in diagnostic imaging will be discussed. Molecular imaging serves these diagnostic functions and provides powerful means for non-invasively detecting disease.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) mediated delivery of the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) supports radionuclide imaging and treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Roisin M.; Ryan, James; Havelin, Ronan J.; Morris, John C.; Miller, Brian W.; Liu, Zhonglin; Flavin, Richard; O'Flatharta, Cathal; Foley, Mark J.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O'Brien, Timothy; Kerin, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) migrate specifically to tumors in vivo, and coupled with their capacity to bypass immune surveillance, are attractive vehicles for tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. This study aimed to introduce MSC-mediated expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) for imaging and therapy of breast cancer. Tumor bearing animals received an intravenous or intratumoral injection of NIS expressing MSCs (MSC-NIS), followed by 99mTcO4- imaging 3-14Days (D) later using a BazookaSPECT γ-camera. Tissue was harvested for analysis of hNIS expression by RQPCR. Therapy animals received an intraperitoneal injection of 131I or saline 14D following injection of MSC-NIS, and tumor volume was monitored for 8 weeks. BazookaSPECT imaging following injection of MSC-NIS revealed an image of animal intestines and chest area at D3, with a weak tumor image also visible. By D14, the tumor was visible with a significant reduction in radionuclide accumulation in non-target tissue observed. hNIS gene expression was detected in the intestines, heart, lungs and tumor at early timepoints but later depleted in non-target tissues and persisted at the tumor site. Based on imaging/biodistribution data, animals received a therapeutic dose of 131I 14D following MSC-NIS injection. This resulted in a significant reduction in tumor growth (Mean ± SEM, 236 ± 62mm3 versus 665 ± 204 mm3 in controls). The ability to noninvasively track MSC migration and transgene expression in real time prior to therapy is a major advantage to this strategy. This promising data supports the feasibility of this approach as a novel therapy for breast cancer. PMID:21608083

  13. Flow and Transport of Radionuclides in the Rhizosphere: Imaging and Measurements in a 2D System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pales, Ashley; Darnault, Christophe; Li, Biting; Clifford, Heather; Montgomery, Dawn; Moysey, Stephen; Powell, Brian; DeVol, Tim; Erdmann, Bryan; Edayilam, Nimisha; Tharayil, Nishanth; Dogan, Mine; Martinez, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    This research aims to build upon past 2D tank light transmission methods to quantify real-time flow in unsaturated porous media, understand how exudates effect unstable flow patterns, and understand radionuclide mobility and dispersion in the subsurface. A 2D tank light transmission method was created using a transparent flow through tank coupled with a random rainfall simulator; a commercial LED light and a CMOS DSLR Nikon D5500 camera were used to capture the real-time flow images. The images were broken down from RGB into HVI and analyzed in Matlab to produce quantifiable data about finger formation and water saturation distribution. Radionuclide locations were determined via handheld gamma scanner. Water saturation along the vertical and horizontal profile (Matlab) was used to quantify the finger more objectively than by eye assessment alone. The changes in finger formation and speed of propagation between the control rain water (0.01M NaCl) and the solutions containing plant exudates illustrates that the plant exudates increased the wettability (mobility) of water moving through unsaturated porous media. This understanding of plant exudates effect on unsaturated flow is important for works studying how plants, their roots and exudates, may affect the mobility of radionuclides in unsaturated porous media. As there is an increase in exudate concentration, the mobility of the radionuclides due to changing flow pattern and available water content in porous media may be improved causing more dispersion in the porous media and intake into the plant. Changes in plant root exudation impact the distribution and density of radionuclides in the rhizosphere and vadose zone.

  14. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Adults.

    PubMed

    Keramida, Georgia; James, Jacqueline M; Prescott, Mary C; Peters, Adrien Michael

    2015-09-01

    To understand pitfalls and limitations in adult renography, it is necessary to understand firstly the physiology of the kidney, especially the magnitude and control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular fluid flow rate, and secondly the pharmacokinetics and renal handling of the three most often used tracers, Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The kidneys may be imaged dynamically with Tc-99m-MAG3 or Tc-99m-DTPA, with or without diuretic challenge, or by static imaging with Tc-99m-DMSA. Protocols are different according to whether the kidney is native or transplanted. Quantitative analysis of dynamic data includes measurement of renal vascularity (important for the transplanted kidney), absolute tracer clearance rates, differential renal function (DRF) and response to diuretic challenge. Static image reveals functional renal parenchymal damage, both focal and global, is useful in the clinical management of obstructive uropathy, renal stone disease and hypertension (under angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition), and is the preferred technique for determining DRF. Diagnosis based on morphological appearances is important in transplant management. Even though nuclear medicine is now in the era of hybrid imaging, renal imaging remains an important subspecialty in nuclear medicine and requires a sound basing in applied physiology, the classical supporting discipline of nuclear medicine.

  15. Incidental vesicocolic fistula on routine bone scintigraphy: Value of additional delayed images and direct radionuclide cystography.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myung-Hee; Tae Lim, Seok; Jin Jeong, Young; Wook Kim, Dong; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Yim, Chang-Yeol

    2010-09-01

    An unexpected vesicocolic fistula can be detected incidentally on routine bone scintigraphy. A 55-year-old man who had a radical colectomy for carcinoma of the sigmoid colon 1 year previously underwent bone scintigraphy to evaluate bone metastasis. Whole-body images showed an abnormal accumulation of radioactivity in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, but the radioactivity did not precisely define a structure. Additional delayed images obtained after 15 and 24 hours of the initial image localized a vesicocolic fistula. Subsequent radionuclide cystography confirmed leakage of the radioactivity from the bladder.

  16. Radionuclide imaging - A molecular key to the atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Harald Franz; Haubner, Roland; Pichler, Bernd Juergen; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2008-01-01

    Despite primary and secondary prevention, serious cardiovascular events like unstable angina or myocardial infarction still account for one third of all deaths worldwide. Therefore, identifying individual patients with vulnerable plaques at high risk for plaque rupture is a central challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Several non-invasive techniques, such as MRI, multislice computed tomography and electron beam tomography are currently being tested for their ability to identify such patients by morphological criteria. In contrast, molecular imaging techniques use radiolabeled molecules to detect functional aspects in atherosclerotic plaques by visualizing its biological activity. Based upon the knowledge about the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, various studies in vitro, in vivo and the first clinical trials have used different tracers for plaque imaging studies, including radioactive labelled lipoproteins, components of the coagulation system, cytokines, mediators of the metalloproteinase system, cell adhesion receptors and even whole cells. This review gives an update on the relevant non-invasive plaque imaging approaches using nuclear imaging techniques to detect atherosclerotic vascular lesions. PMID:18582628

  17. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  18. In Vivo Mouse Bioluminescence Tomography with Radionuclide-Based Imaging Validation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yujie; Machado, Hidevaldo B.; Bao, Qinan; Stout, David; Herschman, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Bioluminescence imaging, especially planar bioluminescence imaging, has been extensively applied in in vivo preclinical biological research. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has the potential to provide more accurate imaging information due to its 3D reconstruction compared with its planar counterpart. Methods In this work, we introduce a positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclide imaging-based strategy to validate the BLT results. X-ray computed tomography, PET, spectrally resolved bioluminescence imaging, and surgical excision were performed on a tumor xenograft mouse model expressing a bioluminescent reporter gene. Results With different spectrally resolved measured data, the BLT reconstructions were acquired based on the third-order simplified spherical harmonics (SP3) approximation and the diffusion approximation (DA). The corresponding tomographic images were obtained for validation of bioluminescence source reconstruction. Conclusion Our results show the strength of PET imaging compared with other validation methods for BLT and improved source localization accuracy based on the SP3 approximation compared with the diffusion approximation. PMID:20464517

  19. The assessment of regional skeletal metabolism: studies of osteoporosis treatments using quantitative radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Blake, Glen M; Frost, Michelle L; Moore, Amelia E B; Siddique, Musib; Fogelman, Ignac

    2011-01-01

    Studies of bone remodeling using bone biopsy and biochemical markers of bone turnover play an important role in research studies to investigate the effect of new osteoporosis treatments on bone quality. Quantitative radionuclide imaging using either positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 sodium fluoride or gamma camera studies with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate provides a novel tool for studying bone metabolism that complements conventional methods, such as bone turnover markers (BTMs). Unlike BTMs, which measure the integrated response to treatment across the whole skeleton, radionuclide imaging can distinguish the changes occurring at sites of particular clinical interest, such as the spine or proximal femur. Radionuclide imaging can be used to measure either bone uptake or (if done in conjunction with blood sampling) bone plasma clearance. Although the latter is more complicated to perform, unlike bone uptake, it provides a measurement that is specific to the bone metabolic activity at the measurement site. Treatment with risedronate was found to cause a decrease in bone plasma clearance, whereas treatment with the bone anabolic agent teriparatide caused an increase. Studies of teriparatide are of particular interest because the treatment has different effects at different sites in the skeleton, with a substantially greater response in the flat bone of the skull and cortical bone in the femur compared with the lumbar spine. Future studies should include investigations of osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical fractures of the femur to examine the associated regional changes in bone metabolism and to throw light on the underlying pathologies.

  20. Bisphosphonates as radionuclide carriers for imaging or systemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Palma, Elisa; Correia, João D G; Campello, Maria Paula C; Santos, Isabel

    2011-11-01

    Bisphosphonates (BP's), biologically stable analogs of naturally occurring pyrophosphates, became the treatment of choice for pathologic conditions characterized by increased osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, namely Paget's disease, osteoporosis and tumor bone disease. Moreover, the clinical success of BP's is also associated with their use in (99m)Tc-based radiopharmaceuticals for bone imaging. In addition to the successful delivery of (99m)Tc (γ-emitter) to bone, BP's have also been used to deliver β(-)-particle emitting radiometals (e.g.(153)Sm, (186/188)Re) for bone-pain palliation. The main goal of this Review is to update the most recent research efforts toward the synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of novel BP-containing radiometal complexes and radiohalogenated compounds for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The structure and in vivo properties of those compounds will be discussed and compared to the clinically available ones, namely in terms of image quality and therapeutic effect. We will also mention briefly the use of BP's as carriers of multimodal nuclear and optical imaging probes. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  1. Radionuclide thyroid imaging in the newborn with suspected hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Yoosufani, Z.; Karimeddini, M.K.; Spencer, R.P.; Ratzan, S.K.

    1985-05-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with thyroid imaging in newborns with suspected congenital hypothyroidism. The infants were selected through a hypothyroidism screening program. There were 19 infants (14 females, 5 males) from 2 to 8 weeks of age with a blood T4 <6 ..mu..g/dl. Thyroid imaging was performed with either IV or IM injection of 0.5 to 1 mCi of Tc 99m pertechnetate using a gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. Salivary glands and stomach were also imaged for assessing the presence of the transport system. In 6 infants (32%) no thyroid tissue was visualized (thyroid hypoplasia). Four infants (21%) showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual or sublingual area. Two infants (10%) had evidence of goiter. The remaining 7 infants (37%) had normal appearing glands in size and position. TSH values were markedly elevated (> 100 ..mu mu../ml) in all 10 patients with hypoplastic or ectopic thyroid. Two patients were subsequently found to have normal thyroid function (one with TBG deficiency and one with transient hypothyroidism). Thyroidal as well as salivary gland trapping of the radiotracer in these two infants was clearly less than that of adults suggesting immaturity of the transport/trapping mechanism. All 4 patients with ectopic thyroid had markedly increased uptake of the radiotracer. All other patients with elevated TSH levels had increased uptake of the radiotracer as compared to the normals. They conclude that thyroid scanning is an important tool in delineating the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism.

  2. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively 3 mm FWHM and 10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  3. How Phoenix Creates Color Images (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This simple animation shows how a color image is made from images taken by Phoenix.

    The Surface Stereo Imager captures the same scene with three different filters. The images are sent to Earth in black and white and the color is added by mission scientists.

    By contrast, consumer digital cameras and cell phones have filters built in and do all of the color processing within the camera itself.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Bioluminescence imaging in live cells and animals

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jack K.; Berglund, Ken; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Gross, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The use of bioluminescent reporters in neuroscience research continues to grow at a rapid pace as their applications and unique advantages over conventional fluorescent reporters become more appreciated. Here, we describe practical methods and principles for detecting and imaging bioluminescence from live cells and animals. We systematically tested various components of our conventional fluorescence microscope to optimize it for long-term bioluminescence imaging. High-resolution bioluminescence images from live neurons were obtained with our microscope setup, which could be continuously captured for several hours with no signs of phototoxicity. Bioluminescence from the mouse brain was also imaged noninvasively through the intact skull with a conventional luminescence imager. These methods demonstrate how bioluminescence can be routinely detected and measured from live cells and animals in a cost-effective way with common reagents and equipment. PMID:27226972

  5. Bioluminescence imaging in live cells and animals.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jack K; Berglund, Ken; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Gross, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    The use of bioluminescent reporters in neuroscience research continues to grow at a rapid pace as their applications and unique advantages over conventional fluorescent reporters become more appreciated. Here, we describe practical methods and principles for detecting and imaging bioluminescence from live cells and animals. We systematically tested various components of our conventional fluorescence microscope to optimize it for long-term bioluminescence imaging. High-resolution bioluminescence images from live neurons were obtained with our microscope setup, which could be continuously captured for several hours with no signs of phototoxicity. Bioluminescence from the mouse brain was also imaged noninvasively through the intact skull with a conventional luminescence imager. These methods demonstrate how bioluminescence can be routinely detected and measured from live cells and animals in a cost-effective way with common reagents and equipment.

  6. How Phoenix Creates Color Images (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This simple animation shows how a color image is made from images taken by Phoenix.

    The Surface Stereo Imager captures the same scene with three different filters. The images are sent to Earth in black and white and the color is added by mission scientists.

    By contrast, consumer digital cameras and cell phones have filters built in and do all of the color processing within the camera itself.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Synthetic copolymer kit for radionuclide blood-pool imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, A.A. Jr.; Callahan, R.J.; Wilkinson, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    A synthetic blood pool imaging agent labeled with {sup 99m}Tc is reported. The agent, methoxypolyethylene glycolpoly-L-Iysyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate monoamide was synthesized from a covalent graft copolymer of methoxypolyethylene glycol succinate (molecular weight 5.1 kD) with subsequent modification of the product with diethylenetriamineacetyl residues. The polymer was formulated into a kit that contained Sn(II) and sodium acetate for radiolabeling with {sup 99m}Tc. Biodistribution studies were performed in rats. Blood-pool imaging and blood clearance determination was carried out in rabbits and in a rhesus monkey. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled agent [specific activity greater than 3.7 GBq/mg; radiochemical purity more than 98% by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)] demonstrated remarkable stability in solution (pH 5.5-6.5) with no radioactive products of degradation detectable by HPLC even at 24 hr postlabeling. The agent exhibited prolonged circulation in the blood with a half-life of 31.5 hr in rabbits. Bio-distribution in rats showed a lack of substantial accumulation of the agent in the reticuloendothelial system. Sequential acquisitions were performed in a rhesus monkey. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled polymer kit was compared with the {sup 99m}Tc-red blood cells (RBCs) labeled in vitro. Both methods produced similar heart-to-lung ratios. The ratios remained essentially unchanged for up to 15 hr postinjection. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled methaxypolyethylene glycol-poly-L-lysyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate monoamide is an attractive alternative to radiolabeled RBCs for blood pool imaging applications. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Optical tomographic imaging of small animals.

    PubMed

    Hielscher, Andreas H

    2005-02-01

    Diffuse optical tomography is emerging as a viable new biomedical imaging modality. Using visible and near-infrared light this technique can probe the absorption and scattering properties of biological tissues. The main applications are currently in brain, breast, limb and joint imaging; however, optical tomographic imaging of small animals is attracting increasing attention. This interest is fuelled by recent advances in the transgenic manipulation of small animals that has led to many models of human disease. In addition, an ever increasing number of optically reactive biochemical markers has become available, which allow diseases to be detected at the molecular level long before macroscopic symptoms appear. The past three years have seen an array of novel technological developments that have led to the first optical tomographic studies of small animals in the areas of cerebral ischemia and cancer.

  9. Awake Animal Imaging Motion Tracking Software

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, James

    2010-03-15

    The Awake Animal Motion Tracking Software code calculates the 3D movement of the head motion of a live, awake animal during a medical imaging scan. In conjunction with markers attached to the head, images acquired from multiple cameras are processed and marker locations precisely determined. Using off-line camera calibration data, the 3D positions of the markers are calculated along with a 6 degree of freedom position and orientation (pose) relative to a fixed initial position. This calculation is performed in real time at frame rates up to 30 frames per second. A time stamp with microsecond accuracy from a time base source is attached to each pose measurement.

  10. Breast imaging technology: Recent advances in imaging endogenous or transferred gene expression utilizing radionuclide technologies in living subjects - applications to breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Frank; Sam Gambhir, Sanjiv

    2001-01-01

    A variety of imaging technologies is being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Two technologies that use radiolabeled isotopes are single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). A relatively high sensitivity, a full quantitative tomographic capability, and the ability to extend small animal imaging assays directly into human applications characterize radionuclide approaches. Various radiolabeled probes (tracers) can be synthesized to target specific molecules present in breast cancer cells. These include antibodies or ligands to target cell surface receptors, substrates for intracellular enzymes, antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probes for targeting mRNA, probes for targeting intracellular receptors, and probes for genes transferred into the cell. We briefly discuss each of these imaging approaches and focus in detail on imaging reporter genes. In a PET reporter gene system for in vivo reporter gene imaging, the protein products of the reporter genes sequester positron emitting reporter probes. PET subsequently measures the PET reporter gene dependent sequestration of the PET reporter probe in living animals. We describe and review reporter gene approaches using the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase and the dopamine type 2 receptor genes. Application of the reporter gene approach to animal models for breast cancer is discussed. Prospects for future applications of the transgene imaging technology in human gene therapy are also discussed. Both SPECT and PET provide unique opportunities to study animal models of breast cancer with direct application to human imaging. Continued development of new technology, probes and assays should help in the better understanding of basic breast cancer biology and in the improved management of breast cancer patients. PMID:11250742

  11. The Role of Radionuclide Imaging in Epilepsy, Part 1: Sporadic Temporal and Extratemporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Chugani, Harry T

    2017-03-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common yet diverse neurologic disorders, affecting almost 1%-2% of the population. Presently, radionuclide imaging such as PET and SPECT is not used in the primary diagnosis or evaluation of recent-onset epilepsy. However, it can play a unique and important role in certain specific situations, such as in noninvasive presurgical localization of epileptogenic brain regions in intractable-seizure patients being considered for epilepsy surgery. Radionuclide imaging can be particularly useful if MR imaging is either negative for lesions or shows several lesions of which only 1 or 2 are suspected to be epileptogenic and if electroencephalogram changes are equivocal or discordant with the structural imaging. Similarly, PET and SPECT can also be useful for evaluating the functional integrity of the rest of the brain and may provide useful information on the possible pathogenesis of the neurocognitive and behavioral abnormalities frequently observed in these patients. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  12. The potential for Cerenkov luminescence imaging of alpha-emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, N L; Graves, E E

    2012-02-07

    Targeted α-emitting drugs are promising for cancer therapy, but cannot be effectively imaged by conventional techniques. Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) has previously been shown capable of imaging β(+)- and β(-)-emitting radionuclides in vivo and could have the potential to image α-emitters. Cerenkov light production from α-emitters is through Compton scattering and from farther down the decay chain. This causes the Cerenkov production to vary in time and depend on sample geometry, complicating the interpretation of CLI images. We used the simulation toolkit Geant4 to predict the Cerenkov light output from five α-emitting radionuclides that have therapeutic potential: (225)Ac, (230)U, (213)Bi, (212)Bi and (212)At. We found that (225)Ac, (213)Bi and (212)Bi produced an order of magnitude more Cerenkov light than (18)F. However, the light from (225)Ac is delayed from the initial decay, possibly decreasing the correlation of the drug and light source. This indicates that CLI will not be helpful in the development of some α-emitting drugs.

  13. The need for routine delayed radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging in patients with intercurrent disease

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    A retrospective review was made of all radionuclide hepatobiliary studies performed in a major trauma center over a 27-month period and correlated with the patients' clinical course. In a population of 42 patients (27 of whom were on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)) who had severe intercurrent illness (primarily trauma), and an additional 18 patients who had hepatocellular dysfunction, hepatobiliary imaging confirmed a patent cystic duct in 43 of 60 patients (72%). Fourteen of these 43 patients (33%) had gallbladder visualization at later than one hour after radiotracer administration, and seven of these 14 required imaging from four to 24 hours. Of 17 patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder, four had surgically proved acute cholecystitis. Images of nine of the remaining 13 patients with gallbladder nonvisualization were not obtained for 24 hours. The presence of gallstones, wall thickening, or sludge on sonograms did not correlate with cystic duct patency, and was not specific for acute cholecystitis. Though gallbladder function is compromised in the population with severe intercurrent disease, radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging is still valuable; it can confirm a patent cystic duct in at least 72% of patients if routine imaging is continued for up to 24 hours.

  14. An automated voxelized dosimetry tool for radionuclide therapy based on serial quantitative SPECT/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Price A.; Kron, Tomas; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Hofman, Michael S.; Hogg, Annette; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To create an accurate map of the distribution of radiation dose deposition in healthy and target tissues during radionuclide therapy.Methods: Serial quantitative SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4, 24, and 72 h for 28 {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) administrations in 17 patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Deformable image registration was combined with an in-house programming algorithm to interpolate pharmacokinetic uptake and clearance at a voxel level. The resultant cumulated activity image series are comprised of values representing the total number of decays within each voxel's volume. For PRRT, cumulated activity was translated to absorbed dose based on Monte Carlo-determined voxel S-values at a combination of long and short ranges. These dosimetric image sets were compared for mean radiation absorbed dose to at-risk organs using a conventional MIRD protocol (OLINDA 1.1).Results: Absorbed dose values to solid organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) were within 10% using both techniques. Dose estimates to marrow were greater using the voxelized protocol, attributed to the software incorporating crossfire effect from nearby tumor volumes.Conclusions: The technique presented offers an efficient, automated tool for PRRT dosimetry based on serial post-therapy imaging. Following retrospective analysis, this method of high-resolution dosimetry may allow physicians to prescribe activity based on required dose to tumor volume or radiation limits to healthy tissue in individual patients.

  15. Progress of Focusing X-ray and Gamma-ray Optics for Small Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovaroff, M J; Funk, T; Barber, W C; Ramsey, B D; Hasegawa, B H

    2005-08-05

    Significant effort is currently being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. Ideally, one would like to discern these functional and metabolic relationships with in vivo radionuclide imaging at spatial resolutions approaching those that can be obtained using the anatomical imaging techniques (i.e., <100 {micro}m), which would help to answer outstanding questions in many areas of biomedicine. In this paper, we report progress on our effort to develop high-resolution focusing X-ray and gamma-ray optics for small-animal radionuclide imaging. The use of reflective optics, in contrast to methods that rely on absorptive collimation like single- or multiple-pinhole cameras, decouples spatial resolution from sensitivity (efficiency). Our feasibility studies have refined and applied ray-tracing routines to design focusing optics for small animal studies. We also have adopted a replication technique to manufacture the X-ray mirrors, and which in experimental studies have demonstrated a spatial resolution of {approx}190 {micro}m. We conclude that focusing optics can be designed and fabricated for gamma-ray energies, and with spatial resolutions, and field of view suitable for in vivo biological studies. While the efficiency of a single optic is limited, fabrication methods now are being developed that may make it possible to develop imaging systems with multiple optics that could collect image data over study times that would be practical for performing radionuclide studies of small animals.

  16. Peptide-loaded nanoparticles and radionuclide imaging for individualized treatment of myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyosook; Kwon, Jeongll; Oh, Phil-Sun; Lee, Tai-Kyoung; Na, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether chitosan hydrogel nanoparticles loaded with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) peptides (81-91 fragments) capable of targeting the ischemic myocardium enhance angiogenesis and promote therapeutic effects and whether radionuclide image-guided dosage control is feasible. Experimental procedures and protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Rats (n = 32, eight per group) were subjected to myocardial ischemia (control group) and received chitosan hydrogel nanoparticles with VEGF165 proteins (chitosan VEGF) or VEGF81-91 peptides (chitosan peptides) via apical puncture. Ischemic hearts receiving chitosan without angiogenic factors served as the chitosan control. Myocardial perfusion was examined 7 days after surgery by using technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) tetrofosmin (37 MBq) autoradiography, and changes in vascular density with immunohistochemical staining were reviewed. Kruskal-Wallis test and Bonferroni corrected Mann-Whitney U test were used for multiple comparisons. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare myocardial retention of (99m)Tc chitosan. Thirty minutes of myocardial ischemia resulted in perfusion defects (median, 54%; interquartile range [IQR], 41%-62%). Chitosan VEGF decreased perfusion defect extent (median, 68%; IQR, 63%-73%; P = .006 vs control) and increased vascular density (median, 81 vessels per high-power field; IQR, 72-100; P = .009 vs control). Administration of chitosan peptides reduced the degree of perfusion defects (median, 66%; IQR, 62%-73%; P = .006 vs control) and increased vascular density (median, 82 vessels; IQR, 78-92; P = .006 vs control). The effects of chitosan peptides on perfusion and vascular density were comparable to those seen with chitosan VEGF proteins (P = .713 and P = .833, respectively). Chitosan radiolabeled with (99m)Tc was administered twice at reperfusion with a 1-hour interval to determine whether image-guided dosage control is feasible. The hearts

  17. Micro-single-photon emission computed tomography image acquisition and quantification of sodium-iodide symporter-mediated radionuclide accumulation in mouse thyroid and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Michael P; Kloos, Richard T; Shen, Daniel H; Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yu-Yu; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2012-06-01

    Micro-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides a noninvasive way to evaluate the effects of genetic and/or pharmacological modulation on sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-mediated radionuclide accumulation in mouse thyroid and salivary glands. However, parameters affecting image acquisition and analysis of mouse thyroids and salivary glands have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of region-of-interest (ROI) selection, collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on image acquisition and quantification of thyroidal and salivary radionuclide accumulation in mice. The effects of data window minima and maxima on thyroidal and salivary ROI selection using a visual boundary method were examined in SPECT images acquired from mice injected with (123)I NaI. The effects of collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on counting linearity and signal intensity were investigated using phantoms filled with various activities of (123)I NaI or Tc-99m pertechnetate. Spatial resolution of target organs in whole-animal images was compared between circular orbit with parallel-hole collimation and spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimation. Lastly, the inter-experimental variability of the same mouse scanned multiple times was compared with the intra-experimental variability among different mice scanned at the same time. Thyroid ROI was separated from salivary glands by empirically increasing the data window maxima. Counting linearity within the range of 0.5-14.2 μCi was validated by phantom imaging using single- or multiple-pinhole collimators with circular or spiral imaging orbit. Scanning time could be shortened to 15 minutes per mouse without compromising counting linearity despite proportionally decreased signal intensity. Whole-animal imaging using a spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimators achieved a high spatial resolution and counting linearity. Finally, the extent of inter-experimental variability of NIS

  18. Micro–Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Image Acquisition and Quantification of Sodium-Iodide Symporter–Mediated Radionuclide Accumulation in Mouse Thyroid and Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Michael P.; Kloos, Richard T.; Shen, Daniel H.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Background Micro–single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides a noninvasive way to evaluate the effects of genetic and/or pharmacological modulation on sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)–mediated radionuclide accumulation in mouse thyroid and salivary glands. However, parameters affecting image acquisition and analysis of mouse thyroids and salivary glands have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of region-of-interest (ROI) selection, collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on image acquisition and quantification of thyroidal and salivary radionuclide accumulation in mice. Methods The effects of data window minima and maxima on thyroidal and salivary ROI selection using a visual boundary method were examined in SPECT images acquired from mice injected with 123I NaI. The effects of collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on counting linearity and signal intensity were investigated using phantoms filled with various activities of 123I NaI or Tc-99m pertechnetate. Spatial resolution of target organs in whole-animal images was compared between circular orbit with parallel-hole collimation and spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimation. Lastly, the inter-experimental variability of the same mouse scanned multiple times was compared with the intra-experimental variability among different mice scanned at the same time. Results Thyroid ROI was separated from salivary glands by empirically increasing the data window maxima. Counting linearity within the range of 0.5–14.2 μCi was validated by phantom imaging using single- or multiple-pinhole collimators with circular or spiral imaging orbit. Scanning time could be shortened to 15 minutes per mouse without compromising counting linearity despite proportionally decreased signal intensity. Whole-animal imaging using a spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimators achieved a high spatial resolution and counting linearity. Finally, the extent of inter

  19. Beta camera for static and dynamic imaging of charged-particle emitting radionuclides in biologic samples.

    PubMed

    Ljunggren, K; Strand, S E

    1990-12-01

    A detection system based on microchannel plates has been constructed to image charged particles emitted by radionuclides in biomedical samples. This technique has significant advantages over conventional film autoradiography for investigating the distribution of radiolabeled compounds: shorter acquisition times due to the high sensitivity, easier sample handling, direct quantification and the ability to perform dynamic studies. The detector performance shows a spatial resolution of 0.9 mm for carbon-14 (14C) (0.156 MeV), good linearity and homogeneity. The noise level is below 50/(cm2.sec). Successful imaging with this system has been performed with beta-emitters 14C, sulfur-35 (35S), iodine-131 (131I), yttrium-90 (90Y), and positron emitters gallium-68 (68Ga), and fluorine-18 (18F). Dynamic studies of axonal transport of 35S-methionine in a nerve, and static images of 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibodies in slices of tumors are presented. The system shows promise for rapid quantitative imaging of charged-particle emitting radionuclides in small biologic samples.

  20. Use of radionuclide imaging in the early diagnosis and treatment of renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, S R; Mattern, W D; Staab, E; Johnson, G

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented on the clinical application of radionuclide imaging to evaluate changes in cadaver transplant function in the immediate postoperative period. The method uses orthoiodohippuric acid (hippuran) administered IV, with scintillation imaging, and curve analysis by a digital computer. An initial study is always obtained 24 hours after transplantation. Serial studies are then obtained, as needed, to interpret the clinical course. Selected cases are presented which illustrate the use of this protocol in various clinical settings. In the oliguric patient serial studies have been of particular value. They have identified ATN so that over-enthusiastic treatment for rejection could be avoided. They have also identified acute rejection complicating ATN so that high dose steroid therapy could be administered appropriately. In the non-oliguric patient they have frequently contributed to the early diagnosis of acute rejection, and they have been useful in monitoring the effect and duration of treatment for severe rejection crisis. It is concluded that radionuclide imaging studies, when carefully applied and interpreted, are a valuable adjunct to the management of patients in this complex clinical setting. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:1093490

  1. Role of radionuclide imaging for diagnosis of device and prosthetic valve infections.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Jean-François; Philippon, François; Trottier, Mikaël; Tessier, Michel

    2016-09-26

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remain a diagnostic challenge. Cardiac imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with CIED infection or PVE. Over the past few years, cardiac radionuclide imaging has gained a key role in the diagnosis of these patients, and in assessing the need for surgery, mainly in the most difficult cases. Both (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) and radiolabelled white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (WBC SPECT/CT) have been studied in these situations. In their 2015 guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis, the European Society of Cardiology incorporated cardiac nuclear imaging as part of their diagnostic algorithm for PVE, but not CIED infection since the data were judged insufficient at the moment. This article reviews the actual knowledge and recent studies on the use of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and WBC SPECT/CT in the context of CIED infection and PVE, and describes the technical aspects of cardiac radionuclide imaging. It also discusses their accepted and potential indications for the diagnosis and management of CIED infection and PVE, the limitations of these tests, and potential areas of future research.

  2. Role of radionuclide imaging for diagnosis of device and prosthetic valve infections

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Jean-François; Philippon, François; Trottier, Mikaël; Tessier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remain a diagnostic challenge. Cardiac imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with CIED infection or PVE. Over the past few years, cardiac radionuclide imaging has gained a key role in the diagnosis of these patients, and in assessing the need for surgery, mainly in the most difficult cases. Both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and radiolabelled white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (WBC SPECT/CT) have been studied in these situations. In their 2015 guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis, the European Society of Cardiology incorporated cardiac nuclear imaging as part of their diagnostic algorithm for PVE, but not CIED infection since the data were judged insufficient at the moment. This article reviews the actual knowledge and recent studies on the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT and WBC SPECT/CT in the context of CIED infection and PVE, and describes the technical aspects of cardiac radionuclide imaging. It also discusses their accepted and potential indications for the diagnosis and management of CIED infection and PVE, the limitations of these tests, and potential areas of future research. PMID:27721936

  3. PSMA Ligands for Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Clinical Status

    PubMed Central

    Lütje, Susanne; Heskamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Alexander S.; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A. M. W.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra; Bockisch, Andreas; Gotthardt, Martin; Rijpkema, Mark; Boerman, Otto C.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men worldwide, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. At present, imaging of PCa has become increasingly important for staging, restaging, and treatment selection. Until recently, choline-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) represented the state-of-the-art radionuclide imaging technique for these purposes. However, its application is limited to patients with high PSA levels and Gleason scores. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising new target for specific imaging of PCa, because it is upregulated in the majority of PCa. Moreover, PSMA can serve as a target for therapeutic applications. Currently, several small-molecule PSMA ligands with excellent in vivo tumor targeting characteristics are being investigated for their potential in theranostic applications in PCa. Here, a review of the recent developments in PSMA-based diagnostic imaging and therapy in patients with PCa with radiolabeled PSMA ligands is provided. PMID:26681984

  4. PSMA Ligands for Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Clinical Status.

    PubMed

    Lütje, Susanne; Heskamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Alexander S; Poeppel, Thorsten D; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A M W; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra; Bockisch, Andreas; Gotthardt, Martin; Rijpkema, Mark; Boerman, Otto C

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men worldwide, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. At present, imaging of PCa has become increasingly important for staging, restaging, and treatment selection. Until recently, choline-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) represented the state-of-the-art radionuclide imaging technique for these purposes. However, its application is limited to patients with high PSA levels and Gleason scores. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising new target for specific imaging of PCa, because it is upregulated in the majority of PCa. Moreover, PSMA can serve as a target for therapeutic applications. Currently, several small-molecule PSMA ligands with excellent in vivo tumor targeting characteristics are being investigated for their potential in theranostic applications in PCa. Here, a review of the recent developments in PSMA-based diagnostic imaging and therapy in patients with PCa with radiolabeled PSMA ligands is provided.

  5. Ultrahigh-resolution Cerenkov-light imaging system for positron radionuclides: potential applications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Yoshimune; Kato, Katsuhiko; Hatazawa, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Cerenkov-light imaging provides inherently high resolution because the light is emitted near the positron radionuclide. However, the magnitude for the high spatial resolution of Cerenkov-light imaging is unclear. Its potential molecular imaging applications also remain unclear. We developed an ultrahigh-resolution Cerenkov-light imaging system, measured its spatial resolution, and explored its applications to molecular imaging research. Our Cerenkov-light imaging system consists of a high-sensitivity charged-coupled device camera (Hamamatsu Photonics ORCA2-ER) and a bright lens (Xenon 0.95/25). An extension ring was inserted between them to magnify the subject. A ~100-μm-diameter (22)Na point source was made and imaged by the system. For applications of Cerenkov-light imaging, we conducted (18)F-FDG administered in vivo, ex vivo whole brain, and sliced brain imaging of rats. We obtained spatial resolution of ~220 μm for a (22)Na point source with our developed imaging system. The (18)F-FDG rat head images showed high light intensity in the eyes for the Cerenkov-light images, although there was no accumulation in these parts in the PET images. The sliced rat brain showed much higher spatial resolution for the Cerenkov-light images compared with CdWO4 scintillator-based autoradiography, although some contrast decrease was observed for them. Even though the Cerenkov-light images showed ultrahigh resolution of ~220 μm, their distribution and contrast were sometimes different from the actual positron accumulation in the subjects. Care must be taken when evaluating positron distribution from Cerenkov-light images. However, the ultrahigh resolution of Cerenkov-light imaging will be useful for transparent subjects including phantom studies.

  6. Comparative placental transfer, localization, and effects of radionuclides in experimental animal and human pregnancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sikov, M.R.; Meznarich, H.K.; Traub, R.J.

    1991-11-01

    Estimating radiation doses to the human embryo/fetus from radionuclides and predicting effects requires extrapolation of data from studies of laboratory species, with scaling for species-specific developmental stage and gestational time relationships and maturities at birth. Combinations of fetal-to-maternal ratios of concentrations, patterns of deposition, transfer kinetics, and compartmental and physiologic models are used to predict radioactivity levels and radiation doses to the conceptus. There is agreement between values expressing fractional transfer across the placenta ({theta}) with tabulated values for fractional absorption (f{sub 1}) from gastrointestinal (GI) tract or lung for most substances commonly involved in metabolic processes. A tendency toward disagreement for some other materials is thought to involve explanations based on their physicochemistry, toxicity, or the influence of target tissue development on placental transfer kinetics.

  7. Central nervous system disorders affecting the heart-insights from radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Pianou, Nikoletta; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing research activity focusing on the brain heart cross-talk. A great variety of brain disorders affect the heart and recent developments in neurosciences have revealed the particular role of specific neuroanatomic sites on heart rhythm and rate, myocardial function and vascular tone. Cardiac radionuclide imaging plays a pivotal role in this setting, since not only helps elucidating underlying pathobiological mechanisms but in addition, it promises exciting possibilities for early identification of patients at risk of developing cardiovascular manifestations of certain neurological diseases.

  8. Relationship of brain imaging with radionuclides and with x-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1981-03-03

    Because of high sensitivity and specificity for altered local cerebral structure, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the preferred initial diagnostic imaging study under most circumstances when cerebral disease is suspected. CT has no competitor for detecting fresh intracerebral hemorrhage. Radionuclide imaging (RN) scan is preferred when relative perfusion is to be assessed, in patients allergic to contrast media, and when an adequate CT study is not technically possible. (RN) plays an important complementary role to CT, especially for patients suspected of subacute or chronic subdura hematoma, cerebral infarction, arteriovenous malformations, meningitis, encephalitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, or when CT findings are inconclusive. When CT is not available, RN serves as a good screening study for suspected cerebral tumor, infection, recent infarction, arteriovenous malformation, and chronic subdural hematoma. Future improvement in radionuclide imaging by means of emission composition potential. The compound plating approacl threshold for all the investigated transistors and fast neutron spectra lies within the raal. The value of the potential slightly changes with the coordinate change in this region, i.e. the charge on a collecting electrode is not practically guided up to a certain moment of time during the movement of nonequilibrium carriers.

  9. Improving the quantity, quality and transparency of data used to derive radionuclide transfer parameters for animal products. 1. Goat milk.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Wells, C; Barnett, C L

    2016-04-01

    Under the MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency), there has been an initiative to improve the derivation, provenance and transparency of transfer parameter values for radionuclides. The approach taken for animal products is outlined here and the first revised table for goat milk is provided. Data from some references used in TRS 472 were removed and reasons given for removal. Particular efforts were made to improve the number of CR (concentration ratio) values which have some advantages over transfer coefficients. There is little difference in most of the new CR and Fm (transfer coefficient) values for goat milk compared with those in TRS 472. In TRS 472, 21 CR values were reported for goat milk. In the 2015 dataset for goat milk CR values for a further 14 elements are now included. The CR and Fm values for only one element (Co) were removed.

  10. Multi-Modal Nano-Probes for Radionuclide and 5-color Near Infrared Optical Lymphatic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Koyama, Yoshinori; Barrett, Tristan; Hama, Yukihiro; Regino, Celeste A. S.; Shin, In Soo; Jang, Beom-Su; Le, Nhat; Paik, Chang H.; Choyke, Peter L.; Urano, Yasuteru

    2008-01-01

    Current contrast agents generally have one function and can only be imaged in monochrome, therefore, the majority of imaging methods can only impart uniparametric information. A single nano-particle has the potential to be loaded with multiple payloads. Such multi-modality probes have the ability to be imaged by more than one imaging technique, which could compensate for the weakness or even combine the advantages of each individual modality. Furthermore, optical imaging using different optical probes enables us to achieve multi-color in vivo imaging, wherein multiple parameters can be read from a single image. To allow differentiation of multiple optical signals in vivo, each probe should have a close but different near infrared emission. To this end, we synthesized nano-probes with multi-modal and multi-color potential, which employed a polyamidoamine dendrimer platform linked to both radionuclides and optical probes, permitting dual-modality scintigraphic and 5-color near infrared optical lymphatic imaging using a multiple excitation spectrally-resolved fluorescence imaging technique. PMID:19079788

  11. First Results of Small Animal Imaging Spect Detector for Cardiovascular Disease Studies on Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliozzi, M. L.; Ballerini, M.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Cusanno, F.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Santavenere, F.; Torrioli, S.; Veneroni, P.; Majewsky, S.; Mok, S. P. G.; Tsui, B. M. W.; Wang, Y.; Marano, G.; Musumeci, M.; Palazzesi, S.; Ciccariello, G.; de Vincentis, G.; Accorsi, R.

    2008-06-01

    We have developed a compact, open, Dual Head pinhole SPECT system for high resolution molecular imaging with radionuclides of mice, dedicated mainly to preclinical study of stem cells capability to recover myocardial infarction. The gamma detector is made of pinhole tungsten collimators, pixellated scintillators, matrix of multi-anode PMTs and individual channel readout. Measurements have been performed on phantoms and live mice devoted initially to test and calibrate the system and to optimize protocols. The implemented system and the first results will be presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of our dedicated SPECT detector for small animal imaging.

  12. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial perfusion and viability in assessment of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.; Shah, P.K.

    1989-07-18

    Technical advances in radionuclide imaging have important implications for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Single-photon emission computerized tomography with thallium 201 (TI-201) offers greater accuracy than planar imaging in detecting, localizing and sizing myocardial perfusion defects. Use of single-photon emission computerized tomography with TI-201 should allow for a more accurate assessment of prognosis after myocardial infarction. A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, provides a number of advantages over TI-201, including higher quality images, lack of redistribution, and the ability to assess first-pass ventricular function. Applications of TI-201 and technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile include assessment of arterial patency and myocardial salvage immediately after thrombolytic therapy, detection of resting ischemia after thrombolytic therapy, targeting of subsets of patients for further intervention, and predischarge assessment to predict the future course of patients after an acute myocardial infarction.

