Science.gov

Sample records for animal resources annual

  1. International Council for Laboratory Animal Science: International activities. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual report, 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    In late 1987, the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) requested that the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, reestablish US national membership in the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). The ICLAS is the only worldwide organization whose goal is to foster the humane use of animals in medical research and testing. ILAR`s Mission Statement reflects its commitment to producing highly respected documents covering a wide range of scientific issues, including databases in genetic stocks, species specific management guides, guidelines for humane care of animals, and position papers on issues affecting the future of the biological sciences. As such, ILAR is recognized nationally and internationally as an independent, scientific authority in the development of animal sciences in biomedical research.

  2. Animations and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    la Velle, Linda Baggott

    2007-01-01

    With what is technically possible increasing apace, this Webwatch brings some topical and spectacular animations to use in your teaching. You may have to customise them to your own systems but, providing your equipment is reasonably young, you should have little difficulty in launching them. There are endless possibilities for re-purposing these…

  3. 1996 annual report on Alaska's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Jill L.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifteenth annual report that has been prepared in response to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Current Alaskan mineral projects and events that occurred during 1995 are summarized. For the purpose of this document, the term 'minerals' encompasses both energy resources (oil and gas, coal and peat, uranium, and geothermal) and nonfuel-mineral resources (metallic and industrial minerals).

  4. Resources for the Future. Annual Report 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presented is the Annual Report for Resources For The Future, Inc. (RFF) for the year ending September 30, 1970. This organization is dedicated to advancing the development, conservation, and use of natural resources and the improvement of the quality of the environment through programs of research and education. Most of their studies are in the…

  5. Animal shelters: managing heartworms in resource-scarce environments.

    PubMed

    Polak, Katherine C; Smith-Blackmore, Martha

    2014-11-15

    Animal shelters must frequently make difficult decisions regarding the allocation of limited resources to appropriately care for the millions of dogs and cats that enter their doors annually. Insufficient staffing, expertise, and guidance on heartworm management in animal shelters creates significant confusion on how these facilities should appropriately address heartworm infection in dogs and cats. The American Heartworm Society (AHS) issues comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of heartworm infection in pets, but shelters are often unable to fully comply with these guidelines due to resource constraints. In response, shelter staff is forced to either ignore the disease or implement compromised management practices. Such compromises lead to suboptimal treatment of infected animals, adoption of infected animals to the public, and subsequent backlash from community veterinarians, as well as increased risk of disease transmission throughout the shelter and community. Unfortunately, when shelters lack the resources to address heartworm infection appropriately, this treatable condition may serve as grounds for automatic euthanasia in infected yet adoptable animals. The AHS guidelines must be tailored to the needs of sheltering agencies or additional resources created to appropriately address the dilemmas faced by shelter professionals when managing heartworm disease. PMID:24731382

  6. Animal shelters: managing heartworms in resource-scarce environments.

    PubMed

    Polak, Katherine C; Smith-Blackmore, Martha

    2014-11-15

    Animal shelters must frequently make difficult decisions regarding the allocation of limited resources to appropriately care for the millions of dogs and cats that enter their doors annually. Insufficient staffing, expertise, and guidance on heartworm management in animal shelters creates significant confusion on how these facilities should appropriately address heartworm infection in dogs and cats. The American Heartworm Society (AHS) issues comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of heartworm infection in pets, but shelters are often unable to fully comply with these guidelines due to resource constraints. In response, shelter staff is forced to either ignore the disease or implement compromised management practices. Such compromises lead to suboptimal treatment of infected animals, adoption of infected animals to the public, and subsequent backlash from community veterinarians, as well as increased risk of disease transmission throughout the shelter and community. Unfortunately, when shelters lack the resources to address heartworm infection appropriately, this treatable condition may serve as grounds for automatic euthanasia in infected yet adoptable animals. The AHS guidelines must be tailored to the needs of sheltering agencies or additional resources created to appropriately address the dilemmas faced by shelter professionals when managing heartworm disease.

  7. Animal Genetic Resource Trade Flows: Economic Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout human history, livestock producers have relied on a vibrant international exchange of genetic resources to achieve improvements in the quality and productivity of their animals. In recent years, however, some observers have argued that changes in the legal, technological, and economic env...

  8. A call for full annual cycle research in animal ecology

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Peter P.; Cohen, Emily B.; Loss, Scott R.; Rutter, Jordan E.; Tonra, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    For vertebrates, annual cycles are organized into a series of breeding and non-breeding periods that vary in duration and location but are inextricably linked biologically. Here, we show that our understanding of the fundamental ecology of four vertebrate classes has been limited by a severe breeding season research bias and that studies of individual and population-level responses to natural and anthropogenic change would benefit from a full annual cycle perspective. Recent emergence of new analytical and technological tools for studying individual and population-level animal movement could help reverse this bias. To improve understanding of species biology and reverse the population declines of many vertebrate species, a concerted effort to move beyond single season research is vital. PMID:26246337

  9. A call for full annual cycle research in animal ecology.

    PubMed

    Marra, Peter P; Cohen, Emily B; Loss, Scott R; Rutter, Jordan E; Tonra, Christopher M

    2015-08-01

    For vertebrates, annual cycles are organized into a series of breeding and non-breeding periods that vary in duration and location but are inextricably linked biologically. Here, we show that our understanding of the fundamental ecology of four vertebrate classes has been limited by a severe breeding season research bias and that studies of individual and population-level responses to natural and anthropogenic change would benefit from a full annual cycle perspective. Recent emergence of new analytical and technological tools for studying individual and population-level animal movement could help reverse this bias. To improve understanding of species biology and reverse the population declines of many vertebrate species, a concerted effort to move beyond single season research is vital.

  10. Aquatic animal resources in Prehistoric Aegean, Greece.

    PubMed

    Mylona, Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the early stages in the history of fishing in the Aegean Sea in Greece, and highlights its formative phases and its specific characteristics in different points in time. This is testified by various physical remains, such as fish bones, fishing tools, and representations in art, which are gathered in the course of archaeological research. The aquatic resources in the Aegean Sea have been exploited and managed for millennia by communities that lived near the water and often made a living from it. The earliest evidence for a systematic, intensive exploitation of marine resources in the Aegean Sea dates to the Mesolithic, eleven millennia ago. In the Neolithic period, the adoption of a sedentary, agro-pastoral way of life led to a reduction in the intensity of fishing and shellfish gathering. Its importance as an economic resource remained high only in certain regions of rich, eutrophic waters. In the Bronze Age, an era of social complexity and centralized economy, the exploitation of aquatic, mostly marine, resources became a complex, multi-faceted activity which involved subsistence, industry and ideology. The range of preferred fish and invertebrate species, the fishing technology, and the processing of fish and shellfish in order to produce elaborate foods or prestige items are all traceable aspects of the complex relationship between humans and the aquatic resources throughout the prehistory of fishing and shellfish gathering in the Aegean area. The broadening of collaboration between archaeology and physical sciences offers new means to explore these issues in a more thorough and nuanced manner. PMID:25984485

  11. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  12. Conservation of animal genetic resources – A new tact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the past 20 years countries have initiated programs to sustainably conserve farm animal genetic resources. At the same time the growing need for increased animal productivity has emerged. Viewing gene banks and in vivo conservation in the context of food security, climate change, and product dem...

  13. Annual resources report. [Glossary on technical terms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The report is separated into the following sections: acknowledgments; a table of contents; a list of tables and figures; a glossary; an introduction; an overview of the role of energy resources in New Mexico; separate sections on oil and gas, coal, electrical generation, uranium, and geothermal energy; a section on the geologic setting of oil and gas, coal, and uranium; an appendix of additional tables pertaining to oil and gas development; and a listing of selected references. The glossary is a brief listing of technical terms used in the report with simplified definitions for the reader's use. The overview contains highlights of data found in the report as well as comparisons of New Mexico's resources with those of other states and the nation. In general, each section covering a resource area describes reserves, production, prices, consumption, transportation, employment, and revenue statistics over the past ten or more years and projections to the year 2000.

  14. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan: Annual summary, January 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan published in December of 1998 (DOE/NV--518) describes the Nevada Test Site stewardship mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. As part of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, DOE Nevada Operations Office has committed to perform and publish an annual summary review of DOE Nevada Operations' stewardship of the Nevada Test Site. This annual summary includes a description of progress made toward the goals of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, pertinent monitoring data, actions that were taken to adapt to changing conditions, and any other changes to the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan.

  15. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings.

  16. Council on Library Resources, Inc. Thirtieth Annual Report/1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 1986 annual report of the Council on Library Resources (CLR) reviews activity over the previous 10 years and provides a full record for the 12 months ending June 30, 1986, focusing on the program components of research, collaborative ventures to support operations and expand service capabilities, and the profession of librarianship.…

  17. Can Individual and Social Patterns of Resource Use Buffer Animal Populations against Resource Decline?

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Sam C.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff T.; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Blyton, Michaela D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing), as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater’s possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1∶1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species’ biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance. PMID:23320100

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Annual Report FY 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton F. Marler; Julie Braun; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Brenda Ringe Pace

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500-year span of human occupation in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office has legal responsibility for the management and protection of those resources and has delegated these responsibilities to its primary contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The INL Cultural Resource Management Office, staffed by BEA professionals, is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting the resources’ importance in local, regional, and national history. This annual report summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office staff during Fiscal Year 2006. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be both informative to internal and external stakeholders, and to serve as a planning tool for future cultural resource management work to be conducted on the INL.

  19. INEEL Cultural Resource Management Program Annual Report - 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton F. Marler

    2005-01-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site is located in southeastern Idaho, and is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,000-year span of human occupation in the region. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these resources with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory, while also cleaning up the waste left by past programs and processes. The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office has administrative responsibility for most of the Site, excluding lands and resources managed by the Naval Reactors Facility and (in 2004) Argonne National Laboratory-West. The Department of Energy is committed to a cultural resource program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative requirements. This annual report is an overview of Cultural Resource Management Program activities conducted during Fiscal Year 2004 and is intended to be both informative to external stakeholders and to serve as a planning tool for future cultural resource management work to be conducted on the Site.

  20. Using Design & Animation Concepts to Produce Animated Instructional Resources That Can Facilitate Open Distance Learning in Science and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasu, Isaac Ali; Yalams, Simon Madugu; Ema, Ema

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an outline on how teachers can use "The Design Process and Animation Techniques to produce animated instructional resources (AIR) which, can be used to facilitate Open Distance Learning in especially Science and Technology Education. A model of the Animated Instructional Resource was developed for the teaching of Human…

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Annual Report FY 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Clayton Marler; Brenda Pace

    2008-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500-year span of human land use in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office has legal responsibility for the management and protection of those resources and has delegated these responsibilities to its primary contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The BEA professional staff is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting the resources’ importance in local, regional, and national history. This annual report summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office (CRMO) staff during fiscal year 2007. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be both informative to internal and external stakeholders, and to serve as a planning tool for future cultural resource management work to be conducted on the INL.

  2. Genome resource banking of biomedically important laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Agca, Yuksel

    2012-11-01

    Genome resource banking is the systematic collection, storage, and redistribution of biomaterials in an organized, logistical, and secure manner. Genome cryobanks usually contain biomaterials and associated genomic information essential for progression of biomedicine, human health, and research. In that regard, appropriate genome cryobanks could provide essential biomaterials for both current and future research projects in the form of various cell types and tissues, including sperm, oocytes, embryos, embryonic or adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and gonadal tissues. In addition to cryobanked germplasm, cryobanking of DNA, serum, blood products, and tissues from scientifically, economically, and ecologically important species has become a common practice. For revitalization of the whole organism, cryopreserved germplasm in conjunction with assisted reproductive technologies, offer a powerful approach for research model management, as well as assisting in animal production for agriculture, conservation, and human reproductive medicine. Recently, many developed and developing countries have allocated substantial resources to establish genome resources banks which are responsible for safeguarding scientifically, economically, and ecologically important wild type, mutant, and transgenic plants, fish, and local livestock breeds, as well as wildlife species. This review is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John K. Critser, who has made profound contributions to the science of cryobiology and establishment of genome research and resources centers for mice, rats, and swine. Emphasis will be given to application of genome resource banks to species with substantial contributions to the advancement of biomedicine and human health. PMID:22981880

  3. Rare phenotypes in domestic animals: unique resources for multiple applications.

    PubMed

    Leroy, G; Besbes, B; Boettcher, P; Hoffmann, I; Capitan, A; Baumung, R

    2016-04-01

    Preservation of specific and inheritable phenotypes of current or potential future importance is one of the main purposes of conservation of animal genetic resources. In this review, we investigate the issues behind the characterisation, utilisation and conservation of rare phenotypes, considering their multiple paths of relevance, variable levels of complexity and mode of inheritance. Accurately assessing the rarity of a given phenotype, especially a complex one, is not a simple task, because it requires the phenotypic and genetic characterisation of a large number of animals and populations and remains dependent of the scale of the study. Once characterised, specific phenotypes may contribute to various purposes (adaptedness, production, biological model, aesthetics, etc.) with adequate introgression programmes, which justifies the consideration of (real or potential) existence of such characteristics in in situ or ex situ conservation strategies. Recent biotechnological developments (genomic and genetic engineering) will undoubtedly bring important changes to the way phenotypes are characterised, introgressed and managed.