  13. Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) Targeted Nuclear Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Liu, Shuanglong; Shan, Hong; Conti, Peter; Li, Zibo

    2013-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. Besides regulating proteolysis, uPAR could also activate many intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell motility, invasion, proliferation, and survival through cooperating with transmembrane receptors. uPAR is overexpressed across a variety of tumors and is associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. In order to meet the demand for a rapid development and potential clinical application of anti-cancer therapy based on uPA/uPAR system, it is desirable to develop non-invasive imaging methods to visualize and quantify uPAR expression in vivo. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted nuclear imaging and radionuclide therapy agents. The successful development of molecular imaging probes to visualize uPAR expression in vivo would not only assist preclinical researches on uPAR function, but also eventually impact patient management. PMID:23843898

  14. Polydopamine Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Versatile Platform with Radionuclide Labeling for Multimodal Tumor Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, He; Chao, Yu; Liu, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Pan, Jian; Guo, Wanliang; Wu, Jizhi; Sheng, Mao; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with various unique properties have attracted great attention in cancer theranostics. Herein, SWNTs are coated with a shell of polydopamine (PDA), which is further modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG). The PDA shell in the obtained SWNT@PDA-PEG could chelate Mn2+, which together with metallic nanoparticulate impurities anchored on SWNTs offer enhanced both T1 and T2 contrasts under magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Meanwhile, also utilizing the PDA shell, radionuclide 131I could be easily labeled onto SWNT@PDA-PEG, enabling nuclear imaging and radioisotope cancer therapy. As revealed by MR & gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of SWNT@PDA-131I-PEG is observed after systemic administration into mice. By further utilizing the strong near-infarared (NIR) absorbance of SWNTs, NIR-triggered photothermal therapy in combination with 131I-based radioisotope therapy is realized in our animal experiments, in which a remarkable synergistic antitumor therapeutic effect is observed compared to monotherapies. Our work not only presents a new type of theranostic nanoplatform based on SWNTs, but also suggests the promise of PDA coating as a general approach to modify nano-agents and endow them with highly integrated functionalities. PMID:27570554

  15. Polydopamine Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Versatile Platform with Radionuclide Labeling for Multimodal Tumor Imaging and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, He; Chao, Yu; Liu, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Pan, Jian; Guo, Wanliang; Wu, Jizhi; Sheng, Mao; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with various unique properties have attracted great attention in cancer theranostics. Herein, SWNTs are coated with a shell of polydopamine (PDA), which is further modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG). The PDA shell in the obtained SWNT@PDA-PEG could chelate Mn(2+), which together with metallic nanoparticulate impurities anchored on SWNTs offer enhanced both T1 and T2 contrasts under magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Meanwhile, also utilizing the PDA shell, radionuclide (131)I could be easily labeled onto SWNT@PDA-PEG, enabling nuclear imaging and radioisotope cancer therapy. As revealed by MR & gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of SWNT@PDA-(131)I-PEG is observed after systemic administration into mice. By further utilizing the strong near-infarared (NIR) absorbance of SWNTs, NIR-triggered photothermal therapy in combination with (131)I-based radioisotope therapy is realized in our animal experiments, in which a remarkable synergistic antitumor therapeutic effect is observed compared to monotherapies. Our work not only presents a new type of theranostic nanoplatform based on SWNTs, but also suggests the promise of PDA coating as a general approach to modify nano-agents and endow them with highly integrated functionalities.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Affibody Molecules for Radionuclide Imaging of in Vivo Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Garousi, Javad; Honarvar, Hadis; Andersson, Ken G; Mitran, Bogdan; Orlova, Anna; Buijs, Jos; Löfblom, John; Frejd, Fredrik Y; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2016-11-07

    Overexpression of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is documented for chronically hypoxic malignant tumors as well as for normoxic renal cell carcinoma. Radionuclide molecular imaging of CAIX would be useful for detection of hypoxic areas in malignant tumors, for patients' stratification for CAIX-targeted therapies, and for discrimination of primary malignant and benign renal tumors. Earlier, we have reported feasibility of in vivo radionuclide based imaging of CAIX expressing tumors using Affibody molecules, small affinity proteins based on a nonimmunoglobulin scaffold. In this study, we compared imaging properties of several anti-CAIX Affibody molecules having identical scaffold parts and competing for the same epitope on CAIX, but having different binding paratopes. Four variants were labeled using residualizing (99m)Tc and nonresidualizing (125)I labels. All radiolabeled variants demonstrated high-affinity detection of CAIX-expressing cell line SK-RC-52 in vitro and specific accumulation in SK-RC-52 xenografts in vivo. (125)I-labeled conjugates demonstrated much lower radioactivity uptake in kidneys but higher radioactivity concentration in blood compared with (99m)Tc-labeled counterparts. Although all variants cleared rapidly from blood and nonspecific compartments, there was noticeable difference in their biodistribution. The best variant for imaging of expression of CAIX in disseminated cancer was (99m)Tc-(HE)3-ZCAIX:2 providing tumor uptake of 16.3 ± 0.9% ID/g and tumor-to-blood ratio of 44 ± 7 at 4 h after injection. For primary renal cell carcinoma, the most promising imaging candidate was (125)I-ZCAIX:4 providing tumor-kidney ratio of 2.1 ± 0.5. In conclusion, several clones of scaffold proteins should be evaluated to select the best variant for development of an imaging probe with optimal sensitivity for the intended application.

  17. Imaging of Ancient Egyptian Animal Mummies.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Lidija M; Atherton-Woolham, Stephanie D; Adams, Judith E

    2015-01-01

    Human mummies have long been studied by using imaging as a primary investigative method. Mummified animal remains from ancient Egypt are less well researched, yet much can be learned about species diversity and the methods of preservation. Noninvasive imaging methods enable mummy bundles to remain intact, with no detrimental physical effects, thus ensuring protection of a valuable archaeological resource. This article is based on the research experience gathered during 13 years (2000-2012) with 152 animal mummies held in the collections of 17 museums in the United Kingdom. Conventional radiography, computed radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography (CT) available in the clinical setting were used to assess the value of each imaging modality in the study of animal mummies and related material. Radiography proved to be an excellent research method that provided initial insight into the contents of the mummy bundle, and CT contributed additional useful detail in some cases. Paleoradiologic analyses enabled information on mummy bundle contents to be proved, including the nature of the skeletal remains and the methods of mummification. An optimum method involving radiography and CT is described. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  18. Techniques for loading technetium-99m and rhenium-186/188 radionuclides into pre-formed liposomes for diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Goins, Beth; Bao, Ande; Phillips, William T

    2010-01-01

    Liposomes can serve as carriers of radionuclides for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. Herein, procedures are outlined for radiolabeling liposomes with the gamma-emitting radionuclide, technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), for non-invasive detection of disease and for monitoring the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of liposomal drugs, and/or with therapeutic beta-emitting radionuclides, rhenium-186/188 ((186/188)Re), for radionuclide therapy. These efficient and practical liposome radiolabeling methods use a post-labeling mechanism to load (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re into pre-formed liposomes prepared in advance of the labeling procedure. For all liposome radiolabeling methods described, a lipophilic chelator is used to transport (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re across the lipid bilayer of the pre-formed liposomes. Once within the liposome interior, the pre-encapsulated glutathione or ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient provides for stable entrapment of the (99m)Tc and (186/188)Re within the liposomes. In the first method, (99m)Tc is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and (99m)Tc-HMPAO becomes trapped by interaction with the pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the second method, (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylethylenediamine (BMEDA), and (99m)Tc-BMEDA or (186/188)Re-BMEDA becomes trapped by interaction with pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the third method, an ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient loading technique is employed using liposomes with an extraliposomal pH of 7.4 and an interior pH of 5.1. BMEDA, which is lipophilic at pH 7.4, serves as a lipophilic chelator for (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re to transport the radionuclides across the lipid bilayer. Once within the more acidic liposome interior, (99m)Tc/(186/188)Re-BMEDA complex becomes protonated and more hydrophilic, which

  19. Techniques for Loading Technetium-99m and Rhenium-186/188 Radionuclides into Preformed Liposomes for Diagnostic Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Goins, Beth; Bao, Ande; Phillips, William T

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes can serve as carriers of radionuclides for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. Herein, procedures are outlined for radiolabeling liposomes with the gamma-emitting radionuclide, technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), for noninvasive detection of disease and for monitoring the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of liposomal drugs, and/or with therapeutic beta-emitting radionuclides, rhenium-186/188 ((186/188)Re), for radionuclide therapy. These efficient and practical liposome radiolabeling methods use a post-labeling mechanism to load (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re into preformed liposomes prepared in advance of the labeling procedure. For all liposome radiolabeling methods described, a lipophilic chelator is used to transport (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re across the lipid bilayer of the preformed liposomes. Once within the liposome interior, the pre-encapsulated glutathione or ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient provides for stable entrapment of the (99m)Tc and (186/188)Re within the liposomes. In the first method, (99m)Tc is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and (99m)Tc-HMPAO becomes trapped by interaction with the pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the second method, (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylethylenediamine (BMEDA), and (99m)Tc-BMEDA or (186/188)Re-BMEDA becomes trapped by interaction with pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the third method, an ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient loading technique is employed using liposomes with an extraliposomal pH of 7.4 and an interior pH of 5.1. BMEDA, which is lipophilic at pH 7.4, serves as a lipophilic chelator for (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re to transport the radionuclides across the lipid bilayer. Once within the more acidic liposome interior, (99m)Tc/(186/188)Re-BMEDA complex becomes protonated and more hydrophilic, which results

  20. UTSW Small Animal Positron Emission Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, E. N.; Anderson, J.; Arbique, G.; Constantinescu, A.; Jennewein, M.; Kulkarni, P. V.; Mason, R. P.; Mccoll, R. W.; Oz, O. K.; Parkey, R. W.; Richer, E.; Rosch, F.; Seliounine, S. Y.; Slavine, N. V.; Srivastava, S. C.; Thorpe, P. E.; Zinchenko, A. I.; Antich, P. P.

    2006-10-01

    A Small Animal Imager (SAI) for PET has been designed, built, tested in phantoms, and applied to investigations in mice and rats. The device uses principles based on gamma-ray induced scintillation in crossed fiber optic detectors connected to Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes (PSPMT). Each detector consists of an epoxied stack of 28 layers of 135 round 1 mm BCF-10 scintillating plastic fibers. The overlap region forms a 13.5times13.5times2.8 cm3 detector volume. Scintillating light from the fibers is detected by two (X and Y directions) Hamamatsu R-2486 PSPMTs with 16 anode wires in each of two orthogonal directions. A centroid-finding algorithm gives the position of a light cluster on the face (photocathode) of a PSPMT. The accuracy of the reconstruction of an interaction position is essentially independent of light cluster position. This translates to a nearly isotropic photon response for the entire detector. The system has been used to test several 3D image reconstruction algorithms, software modifications, and improvements. The sensitivity ( 12.6 cps/kBq at 9 cm inner diameter) and sub-millimeter spatial resolution (better than 1 mm in phantoms) obtained with an iterative algorithm incorporating system modeling make the SAI a relatively inexpensive high performance animal imager. The SAI is currently being used for imaging experiments in mice and rats

  1. Radionuclide imaging: Past, present and future outlook in the diagnosis of infected prosthetic joints.

    PubMed

    Brammen, Lindsay; Palestro, Christopher; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    A serious complication of joint replacement surgery is infection, which results in prolonged invalidity as well as removal and subsequent re-implantation after lengthy antibiotic therapy. In terms of diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine has presented several tracers and imaging modalities over the years to be used in prosthetic joint infection. The PubMed/MEDLINE literature database was systematically examined for publications on infection, arthroplasty, joint replacement, prosthetic joint, gallium, labeled leukocytes, sulfur colloid, antimicrobial peptides, Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG), positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT), and single-photon emission (SPET-CT). This was determined to be a comprehensive review, not a meta-analysis of prosthetic joint infection and diagnostic imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. Prosthetic joint replacement is more frequently being employed as a way of improving the quality of life in an ever-ageing population. Complications following joint replacement surgery include aseptic or mechanical loosening, as well as polyethylene wear and prosthetic joint infection. The rate of infection is estimated to be between 1%-3%. The therapeutic management of these complications lies in the ability to differentiate between infection and aseptic mechanical loosening. Given that plain radiographs are neither sensitive nor specific to infection and computer tomography, as well as magnetic resonance imaging are limited due to metal-induced artifacts, radionuclide imaging has come to aid in the diagnostic imaging in the failed joint replacement. However, each modality has its advantages and disadvantages, thus there is no gold standard technique of radionuclide imaging. Nevertheless, radiolabelled leukocyte scintigraphy has proven itself to be the gold standard in neutrophil-based infection processes. Several studies have examined the role of PET using radiotracers such as (18)F-FDG, gallium-67 and (18)F, as well

  2. Imaging, Mapping and Monitoring Environmental Radionuclide Transport Using Compton-Geometry Gamma Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, J. W.; Dormand, J.; Cooper, J.; Judson, D.; Boston, A. J.; Bankhead, M.; Onda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The legacy to-date of the nuclear disaster at Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan, has emphasised the fundamental importance of high quality radiation measurements in soils and plant systems. Current-generation radiometers based on coded-aperture collimation are limited in their ability to locate sources of radiation in three dimensions, and require a relatively long measurement time due to the poor efficiency of the collimation system. The quality of data they can provide to support biogeochemical process models in such systems is therefore often compromised. In this work we report proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the potential of an alternative approach in the measurement of environmentally-important radionuclides (in particular 137Cs) in quartz sand and soils from the Fukushima exclusion zone. Compton-geometry imaging radiometers harness the scattering of incident radiation between two detectors to yield significant improvements in detection efficiency, energy resolution and spatial location of radioactive sources in a 180° field of view. To our knowledge we are reporting its first application to environmentally-relevant systems at low activity, dispersed sources, with significant background radiation and, crucially, movement over time. We are using a simple laboratory column setup to conduct one-dimensional transport experiments for 139Ce and 137Cs in quartz sand and in homogenized repacked Fukushima soils. Polypropylene columns 15 cm length with internal diameter 1.6 cm were filled with sand or soil and saturated slowly with tracer-free aqueous solutions. Radionuclides were introduced as 2mL pulses (step-up step-down) at the column inlet. Data were collected continuously throughout the transport experiment and then binned into sequential time intervals to resolve the total activity in the column and its progressive movement through the sand/soil. The objective of this proof-of-concept work is to establish detection limits, optimise image reconstruction

  3. Registration of serial SPECT/CT images for three-dimensional dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjögreen-Gleisner, K.; Rueckert, D.; Ljungberg, M.

    2009-10-01

    For radionuclide therapy, individual patient pharmacokinetics can be measured in three dimensions by sequential SPECT imaging. Accurate registration of the time series of images is central for voxel-based calculations of the residence time and absorbed dose. In this work, rigid and non-rigid methods are evaluated for registration of 6-7 SPECT/CT images acquired over a week, in anatomical regions from the head-and-neck region down to the pelvis. A method for calculation of the absorbed dose, including a voxel mass determination from the CT images, is also described. Registration of the SPECT/CT images is based on a CT-derived spatial transformation. Evaluation is focused on the CT registration accuracy, and on its impact on values of residence time and absorbed dose. According to the CT evaluation, the non-rigid method produces a more accurate registration than the rigid one. For images of the residence time and absorbed dose, registration produces a sharpening of the images. For volumes-of-interest, the differences between rigid and non-rigid results are generally small. However, the non-rigid method is more consistent for regions where non-rigid patient movements are likely, such as in the head-neck-shoulder region.

  4. SIMULTANEOUS DUAL-RADIONUCLIDE MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING WITH A SOLID-STATE DEDICATED CARDIAC CAMERA

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Haim, S.; Kacperski, K.; Hain, S.; Van Gramberg, D.; Hutton, B.F.; Waddington, W.A.; Sharir, T.; Roth, N.; Berman, D.S.; Ell, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    We compared simultaneous dual-radionuclide stress and rest myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with a novel solid-state cardiac camera and a conventional SPECT camera with separate stress and rest acquisitions. Methods 24 consecutive patients (64.5 ± 11.8 years, 16 men) were injected with 74 MBq of 201Tl (rest) and 250 MBq 99mTc-MIBI (stress). Conventional MPI acquisition times for stress and rest were 21 min and 16 min, respectively. A simultaneous dual-radionuclide (DR) 15 minute list mode gated acquisition was performed on D-SPECT (Spectrum-dynamics, Caesarea, Israel). The DR D-SPECT data were processed using a spillover and scatter correction method. We compared DR D-SPECT images with conventional SPECT images by visual analysis employing the 17-segment model and a 5-point scale (0=normal, 4=absent) to calculate the summed stress and rest scores (SSS and SRS, respectively) and the % visual perfusion defect (TPD) at stress and rest, by dividing the stress and rest scores, respectively, by 68 and multiplying by 100. TPD <5% was considered normal. Image quality was assessed on a 4-point scale (1=poor, 4=very good) and gut activity was assessed on a 4-point scale (0=none, 3=high). Results Conventional MPI was abnormal at stress in 17 patients and at rest in 9 patients. In the 17 abnormal stress studies DR D-SPECT MPI was abnormal in 113 vs. 93 abnormal segments by conventional MPI. In the nine abnormal rest studies DR D-SPECT was abnormal in 45 vs. 48 segments abnormal by conventional MPI. SSS, SRS, TPD stress and TPD rest on conventional SPECT and DR D-SPECT highly correlated (r=0.9790, 0.9694, 0.9784, 0.9710, respectively; p<0.0001 for all). In addition, 6 patients had significantly larger perfusion defects on DR D-SPECT stress images, including five of 11 patients who were imaged earlier on D-SPECT than conventional SPECT. Conclusion D-SPECT enables fast and high quality simultaneous DR MPI in a single imaging session with comparable diagnostic performance and

  5. Measurements of natural radionuclides in human teeth and animal bones as markers of radiation exposure from soil in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almayahi, B. A.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to estimate the radioactive accumulation of the radionuclides 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th in extracted human teeth, animal bones, and soil. The natural radionuclides were measured by high-purity germanium spectroscopy in extracted human teeth and animal bones from people and animals living in different states in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula. The average 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th concentrations in teeth were found to be 12.31±7.27 Bq g-1, 0.48±0.21 Bq g-1, 0.56±0.21 Bq g-1, 0.55±0.23 Bq g-1, 1.82±1.28 Bq g-1, and 0.50±0.14 Bq g-1, respectively. The corresponding concentrations in bones were found to be 3.79±0.81 Bq g-1, 0.07±0.02 Bq g-1, 0.08±0.02 Bq g-1, 0.16±0.04 Bq g-1, 0.51±1.08 Bq g-1, and 0.06±0.02 Bq g-1, respectively. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations in teeth from smokers were higher than those in non-smokers, and the corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in female teeth than in male teeth. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in teeth than in bones. A positive correlation was found between radionuclides in both teeth and bone samples.

  6. Image guidance, treatment planning and evaluation of cancer interstitial focal therapy using liposomal radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Steve William

    Focally ablative therapy of cancer has gained significant interest recently. Improvements in diagnostic techniques have created possibilities for treatment which were once clinically unfeasible. Imaging must be capable of allowing accurate diagnosis, staging and planning upon initiation of therapy. Recent improvements in MRI and molecular imaging techniques have made it possible to accurately localize lesions and in so doing, improve the accuracy of proposed focal treatments. Using multimodality imaging it is now possible to target, plan and evaluate interstitial focal treatment using liposome encapsulated beta emitting radionuclides in a variety of cancer types. Since most absorbed dose is deposited early and heterogeneously in beta-radionuclide therapy, investigation of the resultant molecular and cellular events during this time is important for evaluating treatment efficacy. Additionally, investigating a multifocal entity such as prostate cancer is helpful for determining whether MRI is capable of discriminating the proper lesion for therapy. Correlation of MRI findings with histopathology can further improve the accuracy of interstitial focal radionuclide therapy by providing non-invasive surrogates for tissue compartment sizes. In the application of such therapies, compartmental sizes are known to heavily influence the distribution of injected agents. This has clear dosimetric implications with the potential to significantly alter the efficacy of treatment. The hypothesis of this project was that multimodality imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), autoradiography (AR), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be used to target, plan, and evaluate interstitial focal therapy with non-sealed source, liposome-encapsulated 186Re beta emitting radionuclides. The specific aims of this project were to 1) Identify suitable targets for interstitial focal therapy. This was done by retrospectively analyzing MRI data to characterize the tumor

  7. U-SPECT-BioFluo: an integrated radionuclide, bioluminescence, and fluorescence imaging platform

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In vivo bioluminescence, fluorescence, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging provide complementary information about biological processes. However, to date these signatures are evaluated separately on individual preclinical systems. In this paper, we introduce a fully integrated bioluminescence-fluorescence-SPECT platform. Next to an optimization in logistics and image fusion, this integration can help improve understanding of the optical imaging (OI) results. Methods An OI module was developed for a preclinical SPECT system (U-SPECT, MILabs, Utrecht, the Netherlands). The applicability of the module for bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging was evaluated in both a phantom and in an in vivo setting using mice implanted with a 4 T1-luc + tumor. A combination of a fluorescent dye and radioactive moiety was used to directly relate the optical images of the module to the SPECT findings. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was compared to the localization of the fluorescence signal in the tumors. Results Both the phantom and in vivo mouse studies showed that superficial fluorescence signals could be imaged accurately. The SPECT and bioluminescence images could be used to place the fluorescence findings in perspective, e.g. by showing tracer accumulation in non-target organs such as the liver and kidneys (SPECT) and giving a semi-quantitative read-out for tumor spread (bioluminescence). Conclusions We developed a fully integrated multimodal platform that provides complementary registered imaging of bioluminescent, fluorescent, and SPECT signatures in a single scanning session with a single dose of anesthesia. In our view, integration of these modalities helps to improve data interpretation of optical findings in relation to radionuclide images. PMID:25386389

  8. U-SPECT-BioFluo: an integrated radionuclide, bioluminescence, and fluorescence imaging platform.

    PubMed

    van Oosterom, Matthias N; Kreuger, Rob; Buckle, Tessa; Mahn, Wendy A; Bunschoten, Anton; Josephson, Lee; van Leeuwen, Fijs Wb; Beekman, Freek J

    2014-01-01

    In vivo bioluminescence, fluorescence, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging provide complementary information about biological processes. However, to date these signatures are evaluated separately on individual preclinical systems. In this paper, we introduce a fully integrated bioluminescence-fluorescence-SPECT platform. Next to an optimization in logistics and image fusion, this integration can help improve understanding of the optical imaging (OI) results. An OI module was developed for a preclinical SPECT system (U-SPECT, MILabs, Utrecht, the Netherlands). The applicability of the module for bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging was evaluated in both a phantom and in an in vivo setting using mice implanted with a 4 T1-luc + tumor. A combination of a fluorescent dye and radioactive moiety was used to directly relate the optical images of the module to the SPECT findings. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was compared to the localization of the fluorescence signal in the tumors. Both the phantom and in vivo mouse studies showed that superficial fluorescence signals could be imaged accurately. The SPECT and bioluminescence images could be used to place the fluorescence findings in perspective, e.g. by showing tracer accumulation in non-target organs such as the liver and kidneys (SPECT) and giving a semi-quantitative read-out for tumor spread (bioluminescence). We developed a fully integrated multimodal platform that provides complementary registered imaging of bioluminescent, fluorescent, and SPECT signatures in a single scanning session with a single dose of anesthesia. In our view, integration of these modalities helps to improve data interpretation of optical findings in relation to radionuclide images.

  9. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.

    2006-02-01

    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  10. Fluorescence lifetime contrast in small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Sun, LuZhe; Herman, Brian A.

    2007-02-01

    Early detection of primary tumors is the key for effective therapeutic intervention and successful patient survival. Small animal models emulating human diseases are powerful tools for our comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of tumor formation and metastasis to distant sites. Our long-term goal is to develop a non-invasive, multiphoton-fluorescence lifetime imaging (MP-FLIM) modality that can precisely quantify these steps in animal tumor models at a very early stage. The specific hypothesis is that fluorescence lifetime can be employed as reliable contrast parameter for providing higher detection sensitivity as compared with conventional intensity-based tumor imaging approaches and therefore it is possible to detect smaller tumor volumes (early detection) than those achieved by other prevailing methods. We base this hypothesis on our recent observations that (1) fluorescence lifetime is "intrinsic" to the fluorophore and its measurement is not affected by concentration and/or spectral artifacts as in intensity-based methods, (2) multiphoton excitation can enable increased tissue penetrability and reduced phototoxicity and (3) MP-FLIM approach can discriminate background autofluorescence from the fluorescent proteins in thick tissues thereby achieving a ten-fold increase in signal-to-background ratio over the intensity-based approaches. We present our preliminary data to support this hypothesis in primary tumor detection in nu/nu athymic mouse models.

  11. Animal imaging studies of potential brain damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatley, S. J.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rice, O.

    To date, animal studies have not been able to predict the likelihood of problems in human neurological health due to HZE particle exposure during space missions outside the Earth's magnetosphere. In ongoing studies in mice, we have demonstrated that cocaine stimulated locomotor activity is reduced by a moderate dose (120 cGy) of 1 GeV 56Fe particles. We postulate that imaging experiments in animals may provide more sensitive and earlier indicators of damage due to HZE particles than behavioral tests. Since the small size of the mouse brain is not well suited to the spatial resolution offered by microPET, we are now repeating some of our studies in a rat model. We anticipate that this will enable us to identify imaging correlates of behavioral endpoints. A specific hypothesis of our studies is that changes in the metabolic rate for glucose in striatum of animals will be correlated with alterations in locomotor activity. We will also evaluate whether the neuroprotective drug L-deprenyl reduces the effect of radiation on locomotor activity. In addition, we will conduct microPET studies of brain monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B in rats before and at various times after irradiation with HZE particles. The hypothesis is that monoamine oxidase A, which is located in nerve terminals, will be unchanged or decreased after irradiation, while monoamine oxidase B, which is located in glial cells, will be increased after irradiation. Neurochemical effects that could be measured using PET could in principle be applied in astronauts, in terms of detecting and monitoring subtle neurological damage that might have occurred during long space missions. More speculative uses of PET are in screening candidates for prolonged space missions (for example, for adequate reserve in critical brain circuits) and in optimizing medications to treat impairments after missions.

  12. Radionuclide scrotal imaging: further experience with 210 patients. Part I. Anatomy, pathophysiology, and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.C.P.; Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.

    1983-08-01

    Ten years' experience with radionuclide scrotal imaging (RSI) to evaluate perfusion of the scrotal contents has confirmed the value of this examination. In 1973, Nadel et al. first proposed using sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) to diagnose testicular torsion. By the end of 1982, more than thirty articles have been published on this topic, with most emphasizing the usefulness of RSI in managing patients with acute scrotal pain. The present communication describes our findings in 210 patients, not previously reported. There were four groups with relatively distinct clinical presentations: (a) acute scrotal pain, (b) chronic scrotal pain, (c) scrotal injury, and (d) scrotal mass. The anatomic and pathophysiologic bases for the scan findings will be emphasized. We discuss the staging of testicular torsion; viability of the compromised testicle; variability in the presentation of acute infection; anatomy of trauma, varicocele, and inguinal hernia; and the correlation with scrotal sonography.

  13. Analysis of serial radionuclide bone images in osteosarcoma and breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, B.J.; Hanley, J.

    1980-04-01

    The authors first describe and illustrate didactically the use of the Kaplan-Meier actuarial technique for serial diagnostic studies. They then present an analysis of previously published data on the results of serial radionuclide bone images in patients with osteosarcoma or breast carcinoma, using this technique. The data indicate that patients with osteosarcoma show an almost linear increase in the occurrence of bone metastates between 5 and 29 months after diagnosis; the rate is approximately 1% per month. Patients with breast cancer, on the other hand, show a biphasic rate of development, averaging only 0.5% per month during the first year after diagnosis but increasing rapidly to approximately 2% per month after 15 months.

  14. Intrathoracic splenosis: evaluation by superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Mana; Tanabe, Yoshio; Miyoshi, Hidenao; Matusue, Eiji; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2009-11-01

    Splenosis represents the heterotopic autotransplantation of splenic tissue after either splenic trauma or surgery. Intrathoracic splenosis is a rare condition resulting from concomitant rupture of the spleen and the left hemidiaphragm. We report a case of splenosis in a 41-year-old male patient who had experienced severe thoracoabdominal injury including rupture of the spleen and left hemidiaphragm and post-traumatic splenectomy 20 years previously. Abnormal opacities in the cardiac region were noted on a chest radiograph at an annual checkup. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest demonstrated multiple, well-circumscribed pleura-based nodules at the posterior base of the left hemithorax and the left subdiaphragmatic area. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), the lesions showed decreased signal intensity but remained slightly hyperintense relative to liver parenchyma on T2-weighted images. (99m)Tc-labeled Sn colloid scintigraphy revealed multiple areas of increased activity consistent with the lesions on the CT and MRI scans. In addition to the history of splenic trauma and left hemothorax, SPIO-enhanced MRI and radionuclide scintigraphy, which can demonstrate phagocytic ability in the ectopic splenic tissue, were useful for confirming the diagnosis.

  15. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. I. Comparison of milk and meat from dairy cows and goats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.E.; Ward, G.M.; Ennis, M.E. Jr.; Boamah, K.N.

    1988-02-01

    The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for /sup 99/Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for /sup 99/Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for /sup 133/Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude.

  16. Improving the quantity, quality and transparency of data used to derive radionuclide transfer parameters for animal products. 2. Cow milk.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Wells, C; Barnett, C L; Howard, D C

    2017-02-01

    Under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments) Programme, there has been an initiative to improve the derivation, provenance and transparency of transfer parameter values for radionuclides from feed to animal products that are for human consumption. A description of the revised MODARIA 2016 cow milk dataset is described in this paper. As previously reported for the MODARIA goat milk dataset, quality control has led to the discounting of some references used in IAEA's Technical Report Series (TRS) report 472 (IAEA, 2010). The number of Concentration Ratio (CR) values has been considerably increased by (i) the inclusion of more literature from agricultural studies which particularly enhanced the stable isotope data of both CR and Fm and (ii) by estimating dry matter intake from assumed liveweight. In TRS 472, the data for cow milk were 714 transfer coefficient (Fm) values and 254 CR values describing 31 elements and 26 elements respectively. In the MODARIA 2016 cow milk dataset, Fm and CR values are now reported for 43 elements based upon 825 data values for Fm and 824 for CR. The MODARIA 2016 cow milk dataset Fm values are within an order of magnitude of those reported in TRS 472. Slightly bigger changes are seen in the CR values, but the increase in size of the dataset creates greater confidence in them. Data gaps that still remain are identified for elements with isotopes relevant to radiation protection.

  17. Radionuclide imaging of inflammation and infection in the acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Love, Charito; Palestro, Christopher J

    2013-03-01

    Although infection may be suggested by signs and symptoms such as fever, pain, general malaise, and abnormal laboratory results, imaging tests often are used to confirm its presence. Morphologic imaging tests identify structural alterations of tissues or organs that result from a combination of microbial invasion and the inflammatory response of the host. Functional imaging studies use minute quantities of radioactive material, which are taken up directly by cells, tissues, and organs, or are attached to substances that subsequently migrate to the region of interest. Bone scintigraphy is extremely sensitive and can be positive within 2 days after the onset of symptoms. With an accuracy of more than 90%, 3-phase bone scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing osteomyelitis in unviolated bone. In patients with acute renal failure, gallium imaging facilitates the differentiation of acute interstitial nephritis from acute tubular necrosis. Gallium imaging also is useful in the evaluation of pulmonary infections and inflammation. Many opportunistic infections affect the lungs, and a normal gallium scan of the chest excludes infection with a high degree of certainty, especially when the chest x-ray is negative. In the human immunodeficiency virus positive patient, lymph node uptake usually is associated with mycobacterial disease or lymphoma. Focal pulmonary parenchymal uptake suggests bacterial pneumonia. Diffuse pulmonary uptake suggests an opportunistic pneumonia. Gallium imaging provides useful information about other acute respiratory conditions, including radiation pneumonitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. In vitro labeled leukocyte imaging with indium-111 and technetium-99m labeled leukocytes is useful in various acute care situations. The test facilitates the differentiation of normal postoperative changes from infection and is useful for diagnosing prosthetic vascular graft infection. In inflammatory bowel disease, labeled leukocyte

  18. A Monte Carlo study on (223)Ra imaging for unsealed radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akihiko; Miwa, Kenta; Sasaki, Masayuki; Baba, Shingo

    2016-06-01

    Radium-223 ((223)Ra), an α-emitting radionuclide, is used in unsealed radionuclide therapy for metastatic bone tumors. The demand for qualitative (223)Ra imaging is growing to optimize dosimetry. The authors simulated (223)Ra imaging using an in-house Monte Carlo simulation code and investigated the feasibility and utility of (223)Ra imaging. The Monte Carlo code comprises two modules, hexagon and nai. The hexagon code simulates the photon and electron interactions in the tissues and collimator, and the nai code simulates the response of the NaI detector system. A 3D numeric phantom created using computed tomography images of a chest phantom was installed in the hexagon code. (223)Ra accumulated in a part of the spine, and three x-rays and 19 γ rays between 80 and 450 keV were selected as the emitted photons. To evaluate the quality of the (223)Ra imaging, the authors also simulated technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) imaging under the same conditions and compared the results. The sensitivities of the three photopeaks were 147 counts per unit of source activity (cps MBq(-1); photopeak: 84 keV, full width of energy window: 20%), 166 cps MBq(-1) (154 keV, 15%), and 158 cps MBq(-1) (270 keV, 10%) for a low-energy general-purpose (LEGP) collimator, and those for the medium-energy general-purpose (MEGP) collimator were 33, 13, and 8.0 cps MBq(-1), respectively. In the case of (99m)Tc, the sensitivity was 55 cps MBq(-1) (141 keV, 20%) for LEGP and 52 cps MBq(-1) for MEGP. The fractions of unscattered photons of the total photons reflecting the image quality were 0.09 (84 keV), 0.03 (154 keV), and 0.02 (270 keV) for the LEGP collimator and 0.41, 0.25, and 0.50 for the MEGP collimator, respectively. Conversely, this fraction was approximately 0.65 for the simulated (99m)Tc imaging. The sensitivity with the LEGP collimator appeared very high. However, almost all of the counts were because of photons that penetrated or were scattered in the collimator; therefore, the proportions of

  19. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT: 2015 revision.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Hein J; Acampa, Wanda; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Ballinger, Jim; Bengel, Frank; De Bondt, Pieter; Buechel, Ronny R; Cuocolo, Alberto; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L F; Flotats, Albert; Hacker, Marcus; Hindorf, Cecilia; Kaufmann, Philip A; Lindner, Oliver; Ljungberg, Michael; Lonsdale, Markus; Manrique, Alain; Minarik, David; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Slart, Riemer H J A; Trägårdh, Elin; de Wit, Tim C; Hesse, Birger

    2015-11-01

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated 2015 procedural guidelines are highlighted, focusing on the important changes related to new instrumentation with improved image information and the possibility to reduce radiation exposure, which is further discussed in relation to the recent developments of new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Introduction of the selective coronary vasodilator regadenoson and the use of coronary CT-contrast agents for hybrid imaging with SPECT/CT angiography are other important areas for nuclear cardiology that were not included in the previous guidelines. A large number of minor changes have been described in more detail in the fully revised version available at the EANM home page: http://eanm.org/publications/guidelines/2015_07_EANM_FINAL_myocardial_perfusion_guideline.pdf .

  20. Spinal cerebrospinal fluid leaks detected by radionuclide cisternography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients suspected of intracranial hypotension.

    PubMed

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Yano, Eiji; Shinohara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takehiro; Ogawa, Akiko; Fujii, Norio; Nakagomi, Tadayoshi

    2014-09-01

    Although many studies have described various features of neuroimaging tests associated with intracranial hypotension, few have examined their validity and reliability. We evaluated the association between CSF leaks detected by radionuclide cisternography and abnormal MRI findings in the accurate diagnosis of intracranial hypotension. We retrospectively assessed 250 patients who were suspected of intracranial hypotension and underwent subsequent radionuclide cisternography. We obtained 159 sagittal and 153 coronal T2-weighted MRI images and 101 gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI images. We assessed the CSF leaks in relation to a sagging brain, the maximum subdural space in sagittal and coronal images, and dural enhancement. Overall, 186 (74%) patients showed CSF leaks on radionuclide cisternography. A sagging brain was observed in 21 (13%) of the 159 patients with sagittal MRIs. A sagging brain was not associated with CSF leaks (14% vs. 10%; p=0.49). Compared to patients without CSF leaks, those with CSF leaks tended to have a larger maximum subdural space in both the sagittal (3.7 vs. 4.1mm) and coronal (2.5 vs. 2.8mm) images; however, the differences were not significant (p=0.18 and p=0.53, respectively). Dural enhancement was observed only in one patient, who presented with CSF leaks on radionuclide cisternography. Our study, which included a relatively large population, did not find any association between the findings of radionuclide cisternography and MRI. Future research should focus on identifying more valid neuroimaging findings to diagnose intracranial hypotension accurately. Copyright © 2014 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Review of Russian-language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 4. Transfer to poultry.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-10-01

    Data on radionuclide transfer to domestic chickens and ducks obtained from research performed in the former Soviet Union were reviewed to provide transfer coefficient values (Ff) to poultry and edible egg contents. The majority of the data are from experiments with (90)Sr and (137)Cs, reflecting the importance of these radionuclides after global fallout and major radiation accidents. Data for (3)H, (54)Mn, (59)Fe, (60)Co, (22)Na (65)Zn, (131)I and U are also given. The values derived have been compared with those in the current IAEA Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) and the recent revision which incorporates the values from this paper. The Russian-language data give improved estimates for many radionuclides and the revised handbook is now based on the better quality data given for chronic administration.

  2. Diagnostic value of radionuclide scanning and ultrasonography in thyroid developmental anomaly imaging.

    PubMed

    Ruchała, Marek; Szczepanek, Ewelina; Sowiński, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid is particularly prone to morphogenetic variability. Developmental failure of the thyroid gland is in 85% of cases the underlying cause of congenital hypothyroidism, diagnosed at birth with a frequency of 1:3000-1:4000 newborns. However, the incidence of less severe developmental variants of the thyroid is much higher. Determination of the aetiology of congenital hypothyroidism is crucial for predicting its severity and outcome as well as impacts dose of L-thyroxine during substitution. Thyroid imaging is necessary to establish diagnosis, and it involves mainly thyroid ultrasound examination and scintiscan. Awareness of both the advantages and limitations of sonographic and scintigraphic imaging are central to the successful interpretation of their results and reasonable recommendation of these procedures for patients with thyroid developmental anomalies of different age and clinical picture. Hence, the aim of this review is to provide the most important and up-to-date information on the place of radionuclide scanning and ultrasonography in visualization of different thyroid developmental abnormalities.

  3. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  4. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  5. Improved dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy using nonrigid registration on sequential SPECT images

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Edwin C. I.; Mok, Greta S. P.; Wu, Nien-Yun; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Song, Na

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Voxel-level and patient-specific 3D dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) typically involves serial nuclear medicine scans. Misalignment of the images can result in reduced dosimetric accuracy. Since the scans are typically performed over a period of several days, there will be patient movement between scans and possible nonrigid organ deformation. This work aims to implement and evaluate the use of nonrigid image registration on a series of quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) images for TRT dosimetry. Methods: A population of 4D extended cardiac torso phantoms, comprised of three In-111 Zevalin biokinetics models and three anatomical variations, was generated based on the patient data. The authors simulated QSPECT acquisitions at five time points. At each time point, individual organ and whole-body deformation between scans were modeled by translating/rotating organs and the body up to 5°/voxels, keeping ≤5% difference in organ volume. An analytical projector was used to generate realistic noisy projections for a medium energy general purpose collimator. Projections were reconstructed using OS-EM algorithm with geometric collimator detector response, attenuation, and scatter corrections. The QSPECT images were registered using organ-based nonrigid image registration method. The cumulative activity in each voxel was obtained by integrating the activity over time. Dose distribution images were obtained by convolving the cumulative activity images with a Y-90 dose kernel. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) for organs-of-interest were analyzed. Results: After nonrigid registration, the mean differences in organ doses compared to the case without misalignment were improved from (−15.50 ± 5.59)% to (−2.12 ± 1.05)% and (−7.28 ± 2.30)% to (−0.23 ± 0.71)% for the spleen and liver, respectively. For all organs, the cumulative DVHs showed improvement after nonrigid registration and the normalized absolute error of differential DVHs ranged from 6.79% to

  6. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  7. Scintillating Balloon-Enabled Fiber-Optic System for Radionuclide Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Raiyan T.; Kosuge, Hisanori; Carpenter, Colin; Sun, Conroy; McConnell, Michael V.; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis underlies coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. Detection of coronary plaque inflammation remains challenging. In this study, we developed a scintillating balloon-enabled fiber-optic radio-nuclide imaging (SBRI) system to improve the sensitivity and resolution of plaque imaging using 18F-FDG, a marker of vascular inflammation, and tested it in a murine model. Methods The fiber-optic system uses a Complementary Metal-Oxide Silicon (CMOS) camera with a distal ferrule terminated with a wide-angle lens. The novelty of this system is a scintillating balloon in the front of the wide-angle lens to image light from the decay of 18F-FDG emission signal. To identify the optimal scintillating materials with respect to resolution, we calculated the modulation transfer function of yttrium–aluminum–garnet doped with cerium, anthracene, and calcium fluoride doped with europium (CaF2:Eu) phosphors using an edge pattern and a thin-line optical phantom. The scintillating balloon was then fabricated from 10 mL of silicone RTV catalyst mixed with 1 mL of base and 50 mg of CaF2:Eu per mL. The addition of a lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillating crystal (500 μm thick) to the balloon was also investigated. The SBRI system was tested in a murine atherosclerosis model: carotid-ligated mice (n = 5) were injected with 18F-FDG, followed by ex vivo imaging of the macrophage-rich carotid plaques and nonligated controls. Confirmatory imaging of carotid plaques and controls was also performed by an external optical imaging system and autoradiography. Results Analyses of the different phosphors showed that CaF2:Eu enabled the best resolution of 1.2 μm. The SBRI system detected almost a 4-fold-higher radioluminescence signal from the ligated left carotid artery than the nonligated right carotid: 1.63 × 102 ± 4.01 × 101 vs. 4.21 × 101 ± 2.09 × 100 (photon counts), P = 0.006. We found no significant benefit to adding a

  8. The importance of the accuracy of image registration of SPECT images for 3D targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Papavasileiou, Periklis; Divoli, Antigoni; Hatziioannou, Konstantinos; Flux, Glenn D

    2007-12-21

    In this paper, the importance of the accuracy of image registration of time-sequential SPECT images for 3D targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry is studied. Image registration of a series of SPECT scans is required to allow the computation of the 3D absorbed dose distribution for both tumour sites and normal organs. Three simulated 4D datasets, based on patient therapy studies, were generated to allow the effect of mis-registration on the absorbed dose distribution to be investigated. The tumour sites studied range in size, shape and position, relative to the centre of the 3D SPECT scan. Randomly generated transformations along the x-, y- and z-axes and rotations around the z-axis were employed and the maximum and average absorbed dose distribution statistics, for the tumour sites present, were computed. It was shown that even small mis-registrations, translation of less than 9 mm and rotation of less than 5 degrees might cause differences in the absorbed dose statistics of up to 90%, especially when the size of the tumour is comparable to the induced mis-registration or when the tumour is situated close to the edge of the 3D dataset.

  9. Radionuclide Imaging of Apoptosis in Malignancies: Promise and Pitfalls of 99mTc-Hynic-rh-Annexin V Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kartachova, M.S.; Verheij, M.; van Eck, B.L.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Olmos, R.A. Valdes

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide detection of apoptosis with of 99mTc-Hynic-rh-Annexin V scintigraphy is an effective tool for in vivo visualisation and monitoring of apoptosis in various malignant tumour. Early therapy-induced increase of the tumour tracer uptake correlates with favourable outcome, whereas stable or decreased uptake correlates with stable disease or tumour progression. Therefore sequential 99mTc-Hynic-rh-Annexin V scintigraphy could be used to predict therapy outcome on a patient-to-patient basis within 48 hours after the start of treatment. However, moderate tumour-to-background ratio and therapy-induced changes in normal tissues could confound image analysis. To assure accurate interpretation of Annexin V scans, the awareness of the biophysiological and biochemical properties contributing to the tracer distribution is essential. In with manuscript we discuss the patterns of Annexin V tumour uptake and illustrate the most frequent pitfalls associated with Annexin V imaging in correlation with CT and MRI imaging. PMID:21892293

  10. Emission tomography with a large-hole collimator (CACAO): a possible new way to improve radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Jeanguillaume, Christian; Quartuccio, Marc; Begot, Stéphane; Douiri, Abdellah; Franck, Didier; Ricolfi, Frédéric; Ballongue, Paul; Tencé, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    This work aims to improve the quality of scintigraphy. It evaluates the use of a large-hole collimator, the Computer Aided Collimation Gamma Camera Project (CACAO), in SPECT. Acquisition data from the same object were simulated for CACAO and for a conventional collimator. Better signal-to-noise ratios were found for CACAO images, whatever the number of emitted photons. This work demonstrates that high-resolution images may be obtained with large-hole collimators. The combination of CACAO and pixilated detectors may further improve radionuclide imaging.

  11. Radionuclide imaging in myocardial sarcoidosis. Demonstration of myocardial uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, M.B.; Sandler, M.P.; Sacks, G.A.; Kronenberg, M.W.; Powers, T.A.

    1983-03-01

    A patient had severe congestive cardiomyopathy secondary to myocardial sarcoidosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by radionuclide ventriculography, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 67/Ga, and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate (TcPYP) scintigraphy. Myocardial TcPYP uptake has not been reported previously in sarcoidosis. In this patient, TcPYP was as useful as gallium scanning and thallium imaging in documenting the myocardial process.

  12. Assessment of single vessel coronary artery disease: results of exercise electrocardiography, thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and radionuclide angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Port, S.C.; Oshima, M.; Ray, G.; McNamee, P.; Schmidt, D.H.

    1985-07-01

    The sensitivity of the commonly used stress tests for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease was analyzed in 46 patients with significant occlusion (greater than or equal to 70% luminal diameter obstruction) of only one major coronary artery and no prior myocardial infarction. In all patients, thallium-201 perfusion imaging (both planar and seven-pinhole tomographic) and 12 lead electrocardiography were performed during the same graded treadmill exercise test and radionuclide angiography was performed during upright bicycle exercise. Exercise rate-pressure (double) product was 22,307 +/- 6,750 on the treadmill compared with 22,995 +/- 5,622 on the bicycle (p = NS). Exercise electrocardiograms were unequivocally abnormal in 24 patients (52%). Qualitative planar thallium images were abnormal in 42 patients (91%). Quantitative analysis of the tomographic thallium images were abnormal in 41 patients (89%). An exercise ejection fraction of less than 0.56 or a new wall motion abnormality was seen in 30 patients (65%). Results were similar for the right (n = 11) and left anterior descending (n = 28) coronary arteries while all tests but the planar thallium imaging showed a lower sensitivity for isolated circumflex artery disease (n = 7). The specificity of the tests was 72, 83, 89 and 72% for electrocardiography, planar thallium imaging, tomographic thallium imaging and radionuclide angiography, respectively. The results suggest that exercise thallium-201 perfusion imaging is the most sensitive noninvasive stress test for the diagnosis of single vessel coronary artery disease.

  13. Nuclear medicine and radionuclide imaging: a survey of recruitment issues in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gray, H W; Prvulovich, E; Nunan, T

    2003-04-01

    This wide ranging survey has highlighted difficulties in recruiting trained and committed individuals into nuclear medicine and radionuclide radiology. Several key factors have been recognised that reduce the attractiveness of the training. Recommendations include the rotation of medical senior house officers through nuclear medicine, reconsideration of dual accreditation in nuclear medicine and medicine, an increase in the number of consultant posts in nuclear medicine, parity of remuneration for nuclear medicine trainees and finally, an appropriate sessional provision for those providing radionuclide radiology services.

  14. Speech, Image, Action: Animating Tales from Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Challenges two assumptions: that children are naturally disposed toward the animated cartoon, and that translating Shakespeare's plays into this medium automatically simplifies and gives them child appeal. Examines the confusions and cross-purposes that surrounded the making of the "Animated Tales" videos, and argues that there are…

  15. Assessment of differential pulmonary blood flow using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with radionuclide perfusion scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Francesco; Fink, Christian; Risse, Frank; Tuengerthal, Siegfried; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-08-01

    We sought to assess the agreement between lung perfusion ratios calculated from pulmonary perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and those calculated from radionuclide (RN) perfusion scintigraphy. A retrospective analysis of MR and RN perfusion scans was conducted in 23 patients (mean age, 60 +/- 14 years) with different lung diseases (lung cancer = 15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease = 4, cystic fibrosis = 2, and mesothelioma = 2). Pulmonary perfusion was assessed by a time-resolved contrast-enhanced 3D gradient-echo pulse sequence using parallel imaging and view sharing (TR = 1.9 milliseconds; TE = 0.8 milliseconds; parallel imaging acceleration factor = 2; partition thickness = 4 mm; matrix = 256 x 96; in-plane spatial resolution = 1.87 x 3.75 mm; scan time for each 3D dataset = 1.5 seconds), using gadolinium-based contrast agents (injection flow rate = 5 mL/s, dose = 0.1 mmol/kg of body weight). The peak concentration (PC) of the contrast agent bolus, the pulmonary blood flow (PBF), and blood volume (PBV) were computed from the signal-time curves of the lung. Left-to-right ratios of pulmonary perfusion were calculated from the MR parameters and RN counts. The agreement between these ratios was assessed for side prevalence (sign test) and quantitatively (Deming-regression). MR and RN ratios agreed on side prevalence in 21 patients (91%) with PC, in 20 (87%) with PBF, and in 17 (74%) with PBV. The MR estimations of left-to-right perfusion ratios correlated significantly with those of RN perfusion scans (P < 0.01). The correlation was higher using PC (r = 0.67) and PBF (r = 0.66) than using PBV (r = 0.50). The MR ratios computed from PBF showed the highest accuracy, followed by those from PC and PBV. Independently from the MR parameter used, in some patients the quantitative difference between the MR and RN ratios was not negligible. Pulmonary perfusion MRI can be used to assess the differential blood flow of the lung. Further studies in a larger group

  16. Synthesis, radiolabeling and preliminary in vivo evaluation of multimodal radiotracers for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of pigmented melanoma.

    PubMed

    Billaud, Emilie M F; Maisonial-Besset, Aurélie; Rbah-Vidal, Latifa; Vidal, Aurélien; Besse, Sophie; Béquignat, Jean-Baptiste; Decombat, Caroline; Degoul, Françoise; Audin, Laurent; Deloye, Jean-Bernard; Dollé, Frédéric; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Tarrit, Sébastien; Galmier, Marie-Josèphe; Borel, Michèle; Auzeloux, Philippe; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Chezal, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-06

    Melanin pigment represents an attractive target to address specific treatment to melanoma cells, such as cytotoxic radionuclides. However, less than half of the patients have pigmented metastases. Hence, specific marker is required to stratify this patient population before proceeding with melanin-targeted radionuclide therapy. In such a context, we developed fluorinated analogues of a previously studied melanin-targeting ligand, N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-6-iodoquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (ICF01012). These latter can be labeled either with (18)F or (131)I/(125)I for positron emission tomography imaging (melanin-positive patient selection) and targeted radionuclide therapy purposes. Here we describe the syntheses, radiosyntheses and preclinical evaluations on melanoma-bearing mice model of several iodo- and fluoro(hetero)aromatic derivatives of the ICF01012 scaffold. After preliminary planar gamma scintigraphic and positron emission tomography imaging evaluations, [(125)I]- and [(18)F]-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-4-fluoro-3-iodobenzamides ([(125)I]4, [(18)F]4) were found to be chemically and biologically stable with quite similar tumor uptakes at 1 h p.i. (9.7 ± 2.6% ID/g and 6.8 ± 1.9% ID/g, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanical ventilation for imaging the small animal lung.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Laurence W; Johnson, G Allan

    2002-01-01

    This review emphasizes some of the challenges and benefits of in vivo imaging of the small animal lung. Because mechanical ventilation plays a key role in high-quality, high-resolution imaging of the small animal lung, the article focuses particularly on the problems of ventilation support, control of breathing motion and lung volume, and imaging during different phases of the breathing cycle. Solutions for these problems are discussed primarily in relation to magnetic resonance imaging, both conventional proton imaging and the newer, hyperpolarized helium imaging of pulmonary airways. Examples of applications of these imaging solutions to normal and diseased lung are illustrated in the rat and guinea pig. Although difficult to perform, pulmonary imaging in the small animal can be a valuable source of information not only for the normal lung, but also for the lung challenged by disease.

  18. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  19. Scintillating balloon-enabled fiber-optic system for radionuclide imaging of atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Raiyan T; Kosuge, Hisanori; Carpenter, Colin; Sun, Conroy; McConnell, Michael V; Xing, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis underlies coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. Detection of coronary plaque inflammation remains challenging. In this study, we developed a scintillating balloon-enabled fiber-optic radionuclide imaging (SBRI) system to improve the sensitivity and resolution of plaque imaging using (18)F-FDG, a marker of vascular inflammation, and tested it in a murine model. The fiber-optic system uses a Complementary Metal-Oxide Silicon (CMOS) camera with a distal ferrule terminated with a wide-angle lens. The novelty of this system is a scintillating balloon in the front of the wide-angle lens to image light from the decay of (18)F-FDG emission signal. To identify the optimal scintillating materials with respect to resolution, we calculated the modulation transfer function of yttrium-aluminum-garnet doped with cerium, anthracene, and calcium fluoride doped with europium (CaF2:Eu) phosphors using an edge pattern and a thin-line optical phantom. The scintillating balloon was then fabricated from 10 mL of silicone RTV catalyst mixed with 1 mL of base and 50 mg of CaF2:Eu per mL. The addition of a lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillating crystal (500 μm thick) to the balloon was also investigated. The SBRI system was tested in a murine atherosclerosis model: carotid-ligated mice (n = 5) were injected with (18)F-FDG, followed by ex vivo imaging of the macrophage-rich carotid plaques and nonligated controls. Confirmatory imaging of carotid plaques and controls was also performed by an external optical imaging system and autoradiography. Analyses of the different phosphors showed that CaF2:Eu enabled the best resolution of 1.2 μm. The SBRI system detected almost a 4-fold-higher radioluminescence signal from the ligated left carotid artery than the nonligated right carotid: 1.63 × 10(2) ± 4.01 × 10(1) vs. 4.21 × 10(1) ± 2.09 × 10(0) (photon counts), P = 0.006. We found no significant benefit to adding a

  20. Method and apparatus for animal positioning in imaging systems

    DOEpatents

    Hadjioannou, Arion-Xenofon; Stout, David B.; Silverman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for imaging an animal includes a first mounting surface, a bed sized to support the animal and releasably secured to or integral with the first mounting surface. The apparatus also includes a plurality of straps, each having a first end in a fixed position relative to the bed and a second end for tightening around a limb of the animal. A method for in-vivo imaging of an animal includes providing an animal that has limbs, providing a first mounting surface, and providing a bed removably secured to or integral with the mounting surface and sized to support the animal as well as being coupled to a plurality of straps. The method also includes placing the animal on the bed between the plurality of straps and tightening at least two of the plurality of straps around at least two of the limbs such that the animal is substantially secured in place relative to the bed.

  1. [Radionuclide imaging in oral implantations. Personal experience in maxillary sinus elevation].

    PubMed

    Dimonte, M; Inchingolo, F; Minonne, A; Stefanelli, M

    2000-11-01

    Presently nuclear medicine techniques are not very popular in oral implantology, but they can play an interesting role in this surgical field too. In particular bone scan with 99mTc-MDP allows to evaluate the function of oral implants and the survival of bone grafts. We report our experience with skull bone scan in maxillary sinus lifting. We performed a three-year follow-up on 13 patients treated with inlay-one stage uni- or bilateral sinus lifting with a mixture composed of 90% bovine bone powder and of 10% small bone splinters and autogenous fibrin glue. We performed imaging studies and quantitated implant MDP uptake from the mean values at the surgical site to the 5th neck vertebral ratio (M/V index). The M/V index was also statistically compared with the one measured in 13 patients with severe resorption of distal upper dental arches (bone height less than 0.5 cm) and in 63 patients with normal dental status. Scintigraphic data were interpreted in the light of clinical, radiological and histologic findings. All oral implants appeared to be fixed and radiographs showed good positioning and bone adhesion; bone height exceeded 1 cm. Peri implant biopsy material was formed by normal mature bone tissue without bovine bone granules, necrotic areas and inflammatory cells. The highest bone activity (M/V index: 1.54-2.57) was observed 1-4 months after sinus lifting. Then MDP uptake decreases and 18 months after surgery radionuclide uptake in maxillary arches is homogeneous, with M/V values of 0.81-0.88. The average M/V value in the 18 surgical sites was clearly higher than in the resorbed (1.44 vs 0.64; Kruskall-Wallis ANOVA test; Dunn's method; p < 0.05) and normal (1.44 vs 0.73; p < 0.05) maxillary arches. 99mTc-MDP can show the transformation of newformed into mature bone and then allows in vivo visualization of implant osteointegration. The importance of our work lies in the use of radionuclide imaging to assess both the function of oral implants inserted by a

  2. alpha(v)beta(3) Integrin-targeting radionuclide therapy and imaging with monomeric RGD peptide.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuma; Washiyama, Kohshin; Shikano, Naoto; Mori, Hirofumi; Amano, Ryohei; Kawai, Keiichi

    2008-08-01

    The alpha(v)beta(3) integrin plays a pivotal role in angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Angiogenic blood vessels overexpress alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, as in tumor neovascularization, and alpha(v)beta(3) integrin expression in other microvascular beds and organs is limited. Therefore, alpha(v)beta(3) integrin is a suitable receptor for tumor-targeting imaging and therapy. Recently, tetrameric and dimeric RGD peptides have been developed to enhance specificity to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin. In comparison to the corresponding monomeric peptide, however, these peptides show high levels of accumulation in kidney and liver. The purpose of this study is to evaluate tumor-targeting properties and the therapeutic potential of 111In- and 90Y-labeled monomeric RGD peptides in BALB/c nude mice with SKOV-3 human ovarian carcinoma tumors. DOTA-c(RGDfK) was labeled with 111In or 90Y and purified by HPLC. A biodistribution study and scintigraphic images revealed the specific uptake to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and the rapid clearance from normal tissues. These peptides were renally excreted. At 10 min after injection of tracers, 111In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) and 90Y-DOTA-c(RGDfK) showed high uptake in tumors (7.3 +/- 0.6% ID/g and 4.6 +/- 0.8% ID/g, respectively) and gradually decreased over time (2.3 +/- 0.4% ID/g and 1.5 +/- 0.5% ID/g at 24 hr, respectively). High tumor-to-blood and -muscle ratios were obtained from these peptides. In radionuclide therapeutic study, multiple-dose administration of 90Y-DOTA-c(RGDfK) (3 x 11.1 MBq) suppressed tumor growth in comparison to the control group and a single-dose administration (11.1 MBq). Monomeric RGD peptides, 111In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) and (90)Y-DOTA-c(RGDfK), could be promising tracers for alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-targeting imaging and radiotherapy.

  3. Molecular imaging in small animals--roles for micro-CT.

    PubMed

    Ritman, Erik L

    2002-01-01

    X-ray micro-CT is currently used primarily to generate 3D images of micro-architecture (and the function that can be deduced from it) and the regional distribution of administered radiopaque indicators, within intact rodent organs or biopsies from large animals and humans. Current use of X-ray micro-CT can be extended in three ways to increase the quantitative imaging of molecular transport and accumulation within such specimens. (1) By use of heavy elements, other than the usual iodine, attached to molecules of interest or to surrogates for those molecules. The accumulation of the indicator in the physiological compartments, and the transport to and from such compartments, can be quantitated from the imaged spatial distribution of these contrast agents. (2) The high spatial resolution of conventional X-ray attenuation-based CT images can be used to improve the quantitative nature of radionuclide-based tomographic images (SPECT & PET) by providing correction for attenuation of the emitted gamma rays and the accurate delineation of physiological spaces known to selectively accumulate those indicators. Similarly, other imaging modalities which also localize functions in 2D images (such as histological sections subsequently obtained from the same specimen), can provide a synergistic combination with CT-based 3D microstructure. (3) By increasing the sensitivity and specificity of X-ray CT image contrast by use of methods such as: K-edge subtraction imaging, X-ray fluorescence imaging, imaging of the various types of scattered X-ray and the consequences of the change in the speed of X-rays through different tissues, such as refraction and phase shift. These other methods of X-ray imaging can increase contrast by more than an order of magnitude over that due to conventionally-used attenuation of X-ray. To fully exploit their potentials, much development of radiopaque indicators, scanner hardware and image reconstruction and analysis software will be needed. Copyright

  4. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy; HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... It will then flow with bile into the gallbladder and then the duodenum or small intestine. For ...

  5. [Capabilities of radionuclide imaging study in the evaluation of pulmonary hemodynamics and right ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Zavadovskiĭ, K V; Lishmanov, Iu B; Krivonogov, N G; Sanzharovskaia, M S

    2013-01-01

    To assess the capabilities of radionuclide imaging studies in the evaluation of pulmonary hemodynamics and right ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-one patients aged 55.8 +/- 9.7 years with COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), 37.43 +/- 15.46%; BODE index, 6.30 +/- 2.66) were examined. A comparison group included 15 patients aged 56.3 +/- 8.3 years without cardiorespiratory pathology. All the patients underwent radionuclide angiopulmonography (RAPG), equilibrium radionuclide tomoventriculography (ERTVG), external respiratory function testing, and determination of the plasma levels of endothelin-1 and stable nitric oxide metabolites. Analysis of the results of ERTVG and RAPG in the study and comparison groups has shown that the chanrades in the lesser circucr moderate. r index and smoking intensity have demonstrated the statistically significant association with the indicators of pulmonary circulation. The plasma level of endothelin-1 was higher1in the patients with COPD than in those in the comparison group. Right dysfunction is moderate in COPD as this process is preceded by structural changes in the bronchi, parenchyma, and lung vessels. To identify lesser circulatory dysfunction in COPD, one should orient to the indicators of RAPG that can verify pulmonary hemodynamic disorders and to the data of ERTVG that shows right ventricular systolic and diastolic function and right atrial dimensions.

  6. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelley, Martin; Parsons, David; Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen

    2010-07-23

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mmx1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 {mu}m and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice.There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging.Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the

  7. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelley, Martin; Parsons, David; Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen

    2010-07-01

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mm×1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 μm and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice. There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging. Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the

  8. An image guided small animal stereotactic radiotherapy system

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Hao; Udayakumar, Thirupandiyur S.; Johnson, Perry B.; Dogan, Nesrin; Pollack, Alan; Yang, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Small animal radiotherapy studies should be performed preferably on irradiators capable of focal tumor irradiation and healthy tissue sparing. In this study, an image guided small animal arc radiation treatment system (iSMAART) was developed which can achieve highly precise radiation targeting through the utilization of onboard cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance. The iSMAART employs a unique imaging and radiation geometry where animals are positioned upright. It consists of a stationary x-ray tube, a stationary flat panel detector, and a rotatable and translational animal stage. System performance was evaluated in regards to imaging, image guidance, animal positioning, and radiation targeting using phantoms and tumor bearing animals. The onboard CBCT achieved good signal, contrast, and sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The iodine contrast CBCT accurately delineated orthotopic prostate tumors. Animal positioning was evaluated with ∼0.3 mm vertical displacement along superior-inferior direction. The overall targeting precision was within 0.4 mm. Stereotactic radiation beams conformal to tumor targets can be precisely delivered from multiple angles surrounding the animal. The iSMAART allows radiobiology labs to utilize an image guided precision radiation technique that can focally irradiate tumors while sparing healthy tissues at an affordable cost. PMID:26958942

  9. Microtomography with sandwich detectors for small-animal bone imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D.; Youn, H.; Cho, S.; Kim, H. K.

    2016-10-01

    An x-ray radiographic system consisting of two detectors in tandem, or a sandwich detector, can produce dual-energy image from a single-shot exposure. Subtraction of two images obtained from the two detectors can produce a sharper image through an unsharp masking effect if the two images are formed at different spatial resolutions. This is indeed possible by incorporating different thicknesses of x-ray conversion layers in the detectors. In this study, we have developed a microtomography system with a sandwich detector in pursuit of high-resolution bone-enhanced small-animal imaging. The results show that the bone-enhanced images reconstructed from the dual-energy projection data provide higher visibility of bone details than the conventionally reconstructed images. The microtomography with the single-shot dual-energy sandwich detector will be useful for the high-resolution bone-enhanced small-animal imaging.

  10. Development of a combined microSPECT/CT system for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingshan

    Modern advances in the biomedical sciences have placed increased attention on small animals such as mice and rats as models of human biology and disease in biological research and pharmaceutical development. Their small size and fast breeding rate, their physiologic similarity to human, and, more importantly, the availability of sophisticated genetic manipulations, all have made mice and rats the laboratory mammals of choice in these experimental studies. However, the increased use of small animals in biomedical research also calls for new instruments that can measure the anatomic and metabolic information noninvasively with adequate spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity to facilitate these studies. This dissertation describes the engineering development of a combined single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) system dedicated for small animals imaging. The system aims to obtain both the anatomic and metabolic images with submillimeter spatial resolution in a way that the data can be correlated to provide improved image quality and to offer more complete biological evaluation for biomedical studies involving small animals. The project requires development of complete microSPECT and microCT subsystems. Both subsystems are configured with a shared gantry and animal bed with integrated instrumentation for data acquisition and system control. The microCT employs a microfocus X-ray tube and a CCD-based detector for low noise, high resolution imaging. The microSPECT utilizes three semiconductor detectors coupled with pinhole collimators. A significant contribution of this dissertation project is the development of iterative algorithms with geometrical compensation that allows radionuclide images to be reconstructed at submillimeter spatial resolution, but with significantly higher detection efficiency than conventional methods. Both subsystems are capable of helical scans, offering lengthened field of view and improved

  11. The scope and potentials of functional radionuclide imaging towards advancing personalized medicine in oncology: emphasis on PET-CT.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral heterogeneity within a given patient cohort has been a major challenge in clinical practice and is probably most prominently observed in the field of oncology. This has been the prime impetus of the cutting-edge preclinical and clinical research studies over recent times, many of which seek to further stratify patients based on patients' genetic, proteomic, and metabolic profile (the three key components of "-omics" research), in order to select the appropriate therapy according to an individual's best-fit. Data from functional radionuclide imaging particularly that obtained from PET-CT, with regard to characterization of an individual's tumor phenotype, can play a very important role in answering some of the critical decision-making questions on an individual basis. The role of molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, and planar radionuclide technologies is not confined to early response assessment of administered therapeutics (which is its major benefit compared to conventional methods), rather it has a much broader perspective and encompasses multiple steps in decision making steps of patient management. The immense impact of the radionuclide-based molecular imaging techniques on the selection of an appropriate treatment (at initial diagnosis, during therapy, or after therapy) or in defining the tumor biology has been documented and increasingly recognized through both large and small-scale studies. However, there has been relatively less systematic effort towards the development of a successful and definitive clinical model of "personalized cancer medicine" (based on accurate disease triaging on an individual basis) by the medical community that would be suitable for routine adoption. In this paper, an endeavor has been made to explore the potential of this approach and underscore the areas that would require further critical evaluation to make this a reality.

  12. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  13. Cardiovascular imaging: what have we learned from animal models?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Arnoldo; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Villalba, María; López-Melgar, Beatriz; España, Samuel; Mateo, Jesús; Mota, Ruben A.; Jiménez-Borreguero, Jesús; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has become an indispensable tool for patient diagnosis and follow up. Probably the wide clinical applications of imaging are due to the possibility of a detailed and high quality description and quantification of cardiovascular system structure and function. Also phenomena that involve complex physiological mechanisms and biochemical pathways, such as inflammation and ischemia, can be visualized in a non-destructive way. The widespread use and evolution of imaging would not have been possible without animal studies. Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results. In this review, we will critically describe the contribution of animal models to the use of biomedical imaging in cardiovascular medicine. We will discuss the characteristics of the most frequent models used in/for imaging studies. We will cover the major findings of animal studies focused in the cardiovascular use of the repeatedly used imaging techniques in clinical practice and experimental studies. We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases. In these diseases, imaging research using animals has allowed the study of aspects such as: ventricular size, shape, global function, and wall thickening, local myocardial function, myocardial perfusion, metabolism and energetic assessment, infarct quantification, vascular lesion characterization, myocardial fiber structure, and myocardial calcium uptake. Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models. PMID:26539113

  14. Cardiovascular imaging: what have we learned from animal models?

    PubMed

    Santos, Arnoldo; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Villalba, María; López-Melgar, Beatriz; España, Samuel; Mateo, Jesús; Mota, Ruben A; Jiménez-Borreguero, Jesús; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has become an indispensable tool for patient diagnosis and follow up. Probably the wide clinical applications of imaging are due to the possibility of a detailed and high quality description and quantification of cardiovascular system structure and function. Also phenomena that involve complex physiological mechanisms and biochemical pathways, such as inflammation and ischemia, can be visualized in a non-destructive way. The widespread use and evolution of imaging would not have been possible without animal studies. Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results. In this review, we will critically describe the contribution of animal models to the use of biomedical imaging in cardiovascular medicine. We will discuss the characteristics of the most frequent models used in/for imaging studies. We will cover the major findings of animal studies focused in the cardiovascular use of the repeatedly used imaging techniques in clinical practice and experimental studies. We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases. In these diseases, imaging research using animals has allowed the study of aspects such as: ventricular size, shape, global function, and wall thickening, local myocardial function, myocardial perfusion, metabolism and energetic assessment, infarct quantification, vascular lesion characterization, myocardial fiber structure, and myocardial calcium uptake. Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid circulation and associated intracranial dynamics. A radiologic investigation using MR imaging and radionuclide cisternography.

    PubMed

    Greitz, D

    1993-01-01

    AIMS OF THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION: Observations made in a preliminary study of pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain motions using MR imaging called for a reconsideration of the CSF flow model currently accepted. The following questions were addressed: 1) The nature of the CSF-circulation, e.g., the magnitude and pattern of pulsatile and bulk flow; 2) The driving forces of the CSF circulation and assessment of the role of associated hemodynamics and brain motions; 3) The major routes for the absorption of CSF. CSF flow and associated hemodynamics were studied using gated MR imaging, in 26 healthy volunteers, 5 patients with communicating hydrocephalus and 10 with benign intracranial hypertension. Radionuclide cisternography was performed in 10 individuals with venous vasculitis. 1) The CSF-circulation is propelled by a pulsating flow, which causes an effective mixing. This flow is produced by the alternating pressure gradient, which is a consequence of the systolic expansion of the intracranial arteries causing expulsion of CSF into the compliant and contractable spinal subarachnoid space. 2) No bulk flow is necessary to explain the transport of tracers in the subarachnoid space. 3) The main absorption of the CSF is not through the Pacchionian granulations, but a major part of the CSF transportation to the blood-stream is likely to occur via the paravascular and extracellular spaces of the central nervous system. 4) The intracranial dynamics may be regarded as the result of an interplay between the demands for space by the four components of the intracranial content, i.e. the arterial blood, brain volume, venous blood and the CSF. This interaction is shown to have a time offset within the cerebral hemispheres in a fronto-occipital direction during the cardiac cycle (the fronto-occipital "volume wave"). 5) The outflow from the cranial cavity to the cervical subarachnoid space (SAS) is dependent in size and timing on the intracranial arterial expansion during

  16. Considerations for setting up a small-animal imaging facility.

    PubMed

    Klaunberg, Brenda A; Lizak, Martin J

    2004-03-01

    Imaging techniques allow for the conduct of noninvasive, in vivo longitudinal small-animal studies, but also require access to expensive and complex equipment, and personnel who are properly trained in their use. The authors describe their planning and staffing of the NIH Mouse Imaging Facility, and highlight important issues to consider when designing a similar facility.

  17. Towards THz medical imaging; reflective imaging of animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul S; Taylor, Zachary D; Culjat, Martin O; Grundfest, Warren S; Brown, Elliott R

    2008-01-01

    A reflective THz imaging system has been developed, and features a photoconductive switch and zero-bias Schottky diode detector. The system was used to image deli meats and can distinguish between muscle and adipose tissue based on water content. This capability is a step towards the development of THz medical imaging systems.

  18. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 Dual Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion/Innervation Imaging Using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM Collimator

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric. C.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulation and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter modeling

  19. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C

    2014-06-07

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter

  20. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C.

    2014-06-01

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter

  1. Nuclear medical imaging using β+γ coincidences from 44Sc radio-nuclide with liquid xenon as detection medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grignon, C.; Barbet, J.; Bardiès, M.; Carlier, T.; Chatal, J. F.; Couturier, O.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Faivre, A.; Ferrer, L.; Girault, S.; Haruyama, T.; Le Ray, P.; Luquin, L.; Lupone, S.; Métivier, V.; Morteau, E.; Servagent, N.; Thers, D.

    2007-02-01

    We report on a new nuclear medical imaging technique based on the measurement of the emitter location in the three dimensions with a few mm spatial resolution using β+γ emitters. Such measurement could be realized thanks to a new kind of radio-nuclides which emit a γ-ray quasi-simultaneously with the β+ decay. The most interesting radio-nuclide candidate, namely 44Sc, will be potentially produced at the Nantes cyclotron ARRONAX. The principle is to reconstruct the intersection of the classical line of response (obtained with a standard PET camera) with the direction cone defined by the third γ-ray. The emission angle measurement of this additional γ-ray involves the use of a Compton telescope for which a new generation of camera based on a liquid xenon (LXe) time projection chamber is considered. GEANT3 simulations of a large acceptance LXe Compton telescope combined with a commercial micro-PET (LSO crystals) have been performed and the obtained results will be presented. They demonstrate that a good image can be obtained from the accumulation of each three-dimensional measured position. A spatial resolution of 2.3 mm has been reached with an injected activity of 0.5 MBq for a 44Sc point source emitter.

  2. Guidance for Efficient Small Animal Imaging Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Dustin R; Kuntner, Claudia; Berr, Stuart; Stout, David

    2017-08-01

    Routine quality control is a critical aspect of properly maintaining high-performance small animal imaging instrumentation. A robust quality control program helps produce more reliable data both for academic purposes and as proof of system performance for contract imaging work. For preclinical imaging laboratories, the combination of costs and available resources often limits their ability to produce efficient and effective quality control programs. This work presents a series of simplified quality control procedures that are accessible to a wide range of preclinical imaging laboratories. Our intent is to provide minimum guidelines for routine quality control that can assist preclinical imaging specialists in setting up an appropriate quality control program for their facility.

  3. ADAPT, a Novel Scaffold Protein-Based Probe for Radionuclide Imaging of Molecular Targets That Are Expressed in Disseminated Cancers.

    PubMed

    Garousi, Javad; Lindbo, Sarah; Nilvebrant, Johan; Åstrand, Mikael; Buijs, Jos; Sandström, Mattias; Honarvar, Hadis; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Hober, Sophia

    2015-10-15

    Small engineered scaffold proteins have attracted attention as probes for radionuclide-based molecular imaging. One class of these imaging probes, termed ABD-Derived Affinity Proteins (ADAPT), has been created using the albumin-binding domain (ABD) of streptococcal protein G as a stable protein scaffold. In this study, we report the development of a clinical lead probe termed ADAPT6 that binds HER2, an oncoprotein overexpressed in many breast cancers that serves as a theranostic biomarker for several approved targeting therapies. Surface-exposed amino acids of ABD were randomized to create a combinatorial library enabling selection of high-affinity binders to various proteins. Furthermore, ABD was engineered to enable rapid purification, to eradicate its binding to albumin, and to enable rapid blood clearance. Incorporation of a unique cysteine allowed site-specific conjugation to a maleimido derivative of a DOTA chelator, enabling radionuclide labeling, ¹¹¹In for SPECT imaging and ⁶⁸Ga for PET imaging. Pharmacologic studies in mice demonstrated that the fully engineered molecule (111)In/⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-(HE)3-ADAPT6 was specifically bound and taken up by HER2-expressing tumors, with a high tumor-to-normal tissue ratio in xenograft models of human cancer. Unbound tracer underwent rapid renal clearance followed by high renal reabsorption. HER2-expressing xenografts were visualized by gamma-camera or PET at 1 hour after infusion. PET experiments demonstrated feasibility for discrimination of xenografts with high or low HER2 expression. Our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of ADAPT probes for noninvasive in vivo imaging.

  4. Application of coregistration for imaging of animal models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jupp, Bianca; O'Brien, Terence J

    2007-01-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the utilization of small animal imaging for epilepsy research. In vivo imaging studies have the potential to provide important insights into the structural and functional correlates of the development and progression of epilepsy in these models. However, the small size of the rodent brain means that anatomic resolution is often relatively poor for many imaging modalities, particularly those providing functional information such as positron emission tomography. Coregistration of these images with those of higher structural resolution, such as MRI, provides an attractive approach to this problem, and also allows correlations between structural and functional imaging data. Image coregistration is commonly utilized in clinical research and practice. However, its application for small animal images has been, to date, relatively under utilized and largely unvalidated. The current review aims to provide an overview of image coregistration methods, particularly for MRI and PET, and their application to imaging of small animal models of epilepsy. Methodological advantages and potential traps are highlighted.

  5. Beta Emitter Radionuclides (90Sr) Contamination in Animal Feed: Validation and Application of a Radiochemical Method by Ultra Low Level Liquid Scintillation Counting

    PubMed Central

    Iammarino, Marco; dell’Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    90Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. 90Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer (137Cs and 90Sr) from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats) was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of 90Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of 90Sr (<0.01 Bq Kg–1). All samples analysed showed a 90Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg–1). In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg–1), followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg–1) and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg–1). In fact, all samples were characterized by 90Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that 90Sr is a possible carcinogen for human. PMID:27800378

  6. Beta Emitter Radionuclides ((90)Sr) Contamination in Animal Feed: Validation and Application of a Radiochemical Method by Ultra Low Level Liquid Scintillation Counting.

    PubMed

    Iammarino, Marco; dell'Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio

    2015-02-03

    (90)Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. (90)Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer ((137)Cs and (90)Sr) from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats) was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of (90)Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of (90)Sr (<0.01 Bq Kg(-1)). All samples analysed showed a (90)Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg(-1)). In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg(-1)), followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg(-1)) and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg(-1)). In fact, all samples were characterized by (90)Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that (90)Sr is a possible carcinogen for human.

  7. Intravital Fluorescence Excitation in Whole-Animal Optical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Nooshabadi, Fatemeh; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Bixler, Joel N; Kong, Ying; Cirillo, Jeffrey D; Maitland, Kristen C

    2016-01-01

    Whole-animal fluorescence imaging with recombinant or fluorescently-tagged pathogens or cells enables real-time analysis of disease progression and treatment response in live animals. Tissue absorption limits penetration of fluorescence excitation light, particularly in the visible wavelength range, resulting in reduced sensitivity to deep targets. Here, we demonstrate the use of an optical fiber bundle to deliver light into the mouse lung to excite fluorescent bacteria, circumventing tissue absorption of excitation light in whole-animal imaging. We present the use of this technology to improve detection of recombinant reporter strains of tdTomato-expressing Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) bacteria in the mouse lung. A microendoscope was integrated into a whole-animal fluorescence imager to enable intravital excitation in the mouse lung with whole-animal detection. Using this technique, the threshold of detection was measured as 103 colony forming units (CFU) during pulmonary infection. In comparison, the threshold of detection for whole-animal fluorescence imaging using standard epi-illumination was greater than 106 CFU.

  8. Intravital Fluorescence Excitation in Whole-Animal Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, Joel N.; Kong, Ying; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-animal fluorescence imaging with recombinant or fluorescently-tagged pathogens or cells enables real-time analysis of disease progression and treatment response in live animals. Tissue absorption limits penetration of fluorescence excitation light, particularly in the visible wavelength range, resulting in reduced sensitivity to deep targets. Here, we demonstrate the use of an optical fiber bundle to deliver light into the mouse lung to excite fluorescent bacteria, circumventing tissue absorption of excitation light in whole-animal imaging. We present the use of this technology to improve detection of recombinant reporter strains of tdTomato-expressing Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) bacteria in the mouse lung. A microendoscope was integrated into a whole-animal fluorescence imager to enable intravital excitation in the mouse lung with whole-animal detection. Using this technique, the threshold of detection was measured as 103 colony forming units (CFU) during pulmonary infection. In comparison, the threshold of detection for whole-animal fluorescence imaging using standard epi-illumination was greater than 106 CFU. PMID:26901051

  9. It's Not Easy Being Green: Student Recall of Plant and Animal Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Olzak, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that people are less interested in studying plants than animals. We tested whether university students would selectively recall more animal images than plant images even when equally-nameable plant and animal images were presented for equal lengths of time. Animal and plant images were pre-tested and 14 animal-plant pairs…

  10. It's Not Easy Being Green: Student Recall of Plant and Animal Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Olzak, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that people are less interested in studying plants than animals. We tested whether university students would selectively recall more animal images than plant images even when equally-nameable plant and animal images were presented for equal lengths of time. Animal and plant images were pre-tested and 14 animal-plant pairs…

  11. Angular domain fluorescence imaging for small animal research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; Belton, Michelle; Kaminska, Bozena; Chapman, Glenn H.; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a novel macroscopic fluorescent imaging technique called angular domain fluorescence imaging (ADFI) applicable to the detection of fluorophores embedded in biological tissues. The method exploits the collimation detection capabilities of an angular filter array (AFA). The AFA uses the principle of acceptance angle filtration to extract minimally scattered photons emitted from fluorophores deep within tissue. Our goal was to develop an ADFI system for imaging near-infrared fluorescent markers for small animal imaging. According to the experimental results, the ADFI system offered higher resolution and contrast compared to a conventional lens and lens-pinhole fluorescent detection system. Furthermore, ADFI of a hairless mouse injected with a fluorescent bone marker revealed vertebral structural and morphometric data that correlated well with data derived from volumetric x-ray computed tomography images. The results suggested that ADFI is a useful technique for submillimeter mapping of the distribution of fluorescent biomarkers in small animals.

  12. Experimental Study of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy Using Transferred Human Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xing; Shi, Changzheng; Gong, Jian; Guo, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Xu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to design a method of radionuclide for imaging and therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using the transferred human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. Methods A stable NPC cell line expressing hNIS was established (CNE-2-hNIS). After 131I treatment, we detected proliferation and apoptosis of NPC cells, both in vitro and vivo. In vivo, the radioactivity of different organs of nude mice was counted and 99mTc imaging using SPECT was performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value changes of tumor xenografts were observed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) within 6–24 days of 131I treatment. The correlation of ADC changes with apoptosis and proliferation was investigated. Post-treatment expression levels of P53, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, and Survivin proteins were detected by western blotting. Results 131I uptake was higher in CNE-2-hNIS than in CNE-2 cells. The proliferation and apoptosis rate decreased and increased respectively both in vitro and vivo in the experimental group after 131I treatment. The experimental group tumors accumulated 99mTc in vivo, leading to a good visualization by SPECT. DW-MRI showed that ADC values increased in the experimental group 6 days after treatment, while ADC values were positively and negatively correlated with the apoptotic and Ki-67 proliferation indices, respectively. After treatment, CNE-2-hNIS cells up-regulated the expression of P53 and Survivin proteins and activated Caspase-3, and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 proteins. Conclusions The radionuclide imaging and therapy technique for NPC hNIS-transfected cell lines can provide a new therapy strategy for monitoring and treatment of NPC. PMID:25615643

  13. Experimental study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma radionuclide imaging and therapy using transferred human sodium/iodide symporter gene.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xing; Shi, Changzheng; Gong, Jian; Guo, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Xu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a method of radionuclide for imaging and therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using the transferred human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. A stable NPC cell line expressing hNIS was established (CNE-2-hNIS). After 131I treatment, we detected proliferation and apoptosis of NPC cells, both in vitro and vivo. In vivo, the radioactivity of different organs of nude mice was counted and (99m)Tc imaging using SPECT was performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value changes of tumor xenografts were observed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) within 6-24 days of 131I treatment. The correlation of ADC changes with apoptosis and proliferation was investigated. Post-treatment expression levels of P53, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, and Survivin proteins were detected by western blotting. 131I uptake was higher in CNE-2-hNIS than in CNE-2 cells. The proliferation and apoptosis rate decreased and increased respectively both in vitro and vivo in the experimental group after 131I treatment. The experimental group tumors accumulated (99m)Tc in vivo, leading to a good visualization by SPECT. DW-MRI showed that ADC values increased in the experimental group 6 days after treatment, while ADC values were positively and negatively correlated with the apoptotic and Ki-67 proliferation indices, respectively. After treatment, CNE-2-hNIS cells up-regulated the expression of P53 and Survivin proteins and activated Caspase-3, and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 proteins. The radionuclide imaging and therapy technique for NPC hNIS-transfected cell lines can provide a new therapy strategy for monitoring and treatment of NPC.