  4. Rare phenotypes in domestic animals: unique resources for multiple applications.

    PubMed

    Leroy, G; Besbes, B; Boettcher, P; Hoffmann, I; Capitan, A; Baumung, R

    2016-04-01

    Preservation of specific and inheritable phenotypes of current or potential future importance is one of the main purposes of conservation of animal genetic resources. In this review, we investigate the issues behind the characterisation, utilisation and conservation of rare phenotypes, considering their multiple paths of relevance, variable levels of complexity and mode of inheritance. Accurately assessing the rarity of a given phenotype, especially a complex one, is not a simple task, because it requires the phenotypic and genetic characterisation of a large number of animals and populations and remains dependent of the scale of the study. Once characterised, specific phenotypes may contribute to various purposes (adaptedness, production, biological model, aesthetics, etc.) with adequate introgression programmes, which justifies the consideration of (real or potential) existence of such characteristics in in situ or ex situ conservation strategies. Recent biotechnological developments (genomic and genetic engineering) will undoubtedly bring important changes to the way phenotypes are characterised, introgressed and managed. PMID:26662214

  5. Genome Resource Banking of Biomedically Important Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Agca, Yuksel

    2014-01-01

    Genome resource banking (GRB) is the systematic collection, storage, and re-distribution of biomaterials in an organized, logistical, and secure manner. Genome cyrobanks usually contain biomaterials and associated genomic information essential for progression of biomedicine, human health, and research. In that regard, appropriate genome cryobanks could provide essential biomaterials for both current and future research projects in the form of various cell types and tissues, including sperm, oocytes, embryos, embryonic or adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and gonadal tissues. In addition to cryobanked germplasm, cryobanking of DNA, serum, blood products, and tissues from scientifically, economically and ecologically important species has become a common practice. For revitalization of the whole organism, cryopreserved germplasm in conjunction with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), offer a powerful approach for research model management, as well as assisting in animal production for agriculture, conservation, and human reproductive medicine. Recently, many developed and developing countries have allocated substantial resources to establish genome resources banks which are responsible for safeguarding scientifically, economically and ecologically important wild type, mutant and transgenic plants, fish, and local livestock breeds, as well as wildlife species. This review is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John K. Critser, who had made profound contributions to the science of cryobiology and establishment of genome research and resources centers for mice, rats and swine. Emphasis will be given to application of GRBs to species with substantial contributions to the advancement of biomedicine and human health. PMID:22981880

  6. Annual meeting keynote address: Animal agriculture and emerging social ethics for animals.

    PubMed

    Rollin, B E

    2004-03-01

    Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy. A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past three decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. This point can be illustrated with numerous examples across all areas of animal use. These examples reflect society's moral concern having outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform. The meaning of this ethical movement for animal agriculture is examined. Animal agriculture should explore ways to replace the animal husbandry lost to industrialization.

  7. Adaptive differentiation of traits related to resource use in a desert annual along a resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, Larry C; Mason, Chase M; Shirk, Rebecca Y; Donovan, Lisa A

    2014-03-01

    • Plant resource-use traits are generally hypothesized to be adaptively differentiated for populations distributed along resource gradients. Although nutrient limitations are expected to select for resource-conservative strategies, water limitations may select for either resource-conservative or -acquisitive strategies. We test whether population differentiation reflects local adaptation for traits associated with resource-use strategies in a desert annual (Helianthus anomalus) distributed along a gradient of positively covarying water and nutrient availability. • We compared quantitative trait variation (Q(ST)) with neutral genetic differentiation (F(ST)), in a common garden glasshouse study, for leaf economics spectrum (LES) and related traits: photosynthesis (A(mass), A(area)), leaf nitrogen (N(mass), N(area)), leaf lifetime (LL), leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf water content (LWC), water-use efficiency (WUE, estimated as δ(13)C) and days to first flower (DFF). • Q(ST)-F(ST) differences support adaptive differentiation for Amass , N(mass), N(area), LWC and DFF. The trait combinations associated with drier and lower fertility sites represent correlated trait evolution consistent with the more resource-acquisitive end of the LES. There was no evidence for adaptive differentiation for A(area), LMA and WUE. • These results demonstrate that hot dry environments can selectively favor correlated evolution of traits contributing to a resource-acquisitive and earlier reproduction 'escape' strategy, despite lower fertility.

  8. University of Cincinnati Alumni Association Annual Report: Minority Resource Day, May 7, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati Univ., OH. Alumni Association Career Resource Center.

    The University of Cincinnati Alumni Association's 1980 annual report on Minority Resource Day is presented. The objectives of the event are to increase minority participation in the services offered by the Career Resource Center. Minority Resource Day is designed to provide minority students, alumni, and community members interested in various…

  9. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Yee; Guthrie, George

    2014-03-11

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  10. Animal Investigation Program: Nevada Test Site and Vicinity. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, Jr.; Bernhardt, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, chukar, golden eagles, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1979. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were lower than those of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within expected environmental limits with the exception of animals exposed to known sources of contamination; e.g., drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels or the Sedan Crater. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation to those levels in samples collected in recent years. Radionuclide tissue concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Hypothetical annual dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogra of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The movements of 25 mule deer outfitted with collars containing a radio transmitter unit were monitored on a weekly basis. No gross or microscopic lesions were found in necropsied animals that could be directly attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation.

  11. Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clark E.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

  12. Indian Resource Development. Annual Report 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    During the 1982-83 fiscal year, Indian Resource Development (IRD) continued to work to fulfill its mission of assisting Indian tribes to gain effective control and management of the development of their natural resources by providing a cadre of educated and experienced Indian people to fill technical and management positions. Headquartered at New…

  13. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL`s cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

  14. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1991-11-01

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with federal statutes and regulations. This report summarizes activities of the HCRL during fiscal year (FY) 1990. The HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks. The task list guided cultural resources management activities during FY 1990 and is the outline for this report. In order, these tasks were to (1) conduct cultural resource reviews, (2) develop an archaeological resources protection plan, (3) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (4) plan a curation system for artifacts and records, (5) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (6) educate the public about cultural resources, (7) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (8) gather ethnohistorical data from Native American elders.

  15. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL's cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

  16. Indian Resource Development. Annual Report, 1984-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Operating in 1984-85 with a budget of $216,000 appropriated by the New Mexico State Legislature, the Indian Resource Development (IRD) Program continued its efforts to develop a corps of professionally trained American Indians in fields related to natural resource development. As of June 1985 IRD maintained a roll of 863 participants--Indian…

  17. Indian Resource Development. Annual Report, 1983-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    With a budget of $210,000 appropriated by the New Mexico State Legislature, the Indian Resource Development (IRD) Program marked its eighth year by continuing to develop a corps of professionally trained American Indians in fields related to natural resource development in New Mexico through college academic education and related practical work…

  18. ERIC Annual Report-1988. Summarizing the Accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krekeler, Nancy A.; Stonehill, Robert M.; Thomas, Robert L.

    This is the second in a series of annual reports summarizing the activities and accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) program, which is funded and managed by the Office of Educational Resources and Improvement in the U.S. Department of Education. The report begins by presenting background information on ERIC's…

  19. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) begins with a list of staff, a letter for the Chairman of the Board, and a message from the CLIR President. Activities for 1999-2000 in the following areas are then summarized: (1) resources for scholarship, including the artifact in library collections,…

  20. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC.

  1. AnimalTFDB 2.0: a resource for expression, prediction and functional study of animal transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Liu, Teng; Liu, Chun-Jie; Song, Shuangyang; Zhang, Xiantong; Liu, Wei; Jia, Haibo; Xue, Yu; Guo, An-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators for gene expression. Here we updated the animal TF database AnimalTFDB to version 2.0 (http://bioinfo.life.hust.edu.cn/AnimalTFDB/). Using the improved prediction pipeline, we identified 72 336 TF genes, 21 053 transcription co-factor genes and 6502 chromatin remodeling factor genes from 65 species covering main animal lineages. Besides the abundant annotations (basic information, gene model, protein functional domain, gene ontology, pathway, protein interaction, ortholog and paralog, etc.) in the previous version, we made several new features and functions in the updated version. These new features are: (i) gene expression from RNA-Seq for nine model species, (ii) gene phenotype information, (iii) multiple sequence alignment of TF DNA-binding domains, and the weblogo and phylogenetic tree based on the alignment, (iv) a TF prediction server to identify new TFs from input sequences and (v) a BLAST server to search against TFs in AnimalTFDB. A new nice web interface was designed for AnimalTFDB 2.0 allowing users to browse and search all data in the database. We aim to maintain the AnimalTFDB as a solid resource for TF identification and studies of transcription regulation and comparative genomics.

  2. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Wright, M.K.; Crist, M.E.; Longenecker, J.G.; O`Neil, T.K.; Dawson, M.V.

    1993-06-01

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site located in southcentral Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act Amended 1992 (NBPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA), the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990 (NAGPRA), and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 (AIRFA). The HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations, and guidelines. For FY 1992, these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NBPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, and (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands. Research was also conducted as a spin-off of these tasks and is also reported here.

  3. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Wright, M.K.; Crist, M.E.; Cadoret, N.A.; Dawson, M.V.; Simmons, K.A.; Harvey, D.W.; Longenecker, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Agency of 1979, the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. The HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the DOE-RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations, and guidelines. For FY 1993, these tasks were to: conduct cultural resource reviews pursuant to Section 106 of the NHPA; monitor the condition of known historic properties; identify, recover, and inventory artifacts collected from the Hanford Site; educate the public about cultural resources values and the laws written to protect them; conduct surveys of the Hanford Site in accordance with Section 110 of the NHPA. Research also was conducted as a spin-off of these tasks and is reported here.

  4. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for fiscal year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Cadoret, N.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1990-06-01

    This report summarizes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) during fiscal year 1989. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. A major task in FY 1989 was completion and publication of the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan, which prioritizes tasks to be undertaken to bring the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations into compliance with federal statutes, relations, and guidelines. During FY 1989, six tasks were performed. In order of priority, these were conducting 107 cultural resource reviews, monitoring the condition of 40 known prehistoric archaeological sites, assessing the condition of artifact collections from the Hanford Site, evaluating three sites and nominating two of those to the National Register of Historic Places, developing an education program and presenting 11 lectures to public organizations, and surveying approximately 1 mi{sup 2} of the Hanford Site for cultural resources. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

  6. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock agriculture is in a period of tumultuous change and upheaval. General economic development, and population growth and mobility, have increased demand for livestock products, but have also placed pressures on the sustainability of rural environments and animal production systems. Livestock ...

  7. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Nickens, P.R.; Wright, M.K.; Cadoret, N.A.; Dawson, M.V.; Harvey, D.W.; Simpson, E.M.

    1995-09-01

    The Hanford Site occupies 560 sq. miles of land along the Columbia River in SE Washington. The Hanford Reach of the river is one of the most archaeologically rich areas in the western Columbia Plateau. To manage the Hanford Site`s archaeological, historical, and cultural resources, the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established in 1987. HCRL ensures DOE complies with federal statutes, regulations, and guidelines. In FY 1994, HCRL conducted cultural resource reviews, conducted programs to identify and monitor historic and archaeological sites, etc. HCRL staff conducted 511 reviews, 29 of which required archaeological surveys and 10 of which required building documentation. Six prehistoric sites, 23 historic sites, one paleontological site, and two sites with historic and prehistoric components were discovered.

  8. Animal-based medicines: biological prospection and the sustainable use of zootherapeutic resources.

    PubMed

    Costa-Neto, Eraldo M

    2005-03-01

    Animals have been used as medicinal resources for the treatment and relieve of a myriad of illnesses and diseases in practically every human culture. Although considered by many as superstition, the pertinence of traditional medicine based on animals cannot be denied since they have been methodically tested by pharmaceutical companies as sources of drugs to the modern medical science. The phenomenon of zootherapy represents a strong evidence of the medicinal use of animal resources. Indeed, drug companies and agribusiness firms have been evaluating animals for decades without paying anything to the countries from where these genetic resources are found. The use of animals' body parts as folk medicines is relevant because it implies additional pressure over critical wild populations. It is argued that many animal species have been overexploited as sources of medicines for the traditional trade. Additionally, animal populations have become depleted or endangered as a result of their use as experimental subjects or animal models. Research on zootherapy should be compatible with the welfare of the medicinal animals, and the use of their by-products should be done in a sustainable way. It is discussed that sustainability is now required as the guiding principle for biological conservation.

  9. Council on Library Resources, Inc., 39th Annual Report, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report emphasizes the plan of the new President of the Council on Library Resources (CLR) plan to concentrate on the development of leadership in libraries to better manage technologically advanced services, the transition to the electronic library, and the economics of information and information technology. The Council engaged in a project…

  10. Understanding Taxes. Teacher's Resource Kit. 1995 Annual Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This packet contains revisions of the following sections of the "Understanding Taxes" teacher's resource kit: complete revisions of lessons 3 and 4; updated student handouts for lessons 2, 9, and 11; new glossary; and revised software user's guide. Lesson 3, "From W-4 to 1040A," is designed to acquaint students with the basic tax-related forms…

  11. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. 2003 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning PREL, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Perhaps more than at any other time in Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, (PREL's) history, 2003 was a year of change, renewal, and innovation. There was a change in leadership, a move to new headquarters, and a commitment to seek new opportunities. Throughout these transitions, PREL's staff and Strategic Plan provided a strong…

  12. Argonne's Laboratory computing resource center : 2006 annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, R. B.; Kaushik, D. K.; Riley, K. R.; Valdes, J. V.; Drugan, C. D.; Pieper, G. P.

    2007-05-31

    Argonne National Laboratory founded the Laboratory Computing Resource Center (LCRC) in the spring of 2002 to help meet pressing program needs for computational modeling, simulation, and analysis. The guiding mission is to provide critical computing resources that accelerate the development of high-performance computing expertise, applications, and computations to meet the Laboratory's challenging science and engineering missions. In September 2002 the LCRC deployed a 350-node computing cluster from Linux NetworX to address Laboratory needs for mid-range supercomputing. This cluster, named 'Jazz', achieved over a teraflop of computing power (10{sup 12} floating-point calculations per second) on standard tests, making it the Laboratory's first terascale computing system and one of the 50 fastest computers in the world at the time. Jazz was made available to early users in November 2002 while the system was undergoing development and configuration. In April 2003, Jazz was officially made available for production operation. Since then, the Jazz user community has grown steadily. By the end of fiscal year 2006, there were 76 active projects on Jazz involving over 380 scientists and engineers. These projects represent a wide cross-section of Laboratory expertise, including work in biosciences, chemistry, climate, computer science, engineering applications, environmental science, geoscience, information science, materials science, mathematics, nanoscience, nuclear engineering, and physics. Most important, many projects have achieved results that would have been unobtainable without such a computing resource. The LCRC continues to foster growth in the computational science and engineering capability and quality at the Laboratory. Specific goals include expansion of the use of Jazz to new disciplines and Laboratory initiatives, teaming with Laboratory infrastructure providers to offer more scientific data management capabilities, expanding Argonne staff use of national

  13. Argonne's Laboratory Computing Resource Center 2009 annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, R. B.

    2011-05-13

    Now in its seventh year of operation, the Laboratory Computing Resource Center (LCRC) continues to be an integral component of science and engineering research at Argonne, supporting a diverse portfolio of projects for the U.S. Department of Energy and other sponsors. The LCRC's ongoing mission is to enable and promote computational science and engineering across the Laboratory, primarily by operating computing facilities and supporting high-performance computing application use and development. This report describes scientific activities carried out with LCRC resources in 2009 and the broad impact on programs across the Laboratory. The LCRC computing facility, Jazz, is available to the entire Laboratory community. In addition, the LCRC staff provides training in high-performance computing and guidance on application usage, code porting, and algorithm development. All Argonne personnel and collaborators are encouraged to take advantage of this computing resource and to provide input into the vision and plans for computing and computational analysis at Argonne. The LCRC Allocations Committee makes decisions on individual project allocations for Jazz. Committee members are appointed by the Associate Laboratory Directors and span a range of computational disciplines. The 350-node LCRC cluster, Jazz, began production service in April 2003 and has been a research work horse ever since. Hosting a wealth of software tools and applications and achieving high availability year after year, researchers can count on Jazz to achieve project milestones and enable breakthroughs. Over the years, many projects have achieved results that would have been unobtainable without such a computing resource. In fiscal year 2009, there were 49 active projects representing a wide cross-section of Laboratory research and almost all research divisions.

  14. Argonne's Laboratory Computing Resource Center : 2005 annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, R. B.; Coghlan, S. C; Kaushik, D. K.; Riley, K. R.; Valdes, J. V.; Pieper, G. P.

    2007-06-30

    Argonne National Laboratory founded the Laboratory Computing Resource Center in the spring of 2002 to help meet pressing program needs for computational modeling, simulation, and analysis. The guiding mission is to provide critical computing resources that accelerate the development of high-performance computing expertise, applications, and computations to meet the Laboratory's challenging science and engineering missions. The first goal of the LCRC was to deploy a mid-range supercomputing facility to support the unmet computational needs of the Laboratory. To this end, in September 2002, the Laboratory purchased a 350-node computing cluster from Linux NetworX. This cluster, named 'Jazz', achieved over a teraflop of computing power (10{sup 12} floating-point calculations per second) on standard tests, making it the Laboratory's first terascale computing system and one of the fifty fastest computers in the world at the time. Jazz was made available to early users in November 2002 while the system was undergoing development and configuration. In April 2003, Jazz was officially made available for production operation. Since then, the Jazz user community has grown steadily. By the end of fiscal year 2005, there were 62 active projects on Jazz involving over 320 scientists and engineers. These projects represent a wide cross-section of Laboratory expertise, including work in biosciences, chemistry, climate, computer science, engineering applications, environmental science, geoscience, information science, materials science, mathematics, nanoscience, nuclear engineering, and physics. Most important, many projects have achieved results that would have been unobtainable without such a computing resource. The LCRC continues to improve the computational science and engineering capability and quality at the Laboratory. Specific goals include expansion of the use of Jazz to new disciplines and Laboratory initiatives, teaming with Laboratory infrastructure providers to develop

  15. Animal investigation program 1980 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.; Bernhardt, D.E.

    1982-08-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, and a horse that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1980. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring /sup 40/K, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. /sup 131/I was found in the thyroid of a deer 3 weeks after a nuclear test by the People's Republic of China. Concentrations of /sup 90/Sr in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were similar to those of recent years. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation from those levels in samples collected in recent years. Radionuclide concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Surface soil samples from the Area 15 farm contained /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu in nanocurie per kilogram concentrations. Hypothetical annual dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The highest postulated dose was 0.4 millirems to whole body for /sup 137/Cs in muscle obtained from cattle. This dose is about 0.1 percent of the 500 millirems per year radiation protection guide for individuals in the general population. All other postulated doses for consumption of tissues containing other radionuclides were less than 0.1 percent of the standard.

  16. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) begins with a list of supporters, a letter from the chairman, and a message from the president. The major CLIR programs are then described: (1) Preservation and Access, including domestic and international activities; (2) Digital Libraries, including developing libraries…

  17. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) contains an overview of activities of the Council between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2008. These include programs, advisory groups, grants and contracts, and financial statements. It also includes a list of staff, a letter from the chairperson Paula Kaufman, and a message…

  18. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) contains an overview of activities of the Council between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2007. These include programs, awards, publications, advisory groups, grants and contracts, and financial statements. It also includes a list of staff, a letter from the chairperson Paula…

  19. Council on Library and Information Resources. Annual Report 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) contains a list of funders and sponsors, and includes a message from the president. The major CLIR programs are described: (1) Preservation and Access, including international projects in South Africa, Latin America, Asia, and Europe; (2) Digital Libraries, including…

  20. Indiana Career Resource Center. Annual Report. July 1, 1972-June 30, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., South Bend. Indiana Career Resource Center.

    A historical overview is given in the fourth annual report of the Indiana Career Resource Center. The Center has been involved in a variety of activities throughout the State, covering school activities, consultation programs; loaning of instructional materials, school workshops; interaction within the community, and publications and productions.…

  1. University of Cincinnati Alumni Association Career Resource Center Annual Report, September 1, 1979 - August 31, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, Theresa R.

    The 1979-80 annual report of the University of Cincinnati Alumni Association's Career Resource Center (CRC) is presented. The CRC is designed to assist students, alumni, and community members in making more appropriate and meaningful choices about education beyond the high school level. Meetings are arranged between professionals and persons…

  2. Animal waste utilization: Effective use of manure as a soil resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, J.L.; Stewart, B.A.

    1998-12-31

    This unique book examines the beneficial aspects of animal waste as a soil resource--not simply as an agricultural by-product with minimal practical use. Topics include: types of livestock waste--swine, poultry, dairy; methods and management of waste utilization; storage, handling, processing and application of animal waste; economics of waste utilization; new modeling and management techniques; and nonpoint source pollution, water quality, leaching, and air quality.

  3. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing.

  4. Assessing Student Attitudes toward Animal Welfare, Resource Use, and Food Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Patricia A.; Richards, Martha J.; Wilson, Lowell L.; Coe, Brenda L.; Fivek, Marianne L.; Brown, Michele B.

    2000-01-01

    Students participating in the Pennsylvania Governor's School for Agricultural Sciences (n=192) studied animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. They ranked food safety as a primary concern. Students with and without agricultural backgrounds showed positive changes in knowledge and perception of issues after the course. (SK)

  5. Application of random effects to the study of resource selection by animals.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Cameron S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Nielsen, Scott E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Aldridge, Cameron L; Frair, Jacqueline L; Saher, D Joanne; Stevens, Cameron E; Jerde, Christopher L

    2006-07-01

    1. Resource selection estimated by logistic regression is used increasingly in studies to identify critical resources for animal populations and to predict species occurrence. 2. Most frequently, individual animals are monitored and pooled to estimate population-level effects without regard to group or individual-level variation. Pooling assumes that both observations and their errors are independent, and resource selection is constant given individual variation in resource availability. 3. Although researchers have identified ways to minimize autocorrelation, variation between individuals caused by differences in selection or available resources, including functional responses in resource selection, have not been well addressed. 4. Here we review random-effects models and their application to resource selection modelling to overcome these common limitations. We present a simple case study of an analysis of resource selection by grizzly bears in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains with and without random effects. 5. Both categorical and continuous variables in the grizzly bear model differed in interpretation, both in statistical significance and coefficient sign, depending on how a random effect was included. We used a simulation approach to clarify the application of random effects under three common situations for telemetry studies: (a) discrepancies in sample sizes among individuals; (b) differences among individuals in selection where availability is constant; and (c) differences in availability with and without a functional response in resource selection. 6. We found that random intercepts accounted for unbalanced sample designs, and models with random intercepts and coefficients improved model fit given the variation in selection among individuals and functional responses in selection. Our empirical example and simulations demonstrate how including random effects in resource selection models can aid interpretation and address difficult assumptions

  6. Secondary Students' Attitudes to Animal Research: Examining the Potential of a Resource to Communicate the Scientist's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Bev; Birdsall, Sally

    2015-01-01

    A DVD resource that provided a scientist's perspective on the use of animals in research and teaching was evaluated with a questionnaire that asked students' views pre and post their access to the resource. Thirty-nine secondary students (Y10-Y13) took part in three different teaching programmes that provided information about animal research and…

  7. Introducing National Center for Genome Resources (NCGR) Informatics (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Crow, John [National Center for Genome Resources

    2016-07-12

    John Crow from the National Center for Genome Resources discusses his organization's informatics at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  8. Introducing National Center for Genome Resources (NCGR) Informatics (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, John

    2012-06-01

    John Crow from the National Center for Genome Resources discusses his organization's informatics at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  9. Animal Dissection. [Fact Sheet and Resource List Information Packet from the Humane Society of the United States].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcombe, Jonathan

    Killing animals for classroom dissection causes animal suffering, cheapens the value of life, and depletes wild animal populations, yet it remains commonplace. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) addresses the issue in this information packet which includes a fact sheet and three resource lists "on Dissection." The fact sheet discusses…

  10. Sympatric Breeding Auks Shift between Dietary and Spatial Resource Partitioning across the Annual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Fort, Jérôme; Guilford, Tim; Reuleaux, Anna; Mosbech, Anders; Frederiksen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    When species competing for the same resources coexist, some segregation in the way they utilize those resources is expected. However, little is known about how closely related sympatric breeding species segregate outside the breeding season. We investigated the annual segregation of three closely related seabirds (razorbill Alcatorda, common guillemot Uriaaalge and Brünnich’s guillemot U. lomvia) breeding at the same colony in Southwest Greenland. By combining GPS and geolocation (GLS) tracking with dive depth and stable isotope analyses, we compared spatial and dietary resource partitioning. During the breeding season, we found the three species to segregate in diet and/or dive depth, but less in foraging area. During both the post-breeding and pre-breeding periods, the three species had an increased overlap in diet, but were dispersed over a larger spatial scale. Dive depths were similar across the annual cycle, suggesting morphological adaptations fixed by evolution. Prey choice, on the other hand, seemed much more flexible and therefore more likely to be affected by the immediate presence of potential competitors. PMID:24023663

  11. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  12. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025.

    PubMed

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that "…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity." However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  13. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025.

    PubMed

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that "…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity." However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  14. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    PubMed Central

    Bruford, Michael W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J.; Amaral, Andreia J.; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F.; Hall, Stephen J. G.; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that “…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.” However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  15. Animal movement constraints improve resource selection inference in the presence of telemetry error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brost, Brian M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Small, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple factors complicate the analysis of animal telemetry location data. Recent advancements address issues such as temporal autocorrelation and telemetry measurement error, but additional challenges remain. Difficulties introduced by complicated error structures or barriers to animal movement can weaken inference. We propose an approach for obtaining resource selection inference from animal location data that accounts for complicated error structures, movement constraints, and temporally autocorrelated observations. We specify a model for telemetry data observed with error conditional on unobserved true locations that reflects prior knowledge about constraints in the animal movement process. The observed telemetry data are modeled using a flexible distribution that accommodates extreme errors and complicated error structures. Although constraints to movement are often viewed as a nuisance, we use constraints to simultaneously estimate and account for telemetry error. We apply the model to simulated data, showing that it outperforms common ad hoc approaches used when confronted with measurement error and movement constraints. We then apply our framework to an Argos satellite telemetry data set on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Gulf of Alaska, a species that is constrained to move within the marine environment and adjacent coastlines.

  16. Animal movement constraints improve resource selection inference in the presence of telemetry error.

    PubMed

    Brost, Brian M; Hooten, Mevin B; Hanks, Ephraim M; Small, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Multiple factors complicate the analysis of animal telemetry location data. Recent advancements address issues such as temporal autocorrelation and telemetry measurement error, but additional challenges remain. Difficulties introduced by complicated error structures or barriers to animal movement can weaken inference. We propose an approach for obtaining resource selection inference from animal location data that accounts for complicated error structures, movement constraints, and temporally autocorrelated observations. We specify a model for telemetry data observed with error conditional on unobserved true locations that reflects prior knowledge about constraints in the animal movement process. The observed telemetry data are modeled using a flexible distribution that accommodates extreme errors and complicated error structures. Although constraints to movement are often viewed as a nuisance, we use constraints to simultaneously estimate and account for telemetry error. We apply the model to simulated data, showing that it outperforms common ad hoc approaches used when confronted with measurement error and movement constraints. We then apply our framework to an Argos satellite telemetry data set on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Gulf of Alaska, a species that is constrained to move within the marine environment and adjacent coastlines. PMID:26649380

  17. Systems Approaches to Animal Disease Surveillance and Resource Allocation: Methodological Frameworks for Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Karl M.; Denwood, Matthew J.; Stott, Alistair W.; Mellor, Dominic J.; Reid, Stuart W. J.; Gunn, George J.

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions. PMID:24348922

  18. Climate change and the characterization, breeding and conservation of animal genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Irene

    2010-05-01

    Livestock production both contributes to and is affected by climate change. In addition to the physiological effects of higher temperatures on individual animals, the consequences of climate change are likely to include increased risk that geographically restricted rare breed populations will be badly affected by disturbances. Indirect effects may be felt via ecosystem changes that alter the distribution of animal diseases or affect the supply of feed. Breeding goals may have to be adjusted to account for higher temperatures, lower quality diets and greater disease challenge. Species and breeds that are well adapted to such conditions may become more widely used. Climate change mitigation strategies, in combination with ever increasing demand for food, may also have an impact on breed and species utilization, driving a shift towards monogastrics and breeds that are efficient converters of feed into meat, milk and eggs. This may lead to the neglect of the adaptation potential of local breeds in developing countries. Given the potential for significant future changes in production conditions and in the objectives of livestock production, it is essential that the value provided by animal genetic diversity is secured. This requires better characterization of breeds, production environments and associated knowledge; the compilation of more complete breed inventories; improved mechanisms to monitor and respond to threats to genetic diversity; more effective in situ and ex situ conservation measures; genetic improvement programmes targeting adaptive traits in high-output and performance traits in locally adapted breeds; increased support for developing countries in their management of animal genetic resources; and wider access to genetic resources and associated knowledge.

  19. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-07-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  20. Animal investigation program 1978 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D D; Bernhardt, D E; Giles, K R

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, golden eagles, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1978. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring Potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently with the exception of short-lived radionuclides found in samples from animals collected soon after March 14 (the date of a nuclear test by the People's Republic of China). Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were consistent with those of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within expected environmental limits with the exception of animals exposed to sources of contamination; e.g., drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation from recent years. However, cattle tissue sampled in the fall were higher than those collected in the spring. Radionuclide tissue concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Hypothetical dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The movements of 13 mule deer outfitted with collars containing a radio transmitter unit were monitored on a weekly basis. No gross or microscopic lesions were found in necropsied animals that could be directly attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation.