  14. Pharmacokinetic digital phantoms for accuracy assessment of image-based dosimetry in (177)Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Brolin, Gustav; Gustafsson, Johan; Ljungberg, Michael; Gleisner, Katarina Sjögreen

    2015-08-07

    Patient-specific image-based dosimetry is considered to be a useful tool to limit toxicity associated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). To facilitate the establishment and reliability of absorbed-dose response relationships, it is essential to assess the accuracy of dosimetry in clinically realistic scenarios. To this end, we developed pharmacokinetic digital phantoms corresponding to patients treated with (177)Lu-DOTATATE. Three individual voxel phantoms from the XCAT population were generated and assigned a dynamic activity distribution based on a compartment model for (177)Lu-DOTATATE, designed specifically for this purpose. The compartment model was fitted to time-activity data from 10 patients, primarily acquired using quantitative scintillation camera imaging. S values for all phantom source-target combinations were calculated based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Combining the S values and time-activity curves, reference values of the absorbed dose to the phantom kidneys, liver, spleen, tumours and whole-body were calculated. The phantoms were used in a virtual dosimetry study, using Monte-Carlo simulated gamma-camera images and conventional methods for absorbed-dose calculations. The characteristics of the SPECT and WB planar images were found to well represent those of real patient images, capturing the difficulties present in image-based dosimetry. The phantoms are expected to be useful for further studies and optimisation of clinical dosimetry in (177)Lu PRRT.

  15. Pharmacokinetic digital phantoms for accuracy assessment of image-based dosimetry in 177Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brolin, Gustav; Gustafsson, Johan; Ljungberg, Michael; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina

    2015-08-01

    Patient-specific image-based dosimetry is considered to be a useful tool to limit toxicity associated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). To facilitate the establishment and reliability of absorbed-dose response relationships, it is essential to assess the accuracy of dosimetry in clinically realistic scenarios. To this end, we developed pharmacokinetic digital phantoms corresponding to patients treated with 177Lu-DOTATATE. Three individual voxel phantoms from the XCAT population were generated and assigned a dynamic activity distribution based on a compartment model for 177Lu-DOTATATE, designed specifically for this purpose. The compartment model was fitted to time-activity data from 10 patients, primarily acquired using quantitative scintillation camera imaging. S values for all phantom source-target combinations were calculated based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Combining the S values and time-activity curves, reference values of the absorbed dose to the phantom kidneys, liver, spleen, tumours and whole-body were calculated. The phantoms were used in a virtual dosimetry study, using Monte-Carlo simulated gamma-camera images and conventional methods for absorbed-dose calculations. The characteristics of the SPECT and WB planar images were found to well represent those of real patient images, capturing the difficulties present in image-based dosimetry. The phantoms are expected to be useful for further studies and optimisation of clinical dosimetry in 177Lu PRRT.

  16. The imaging of insulinomas using a radionuclide-labelled molecule of the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide: a new application of liraglutide.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Pan, Yu; Li, Xiao; Cheng, Dengfeng; Liu, Shuai; Shi, Hongcheng; Zhang, Yifan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores a new, non-invasive imaging method for the specific diagnosis of insulinoma by providing an initial investigation of the use of 125I-labelled molecules of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue liraglutide for in vivo and in vitro small-animal SPECT/CT (single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) imaging of insulinomas. Liraglutide was labelled with 125I by the Iodogen method. The labelled 125I-liraglutide compound and insulinoma cells from the INS-1 cell line were then used for in vitro saturation and competitive binding experiments. In addition, in a nude mouse model, the use of 125I-liraglutide for the in vivo small-animal SPECT/CT imaging of insulinomas and the resulting distribution of radioactivity across various organs were examined. The labelling of liraglutide with 125I was successful, yielding a labelling rate of approximately 95% and a radiochemical purity of greater than 95%. For the binding between 125I-liraglutide and the GLP-1 receptor on the surface of INS-1 cells, the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was 128.8 ± 30.4 nmol/L(N = 3), and the half-inhibition concentration (IC50) was 542.4 ± 187.5 nmol/L(N = 3). Small-animal SPECT/CT imaging with 125I-liraglutide indicated that the tumour imaging was clearest at 90 min after the 125I-liraglutide treatment. An examination of the in vivo distribution of radioactivity revealed that at 90 min after the 125I-liraglutide treatment, the target/non-target (T/NT) ratio for tumour and muscle tissue was 4.83 ± 1.30(N = 3). Our study suggested that 125I-liraglutide was predominantly metabolised and cleared by the liver and kidneys. The radionuclide 125I-liraglutide can be utilised for the specific imaging of insulinomas, representing a new non-invasive approach for the in vivo diagnosis of insulinomas.

  17. Radionuclide imaging of angiotensin II type 1 receptor upregulation after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukushima, Kenji; Xia, Jinsong; Mathews, William B; Lautamäki, Riikka; Bravo, Paco E; Javadi, Mehrbod S; Dannals, Robert F; Szabo, Zsolt; Bengel, Frank M

    2010-12-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) mediates proapoptotic, profibrotic, and proinflammatory processes in maladaptive conditions. Activation after myocardial infarction may initialize and promote cardiac remodeling. Using a novel positron-emitting ligand, we sought to determine the presence and time course of regional myocardial upregulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the blocking efficacy of various anti-RAS agents. In male Wistar rats (n = 31), ischemia-reperfusion damage was induced by 20- to 25-min ligation of the left coronary artery. The AT1R blocker (11)C-2-butyl-5-methoxymethyl-6-(1-oxopyridin-2-yl)-3-[[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine ((11)C-KR31173) was injected intravenously at different times until 6 mo after surgery and sacrifice. Autoradiography, histology, and immunohistochemistry were performed for ex vivo validation. Additional in vivo PET was conducted in 3 animals. A second series of experiments (n = 16) compared untreated animals with animals treated with oral valsartan (50 mg/kg/d), oral enalapril (10 mg/kg/d), and complete intravenous blockage (SK-1080, 2 mg/kg, 10 min before imaging). Transient regional AT1R upregulation was detected in the infarct area, with a peak at 1-3 wk after surgery (autoradiographic infarct-to-remote ratio, 1.07 ± 0.09, 1.68 ± 0.34, 2.54 ± 0.40, 2.98 ± 0.70, 3.16 ± 0.57, 1.86 ± 0.65, and 1.28 ± 0.27 at control, day 1, day 3, week 1, week 3, month 3, and month 6, respectively). The elevated uptake of (11)C-KR31173 in the infarct area was detectable by small-animal PET in vivo, and it was blocked completely by intravenous SK-1080. Although oral treatment with enalapril did not reduce focal tracer uptake, oral valsartan resulted in partial blockade (infarct-to-remote ratio, 2.94 ± 0.52, 2.88 ± 0.60, 2.07 ± 0.25, and 1.26 ± 0.10 for no treatment, enalapril, valsartan, and SK-1080, respectively). After ischemic myocardial damage in a rat model, transient

  18. Visual images in Luigi Galvani's path to animal electricity.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The scientific endeavor that led Luigi Galvani to his hypothesis of "animal electricity," i.e., of an electricity present in a condition of disequilibrium between the interior and the exterior of excitable animal fibers, is reviewed here with particular emphasis to the role played by visual images in Galvani's path of discovery. In 1791 Galvani formulated his model of neuromuscular physiology on the base of the image of a muscle and a nerve fiber together as in a "minute animal Leyden jar." This was the last instance of a series of physical models that accompanied Galvani's experimental efforts in the search of a theory capable of accounting for the electric nature of nerve conduction in spite of the many objections formulated in the eighteenth century against a possible role of electricity in animal physiology.

  19. Live-Animal Imaging of Renal Function by Multiphoton Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kenneth W.; Sutton, Timothy A.; Sandoval, Ruben M.

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy, microscopy of living animals, is a powerful research technique that combines the resolution and sensitivity found in microscopic studies of cultured cells with the relevance and systemic influences of cells in the context of the intact animal. The power of intravital microscopy has recently been extended with the development of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy systems capable of collecting optical sections from deep within the kidney at subcellular resolution, supporting high-resolution characterizations of the structure and function of glomeruli, tubules, and vasculature in the living kidney. Fluorescent probes are administered to an anesthetized, surgically prepared animal, followed by image acquisition for up to 3 hr. Images are transferred via a high-speed network to specialized computer systems for digital image analysis. This general approach can be used with different combinations of fluorescent probes to evaluate processes such as glomerular permeability, proximal tubule endocytosis, microvascular flow, vascular permeability, mitochondrial function, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis. PMID:23042524

  20. CNS Animal fMRI imaging in Pain and Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino

    2010-01-01

    Animal imaging of brain systems offers exciting opportunities to better understand the neurobiology of pain and analgesia. Overall functional studies have lagged behind human studies as a result of technical issues including the use of anesthesia. Now that many of these issues have been overcome including the possibility of imaging awake animals, there are new opportunities to study whole brain systems neurobiology of acute and chronic pain as well as analgesic effects on brain systems de novo (using pharmacological MRI) or testing in animal models of pain. Understanding brain networks in these areas may provide new insights into translational science, and use neural networks as a “language of translation” between preclinical to clinical models. In this review we evaluate the role of functional and anatomical imaging in furthering our understanding in pain and analgesia. PMID:21126534

  1. High-Resolution and Animal Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcari, Nicola; Guerra, AlbertoDel

    During the last decade we have observed a growing interest in "in vivo" imaging techniques for small animals. This is due to the necessity of studying biochemical processes at a molecular level for pharmacology, genetic, and pathology investigations. This field of research is usually called "molecular imaging."Advances in biological understanding have been accompanied by technological advances in instrumentation and techniques and image-reconstruction software, resulting in improved image quality, visibility, and interpretation. The main technological challenge is then the design of systems with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity.

  2. Validation of an Animal Isolation Imaging Chamber for Use in Animal Biosafety Level-3 Containment

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, T. Scott; Frothingham, Richard; Sempowski, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Live imaging of animals infected with pathogenic microbes poses a contamination risk to equipment, personnel and other animals. A Caliper animal isolation chamber designed for the IVIS® Spectrum imaging system was tested as a containment device for mice infected with microbes assigned to animal biosafety level-3 (ABSL-3). A testing protocol was developed by adapting two published standards to test other equipment in high containment environments. The protocol included quantitative leak-testing of the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, soap bubble testing of the animal isolation chamber, and pressure decay testing of the complete containment system. HEPA filters were > 99.999% efficient (< 0.001% leakage). When attached to the Spectrum at the normal flow rate of oxygen/anesthetic mix (0.25 L/min), the chamber was positively pressurized at 0.11 inches of water (in H2O). No leaks were detected by soap bubble testing at flow rates of 0.25 L/min to 2.0 L/min, generating pressures up to 2.90 in H2O. (26-fold increase over normal operating pressure). The complete containment system passed pressure decay testing at 2.0 in H2O by sustaining 95% of the initial pressure over a 30 minute period. The Caliper animal isolation chamber provides appropriate isolation for the IVIS® Spectrum imaging system. When used as a containment device, it must undergo periodic performance testing, as described here, since it operates under positive pressure. The chamber is an appropriate component of ABSL-3 containment when combined with proper administrative controls and work practices. The testing protocol described here can be used to validate containment devices for other imaging systems or animal species. PMID:23226978

  3. Validation of an Animal Isolation Imaging Chamber for Use in Animal Biosafety Level-3 Containment.

    PubMed

    Alderman, T Scott; Frothingham, Richard; Sempowski, Gregory D

    2010-01-01

    Live imaging of animals infected with pathogenic microbes poses a contamination risk to equipment, personnel and other animals. A Caliper animal isolation chamber designed for the IVIS(®) Spectrum imaging system was tested as a containment device for mice infected with microbes assigned to animal biosafety level-3 (ABSL-3). A testing protocol was developed by adapting two published standards to test other equipment in high containment environments. The protocol included quantitative leak-testing of the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, soap bubble testing of the animal isolation chamber, and pressure decay testing of the complete containment system. HEPA filters were > 99.999% efficient (< 0.001% leakage). When attached to the Spectrum at the normal flow rate of oxygen/anesthetic mix (0.25 L/min), the chamber was positively pressurized at 0.11 inches of water (in H(2)O). No leaks were detected by soap bubble testing at flow rates of 0.25 L/min to 2.0 L/min, generating pressures up to 2.90 in H(2)O. (26-fold increase over normal operating pressure). The complete containment system passed pressure decay testing at 2.0 in H(2)O by sustaining 95% of the initial pressure over a 30 minute period.The Caliper animal isolation chamber provides appropriate isolation for the IVIS(®) Spectrum imaging system. When used as a containment device, it must undergo periodic performance testing, as described here, since it operates under positive pressure. The chamber is an appropriate component of ABSL-3 containment when combined with proper administrative controls and work practices. The testing protocol described here can be used to validate containment devices for other imaging systems or animal species.

  4. In vivo tumor targeting and radionuclide imaging with self-assembled nanoparticles: mechanisms, key factors, and their implications.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Woo; Park, Soo Ah; Han, Tae Hee; Son, Dai Hyun; Park, Ji Sun; Oh, Seung Jun; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Ahn, Cheol-Hee; Byun, Youngro; Kim, In-San; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2007-02-01

    The development of more selective delivery systems for cancer diagnosis and chemotherapy is one of the most important goals of current anticancer research. The purpose of this study is to evaluate various self-assembled nanoparticles as candidates to shuttle radionuclide and/or drugs into tumors and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the tumor targeting with self-assembled nanoparticles. By combining different hydrophobic moieties and hydrophilic polymer backbones, various self-assembled nanoparticles were prepared, and their in vivo distributions in tumor-bearing mice were studied by radionuclide imaging. One type of nanoparticles (fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated glycol chitosan (FGC) nanoparticles) exhibited highly selective tumoral localization. Scintigraphic images obtained 1 day after the intravenous injection of FGC nanoparticles clearly delineated the tumor against adjacent tissues. The mechanisms underlying the tumor targeting with self-assembled nanoparticles were investigated in terms of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles and tumor microenvironments. FGC nanoparticles were preferentially localized in perivascular regions, implying their extravasation to tumors through the hyperpermeable tumor vasculature. The magnitude and pattern of tumoral distribution of self-assembled nanoparticles were influenced by several key factors--(i) in vivo colloidal stability: nanoparticles should maintain their intact nanostructures in vivo for a long period of time, (ii) particle size, (iii) intracellular uptake of nanoparticle: fast cellular uptake greatly facilitates the tumor targeting, (iv) tumor angiogenesis: pathological angiogenesis permits access of nanoparticles to tumors. We believe that this work can provide insight for the engineering of nanoparticles and be extended to cancer therapy and diagnosis, so as to deliver multiple therapeutic agents and imaging probes at high local concentrations.

  5. Bioluminescent system for dynamic imaging of cell and animal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Tsuji, Osahiko; Hanyu, Aki; Okada, Seiji; Yasuda, Akimasa; Fukano, Takashi; Akazawa, Chihiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Imamura, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Okano, Hirotaka James; and others

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We combined a yellow variant of GFP and firefly luciferase to make ffLuc-cp156. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 showed improved photon yield in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely-moving animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled tracking real-time drug delivery in conscious animals. -- Abstract: The current utility of bioluminescence imaging is constrained by a low photon yield that limits temporal sensitivity. Here, we describe an imaging method that uses a chemiluminescent/fluorescent protein, ffLuc-cp156, which consists of a yellow variant of Aequorea GFP and firefly luciferase. We report an improvement in photon yield by over three orders of magnitude over current bioluminescent systems. We imaged cellular movement at high resolution including neuronal growth cones and microglial cell protrusions. Transgenic ffLuc-cp156 mice enabled video-rate bioluminescence imaging of freely moving animals, which may provide a reliable assay for drug distribution in behaving animals for pre-clinical studies.

  6. Animal Detection in Natural Images: Effects of Color and Image Database

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weina; Drewes, Jan; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2013-01-01

    The visual system has a remarkable ability to extract categorical information from complex natural scenes. In order to elucidate the role of low-level image features for the recognition of objects in natural scenes, we recorded saccadic eye movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments, in which human subjects had to detect animals in previously unseen natural images. We used a new natural image database (ANID) that is free of some of the potential artifacts that have plagued the widely used COREL images. Color and grayscale images picked from the ANID and COREL databases were used. In all experiments, color images induced a greater N1 EEG component at earlier time points than grayscale images. We suggest that this influence of color in animal detection may be masked by later processes when measuring reation times. The ERP results of go/nogo and forced choice tasks were similar to those reported earlier. The non-animal stimuli induced bigger N1 than animal stimuli both in the COREL and ANID databases. This result indicates ultra-fast processing of animal images is possible irrespective of the particular database. With the ANID images, the difference between color and grayscale images is more pronounced than with the COREL images. The earlier use of the COREL images might have led to an underestimation of the contribution of color. Therefore, we conclude that the ANID image database is better suited for the investigation of the processing of natural scenes than other databases commonly used. PMID:24130744

  7. Predicting radionuclide transfer to wild animals: an application of a proposed environmental impact assessment framework to the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Beresford, Nicholas A; Wright, Simon M; Barnett, Catherine L; Wood, Michael D; Gaschak, Sergey; Arkhipov, Andrey; Sazykina, Tatiana G; Howard, Brenda J

    2005-12-01

    A number of assessment frameworks have been proposed to provide a mechanism to demonstrate protection of the environment from ionising radiation. Whilst some of these are being used for assessment purposes they have largely not been validated against field measurements. In this paper we compare the predictions of transfer parameters recommended by one of these frameworks (FASSET) with observed whole-body 90Sr and radiocaesium activity concentrations in a range of mammal and invertebrate species sampled within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predicted activity concentrations were generally within the observed ranges and mean predictions for reference organisms were similar to, or circa one order of magnitude higher than, the observed means. However, some predictions were more than one order of magnitude lower than observed values. No data were available to test predictions for the other radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident. In a separate paper the outputs of this assessment will be used to estimate doses to reference organisms and compare these to observed radiation induced effects reported within the Chernobyl zone.

  8. Anatomic and functional imaging of tagged molecules in animals

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2007-04-24

    A novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired. The apparatus comprises a combination of an IR laser profilometry system and gamma, PET and/or SPECT, imaging system, all mounted on a rotating gantry, that permits simultaneous acquisition of positional and orientational information and functional images of an unrestrained subject that are registered, i.e. integrated, using image processing software to produce a functional image of the subject without the use of restraints or anesthesia. The functional image thus obtained can be registered with a previously or subsequently obtained X-ray CT image of the subject. The use of the system described herein permits functional imaging of a subject in an unrestrained/non-anesthetized condition thereby reducing the stress on the subject and eliminating any potential interference with the functional testing that such stress might induce.

  9. Inside Out: Modern Imaging Techniques to Reveal Animal Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Wang, Tobias; Agger, Peter; Andersen, Jonas L.; Knudsen, Peter S.; Rasmussen, Anne S.; Uhrenholt, Lars; Pedersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Animal anatomy has traditionally relied on detailed dissections to produce anatomical illustrations, but modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT, now represent an enormous resource that allows for fast non-invasive visualizations of animal anatomy in living animals. These modalities also allow for creation of three-dimensional representations that can be of considerable value in the dissemination of anatomical studies. In this methodological review, we present our experiences using MRI, CT and μCT to create advanced representation of animal anatomy, including bones, inner organs and blood vessels in a variety of animals, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and spiders. The images have a similar quality to most traditional anatomical drawings and are presented together with interactive movies of the anatomical structures, where the object can be viewed from different angles. Given that clinical scanners found in the majority of larger hospitals are fully suitable for these purposes, we encourage biologists to take advantage of these imaging techniques in creation of three-dimensional graphical representations of internal structures. PMID:21445356

  10. A micro-scale random-walk model for radionuclide migration based on image analysis-derived modelling grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhard Falck, W.; Vokal, Vratko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a random-walk transport model for the migration of radionuclides in hard-rocks at the grain scale. The physics of diffusion are reviewed and it is described how they are translated into the appropriate model algorithm. Further, the algorithm for recognising solid grain boundaries during the migration step is discussed. The model grid is derived from the analysis of images obtained by optical micro-photography and from autoradiography of hardrock samples impregnated with 14C-marked resins. Sample calculations for tracer-transport cases and simple reaction, i.e. precipitation cases are presented. It is envisaged to couple the code with a geochemical speciation code at a later stage.

  11. Transmission line based thermoacoustic imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Murad; Kellnberger, Stephan; Sergiadis, George; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-06-01

    We have generated high resolution images of RF-Contrast in small animals using nearfield thermoacoustic system. This enables us to see some anatomical features of a mouse such as the heart, the spine and the boundary. OCIS codes: (000.0000) General; (000.0000) General [8-pt. type. For codes, see www.opticsinfobase.org/submit/ocis.

  12. Image analysis for estimating the weight of live animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, C. P.; Marchant, John A.

    1991-02-01

    Many components of animal production have been automated. For example weighing feeding identification and yield recording on cattle pigs poultry and fish. However some of these tasks still require a considerable degree of human input and more effective automation could lead to better husbandry. For example if the weight of pigs could be monitored more often without increasing labour input then this information could be used to measure growth rates and control fat level allowing accurate prediction of market dates and optimum carcass quality to be achieved with improved welfare at minimum cost. Some aspects of animal production have defied automation. For example attending to the well being of housed animals is the preserve of the expert stockman. He gathers visual data about the animals in his charge (in more plain words goes and looks at their condition and behaviour) and processes this data to draw conclusions and take actions. Automatically collecting data on well being implies that the animals are not disturbed from their normal environment otherwise false conclusions will be drawn. Computer image analysis could provide the data required without the need to disturb the animals. This paper describes new work at the Institute of Engineering Research which uses image analysis to estimate the weight of pigs as a starting point for the wider range of applications which have been identified. In particular a technique has been developed to

  13. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool.

  14. Radionuclide angiography and blood pool imaging to assess skin ulcer healing prognosis in patients with peripheral vascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Several non-invasive diagnostic techniques including segmental limb blood pressures, skin fluoresence, and photo plethysmography, have been evaluated as predictors of skin ulcer healing in patients with peripheral vascular disease, but none are widely used. Using 20mCi of Tc-99m phosphate compounds, four phase bone scans were obtained, including (1) radionuclide angiogram (2) blood pool image (3) 2 hour and 4-6 hour static images and (4) 24 hour static delayed images. The first two phases were used to assess vacularity to the region of distal extremity ulceration; the last two phases evaluated presence or absence of osteomyelitis. Studies were performed in 30 patients with non-healing ulcers of the lower extremities. Perfusion to the regions of ulceration on images was graded as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite (presumed normal) limb or some other normal reference area. Hypervascular response was interpreted as good prognosis for healing unless osteomyelitis was present. Clinicians followed patients for 14 days to assess limb healing with optimum care. If there was no improvement, angiography and/or surgery (reconstructive surgery, sympathectomy, or amputation) was done. Results showed: sensitivity for predicting ulcer healing was 94%, specificity 89%. Patients who failed to heal their ulcers showed reduced perfusion, no hypervascular response, or osteomyelitis. Microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing appear predictable by this technique.

  15. Combined Positron Emission Tomography and Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Nodes Using PEGylated Radionuclide-Embedded Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Bong; Yoon, GhilSuk; Lee, Sang-Woo; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lim, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Jaetae; Jeon, Yong Hyun

    2016-09-01

    New imaging probes with high sensitivity and stability are urgently needed to accurately detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) for successful cancer diagnosis. Herein, the use of highly sensitive and stable PEGylated radionuclide-embedded gold nanoparticles (PEG-RIe-AuNPs) is reported for the detection of SLNs by combined positron emission tomography and Cerenkov luminescence imaging (PET/CLI). PEG-RIe-AuNPs show high sensitivity and stability both in vitro and in vivo, and are not toxic to normal ovarian and immune cells. In vivo PET/CLI imaging clearly reveals SLNs as early as 1 h post PEG-RIe-AuNP-injection, with peak signals achieved at 6 h postinjection, which is consistent with the biodistribution results. Taken together, the data provide strong evidence that PEG-RIe-AuNPs are promising as potential lymphatic tracers in biomedical imaging for pre and intraoperative surgical guidance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Induced renal artery stenosis in rabbits: magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, and radionuclide determination of blood volume and blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.G.; Tobin, M.; LeVeen, R.; Tomaczewski, J.; Alavi, A.; Staum, M.; Kundel, H.

    1988-03-01

    To investigate the ability of MRI to detect alterations due to renal ischemia, a rabbit renal artery stenosis (RAS) model was developed. Seven rabbits had RAS induced by surgically encircling the artery with a polyethylene band which had a lumen of 1 mm, 1 to 2 weeks prior to imaging. The stenosis was confirmed by angiography, and the rabbits were then imaged in a 1.4 T research MRI unit. T1 was calculated using four inversion recovery sequences with different inversion times. Renal blood flow, using /sup 113/Sn-microspheres, and regional water content by drying were then measured. The average T1 of the inner medulla was shorter for the ischemia (1574 msec) than for the contralateral kidney (1849 msec), while no change ws noted in the cortex. Ischemic kidneys had less distinct outer medullary zones on IR images with TI = 600 msec than did contralateral or control kidneys. Blood flow to both the cortex and medulla were markedly reduced in ischemic kidneys compared with contralateral kidneys (119.5 vs. 391 ml/min/100 gm for cortex and 19.8 vs. 50.8 ml/min/100 gm for medulla). Renal water and blood content were less affected. Our rabbit model of renal artery stenosis with MRI, radionuclide, and angiographic correlation has the potential to increase our understanding of MR imaging of the rabbit kidney.

  17. Direct radionuclide cystography imaging in colovesical fistula due to inguinal hernia operation complication.

    PubMed

    Tamam, Muge; Yavuz, Hatice Sümeyye; Hacimahmutoğlu, Serafettin; Mülazimoğlu, Mehmet; Kacar, Tulay; Ozpacaci, Tevfik

    2009-09-01

    Colovesical fistula is an abnormal connection between the enteric and urinary systems, usually sigmoid colon, caused by various conditions. One cause of colovesical fistula is iatrogenic injury, such as induced by inguinal hernia surgery. We present a case of colovesical fistula. A 57-year-old male was admitted to a local hospital with complaints of dysuria and pneumaturia. He had a past history of total extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair operation 7 years previously for bilateral inguinal hernia. The case was assessed with radiologic and scintigraphic techniques. Radiologic techniques (plain abdominal radiography, intravenous pyelogram, ultrasound examination, double-contrast barium enema, CT, MRI) were inadequate to determine the colovesical fistula. The colovesical fistula was visualized with direct radionuclide voiding cystography as an alternative scintigraphic method.

  18. Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  19. In vivo imaging of small animal models by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shuoqi; Yang, Ran; Xiong, Jingwei; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Li, Changhui; Ren, Qiushi

    2012-02-01

    Small animal models, such as zebrafish, drosophila, C. elegan, is considered to be important models in comparative biology and diseases researches. Traditional imaging methods primarily employ several optical microscopic imaging modalities that rely on fluorescence labeling, which may have potential to affect the natural physiological progress. Thus a label-free imaging method is desired. Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) is an emerging biomedical imaging method that combines optical contrast with ultrasonic detection, which is highly sensitive to the optical absorption contrast of living tissues, such as pigments, the vasculature and other optically absorbing organs. In this work, we reported the whole body label-free imaging of zebrafish larvae and drosophila pupa by PAM. Based on intrinsic optical absorption contrast, high resolution images of pigments, microvasculature and several other major organs have been obtained in vivo and non-invasively, and compared with their optical counterparts. We demonstrated that PAM has the potential to be a powerful non-invasive imaging method for studying larvae and pupa of various animal models.

  20. Compact CT/SPECT Small-Animal Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Kastis, George A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Peterson, Todd E.; Barber, H. Bradford; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a dual-modality CT/SPECT imaging system for small-animal imaging applications. The X-ray system comprises a commercially available micro-focus X-ray tube and a CCD-based X-ray camera. X-ray transmission measurements are performed based on cone-beam geometry. Individual projections are acquired by rotating the animal about a vertical axis in front of the CCD detector. A high-resolution CT image is obtained after reconstruction using an ordered subsets-expectation maximization (OS-EM) reconstruction algorithm. The SPECT system utilizes a compact semiconductor camera module previously developed in our group. The module is mounted perpendicular to the X-ray tube/CCD combination. It consists of a 64×64 pixellated CdZnTe detector and a parallel-hole tungsten collimator. The field of view is 1 square inch. Planar projections for SPECT reconstruction are obtained by rotating the animal in front of the detector. Gamma-ray and X-ray images are presented of phantoms and mice. Procedures for merging the anatomical and functional images are discussed. PMID:26538684

  1. In vivo small animal imaging: Current status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Kagadis, George C. E-mail: george.kagadis@med.upatras.gr; Loudos, George; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Langer, Steve G.; Nikiforidis, George C.

    2010-12-15

    The use of small animal models in basic and preclinical sciences constitutes an integral part of testing new pharmaceutical agents prior to commercial translation to clinical practice. Whole-body small animal imaging is a particularly elegant and cost-effective experimental platform for the timely validation and commercialization of novel agents from the bench to the bedside. Biomedical imaging is now listed along with genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics as an integral part of biological and medical sciences. Miniaturized versions of clinical diagnostic modalities, including but not limited to microcomputed tomography, micromagnetic resonance tomography, microsingle-photon-emission tomography, micropositron-emission tomography, optical imaging, digital angiography, and ultrasound, have all greatly improved our investigative abilities to longitudinally study various experimental models of human disease in mice and rodents. After an exhaustive literature search, the authors present a concise and critical review of in vivo small animal imaging, focusing on currently available modalities as well as emerging imaging technologies on one side and molecularly targeted contrast agents on the other. Aforementioned scientific topics are analyzed in the context of cancer angiogenesis and innovative antiangiogenic strategies under-the-way to the clinic. Proposed hybrid approaches for diagnosis and targeted site-specific therapy are highlighted to offer an intriguing glimpse of the future.

  2. The study of natural and artificial radionuclides incorporation in teeth and head bones of animals lived nearby Caetité uranium mine, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Walencik-Łata, A; Kozłowska, B; Mietelski, J W; Szufa, K; Freire, F D; Souza, S O

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the incorporation of radionuclides in animals in the proximity of the uranium mine in Caetité, Brazil. In 2014, samples of bovine and equine teeth and skull bones were collected and their contents of natural and artificial isotopes were assessed using nuclear spectrometry techniques. Gamma ray emission from (226,228)Ra and (40)K isotopes was determined using high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometry, (90)Sr radioactivity was measured with liquid scintillation, and (234,238)U, (232,230,228)Th, (210)Po and (239+240)Pu radioactivity was assessed with alpha-spectrometry. Prior to the measurements, sample dissolutions and isotope separations were performed. Our results indicate a high (228)Th isotope content in the skull bones and the teeth of animals, up to 179 Bq per kg of ash. The (226)Ra and (228)Ra concentrations were slightly lower. Activity concentrations of other isotopes were significantly lower or below the detection limit. We could not identify sources of technologically enhanced levels of (228)Ra in the area we investigated; therefore we suggest that their origin is natural. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multispectral Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small animal optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Kuo, Chaincy; Rice, Brad W; Calandrino, Riccardo; Marzola, Pasquina; Sbarbati, Andrea; Boschi, Federico

    2011-06-20

    Quite recently Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) has been introduced as a novel pre-clinical imaging for the in vivo imaging of small animals such as mice. The CLI method is based on the detection of Cerenkov radiation (CR) generated by beta particles as they travel into the animal tissues with an energy such that Cerenkov emission condition is satisfied. This paper describes an image reconstruction method called multi spectral diffuse Cerenkov luminescence tomography (msCLT) in order to obtain 3D images from the detection of CR. The multispectral approach is based on a set of 2D planar images acquired using a number of narrow bandpass filters, and the distinctive information content at each wavelength is used in the 3D image reconstruction process. The proposed msCLT method was tested both in vitro and in vivo using 32P-ATP and all the images were acquired by using the IVIS 200 small animal optical imager (Caliper Life Sciences, Alameda USA). Source depth estimation and spatial resolution measurements were performed using a small capillary source placed between several slices of chicken breast. The theoretical Cerenkov emission spectrum and optical properties of chicken breast were used in the modelling of photon propagation. In vivo imaging was performed by injecting control nude mice with 10 MBq of 32P-ATP and the 3D tracer bio-distribution was reconstructed. Whole body MRI was acquired to provide an anatomical localization of the Cerenkov emission. The spatial resolution obtained from the msCLT reconstructed images of the capillary source showed that the FWHM is about 1.5 mm for a 6 mm depth. Co-registered MRI images showed that the Cerenkov emission regions matches fairly well with anatomical regions, such as the brain, heart and abdomen. Ex vivo imaging of the different organs such as intestine, brain, heart and ribs further confirms these findings. We conclude that in vivo 3D bio-distribution of a pure beta-minus emitting radiopharmaceutical such as 32P

  4. Intrinsic Feature Pose Measurement for Awake Animal SPECT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Lee, Seung Joon; Weisenberger, A G; Stolin, A; McKisson, J; Smith, M F

    2009-01-01

    New developments have been made in optical motion tracking for awake animal imaging that measures 3D position and orientation (pose) for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system. Ongoing SPECT imaging research has been directed towards head motion measurement for brain studies in awake, unrestrained mice. In contrast to previous results using external markers, this work extracts and tracks intrinsic features from multiple camera images and computes relative pose from the tracked features over time. Motion tracking thus far has been limited to measuring extrinsic features such as retro-reflective markers applied to the mouse s head. While this approach has been proven to be accurate, the additional animal handling required to attach the markers is undesirable. A significant improvement in the procedure is achieved by measuring the pose of the head without extrinsic markers using only the external surface appearance. This approach is currently being developed with initial results presented here. The intrinsic features measurement extracts discrete, sparse natural features from 2D images such as eyes, nose, mouth and other visible structures. Stereo correspondence between features for a camera pair is determined for calculation of 3D positions. These features are also tracked over time to provide continuity for surface model fitting. Experimental results from live images are presented.

  5. Noninvasive imaging of protein-protein interactions in living animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luker, Gary D.; Sharma, Vijay; Pica, Christina M.; Dahlheimer, Julie L.; Li, Wei; Ochesky, Joseph; Ryan, Christine E.; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2002-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions control transcription, cell division, and cell proliferation as well as mediate signal transduction, oncogenic transformation, and regulation of cell death. Although a variety of methods have been used to investigate protein interactions in vitro and in cultured cells, none can analyze these interactions in intact, living animals. To enable noninvasive molecular imaging of protein-protein interactions in vivo by positron-emission tomography and fluorescence imaging, we engineered a fusion reporter gene comprising a mutant herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase and green fluorescent protein for readout of a tetracycline-inducible, two-hybrid system in vivo. By using micro-positron-emission tomography, interactions between p53 tumor suppressor and the large T antigen of simian virus 40 were visualized in tumor xenografts of HeLa cells stably transfected with the imaging constructs. Imaging protein-binding partners in vivo will enable functional proteomics in whole animals and provide a tool for screening compounds targeted to specific protein-protein interactions in living animals.

  6. The stripe sign: correlation of radionuclide ventilation and perfusion with He-3 magnetic resonance lung imaging

    PubMed

    Teates; Brookeman; Daniel; Truwit; Parekh; Mugler; de Lange EE

    1999-10-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to correlate regional ventilation and perfusion images and perfusion SPECT with images made using a newly developed magnetic resonance ventilation (MRV) method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigation included a single patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a healthy control participant. Ventilation and perfusion images using Xe-133 and Tc-99m MAA, including perfusion SPECT, were compared with single-breath MRV with hyperpolarized He-3. RESULTS: Ventilation and perfusion defects correspond to areas of poor ventilation on MRV. High-resolution MRV images show preservation of bronchi and acinus units in areas of the "stripe sign" on the V/Q study. CONCLUSIONS: MRV imaging confirms that the stripe sign seen on nuclear perfusion imaging correlates with subsegmental preserved lung. MRV imaging has the potential for high-resolution innovative studies of subsegmental lung function, using either He-3 or Xe-129 hyperpolarized gases.

  7. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Weersink, Robert A.; Ansell, Steve; Wang, An; Wilson, Graham; Shah, Duoaud; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  8. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  9. Imaging of cerebrovascular pathology in animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Klohs, Jan; Rudin, Markus; Shimshek, Derya R.; Beckmann, Nicolau

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition as well as Aβ transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of Aβ on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature. PMID:24659966

  10. A Time Domain Fluorescence Tomography System for Small Animal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Scott B.; Dunn, Andrew K.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the application of a time domain diffuse fluorescence tomography system for whole body small animal imaging. The key features of the system are the use of point excitation in free space using ultrashort laser pulses and noncontact detection using a gated, intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Mouse shaped epoxy phantoms, with embedded fluorescent inclusions, were used to verify the performance of a recently developed asymptotic lifetime-based tomography algorithm. The asymptotic algorithm is based on a multiexponential analysis of the decay portion of the data. The multiexponential model is shown to enable the use of a global analysis approach for a robust recovery of the lifetime components present within the imaging medium. The surface boundaries of the imaging volume were acquired using a photogrammetric camera integrated with the imaging system, and implemented in a Monte-Carlo model of photon propagation in tissue. The tomography results show that the asymptotic approach is able to separate axially located fluorescent inclusions centered at depths of 4 and 10 mm from the surface of the mouse phantom. The fluorescent inclusions had distinct lifetimes of 0.5 and 0.95 ns. The inclusions were nearly overlapping along the measurement axis and shown to be not resolvable using continuous wave (CW) methods. These results suggest the practical feasibility and advantages of a time domain approach for whole body small animal fluorescence molecular imaging, particularly with the use of lifetime as a contrast mechanism. PMID:18672432

  11. Dual-headed SPECT for awake animal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Joon; Weisenberger, A G; McKisson, J; Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Smith, M F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract- Motion-corrected awake animal imaging is needed for normal-state investigations of models of neurological disease and brain activity. The awake animal brain SPECT/CT system, AwakeSPECT at Johns Hopkins University has in the past used a single gamma camera for imaging. Enhancements have been made by adding a pinhole collimator to the second gamma camera at the opposite side which has been previously equipped parallel hole collimator. Geometry calibration was performed using a custom built quality control phantom containing three Co-57 point sources and applied to the tomographic reconstruction code. Hot-rod phantom scans with Tc-99m were performed to test sensitivity and resolution improvements. The reconstruction results show significant resolution and sensitivity improvements.

  12. Dual-headed SPECT for awake animal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    S. Lee, B. Kross, D. Weisenberger, J. McKisson, J.S. Goddard, J.S. Baba, M.S. Smith

    2012-02-01

    Motion-corrected awake animal imaging is needed for normal-state investigations of models of neurological disease and brain activity. The awake animal brain SPECT/CT system, AwakeSPECT at Johns Hopkins University has in the past used a single gamma camera for imaging. Enhancements have been made by adding a pinhole collimator to the second gamma camera at the opposite side which has been previously equipped parallel hole collimator. Geometry calibration was performed using a custom built quality control phantom containing three Co-57 point sources and applied to the tomographic reconstruction code. Hot-rod phantom scans with Tc-99m were performed to test sensitivity and resolution improvements. The reconstruction results show significant resolution and sensitivity improvements.

  13. Potential clinical impact of radionuclide imaging technologies: highlights of the ITBS 2003 meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itti, Roland

    2004-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are major determinants of progress in Nuclear Medicine. Besides 18FDG, the most common PET tracer, several other molecules are under evaluation, such as 18F-fluoride for bone studies, numerous ligands for neurotransmission, 18F-DOPA for neuro-endocrine tumors or generator produced 68Ga-peptides for various cancers. Nuclear medicine gradually changes for "molecular imaging" and medical imaging, which was at the beginning mainly anatomic, has progressed in the direction of functional and metabolic imaging. The present challenge is to achieve some degree of "in vivo" biochemistry or even histology or genetics. The importance of anatomic/functional image fusion justifies the development of combined PET-CT instrumentation, whose objectives have to be discussed in terms of anatomical landmarks and/or additional clinical information. The question of "hard" or "soft" image co-registration remains open, involving not only CT, but also SPECT or MRI. Development of dedicated imaging devices, whether single photon or positron, is of major interest for breast imaging, allowing optimal imaging conditions, with results definitely superior to classical gamma-cameras or PET. The patient population concerned with scintimammography is still controversial, as well as the imaging modalities: FDG or sestaMIBI, planar or tomographic, scintillators or semi-conductors, and the research field remains open. This is also valid for external or per-operative probe systems for tumor or lymph nodes localization.

  14. Animal models and high field imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Öz, Gülin; Tkáč, Ivan; Uğurbil, Kamil

    2013-09-01

    A plethora of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques developed in the last two decades provide unique and noninvasive measurement capabilities for studies of basic brain function and brain diseases in humans. Animal model experiments have been an indispensible part of this development. MR imaging and spectroscopy measurements have been employed in animal models, either by themselves or in combination with complementary and often invasive techniques, to enlighten us about the information content of such MR methods and/or verify observations made in the human brain. They have also been employed, with or independently of human efforts, to examine mechanisms underlying pathological developments in the brain, exploiting the wealth of animal models available for such studies. In this endeavor, the desire to push for ever-higher spatial and/or spectral resolution, better signal-to-noise ratio, and unique image contrast has inevitably led to the introduction of increasingly higher magnetic fields. As a result, today, animal model studies are starting to be conducted at magnetic fields ranging from ~ 11 to 17 Tesla, significantly enhancing the armamentarium of tools available for the probing brain function and brain pathologies.

  15. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  16. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ziyue; Mansoor, Awais; Mollura, Daniel J.; Bagci, Ulas; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Jain, Sanjay; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases.