  1. Predicting local and non-local effects of resources on animal space use using a mechanistic step selection model

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jonathan R; Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Murray, Dennis L; Schaefer, James A; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Predicting space use patterns of animals from their interactions with the environment is fundamental for understanding the effect of habitat changes on ecosystem functioning. Recent attempts to address this problem have sought to unify resource selection analysis, where animal space use is derived from available habitat quality, and mechanistic movement models, where detailed movement processes of an animal are used to predict its emergent utilization distribution. Such models bias the animal's movement towards patches that are easily available and resource-rich, and the result is a predicted probability density at a given position being a function of the habitat quality at that position. However, in reality, the probability that an animal will use a patch of the terrain tends to be a function of the resource quality in both that patch and the surrounding habitat. We propose a mechanistic model where this non-local effect of resources naturally emerges from the local movement processes, by taking into account the relative utility of both the habitat where the animal currently resides and that of where it is moving. We give statistical techniques to parametrize the model from location data and demonstrate application of these techniques to GPS location data of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland. Steady-state animal probability distributions arising from the model have complex patterns that cannot be expressed simply as a function of the local quality of the habitat. In particular, large areas of good habitat are used more intensively than smaller patches of equal quality habitat, whereas isolated patches are used less frequently. Both of these are real aspects of animal space use missing from previous mechanistic resource selection models. Whilst we focus on habitats in this study, our modelling framework can be readily used with any environmental covariates and therefore represents a unification of mechanistic modelling and step selection approaches to

  2. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production's effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species. PMID:25767477

  3. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production's effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species.

  4. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species. PMID:25767477

  5. The Pig PeptideAtlas: A resource for systems biology in animal production and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Hesselager, Marianne O; Codrea, Marius C; Sun, Zhi; Deutsch, Eric W; Bennike, Tue B; Stensballe, Allan; Bundgaard, Louise; Moritz, Robert L; Bendixen, Emøke

    2016-02-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within the veterinary proteomics domain, and this article demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM assays, which are equally important for progress in research that supports farm animal production and veterinary health, as for developing pig models with relevance to human health research.

  6. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A. F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-05-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species' phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological "status", or the ability to track presence-absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  7. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications.

    PubMed

    Denny, Ellen G; Gerst, Katharine L; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J; Tierney, Geraldine L; Crimmins, Theresa M; Enquist, Carolyn A F; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H; Schwartz, Mark D; Thomas, Kathryn A; Weltzin, Jake F

    2014-05-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species' phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological "status", or the ability to track presence-absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  8. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  9. The Pig PeptideAtlas: a resource for systems biology in animal production and biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Hesselager, Marianne O.; Codrea, Marius C.; Sun, Zhi; Deutsch, Eric W.; Bennike, Tue B.; Stensballe, Allan; Bundgaard, Louise; Moritz, Robert L.; Bendixen, Emøke

    2016-01-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system wide observations, and cross species observational studies, but pigs have so far been underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within the veterinary proteomics domain, and this manuscript demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM assays, which are equally important for progress in research that supports farm animal production and veterinary health, as for developing pig models with relevance to human health research. PMID:26699206

  10. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral palsy - resources Celiac disease - resources Child abuse - resources Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources Chronic pain - ...

  11. Global Wild Annual Lens Collection: A Potential Resource for Lentil Genetic Base Broadening and Yield Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mohar; Bisht, Ishwari Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Dutta, Manoranjan; Bansal, Kailash Chander; Karale, Moreshwar; Sarker, Ashutosh; Amri, Ahmad; Kumar, Shiv; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested. PMID:25254552

  12. Global wild annual Lens collection: a potential resource for lentil genetic base broadening and yield enhancement.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohar; Bisht, Ishwari Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Dutta, Manoranjan; Bansal, Kailash Chander; Karale, Moreshwar; Sarker, Ashutosh; Amri, Ahmad; Kumar, Shiv; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested.

  13. Global wild annual Lens collection: a potential resource for lentil genetic base broadening and yield enhancement.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohar; Bisht, Ishwari Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Dutta, Manoranjan; Bansal, Kailash Chander; Karale, Moreshwar; Sarker, Ashutosh; Amri, Ahmad; Kumar, Shiv; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested. PMID:25254552

  14. 78 FR 59308 - Antimicrobial Animal Drug Sales and Distribution Annual Summary Report Data Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 514 Antimicrobial Animal Drug Sales and... security and confidential business information. In the Federal Register of July 27, 2012 (77 FR 44177),...

  15. Annual Evaluation Report for Rural Physics Teacher Resource Agents Covering Period from June 2005 to April 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulp, Sherri L.; Banilower, Eric R.

    2006-01-01

    In July of 2005, the American Association of Physics Teachers/Physics Teacher Resource Agents (AAPT/PTRA) Rural Project gathered 73 PTRAs at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City for the annual AAPT/PTRA Leadership Institute. The major goal for the summer institute is to provide the PTRAs with the knowledge and skills needed to effectively lead…

  16. Animal performance and economic comparison of novel and toxic endophyte tall fescues to cool-season annuals.

    PubMed

    Beck, P A; Gunter, S A; Lusby, K S; West, C P; Watkins, K B; Hubbell, D S

    2008-08-01

    Increased costs of annual establishment of small grain pasture associated with fuel, machinery, and labor are eroding the profitability of stocker cattle enterprises. Interest has therefore increased in development of cool-season perennial grasses that are persistent and high quality. This study occurred on 24 ha (divided into thirty 0.81-ha paddocks) located at the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Livestock and Forestry Branch Station, near Batesville. Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars infected with novel endophytes (NE), Jesup infected with AR542 endophyte (Jesup AR542), and HiMag infected with Number 11 endophyte (HM11) were established in September 2002. Jesup AR542 and HM11 were compared with endemic endophyte Kentucky 31 (KY-31) tall fescue; wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and cereal rye (WR, Secale cereale L.) planted in September 2003, 2004, and 2005; and annual ryegrass [RG, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] planted in September 2004 and 2005. Each year, 3 steers (3.7 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for fall and winter grazing, and 5 steers (6.2 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for spring grazing. Animal performance is presented by year in the presence of a year x treatment interaction (P < 0.01). Body weight gain per hectare of steers grazing NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than those of KY-31 and WR during 2003 to 2004, whereas in 2004 to 2005, BW gain per hectare of steers grazing NE and RG did not differ (P < or = 0.29) and was greater (P < 0.01) than that of WR, which was greater (P < 0.01) than that of KY-31. During 2005 to 2006, BW gain per hectare was greater (P < 0.01) for steers grazing RG than those of NE and WR, which did not differ (P > or = 0.14). Body weight gain per hectare was least (P < 0.01) for steers grazing KY-31. Average net return of NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than KY-31, but profitability of NE did not consistently differ from cool-season annuals. Across

  17. To Eat and Not Be Eaten: Modelling Resources and Safety in Multi-Species Animal Groups

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Umesh; Quader, Suhel

    2012-01-01

    Using mixed-species bird flocks as an example, we model the payoffs for two types of species from participating in multi-species animal groups. Salliers feed on mobile prey, are good sentinels and do not affect prey capture rates of gleaners; gleaners feed on prey on substrates and can enhance the prey capture rate of salliers by flushing prey, but are poor sentinels. These functional types are known from various animal taxa that form multi-species associations. We model costs and benefits of joining groups for a wide range of group compositions under varying abundances of two types of prey–prey on substrates and mobile prey. Our model predicts that gleaners and salliers show a conflict of interest in multi-species groups, because gleaners benefit from increasing numbers of salliers in the group, whereas salliers benefit from increasing gleaner numbers. The model also predicts that the limits to size and variability in composition of multi-species groups are driven by the relative abundance of different types of prey, independent of predation pressure. Our model emphasises resources as a primary driver of temporal and spatial group dynamics, rather than reproductive activity or predation per se, which have hitherto been thought to explain patterns of multi-species group formation and cohesion. The qualitative predictions of the model are supported by empirical patterns from both terrestrial and marine multi-species groups, suggesting that similar mechanisms might underlie group dynamics in a range of taxa. The model also makes novel predictions about group dynamics that can be tested using variation across space and time. PMID:22848706

  18. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory Oral History and Ethnography Task Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Prendergast, Ellen L.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarizes the work completed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Hanford Cultural Resource Laboratory's (HCRL) Oral History and Ethnography Task through fiscal year 2002. This work was designed to collect focused, systematic, and formal oral histories to help identify and evaluate historic properties at the Hanford Site, which has a history stretching from prehistoric times to the atomic age. This task has become imperative as the people who contributed to Hanford's history age and pass away. The information gained by the oral histories is essential to the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL) Hanford Cultural and Historical Resources Program. This program supports the Department's National Historic Preservation Act responsibilities as Site staff work to end the environmental legacy from plutonium production and other activities. In addition to summarizing the work performed by the task, the report lists specific recommendations regarding future and ongoing work: More individuals related to Hanford's history should be identified and interviewed. The HCRL should work with the community and interest groups and employ their help in collecting oral histories. Data should continue to be compiled in annual reports so that they are available to DOE-RL decision makers and the public. Data should be compiled into a multi-media format and made available on appropriate U.S. Department of Energy Web sites. The HCRL should donate released tapes and transcripts over the next 5 to 10 years to an appropriate archive where the interviews can be utilized by the public as the HCRL archives are not set up to facilitate this.

  19. Physiological strategies during animal diapause: lessons from brine shrimp and annual killifish.

    PubMed

    Podrabsky, Jason E; Hand, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    Diapause is a programmed state of developmental arrest that typically occurs as part of the natural developmental progression of organisms that inhabit seasonal environments. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus share strikingly similar life histories that include embryonic diapause as a means to synchronize the growth and reproduction phases of their life history to favorable environmental conditions. In both species, respiration rate is severely depressed during diapause and thus alterations in mitochondrial physiology are a key component of the suite of characters associated with cessation of development. Here, we use these two species to illustrate the basic principles of metabolic depression at the physiological and biochemical levels. It is clear that these two species use divergent molecular mechanisms to achieve the same physiological and ecological outcomes. This pattern of convergent physiological strategies supports the importance of biochemical and physiological adaptations to cope with extreme environmental stress and suggests that inferring mechanism from transcriptomics or proteomics or metabolomics alone, without rigorous follow-up at the biochemical and physiological levels, could lead to erroneous conclusions. PMID:26085666

  20. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  1. Soil Fungal Resources in Annual Cropping Systems and Their Potential for Management

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D.; Yang, Chao; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177

  2. Changing values of farm animal genomic resources. from historical breeds to the Nagoya Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of Animal genetic resources (AnGRs) and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA) and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of “in situ condition” has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions. PMID:26442098

  3. Changing values of farm animal genomic resources. from historical breeds to the Nagoya Protocol.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of Animal genetic resources (AnGRs) and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA) and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of "in situ condition" has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions. PMID:26442098

  4. Integrating policies for the management of animal genetic resources with demand for livestock products and environmental sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognition of the need to conserve animal genetic resources comes at a time when the global livestock sector faces significant challenges in meeting the growing demand for livestock products and the mitigation of negative environmental impacts caused by livestock. Outside of the U.S. it would seem ...

  5. Laboratory animal science: a resource to improve the quality of science.

    PubMed

    Forni, M

    2007-08-01

    The contribution of animal experimentation to biomedical research is of undoubted value, nevertheless the real usefulness of animal models is still being hotly debated. Laboratory Animal Science is a multidisciplinary approach to humane animal experimentation that allows the choice of the correct animal model and the collection of unbiased data. Refinement, Reduction and Replacement, the "3Rs rule", are now widely accepted and have a major influence on animal experimentation procedures. Refinement, namely any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to animals, has been today extended to the entire lives of the experimental animals. Reduction of the number of animals used to obtain statistically significant data may be achieved by improving experimental design and statistical analysis of data. Replacement refers to the development of validated alternative methods. A Laboratory Animal Science training program in biomedical degrees can promote the 3Rs and improve the welfare of laboratory animals as well as the quality of science with ethical, scientific and economic advantages complying with the European requirement that "persons who carry out, take part in, or supervise procedures on animals, or take care of animals used in procedures, shall have had appropriate education and training". PMID:17682845

  6. Programs for generating data tables for the annual water-resources data report of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, R.R.; Hill, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed software that interfaces with the Automated Data Processing System to facilitate and expedite preparation of the annual water-resources data report. This software incorporates a feature that prepares daily values tables and appends them to previously edited files containing station manuscripts. Other features collate the merged files with miscellaneous sections of the report. The report is then printed as page-size, camera-ready copy. All system components reside on a minicomputer; this provides easy access and use by remote field offices. Automation of the annual report preparation process results in significant savings of labor and cost. Use of the system for producing the 1986 annual report in the North Carolina District realized a labor savings of over two man-months. A fully implemented system would produce a greater savings and speed release of the report to users.

  7. Uses of animals and alternatives in pre-college education in the United States: need for leadership on educational resources and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lynette A; Wood, Mary W; Massey, Ana; Smith, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Throughout pre-college education in the United States, animals, animal specimens and animals as a topic are used as teaching resources. Residential or visiting pets play a role in humane education or cross-curricular instruction. Teachers acquire and utilise non-living specimens gathered from various sources. Field trips often are oriented around animals. Elementary school animal use is largely observational; in intermediate grades, animal dissection may be featured in general science instruction. At the higher grade levels, animals may be used in science fair projects in an experimental sense. Particularly appealing to teachers is that throughout these uses, animals motivate students. The uses of animals in classrooms reflect the teachers' interests. In the United States, the use of animals in pre-college instruction is not regulated, leading sometimes to inappropriate use. At the University of California, Davis, a pilot programme is assessing curricula, resources and a model prototype to provide administrative guidance on the use of animals in pre-college education. Appropriate animal use would be enhanced by: providing information resources with efficient links to obtaining educational materials; and establishing guidelines for animal use in pre-college education to ensure the animals' welfare. A web-based tool provides access to resources (www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/Animal_Alternatives/main.htm). PMID:23581122

  8. Uses of animals and alternatives in pre-college education in the United States: need for leadership on educational resources and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lynette A; Wood, Mary W; Massey, Ana; Smith, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Throughout pre-college education in the United States, animals, animal specimens and animals as a topic are used as teaching resources. Residential or visiting pets play a role in humane education or cross-curricular instruction. Teachers acquire and utilise non-living specimens gathered from various sources. Field trips often are oriented around animals. Elementary school animal use is largely observational; in intermediate grades, animal dissection may be featured in general science instruction. At the higher grade levels, animals may be used in science fair projects in an experimental sense. Particularly appealing to teachers is that throughout these uses, animals motivate students. The uses of animals in classrooms reflect the teachers' interests. In the United States, the use of animals in pre-college instruction is not regulated, leading sometimes to inappropriate use. At the University of California, Davis, a pilot programme is assessing curricula, resources and a model prototype to provide administrative guidance on the use of animals in pre-college education. Appropriate animal use would be enhanced by: providing information resources with efficient links to obtaining educational materials; and establishing guidelines for animal use in pre-college education to ensure the animals' welfare. A web-based tool provides access to resources (www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/Animal_Alternatives/main.htm).

  9. [Chemical composition of 6 unconventional plants from Oaxaca State, Mexico, as potential resources for animal feed].

    PubMed

    Arellano, M L; Carranco, J M; Pérez-Gil, R F; Hernández, P E; Partida, I H; Ripoll, S H

    1993-09-01

    Characteristics and distribution of six plants are described. The chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of leaf and stem of Polymnia maculata, Trigonospermum annuum, Buddleia parviflora Kunt, Canna indica L, Gnaphalium oxyphyllum y Saurauia scabrida Hensl., selected for farmers information, were analysed as a potential resources in animal feeding. The results in dry matter: Crude protein (%): Go and Ss 10.9, Bp 16.7, Pm 11.7 and Ta 11.3. Cell wall (%): Go 54.1, Ss 52.3, Ci 54.4, Bp 68.3, Pm 27.8 and Ta 30.9. Lignin (%): Go and Ss 16.6, Ci 15.5, Bp 10.4, Pm 10.6 and Ta 13.3. IN vitro dry matter digestibility (%): Go 55.1, Ss 37.6, Ci 55.4, Bp 46.5, Pm 82.4 and Ta 81.4. Calcium and phosphorus (mg/100g) respectively: Go 1095 and 379, Ss 1132 and 387, Ci 600 and 421, Bp 800 and 855, Pm 1146 and 421 and Ta 905 and 480. Tannic acid (mg/100g): Go 1450, Ss 1480, Bp 575, Ci 518, Pm 3329 and Ta 2760. Trypsin inhibitor (UIT/g): Go 22264, Ss 29720, Bp 755, Ci 4228, Pm 931 and Ta 4412. Hemagglutinins were detected in Pm and Ta. Alkaloids were detected as scarce in Bp, Ci and Pm, moderate in Ta. Saponins and Cyanogenic glucosides were not detected. It is concluded that Pm and Ta could be considered as a forage for ruminants; Go, Bp and Ci as a complement; recommended the voluntary intake, in vivo digestibility and weight increase trials.

  10. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, annual report FY97

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are oil fields administered by the DOE in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Four federally endangered animal species and one federally threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The DOE/NPRC is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The primary objective of the Endangered Species and Cultural Resources Program is to provide NPRC with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the ESA, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress, results, and accomplishments of the program during fiscal year 1997 (FY97).

  11. Towards a 'Good Life' for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Joanne L; Mullan, Siobhan M; Pritchard, Joy C; McFarlane, Una J C; Main, David C J

    2013-07-05

    The concept of a 'good life' recognises the distinction that an animal's quality of life is beyond that of a 'life worth living', representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a 'good life' could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a 'good life' in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation, alongside outcome parameters, that can help define and promote a future 'good life' for farm animals.

  12. 75 FR 27575 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program... Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as amended (42 U.S.C. 10301 et seq.), authorizes a water resources... report on its activities under the grant. The State Water Resources Research Institute Program issues...

  13. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents average values of levelized costs for generating technologies entering service in 2018, 2022, and 2040 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016) Reference case.

  14. Zinc hazards to plants and animals with emphasis on fishery and wildlife resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Cheremisinoff, Paul N.

    1997-01-01

    Ecological and toxicological aspects of zinc in the environment are reviewed with emphasis on natural resources. Subtopics include sources and uses; chemical and biochemical properties; carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity; background concentrations in biological and nonbiological compartments; effects of zinc deficiency; toxic and sublethal effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic organisms, birds, and mammals; and recommendations for the protection of sensitive resources.

  15. Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G

    2015-01-01

    Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (<1000 individuals) >5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and

  16. Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G

    2015-01-01

    Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (<1000 individuals) >5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and

  17. Application of portfolio theory to risk-based allocation of surveillance resources in animal populations.

    PubMed

    Prattley, D J; Morris, R S; Stevenson, M A; Thornton, R

    2007-09-14

    Distribution of finite levels of resources between multiple competing tasks can be a challenging problem. Resources need to be distributed across time periods and geographic locations to increase the probability of detection of a disease incursion or significant change in disease pattern. Efforts should focus primarily on areas and populations where risk factors for a given disease reach relatively high levels. In order to target resources into these areas, the overall risk level can be evaluated periodically across locations to create a dynamic national risk landscape. Methods are described to integrate the levels of various risk factors into an overall risk score for each area, to account for the certainty or variability around those measures and then to allocate surveillance resources across this risk landscape. In addition to targeting resources into high risk areas, surveillance continues in lower risk areas where there is a small yet positive chance of disease occurrence. In this paper we describe the application of portfolio theory concepts, routinely used in finance, to design surveillance portfolios for a series of examples. The appropriate level of resource investment is chosen for each disease or geographical area and time period given the degree of disease risk and uncertainty present. PMID:17509705

  18. Application of portfolio theory to risk-based allocation of surveillance resources in animal populations.

    PubMed

    Prattley, D J; Morris, R S; Stevenson, M A; Thornton, R

    2007-09-14

    Distribution of finite levels of resources between multiple competing tasks can be a challenging problem. Resources need to be distributed across time periods and geographic locations to increase the probability of detection of a disease incursion or significant change in disease pattern. Efforts should focus primarily on areas and populations where risk factors for a given disease reach relatively high levels. In order to target resources into these areas, the overall risk level can be evaluated periodically across locations to create a dynamic national risk landscape. Methods are described to integrate the levels of various risk factors into an overall risk score for each area, to account for the certainty or variability around those measures and then to allocate surveillance resources across this risk landscape. In addition to targeting resources into high risk areas, surveillance continues in lower risk areas where there is a small yet positive chance of disease occurrence. In this paper we describe the application of portfolio theory concepts, routinely used in finance, to design surveillance portfolios for a series of examples. The appropriate level of resource investment is chosen for each disease or geographical area and time period given the degree of disease risk and uncertainty present.

  19. 78 FR 46597 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ..., we published a Federal Register notice (78 FR 2422) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB... Institute Program Annual Application and Reporting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is inviting comments...

  20. School Library Resources, Textbooks, and Other Instructional Materials: Title II, ESEA. Third Annual Report, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The third annual compilation and analysis of data on Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA Title II), this report describes how the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs of the U.S. Department of the Interior…

  1. Resources for the Future. Annual Report for the Year Ending September 30, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Resources for the Future, Inc. (RFF) is a nonprofit, tax exempt corporation headquartered in Washington, D.C. RFF's purpose is to advance research and education in the development, conservation, and use of natural resources, including improvement of the quality of the environment. Most of its programs are carried out by resident staff, but a few…

  2. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) brings together experts from around the country and around the world and asks them to turn their intelligence to the problems that libraries, archives, and information organizations face as they integrate digital resources and services into their well established print-based environments. In…

  3. Resources for the Future. Annual Report for the Year Ending September 30, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Resources for the Future, Inc. (RFF) is a nonprofit, tax-exempt corporation headquartered in Washington, D.C. RFF's purpose is to advance research and education in the development, conservation, and use of natural resources, including improvement of the quality of the environment. Most of its programs are carried out by resident staff, but a few…

  4. Invasive rangeland plants in range and animal sciences and resources management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprising about 50% of the world’s land surface, rangelands are an important ecological and economic resource. Rangeland plant communities are changing. Even though the composition of plant communities in rangeland changes continually through the process of succession, in more recent years this c...

  5. SERI Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Fiscal Year 1990 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, C; Maxwell, E; Stoffel, T; Rymes, M; Wilcox, S

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the Solar Radiation Resource Project is to help meet the needs of the public, government, industry, and utilities for solar radiation data, models, and assessments as required to develop, design, deploy, and operate solar energy conversion systems. The project scientists produce information on the spatial (geographic), temporal (hourly, daily, and seasonal), and spectral (wavelength distribution) variability of solar radiation at different locations in the United States. Resources committed to the project in FY 1990 supported about four staff members, including part-time administrative support. With these resources, the staff must concentrate on solar radiation resource assessment in the United States; funds do not allow for significant efforts to respond to a common need for improved worldwide data. 34 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  7. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources: Annual report, October 1986--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.; Kamath, V.A.; Godbole, S.P.; Patil, S.L.; Paranjpe, S.G.; Mutalik, P.N.; Nadem, N.

    1987-10-01

    Solid ice-like mixtures of natural gas and water in the form of natural gas hydrated have been found immobilized in the rocks beneath the permafrost in Arctic basins and in muds under the deep water along the American continental margins, in the North Sea and several other locations around the world. It is estimated that the arctic areas of the United States may contain as much as 500 trillion SCF of natural gas in the form of gas hydrates (Lewin and Associates, 1983). While the US Arctic gas hydrate resources may have enormous potential and represent long term future source of natural gas, the recovery of this resource from reservoir frozen with gas hydrates has not been commercialized yet. Continuing study and research is essential to develop technologies which will enable a detailed characterization and assessment of this alternative natural gas resource, so that development of cost effective extraction technology.

  8. Public land and natural resource issues confronting animal scientists and livestock producers.

    PubMed

    Vavra, M

    1998-09-01

    Livestock producers using public lands in the West were once concerned primarily with efficient systems for livestock production. Historically, this concept began in 1934 with the passage of the Taylor Grazing Act. Management activities on public lands continued to focus on sustainable livestock production until the 1970s, when the public began to demand enforcement of the Multiple Use Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. During this time, species listing under the Endangered Species Act became more active. Unfortunately, so many species are listed or are being considered for listing that it becomes impossible to develop biological information on causative factors for listing or recovery plans for each one. Peer-reviewed science that addresses management needs is often unavailable, and articles from the gray literature have been used in management plans for both threatened and endangered species and for public land. Personal biases of both scientists and land managers can influence the development of land management plans, especially in cases in which scientific information is minimal. The Land Grant System is well positioned to develop research applicable for public lands. Animal scientists need to be involved in interdisciplinary teams. Livestock producers need to overcome the stigma that livestock grazing is not a sustainable use. Rangeland in poor condition, whether public or private, should be improved if livestock managers are to change the public perception that grazing degrades rangeland. To accomplish this, education and peer pressure should be used. Another approach needed is activism on the part of producers and animal scientists. The public is demanding a voice in public land management. Working groups seem to be the emerging pathway to cooperatively develop management plans.

  9. Expected Annual Emergency Miles per Ambulance: An Indicator for Measuring Availability of Emergency Medical Services Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Probst, Janice C.; Moore, Charity G.

    2006-01-01

    Context: To ensure equitable access to prehospital care, as recommended by the Rural and Frontier Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Agenda for the Future, policymakers will need a uniform measure of EMS infrastructure. Purpose and Methods: This paper proposes a county-level indicator of EMS resource availability that takes into consideration…

  10. Annual Report 1988: New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    In New York, as in many states, "rural" is not synonymous with "agricultural." The Commission on Rural Resources (CRR) supports preservation of agrarian New York State, but also seeks to assist rural citizens with many other challenges: in education, transportation, forestry development, housing, health care, viable business ventures, and building…

  11. Council on Library Resources, Inc. Twenty-Sixth Annual Report/1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report describes the activities of the Council on Library Resources, Inc. (CLR) during the 1981-82 fiscal year. Contents include lists of members of the Council, the Council Board of Directors, and the Council staff; a listing of CLR committee members and officers; a preface; a brief statement of highlights of the year's activities and future…

  12. Council on Library Resources, Inc. Twenty-Seventh Annual Report/1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report describes the activities of the Council on Library Resources, Inc. (CLR) during the 1982-83 fiscal year. Contents include lists of members of the Council, the Council Board of Directors, and the Council staff; a listing of CLR committee members and officers; a preface; a brief statement of highlights of the year's activities and future…

  13. New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources. Annual Report, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    This report provides a general review of the significant activities and accomplishments of the New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources. A letter from Senator Charles D. Cook outlines the task set before the Commission, which is to improve the conditions of New York's rural residents. The next section, "Reprise 1988: A Glance at…

  14. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States. Papers presented: Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Topic areas covered include: technical assistance (hydrothermal resource application in the eastern United States); GRITS - a computer model for economic evaluation of direct-uses of geothermal energy; geothermal market penetration in the residential sector - capital stock impediments and compensatory incentives; an analysis of benefits and costs of accelerated market penetration by a geothermal community heating system.

  15. Annual Report of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    This report highlights and presents examples of the Commission on Physical Science, Mathematics, and Resources' (CPSMR) recent activities and future plans. Selected programs and activities from the 224 boards and committees that operate within CPSMR are reviewed. These range from studies of basic science to examinations of applied science and…

  16. Council on Library Resources, Inc. Twenty-Eighth Annual Report/1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Highlights of the Council on Library Resources' (CLR) 28th year and descriptions of active projects are included in the body of this report. Preliminary materials include lists of members of the council and of the board of directors, council committees and officers, and council staff and consultants, as well as a memorial to Louis Booker Wright,…

  17. ERIC Annual Report, 1995. Summarizing the Recent Accomplishments of the Educational Resources Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarte, Lynn; Boston, Carol

    The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is a federally funded, nationwide network designed to provide ready access to education information. Managed by the United States Department of Education's National Library of Education, ERIC consists of 16 clearinghouses, each devoted to a particular area of education, several adjunct…

  18. Disposable Goods or Valued Resource: Appointment and Termination of Assistant Professors. ASHE 1987 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Dolores L.