  17. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Mansoor, Awais; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Jain, Sanjay; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases. PMID:26133591

  18. Scatter and crosstalk corrections for {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I dual-radionuclide imaging using a CZT SPECT system with pinhole collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Peng; Hutton, Brian F.; Holstensson, Maria; Ljungberg, Michael; Hendrik Pretorius, P.; Prasad, Rameshwar; Liu, Chi; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi; Thorn, Stephanie L.; Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The energy spectrum for a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has a low energy tail due to incomplete charge collection and intercrystal scattering. Due to these solid-state detector effects, scatter would be overestimated if the conventional triple-energy window (TEW) method is used for scatter and crosstalk corrections in CZT-based imaging systems. The objective of this work is to develop a scatter and crosstalk correction method for {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I dual-radionuclide imaging for a CZT-based dedicated cardiac SPECT system with pinhole collimators (GE Discovery NM 530c/570c). Methods: A tailing model was developed to account for the low energy tail effects of the CZT detector. The parameters of the model were obtained using {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I point source measurements. A scatter model was defined to characterize the relationship between down-scatter and self-scatter projections. The parameters for this model were obtained from Monte Carlo simulation using SIMIND. The tailing and scatter models were further incorporated into a projection count model, and the primary and self-scatter projections of each radionuclide were determined with a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) iterative estimation approach. The extracted scatter and crosstalk projections were then incorporated into MLEM image reconstruction as an additive term in forward projection to obtain scatter- and crosstalk-corrected images. The proposed method was validated using Monte Carlo simulation, line source experiment, anthropomorphic torso phantom studies, and patient studies. The performance of the proposed method was also compared to that obtained with the conventional TEW method. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and line source experiment demonstrated that the TEW method overestimated scatter while their proposed method provided more accurate scatter estimation by considering the low energy tail effect. In the phantom study, improved defect contrasts were

  19. A dual micro-CT system for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, C. T.; Johnston, S.; Johnson, B.; Lin, M.; Hedlund, L. W.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2008-03-01

    Micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality usually used to assess morphology in small animals. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that functional micro-CT imaging is also possible. This paper describes a dual micro-CT system with two fixed x-ray/detectors developed to address such challenging tasks as cardiac or perfusion studies in small animals. A two-tube/detector system ensures simultaneous acquisition of two projections, thus reducing scanning time and the number of contrast injections in perfusion studies by a factor of two. The system is integrated with software developed in-house for cardio-respiratory monitoring and gating. The sampling geometry was optimized for 88 microns in such a way that the geometric blur of the focal spot matches the Nyquist sample at the detector. A geometric calibration procedure allows one to combine projection data from the two chains into a single reconstructed volume. Image quality was measured in terms of spatial resolution, uniformity, noise, and linearity. The modulation transfer function (MTF) at 10% is 3.4 lp/mm for single detector reconstructions and 2.3 lp/mm for dual tube/detector reconstructions. We attribute this loss in spatial resolution to the compounding of slight errors in the separate single chain calibrations. The dual micro-CT system is currently used in studies for morphological and functional imaging of both rats and mice.

  20. Radionuclide imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation in heart failure: unlocking untapped potential.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shuchita; Amanullah, Aman

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with sympathetic overactivity, which contributes to disease progression and arrhythmia development. Cardiac sympathetic innervation imaging can be performed using radiotracers that are taken up in the presynaptic nerve terminal of sympathetic nerves. The commonly used radiotracers are (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-mIBG) for planar and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging, and (11)C-hydroxyephedrine for positron emission tomography imaging. Sympathetic innervation imaging has been used in assessing prognosis, response to treatment, risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death and prediction of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with HF. Other potential applications of these techniques are in patients with chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy, predicting myocardial recovery in patients with left ventricular assist devices, and assessing reinnervation following cardiac transplantation. There is a lack of standardization with respect to technique of (123)I-mIBG imaging that needs to be overcome for the imaging modality to gain popularity in clinical practice.

  1. The mangrove pump: The tidal flushing of animal burrows in a tropical mangrove forest determined from radionuclide budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas C.; Clark, Jordan F.; Hancock, Gary J.

    2013-02-01

    Intertidal mangrove forests contribute significantly to biogeochemical solute budgets of tropical and subtropical coastlines. A significant part of the biogeochemical cycling in mangrove ecosystems occurs within the subsurface of the forest floor. This subsurface source and the 'offshore' sink are linked by the tidally-driven movement of water through the mangrove forest floor. The tidal circulation through animal macro-burrows in the Coral Creek mangrove forest (area 3 km2) on Hinchinbrook Island (Australia) is documented by constructing mass balances of isotopes of radium and radon measured in the creek in 1997 and 2005 respectively. Isotope activities in burrows were found to be significantly greater than in the adjacent mangrove creek (e.g. for 222Rn, 680-1750 and 30-170 Bq m-3 in burrows and creek respectively). From isotope mass balances, a daily water circulation flux through burrows of 30.4 ± 4.7 L m-2 of forest floor is calculated. This study quantifies the underlying physical process, i.e. the tidal flushing of burrows, that supports significant and continuous exports of soluble organic and inorganic matter from mangrove forest floors to the coastal ocean. The potential significance of the circulation flux estimate is illustrated by up-scaling of the forest-scale estimates to the mangrove forests in the entire central Great Barrier Reef. This extrapolation indicates that the annual water flux circulated by this tidally-driven 'mangrove pump' is equivalent to as much as 20% (16-22%) of the total annual river discharge along the ca. 400 km long coastline of this region.

  2. An integrated multimodality image-guided robot system for small-animal imaging research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin; Hsin Wu, Tung; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Chen, Chia-Lin; Lee, Jason J. S.; Huang, Yung-Hui

    2011-10-01

    We design and construct an image-guided robot system for use in small-animal imaging research. This device allows the use of co-registered small-animal PET-MRI images to guide the movements of robotic controllers, which will accurately place a needle probe at any predetermined location inside, for example, a mouse tumor, for biological readouts without sacrificing the animal. This system is composed of three major components: an automated robot device, a CCD monitoring mechanism, and a multimodality registration implementation. Specifically, the CCD monitoring mechanism was used for correction and validation of the robot device. To demonstrate the value of the proposed system, we performed a tumor hypoxia study that involved FMISO small-animal PET imaging and the delivering of a pO 2 probe into the mouse tumor using the image-guided robot system. During our evaluation, the needle positioning error was found to be within 0.153±0.042 mm of desired placement; the phantom simulation errors were within 0.693±0.128 mm. In small-animal studies, the pO 2 probe measurements in the corresponding hypoxia areas showed good correlation with significant, low tissue oxygen tensions (less than 6 mmHg). We have confirmed the feasibility of the system and successfully applied it to small-animal investigations. The system could be easily adapted to extend to other biomedical investigations in the future.

  3. Radionuclide imaging of drug delivery for patient selection in targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Heskamp, Sandra; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Oyen, Wim J G; Boerman, Otto C

    2014-02-01

    During the last decade, numerous antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed for cancer treatment. However, only a limited number of these agents have been shown to significantly improve survival of patients. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to identify the subset of patients who benefit from targeted therapy. Biomarkers can play an important role in selecting the right drug for the right patient. In this review, the potential role of molecular imaging of drug delivery for patient selection in targeted therapy will be discussed. The advantages and limitations of molecular imaging will be compared to those of conventional biomarkers. Moreover, we will address the factors that affect imaging of drug delivery, such as target expression, type of drug, in vivo accessibility of the receptor (e.g., vascular density, vascular permeability, interstitial pressure), enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, receptor internalization, tracer protein dose and timing of imaging. Molecular imaging of drug delivery clearly has potential for patient selection for targeted therapy. The main advantage of this technique is that not only can antigen expression be measured noninvasively but also target accessibility is taken into account. However, up to now, most of these studies have been performed in preclinical models. Therefore, future research should focus on bringing promising tracers to the clinic, preferable in an early stage of drug development in order to test their potential role as a biomarker.

  4. Whole-animal imaging with high spatio-temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhetri, Raghav; Amat, Fernando; Wan, Yinan; Höckendorf, Burkhard; Lemon, William C.; Keller, Philipp J.

    2016-03-01

    We developed isotropic multiview (IsoView) light-sheet microscopy in order to image fast cellular dynamics, such as cell movements in an entire developing embryo or neuronal activity throughput an entire brain or nervous system, with high resolution in all dimensions, high imaging speeds, good physical coverage and low photo-damage. To achieve high temporal resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time, IsoView microscopy rapidly images large specimens via simultaneous light-sheet illumination and fluorescence detection along four orthogonal directions. In a post-processing step, these four views are then combined by means of high-throughput multiview deconvolution to yield images with a system resolution of ≤ 450 nm in all three dimensions. Using IsoView microscopy, we performed whole-animal functional imaging of Drosophila embryos and larvae at a spatial resolution of 1.1-2.5 μm and at a temporal resolution of 2 Hz for up to 9 hours. We also performed whole-brain functional imaging in larval zebrafish and multicolor imaging of fast cellular dynamics across entire, gastrulating Drosophila embryos with isotropic, sub-cellular resolution. Compared with conventional (spatially anisotropic) light-sheet microscopy, IsoView microscopy improves spatial resolution at least sevenfold and decreases resolution anisotropy at least threefold. Compared with existing high-resolution light-sheet techniques, such as lattice lightsheet microscopy or diSPIM, IsoView microscopy effectively doubles the penetration depth and provides subsecond temporal resolution for specimens 400-fold larger than could previously be imaged.

  5. Radiological and Radionuclide Imaging of Degenerative Disease of the Facet Joints

    PubMed Central

    Shur, Natalie; Corrigan, Alexis; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Desai, Amidevi; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    The facet joint has been increasingly implicated as a potential source of lower back pain. Diagnosis can be challenging as there is not a direct correlation between facet joint disease and clinical or radiological features. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and current imaging modality options in the context of degenerative facet joint disease. We describe each modality in turn with a pictorial review using current evidence. Newer hybrid imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provide additional information relative to the historic gold standard magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnostic benefits of SPECT/CT include precise localization and characterization of spinal lesions and improved diagnosis for lower back pain. It may have a role in selecting patients for local therapeutic injections, as well as guiding their location with increased precision. PMID:26170560

  6. Radiological and Radionuclide Imaging of Degenerative Disease of the Facet Joints.

    PubMed

    Shur, Natalie; Corrigan, Alexis; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Desai, Amidevi; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    The facet joint has been increasingly implicated as a potential source of lower back pain. Diagnosis can be challenging as there is not a direct correlation between facet joint disease and clinical or radiological features. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and current imaging modality options in the context of degenerative facet joint disease. We describe each modality in turn with a pictorial review using current evidence. Newer hybrid imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provide additional information relative to the historic gold standard magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnostic benefits of SPECT/CT include precise localization and characterization of spinal lesions and improved diagnosis for lower back pain. It may have a role in selecting patients for local therapeutic injections, as well as guiding their location with increased precision.

  7. Longitudinal Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Afonso C.; Liu, Junjie V.; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Leoni, Renata F.; Merkle, Hellmut; Mackel, Julie B.; Zhang, Xian Feng; Nascimento, George C.; Stefanovic, Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has had an essential role in furthering our understanding of brain physiology and function. fMRI techniques are nowadays widely applied in neuroscience research, as well as in translational and clinical studies. The use of animal models in fMRI studies has been fundamental in helping elucidate the mechanisms of cerebral blood flow regulation, and in the exploration of basic neuroscience questions, such as the mechanisms of perception, behavior, and cognition. Because animals are inherently noncompliant, most fMRI performed to date have required the use of anesthesia, which interferes with brain function and compromises interpretability and applicability of results to our understanding of human brain function. An alternative approach that eliminates the need for anesthesia involves training the animal to tolerate physical restraint during the data acquisition. In the present work we review these two different approaches to obtaining fMRI data from animal models, with a specific focus on the acquisition of longitudinal data from the same subjects. PMID:21279608

  8. TU-F-12A-06: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING) - A Novel Catheter-Based Radionuclide Imaging System to Characterize Atherosclerotic Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, R; Kosuge, H; Carpenter, C; Pratx, G; Sun, C; McConnell, M; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Atherosclerosis underlies coronary artery diseases, the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. In this study, we developed a novel catheter-based radionuclide imaging (CRI) system to image 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), a radionuclide, a marker of vascular inflammation, in murine carotid arteries and characterized the system for spatial resolution from multiple scintillating materials. Methods: The catheter system includes 35 mm and 8 mm fixed focal length lenses, which are subsequently connected to a CMOS camera and fiber holder. The distal ferrule of an image bundle is terminated with a wide-angle lens. The novelty of this system is a scintillating balloon with a crystal tip in the front of the wide angle lens to image light from the decay of 18F-FDG emission signal. The scintillating balloon is fabricated from 1mL of silicone RTV catalyst mixed with 1 mL base and 50 mg/mL calcium fluoride doped with Europium (CaF2:Eu). To identify the optimal scintillating materials with respect to resolution, we calculated modulation transfer function (MTF) of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet doped with Cerium (YAG:Ce), anthracene, and CaF2:Eu phosphors using a thin line optical phantom (Fig. 1a-1b). Macrophage-rich FVB murine atherosclerotic carotid plaque model (n = 4) was used in ex vivo experiments. Confirmatory imaging was also performed by an external optical imaging system (IVIS-200). Results: Analysis of the different phosphors (Fig 1b) showed that CaF2:Eu enabled the best resolution of 1.2μm. The CRI system visualized 18F-FDG in atherosclerotic plaques (Fig. 1d). The ligated left carotid (LR) artery exhibited 4× higher 18F-FDG signal intensity compared to the non-ligated right carotid (negative control) artery (1.65×10{sup 2} ±4.07×10{sup 1} vs. 4.44×10{sup 1}±2.17×10{sup 0}, A.U., p = 0.005) and confirmed with IVIS-200 (Fig. 1d). Conclusion: This CRI system enables high-resolution and sensitive detection of 18F-FDG uptake by murine

  9. Television image compression and small animal remote monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Jackson, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    It was shown that a subject can reliably discriminate a difference in video image quality (using a specific commercial product) for image compression levels ranging from 384 kbits per second to 1536 kbits per second. However, their discriminations are significantly influenced by whether or not the TV camera is stable or moving and whether or not the animals are quiescent or active, which is correlated with illumination level (daylight versus night illumination, respectively). The highest video rate used here was 1.54 megabits per second, which is about 18 percent of the so-called normal TV resolution of 8.4MHz. Since this video rate was judged to be acceptable by 27 of the 34 subjects (79 percent), for monitoring the general health and status of small animals within their illuminated (lights on) cages (regardless of whether the camera was stable or moved), it suggests that an immediate Space Station Freedom to ground bandwidth reduction of about 80 percent can be tolerated without a significant loss in general monitoring capability. Another general conclusion is that the present methodology appears to be effective in quantifying visual judgments of video image quality.

  10. Television image compression and small animal remote monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Jackson, Robert W.

    1990-04-01

    It was shown that a subject can reliably discriminate a difference in video image quality (using a specific commercial product) for image compression levels ranging from 384 kbits per second to 1536 kbits per second. However, their discriminations are significantly influenced by whether or not the TV camera is stable or moving and whether or not the animals are quiescent or active, which is correlated with illumination level (daylight versus night illumination, respectively). The highest video rate used here was 1.54 megabits per second, which is about 18 percent of the so-called normal TV resolution of 8.4MHz. Since this video rate was judged to be acceptable by 27 of the 34 subjects (79 percent), for monitoring the general health and status of small animals within their illuminated (lights on) cages (regardless of whether the camera was stable or moved), it suggests that an immediate Space Station Freedom to ground bandwidth reduction of about 80 percent can be tolerated without a significant loss in general monitoring capability. Another general conclusion is that the present methodology appears to be effective in quantifying visual judgments of video image quality.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging for precise radiotherapy of small laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Ernst, Thomas Michael; Salamon, Johannes; Jäckel, Maria; Schumacher, Udo; Krüll, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Radiotherapy of small laboratory animals (SLA) is often not as precisely applied as in humans. Here we describe the use of a dedicated SLA magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner for precise tumor volumetry, radiotherapy treatment planning, and diagnostic imaging in order to make the experiments more accurate. Different human cancer cells were injected at the lower trunk of pfp/rag2 and SCID mice to allow for local tumor growth. Data from cross sectional MRI scans were transferred to a clinical treatment planning system (TPS) for humans. Manual palpation of the tumor size was compared with calculated tumor size of the TPS and with tumor weight at necropsy. As a feasibility study MRI based treatment plans were calculated for a clinical 6MV linear accelerator using a micro multileaf collimator (μMLC). In addition, diagnostic MRI scans were used to investigate animals which did clinical poorly during the study. MRI is superior in precise tumor volume definition whereas manual palpation underestimates their size. Cross sectional MRI allow for treatment planning so that conformal irradiation of mice with a clinical linear accelerator using a μMLC is in principle feasible. Several internal pathologies were detected during the experiment using the dedicated scanner. MRI is a key technology for precise radiotherapy of SLA. The scanning protocols provided are suited for tumor volumetry, treatment planning, and diagnostic imaging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Radionuclide imaging study of long-term pulmonary function after lobectomy in children with congenital cystic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Komori, Koji; Kamagata, Shoichiro; Hirobe, Seiichi; Toma, Miki; Okumura, Kenji; Muto, Mitsuru; Kasai, Shogo; Hayashi, Akira; Suenaga, Mayumi; Miyakawa, Tomoo

    2009-11-01

    We evaluated the long-term pulmonary function after lobectomy for congenital cystic lung disease, in both infants and children, using radionuclide imaging (RI). We performed a retrospective review of 93 patients who underwent resection of cystic lung lesions between 1974 and 2001. The results of postoperative lung volume/perfusion scintigraphy at 1 (n = 64), 5 (n = 32), and 10 years (n = 18) after surgery (V1, 5, 10/Q1, 5, 10) and mean transit time (MTT-a marker for air-trapping) at 1, 5, and 10 years after surgery (MTT1, 5, 10) were compared with respect to age at operation, preoperative infection, underlying disease, and type of surgery. Patients who were younger than 1 year at the time of surgery showed a significantly lower MTT5 (1.09 +/- 0.08) and MTT10 (1.15 +/- 0.11) than patients who were older than 1 year at the time of surgery (MTT5, 1.49 +/- 0.67; MTT10, 1.54 +/- 0.33). The noninfected group had significantly higher Q10 and lower MTT10 values (P < .05) compared to the infected group. No significant differences were observed between patients with single lobe vs multiple lobe resection. The optimal age for surgery in patients with congenital cystic lung disease appears to be less than 1 year.

  13. Gastric visualization and image quality in radionuclide bone scanning: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.A.; Pollack, M.J.

    1981-06-01

    In a 12-mo study period, there were 14 days identified when the stomach was visualized in routine bone imaging. On these days, 44% of the 110 patients imaged demonstrated this effect. Only the quality control, binding efficiency, and scan quality differed (p less than 0.005) when the study population was compared with a reference population of 162 patients. However, on the days when this effect was noted, there was a significant (p less than 0.001) linear correlation between the presence and degree of gastric visualization and the radiopharmaceutical incubation and quality control parameters. The study suggests a sporadic phenomenon that appears to result from partial oxidation of the agent during incubation, producing (a) different species of labeled diphosphonate that display altered affinity for bone (scan quality) and (b) free pertechnetate (gastric activity).

  14. Sensitivity of radionuclide brain imaging and computerized transaxial tomography in detecting subdural hematoma

    SciTech Connect

    Razzak, M.A.; Mudarris, F.; Christie, J.H.

    1980-04-01

    In a series of 23 patients with surgically proven subdural hematoma of durations ranging between two days to seven months, the detection rate of Tc-99m-pertechnetate brain imaging was higher than computerized transaxial tomography (CT). With dynamic perfusion scanning, the detection rate was 71.5%. In contrast, CT demonstrated the hematoma in 52% of the cases. Lastly, the result of CT scanning was dependent on the size of the subdural hematoma as evaluated at the time of operation.

  15. Advantages and limitations of imaging the musculoskeletal system by conventional radiological, radionuclide, and hybrid modalities.

    PubMed

    Vijayanathan, Sanjay; Butt, Sajid; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Groves, Ashley M

    2009-11-01

    The endpoint of an efficient and accurate diagnosis of musculoskeletal pathology can take many different routes. Currently, conventional radiological techniques, such as plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used in the assessment of patients with benign and malignant bone disease. An understanding of the advantages and limitations of the modalities available will help expedite diagnosis, and hence treatment. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the modalities available in investigating benign and malignant musculoskeletal pathology.

  16. Gate simulation of Compton Ar-Xe gamma-camera for radionuclide imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubov, L. Yu; Belyaev, V. N.; Berdnikova, A. K.; Bolozdynia, A. I.; Akmalova, Yu A.; Shtotsky, Yu V.

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulations of cylindrical Compton Ar-Xe gamma camera are described in the current report. Detection efficiency of cylindrical Ar-Xe Compton camera with internal diameter of 40 cm is estimated as1-3%that is 10-100 times higher than collimated Anger’s camera. It is shown that cylindrical Compton camera can image Tc-99m radiotracer distribution with uniform spatial resolution of 20 mm through the whole field of view.

  17. Use of radionuclide imaging to determine gastric emptying of carbohydrate solutions during exercise.

    PubMed Central

    MacLaren, D; Miles, A; O'Neill, I; Critchley, M; Grime, S; Stockdale, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the repeatability of continual assessment of the gastric emptying rates of carbohydrate solutions in exercising subjects using 99mtechnetium labelling. METHODS--Gastric emptying of a 5% glucose solution and an iso-osmotic maltodextrin solution was measured using 3 MBq of 99mtechnetium labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) and continuous gamma camera imaging in five male subjects. The subjects performed four 1 h trials at 70% VO2 peak on a cycle ergometer. After 15 min, 200 ml of a radiolabelled solution of glucose or maltodextrin were ingested in a blind crossover protocol. The two solutions were each ingested on separate occasions (trial 1 and trial 2) to establish repeatability. RESULTS--Statistical analysis showed no differences between trial 1 and trial 2 for both solutions. There were no significant differences for the emptying rates between the two test solutions. CONCLUSIONS--Posterior imaging using a computer linked gamma camera following the ingestion of 99mtechnetium labelled DTPA mixed with carbohydrate solutions provides a repeatable method of assessing gastric emptying characteristics in exercising subjects. This technique showed no significant differences between the emptying rates of a single dose of iso-osmotic glucose or maltodextrin solution. Images Fig 1 PMID:8665111

  18. Radionuclide (131)I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingyi; Zhao, Lingzhou; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Shen, Mingwu; Zhao, Jinhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-11-21

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive (131)I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5·NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and labeling of radioactive iodine-131 ((131)I). The generated multifunctional (131)I-G5·NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers were characterized via different methods. We show that prior to (131)I labeling, the G5·NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers conjugated with approximately 9.4 HPAO moieties per dendrimer are noncytotoxic at a concentration up to 20 μM and are able to target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors (FAR), thanks to the modified FA ligands. In the presence of a phenol group, radioactive (131)I is able to be efficiently labeled onto the dendrimer platform with good stability and high radiochemical purity, and render the platform with an ability for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an FAR-overexpressing xenografted tumor model in vivo. The designed strategy to use the facile dendrimer nanotechnology may be extended to develop various radioactive theranostic nanoplatforms for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of different types of cancer.

  19. Small Animal Imaging Center Design: The Facility at the UCLA Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stout, David B.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Lawson, Timothy P.; Silverman, Robert W.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Phelps, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The growing number of mouse and rat experiments, coupled with advances in small-animal imaging systems such as microPET®, optical, microCAT™, microMR, ultrasound and microSPECT, has necessitated a common technical center for imaging small animals. Procedures At the UCLA Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, we have designed and built a facility to support the research interests of a wide range of investigators from multiple disciplines. Requirements to satisfy both research and regulatory oversight have been critically examined. Support is provided for investigator training, study scheduling, data acquisition, archiving, image display, and analysis. Results The center has been in operation for more than 18 months, supporting more than 13,000 individual imaging procedures. Conclusions We have created a facility that maximizes our resource utilization while providing optimal investigator support, as well as the means to continually improve the quality and diversity of the science by integrating physical and biological sciences. PMID:16261425

  20. Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: animal experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tian; Meaney, Paul M.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Geimer, Shireen D.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2011-03-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) uses focused ultrasound beams to ablate localized tumors noninvasively. Multiple clinical trials using HIFU treatment of liver, kidney, breast, pancreas and brain tumors have been conducted, while monitoring the temperature distribution with various imaging modalities such as MRI, CT and ultrasound. HIFU has achieved only minimal acceptance partially due to insufficient guidance from the limited temperature monitoring capability and availability. MR proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift thermometry is currently the most effective monitoring method; however, it is insensitive in temperature changes in fat, susceptible to motion artifacts, and is high cost. Exploiting the relationship between dielectric properties (i.e. permittivity and conductivity) and tissue temperature, in vivo dielectric property distributions of tissue during heating were reconstructed with our microwave tomographic imaging technology. Previous phantom studies have demonstrated sub-Celsius temperature accuracy and sub-centimeter spatial resolution in microwave thermal imaging. In this paper, initial animal experiments have been conducted to further investigate its potential. In vivo conductivity changes inside the piglet's liver due to focused ultrasound heating were observed in the microwave images with good correlation between conductivity changes and temperature.

  1. Radionuclide 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Zhao, Lingzhou; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Shen, Mingwu; Zhao, Jinhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and labeling of radioactive iodine-131 (131I). The generated multifunctional 131I-G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers were characterized via different methods. We show that prior to 131I labeling, the G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers conjugated with approximately 9.4 HPAO moieties per dendrimer are noncytotoxic at a concentration up to 20 μM and are able to target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors (FAR), thanks to the modified FA ligands. In the presence of a phenol group, radioactive 131I is able to be efficiently labeled onto the dendrimer platform with good stability and high radiochemical purity, and render the platform with an ability for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an FAR-overexpressing xenografted tumor model in vivo. The designed strategy to use the facile dendrimer nanotechnology may be extended to develop various radioactive theranostic nanoplatforms for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of different types of cancer.We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and

  2. UK audit of relative lung function measurement from planar radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Fleming, John S; Whalley, Dave R; Skrypniuk, John V; Jarritt, Peter H; Houston, Alex S; Cosgriff, Phil S; Bailey, Dale

    2004-09-01

    Quantitative measurements of regional lung ventilation and perfusion are useful adjuncts to image interpretation. This study investigated the accuracy and precision of the software used to carry out such measurements in the UK. Ten examples of perfusion distribution, representing the range of patterns expected in practice, were simulated on computer using a segmental model of the lung and real three-dimensional lung shapes obtained from magnetic resonance images. Pairs of anterior and posterior perfusion images were simulated and distributed to UK hospitals wishing to take part in the audit. Each centre returned analysis results and technical details. Forty centres provided data on the relative right:left lung perfusion. Thirteen also submitted data with each lung divided into three zones and four with each lung divided into two zones. All measurements were expressed by the percentage of total perfusion in a particular region. Errors were assessed as the root-mean-square (rms) deviation from the true value. Methods varied in the view used for analysis (80% geometric mean, 20% posterior) and the use of background subtraction (71% not used, 29% used). The rms error for percentage right assessment was 1.5 percentage points. This increased on two- and three-zone analysis to 3.8 and 4.3 percentage points, respectively. Differences in technique made little difference to whole-lung relative perfusion errors, but were important in zonal analysis. Quantification of whole-lung relative function is accurate and reproducible. Zonal values are determined less accurately, but still provide a useful guide to the distribution of function.

  3. The Role of Radionuclide Imaging in Epilepsy, Part 2: Epilepsy Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Chugani, Harry T

    2017-03-01

    PET and SPECT can play an important role in the evaluation of various epileptic syndromes, particularly those with unknown causes, by revealing various underlying abnormalities that may not be fully appreciated from MR imaging studies. In some cases, PET and SPECT provide crucial data that guide surgical resections of the epileptogenic zone for medically refractory epilepsy. In other cases, these neuroimaging modalities preclude a surgical option and can guide genetic studies. Longitudinal PET and SPECT studies may increase our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of epilepsy syndromes and provide a clearer picture of the natural history of neurologic progression.

  4. The role of radionuclide imaging in epilepsy, part 2: epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Chugani, Harry T

    2013-11-01

    PET and SPECT can play an important role in the evaluation of various epileptic syndromes, particularly those with unknown causes, by revealing various underlying abnormalities that may not be fully appreciated from MR imaging studies. In some cases, PET and SPECT provide crucial data that guide surgical resections of the epileptogenic zone for medically refractory epilepsy. In other cases, these neuroimaging modalities preclude a surgical option and can guide genetic studies. Longitudinal PET and SPECT studies may increase our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of epilepsy syndromes and provide a clearer picture of the natural history of neurologic progression.

  5. Quantitative tomographic imaging of intermolecular FRET in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vivek; Chen, Jin; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a nonradiative transfer of energy between two fluorescent molecules (a donor and an acceptor) in nanometer range proximity. FRET imaging methods have been applied to proteomic studies and drug discovery applications based on intermolecular FRET efficiency measurements and stoichiometric measurements of FRET interaction as quantitative parameters of interest. Importantly, FRET provides information about biomolecular interactions at a molecular level, well beyond the diffraction limits of standard microscopy techniques. The application of FRET to small animal imaging will allow biomedical researchers to investigate physiological processes occurring at nanometer range in vivo as well as in situ. In this work a new method for the quantitative reconstruction of FRET measurements in small animals, incorporating a full-field tomographic acquisition system with a Monte Carlo based hierarchical reconstruction scheme, is described and validated in murine models. Our main objective is to estimate the relative concentration of two forms of donor species, i.e., a donor molecule involved in FRETing to an acceptor close by and a nonFRETing donor molecule. PMID:23243567

  6. Bioluminescence imaging of fungal biofilm development in live animals.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, Greetje; Kucharíková, Soňa; Van Dijck, Patrick; Himmelreich, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Fungal biofilms formed on various types of medical implants represent a major problem for hospitalized patients. These biofilms and related infections are usually difficult to treat because of their resistance to the classical antifungal drugs. Animal models are indispensable for investigating host-pathogen interactions and for identifying new antifungal targets related to biofilm development. A limited number of animal models is available that can be used for testing novel antifungal drugs in vivo against C. albicans, one of the most common pathogens causing fungal biofilms. Fungal load in biofilms in these models is traditionally analyzed postmortem, requiring host sacrifice and enumeration of microorganisms from individual biofilms in order to evaluate the amount of colony forming units and the efficacy of antifungal treatment. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) made compatible with small animal models for in vivo biofilm formation is a valuable noninvasive tool to follow-up biofilm development and its treatment longitudinally, reducing the number of animals needed for such studies. Due to the nondestructive and noninvasive nature of BLI, the imaging procedure can be repeated in the same animal, allowing follow-up of the biofilm growth in vivo without removing the implanted device or detaching the biofilm from its substrate. The method described here introduces BLI of C. albicans biofilm formation in vivo on subcutaneously implanted catheters in mice. One of the main challenges to overcome for BLI of fungi is the hampered intracellular substrate delivery through the fungal cell wall, which is managed by using extracellularly located Gaussia luciferase. Although detecting a quantifiable in vivo BLI signal from biofilms formed on the inside of implanted catheters is challenging, BLI proved to be a practical tool in the study of fungal biofilms. This method describing the use of BLI for in vivo follow-up of device-related fungal biofilm formation has the potential for

  7. Cell-SELEX aptamer for highly specific radionuclide molecular imaging of glioblastoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xidong; Liang, Huiyu; Tan, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Li, Shuji; Li, Xiaowen; Li, Guiping; Shi, Yusheng; Zhang, Xingmei

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive primary adult brain tumor with poor prognosis. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most common and highly oncogenic EGFR mutant in GBM. With the aim to generate specific molecular probes able to target EGFRvIII with high affinity, we selected four DNA aptamers (U2, U8, U19 and U31) specifically bound to U87-EGFRvIII cells that over expressed EGFRvIII with Kd values in the nanomole range by a cell-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX) process. U87MG cells were introduced as control cells for counter selection. We further affirmed U2 and U8 identified EGFRvIII on the surface of target cells specifically. Then we radiolabeled U2 with 188Re to serve as a molecular imaging probe and observed 188Re -labeled U2 significantly targeted EGFRvIII over-expressing glioblastoma exnografts in mice. In conclusion, aptamers obtained from whole cell-SELEX strategy have great potential as molecular imaging probes that are probably beneficial to GBM diagnoses.

  8. Cell-SELEX Aptamer for Highly Specific Radionuclide Molecular Imaging of Glioblastoma In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Li, Shuji; Li, Xiaowen; Li, Guiping; Shi, Yusheng; Zhang, Xingmei

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive primary adult brain tumor with poor prognosis. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most common and highly oncogenic EGFR mutant in GBM. With the aim to generate specific molecular probes able to target EGFRvIII with high affinity, we selected four DNA aptamers (U2, U8, U19 and U31) specifically bound to U87-EGFRvIII cells that over expressed EGFRvIII with Kd values in the nanomole range by a cell-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX) process. U87MG cells were introduced as control cells for counter selection. We further affirmed U2 and U8 identified EGFRvIII on the surface of target cells specifically. Then we radiolabeled U2 with 188Re to serve as a molecular imaging probe and observed 188Re -labeled U2 significantly targeted EGFRvIII over-expressing glioblastoma exnografts in mice. In conclusion, aptamers obtained from whole cell-SELEX strategy have great potential as molecular imaging probes that are probably beneficial to GBM diagnoses. PMID:24603483

  9. ALBIRA: a small animal PET∕SPECT∕CT imaging system.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, F; Orero, A; Soriano, A; Correcher, C; Conde, P; González, A; Hernández, L; Moliner, L; Rodríguez-Alvarez, M J; Vidal, L F; Benlloch, J M; Chapman, S E; Leevy, W M

    2013-05-01

    The authors have developed a trimodal PET∕SPECT∕CT scanner for small animal imaging. The gamma ray subsystems are based on monolithic crystals coupled to multianode photomultiplier tubes (MA-PMTs), while computed tomography (CT) comprises a commercially available microfocus x-ray tube and a CsI scintillator 2D pixelated flat panel x-ray detector. In this study the authors will report on the design and performance evaluation of the multimodal system. X-ray transmission measurements are performed based on cone-beam geometry. Individual projections were acquired by rotating the x-ray tube and the 2D flat panel detector, thus making possible a transaxial field of view (FOV) of roughly 80 mm in diameter and an axial FOV of 65 mm for the CT system. The single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) component has a dual head detector geometry mounted on a rotating gantry. The distance between the SPECT module detectors can be varied in order to optimize specific user requirements, including variable FOV. The positron emission tomography (PET) system is made up of eight compact modules forming an octagon with an axial FOV of 40 mm and a transaxial FOV of 80 mm in diameter. The main CT image quality parameters (spatial resolution and uniformity) have been determined. In the case of the SPECT, the tomographic spatial resolution and system sensitivity have been evaluated with a (99m)Tc solution using single-pinhole and multi-pinhole collimators. PET and SPECT images were reconstructed using three-dimensional (3D) maximum likelihood and ordered subset expectation maximization (MLEM and OSEM) algorithms developed by the authors, whereas the CT images were obtained using a 3D based FBP algorithm. CT spatial resolution was 85 μm while a uniformity of 2.7% was obtained for a water filled phantom at 45 kV. The SPECT spatial resolution was better than 0.8 mm measured with a Derenzo-like phantom for a FOV of 20 mm using a 1-mm pinhole aperture collimator. The full width at

  10. The role of radionuclide imaging in the surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hindié, Elif; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Tabarin, Antoine; Rubello, Domenico; Morelec, Isabelle; Wagner, Tristan; Henry, Jean-François; Taïeb, David

    2015-05-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a frequent and potentially debilitating endocrine disorder for which surgery is the only curative treatment. The modalities of parathyroid surgery have changed over the last 2 decades, as conventional bilateral neck exploration is no longer the only surgical approach. Parathyroid scintigraphy plays a major role in defining the surgical strategy, given its ability to orient a targeted (focused) parathyroidectomy and to recognize ectopic locations or multiglandular disease. This review, which represents a collaborative effort between nuclear physicians, endocrinologists, and endocrine surgeons, emphasizes the importance of performing imaging before any surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism, even in the case of conventional bilateral neck exploration. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of targeted parathyroidectomy and the performance of various scintigraphic protocols to guide limited surgery. We also discuss the optimal strategy to localize the offending gland before reoperation for persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Finally, we describe the potential applications of novel PET tracers, with special emphasis on (18)F-fluorocholine.

  11. Angle correction for small animal tumor imaging with spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanyu; Tabassum, Syeda; Piracha, Shaheer; Nandhu, Mohan Sobhana; Viapiano, Mariano; Roblyer, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) is a widefield imaging technique that allows for the quantitative extraction of tissue optical properties. SFDI is currently being explored for small animal tumor imaging, but severe imaging artifacts occur for highly curved surfaces (e.g. the tumor edge). We propose a modified Lambertian angle correction, adapted from the Minnaert correction method for satellite imagery, to account for tissue surface angles up to 75°. The method was tested in a hemisphere phantom study as well as a small animal tumor model. The proposed method reduced µa and µs` extraction errors by an average of 64% and 16% respectively compared to performing no angle correction, and provided more physiologically agreeable optical property and chromophore values on tumors. PMID:27375952

  12. Engineering an antibody with picomolar affinity to DOTA chelates of multiple radionuclides for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Orcutt, Kelly Davis; Slusarczyk, Adrian L; Cieslewicz, Maryelise; Ruiz-Yi, Benjamin; Bhushan, Kumar R; Frangioni, John V; Wittrup, K Dane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT), a bifunctional antibody is administered and allowed to pre-localize to tumor cells. Subsequently, a chelated radionuclide is administered and captured by cell-bound antibody while unbound hapten clears rapidly from the body. We aim to engineer high-affinity binders to DOTA chelates for use in PRIT applications. Methods We mathematically modeled antibody and hapten pharmacokinetics to analyze hapten tumor retention as a function of hapten binding affinity. Motivated by model predictions, we used directed evolution and yeast surface display to affinity mature the 2D12.5 antibody to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), reformatted as a single chain variable fragment (scFv). Results Modeling predicts that for high antigen density and saturating bsAb dose, a hapten binding affinity of 100 picomolar (pM) is needed for near-maximal hapten retention. We affinity matured 2D12.5 with an initial binding constant of about 10 nanomolar (nM) to DOTA-yttrium chelates. Affinity maturation resulted in a 1000-fold affinity improvement to biotinylated DOTA-yttrium, yielding an 8.2 ± 1.9 picomolar binder. The high-affinity scFv binds DOTA complexes of lutetium and gadolinium with similar picomolar affinity and indium chelates with low nanomolar affinity. When engineered into a bispecific antibody construct targeting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), pretargeted high-affinity scFv results in significantly higher tumor retention of a 111In-DOTA hapten compared to pretargeted wild-type scFv in a xenograft mouse model. Conclusions We have engineered a versatile, high-affinity DOTA-chelate-binding scFv. We anticipate it will prove useful in developing pretargeted imaging and therapy protocols to exploit the potential of a variety of radiometals. PMID:21315278

  13. Radionuclide cholescintigraphic imaging: an evaluation of several 99mTc labelled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    van Aswegen, A; van Wyk, J; Roodt, J P; Lötter, M G; Otto, A C; Minnaar, P C

    1986-01-01

    Recently, much interest has been shown in the development of 99mTc labelled cholescintigraphic agents for imaging the hepatobiliary tract. In this study six cholescintigraphic agents were compared in rabbits with respect to transit efficiency through the liver and the halftime on the washout portion of the liver time-activity curve. The agents compared were p-butyl-IDA (PBIDA), diisopropyl-IDA (DISIDA), two mebrofenin (MBF) agents and two pyridoxylaminates (PDA). Best transit efficiencies were obtained with MBF (34.1 and 31.2%) followed by PDA (27.7 and 24.9%) while DISIDA (23%) and PBIDA (19.3%) were the lowest. The same phenomenon was observed regarding the washout halftime, with MBF the most rapid (6.3 and 5.9 min), PDA more prolonged (10.1 and 12.0 min) and DISIDA and PBIDA the slowest (23.0 and 23.2 min). This study confirms the difference in physiological behaviour of the various cholescintigraphic agents and shows identical flow patterns for locally produced and imported compounds.

  14. Evaluation of attenuation and scatter correction requirements in small animal PET and SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konik, Arda Bekir

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) are two nuclear emission-imaging modalities that rely on the detection of high-energy photons emitted from radiotracers administered to the subject. The majority of these photons are attenuated (absorbed or scattered) in the body, resulting in count losses or deviations from true detection, which in turn degrades the accuracy of images. In clinical emission tomography, sophisticated correction methods are often required employing additional x-ray CT or radionuclide transmission scans. Having proven their potential in both clinical and research areas, both PET and SPECT are being adapted for small animal imaging. However, despite the growing interest in small animal emission tomography, little scientific information exists about the accuracy of these correction methods on smaller size objects, and what level of correction is required. The purpose of this work is to determine the role of attenuation and scatter corrections as a function of object size through simulations. The simulations were performed using Interactive Data Language (IDL) and a Monte Carlo based package, Geant4 application for emission tomography (GATE). In IDL simulations, PET and SPECT data acquisition were modeled in the presence of attenuation. A mathematical emission and attenuation phantom approximating a thorax slice and slices from real PET/CT data were scaled to 5 different sizes (i.e., human, dog, rabbit, rat and mouse). The simulated emission data collected from these objects were reconstructed. The reconstructed images, with and without attenuation correction, were compared to the ideal (i.e., non-attenuated) reconstruction. Next, using GATE, scatter fraction values (the ratio of the scatter counts to the total counts) of PET and SPECT scanners were measured for various sizes of NEMA (cylindrical phantoms representing small animals and human), MOBY (realistic mouse/rat model) and XCAT (realistic human model

  15. Radionuclide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

  16. Multi-institutional MicroCT image comparison of image-guided small animal irradiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Chris D.; Lindsay, Patricia; E Graves, Edward; Wong, Eugene; Perez, Jessica R.; Poirier, Yannick; Ben-Bouchta, Youssef; Kanesalingam, Thilakshan; Chen, Haijian; E Rubinstein, Ashley; Sheng, Ke; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    To recommend imaging protocols and establish tolerance levels for microCT image quality assurance (QA) performed on conformal image-guided small animal irradiators. A fully automated QA software SAPA (small animal phantom analyzer) for image analysis of the commercial Shelley micro-CT MCTP 610 phantom was developed, in which quantitative analyses of CT number linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, spatial resolution by means of modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT contrast were performed. Phantom microCT scans from eleven institutions acquired with four image-guided small animal irradiator units (including the commercial PXi X-RAD SmART and Xstrahl SARRP systems) with varying parameters used for routine small animal imaging were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using SAPA, based on which tolerance levels for each QA test were established and imaging protocols for QA were recommended. By analyzing microCT data from 11 institutions, we established image QA tolerance levels for all image quality tests. CT number linearity set to R 2  >  0.990 was acceptable in microCT data acquired at all but three institutions. Acceptable SNR  >  36 and noise levels  <55 HU were obtained at five of the eleven institutions, where failing scans were acquired with current-exposure time of less than 120 mAs. Acceptable spatial resolution (>1.5 lp mm-1 for MTF  =  0.2) was obtained at all but four institutions due to their large image voxel size used (>0.275 mm). Ten of the eleven institutions passed the set QA tolerance for geometric accuracy (<1.5%) and nine of the eleven institutions passed the QA tolerance for contrast (>2000 HU for 30 mgI ml-1). We recommend performing imaging QA with 70 kVp, 1.5 mA, 120 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and a frame rate of 5 fps for the PXi X-RAD SmART. For the Xstrahl SARRP, we recommend using 60 kVp, 1.0 mA, 240 s imaging time, 0.20

  17. Multi-institutional MicroCT image comparison of image-guided small animal irradiators.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Chris D; Lindsay, Patricia; Graves, Edward E; Wong, Eugene; Perez, Jessica R; Poirier, Yannick; Ben-Bouchta, Youssef; Kanesalingam, Thilakshan; Chen, Haijian; Rubinstein, Ashley E; Sheng, Ke; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2017-06-26

    To recommend imaging protocols and establish tolerance levels for microCT image quality assurance (QA) performed on conformal image-guided small animal irradiators. A fully automated QA software SAPA (small animal phantom analyzer) for image analysis of the commercial Shelley micro-CT MCTP 610 phantom was developed, in which quantitative analyses of CT number linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, spatial resolution by means of modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT contrast were performed. Phantom microCT scans from eleven institutions acquired with four image-guided small animal irradiator units (including the commercial PXi X-RAD SmART and Xstrahl SARRP systems) with varying parameters used for routine small animal imaging were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using SAPA, based on which tolerance levels for each QA test were established and imaging protocols for QA were recommended. By analyzing microCT data from 11 institutions, we established image QA tolerance levels for all image quality tests. CT number linearity set to R (2)  >  0.990 was acceptable in microCT data acquired at all but three institutions. Acceptable SNR  >  36 and noise levels  <55 HU were obtained at five of the eleven institutions, where failing scans were acquired with current-exposure time of less than 120 mAs. Acceptable spatial resolution (>1.5 lp mm(-1) for MTF  =  0.2) was obtained at all but four institutions due to their large image voxel size used (>0.275 mm). Ten of the eleven institutions passed the set QA tolerance for geometric accuracy (<1.5%) and nine of the eleven institutions passed the QA tolerance for contrast (>2000 HU for 30 mgI ml(-1)). We recommend performing imaging QA with 70 kVp, 1.5 mA, 120 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and a frame rate of 5 fps for the PXi X-RAD SmART. For the Xstrahl SARRP, we recommend using 60 kVp, 1.0 mA, 240 s imaging time, 0.20

  18. High-Resolution 125I Small Animal Imaging With a Coded Aperture and a Hybrid Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accorsi, Roberto; Celentano, Luigi; Laccetti, Paolo; Lanza, Richard C.; Marotta, Marcello; Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Roberti, Giuseppe; Russo, Paolo

    2008-02-01

    We report on tests of a radionuclide imaging system for in vivo investigations in small animals with low-energy photons as from 125I (27-35 keV). Imaging optics features a high-resolution coded aperture mask and a fine pitch hybrid pixel detector (silicon 300-mum or 700-mum thick, or CdTe 1 mm thick) of the Medipix2 series (55 mum pitch, 256 x 256 pixels). The coded aperture had 480 70-mum holes in 100-mum-thick tungsten. Laboratory tests with a 109Cd 22 keV source and a microfocus X-ray tube (35 kVp, Mo anode) show a system resolution of about 110 mum at magnification m = 2.12 and a sensitivity improvement of 30:1 as compared to a 300-mum pinhole collimator. The field of view also depends on magnification: in the experiments presented, it varied from 6 mm (m = 2.12) to 21 mm (m = 0.66). 125I in vivo mouse thyroid imaging with the 70 mum coded aperture, a 300 mum pinhole and a 100 mum parallel hole collimator was also performed to obtain a qualitative comparison. This low energy, semiconductor-based, compact gamma-ray imaging system can be used as a gamma-ray sub-millimeter resolution imager for energies below about 35 keV and it is the basic imaging unit of a small animal Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography system (MediSPECT) built at University of Napoli Federico II and Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Napoli.

  19. Image animation for theme enhancement and change detection. [LANDSAT 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Animated displays are useful in enhancing subtle temporally related changes in scenes viewed by satellites capable of providing repetitive coverage. The detectability of fixed features is also improved through the help of the powerful visual integration process. To expedite the process of assembling and displaying well-registered, time-lapse sequences and to provide means for making quantitative measurements of radiances, displacements, and areas, an electronic satellite image analysis console was constructed. During the LANDSAT-1 program, this equipment was applied to the needs of a number of earth resource investigators with interests principally related to dynamic hydrology. The measurement of the areal extent of snow cover within defined drainage basins is discussed as a representative applications example.

  20. Image animation for theme enhancement and change detection. [LANDSAT 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Animated displays are useful in enhancing subtle temporally related changes in scenes viewed by satellites capable of providing repetitive coverage. The detectability of fixed features is also improved through the help of the powerful visual integration process. To expedite the process of assembling and displaying well-registered, time-lapse sequences and to provide means for making quantitative measurements of radiances, displacements, and areas, an electronic satellite image analysis console was constructed. During the LANDSAT-1 program, this equipment was applied to the needs of a number of earth resource investigators with interests principally related to dynamic hydrology. The measurement of the areal extent of snow cover within defined drainage basins is discussed as a representative applications example.

  1. Simultaneous acquisition of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data and positron emission tomography (PET) images with a prototype MR-compatible, small animal PET imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Velan, S. Sendhil; Lemieux, Susan; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2007-06-01

    Multi-modality imaging (such as PET-CT) is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET, fused with anatomical images created by MRI, allow the correlation of form with function. Perhaps more exciting than the combination of anatomical MRI with PET, is the melding of PET with MR spectroscopy (MRS). Thus, two aspects of physiology could be combined in novel ways to produce new insights into the physiology of normal and pathological processes. Our team is developing a system to acquire MRI images and MRS spectra, and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype MR-compatible PET system consists of two opposed detector heads (appropriate in size for small animal imaging), operating in coincidence mode with an active field-of-view of ˜14 cm in diameter. Each detector consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a 2-m long fiber optic light guide to a single position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. The use of light guides allows these magnetic field-sensitive elements of the PET imager to be positioned outside the strong magnetic field of our 3T MRI scanner. The PET scanner imager was integrated with a 12-cm diameter, 12-leg custom, birdcage coil. Simultaneous MRS spectra and PET images were successfully acquired from a multi-modality phantom consisting of a sphere filled with 17 brain relevant substances and a positron-emitting radionuclide. There were no significant changes in MRI or PET scanner performance when both were present in the MRI magnet bore. This successful initial test demonstrates the potential for using such a multi-modality to obtain complementary MRS and PET data.

  2. Optimising rigid motion compensation for small animal brain PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler-Bickell, Matthew G.; Zhou, Lin; Kyme, Andre Z.; De Laat, Bart; Fulton, Roger R.; Nuyts, Johan

    2016-10-01

    Motion compensation (MC) in PET brain imaging of awake small animals is attracting increased attention in preclinical studies since it avoids the confounding effects of anaesthesia and enables behavioural tests during the scan. A popular MC technique is to use multiple external cameras to track the motion of the animal’s head, which is assumed to be represented by the motion of a marker attached to its forehead. In this study we have explored several methods to improve the experimental setup and the reconstruction procedures of this method: optimising the camera-marker separation; improving the temporal synchronisation between the motion tracker measurements and the list-mode stream; post-acquisition smoothing and interpolation of the motion data; and list-mode reconstruction with appropriately selected subsets. These techniques have been tested and verified on measurements of a moving resolution phantom and brain scans of an awake rat. The proposed techniques improved the reconstructed spatial resolution of the phantom by 27% and of the rat brain by 14%. We suggest a set of optimal parameter values to use for awake animal PET studies and discuss the relative significance of each parameter choice.

  3. Renal imaging: a comparison of radionuclide, ultrasound, and computed tomographic scanning in investigation of renal space-occupying lesions.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, P H; Osborn, D E; Testa, H J; Asbury, D L; Best, J J; Barnard, R J

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out in which 27 and 23 patients respectively with renal space-occupying lesions were assessed by different techniques and the results compared. Instead of proceeding to renal arteriography after the lesion had been found on urography, radionuclide and ultrasound scanning were used in the first study to clarify the nature of the lesions, while in the second study computed tomography was used as well. Results were good with all three methods, although ultrasonography and radionuclide scanning cannot resolve lesions of under 2 cm in diameter and the radiation dose with computed tomography is similar to that used in renal arteriography. Probably the best method of evaluating renal space-occupying lesions after urography is to use both ultrasound and radionuclide scanning. If further information is required computed tomography or arteriography is indicated. PMID:6781661

  4. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  5. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist’s approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation. PMID:20002229

  6. 3-D visualization and animation technologies in anatomical imaging.

    PubMed

    McGhee, John

    2010-02-01

    This paper explores a 3-D computer artist's approach to the creation of three-dimensional computer-generated imagery (CGI) derived from clinical scan data. Interpretation of scientific imagery, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is restricted to the eye of the trained medical practitioner in a clinical or scientific context. In the research work described here, MRI data are visualized and interpreted by a 3-D computer artist using the tools of the digital animator to navigate image complexity and widen interaction. In this process, the artefact moves across disciplines; it is no longer tethered to its diagnostic origins. It becomes an object that has visual attributes such as light, texture and composition, and a visual aesthetic of its own. The introduction of these visual attributes provides a platform for improved accessibility by a lay audience. The paper argues that this more artisan approach to clinical data visualization has a potential real-world application as a communicative tool for clinicians and patients during consultation.

  7. Synthesis, radiofluorination, and in vivo evaluation of novel fluorinated and iodinated radiotracers for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Billaud, Emilie M F; Rbah-Vidal, Latifa; Vidal, Aurélien; Besse, Sophie; Tarrit, Sébastien; Askienazy, Serge; Maisonial, Aurélie; Moins, Nicole; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Auzeloux, Philippe

    2013-11-14

    Our project deals with a multimodal approach using a single fluorinated and iodinated melanin-targeting structure and offering both imaging (positron emission tomography (PET)/fluorine-18) and treatment (targeted radionuclide therapy/iodine-131) of melanoma. Six 6-iodoquinoxaline-2-carboxamide derivatives with various side chains bearing fluorine were synthesized and radiofluorinated, and their in vivo biodistribution was studied by PET imaging in B16Bl6 primary melanoma-bearing mice. Among this series, [(18)F]8 emerged as the most promising compound. [(18)F]8 was obtained by a fully automated radiosynthesis process within 57 min with an overall radiochemical yield of 21%, decay-corrected. PET imaging of [(18)F]8 demonstrated very encouraging results as early as 1 h postinjection with high tumor uptake (14.33% ± 2.11% ID/g), high contrast (11.04 ± 2.87 tumor-to-muscle ratio), and favorable clearance properties. These results, associated with the previously reported pharmacokinetic properties and dosimetry of 8, make it a potential agent for both PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

  8. Coronary Computed Tomography Versus Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Chest Pain Patients Admitted to Telemetry: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Levsky, Jeffrey M.; Spevack, Daniel M.; Travin, Mark I.; Menegus, Mark A.; Huang, Paul W.; Clark, Elana T.; Kim, Choo-won; Hirschhorn, Esther; Freeman, Katherine D.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Haramati, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coronary computed tomography angiography plays an expanding role managing symptomatic patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Prospective intermediate-term outcomes are lacking. OBJECTIVE To compare coronary CT angiography with conventional non-invasive testing. DESIGN Randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness trial. SETTING Telemetry-monitored wards of one inner-city medical center. PATIENTS 400 acute chest pain patients (mean age 57); 63% women; 54% Hispanic, 37% African-American; low socioeconomic status. INTERVENTION Coronary CT angiography (CT) or radionuclide stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome was cardiac catheterization not leading to revascularization within one year. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, resource utilization and patient experience. Safety outcomes included death, major cardiovascular events and radiation exposure. RESULTS 30(15%) CT patients and 32(16%) MPI patients underwent cardiac catheterization within one year, of which 15(7.5%) and 20(10%), respectively, were not revascularized (-2.5% difference, 95%CI −8.6%–+3.5%; hazard ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.40–1.49, p=0.44). Median length of stay was 28.9 hours for CT and 30.4 hours for MPI (p=0.057). Median follow-up was 40.4 months. For CT and MPI, the incidences of death (0.5% vs 3%, p=0.12), non-fatal cardiovascular events (4.5% vs 4.5%), re-hospitalization (43% vs 49%), emergency visit (63% vs 58%) and outpatient cardiology visit (23% vs 21%) were not different. Long-term, all-cause radiation was lower for CT (24 vs 29 milliSieverts, p<0.001). More CT patients graded their experience favorably (p=0.001) and would undergo the exam again (p=0.003). LIMITATIONS Single site study; primary outcome dependent on clinical management decisions. CONCLUSIONS There were no significant differences between CT and MPI in outcomes or resource utilization over 40 months. CT had lower associated radiation and was more positively

  9. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Versus Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Patients With Chest Pain Admitted to Telemetry: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Levsky, Jeffrey M; Spevack, Daniel M; Travin, Mark I; Menegus, Mark A; Huang, Paul W; Clark, Elana T; Kim, Choo-Won; Hirschhorn, Esther; Freeman, Katherine D; Tobin, Jonathan N; Haramati, Linda B

    2015-08-04

    The role of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the management of symptomatic patients suspected of having coronary artery disease is expanding. However, prospective intermediate-term outcomes are lacking. To compare CCTA with conventional noninvasive testing. Randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00705458). Telemetry-monitored wards of an inner-city medical center. 400 patients with acute chest pain (mean age, 57 years); 63% women; 54% Hispanic and 37% African-American; and low socioeconomic status. CCTA or radionuclide stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The primary outcome was cardiac catheterization not leading to revascularization within 1 year. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, resource utilization, and patient experience. Safety outcomes included death, major cardiovascular events, and radiation exposure. Thirty (15%) patients who had CCTA and 32 (16%) who had MPI underwent cardiac catheterization within 1 year. Fifteen (7.5%) and 20 (10%) of these patients, respectively, did not undergo revascularization (difference, -2.5 percentage points [95% CI, -8.6 to 3.5 percentage points]; hazard ratio, 0.77 [CI, 0.40 to 1.49]; P = 0.44). Median length of stay was 28.9 hours for the CCTA group and 30.4 hours for the MPI group (P = 0.057). Median follow-up was 40.4 months. For the CCTA and MPI groups, the incidence of death (0.5% versus 3%; P = 0.12), nonfatal cardiovascular events (4.5% versus 4.5%), rehospitalization (43% versus 49%), emergency department visit (63% versus 58%), and outpatient cardiology visit (23% versus 21%) did not differ. Long-term, all-cause radiation exposure was lower for the CCTA group (24 versus 29 mSv; P < 0.001). More patients in the CCTA group graded their experience favorably (P = 0.001) and would undergo the examination again (P = 0.003). This was a single-site study, and the primary outcome depended on clinical management decisions. The CCTA and MPI groups did

  10. The implications of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical technology. Background paper number 2: case studies of medical technologies. Case study number 13: cardiac radionuclide imaging and cost effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Cardiac radionuclide imaging is a new and rapidly expanding diagnostic technology that promises to make significant contributions to the diagnosis and management of heart disease. Dynamic changes are occurring in the technology at the same time diffusion is taking place. The combination of diffusion and technological development creates an imperative for careful evaluation and prospective planning. Clinical applications of cardiac imaging include the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, evaluation of cardiac function abnormalities, verification of the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and monitoring of patients under treatment for establishing cardiac disease. The report describes the dimensions of the technology of cardiac radionuclide imaging. Information is summarized on the industry producing radionuclide imaging equipment, on clinical applications of technology, and on the costs and efficacies of the various techniques. Finally, formulation of some of the issues involved in the assessment of the technology's cost effectiveness is presented.

  11. Implementation and assessment of an animal management system for small-animal micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, David W.; Detombe, Sarah A.; Chiodo, Chris; Fricke, Stanley T.; Drangova, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Advances in laboratory imaging systems for CT, SPECT, MRI, and PET facilitate routine micro-imaging during pre-clinical investigations. Challenges still arise when dealing with immune-compromised animals, biohazardous agents, and multi-modality imaging. These challenges can be overcome with an appropriate animal management system (AMS), with the capability for supporting and monitoring a rat or mouse during micro-imaging. We report the implementation and assessment of a new AMS system for mice (PRA-3000 / AHS-2750, ASI Instruments, Warren MI), designed to be compatible with a commercial micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging system (eXplore speCZT, GE Healthcare, London ON). The AMS was assessed under the following criteria: 1) compatibility with the imaging system (i.e. artifact generation, geometric dimensions); 2) compatibility with live animals (i.e. positioning, temperature regulation, anesthetic supply); 3) monitoring capabilities (i.e. rectal temperature, respiratory and cardiac monitoring); 4) stability of co-registration; and 5) containment. Micro-CT scans performed using a standardized live-animal protocol (90 kVp, 40 mA, 900 views, 16 ms per view) exhibited low noise (+/-19 HU) and acceptable artifact from high-density components within the AMS (e.g. ECG pad contacts). Live mice were imaged repeatedly (with removal and replacement of the AMS) and spatial registration was found to be stable to within +/-0.07 mm. All animals tolerated enclosure within the AMS for extended periods (i.e. > one hour) without distress, based on continuous recordings of rectal temperature, ECG waveform and respiratory rate. A sealed AMS system extends the capability of a conventional micro-imaging system to include immune-compromised and biosafety level 2 mouse-imaging protocols.

  12. A fast full-body fluorescence/bioluminescence imaging system for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Hyun Keol; Jia, Jingfei; Fong, Christopher; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2013-03-01

    Whole body in vivo optical imaging of small animals has widened its applications and increased the capabilities for preclinical researches. However, most commercial and prototype optical imaging systems are camera-based systems using epi- or trans- illumination mode, with limited views of small animals. And for more accurate tomographic image reconstruction, additional data and information of a target animal is necessary. To overcome these issues, researchers have suggested several approaches such as maximizing the detection area or using the information of other highresolution modalities such as CT, MRI or Ultrasound, or using multi-spectral signals. As one of ways to maximizing the detection area of a target animal, we present a new fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging system for small animals, which can image entire surface of a target animal simultaneously. This system uses double mirror reflection scheme and it consists of input unit, imaging unit with two conical mirrors, the source illumination part and the surface scanner, and the detection unit with an intensified CCD camera system. Two conical mirrors are configured that a larger size mirror captures a target animal surface, and a smaller size mirror projects this captured image onto a CCD camera with one acquisition. With this scheme, we could capture entire surface of a target animal simultaneously and improve back reflection issue between a mirror and an animal surface of a single conical mirror scheme. Additionally, we could increase accessibility to an animal for multi-modality integration by providing unobstructed space around a target animal.

  13. Advances in comparative physiology from high-speed imaging of animal and fluid motion.

    PubMed

    Lauder, George V; Madden, Peter G A

    2008-01-01

    Since the time of Muybridge and Marey in the last half of the nineteenth century, studies of animal movement have relied on some form of high-speed or stop-action imaging to permit analysis of appendage and body motion. In the past ten years, the advent of megapixel-resolution high-speed digital imaging with maximal framing rates of 250 to 100,000 images per second has allowed new views of musculoskeletal function in comparative physiology that now extend to imaging flow around moving animals and the calculation of fluid forces produced by animals moving in fluids. In particular, the technique of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) has revolutionized our ability to understand how moving animals generate fluid forces and propel themselves through air and water. DPIV algorithms generate a matrix of velocity vectors through the use of image cross-correlation, which can then be used to calculate the force exerted on the fluid as well as locomotor work and power. DPIV algorithms can also be applied to images of moving animals to calculate the velocity of different regions of the moving animal, providing a much more detailed picture of animal motion than can traditional digitizing methods. Although three-dimensional measurement of animal motion is now routine, in the near future model-based kinematic reconstructions and volumetric analyses of animal-generated fluid flow patterns will provide the next step in imaging animal biomechanics and physiology.

  14. Correction for crosstalk contaminations in dual radionuclide /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 123/I images using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiao Ming; Zubal, I. G.; Seibyl, J. P.; King, M. A.

    2004-10-01

    Use of an artificial neural network (ANN) has been previously shown to be an effective tool in compensating scatter and crosstalk from the primary photons in simultaneous dual radionuclide imaging. Generally, a large number of input energy windows are required within the network structure while the commercial cameras have only 3-8 energy windows. It is difficult to use two input windows within the ANN structure for the crosstalk contamination corrections of /sup 99m/Tc//sup 123/I images acquired using only two photopeak energy windows. In this paper, we designed an ANN network with 24 inputs, 32 nodes in the hidden layer and two nodes in the output layer, to correct for crosstalk contamination in /sup 99m/Tc//sup 123/I images acquired using two photopeak windows. We trained the network using experimentally acquired /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 123/I spectrum data using the RSD brain phantom. The neural network package Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator (SNNSv4.2), from the University of Stuttgart, was used for the neural network training and the crosstalk corrections. Two sets of image data were tested. The first was a human activation study and the other used a cylindrical striatal phantom. Our results show a great improvement on both the human activation and the cylindrical striatal phantom images. Further work is to test our new approach on more /sup 99m/Tc//sup 123/I imaging data and apply it to other radionuclide combinations such as /sup 201/Tl//sup 99m/Tc.

  15. Images of Animals: Interpreting Three-Dimensional, Life-Sized 'Representations' of Animals--Zoo, Museum and Robotic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    A visit to the natural history museum is part of many pupils' educational program. One way of investigating what children learn about animals is to examine the mental models they reveal through their talk when they come face to face with animal representations. In this study, representations were provided by: (1) robotic models in a museum; (2)…

  16. Images of Animals: Interpreting Three-Dimensional, Life-Sized 'Representations' of Animals--Zoo, Museum and Robotic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    A visit to the natural history museum is part of many pupils' educational program. One way of investigating what children learn about animals is to examine the mental models they reveal through their talk when they come face to face with animal representations. In this study, representations were provided by: (1) robotic models in a museum; (2)…

  17. Radionuclide injury to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

  18. Personalized image-based radiation dosimetry for routine clinical use in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: pretherapy experience.

    PubMed

    Celler, Anna; Grimes, Joshua; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Birkenfeld, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific dose calculations are not routinely performed for targeted radionuclide therapy procedures, partly because they are time consuming and challenging to perform. However, it is becoming widely recognized that a personalized dosimetry approach can help plan treatment and improve understanding of the dose-response relationship. In this chapter, we review the procedures and essential elements of an accurate internal dose calculation and propose a simplified approach that is aimed to be practical for use in a busy nuclear medicine department.

  19. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    SciTech Connect

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2015-07-14

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  20. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOEpatents

    Gambhir, Sanjiv [Portola Valley, CA; Pritha, Ray [Mountain View, CA

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  1. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    SciTech Connect

    Gambhir,; Sanjiv, Pritha; Ray,

    2009-04-28

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  2. Can physicians identify inappropriate nuclear stress tests? An examination of inter-rater reliability for the 2009 appropriate use criteria for radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Ye, Siqin; Rabbani, LeRoy E; Kelly, Christopher R; Kelly, Maureen R; Lewis, Matthew; Paz, Yehuda; Peck, Clara L; Rao, Shaline; Bokhari, Sabahat; Weiner, Shepard D; Einstein, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine inter-rater reliability of the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria for radionuclide imaging and whether physicians at various levels of training can effectively identify nuclear stress tests with inappropriate indications. Four hundred patients were randomly selected from a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing nuclear stress testing at an academic medical center. Raters with different levels of training (including cardiology attending physicians, cardiology fellows, internal medicine hospitalists, and internal medicine interns) classified individual nuclear stress tests using the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria. Consensus classification by 2 cardiologists was considered the operational gold standard, and sensitivity and specificity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests were calculated. Inter-rater reliability of the Appropriate Use Criteria was assessed using Cohen κ statistics for pairs of different raters. The mean age of patients was 61.5 years; 214 (54%) were female. The cardiologists rated 256 (64%) of 400 nuclear stress tests as appropriate, 68 (18%) as uncertain, 55 (14%) as inappropriate; 21 (5%) tests were unable to be classified. Inter-rater reliability for noncardiologist raters was modest (unweighted Cohen κ, 0.51, 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.55). Sensitivity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests ranged from 47% to 82%, while specificity ranged from 85% to 97%. Inter-rater reliability for the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria for radionuclide imaging is modest, and there is considerable variation in the ability of raters at different levels of training to identify inappropriate tests. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Evaluation of a Cone Beam Computed Tomography Geometry for Image Guided Small Animal Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-01-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal (“tubular” geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal (“pancake” geometry). The small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Notwithstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e., pancake and tubular geometry

  4. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Kang-Hsin Wang, Ken; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal (‘tubular’ geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal (‘pancake’ geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry

  5. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-07

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal ('tubular' geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal ('pancake' geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry, respectively.

  6. Multi-Modal Optical Imaging of the Cerebellum in Animals.

    PubMed

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Sacconi, Leonardo; Silvestri, Ludovico; Knott, Graham; Pavone, Francesco S

    2015-10-17

    Thanks to their flexibility, optical techniques could be the key to explore anatomy, plasticity, and functionality of the cerebellum. As an example, an in vivo analysis of the dynamic remodeling of cerebellar axons by nonlinear microscopy can provide fundamental insights of the mechanism that promotes neuronal regeneration. Several studies showed that damaged climbing fibers are capable of regrowing also in adult animals. The investigation of the time-lapse dynamics of degeneration and regeneration of these axons within their complex environment can be performed by time-lapse two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging in vivo. Here, we show that single axonal branches can be dissected by laser axotomy, thus avoiding collateral damage to the adjacent dendrite and the formation of a persistent glial scar. Despite the very small denervated area, the injured axons consistently reshaped the connectivity with surrounding neurons and sprouted new branches through the intact surroundings. Correlative light and electron microscopy revealed that the sprouted branch contains large numbers of vesicles, with varicosities in the close vicinity of Purkinje dendrites. By using an RNA interference approach, we found that downregulating GAP-43 causes a significant increase in the turnover of presynaptic boutons and hampers the generation of reactive sprouts. Further, we report how nonlinear microscopy in combination with novel voltage sensitive dyes or transgenic mice allow optical registrations of action potential across a population of neurons opening promising prospective in understanding brain functionality. Finally, we describe novel implementations of light-sheet microscopy to resolve neuronal anatomy in whole cerebellum with cellular resolution. The understanding gained from these complementary optical methods may provide a deeper comprehension of the cerebellum.

  7. Radionuclide (131)I labeled reduced graphene oxide for nuclear imaging guided combined radio- and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Yi, Xuan; Huang, Min; Ning, Ping; Liu, Teng; Ge, Cuicui; Chai, Zhifang; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Nano-graphene and its derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine, including their applications in cancer theranostics. In this work, we develop 131I labeled, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated reduced nano-graphene oxide (RGO), obtaining 131I-RGO-PEG for nuclear imaging guided combined radiotherapy and photothermal therapy of cancer. Compared with free 131I, 131IRGO- PEG exhibits enhanced cellular uptake and thus improved radio-therapeutic efficacy against cancer cells. As revealed by gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of 131I-RGO-PEG is observed after its intravenous injection. While RGO exhibits strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and could induce effective photothermal heating of tumor under NIR light irradiation, 131I is able to emit high-energy X-ray to induce cancer killing as the result of radio ionization effect. By utilizing the combined photothermal therapy and radiotherapy, both of which are delivered by a single agent 131IRGO- PEG, effective elimination of tumors is achieved in our animal tumor model experiments. Toxicology studies further indicate that 131I-RGO-PEG induces no appreciable toxicity to mice at the treatment dose. Our work demonstrates the great promise of combing nuclear medicine and photothermal therapy as a novel therapeutic strategy to realize synergistic efficacy in cancer treatment.

  8. Detection of pork and poultry meat and bone meals in animal feed using hyperspectral imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal feed with meat and bone meal (MBM) has been the source of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and other livestock animals. Many countries have banned the use MBM as an animal feed ingredient. Spectral imaging techniques have shown potential for rapid assessment and authentication...

  9. Development of an optical imaging platform for functional imaging of small animals using wide-field excitation

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vivek; Chen, Jin; Intes, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The design and characterization of a time-resolved functional imager using a wide-field excitation scheme for small animal imaging is described. The optimal operation parameters are established based on phantom studies. The performance of the platform for functional imaging and the simultaneous 3D reconstruction of absorption and scattering coefficients is investigated in vitro. PMID:21258454

  10. Evaluation of energy spectral information in nuclear imaging and investigation of protein binding of cationic radionuclides by lactoferrin. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, P. B.

    1980-06-10

    Construction of an Anger camera-computer system which allows collection of both the position and energy signals from events detected by the scintillation camera has been completed. The system allows correction of energy response non-uniformity of the detector and facilitates research related to effects of energy discrimination in radionuclide scintigraphy. The system consists of electronic hardware to transmit and digitize the energy signal, software to record and process that signal in conjunction with spatial positioning signals, and additional hardware for recording the processed images so that they can be evaluated by observers. Preliminary results indicate that the system is useful in evaluating clinical images. Assymetric (eccentric) energy windows do improve image quality and are of value in improving detection of lesions on liver scintigraphs. The mechanisms by which Ga-67 is taken up in infection and tumor has been elucidated, and the uptake of radiogallium in microorganisms as a function of its interaction with siderophores was also studied. The primary function of these low molecular weight compounds is to trap ferric ion. However, gallium may be substituted for ferric ion and becomes trapped within the microorganism. The uptake of radiogallium by neutrophils and the role that lactoferrin plays in both intracellular localization of radiogallium and subsequent deposition of the radionuclide at sites of infection were also studied. Investigation of ferric ion analogs reveals definate differences in the affinity of these metals for binding molecules which helps explain their biologic activity. While ferric ion has the strongest affinity for such molecules, gallium has very high affinity for siderophores, moderate affinity for lactoferrin, and lower affinity for transferrin. The relative affinity of indium for these molecules is in approximately the reverse order.

  11. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  12. Comparison of exercise radionuclide angiography with thallium SPECT imaging for detection of significant narrowing of the left circumflex coronary artery

    SciTech Connect

    Dilsizian, V.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Freedman, N.M.; Bacharach, S.L.; Bonow, R.O. )

    1991-08-01

    Although quantitation of exercise thallium tomograms has enhanced the noninvasive diagnosis and localization of coronary artery disease, the detection of stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery remains suboptimal. Because posterolateral regional wall motion during exercise is well assessed by radionuclide angiography, this study determined whether regional dysfunction of the posterolateral wall during exercise radionuclide angiography is more sensitive in identifying left circumflex disease than thallium perfusion abnormalities assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). One hundred ten consecutive patients with CAD were studied, of whom 70 had a significant stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery or a major obtuse marginal branch. Both regional function and segmental thallium activity of the posterolateral wall were assessed using visual and quantitative analysis. Left ventricular regional function was assessed objectively by dividing the left ventricular region of interest into 20 sectors; the 8 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral free wall were used to assess function in the left circumflex artery distribution. Similarly, using circumferential profile analysis of short-axis thallium tomograms, left ventricular myocardial activity was subdivided into 64 sectors; the 16 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral region were used to assess thallium perfusion abnormalities in the left circumflex artery territory. Qualitative posterolateral wall motion analysis detected 76% of patients with left circumflex coronary artery stenosis, with a specificity of 83%, compared with only 44% by qualitative thallium tomography (p less than 0.001) and a specificity of 92%.

  13. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  14. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  15. Image quality assessment for CT used on small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Isabela Paredes; Agulles-Pedrós, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Image acquisition on a CT scanner is nowadays necessary in almost any kind of medical study. Its purpose, to produce anatomical images with the best achievable quality, implies the highest diagnostic radiation exposure to patients. Image quality can be measured quantitatively based on parameters such as noise, uniformity and resolution. This measure allows the determination of optimal parameters of operation for the scanner in order to get the best diagnostic image. A human Phillips CT scanner is the first one minded for veterinary-use exclusively in Colombia. The aim of this study was to measure the CT image quality parameters using an acrylic phantom and then, using the computational tool MatLab, determine these parameters as a function of current value and window of visualization, in order to reduce dose delivery by keeping the appropriate image quality.

  16. Image quality assessment for CT used on small animals

    SciTech Connect

    Cisneros, Isabela Paredes Agulles-Pedrós, Luis

    2016-07-07

    Image acquisition on a CT scanner is nowadays necessary in almost any kind of medical study. Its purpose, to produce anatomical images with the best achievable quality, implies the highest diagnostic radiation exposure to patients. Image quality can be measured quantitatively based on parameters such as noise, uniformity and resolution. This measure allows the determination of optimal parameters of operation for the scanner in order to get the best diagnostic image. A human Phillips CT scanner is the first one minded for veterinary-use exclusively in Colombia. The aim of this study was to measure the CT image quality parameters using an acrylic phantom and then, using the computational tool MATLAB, determine these parameters as a function of current value and window of visualization, in order to reduce dose delivery by keeping the appropriate image quality.

  17. Introduction to clinical and laboratory (small-animal) image registration and fusion.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, Pat B; Nehmeh, Sadek A

    2006-01-01

    Imaging has long been a vital component of clinical medicine and, increasingly, of biomedical research in small-animals. Clinical and laboratory imaging modalities can be divided into two general categories, structural (or anatomical) and functional (or physiological). The latter, in particular, has spawned what has come to be known as "molecular imaging". Image registration and fusion have rapidly emerged as invaluable components of both clinical and small-animal imaging and has lead to the development and marketing of a variety of multi-modality, e.g. PET-CT, devices which provide registered and fused three-dimensional image sets. This paper briefly reviews the basics of image registration and fusion and available clinical and small-animal multi-modality instrumentation.

  18. Functional imaging of tumor vascular network in small animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Madar-Balakirski, Noa; Kuznetsov, Yuri; Meglinski, Igor; Harmelin, Alon

    2011-07-01

    In current report we present synchronized in vivo imaging of tumor vascular network and tumor microenvironment obtained by combined use of Dynamic Light Scattering Imaging, Spectrally Enhanced Microscopy, and Fluorescence Intravital Microscopy. Dynamic Light Scattering Imaging is used for functional imaging of the vascular network and blood microcirculation. Spectrally Enhanced Microscopy provides information regarding blood vessel topography. Fluorescence Intravital Microscopy is used for imaging of tumor microvasculature and tumor microenvironment. These well known modalities have been comprehensively validated in the past and are widely used in various bio-medical applications. As shown here, their combined application has great potential for studies of vascular biology. This multi-modal non-invasive diagnostic technique expands our current capacity to investigate blood microcirculation and tumor angiogenesis in vivo, thereby contributing to the development of cancer research and treatment.

  19. Diagnosis and screening of small hepatocellular carcinomas. Comparison of radionuclide imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography, hepatic angiography, and alpha 1-fetoprotein assay

    SciTech Connect

    Takashima, T.; Matsui, O.; Suzuki, M.; Ida, M.

    1982-12-01

    Twenty-nine small (less than 5 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas in 18 patients were examined by radionuclide imaging (RN), ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), hepatic angiography, and serum alpha 1-fetoprotein (AFP) assay. Sensitivity was 39% with RN, 50% with US, 56% with CT, and 94% with angiography, including infusion hepatic angiography (IHA). Lesions larger than 3 cm could be detected by all of these methods; those between 2 and 3 cm were generally shown by US and CT but not RN. IHA was essential for diagnosis of lesions less than 2 cm, which were otherwise difficult or impossible to detect except with angiography. As a screening method, AFP was best, followed by US and CT. The authors recommend using AFP and US to minimize expense and radiation exposure. In questionable cases, IHA should be performed.

  20. Diagnosis and screening of small hepatocellular carcinomas: comparison of radionuclide imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography, hepatic angiography, and. cap alpha. /sub 1/-fetoprotein assay

    SciTech Connect

    Takashima, T.; Matsui, O.; Suzuki, M.; Ida, M.

    1982-12-01

    Twenty-nine small (<5 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas in 18 patients were examined by radionuclide imaging (RN), ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), hepatic angiography, and serum ..cap alpha../sub 1/-fetoprotein (AFP) assay. Sensitivity was 39% with RN, 50% with US, 56% with CT, and 94% with angiography, including infusion hepatic angiography (IHA). Lesions larger than 3 cm could be detected by all of these methods; those between 2 and 3 cm were generally shown by US and CT but not RN. IHA was essential for diagnosis of lesions less than 2 cm, which were otherwise difficult or impossible to detect except with angiography. As a screening method, AFP was best, followed by US and CT. The authors recommend using AFP and US to minimize expense and radiation exposure. In questionable cases, IHA should be performed.

  1. 100 years of radionuclide metrology.

    PubMed

    Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

    2014-05-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics.

  2. The second insight: Radionuclide diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentle, Brian C.; Hooper, Richard

    Nuclear medicine has been defined as the use of radionuclides (unsealed sources of radiation) in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. It is a predominantly diagnostic speciality. Of the two aspects of disease, disordered structure and disordered function, nuclear medicine or radionuclide diagnosis has been unique in consistently providing information about disordered function. The method has applications both in life ( in vivo examinations, often involving imaging radionuclide distributions in the body) and in the test-tube ( in vivo). The tracer principle has allowed insights in respect of both patient care and research across a broad spectrum of diseases. Although nuclear medicine is a specialty which continues to evolve, it already has an established role in health care, predicated on its ability to study function.

  3. Scandium-44: benefits of a long-lived PET radionuclide available from the (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system.

    PubMed

    Roesch, F

    2012-07-01

    (44)Ti/(44)Sc radionuclide generators are of interest for molecular imaging. The 3.97 hours half-life of (44)Sc and its high positron branching of 94.27% may stimulate the application of (44)Sc-labeled PET radiopharmaceuticals. This review describes the current status of (44)Ti production, (44)Ti/(44)Sc radionuclide generator development, post-processing of generator eluates towards medical application, identification of ligands adequate to Sc(III) co-ordination chemistry, proof-of-principle labeling of (44)Sc-DOTA-octreotides, investigation of in vitro and in vivo parameters, and initial applications for molecular imaging - both in small animals and humans.

  4. Oral and dental imaging equipment and techniques for small animals.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Curt R; Brigden, Glenn M

    2013-05-01

    In the diagnosis and treatment of oral and dental diseases in dogs and cats, digital intraoral radiography offers many advantages over the use of standard dental radiographic film, including rapid image generation, easier exposure correction, enhancement, and paperless storage. Digital image receptors can be divided into 2 main types, direct digital systems using charged coupled devices and complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensors, and indirect digital systems using phosphor plates with a computerized scanner. Each system is paired with a computer software system to allow handling, visualization, enhancement, sharing, and archiving of the images.

  5. Innovations in Small-Animal PET/MR Imaging Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Tsoumpas, Charalampos; Visvikis, Dimitris; Loudos, George

    2016-04-01

    Multimodal imaging has led to a more detailed exploration of different physiologic processes with integrated PET/MR imaging being the most recent entry. Although the clinical need is still questioned, it is well recognized that it represents one of the most active and promising fields of medical imaging research in terms of software and hardware. The hardware developments have moved from small detector components to high-performance PET inserts and new concepts in full systems. Conversely, the software focuses on the efficient performance of necessary corrections without the use of CT data. The most recent developments in both directions are reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Unsupervised analysis of small animal dynamic Cerenkov luminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Boschi, Federico

    2011-12-01

    Clustering analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to dynamic Cerenkov luminescence images (dCLI). In order to investigate the performances of the proposed approaches, two distinct dynamic data sets obtained by injecting mice with 32P-ATP and 18F-FDG were acquired using the IVIS 200 optical imager. The k-means clustering algorithm has been applied to dCLI and was implemented using interactive data language 8.1. We show that cluster analysis allows us to obtain good agreement between the clustered and the corresponding emission regions like the bladder, the liver, and the tumor. We also show a good correspondence between the time activity curves of the different regions obtained by using CA and manual region of interest analysis on dCLIT and PCA images. We conclude that CA provides an automatic unsupervised method for the analysis of preclinical dynamic Cerenkov luminescence image data.

  7. Unsupervised analysis of small animal dynamic Cerenkov luminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Boschi, Federico

    2011-12-01

    Clustering analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to dynamic Cerenkov luminescence images (dCLI). In order to investigate the performances of the proposed approaches, two distinct dynamic data sets obtained by injecting mice with 32P-ATP and 18F-FDG were acquired using the IVIS 200 optical imager. The k-means clustering algorithm has been applied to dCLI and was implemented using interactive data language 8.1. We show that cluster analysis allows us to obtain good agreement between the clustered and the corresponding emission regions like the bladder, the liver, and the tumor. We also show a good correspondence between the time activity curves of the different regions obtained by using CA and manual region of interest analysis on dCLIT and PCA images. We conclude that CA provides an automatic unsupervised method for the analysis of preclinical dynamic Cerenkov luminescence image data.

  8. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of osteosarcoma on animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Menglei; Ye, Fei; Hu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the commonest primary malignant tumor of bone, and the second highest cause of cancer-related death in the paediatric age group. Although there are several methods for osteosarcoma detection, e.g. X-ray, CT, MRI and bone scan, they are not satisfied methods because they can hardly detect osteosarcoma in early stage. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging hybrid imaging modality that is noninvasive, nonionizing, with high sensitivity, satisfactory imaging depth and good temporal and spatial resolution. In order to explore this new method to detect osteosarcoma, we established SD rat models with osteosarcoma and utilized PAI to reconstruct the osteosarcoma image in vivo. This is the first time detecting osteosarcoma in vivo using PAI, and the results suggested that PAI has potential clinical application for detecting osteosarcoma in the early stage.

  9. Photoacoustic molecular imaging of small animals in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xueyi; Li, Meng-Lin; Oh, Jung-Taek; Ku, Geng; Wang, Wei; Li, Chun; Similache, Sergiu; Lungu, Gina F.; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-02-01

    Molecular imaging is a newly emerging field in which the modern tools of molecular and cell biology have been married to state-of-the-art technologies for noninvasive imaging. The study of molecular imaging will lead to better methods for understanding biological processes as well as diagnosing and managing disease. Here we present noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography (PAT)-based molecular imaging of αvβ3 integrin in a nude mouse U87 brain tumor. PAT combines high optical absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution by employing short laser pulses to generate acoustic waves in biological tissues through thermoelastic expansion. Spectroscopic PAT-based molecular imaging offers the separation of the contributions from different absorbers based on the differences in optical absorption spectra among those absorbers. In our case, in the near infrared (NIR) range, oxy-heamoglobin (O2Hb), deoxy-heamoglobin (HHb) and the injected αvβ3-targeted peptide-ICG conjugated NIR fluorescent contrast agent are the three main absorbers. Therefore, with the excitation by multiple wavelength laser pulses, spectroscopic PAT-based molecular imaging not only provides the level of the contrast agent accumulation in the U87 glioblastoma tumor, which is related to the metabolism and angiogenesis of the tumor, but also offers the information on tumor angiogenesis and tumor hypoxia.