    The question of whether assistant professors are valued resources at colleges was investigated and compared to findings of a 1957 study by Caplow and McGee. Based on actual personnel actions, interviews were conducted with 306 department heads, nonterminated faculty colleagues, and new appointees. The interviews were concerned with the appointment…

  19. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program. Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    A cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy provides the necessary funding for the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, to render services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of archaeological resources is usually determined by research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An ongoing research program provides the theoretical, methodological, and empirical basis for assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In accordance with the spirit of the law, the SRARP maintains an active public education program for disseminating knowledge about prehistory and history, and for enhancing awareness of historic preservation. This report summarizes the management, research, and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1993.

  20. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program, fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, is funded through a direct contract with the United States Department of Energy to provide services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of most archaeological resources is dependent upon research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An on-going research program provides the problems, methods and means of assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In addition, the SRARP maintains an active program of public education to disseminate knowledge about prehistory and history, and to enhance public awareness about historic preservation. The following report summarizes the management, research and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1990.

  1. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program: Fiscal year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy provides the necessary funding for the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, to render services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of archaeological resources is usually determined by research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An ongoing research program provides the theoretical, methodological and empirical basis for assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In accordance with the spirit of the law, the SRARP maintains an active public education program for disseminating knowledge about prehistory and history, and for enhancing awareness of historic preservation. This report summarizes the management, research and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1991.

  2. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  3. Resource allocation in an annual herb: Effects of light, mycorrhizal fungi, and defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Chama, Ana; Guevara, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Concurrent interactions and the availability of resources (e.g., light) affect the cost/benefit balance during mutualistic and antagonistic interactions, as well as plant resource allocation patterns. Mycorrhizal interactions and herbivory concur in most plants, where mycorrhizae can enhance the uptake of soil nutrients by plants as well as consuming a large fraction of the plant's carbon, and defoliation usually reduces light interception and photosynthesis, thereby causing direct losses to the hosts of mycorrhizal fungi. Both types of interactions affect the carbon budget of their host plants and thus we predict that the relative costs of herbivory and mycorrhizal colonization will increase when photosynthesis is reduced, for instance in light limited environments. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using Datura stramonium to investigate the effects of defoliation and mycorrhizal inoculation on the resource allocation patterns in two different light environments. Defoliated plants overcompensated in terms of leaf mass in both light environments, but total seed mass per fruit was negatively affected by defoliation in both light environments. Mycorrhizal inoculation had a positive effect on vegetative growth and the leaf nitrogen content, but defoliation negates the benefit of mycorrhizal interactions in terms of the leaf nitrogen content. In general, D. stramonium compensated for the relative costs of concurrent mycorrhizal interactions and defoliation; plants that lacked both interactions exhibited the same performance as plants with both types of interactions.

  4. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation: Volume 24, Threatened and endangered animal species

    SciTech Connect

    Kroodsma, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    United States and Tennessee laws provide protection for wildlife species that the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) have determined to be endangered or threatened. These laws and their implications for management of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are briefly discussed. The historical occurrence, current status, and recommended surveys and management plans for all threatened and endangered (T and E) wildlife species with a reasonable probability of occurring on the ORR are also discussed. Seventeen species of T and E mollusks historically occurred in the Oak Ridge area, but no management action is recommended because reservoir construction and other factors not related to Department of Energy operations have eliminated suitable habitat. Systematic surveys and management actions are also not recommended for three species of T and E fish, one amphibian species, one reptile species, six bird species, and two mammal species because of the very low potential for the occurrence of these species on the ORR. For three T and E bird species on the ORR, no feasible or significantly beneficial management actions could be identified. Surveys and consideration of possible management actions are recommended for three state-listed bird species that occur on or near the ORR and for two federally listed bat species that occur in East Tennessee and may occur on the ORR.

  5. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program. Fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, manages archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). An ongoing research program provides the theoretical, methodological, and empirical basis for assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. The SRARP maintains an active public education program for disseminating knowledge about prehistory and history, and for enhancing awareness of historic preservation. This report summarizes the management, research, and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1994.

  6. 1995 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-25

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys performed at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) from January through December of 1995 as compared with results from previous years. These surveys were performed as part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and describing fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in species using RFETS. The NRPCP provides support to the Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as Natural Resource Trustee, and provides data essential to accomplishing the goal of preserving the unique ecological values of RFETS in keeping with the Rocky Flats Vision presented in the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Public Comment Draft. Wildlife population densities vary due to natural pressures and human influences, and only long-term monitoring can verify which factors influencing wildlife populations are the consequence of natural fluctuations, and which are due to human influences. The wildlife monitoring described in this report provides qualitative data that give an indication of the ecological health of RFETS. Monitoring numbers, habitat affinities, and apparent health of the wildlife populations makes it possible to evaluate the overall ecological health of the site. Monitoring and surveys such as those carried out by the NRPCP can indicate trends of this sort, and act as an {open_quotes}early warning system{close_quotes} for impending ecological problems.

  7. Endangered species and cultural resources program Naval petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY96

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    In FY96, Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc. (EASI) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on federal properties. Population monitoring activities were conducted for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. Kit fox abundance and distribution was assessed by live-trapping over a 329-km{sup 2} area. Kit fox reproduction and mortality were assessed by radiocollaring and monitoring 22 adults and two pups. Reproductive success and litter size were determined through live-trapping and den observations. Rates and sources of kit fox mortality were assessed by recovering dead radiocollared kit foxes and conducting necropsies to determine cause of death. Abundance of coyotes and bobcats, which compete with kit foxes, was determined by conducting scent station surveys. Kit fox diet was assessed through analysis of fecal samples collected from live-trapped foxes. Abundance of potential prey for kit foxes was determined by conducting transect surveys for lagornorphs and live-trapping small mammals.

  8. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program. Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.J.; Brooks, R.D.; Sassaman, K.E.; Crass, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) continued through FY95 with the United States Department of Energy to fulfill a threefold mission of cultural resource management, research, and public education at the Savannah River Site. Over 2,300 acres of land on the SRS came under cultural resources review in FY95. This activity entailed 30 field surveys, resulting in the recording of 86 new sites. Twenty-two existing sites within survey tract boundaries were revisited to update site file records. Research conducted by SRARP was reported in 11 papers and monographs published during FY95. SRARP staff also presented research results in 18 papers at professional meetings. Field research included several testing programs, excavations, and remote sensing at area sites, as well as data collection abroad. Seven grants were acquired by SRARP staff to support off-site research. In the area of heritage education, the SRARP expanded its activities in FY95 with a full schedule of classroom education, public outreach, and on-site tours. Volunteer excavations at the Tinker Creek site were continued with the Augusta Archaeological Society and other avocational groups, and other off-site excavations provided a variety of opportunities for field experience. Some 80 presentations, displays and tours were provided for schools, historical societies, civic groups, and environmental and historical awareness day celebrations. Additionally, SRARP staff taught four anthropology courses at area colleges.

  9. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook. FY 1991 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL`s Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU`s), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

  10. Yucca Mountain Biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY89 and FY90

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geological repository for high-level radioactive waste. To ensure site characterization activities do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program, the Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program, has been implemented monitor and mitigate environmental impacts and to ensure activities comply with applicable environmental laws. Potential impacts to vegetation, small mammals, and the desert tortoise (an indigenous threatened species) are addressed, as are habitat reclamation, radiological monitoring, and compilation of baseline data. This report describes the program in Fiscal Years 1989 and 1990. 12 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs. (MHB)

  11. Photosynthetic resource-use efficiency and demographic variability in desert winter annual plants.

    PubMed

    Huxman, Travis E; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Gerst, Katharine L; Angert, Amy L; Tyler, Anna P; Venable, D Lawrence

    2008-06-01

    We studied a guild of desert winter annual plants that differ in long-term variation in per capita reproductive success (lb, the product of per capita survival from germination to reproduction, l, times per capita reproduction of survivors, b) to relate individual function to population and community dynamics. We hypothesized that variation in lb should be related to species' positions along a trade-off between relative growth rate (RGR) and photosynthetic water-use efficiency (WUE) because lb is a species-specific function of growing-season precipitation. We found that demographically variable species have greater RGR and greater leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Delta, a proxy inversely related to WUE). We examined leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic characteristics and found that, in this system, variation in Delta is a function of photosynthetic demand rather than stomatal regulation of water loss. The physiological characteristics that result in low Delta in some species may confer greater photosynthetic performance during the reliably moist but low temperature periods that immediately follow winter rainfall in the Sonoran Desert or alternatively during cool periods of the day or early growing season. Conversely, while species with high Delta and high RGR exhibit low leaf N, they have high biomass allocation to canopy leaf area display. Such trait associations may allow for greater performance during the infrequent conditions where high soil moisture persists into warmer conditions, resulting in high demographic variance. Alternatively, high variance could arise from specialization to warm periods of the day or season. Population dynamic buffering via stress tolerance (low RGR and Delta) correlates negatively with buffering via seed banks, as predicted by bet-hedging theory. By merging analyses of population dynamics with functional trait relationships, we develop a deeper understanding of the physiological, ecological, and evolutionary mechanisms involved in

  12. A GIS wind resource map with tabular printout of monthly and annual wind speeds for 2,000 towns in Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, M.C.; Factor, T.

    1997-12-31

    The Iowa Wind Energy Institute, under a grant from the Iowa Energy Center, undertook in 1994 to map wind resources in Iowa. Fifty-meter met towers were erected at 13 locations across the state deemed promising for utility-scale wind farm development. Two years of summarized wind speed, direction, and temperature data were used to create wind resource maps incorporating effects of elevation, relative exposure, terrain roughness, and ground cover. Maps were produced predicting long-term mean monthly and annual wind speeds on a one-kilometer grid. The estimated absolute standard error in the predicted annual average wind speeds at unobstructed locations is 9 percent. The relative standard error between points on the annual map is estimated to be 3 percent. These maps and tabular data for 2,000 cities and towns in Iowa are now available on the Iowa Energy Center`s web site (http.//www.energy.iastate.edu).

  13. Chemicals identified in feral and food animals: a data base. First annual report, October 1981. Volume I. Records 1-532

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, M.V.; Faust, R.A.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1981-12-01

    This data file is a companion to Chemicals Identified in Human Biological Media, A Data Base, and follows basically the same format. The data base on human burden is in its third year of publication. This is the first annual report for the feral and food animal file. Data were obtained primarily from the open literature through manual searches (retrospective to 1979) of the journals listed in Appendix A. The data base now contains information on 60 different substances. Chemicals are listed by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry numbers and preferred names in Appendix B. For the user's convenience, cross-referenced chemical lists of CAS preferred and common names are provided in Appendix C. The animals, tissues, and body fluids found to be contaminated by these chemicals are listed in Appendix D. The data base is published annually in tabular format with indices and chemical listings that allow specific searching. A limited number of custom computer searches of the data base are available in special cases when the published format does not allow for retrieval of needed information.

  14. The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable

  15. 1994 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-24

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys and other wildlife monitoring performed from January through December 1994. These surveys are part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and quantifying fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in the species using the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) as year-round or seasonal habitat. Wildlife population densities vary constantly due to natural pressures, and only well-integrated, long-term monitoring can identify which factors influencing wildlife populations are a consequence of natural causes, and which are due to human activities. An integrated monitoring program that gathers data on ecologically interactive species is essential in evaluating population fluctuations. Such data can be an invaluable tool in predicting and avoiding impacts on the ecology of an area due to projected human activities. With 167 species of birds, three big game species, nine species of carnivores, nine species of mid-sized mammals, and 15 small mammal species, the Site provides habitat to a surprising variety of wildlife. Many of these species are sensitive species or indicator organisms that by their presence or, more significantly, by their absence can indicate the ecological health of an area. Their presence at the Site indicates a very healthy ecosystem.

  16. Massachusetts Water Resource Research Center: Annual program report, 1988 (FY 1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The Massachusetts Water Resources Research Center program for 1987-88 (Federal Fiscal Year FY87) focused on several research areas of high priority for the state and New England region: acid deposition impacts, the minimization of nitrate contamination of groundwater from on-site wastewater treatment, the pricing of drinking water to meet future infrastructure needs, and the proposed diversion of water from a ''Wild and Scenic'' river. Three WRIP Projects were begun in FY87. One evaluates cloud and fog acidity in central Massachusetts, another evaluates the use of peat in rural sewage disposal systems to minimize nitrate contamination of groundwater, and the third will determine the true cost of water so that utilities may appropriately plan for new sources or infrastructure renovation. The Cooperative Aquatic Research Program (CARP) funded five projects; four were acid deposition-related projects. Phase III of the Acid Rain Monitoring Project continued monitoring 500 randomly selected and 300 special interest surface waters quarterly and will continue into its fourth year of the ten year program. Investigation of the role of acid deposition in enhancing microorganisms in lake sediment that may play a role in methylating heavy metals such as mercury continued. Similarly, the study of mechanisms of control of aluminum mobility in watersheds subjected to acid deposition and the study of the impact of acid deposition on salamander communities were continued. Research on the role of sulfate reduction in lakes as a natural mechanism for neutralizing acidity funded in its first year by WRIP, has been continued. All but the Acid Rain Monitoring Project are to be completed in 1988.