  10. Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stanley N.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

  11. Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stanley N.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

  12. Recent Advances in Translational Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Animal Models of Stress and Depression.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Allison L; Gormley, Shane; Tozzi, Leonardo; Frodl, Thomas; Harkin, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable translational tool that can be used to investigate alterations in brain structure and function in both patients and animal models of disease. Regional changes in brain structure, functional connectivity, and metabolite concentrations have been reported in depressed patients, giving insight into the networks and brain regions involved, however preclinical models are less well characterized. The development of more effective treatments depends upon animal models that best translate to the human condition and animal models may be exploited to assess the molecular and cellular alterations that accompany neuroimaging changes. Recent advances in preclinical imaging have facilitated significant developments within the field, particularly relating to high resolution structural imaging and resting-state functional imaging which are emerging techniques in clinical research. This review aims to bring together the current literature on preclinical neuroimaging in animal models of stress and depression, highlighting promising avenues of research toward understanding the pathological basis of this hugely prevalent disorder.

  13. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Reptiles, Rodents, and Lagomorphs for Clinical Diagnosis and Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    Głodek, Joanna; Adamiak, Zbigniew; Przeworski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    MRI is a great diagnostic tool for evaluating exotic animals, particularly in clinical practice and in research with animal models. Here we review various aspects of MRI of reptiles, rodents, and lagomorphs, including the indications for this modality, the preparation of subjects, and protocols for imaging various organs and the musculoskeletal system. Protocols for the anesthesia and immobilization of subjects to facilitate their imaging are discussed also. PMID:27298246

  15. CT imaging of small animals using monochromatized synchrotron x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Rarback, H.; Nachaliel, E.; Rivers, M.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Chapman, L.D.; Oversluizen, T.; Slatkin, D.N.; Spanne, P.; Spector, S.; Garrett, R.F.; Luke, P.N.; Pehl, R.; Thompson, A.C.; Appel, R.; Miller, M.H.

    1992-12-31

    Rats and chicken embryos were imaged in vivo with a prototype Multiple Energy Computed Tomography (MECT) system using monochromatized x rays from the X17 superconducting wiggler at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The CT configuration coated of a horizontal low-divergence, fan-shaped beam, 70 mm wide and 0.5 mm high, and a subject rotating about a vertical aids. A linear-array high-purity Ge detector with 140 elements, each 0.5 mm wide and 6 mm thick, was used with a data acquisition system that provides a linear response over almost six orders of magnitude of detector current. The dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) algorithm was applied to images of the rat head acquired at 20 and 45 keV to obtain two new images, one representing the low-Z, and the other the intermediate-Z clement group. The results indicate that the contrast resolution and the quantification accuracy of the images improve stepwise; first, with the monochromatic beam and, second, the DPA method. The system is a prototype for a brain scanner.

  16. CT imaging of small animals using monochromatized synchrotron x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Rarback, H.; Nachaliel, E.; Rivers, M.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Chapman, L.D.; Oversluizen, T.; Slatkin, D.N.; Spanne, P.; Spector, S. ); Garrett, R.F. ); Luke, P.N.; Pehl, R.; Thompson, A.C. ); Appel, R.; Miller, M.H. (A

    1992-01-01

    Rats and chicken embryos were imaged in vivo with a prototype Multiple Energy Computed Tomography (MECT) system using monochromatized x rays from the X17 superconducting wiggler at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The CT configuration coated of a horizontal low-divergence, fan-shaped beam, 70 mm wide and 0.5 mm high, and a subject rotating about a vertical aids. A linear-array high-purity Ge detector with 140 elements, each 0.5 mm wide and 6 mm thick, was used with a data acquisition system that provides a linear response over almost six orders of magnitude of detector current. The dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) algorithm was applied to images of the rat head acquired at 20 and 45 keV to obtain two new images, one representing the low-Z, and the other the intermediate-Z clement group. The results indicate that the contrast resolution and the quantification accuracy of the images improve stepwise; first, with the monochromatic beam and, second, the DPA method. The system is a prototype for a brain scanner.

  17. Practical contour segmentation algorithm for small animal digital radiography image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fang; Hui, Gong

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a practical, automated contour segmentation technique for digital radiography image is described. Digital radiography is an imaging mode based on the penetrability of x-ray. Unlike reflection imaging mode such as visible light camera, the pixel brightness represents the summation of the attenuations on the photon thoroughfare. It is not chromophotograph but gray scale picture. Contour extraction is of great importance in medical applications, especially in non-destructive inspection. Manual segmentation techniques include pixel selection, geometrical boundary selection and tracing. But it relies heavily on the experience of the operators, and is time-consuming. Some researchers try to find contours from the intensity jumping characters around them. However these characters also exist in the juncture of bone and soft tissue. The practical way is back to the primordial threshold algorithm. This research emphasizes on how to find the optimal threshold. A high resolution digital radiography system is used to provide the oriental gray scale image. A mouse is applied as the sample of this paper to show the feasibility of the algorithm.

  18. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging: development, characterization, and imaging in inducted animals

    PubMed Central

    Sarcinelli, Michelle Alvares; Albernaz, Marta de Souza; Szwed, Marzena; Iscaife, Alexandre; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Junqueira, Mara de Souza; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; da Silva, Emerson Oliveira; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies as polymeric nanoparticles are quite interesting and endow this new drug category with many advantages, especially by reducing the number of adverse reactions and, in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, also reducing the amount of radiation (dose) administered to the patient. In this study, a nanoradiopharmaceutical was developed using polylactic acid (PLA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/montmorillonite (MMT)/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) for breast cancer imaging. In order to confirm the nanoparticle formation, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were performed. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle and biodistribution with 99mTc in healthy and inducted animals were also measured. The results from atomic force microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were spherical, with a size range of ~200–500 nm. The dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that over 90% of the nanoparticles produced had a size of 287 nm with a zeta potential of −14,6 mV. The cytotoxicity results demonstrated that the nanoparticles were capable of reaching breast cancer cells. The biodistribution data demonstrated that the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with 99mTc have great renal clearance and also a high uptake by the lesion, as ~45% of the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles injected were taken up by the lesion. The data support PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab labeled with 99mTc nanoparticles as nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging. PMID:27713638

  19. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging: development, characterization, and imaging in inducted animals.

    PubMed

    Sarcinelli, Michelle Alvares; Albernaz, Marta de Souza; Szwed, Marzena; Iscaife, Alexandre; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Junqueira, Mara de Souza; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; da Silva, Emerson Oliveira; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies as polymeric nanoparticles are quite interesting and endow this new drug category with many advantages, especially by reducing the number of adverse reactions and, in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, also reducing the amount of radiation (dose) administered to the patient. In this study, a nanoradiopharmaceutical was developed using polylactic acid (PLA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/montmorillonite (MMT)/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) for breast cancer imaging. In order to confirm the nanoparticle formation, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were performed. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle and biodistribution with 99mTc in healthy and inducted animals were also measured. The results from atomic force microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were spherical, with a size range of ~200-500 nm. The dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that over 90% of the nanoparticles produced had a size of 287 nm with a zeta potential of -14,6 mV. The cytotoxicity results demonstrated that the nanoparticles were capable of reaching breast cancer cells. The biodistribution data demonstrated that the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with 99mTc have great renal clearance and also a high uptake by the lesion, as ~45% of the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles injected were taken up by the lesion. The data support PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab labeled with 99mTc nanoparticles as nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging.

  20. In Vivo Stabilization of a Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist Enhances PET Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy of Prostate Cancer in Preclinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Chatalic, Kristell L S; Konijnenberg, Mark; Nonnekens, Julie; de Blois, Erik; Hoeben, Sander; de Ridder, Corrina; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; van Gent, Dik C; Nock, Berthold A; Maina, Theodosia; van Weerden, Wytske M; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    A single tool for early detection, accurate staging, and personalized treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) would be a major breakthrough in the field of PCa. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) targeting peptides are promising probes for a theranostic approach for PCa overexpressing GRPR. However, the successful application of small peptides in a theranostic approach is often hampered by their fast in vivo degradation by proteolytic enzymes, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Here we show for the first time that co-injection of a NEP inhibitor (phosphoramidon (PA)) can lead to an impressive enhancement of diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of the theranostic (68)Ga-/(177)Lu-JMV4168 GRPR-antagonist. Co-injection of PA (300 µg) led to stabilization of (177)Lu-JMV4168 in murine peripheral blood. In PC-3 tumor-bearing mice, PA co-injection led to a two-fold increase in tumor uptake of (68)Ga-/(177)Lu-JMV4168, 1 h after injection. In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (68)Ga-JMV4168, PA co-injection substantially enhanced PC-3 tumor signal intensity. Radionuclide therapy with (177)Lu-JMV4168 resulted in significant regression of PC-3 tumor size. Radionuclide therapy efficacy was confirmed by production of DNA double strand breaks, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Increased survival rates were observed in mice treated with (177)Lu-JMV4168 plus PA as compared to those without PA. This data shows that co-injection of the enzyme inhibitor PA greatly enhances the theranostic potential of GRPR-radioantagonists for future application in PCa patients.

  1. In Vivo Stabilization of a Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist Enhances PET Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy of Prostate Cancer in Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chatalic, Kristell L.S.; Konijnenberg, Mark; Nonnekens, Julie; de Blois, Erik; Hoeben, Sander; de Ridder, Corrina; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; van Gent, Dik C.; Nock, Berthold A.; Maina, Theodosia; van Weerden, Wytske M.; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    A single tool for early detection, accurate staging, and personalized treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) would be a major breakthrough in the field of PCa. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) targeting peptides are promising probes for a theranostic approach for PCa overexpressing GRPR. However, the successful application of small peptides in a theranostic approach is often hampered by their fast in vivo degradation by proteolytic enzymes, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Here we show for the first time that co-injection of a NEP inhibitor (phosphoramidon (PA)) can lead to an impressive enhancement of diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of the theranostic 68Ga-/177Lu-JMV4168 GRPR-antagonist. Co-injection of PA (300 µg) led to stabilization of 177Lu-JMV4168 in murine peripheral blood. In PC-3 tumor-bearing mice, PA co-injection led to a two-fold increase in tumor uptake of 68Ga-/177Lu-JMV4168, 1 h after injection. In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 68Ga-JMV4168, PA co-injection substantially enhanced PC-3 tumor signal intensity. Radionuclide therapy with 177Lu-JMV4168 resulted in significant regression of PC-3 tumor size. Radionuclide therapy efficacy was confirmed by production of DNA double strand breaks, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Increased survival rates were observed in mice treated with 177Lu-JMV4168 plus PA as compared to those without PA. This data shows that co-injection of the enzyme inhibitor PA greatly enhances the theranostic potential of GRPR-radioantagonists for future application in PCa patients. PMID:26722377

  2. Development of computational small animal models and their applications in preclinical imaging and therapy research.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    The development of multimodality preclinical imaging techniques and the rapid growth of realistic computer simulation tools have promoted the construction and application of computational laboratory animal models in preclinical research. Since the early 1990s, over 120 realistic computational animal models have been reported in the literature and used as surrogates to characterize the anatomy of actual animals for the simulation of preclinical studies involving the use of bioluminescence tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, microcomputed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging. Other applications include electromagnetic field simulation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation dosimetry, and the development and evaluation of new methodologies for multimodality image coregistration, segmentation, and reconstruction of small animal images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the history and fundamental technologies used for the development of computational small animal models with a particular focus on their application in preclinical imaging as well as nonionizing and ionizing radiation dosimetry calculations. An overview of the overall process involved in the design of these models, including the fundamental elements used for the construction of different types of computational models, the identification of original anatomical data, the simulation tools used for solving various computational problems, and the applications of computational animal models in preclinical research. The authors also analyze the characteristics of categories of computational models (stylized, voxel-based, and boundary representation) and discuss the technical challenges faced at the present time as well as research needs in the future.

  3. Development of computational small animal models and their applications in preclinical imaging and therapy research

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-01-15

    The development of multimodality preclinical imaging techniques and the rapid growth of realistic computer simulation tools have promoted the construction and application of computational laboratory animal models in preclinical research. Since the early 1990s, over 120 realistic computational animal models have been reported in the literature and used as surrogates to characterize the anatomy of actual animals for the simulation of preclinical studies involving the use of bioluminescence tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, microcomputed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging. Other applications include electromagnetic field simulation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation dosimetry, and the development and evaluation of new methodologies for multimodality image coregistration, segmentation, and reconstruction of small animal images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the history and fundamental technologies used for the development of computational small animal models with a particular focus on their application in preclinical imaging as well as nonionizing and ionizing radiation dosimetry calculations. An overview of the overall process involved in the design of these models, including the fundamental elements used for the construction of different types of computational models, the identification of original anatomical data, the simulation tools used for solving various computational problems, and the applications of computational animal models in preclinical research. The authors also analyze the characteristics of categories of computational models (stylized, voxel-based, and boundary representation) and discuss the technical challenges faced at the present time as well as research needs in the future.

  4. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  5. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  6. Small animal imaging platform for quantitative assessment of short-wave infrared-emitting contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Philip; Mingozzi, Marco; Higgins, Laura M.; Ganapathy, Vidya; Zevon, Margot; Riman, Richard E.; Roth, Charles M.; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2015-03-01

    We report the design, calibration, and testing of a pre-clinical small animal imaging platform for use with short-wave infrared (SWIR) emitting contrast agents. Unlike materials emitting at visible or near-infrared wavelengths, SWIR-emitting agents require detection systems with sensitivity in the 1-2 μm wavelength region, beyond the range of commercially available small animal imagers. We used a collimated 980 nm laser beam to excite rare-earth-doped NaYF4:Er,Yb nanocomposites, as an example of a SWIR emitting material under development for biomedical imaging applications. This beam was raster scanned across the animal, with fluorescence in the 1550 nm wavelength region detected by an InGaAs area camera. Background adjustment and intensity non-uniformity corrections were applied in software. The final SWIR fluorescence image was overlaid onto a standard white-light image for registration of contrast agent uptake with respect to anatomical features.

  7. Material decomposition and virtual non-contrast imaging in photon counting computed tomography: an animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, R.; Polster, C.; Kappler, S.; Pietsch, H.; Jost, G.; Hahn, K.; Schöck, F.; Sedlmair, M.; Allmendinger, T.; Schmidt, B.; Krauss, B.; Flohr, T. G.

    2016-03-01

    The energy resolving capabilities of Photon Counting Detectors (PCD) in Computed Tomography (CT) facilitate energy-sensitive measurements. The provided image-information can be processed with Dual Energy and Multi Energy algorithms. A research PCD-CT firstly allows acquiring images with a close to clinical configuration of both the X-ray tube and the CT-detector. In this study, two algorithms (Material Decomposition and Virtual Non-Contrast-imaging (VNC)) are applied on a data set acquired from an anesthetized rabbit scanned using the PCD-CT system. Two contrast agents (CA) are applied: A gadolinium (Gd) based CA used to enhance contrasts for vascular imaging, and xenon (Xe) and air as a CA used to evaluate local ventilation of the animal's lung. Four different images are generated: a) A VNC image, suppressing any traces of the injected Gd imitating a native scan, b) a VNC image with a Gd-image as an overlay, where contrast enhancements in the vascular system are highlighted using colored labels, c) another VNC image with a Xe-image as an overlay, and d) a 3D rendered image of the animal's lung, filled with Xe, indicating local ventilation characteristics. All images are generated from two images based on energy bin information. It is shown that a modified version of a commercially available dual energy software framework is capable of providing images with diagnostic value obtained from the research PCD-CT system.

  8. Optical methods and integrated systems for brain imaging in awake, untethered animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, Kartikeya

    Imaging is a powerful tool for biomedical research offering non-contact and minimally or non-invasive means of investigating at multiple scales---from single molecules to large populations of cells. Imaging in awake, behaving animals is an emerging field that offers the additional advantage of being able to study physiological processes and structures in a more natural state than what is possible in tissue slices or even in anesthetized animals. To date, most imaging in awake animals has used optical fiber bundles or electrical cables to transfer signals to traditional imaging-system components. However, the fibers or cables tether the animal and greatly limit the kind and duration of animal behavior that can be studied using imaging methods. This work involves three distinct yet related approaches to fulfill the goal of imaging in unanesthetized, unrestrained animals---optical techniques for functional and structural imaging, development of novel photodetectors and the design of miniaturized imaging systems. I hypothesized that the flow within vessels might act as a contrast-enhancing agent and improve the visualization of vascular architecture using laser speckle imaging. When imaging rodent cerebral vasculature I saw a two to four fold increase in the contrast-to-noise ratios and was able to visualize 10--30% more vascular features over reflectance techniques. I designed a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) photodetector array that was comparable in sensitivity and noise performance to cooled CCD sensors, able to image fluorescence from a single cell, while running at faster frame rates. Next, I designed an imaging system weighing under 6 grams and occupying less than 4 cm3. The system incorporated multispectral illumination, adjustable focusing optics and the high-sensitivity CMOS imager. I was able to implement a variety of optical modalities with the system and performed reflectance, fluorescence, spectroscopic and laser speckle imaging with my

  9. A semi-automated single day image differencing technique to identify animals in aerial imagery.

    PubMed

    Terletzky, Pat; Ramsey, Robert Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Our research presents a proof-of-concept that explores a new and innovative method to identify large animals in aerial imagery with single day image differencing. We acquired two aerial images of eight fenced pastures and conducted a principal component analysis of each image. We then subtracted the first principal component of the two pasture images followed by heuristic thresholding to generate polygons. The number of polygons represented the number of potential cattle (Bos taurus) and horses (Equus caballus) in the pasture. The process was considered semi-automated because we were not able to automate the identification of spatial or spectral thresholding values. Imagery was acquired concurrently with ground counts of animal numbers. Across the eight pastures, 82% of the animals were correctly identified, mean percent commission was 53%, and mean percent omission was 18%. The high commission error was due to small mis-alignments generated from image-to-image registration, misidentified shadows, and grouping behavior of animals. The high probability of correctly identifying animals suggests short time interval image differencing could provide a new technique to enumerate wild ungulates occupying grassland ecosystems, especially in isolated or difficult to access areas. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt to use standard change detection techniques to identify and enumerate large ungulates.

  10. (90)Y-PET/CT Imaging Quantification for Dosimetry in Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy: Analysis and Corrections of the Impairing Factors.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Cinzia; Bartolomei, Mirco; Mattone, Vincenzo; Casi, Michela; De Lauro, Francesco; Bartolini, Nerio; Gentili, Giovanni; Amadori, Sonia; Agostini, Monica; Sarti, Graziella

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the possibility to assess (90)Y-PET/CT imaging quantification for dosimetry in (90)Y-peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Tests were performed by Discovery 710 Elite (GE) PET/CT equipment. A body-phantom containing radioactive-coplanar-spheres was filled with (90)Y water solution to reproduce different signal-to-background-activity-ratios (S/N). We studied minimum detectable activity (MDA) concentration, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). Subsequently, three recovery coefficients (RC)-based correction approaches were evaluated: maximum-RC, resolution-RC, and isovolume-RC. The analysis of the volume segmentation thresholding method was also assessed to derive a relationship between the true volume of the targets and the threshold to be applied to the PET images. (90)Y-PET/CT imaging quantification was then achieved on some patients and related with preclinical tests. Moreover, the dosimetric evaluation was obtained on the target regions. CNR value was greater than 5 if the MDA was greater than 0.2 MBq/mL with no background activity and 0.5-0.7 MBq/mL with S/N ranging from 3 to 6. FWHM was equal to 7 mm. An exponential fitting of isovolume RCs-based correction technique was adopted for activity quantification. Adaptive segmentation thresholding exponential curves were obtained and applied for target volume identification in three signal-to-background-activity-ratios. The imaging quantification study and dosimetric evaluations in clinical cases was feasible and the results were coherent with those obtained in preclinical tests. (90)Y-PET/CT imaging quantification is possible both in phantoms and in patients. Absorbed dose evaluations in clinical applications are strongly related to targets activity concentration.

  11. Imaging cell biology in live animals: ready for prime time.

    PubMed

    Weigert, Roberto; Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat

    2013-06-24

    Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy is one of the main tools used to image subcellular structures in living cells. Yet for decades it has been applied primarily to in vitro model systems. Thanks to the most recent advancements in intravital microscopy, this approach has finally been extended to live rodents. This represents a major breakthrough that will provide unprecedented new opportunities to study mammalian cell biology in vivo and has already provided new insight in the fields of neurobiology, immunology, and cancer biology.

  12. Comparison of preferences in lip position using computer animated imaging.

    PubMed

    Hier, L A; Evans, C A; BeGole, E A; Giddon, D B

    1999-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the esthetic preferences of lip position in males and females, and to compare them with each other and with a common orthodontic standard using a custom computer animation program. The sample consisted of 53 young adult subjects, 25 males and 28 females. The sample was divided into orthodontically treated and untreated subjects. ANOVA and Scheffé tests were carried out to determine differences between the responses of the various groups. Also, t-tests were used to compare subjects' responses to a commonly used orthodontic standard (Ricketts' E-line). The results indicated a sex-effect, with females preferring fuller lips than males. Significant differences were also found between orthodontically treated subjects and untreated subjects, with untreated subjects preferring fuller lips. Differences were significant at p<0.05. Furthermore, both males and females preferred lip fullness greater than the Ricketts' values.

  13. Improved Pose Measurement and Tracking System for Motion Correction of Awake, Unrestrained Small Animal SPECT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Baba, Justin S; Weisenberger, A G; Smith, M F

    2007-01-01

    An improved optical landmark-based pose measurement and tracking system has been developed to provide 3D animal pose data for a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system for awake, unanesthetized, unrestrained laboratory animals. The six degree of freedom animal position and orientation measurement data are time synchronized with the SPECT list mode data to provide for motion correction after the scan and before reconstruction. The tracking system employs infrared (IR) markers placed on the animal's head along with synchronized, strobed IR LEDs to illuminate the reflectors and freeze motion while minimizing reflections. A new design trinocular stereo image acquisition system using IEEE 1394 CMOS cameras acquires images of the animal with markers contained within a transparent enclosure. The trinocular configuration provides improved accuracy, range of motion, and robustness over the binocular stereo used previously. Enhanced software detects obstructions, automatically segments the markers, rejects reflections, performs marker correspondence, and calculates the 3D pose of the animal's head using image data from three cameras. The new hardware design provides more compact camera positioning with enhanced animal viewing through the 360 degree SPECT scan. This system has been implemented on a commercial scanner and tested using live mice and has been shown to be more reliable with higher accuracy than the previous system. Experimental results showing the improved motion tracking results are given.

  14. Chlorotoxin-Conjugated Multifunctional Dendrimers Labeled with Radionuclide 131I for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging and Radiotherapy of Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingzhou; Zhu, Jingyi; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Guo, Lilei; Shi, Xiangyang; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-09-09

    Chlorotoxin-conjugated multifunctional dendrimers labeled with radionuclide 131I were synthesized and utilized for targeted single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of cancer. In this study, generation five amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were used as a platform to be sequentially conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), targeting agent chlorotoxin (CTX), and 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO). This was followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines and radiolabeling with 131I to form the targeted theranostic dendrimeric nanoplatform. We show that the dendrimer platform possessing approximately 7.7 CTX and 21.1 HPAO moieties on each dendrimer displays excellent cytocompatibility in a given concentration range (0-20 μM) and can specifically target cancer cells overexpressing matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) due to the attached CTX. With the attached HPAO moiety having the phenol group, the dendrimer platform can be effectively labeled with radioactive 131I with good stability and high radiochemical purity. Importantly, the 131I labeling renders the dendrimer platform with an ability to be used for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an MMP2-overexpressing glioma model in vivo. The developed radiolabeled multifunctional dendrimeric nanoplatform may hold great promise to be used for targeted theranostics of human gliomas.

  15. Radionuclide imaging for the assessment of esophageal motility disorders in mixed connective tissue disease patients: relation to pulmonary impairment.

    PubMed

    Caleiro, M T C; Lage, L V; Navarro-Rodriguez, T; Bresser, A; da Costa, P A; Yoshinari, N H

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal functional abnormalities may lead to regurgitation, chronic esophagitis and life-threatening conditions such as aspiration pneumonia. In mixed connective tissue disease patients, previous reports showed that esophageal dysfunction varies according to the method employed for investigation. Our study was conceived to: (i) assess esophageal motility and mucosal aspects in patients with mixed connective tissue disease by endoscopy, cine-esophogram and scintigraphy focusing on the prevalence of each exam; and (ii) verify the association between pulmonary and esophageal dysfunctions. Twenty-four mixed connective tissue disease patients were enrolled for this study. Cine-esophogram and upper digestive endoscopy with mucosal biopsy were performed according to previous standardization. Radionuclide esophageal scintigraphy was performed with a semisolid meal with (99m)Tc. Eleven healthy individuals voluntarily submitted to scintigraphy as controls. Cine-esophogram showed esophageal delayed emptying in 90% of patients. At scintigraphy there was a significant delay in total esophageal transit time in the group of patients when compared to healthy controls (35.3 +/- 8.2 s. vs. 13.6 +/- 9.5 s.; P < 0.0001). The whole esophageal body showed dysmotility in 96% of patients. The cine-esophogram detected functional esophageal impairment similar to scintigraphic findings. Histopathologic examination found esophagitis in 95% of studied patients. Reduced lung volumes were associated with esophagitis and delayed esophageal clearance at scintigraphy, observed at the distal portion of the esophagus. Esophageal scintigraphy is easy to perform, with good acceptance by patients with low radiation exposition. It is a useful non-invasive test for follow-up and interventional studies concerning esophagus dysfunction.

  16. Introduction to the physics of molecular imaging with radioactive tracers in small animals.

    PubMed

    King, Michael A; Pretorius, P Hendrik; Farncombe, Troy; Beekman, Freek J

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances have greatly enhanced the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of radioactive tracers in living animals. this article introduces the physics of imaging behind the imaging methods. The article first discusses the selection of the radiation emitted from the tracer and then the process of tomographic reconstruction or how 3D images are made from imaging around the outside of the animal. The technique of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in which the detection of one X-ray or gamma ray at a time is employed for image formation is then described. Finally, positron emission tomography (PET) which relies on the simultaneous detection of the pair of gamma-rays formed when the positron annihilates is presented. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Best practices for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in common large animal research models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joni; Hampshire, Victoria

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has proven to be useful for the study of cardiovascular physiology in health and disease; it provides important data and information about healthy and diseased states in humans and animals, and it facilitates the safe characterization and positioning of medical devices during cardiovascular applications. Looking to the future, magnetic resonance imaging will continue to play a formative role in biomedical research and applications. Here, we discuss how to avoid common pitfalls and provide safe transport, anesthetic support and physiologic support for animals that are used in dedicated or shared cardiovascular imaging facilities.

  18. How Relevant Are Imaging Findings in Animal Models of Movement Disorders to Human Disease?

    PubMed

    Bannon, Darryl; Landau, Anne M; Doudet, Doris J

    2015-08-01

    The combination of novel imaging techniques with the use of small animal models of disease is often used in attempt to understand disease mechanisms, design potential clinical biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, and develop novel methods with translatability to human clinical conditions. However, it is clear that most animal models are deficient when compared to the complexity of human diseases: they cannot sufficiently replicate all the features of multisystem disorders. Furthermore, some practical differences may affect the use or interpretation of animal imaging to model human conditions such as the use of anesthesia, various species differences, and limitations of methodological tools. Nevertheless, imaging animal models allows us to dissect, in interpretable bits, the effects of one system upon another, the consequences of variable neuronal losses or overactive systems, the results of experimental treatments, and we can develop and validate new methods. In this review, we focus on imaging modalities that are easily used in both human subjects and animal models such as positron emission and magnetic resonance imaging and discuss aging and Parkinson's disease as prototypical examples of preclinical imaging studies.

  19. A whole-body dual-modality radionuclide optical strategy for preclinical imaging of metastasis and heterogeneous treatment response in different microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Fruhwirth, Gilbert O; Diocou, Seckou; Blower, Philip J; Ng, Tony; Mullen, Greg E D

    2014-04-01

    Imaging spontaneous cancer cell metastasis or heterogeneous tumor responses to drug treatment in vivo is difficult to achieve. The goal was to develop a new highly sensitive and reliable preclinical longitudinal in vivo imaging model for this purpose, thereby facilitating discovery and validation of anticancer therapies or molecular imaging agents. The strategy is based on breast cancer cells stably expressing the human sodium iodide symporter (NIS) fused to a red fluorescent protein, thereby permitting radionuclide and fluorescence imaging. Using whole-body nano-SPECT/CT with (99m)TcO4(-), we followed primary tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis in the presence or absence of etoposide treatment. NIS imaging was used to classify organs as small as individual lymph nodes (LNs) to be positive or negative for metastasis, and results were confirmed by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Etoposide treatment efficacy was proven by ex vivo anticaspase 3 staining and fluorescence microscopy. In this preclinical model, we found that the NIS imaging strategy outperformed state-of-the-art (18)F-FDG imaging in its ability to detect small tumors (18.5-fold-better tumor-to-blood ratio) and metastases (LN, 3.6-fold) because of improved contrast in organs close to metastatic sites (12- and 8.5-fold-lower standardized uptake value in the heart and kidney, respectively). We applied the model to assess the treatment response to the neoadjuvant etoposide and found a consistent and reliable improvement in spontaneous metastasis detection. Importantly, we also found that tumor cells in different microenvironments responded in a heterogeneous manner to etoposide treatment, which could be determined only by the NIS-based strategy and not by (18)F-FDG imaging. We developed a new strategy for preclinical longitudinal in vivo cancer cell tracking with greater sensitivity and reliability than (18)F-FDG PET and applied it to track spontaneous and distant metastasis in the presence or absence

  20. Multiplane spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging of small animals in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully developed a multiscale acoustic-resolution photoacoustic tomography system in a single imaging platform. By switching between ultrasound transducers (center frequencies 5 and 40 MHz) and optical condensers, we have photoacoustically imaged microvasculatures of small animals in vivo at different scales. Further, we have extended the field of view of our imaging system to entire bodies of small animals. At different imaging planes, we have noninvasively imaged the major blood vessels (e.g., descending aorta, intercostal vessels, cephalic vessels, brachial vessels, femoral vessels, popliteal vessels, lateral marginal vessels, cranial mesenteric vessels, mammalian vessels, carotid artery, jugular vein, subclavian vessels, iliac vessels, and caudal vessels) as well as intact internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver, kidney, intestine, cecum, and spinal cord) of the animals in vivo. The spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging clearly reveals the spectral responses of the internal structures. Similar to other existing preclinical whole-body imaging systems, this whole-body photoacoustic tomography can be a useful tool for small-animal research.

  1. Assessment of a smartphone-based camera for fundus imaging in animals.

    PubMed

    Balland, Olivier; Russo, Andrea; Isard, Pierre-François; Mathieson, Iona; Semeraro, Francesco; Dulaurent, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    To assess the use of an optical device (D-EYE; Si14 S.p.A.) attached to a modern smartphone (iPhone 5; Apple Inc.) for imaging the fundus in small animals. Five dogs, five cats, and five rabbits with clear media were imaged using a prototype of the D-EYE. The optical device was composed of lenses, polarizing filters, a beam splitter, a diaphragm, and mirrors, attached to a smartphone via a metal shell. Images were obtained 20 min after pupil dilation with topical 0.5% tropicamide in a darkened room, to ensure maximum pupillary dilation. Focus was set to the infinite when the autofocus was overwhelmed. Light intensity was adapted to each animal via the application (minimum light intensity for imaging the tapetal region, maximum light intensity for imaging the nontapetal region). Both still images and video sequences were recorded for each animal. Posterior segment structures were visible in all animals: optic nerve head, tapetum lucidum (when present), nontapetal region, retinal vessels, and choroidal vessels (when the retinal pigment epithelium and the choroidal pigmentation were discreet). Focal light artifacts were common when photographing the tapetum lucidum. Recording videos allowed the visualization of dynamic phenomena. The D-EYE assessed appears to be an easy means of obtaining images of the posterior segment structures. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Hardware-specific image compression techniques for the animation of CFD data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Stephen C.; Moorhead, Robert J., II

    1992-06-01

    The visualization and animation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data is vital in understanding the varied parameters that exist in the solution field. Scientists need accurate and efficient visualization techniques. The animation of CFD data is not only computationally expensive but also expensive in the allocation of memory, both RAM and disk. Preserving animations of the CFD data visualizations is useful, since recreation of the animation is expensive when dealing with extremely large data structures. Researchers of CFD data may wish to follow a particle trace over an experimental fuselage design, but are unable to retain the animation for efficient retrieval without rendering or consuming a considerable amount of disk space. The spatial image resolution is reduced from 1280 X 1024 to 512 X 480 in going from the workstation format to a video format, therefore, a desire to save these animations on disk results. Saving on disk allows the animation to maintain the spatial and intensity quality of the rendered image and allows the display of the animation at approximately 30 frames/sec, the standard video rate. The goal is to develop optimal image compression algorithms that allow visualization animations, captures as independent RGB images, to be recorded to tape or disk. If recorded to disk, the image sequence is compressed in non-realtime with a technique which allows subsequent decompression at approximately 30 frames/sec to simulate the temporal resolution of video. Initial compression is obtained through mapping RGB colors in each frame to a 12-bit colormap image. The colormap is animation sequence dependent and is created by histogramming the colors in the animation sequence and mapping those colors with relation to specific regions of the L*a*b* color coordinate system to take advantage of the uniform nature of the L*a*b* color system. Further compression is obtained by taking interframe differences, specifically comparing respective blocks between

  3. NanoLuc Reporter for Dual Luciferase Imaging in Living Animals

    PubMed Central

    Stacer, Amanda C.; Nyati, Shyam; Moudgil, Pranav; Iyengar, Rahul; Luker, Kathryn E.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Luker, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is utilized widely for cell-based assays and animal imaging studies in biomedical research and drug development, capitalizing on high signal-to-background of this technique. A relatively small number of luciferases are available for imaging studies, substantially limiting the ability to image multiple molecular and cellular events as done commonly with fluorescence imaging. To advance dual reporter bioluminescence molecular imaging, we tested a recently developed, ATP-independent luciferase enzyme from Oplophorus gracilirostris (NanoLuc, NL) as a reporter for animal imaging. We demonstrated that NL could be imaged in superficial and deep tissues in living mice, although detection of NL in deep tissues was limited by emission of predominantly blue light by this enzyme. Changes in bioluminescence from NL over time could be used to quantify tumor growth, and secreted NL was detectable in small volumes of serum. We combined NL and firefly luciferase reporters to quantify two key steps in TGF-β signaling in intact cells and living mice, establishing a novel dual luciferase imaging strategy for quantifying signal transduction and drug targeting. Our results establish NL as new reporter for bioluminescence imaging studies in intact cells and living mice that will expand imaging of signal transduction in normal physiology, disease, and drug development. PMID:24371848

  4. A comparison of animated versus static images in an instructional multimedia presentation.

    PubMed

    Daly, C J; Bulloch, J M; Ma, M; Aidulis, D

    2016-06-01

    Sophisticated three-dimensional animation and video compositing software enables the creation of complex multimedia instructional movies. However, if the design of such presentations does not take account of cognitive load and multimedia theories, then their effectiveness as learning aids will be compromised. We investigated the use of animated images versus still images by creating two versions of a 4-min multimedia presentation on vascular neuroeffector transmission. One version comprised narration and animations, whereas the other animation comprised narration and still images. Fifty-four undergraduate students from level 3 pharmacology and physiology undergraduate degrees participated. Half of the students watched the full animation, and the other half watched the stills only. Students watched the presentation once and then answered a short essay question. Answers were coded and marked blind. The "animation" group scored 3.7 (SE: 0.4; out of 11), whereas the "stills" group scored 3.2 (SE: 0.5). The difference was not statistically significant. Further analysis of bonus marks, awarded for appropriate terminology use, detected a significant difference in one class (pharmacology) who scored 0.6 (SE: 0.2) versus 0.1 (SE: 0.1) for the animation versus stills group, respectively (P = 0.04). However, when combined with the physiology group, the significance disappeared. Feedback from students was extremely positive and identified four main themes of interest. In conclusion, while increasing student satisfaction, we do not find strong evidence in favor of animated images over still images in this particular format. We also discuss the study design and offer suggestions for further investigations of this type. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  5. Iodine-131 imaging using 284 keV photons with a small animal CZT-SPECT system dedicated to low-medium-energy photon detection.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Akihiro; Gotoh, Kumiko; Shimamoto, Masako; Hasegawa, Koki; Okada, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    Iodine-131 is widely used for radionuclide therapy because of its β-particle and for diagnostic imaging employing its principal gamma ray. Since that principal gamma ray has the relatively high energy of 364 keV, small animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging systems may be required to possess the ability to image such higher energy photons. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of imaging I-131 using its 284 keV photons instead of its 364 keV photons in a small animal SPECT imaging system dedicated to the detection of low-medium-energy photons (below 300 keV). The imaging system used was a commercially available preclinical SPECT instrument with CZT detectors that was equipped with multi-pinhole collimators and was accompanied by a CT imager. An energy window for I-131 imaging was set to a photopeak of 284 keV with a low abundance compared with 364 keV photons. Small line sources and two mice, one of each of two types, that were injected with NaI-131 were scanned. Although higher counts occurred at the peripheral region of the reconstructed images due to the collimator penetration by the 364 keV photons, the shape of the small line sources could be well visualized. The measured spatial resolution was relatively poor (~1.9 mm for full width at half maximum and ~3.9 mm for full width at tenth maximum). However, a good linear correlation between SPECT values and the level of I-131 radioactivity was observed. Furthermore, the uptake of NaI-131 to the thyroid gland for the two mice was clearly identified in the 3D-SPECT image fused with the X-ray CT image. We conclude that the use of an energy window set on the photopeak of 284 keV and the multi-pinhole collimator may permit I-131 imaging for a preclinical CZT-SPECT system that does not have the ability to acquire images using the 364 keV photons.

  6. A dual RF resonator system for high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, R; Bodgdanov, G; King, J; Allard, A; Ferris, C F

    2004-01-30

    A new apparatus has been developed that integrates an animal restrainer arrangement for small animals with an actively tunable/detunable dual radio-frequency (RF) coil system for in vivo anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals at 4.7 T. The radio-frequency coil features an eight-element microstrip line configuration that, in conjunction with a segmented outer copper shield, forms a transversal electromagnetic (TEM) resonator structure. Matching and active tuning/detuning is achieved through fixed/variable capacitors and a PIN diode for each resonator element. These components along with radio-frequency chokes (RFCs) and blocking capacitors are placed on two printed circuit boards (PCBs) whose copper coated ground planes form the front and back of the volume coil and are therefore an integral part of the resonator structure. The magnetic resonance signal response is received with a dome-shaped single-loop surface coil that can be height-adjustable with respect to the animal's head. The conscious animal is immobilized through a mechanical arrangement that consists of a Plexiglas body tube and a head restrainer. This restrainer has a cylindrical holder with a mouthpiece and position screws to receive and restrain the head of the animal. The apparatus is intended to perform anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging in conscious animals such as mice, rats, hamsters, and marmosets. Cranial images acquired from fully conscious rats in a 4.7 T Bruker 40 cm bore animal scanner underscore the feasibility of this approach and bode well to extend this system to the imaging of other animals.

  7. Revealing glacier flow and surge dynamics from animated satellite image sequences: examples from the Karakoram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, F.

    2015-04-01

    Although animated images are very popular on the Internet, they have so far found only limited use for glaciological applications. With long time-series of satellite images becoming increasingly available and glaciers being well recognized for their rapid changes and variable flow dynamics, animated sequences of multiple satellite images reveal glacier dynamics in a time-lapse mode, making the otherwise slow changes of glacier movement visible and understandable for a wide public. For this study animated image sequences were created from freely available image quick-looks of orthorectified Landsat scenes for four regions in the central Karakoram mountain range. The animations play automatically in a web-browser and might help to demonstrate glacier flow dynamics for educational purposes. The animations revealed highly complex patterns of glacier flow and surge dynamics over a 15-year time period (1998-2013). In contrast to other regions, surging glaciers in the Karakoram are often small (around 10 km2), steep, debris free, and advance for several years at comparably low annual rates (a few hundred m a-1). The advance periods of individual glaciers are generally out of phase, indicating a limited climatic control on their dynamics. On the other hand, nearly all other glaciers in the region are either stable or slightly advancing, indicating balanced or even positive mass budgets over the past few years to decades.

  8. Imaging Techniques for Small Animal Models of Pulmonary Disease: MR Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) of the small animal lung has become a valuable research tool, especially for preclinical studies. MRM offers a noninvasive and nondestructive tool for imaging small animals longitudinally and at high spatial resolution. We summarize some of the technical and biologic problems and solutions associated with imaging the small animal lung and describe several important pulmonary disease applications. A major advantage of MR is direct imaging of the gas spaces of the lung using breathable gases such as helium and xenon. When polarized, these gases become rich MR signal sources. In animals breathing hyperpolarized helium, the dynamics of gas distribution can be followed and airway constrictions and obstructions can be detected. Diffusion coefficients of helium can be calculated from diffusion-sensitive images, which can reveal micro-structural changes in the lungs associated with pathologies such as emphysema and fibrosis. Unlike helium, xenon in the lung is absorbed by blood and exhibits different frequencies in gas, tissue, or erythrocytes. Thus, with MR imaging, the movement of xenon gas can be tracked through pulmonary compartments to detect defects of gas transfer. MRM has become a valuable tool for studying morphologic and functional changes in small animal models of lung diseases. PMID:17325972

  9. Attenuation correction for small animal SPECT imaging using x-ray CT data

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Andrew B.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2005-09-15

    Photon attenuation in small animal nuclear medicine scans can be significant when using isotopes that emit lower energy photons such as iodine-125. We have developed a method to use microCT data to perform attenuation corrected small animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A microCT calibration phantom was first imaged, and the resulting calibration curve was used to convert microCT image values to linear attenuation coefficient values that were then used in an iterative SPECT reconstruction algorithm. This method was applied to reconstruct a SPECT image of a uniform phantom filled with {sup 125}I-NaI. Without attenuation correction, the image suffered a 30% decrease in intensity in the center of the image, which was removed with the addition of attenuation correction. This reduced the relative standard deviation in the region of interest from 10% to 6%.

  10. A time-resolved multi-wavelength fluorescence diffuse optical tomography system for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renee; Poulet, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    A tomographic approach, relying on diffuse near infrared photons to image the optical properties of tissues and the inner distribution of fluorescent probes is described. The method should improve the spatial resolution and quantification of fluorescence signals, thanks to multiple-projection acquisitions and to a reconstruction procedure using the principles of diffuse optical tomography. The scanner assembled uses picosecond laser diodes, an eight-anode photo-multiplier tube (PMT) and time-correlated single photon counting. Two sets of laser heads, each operating at four wavelengths, are fitted with furcated optical fibers, providing two sequential sources of light positioned on the animal or object studied. Multimode optical fibers are used to detect light at eight output points on the animal or object. These fibers are connected to the PMT, with an air-gap allowing the insertion of an optical filter to reject the excitation wavelength. The light sources and detectors can be rotated to increase the number of projections recorded. For the reconstruction process, the coordinates of the body surface of the animal to be imaged are necessary. These are acquired by interferometry, using a conoscope and an XY scanning system, before the animal is entered in the scanner. The profiles measured at the excitation wavelengths are used to compute absorption and reduced scattering images and perfusion/oxygenation images of the animal. Fluorescence images, free from diffusion and absorption artefacts, can then be computed with a-priori knowledge of the optical images of the animal. The scanner, its performances and images of light-scattering and fluorescent phantoms are presented.

  11. An automated robot arm system for small animal tissue biopsy under dual-image modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. H.; Wu, T. H.; Lin, M. H.; Yang, C. C.; Guo, W. Y.; Wang, Z. J.; Chen, C. L.; Lee, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor cell biology in vivo is one of the most important goals of molecular imaging. Imaging procedures could be inter-subject performed repeatedly at different investigating stages; thereby need not sacrifice small animals during the entire study period. Thus, the ultimate goal of this study was to design a stereotactic image-guided system for small animals and integrated it with an automatic robot arm for in vivo tissue biopsy analysis. The system was composed of three main parts, including one small animal stereotactic frame, one imaging-fusion software and an automatic robot arm system. The system has been thoroughly evaluated with three components; the robot position accuracy was 0.05±0.02 mm, the image registration accuracy was 0.37±0.18 mm and the system integration was satisfactorily within 1.20±0.39 mm of error. From these results, the system demonstrated sufficient accuracy to guide the micro-injector from the planned delivery routes into practice. The entire system accuracy was limited by the image fusion and orientation procedures, due to its nature of the blurred PET imaging obtained from the small objects. The primary improvement is to acquire as higher resolution as possible the fused imaging for localizing the targets in the future.

  12. Synthesis of heterodimer radionuclide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance and single-photon emission computed tomography dual-modality imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Jian; Wang, Jiaqing; Chong, Yu; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yaoyao; Tang, Minghua; Li, Yonggang; Ge, Cuicui; Pan, Yue; Gu, Hongwei

    2015-02-01

    We report a facile synthesis of bifunctional Fe3O4-Ag125I heterodimers for use as dual-modality imaging agents in magnetic resonance (MR) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We introduced 125I, which is a clinically used radioisotope, as a SPECT reporter, into Fe3O4-Ag heterodimer nanoparticles to provide a new type of bifunctional contrast agent for MRI and SPECT imaging.We report a facile synthesis of bifunctional Fe3O4-Ag125I heterodimers for use as dual-modality imaging agents in magnetic resonance (MR) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We introduced 125I, which is a clinically used radioisotope, as a SPECT reporter, into Fe3O4-Ag heterodimer nanoparticles to provide a new type of bifunctional contrast agent for MRI and SPECT imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of general experimental procedures, TEM image. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07255c

  13. A review of radiation countermeasures focusing on injury-specific medicinals and regulatory approval status: part II. Countermeasures for limited indications, internalized radionuclides, emesis, late effects, and agents demonstrating efficacy in large animals with or without FDA IND status.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Garcia, Melissa; Seed, Thomas M

    2017-09-01

    The threat of a radiological/nuclear event is a critical concern for all government agencies involved in national security and public health preparedness. Countermeasures that are safe, easily administered, and effective at diminishing or eliminating adverse health effects to individuals and the overall public health impact of radiation exposure are urgently needed. Radiation countermeasures included in this three-part series have been classified under various subheadings based specifically on their developmental stages for United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. We have included FDA-approved agents for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in part I. This is part II in which we have reviewed FDA-approved agents for limited indications, internalized radionuclides, emesis, late effects, radiomitigators available in the strategic national stockpile (SNS), agents with FDA investigational new drug (IND) status, and those with NHP efficacy data without FDA IND. Agents discussed in part III are those agents that have been peer reviewed, published, and have demonstrated significant survival benefits in animal models of ARS. Agents investigated in in vitro models only or studied in animal models without peer-reviewed publications have not been included. The dearth of FDA-approved radiation countermeasures has prompted intensified research for a new generation of radiation countermeasures. A number of promising radiation countermeasures are currently moving forward with continued support and effort by both governmental agencies and by publicly and privately held pharmaceutical companies. There is a limited number of countermeasures which are progressing well following the Animal Rule and may get approved in the near future, thus serving to close the gap of this critically important, unmet radiobiomedical need.

  14. Development of a high frame rate ultrasonic system for cardiac imaging in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Yen, Jesse T.; Feng, Ching; Shung, K. Kirk

    2006-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a well established technology for echocardiography on humans. For cardiac imaging in small animals whose hearts beat at a rate higher than 300 beats per minute, the spatial and temporal resolution of current clinical ultrasonic scanners are far from ideal and simply inadequate for such applications. In this research, a real-time high frequency ultrasound imaging system was developed with a frame rate higher than 80 frames per second (fps) for cardiac applications in small animals. The device has a mechanical sector scanner using magnetic drive mechanism to reduce moving parts and ensure longevity. A very lightweight (< 0.28 g) single element transducer was specially designed and constructed for this research to achieve a frame rate of at least 80 fps. The 30-50 MHz transducers swept through an arc at the end of a pendulum for imaging the heart of small animals. The imaging electronics consisted of a low noise pulser/receiver, a high-speed data acquisition board, and digital signal processing algorithms. In vivo results on mouse embryos showed that real time ultrasound imaging at frame rate exceeding 80 fps could demonstrate detailed depiction of cardiac function with a spatial resolution of around 50 microns, which allows researchers to fully examine and monitor small animal cardiac functions.

  15. Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Löck, Steffen; Dietrich, Antje; Fursov, Andriy; Haase, Robert; Lukas, Mathias; Rimarzig, Bernd; Sobiella, Manfred; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Bütof, Rebecca; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks.

  16. Small Animal Imaging using a Clinical Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Super-Resolution

    PubMed Central

    DiFilippo, Frank P.; Patel, Sagar; Asosingh, Kewal; Erzurum, Serpil

    2013-01-01

    Considering the high cost of dedicated small animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), an acceptable alternative in many situations might be clinical PET/CT. However spatial resolution and image quality are of concern. The utility of clinical PET/CT for small-animal research and image quality improvements from super-resolution (spatial subsampling) were investigated. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 4 phantom and mouse data were acquired with a clinical PET/CT scanner, both as conventional static and stepped scans. Static scans were reconstructed with and without point spread function (PSF) modeling. Stepped images were postprocessed with iterative deconvolution to produce super-resolution images. Image quality was markedly improved using the super-resolution technique, avoiding certain artifacts produced by PSF modeling. The 2-mm rod of the NU 4 phantom was visualized with high contrast, and the major structures of the mouse were well resolved. Although not a perfect substitute for a state-of-the-art small animal PET/CT scanner, a clinical PET/CT scanner with super-resolution produces acceptable small-animal image quality for many preclinical research studies. PMID:22554485

  17. A Protective Eye Shield for Prevention of Media Opacities during Small Animal Ocular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Brent A.; Kaul, Charles; Hollyfield, Joe G.

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and other non-invasive imaging techniques are increasingly used in eye research to document disease-related changes in rodent eyes. Corneal dehydration is a major contributor to the formation of ocular opacities that can limit the repeated application of these techniques to individual animals. General anesthesia is usually required for imaging, which is accompanied by the loss of the blink reflex. As a consequence, the tear film cannot be maintained, drying occurs and the cornea becomes dehydrated. Without supplemental hydration, structural damage to the cornea quickly follows. Soon thereafter, anterior lens opacities can also develop. Collectively these changes ultimately compromise image quality, especially for studies involving repeated use of the same animal over several weeks or months. To minimize these changes, a protective shield was designed for mice and rats that prevent ocular dehydration during anesthesia. The eye shield, along with a semi-viscous ophthalmic solution, is placed over the corneas as soon as the anesthesia immobilizes the animal. Eye shields are removed for only the brief periods required for imaging and then reapplied before the fellow eye is examined. As a result, the corneal surface of each eye is exposed only for the time required for imaging. The device and detailed methods described here minimize the corneal and lens changes associated with ocular surface desiccation. When these methods are used consistently, high quality images can be obtained repeatedly from individual animals. PMID:25245081

  18. Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Elizabeth M C

    2007-01-01

    Optical brain imaging has seen 30 years of intense development, and has grown into a rich and diverse field. In-vivo imaging using light provides unprecedented sensitivity to functional changes through intrinsic contrast, and is rapidly exploiting the growing availability of exogenous optical contrast agents. Light can be used to image microscopic structure and function in vivo in exposed animal brain, while also allowing noninvasive imaging of hemodynamics and metabolism in a clinical setting. This work presents an overview of the wide range of approaches currently being applied to in-vivo optical brain imaging, from animal to man. Techniques include multispectral optical imaging, voltage sensitive dye imaging and speckle-flow imaging of exposed cortex, in-vivo two-photon microscopy of the living brain, and the broad range of noninvasive topography and tomography approaches to near-infrared imaging of the human brain. The basic principles of each technique are described, followed by examples of current applications to cutting-edge neuroscience research. In summary, it is shown that optical brain imaging continues to grow and evolve, embracing new technologies and advancing to address ever more complex and important neuroscience questions.

  19. Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Optical brain imaging has seen 30 years of intense development, and has grown into a rich and diverse field. In-vivo imaging using light provides unprecedented sensitivity to functional changes through intrinsic contrast, and is rapidly exploiting the growing availability of exogenous optical contrast agents. Light can be used to image microscopic structure and function in vivo in exposed animal brain, while also allowing noninvasive imaging of hemodynamics and metabolism in a clinical setting. This work presents an overview of the wide range of approaches currently being applied to in-vivo optical brain imaging, from animal to man. Techniques include multispectral optical imaging, voltage sensitive dye imaging and speckle-flow imaging of exposed cortex, in-vivo two-photon microscopy of the living brain, and the broad range of noninvasive topography and tomography approaches to near-infrared imaging of the human brain. The basic principles of each technique are described, followed by examples of current applications to cutting-edge neuroscience research. In summary, it is shown that optical brain imaging continues to grow and evolve, embracing new technologies and advancing to address ever more complex and important neuroscience questions. PMID:17994863

  20. Low-light imaging system for luminescence probes in living animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Masafumi

    1999-07-01

    The combination of a very high gain image intensifier, a CCD camera and an image processor which eliminates read out noise of the CCD camera, enables one to detect single photon events by photon counting imaging. The detected photons are then counted in the image processor to generate an image. The image intensifier is also designed to minimize dark noise that determines the sensitivity limit. The photon counting imaging system can be used as a standard intensified CCD camera by lowering the gain of the intensifier. This is useful for focusing and getting an image of the entire object in brightfield, which is used as the reference for the luminescent image. This is a very flexible imagin system used to monitor luminescence; such as gene expression, genetically modified luminescent microorganisms, ATP from microorganisms and luminescence from aequorin stimulated by calcium ions. This system also makes it possible to see luminescence generated inside of small animals through their skin without harming them and it is becoming an important tool for In-Vivo monitoring of small animals. In this paper, we discuss recent technique of photon counting imaging.

  1. Can Physicians Identify Inappropriate Nuclear Stress Tests? An Examination of Inter-rater Reliability for the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria for Radionuclide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Siqin; Rabbani, LeRoy E.; Kelly, Christopher R.; Kelly, Maureen R.; Lewis, Matthew; Paz, Yehuda; Peck, Clara L.; Rao, Shaline; Bokhari, Sabahat; Weiner, Shepard D.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to determine inter-rater reliability of the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for radionuclide imaging (RNI) and whether physicians at various levels of training can effectively identify nuclear stress tests with inappropriate indications. Methods and Results Four hundred patients were randomly selected from a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing nuclear stress testing at an academic medical center. Raters with different levels of training (including cardiology attending physicians, cardiology fellows, internal medicine hospitalists, and internal medicine interns) classified individual nuclear stress tests using the 2009 AUC. Consensus classification by two cardiologists was considered the operational gold standard, and sensitivity and specificity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests was calculated. Inter-rater reliability of the AUC was assessed using Cohen’s kappa statistics for pairs of different raters. The mean age of patients was 61.5 years; 214 (54%) were female. The cardiologists rated 256 (64%) of 400 NSTs as appropriate, 68 (18%) as uncertain, 55 (14%) as inappropriate; 21 (5%) tests were unable to be classified. Inter-rater reliability for non-cardiologist raters was modest (unweighted Cohen’s kappa, 0.51, 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.55). Sensitivity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests ranged from 47% to 82%, while specificity ranged from 85% to 97%. Conclusions Inter-rater reliability for the 2009 AUC for RNI is modest, and there is considerable variation in the ability of raters at different levels of training to identify inappropriate tests. PMID:25563660

  2. Are cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide ventriculography good options against echocardiography for evaluation of anthracycline induced chronic cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors?

    PubMed

    Basar, Evic Zeynep; Corapcioglu, Funda; Babaoglu, Kadir; Anik, Yonca; Gorur Daglioz, Gozde; Dedeoglu, Reyhan

    2014-04-01

    Anthracyclines are widely used for the treatment of solid tumors in pediatric oncology. However, their uses may be limited by progressive chronic cardiotoxicity related to the cumulative dosage. The aims of this study are to compare diagnostic techniques and prepare an algorithm for diagnosis of anthracycline induced chronic cardiotoxicity. The patients were evaluated according to age, sex, time elapsed since the last dose of anthracycline treatment, presence of cardiovascular symptoms, follow-up duration, type of anthracycline, cumulative anthracycline dose, and concomitant mediastinal radiation therapy. Late subclinical cardiotoxicity was detected by history, physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG), Holter monitor, echocardiography (ECHO), radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA), and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-seven male and 19 female patients with a median age of 11.2 ± 4.6 (range, 3.5-22.0) years were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to cumulative anthracycline doses. Subclinical cardiac dysfunction was detected in 20 patients by at least one of ECHO, MRI or MUGA after anthracycline chemotherapy. We revealed that other than ECHO, MRI and MUGA have high clinical importance for evaluating subclinical late cardiac complications in children treated with anthracyclines.

  3. Dual-modal (OIS/LSCI) imager of cerebral cortex in freely moving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongyang; Miao, Peng; Liu, Qi; Li, Yao; Tong, Shanbao

    2012-03-01

    Optical intrinsic signals (OIS) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) have been used for years in the study of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and hemodynamic responses to the neural activity under functional stimulation. So far, most in vivo rodent experiments are based on the anesthesia model when the animals are in unconscious and restrained conditions. The influences of anesthesia on the neural activity have been documented in literature. In this study, we designed a miniature head-mounted dual-modal imager in freely moving animals that could monitor in real time the coupling of local oxygen consumption and blood perfusion of CBF by integrating different imaging modalities of OIS and LSCI. The system facilitates the study the cortical hemodynamics and neural-hemodynamic coupling in real time in freely moving animals.

  4. Magnetic Resonance-based imaging in animal models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Parnell, Scott E.; Lipinski, Robert J.; Sulik, Kathleen K.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), have recently been applied to the study of both normal and abnormal structure and neurochemistry in small animals. Herein, findings from studies in which these methods have been used for the examination of animal models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are discussed. Emphasis is placed on results of imaging studies in fetal and postnatal mice that have highlighted the developmental stage dependency of prenatal ethanol exposure-induced CNS defects. Consideration is also given to the promise of methodological advances to allow in vivo studies of aberrant brain and behavior relationships in model animals and to the translational nature of this work. PMID:21445552

  5. Small animal imaging using a flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPD-CBCT) imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, David L.; Ning, Ruola; Yu, Yong; Lu, Xianghua; Wood, Ronald W.; Reeder, Jay E.; Johnson, Aimee M.

    2005-04-01

    Flat panel detector-based cone beam CT (FPD-CBCT) imaging system prototypes have been constructed based on modified clinical CT scanners (a modified GE 8800 CT system and a modified GE HighSpeed Advantage (HSA) spiral CT system) each with a Varian PaxScan 2520 imager. The functions of the electromechanical and radiographic subsystems of the CT system were controlled through specially made hardware, software and data acquisition modules to perform animal cone beam CT studies. Small animal (mouse) imaging studies were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of an optimized CBCT imaging system to have the capability to perform longitudinal studies to monitor the progression of cancerous tumors or the efficacy of treatments. Radiographic parameters were optimized for fast (~10 second) scans of live mice to produce good reconstructed image quality with dose levels low enough to avoid any detectable radiation treatment to the animals. Specifically, organs in the pelvic region were clearly imaged and contrast studies showed the feasibility to visualize small vasculature and space-filling bladder tumors. In addition, prostate and mammary tumors were monitored in volume growth studies.

  6. Optimal self-calibration of tomographic reconstruction parameters in whole-body small animal optoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Subhamoy; Nasonova, Elena; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In tomographic optoacoustic imaging, multiple parameters related to both light and ultrasound propagation characteristics of the medium need to be adequately selected in order to accurately recover maps of local optical absorbance. Speed of sound in the imaged object and surrounding medium is a key parameter conventionally assumed to be uniform. Mismatch between the actual and predicted speed of sound values may lead to image distortions but can be mitigated by manual or automatic optimization based on metrics of image sharpness. Although some simple approaches based on metrics of image sharpness may readily mitigate distortions in the presence of highly contrasting and sharp image features, they may not provide an adequate performance for smooth signal variations as commonly present in realistic whole-body optoacoustic images from small animals. Thus, three new hybrid methods are suggested in this work, which are shown to outperform well-established autofocusing algorithms in mouse experiments in vivo. PMID:25431756

  7. Design of a multimodal fibers optic system for small animal optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Pagliazzi, Marco; Boschi, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Small animals optical imaging systems are widely used in pre-clinical research to image in vivo the bio-distribution of light emitting probes using fluorescence or bioluminescence modalities. In this work we presented a set of simulated results of a novel small animal optical imaging module based on a fibers optics matrix, coupled with a position sensitive detector, devoted to acquire bioluminescence and Cerenkov images. Simulations were performed using GEANT 4 code with the GAMOS architecture using the tissue optics plugin. Results showed that it is possible to image a 30 × 30 mm region of interest using a fiber optics array containing 100 optical fibers without compromising the quality of the reconstruction. The number of fibers necessary to cover an adequate portion of a small animal is thus quite modest. This design allows integrating the module with magnetic resonance (MR) in order to acquire optical and MR images at the same time. A detailed model of the mouse anatomy, obtained by segmentation of 3D MRI images, will improve the quality of optical 3D reconstruction.

  8. In Vivo Small Animal Imaging using Micro-CT and Digital Subtraction Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Badea, C.T.; Drangova, M.; Holdsworth, D.W.; Johnson, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Small animal imaging has a critical role in phenotyping, drug discovery, and in providing a basic understanding of mechanisms of disease. Translating imaging methods from humans to small animals is not an easy task. The purpose of this work is to review in vivo X-ray based small animal imaging, with a focus on in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We present the principles, technologies, image quality parameters and types of applications. We show that both methods can be used not only to provide morphological, but also functional information, such as cardiac function estimation or perfusion. Compared to other modalities, x-ray based imaging is usually regarded as being able to provide higher throughput at lower cost and adequate resolution. The limitations are usually associated with the relatively poor contrast mechanisms and potential radiation damage due to ionizing radiation, although the use of contrast agents and careful design of studies can address these limitations. We hope that the information will effectively address how x-ray based imaging can be exploited for successful in vivo preclinical imaging. PMID:18758005

  9. A Novel Restraining Device for Small Animal Imaging Exams: Validation in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carlos Henrique; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; de Souza, Sérgio; Machado, Fernanda; Guedes, Fábio; Monteiro, André; Schanaider, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    To develop, validate, and patent a Restraining Device for Small Animal Imaging Exams (RDSAIE) that allows exams to be comfortably conducted without risks to animals and professionals. A RDSAIE with a mobile cover and shelf was built with transparent acrylic material. A total of six anesthetized rabbits were used to perform the following imaging exams of the skull: Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Scintigraphy. The device showed great functionality and full visibility of the animal behavior, which remained fully stabilized and immobilized in either the horizontal or vertical position without the need for a person to remain in the test room to assist them. The procedures were performed without difficulty, and images of good resolution and without artifacts were obtained. The RDSAIE is comfortable, safe, efficient, and ergonomic. It allows the easy placement of animals in different body positions, including the vertical, the maintenance of postural stability, and full visibility. It may be constructed for animals heavier than 4 kg and it is adaptable for translational studies in anima nobile.

  10. A Novel Restraining Device for Small Animal Imaging Exams: Validation in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Carlos Henrique; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; de Souza, Sérgio; Machado, Fernanda; Guedes, Fábio; Monteiro, André; Schanaider, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop, validate, and patent a Restraining Device for Small Animal Imaging Exams (RDSAIE) that allows exams to be comfortably conducted without risks to animals and professionals. Methods. A RDSAIE with a mobile cover and shelf was built with transparent acrylic material. A total of six anesthetized rabbits were used to perform the following imaging exams of the skull: Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Scintigraphy. Results. The device showed great functionality and full visibility of the animal behavior, which remained fully stabilized and immobilized in either the horizontal or vertical position without the need for a person to remain in the test room to assist them. The procedures were performed without difficulty, and images of good resolution and without artifacts were obtained. Conclusion. The RDSAIE is comfortable, safe, efficient, and ergonomic. It allows the easy placement of animals in different body positions, including the vertical, the maintenance of postural stability, and full visibility. It may be constructed for animals heavier than 4 kg and it is adaptable for translational studies in anima nobile. PMID:26114109

  11. Multimodality imaging combination in small animal via point-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. C.; Wu, T. H.; Lin, M. H.; Huang, Y. H.; Guo, W. Y.; Chen, C. L.; Wang, T. C.; Yin, W. H.; Lee, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    We present a system of image co-registration in small animal study. Marker-based registration is chosen because of its considerable advantage that the fiducial feature is independent of imaging modality. We also experimented with different scanning protocols and different fiducial marker sizes to improve registration accuracy. Co-registration was conducted using rat phantom fixed by stereotactic frame. Overall, the co-registration accuracy was in sub-millimeter level and close to intrinsic system error. Therefore, we conclude that the system is an accurate co-registration method to be used in small animal studies.

  12. Continuous monitoring of arthritis in animal models using optical imaging modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Taeyoon; Yoon, Hyung-Ju; Lee, Saseong; Jang, Won Seuk; Jung, Byungjo; Kim, Wan-Uk

    2014-10-01

    Given the several difficulties associated with histology, including difficulty in continuous monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the feasibility of optical imaging modalities-cross-polarization color (CPC) imaging, erythema index (EI) imaging, and laser speckle contrast (LSC) imaging-for continuous evaluation and monitoring of arthritis in animal models. C57BL/6 mice, used for the evaluation of arthritis, were divided into three groups: arthritic mice group (AMG), positive control mice group (PCMG), and negative control mice group (NCMG). Complete Freund's adjuvant, mineral oil, and saline were injected into the footpad for AMG, PCMG, and NCMG, respectively. LSC and CPC images were acquired from 0 through 144 h after injection for all groups. EI images were calculated from CPC images. Variations in feet area, EI, and speckle index for each mice group over time were calculated for quantitative evaluation of arthritis. Histological examinations were performed, and the results were found to be consistent with those from optical imaging analysis. Thus, optical imaging modalities may be successfully applied for continuous evaluation and monitoring of arthritis in animal models.

  13. Small-animal whole-body imaging using a photoacoustic full ring array system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun; Guo, Zijian; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    In this report, we present a novel 3D photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring transducer array, received photoacoustic signals primarily from a 2-mm-thick slice. The light was generated by a pulse laser, and can either illuminate from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side, using a conical lens and an optical condenser. The PACT system was capable of acquiring an in-plane image in 1.6 s; by scanning the sample in the elevational direction, a 3D tomographic image could be constructed. We tested the system by imaging a cylindrical phantom made of human hairs immersed in a scattering medium. The reconstructed image achieved an in-plane resolution of 0.1 mm and an elevational resolution of 1 mm. After deconvolution in the elevational direction, the 3D image was found to match well with the phantom. The system was also used to image a baby mouse in situ; the spinal cord and ribs can be seen easily in the reconstructed image. Our results demonstrate that the PACT system has the potential to be used for fast small-animal whole-body tomographic imaging.

  14. Radionuclide imaging of the spleen with heat denatured technetium-99m RBC when the splenic reticuloendothelial system seems impaired

    SciTech Connect

    Owunwanne, A.; Halkar, R.; Al-Rasheed, A.; Abubacker, K.C.; Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1988-03-01

    Imaging of the spleen of 10 patients who had been hematologically diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia (SCA) was studied with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid and heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs. In all ten patients, there was faint or nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid. However, with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs, nine spleens were well visualized, and the uptake was homogenous. One spleen had two patchy areas of uptake. The results indicate that when splenic phagocytic function is impaired as reflected by nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid, it is still possible to image such a spleen with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs

  15. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V Wee; Dunn, Jeff F

    2014-01-01

    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  16. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V. Wee; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2014-01-01

    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS. PMID:24936425

  17. Experimental protocols for behavioral imaging: seeing animal models of drug abuse in a new light.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Alexandra R; Talan, Amanda; Schiffer, Wynne K

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral neuroimaging is a rapidly evolving discipline that represents a marriage between the fields of behavioral neuroscience and preclinical molecular imaging. This union highlights the changing role of imaging in translational research. Techniques developed for humans are now widely applied in the study of animal models of brain disorders such as drug addiction. Small animal or preclinical imaging allows us to interrogate core features of addiction from both behavioral and biological endpoints. Snapshots of brain activity allow us to better understand changes in brain function and behavior associated with initial drug exposure, the emergence of drug escalation, and repeated bouts of drug withdrawal and relapse. Here we review the development and validation of new behavioral imaging paradigms and several clinically relevant radiotracers used to capture dynamic molecular events in behaving animals. We will discuss ways in which behavioral imaging protocols can be optimized to increase throughput and quantitative methods. Finally, we discuss our experience with the practical aspects of behavioral neuroimaging, so investigators can utilize effective animal models to better understand the addicted brain and behavior.

  18. A Novel Ideal Radionuclide Imaging System for Non-invasively Cell Monitoring built on Baculovirus Backbone by Introducing Sleeping Beauty Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jing; Pan, Yu; Ju, Huijun; Zhou, Jinxin; Cheng, Dengfeng; Shi, Hongcheng; Zhang, Yifan

    2017-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is an attractive tool in stable transgene integration both in vitro and in vivo; and we introduced SB transposon into recombinant sodium-iodide symporter baculovirus system (Bac-NIS system) to facilitate long-term expression of recombinant sodium-iodide symporter. In our study, two hybrid baculovirus systems (Bac-eGFP-SB-NeoR and Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR) were successfully constructed and used to infect U87 glioma cells. After G418 selection screening, the Bac-eGFP-SB-NeoR-U87 cells remained eGFP positive, at the 18th and 196th day post transfection (96.03 ± 0.21% and 97.43 ± 0.81%), while eGFP positive population declined significantly at 18 days in cells transfected with unmodified baculovirus construct. NIS gene expression by Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR-U87 cells was also maintained for 28 weeks as determined by radioiodine uptake assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western Blot (WB) assay. When transplanted in mice, Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR-U87 cells also expressed NIS gene stably as monitored by SPECT imaging for 43 days until the tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed. Herein, we showed that incorporation of SB in Bac-NIS system (hybrid Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR) can achieve a long-term transgene expression and can improve radionuclide imaging in cell tracking and monitoring in vivo. PMID:28262785

  19. A Novel Ideal Radionuclide Imaging System for Non-invasively Cell Monitoring built on Baculovirus Backbone by Introducing Sleeping Beauty Transposon.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Pan, Yu; Ju, Huijun; Zhou, Jinxin; Cheng, Dengfeng; Shi, Hongcheng; Zhang, Yifan

    2017-03-06

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is an attractive tool in stable transgene integration both in vitro and in vivo; and we introduced SB transposon into recombinant sodium-iodide symporter baculovirus system (Bac-NIS system) to facilitate long-term expression of recombinant sodium-iodide symporter. In our study, two hybrid baculovirus systems (Bac-eGFP-SB-NeoR and Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR) were successfully constructed and used to infect U87 glioma cells. After G418 selection screening, the Bac-eGFP-SB-NeoR-U87 cells remained eGFP positive, at the 18(th) and 196(th) day post transfection (96.03 ± 0.21% and 97.43 ± 0.81%), while eGFP positive population declined significantly at 18 days in cells transfected with unmodified baculovirus construct. NIS gene expression by Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR-U87 cells was also maintained for 28 weeks as determined by radioiodine uptake assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western Blot (WB) assay. When transplanted in mice, Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR-U87 cells also expressed NIS gene stably as monitored by SPECT imaging for 43 days until the tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed. Herein, we showed that incorporation of SB in Bac-NIS system (hybrid Bac-NIS-SB-NeoR) can achieve a long-term transgene expression and can improve radionuclide imaging in cell tracking and monitoring in vivo.

  20. Motion quantification during multi-photon functional imaging in behaving animals

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingjie; Little, Justin P.; Cui, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging in behaving animals is essential to understanding brain function. However, artifacts resulting from animal motion, including locomotion, can severely corrupt functional measurements. To dampen tissue motion, we designed a new optical window with minimal optical aberrations. Using the newly developed high-speed continuous volumetric imaging system based on an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens, we quantified motion of the cerebral cortex and hippocampal surface during two-photon functional imaging in behaving mice. We find that the out-of-plane motion is generally greater than the axial dimension of the point-spread-function during mouse locomotion, which indicates that high-speed continuous volumetric imaging is necessary to minimize motion artifacts. PMID:27699129

  1. Small-Animal Molecular Imaging for Preclinical Cancer Research: .μPET and μ.SPECT.

    PubMed

    Cuccurullo, Vincenzo; Di Stasio, Giuseppe D; Schillirò, Maria L; Mansi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Due to different sizes of humans and rodents, the performance of clinical imaging devices is not enough for a scientifically reliable evaluation in mice and rats; therefore dedicated small-animal systems with a much higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, compared to the ones used in humans, are required. Smallanimal imaging represents a cutting-edge research method able to approach an enormous variety of pathologies in which animal models of disease may be used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the human condition and/or to allow a translational pharmacological (or other) evaluation of therapeutic tools. Molecular imaging, avoiding animal sacrifice, permits repetitive (i.e. longitudinal) studies on the same animal which becomes its own control. In this way also the over time evaluation of disease progression or of the treatment response is enabled. Many different rodent models have been applied to study almost all kind of human pathologies or to experiment a wide series of drugs and/or other therapeutic instruments. In particular, relevant information has been achieved in oncology by in vivo neoplastic phenotypes, obtained through procedures such as subcutaneous tumor grafts, surgical transplantation of solid tumor, orthotopic injection of tumor cells into specific organs/sites of interest, genetic modification of animals to promote tumor-genesis; in this way traditional or innovative treatments, also including gene therapy, of animals with a cancer induced by a known carcinogen may be experimented. Each model has its own disadvantage but, comparing different studies, it is possible to achieve a panoramic and therefore substantially reliable view on the specific subject. Small-animal molecular imaging has become an invaluable component of modern biomedical research that will gain probably an increasingly important role in the next few years.

  2. Assessment of resistance to paclitaxel of murine tumors by (99m)Tc-MIBI/(201)Tl dual-radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Oriuchi, N; Jibu, T; Milas, L; Choe, J; Kuang, L; Kim, E E; Hunter, N R; Wallace, S; Podoloff, D A

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression by murine tumors with and without resistance to paclitaxel and the role of (99m)Tc-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI)/(201)Tl imaging in predicting the effect of paclitaxel. Antitumor effect of paclitaxel and biodistribution of the radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated in mice bearing four tumor types. Pgp expression did not correlate with the antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel. Although the absolute uptake of (99m)Tc-MIBI did not correlate with Pgp expression, (99m)Tc-MIBI could predict paclitaxel sensitivity by its higher uptake.

  3. Radionuclide imaging of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) using 99mTc-labeled neurotensin peptide 8-13.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaijun; An, Rui; Gao, Zairong; Zhang, Yongxue; Aruva, Mohan R

    2006-05-01

    To prepare 99m technetium (99mTc)-labeled neurotensin (NT) peptide and to evaluate the feasibility of imaging oncogene NT receptors overexpressed in human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. The NT analogue (Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) was synthesized such that histidine was attached at the N-terminus. The analogue was labeled with [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3] at pH 7. 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) in vitro stability was determined by challenging it with 100 times the molar excess of DTPA, human serum albumin (HSA) and cysteine. The affinity, 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) binding to SCLC cell line NCI-H446, was studied in vitro. Biodistribution and imaging with 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) were performed at 4 and 12 h postinjection, and tissue distribution and imaging after receptor blocking were carried out at 4 h in nude mice bearing human SCLC tumor. Blood clearance was determined in normal mice. The affinity constant (Kd) of 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) to SCLC cells was 0.56 nmol/L. When challenged with 100 times the molar excess of DTPA, HSA or cysteine, more than 97+/-1.8% radioactivity remained as 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13). Tumor-to-muscle ratio was 3.35+/-1.01 at 4 h and 4.20+/-1.35 at 12 h postinjection. The excretory route of 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) was chiefly through the renal pathway. In the receptor-blocking group treated with unlabeled (Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13), tumor-to-muscle ratio at 4 h was 1.25+/-0.55. The results suggest that 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) specifically binds to the SCLC cells and made 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) a desirable compound for further studies in planar or SPECT imaging of oncogene receptors overexpressed in SCLC cells.

  4. The ANIMAGE project: a multimodal imaging platform for small animal research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappey-Marinier, D.; Beuf, O.; Billotey, C.; Chereul, E.; Dupuy, J.; Jeandey, M.; Grenier, D.; Hasserodt, J.; Langlois, J. B.; Lartizien, C.; Mai, W.; Odet, C.; Samarut, J.; Vray, D.; Zimmer, L.; Janier, M.

    2004-07-01

    The advent of the molecular era has just generated a revolution in the development of new in vivo imaging techniques to examine the integrative functions of molecules, cells, organ systems and whole organisms. Molecular imaging constitutes a new tool allowing the biologist to characterize, repeatedly and non-invasively, a large number of experimental models developed in rodents. In order to monitor biological processes such as gene expression, normal development, metabolic alterations or medical treatment effects, several methodological and technological challenges have to be raised up. Developments are needed in chemistry to create new radiotracers or contrast agents, and in physic, to adapt the medical imaging techniques to the constraints of small animal investigations. ANIMAGE is a multimodal imaging platform to image the structure and function of systems using and developing different technologies such as autoradiography, ultrasounds, positron emission tomography (PET), X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI/MRS). The first biological applications and results are presented.

  5. Development of visible and NIR imaging equipment for small animals with smart pad.

    PubMed

    Eum, Nyeon Sik; Han, Jung Hyun; Seong, Ki Woong; Lee, Jong Ha; Park, Hee Joon

    2014-01-01

    The portable visible and near-infrared (NIR) imaging equipment for a pre-clinical test with small animals was designed and developed in this paper. The developed equipment is composed of a CCD camera, a focusing lens, an objective lens, a NIR band pass filter and a NIR filter driving motor. An NIR ray is mainly used for imaging equipment because it has high light penetration depth in biological tissue. Therefore, NIR fluorescent agents are available for chemical conjugation to targeting molecules in vivo. This equipment can provide a visible image, NIR image and merged image simultaneously. A communication system was specifically established to check obtained images through a smart pad in real time. It is less dependent on space and time than the conventional system.

  6. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Tissue Inflammation Using an Animal Model of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Warram, Jason M.; Wang, Dezhi; Ratnayaka, Sithira; Traylor, Amie; Agarwal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular ultrasound (US) imaging for monitoring the early inflammatory effects following acute kidney injury. Procedures A population of rats underwent 30 min of renal ischemia (acute kidney injury, N=6) or sham injury (N=4) using established surgical methods. Animals were divided and molecular US imaging was performed during the bolus injection of a targeted microbubble (MB) contrast agent to either P-selectin or vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Imaging was performed before surgery and 4 and 24 h thereafter. After manual segmentation of renal tissue space, the molecular US signal was calculated as the difference between time-intensity curve data before MB injection and after reaching steady-state US image enhancement. All animals were terminated after the 24 h imaging time point and kidneys excised for immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Results Renal inflammation was analyzed using molecular US imaging. While results using the P-selectin and VCAM-1 targeted MBs were comparable, it appears that the former was more sensitive to biomarker expression. All molecular US imaging measures had a positive correlation with IHC findings. Conclusions Acute kidney injury is a serious disease in need of improved noninvasive methods to help diagnose the extent of injury and monitor the tissue throughout disease progression. Molecular US imaging appears well suited to address this challenge and more research is warranted. PMID:25905474

  7. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  8. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor. PMID:26720879

  9. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  10. Radionuclide removal by apatite

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Moore, Robert C.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a growing body of research supports widespread future reliance on apatite for radioactive waste cleanup. Apatite is a multi-functional radionuclide sorbent that lowers dissolved radionuclide concentrations by surface sorption, ion exchange, surface precipitation, and by providing phosphate to precipitate low-solubility radionuclide-containing minerals. Natural apatites are rich in trace elements, and apatite’s stability in the geologic record suggest that radionuclides incorporated into apatite, whether in a permeable reactive barrier or a waste form, are likely to remain isolated from the biosphere for long periods of time. Here we outline the mineralogic and surface origins of apatite-radionuclide reactivity and show how apatites might be used to environmental advantage in the future.

  11. Radionuclide removal by apatite

    DOE PAGES

    Rigali, Mark J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Moore, Robert C.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a growing body of research supports widespread future reliance on apatite for radioactive waste cleanup. Apatite is a multi-functional radionuclide sorbent that lowers dissolved radionuclide concentrations by surface sorption, ion exchange, surface precipitation, and by providing phosphate to precipitate low-solubility radionuclide-containing minerals. Natural apatites are rich in trace elements, and apatite’s stability in the geologic record suggest that radionuclides incorporated into apatite, whether in a permeable reactive barrier or a waste form, are likely to remain isolated from the biosphere for long periods of time. Here we outline the mineralogic and surface origins of apatite-radionuclide reactivity andmore » show how apatites might be used to environmental advantage in the future.« less

  12. Aerial-image enables diagrams and animation to be inserted in motion pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, S. J., Jr.; Tressel, G. W.

    1967-01-01

    Aerial-image unit makes it possible to insert diagrams and animation into live motion pictures, and also lift an element from a confusing background by suppressing general details. The unit includes a combination of two separate lens systems, the camera-projector system and the field lens system.

  13. Micro-device combining electrophysiology and optical imaging for functional brain monitoring in freely moving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Peng; Wang, Qihong; Zhang, Lingke; Li, Miao; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring brain activities in awake and freely moving status is very important in physiological and pathological studies of brain functions. In this study, we developed a new standalone micro-device combining electrophysiology and optical imaging for monitoring the cerebral blood flow and neural activities with more feasibility for freely moving animals.

  14. Update on radionuclide imaging in hepatobiliary disease. [/sup 99m/Tc-labelled acetanilide iminodracetic acid analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthall, L.

    1981-05-01

    The recent introduction of technetium Tc 99m-labeled acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-IDA) analogues has facilitated the clincal study of the bile flow pathways. A variety of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA derivaties are under investigation. Basically all are metabolized by the hepatocyte and immediately thereafter excreted unconjugated into the biliary tract. Of the various derivatives tested, e.g., dimethyl (lidofenin), diethyl, paraisopropyl (iprofenin), parabutyl (butilfenin), and diisopropyl (disofenin), the last named is the best universal agent at this time. By serial liver imaging the patency of the cystic duct and the integrity of altered cholangiointestinal anatomy can be assessed, leakage of bile and gastric reflux can be disclosed, and medical and surgical jaundice can be distinguished.

  15. Estimation of Enterococci Input from Bathers and Animals on A Recreational Beach Using Camera Images

    PubMed Central

    D, Wang John; M, Solo-Gabriele Helena; M, Abdelzaher Amir; E, Fleming Lora

    2010-01-01

    Enterococci, are used nationwide as a water quality indicator of marine recreational beaches. Prior research has demonstrated that enterococci inputs to the study beach site (located in Miami, FL) are dominated by non-point sources (including humans and animals). We have estimated their respective source functions by developing a counting methodology for individuals to better understand their non-point source load impacts. The method utilizes camera images of the beach taken at regular time intervals to determine the number of people and animal visitors. The developed method translates raw image counts for weekdays and weekend days into daily and monthly visitation rates. Enterococci source functions were computed from the observed number of unique individuals for average days of each month of the year, and from average load contributions for humans and for animals. Results indicate that dogs represent the larger source of enterococci relative to humans and birds. PMID:20381094

  16. Fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography and nuclear imaging system for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, I.-Chih; Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay; Rasmussen, John C.; Zhu, Banghe; Azhdarinia, Ali; Yan, Shikui; Smith, Anne M.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2012-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence is an alternative modality for molecular imaging that has been demonstrated in animals and recently in humans. Fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography (FEOT) using continuous wave or frequency domain photon migration techniques could be used to provide quantitative molecular imaging in vivo if it could be validated against "gold-standard," nuclear imaging modalities, using dual-labeled imaging agents. Unfortunately, developed FEOT systems are not suitable for incorporation with CT/PET/SPECT scanners because they utilize benchtop devices and require a large footprint. In this work, we developed a miniaturized fluorescence imaging system installed in the gantry of the Siemens Inveon PET/CT scanner to enable NIR transillumination measurements. The system consists of a CCD camera equipped with NIR sensitive intensifier, a diode laser controlled by a single board compact controller, a 2-axis galvanometer, and RF circuit modules for homodyne detection of the phase and amplitude of fluorescence signals. The performance of the FEOT system was tested and characterized. A mouse-shaped solid phantom of uniform optical properties with a fluorescent inclusion was scanned using CT, and NIR fluorescence images at several projections were collected. The method of high-order approximation to the radioactive transfer equation was then used to reconstruct the optical images. Dual-labeled agents were also used on a tumor bearing mouse to validate the results of the FEOT against PET/CT image. The results showed that the location of the fluorophore obtained from the FEOT matches the location of tumor obtained from the PET/CT images. Besides validation of FEOT, this hybrid system could allow multimodal molecular imaging (FEOT/PET/CT) for small animal imaging.