  17. The First Shared Online Curriculum Resources for Veterinary Undergraduate Learning and Teaching in Animal Welfare and Ethics in Australia and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jane; Collins, Teresa; Degeling, Christopher; Fawcett, Anne; Fisher, Andrew D.; Freire, Rafael; Hazel, Susan J.; Hood, Jennifer; Lloyd, Janice; Phillips, Clive J. C.; Stafford, Kevin; Tzioumis, Vicky; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary There is a need for teaching Animal Welfare and Ethics in veterinary schools and we are developing online resources to meet this need. In this paper we describe how we prioritized the development of these resources by polling experts in the field. Abstract The need for undergraduate teaching of Animal Welfare and Ethics (AWE) in Australian and New Zealand veterinary courses reflects increasing community concerns and expectations about AWE; global pressures regarding food security and sustainability; the demands of veterinary accreditation; and fears that, unless students encounter AWE as part of their formal education, as veterinarians they will be relatively unaware of the discipline of animal welfare science. To address this need we are developing online resources to ensure Australian and New Zealand veterinary graduates have the knowledge, and the research, communication and critical reasoning skills, to fulfill the AWE role demanded of them by contemporary society. To prioritize development of these resources we assembled leaders in the field of AWE education from the eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand and used modified deliberative polling. This paper describes the role of the poll in developing the first shared online curriculum resource for veterinary undergraduate learning and teaching in AWE in Australia and New Zealand. The learning and teaching strategies that ranked highest in the exercise were: scenario-based learning; a quality of animal life assessment tool; the so-called ‘Human Continuum’ discussion platform; and a negotiated curriculum. PMID:26479241

  18. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  19. Evaluation of Teachers' Activities in the Use of Animated Instructional Resource Materials in Biology Teaching in Senior Secondary Schools in Bauchi State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasu, I. A.; Abubakar; Ema, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a profile on how teachers in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state Nigeria utilise animated instructional resource (AIR) in the teaching of biology. A structured questionnaire used to generate data on the availability, accessibility and application of the AIR for classroom instruction by teachers. The instrument for data…

  20. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-fiscal year 2010 annual report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. The work of the Center is shaped by the earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management, and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote-sensing-based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet, and where possible exceed, the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2010. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by EROS staff or by visiting our web site at http://eros.usgs.gov. We welcome comments and follow-up questions on any aspect of this Annual Report and invite any of our customers or partners to contact us at their convenience. To

  1. Are Mojave Desert annual species equal? Resource acquisition and allocation for the invasive grass Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (Poaceae) and two native species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Defalco, Lesley A.; Bryla, David R.; Smith-Longozo, Vickie; Nowak, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Abundance of invasive plants is often attributed to their ability ot outcompete native species. We compared resource acquisition and allocation of the invasive annual grass Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens with that of two native Mojave Desert annuals, Vulpia octoflora and Descurainia pinnata, in a glasshouse experiment. Each species was grown in monoculture at two densities and two levels of N availability to compare how these annuals capture resources and to understand their relative sensitivities to environmental change. During >4 mo of growth, Bromus used water more rapidly and had greater biomass and N content than the natives, partly because of its greater root-surface area and its exploitation of deep soils. Bromus also had greater N uptake, net assimilation and transpiration rates, and canopy area than Vulpia. Resource use by Bromuswas less sensitive to changes in N availability or density than were the natives. The two native species in this study produced numerous small seeds that tended to remain dormant, thus ensuring escape of offspring from unfavorable germination conditions; Bromus produced fewer but larger seeds that readily germinated. Collectively, these traits give Bromus the potential to rapidly establish in diverse habitats of the Mojave Desert, thereby gaining an advantage over coexisting native species.

  2. Towards a ‘Good Life’ for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne L.; Mullan, Siobhan M.; Pritchard, Joy C.; McFarlane, Una J. C.; Main, David C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Farm animals can be said to have a ‘good life’ if their quality of life is substantially higher than the current legal minimum and includes positive experiences such as pleasure. In commercial farms, animals can be provided with different resources such as bedding, exercise areas and enrichment objects. We used scientific evidence and expert opinion to determine which resources laying hens need to contribute to a ‘good life’. These resources were organised into three tiers, of increasing welfare, leading towards a ‘good life’. We describe how we developed the resource tiers and suggest how the overall framework might be used to promote a ‘good life’ for farm animals. Abstract The concept of a ‘good life’ recognises the distinction that an animal’s quality of life is beyond that of a ‘life worth living’, representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a ‘good life’ could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a ‘good life’ in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation

  3. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org.

  4. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org. PMID:27083180

  5. Comparative Analyses of Live-Action and Animated Film Remake Scenes: Finding Alternative Film-Based Teaching Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champoux, Joseph E.

    2005-01-01

    Live-action and animated film remake scenes can show many topics typically taught in organizational behaviour and management courses. This article discusses, analyses and compares such scenes to identify parallel film scenes useful for teaching. The analysis assesses the scenes to decide which scene type, animated or live-action, more effectively…

  6. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. As part of the USGS Geography Discipline, EROS contributes to the Land Remote Sensing (LRS) Program, the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program, and the National Geospatial Program (NGP), as well as our Federal partners and cooperators. The work of the Center is shaped by the Earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote sensing based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet and/or exceed the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2009. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by

  7. Finishing steers on winter annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) with varied levels of corn supplementation I: effects on animal performance, carcass traits, and forage quality.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S D; Kerth, C R; Braden, K W; Rankins, D L; Kriese-Anderson, L; Prevatt, J W

    2009-08-01

    Crossbred steers (n = 72) were selected to study forage-based finishing systems using winter annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) with varying levels of grain supplementation. In December, cattle were allotted to 1 of 6 treatments consisting of ryegrass pasture (1 ha) with whole shell corn supplemented at 0.0% (0.0), 0.5% (0.5), 1.0% (1.0), 1.5% (1.5), and 2.0% (2.0) of BW, or an ad libitum mixed-ration grain diet in a drylot. Steers were randomly assigned to pens of 4 with pen serving as the experimental unit. Cattle were slaughtered by pen when average pen backfat thickness (as measured by real-time ultrasound) reached approximately 0.64 cm. Forage samples and disk meter height were taken from ryegrass paddocks on a monthly basis to determine forage quality and mass. Live animal performance, carcass traits, proximate analysis, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory characteristics from the LM of the rib section were analyzed. Increasing the amount of grain in the diet of finishing cattle resulted in a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in days on feed and a linear increase (P < 0.05) in ADG, preliminary yield grade, final yield grade, flavor intensity, and beef flavor. Forage DM mass increased with each incremental increase in grain added to the grazing diets. Quality of forage was not (P > 0.05) affected by adding grain to the diet. Adding corn to the diet of cattle being finished on forage improved animal performance and decreased forage utilization characteristics in addition to improving the flavor characteristics of beef.

  8. The First Shared Online Curriculum Resources for Veterinary Undergraduate Learning and Teaching in Animal Welfare and Ethics in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jane; Collins, Teresa; Degeling, Christopher; Fawcett, Anne; Fisher, Andrew D; Freire, Rafael; Hazel, Susan J; Hood, Jennifer; Lloyd, Janice; Phillips, Clive J C; Stafford, Kevin; Tzioumis, Vicky; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The need for undergraduate teaching of Animal Welfare and Ethics (AWE) in Australian and New Zealand veterinary courses reflects increasing community concerns and expectations about AWE; global pressures regarding food security and sustainability; the demands of veterinary accreditation; and fears that, unless students encounter AWE as part of their formal education, as veterinarians they will be relatively unaware of the discipline of animal welfare science. To address this need we are developing online resources to ensure Australian and New Zealand veterinary graduates have the knowledge, and the research, communication and critical reasoning skills, to fulfill the AWE role demanded of them by contemporary society. To prioritize development of these resources we assembled leaders in the field of AWE education from the eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand and used modified deliberative polling. This paper describes the role of the poll in developing the first shared online curriculum resource for veterinary undergraduate learning and teaching in AWE in Australia and New Zealand. The learning and teaching strategies that ranked highest in the exercise were: scenario-based learning; a quality of animal life assessment tool; the so-called 'Human Continuum' discussion platform; and a negotiated curriculum. PMID:26479241

  9. The First Shared Online Curriculum Resources for Veterinary Undergraduate Learning and Teaching in Animal Welfare and Ethics in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jane; Collins, Teresa; Degeling, Christopher; Fawcett, Anne; Fisher, Andrew D; Freire, Rafael; Hazel, Susan J; Hood, Jennifer; Lloyd, Janice; Phillips, Clive J C; Stafford, Kevin; Tzioumis, Vicky; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-05-29

    The need for undergraduate teaching of Animal Welfare and Ethics (AWE) in Australian and New Zealand veterinary courses reflects increasing community concerns and expectations about AWE; global pressures regarding food security and sustainability; the demands of veterinary accreditation; and fears that, unless students encounter AWE as part of their formal education, as veterinarians they will be relatively unaware of the discipline of animal welfare science. To address this need we are developing online resources to ensure Australian and New Zealand veterinary graduates have the knowledge, and the research, communication and critical reasoning skills, to fulfill the AWE role demanded of them by contemporary society. To prioritize development of these resources we assembled leaders in the field of AWE education from the eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand and used modified deliberative polling. This paper describes the role of the poll in developing the first shared online curriculum resource for veterinary undergraduate learning and teaching in AWE in Australia and New Zealand. The learning and teaching strategies that ranked highest in the exercise were: scenario-based learning; a quality of animal life assessment tool; the so-called 'Human Continuum' discussion platform; and a negotiated curriculum.

  10. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  11. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, Enzo R; Johnson, Kammy R; Karpati, Adam; Rubin, Carol S; Kolpin, Dana W; Meyer, Michael T; Esteban, J Emilio; Currier, Russell W; Smith, Kathleen; Thu, Kendall M; McGeehin, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of > 100 microg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  12. General patterns of niche construction and the management of 'wild' plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bruce D

    2011-03-27

    Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve 'wild' species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their 'natural' landscapes throughout the Holocene.

  13. General patterns of niche construction and the management of ‘wild’ plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene. PMID:21320898

  14. Dual fuels: intra-annual variation in the relative importance of benthic and pelagic resources to maintenance, growth and reproduction in a generalist salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Brian; Harrod, Chris; Kahilainen, Kimmo K

    2014-11-01

    Ecological systems are often characterized as stable entities. However, basal productivity in most ecosystems varies between seasons, particularly in subarctic and polar areas. How this variability affects higher trophic levels or entire food webs remains largely unknown, especially in these high-latitude regions. We undertook a year-long study of benthic (macroinvertebrate) and pelagic (zooplankton) resource availability, along with short (day/days: stomach content)-, medium (month: liver δ(13)C and δ(15)N isotopes)- and long-term (season: muscle δ(13)C and δ(15)N isotopes) assessments of resource use by a generalist fish, the European whitefish, in a deep, oligotrophic, subarctic lake in northern Europe. Due to the long ice-covered winter period, we expected to find general benthic reliance throughout the year, but also a seasonal importance of zooplankton to the diet, somatic growth and gonadal development of whitefish. Benthic and pelagic resource availability varied between seasons: peak littoral benthic macroinvertebrate density occurred in mid-winter, whereas maximum zooplankton density was observed in summer. Whitefish stomach content revealed a reliance on benthic prey items during winter and pelagic prey in summer. A seasonal shift from benthic to pelagic prey was evident in liver isotope ratios, but muscle isotope ratios indicated a year-round reliance on benthic macroinvertebrates. Whitefish activity levels as well as somatic and gonadal growth all peaked during the summer, coinciding with the zooplankton peak and the warmest water temperature. Stable isotopes of muscle consistently depicted the most important resource, benthic macroinvertebrates, whereas short-term indicators, that is, diet and stable isotopes of liver, revealed the seasonal significance of pelagic zooplankton for somatic growth and gonad development. Seasonal variability in resource availability strongly influences consumer growth and reproduction and may also be important in

  15. Animal salmonellosis in peninsular Malaysia. II. Annual and zoological distribution of Salmonella serotypes over the 10-year period 1966-1975.

    PubMed

    Joseph, P G; Anwar, M; Jegathesan, M

    1978-05-01

    A total of 860 Salmonella isolations were made in Peninsular Malaysia from 15 animal species (domestic and wild), eggs, molluscs, flies, and animal feed. The isolations were distributed among 31 serotypes in eight groups. The most common serotype isolated was Salmonella pullorum, followed by S. choleraesuis and S. infantis. S. typhimurium had the widest zoological distribution. The importance of controlling animal salmonellosis is emphasized.

  16. Annual Evaluation Report for Rural Physics Teacher Resource Agents Covering Period from June 2004 to May 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulp, Sherri L.; Banilower, Eric R.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and findings of Horizon Research, Inc. (HRI) in its external evaluation of the American Association of Physic Teachers (APPT's) Rural Physics Teacher Resource Agents (PTRA) project. The report details HRI's work and findings since June 2004. The report is divided into five main sections. The first provides an…

  17. The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  18. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  19. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  20. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  1. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  2. Effects of CO[sub 2] and temperature on growth and resource use of co-occurring C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] annuals

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.S.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1992-08-01

    The authors examined how CO[sub 2] concentrations and temperature interacted to affect growth, resource acquisition, and resource allocation of two annual plants that were supplied with a single pulse of nutrients. Physiological and growth measurements were made on individuals of Abutilon throphrasti (C[sub 3]) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C[sub 4]) grown in environments with atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels of 400 or 700 [mu]L/L and with light/dark temperatures of 28[degree]/22[degree] or 38[degree]/31[degree] C. Elevated CO[sub 2] and temperature treatments had significant independent and interactive effects on plant growth, resource allocation, and resource acquisition, and the strength and direction of these effects were often dependent on plant species. For example, final biomass of Amaranthus was enhanced by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but was depressed at 38[degree]. For Abutilon, elevated CO[sub 2] increased initial plant relative growth rates at 28[degree] but not at 38[degree], and had no significant effects on final biomass at either temperature. These results are interpreted in light of the interactive effects of CO[sub 2] and temperature on the rates of net leaf area production and loss, and on net whole-plant nitrogen retention. At 28[degree]C, elevated CO[sub 2] stimulated the initial production of leaf area in both species, which led to an initial stimulation of biomass accumulation at the higher CO[sub 2] level. However, in elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree], the rate of net leaf area loss for Abutilon increased while that of Amaranthus decreased. Furthermore, high CO[sub 2] apparently enhanced the ability of Amaranthus to retain nitrogen at this temperature, which may have helped to enhance photosynthesis, whereas nitrogen retention was unaffected in Abutilon.

  3. The multifaceted resources and microevolution of the successful human and animal pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; Ferreira, Fabienne Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens based on its incidence and the severity of its associated infections. In addition, severe MRSA infections can occur in hospitalised patients or healthy individuals from the community. Studies have shown the infiltration of MRSA isolates of community origin into hospitals and variants of hospital-associated MRSA have caused infections in the community. These rapid epidemiological changes represent a challenge for the molecular characterisation of such bacteria as a hospital or community-acquired pathogen. To efficiently control the spread of MRSA, it is important to promptly detect the mecA gene, which is the determinant of methicillin resistance, using a polymerase chain reaction-based test or other rapidly and accurate methods that detect the mecA product penicillin-binding protein (PBP)2a or PBP2’. The recent emergence of MRSA isolates that harbour a mecA allotype, i.e., the mecC gene, infecting animals and humans has raised an additional and significant issue regarding MRSA laboratory detection. Antimicrobial drugs for MRSA therapy are becoming depleted and vancomycin is still the main choice in many cases. In this review, we present an overview of MRSA infections in community and healthcare settings with focus on recent changes in the global epidemiology, with special reference to the MRSA picture in Brazil. PMID:24789555

  4. Molecular and pedigree analysis applied to conservation of animal genetic resources: the case of Brazilian Somali hair sheep.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Samuel R; Facó, Olivardo; Faria, Danielle A; Lacerda, Thaísa; Barretto, Gabriel B; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Lobo, Raimundo N B; McManus, Concepta

    2011-10-01

    The first registers of Somali sheep in Brazil are from the beginning of the 1900s. This breed, adapted to the dry climate and scarce food supply, is restricted in the northeast region of the country. Molecular marker technologies, especially those based on genotyping microsatellite and mtDNA loci, can be used in conjunction with breeding (pedigree analysis) and consequently the maintenance of genetic variation in herds. Animals from the Brazilian Somali Conservation Nuclei from Embrapa Sheep and Goats in Ceará State were used to validate genetic monitoring by traditional pedigree methods and molecular markers. Nineteen microsatellite markers and 404 base pairs from the control region of mtDNA were used. For total herd diversity, an average 5.32 alleles were found, with expected heterozygosity of 0.5896, observed heterozygosity of 0.6451, 0.4126 for molecular coancestrality, and coefficient of inbreeding (F (IS)) was -0.095. Comparing molecular coancestrality means over the years, there was a consistent increase in this parameter within the herd, increasing from 0.4157 to 0.4769 in 2 years (approx. 12% variation). Sixteen mtDNA haplotypes were identified. Inbreeding and other estimates from genealogical analyses confirm the results from molecular markers. From these results, it is possible to state that microsatellites are useful tools in genetic management of herds, especially when routine herd recording is not carried out, or there were gaps in recent generations. As well as pedigree control, genetic diversity can be optimized. Based on the results, and despite herd recording in the herd of Brazilian Somali of Embrapa Sheep and Goats, additional management measures need to be carried out in this herd to reduce inbreeding and optimize genetic variation.

  5. Genomics Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB): a resource for microsymbiont genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, Wayne

    2013-03-01

    Wayne Reeve of Murdoch University on "Genomics Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB): a resource for microsymbiont genomes" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  6. Laboratory and field studies related to the hydrologic resources management program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    In this report we describe the work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory in FY 1995 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations office. Budgetary cuts have required us to scale back our activities, particularly field work at the Nevada Test Site. We have collaborated with a number of government agencies and universities in work related to radionuclide migration through geologic media. In cooperation with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have demonstrated the utility of high-sensitivity gamma logging and have successfully improved the design of a bailer routinely used for water sampling. We analyzed a suite of side-wall samples from the BASEBALL drill-back and have interpreted the distribution pattern of test-related radionuclides. Though heterogeneously distributed, they show a general separation of volatile and refractory fractions. The distribution pattern suggests that there has been little movement of radioactive material within this cavity, which is 13 years old and below the static water level. This characterization of the BASEBALL cavity/chimney complex may have important implications for radionuclide migration elsewhere at the Nevada Test Site.

  7. An annual survey of bacterial production, respiration and ectoenzyme activity in coastal NW Mediterranean waters: temperature and resource controls.

    PubMed

    Céa, B; Lefèvre, D; Chirurgien, L; Raimbault, P; Garcia, N; Charrière, B; Grégori, G; Ghiglione, J F; Barani, A; Lafont, M; Van Wambeke, F

    2015-09-01

    We simultaneously measured bacterial production (BP), bacterial respiration (BR), alkaline phosphatase activity (phos) and ectoaminopeptidase activity (prot) in relation to biogeochemical parameters, nutritive resources and in situ temperature over a 1-year survey at the long-term observatory the SOLEMIO station (Marseille bay, NW Mediterranean Sea). Despite its proximity to the coast, oligotrophic conditions prevailed at this station (yearly mean of Chl a = 0.43 μg dm(-3), NO3 = 0.55 μmol dm(-3) and PO4 = 0.04 μmol dm(-3)). Episodic meteorological events (dominant winds, inputs from the Rhone River) induced rapid oscillations (within 15 days) in temperature and sometimes salinity that resulted in rapid changes in phytoplankton succession and a high variability in C/P ratios within the particulate and dissolved organic matter. Throughout the year, BP ranged from 0.01 to 0.82 μg C dm-(3) h-(1) and bacterial growth efficiency varied from 1 to 39%, with higher values in summer. Enrichment experiments showed that BP was limited most of the year by phosphorus availability (except in winter). A significant positive correlation was found between in situ temperature, BP, BR and phos. Finally, we found that temperature and phosphate availability were the main factors driving heterotrophic bacterial activity and thus play a fundamental role in carbon fluxes within the marine ecosystem.

  8. Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium. Annual report and selected publications, 1 July 1992--30 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Dockter, B.A.; Eylands, K.E.; Hassett, D.J.; O`Leary, E.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced cars), formerly the Western Fly Ash Research, Development, and Data Center (WFARDDC), has continued fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research focused on promoting environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion fly ash. The research tasks selected for the year included: (1) Coal Ash Properties Database Maintenance and Expansion, (2) Investigation of the High-Volume Use of Fly Ash for Flowable Backfill Applications, (3) Investigation of Hydrated Mineralogical Phases in Coal Combustion By-Products, (4) Comparison of Department of Transportation Specifications for Coal Ash Utilization, (5) Comparative Leaching Study of Coal Combustion By-Products and Competing Construction Materials, (6) Application of CCSEM for Coal Ash Characterization, (7) Determination of Types and Causes of Efflorescence in Regional Concrete Products, and (8) Sulfate Resistance of Fly Ash Concrete: A Literature Review and Evaluation of Research Priorities. The assembly of a database of information on coal fly ash has been a focus area for CARRC since its beginning in 1985. This year, CARRC members received an updated run time version of the Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD) on computer disk for their use. The new, user-friendly database management format was developed over the year to facilitate the use of CAPD by members as well as CARRC researchers. It is anticipated that this direct access to CAPD by members as well as CARRC researchers. It is anticipated that this direct access to CAPD by members will be beneficial to each company`s utilization efforts, to CARRC, and to the coal ash industry in general. Many additions and improvements were made to CAPD during the year, and a three-year plan for computer database and modeling related to coal ash utilization was developed to guide both the database effort and the research effort.

  9. A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts. We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice-interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass.

  10. 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  11. Chemicals identified in feral and food animals: a data base. Volume II. Records 533-1515. Second annual report, October 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, M.V.; Faust, R.A.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1982-12-01

    A comprehensive data base of chemicals identified in feral and food animals has been established. This effort has grown out of the concern over continuing reports of toxic chemicals in human tissues and body fluids. Feral populations and food animals are regarded as indicators of environmental contamination and subsequent human body burden. This data file is a companion to Chemicals Identified in Human Biological Media, A Data Base, and follows basically the same format. Data were obtained primarily from the open literature through manual searches (retrospective to 1979). The data base contains information on 134 different substances.

  12. 9 CFR 2.7 - Annual report by licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report by licensees. 2.7 Section 2.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.7 Annual report by licensees. (a) Each year, within...

  13. 9 CFR 2.7 - Annual report by licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual report by licensees. 2.7 Section 2.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.7 Annual report by licensees. (a) Each year, within...

  14. 9 CFR 2.6 - Annual license fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual license fees. 2.6 Section 2.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.6 Annual license fees. (a) For an initial license, the applicant...

  15. 9 CFR 2.6 - Annual license fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual license fees. 2.6 Section 2.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.6 Annual license fees. (a) For an initial license, the applicant...

  16. 9 CFR 2.6 - Annual license fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual license fees. 2.6 Section 2.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.6 Annual license fees. (a) For an initial license, the applicant...

  17. 9 CFR 2.7 - Annual report by licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual report by licensees. 2.7 Section 2.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.7 Annual report by licensees. (a) Each year, within...

  18. 9 CFR 2.6 - Annual license fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual license fees. 2.6 Section 2.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.6 Annual license fees. (a) For an initial license, the applicant...

  19. 9 CFR 2.6 - Annual license fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual license fees. 2.6 Section 2.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.6 Annual license fees. (a) For an initial license, the applicant...

  20. 9 CFR 2.7 - Annual report by licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual report by licensees. 2.7 Section 2.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.7 Annual report by licensees. (a) Each year, within...

  1. 9 CFR 2.7 - Annual report by licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual report by licensees. 2.7 Section 2.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.7 Annual report by licensees. (a) Each year, within...

  2. Arctic Animals of Alaska. First Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Sandra

    The Arctic is covered with ice and snow for most of the year. Animals that live in Alaska's arctic region must be able to survive long winters and very cold temperatures. Surprisingly, many animals live in the harsh, cold climate. This first-grade activity plan helps students learn about the animals of the far north. The plan gives six steps for…

  3. Annual HR Salary Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    A trainers' salary survey collected data on 1,091 companies, 31,615 employees, and 97 human resource jobs. Results show pay for human resource professionals is continuing to rise. The survey contains information on base salaries, annual bonuses and incentives, and long-term eligibility incentives. (JOW)

  4. The P.K. Yonge Annual Invitational Track and Field Meet; A Model for Organizing and Conducting a High School Invitational. Resource Monograph No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kirby

    This monograph deals with the practical problems of organizing and conducting a large track meet. Its purpose is to serve as a guide to coaches and athletic directors who have had little experience in such an operation. Cited is the P.K. Yonge Annual Invitational Track and Field Meet, an annual high school track meet for class AA schools in North…

  5. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  6. Ways Animals Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kristen; Sumrall, William J.; Moore, Jerilou; Daniels, Anniece

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a set of upper-elementary activities that focuses on how animals communicate. The activities describe procedures that students working in groups can use to investigate the topic of animal communication. An initial information sheet, resource list, and grading rubric are provided. The lesson plan was field-tested in an…

  7. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  8. School Library Resources, Textbooks, and Other Instructional Materials. Title II, ESEA: Strengthening Instruction in the Academic Subjects: Title III, NDEA. Annual Report, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Annual reports of two federal educational programs for FY 1975 comprise this document: Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA Title II) and Title III of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA TITLE III). Compiled from the performance and financial reports submitted by state educational agencies to the U.S. Office of…

  9. Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals, and ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Another purpose of this report is to help identify gaps in existing resource inventory and monitoring programs. It contains information collected by a variety of existing research and monitoring efforts by scientists in the National Biological Service, other federal and state agencies, academia, and the private sector. The programs that produced the information in this document were not developed in a coordinated fashion to produce an integrated, comprehensive picture of the status and trends of our nation’s resources; rather, each was developed for its own particular purpose, usually to help manage a specific resource. Thus, even though articles vary greatly in scope, design, and purpose, this report has identified and attempted to combine many of the existing information sources into a broad picture of the condition of our resources. In the future, these sources will be complemented by additional information from other sources—such as state agencies and other inventory and monitoring studies—to fill in the gaps of knowledge and to provide a more complete understanding of the status of our living resources.

  10. World nonrenewable energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1980-10-27

    The latest estimates of world nonrenewable energy sources include proved and currently recoverable resources and the estimated total remaining which is recoverable. The data are presented in four tables showing total world resources by resource type, by region, by current and cumulated production, and by their estimated life expectancy at various annual growth rates. (DCK)

  11. Zoo animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Kohn, B

    1994-03-01

    The history of zoo animal welfare legislation extends back to 1876, and is often tied to general animal welfare regulations. As knowledge and societal values have changed, so have the focus of zoos and the regulations governing them. Today, the issues involved in zoo animal welfare are complex and broad-based. Building on the basic welfare tenets of adequate feed, water, shelter, sanitation and veterinary care, current issues include the following: handling and training of captive animals, psychological well-being and environmental enrichment, enclosure design, species preservation, environmental and conservation issues, captive-breeding programmes. Complicating the matter further, government regulations try to assimilate all aspects of zoo animal welfare into the laws to provide humane care and handling for all species concerned. Zoo animal welfare will remain a challenging area, as increasing demands are placed on zoos and regulatory agencies to manage this diminishing resource.

  12. Application of remote thermal imaging and night vision technology to improve endangered wildlife resource management with minimal animal distress and hazard to humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, C.; Franks, K.; Floyd, M.; Plowman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced electromagnetic sensor systems more commonly associated with the hightech military battlefield may be applied to remote surveillance of wildlife. The first comprehensive study of a wide global variety of Near Infra Red (NIR) and thermal wildlife portraits are presented with this technology: for mammals, birds and other animals. The paper illustrates the safety aspects afforded to zoo staff and personnel in the wild during the day and night from potentially lethal and aggressive animals, and those difficult to approach normally. Such remote sensing systems are non-invasive and provide minimal disruption and distress to animals both in captivity and in the wild. We present some of the veterinarian advantages of such all weather day and night systems to identify sickness and injuries at an early diagnostic stage, as well as age related effects and mammalian cancer. Animals have very different textured surfaces, reflective and emissive properties in the NIR and thermal bands than when compared with the visible spectrum. Some surface features may offer biomimetic materials design advantages.

  13. Optimization Methods for Computer Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkin, John Caldwell

    Emphasizing the importance of economy and efficiency in the production of computer animation, this master's thesis outlines methodologies that can be used to develop animated sequences with the highest quality images for the least expenditure. It is assumed that if computer animators are to be able to fully exploit the available resources, they…

  14. Eighteenth annual report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, 1896-1897: Part V - Mineral resources of the United States, 1896, nonmetallic products, except coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Edward Wheeler; Oliphant, F.H.; Middleton, Jefferson; Day, William C.; Ries, Heinrich; Hopkins, T.C.; Siebenthal, C.E.; Vaughan, T.W.; Newberry, Spencer; Kunz, George F.; Peale, Albert C.

    1897-01-01

    In the preceding volumes of Mineral Resources the annual reports on the manufacture of coke a well a those on the production of crude petroleum and natural gas were prepared by Mr. Joseph Dame Weeks, of Pittsburg, Pa. The sudden death of Mr. Weeks on December 26, 1896, necessitated the distribution of the work formerly done by him among his former associates in the statistical division of the Geological Survey. The preparation of the report on the manufacture of coke for 1896 has accordingly devolved upon the writer. To have accepted such an undertaking under ordinary circumstance would have meant the entering upon a difficult task. In the matter of coke production it has been made comparatively easy by the thoroughness with which Mr. Weeks has already covered the ground. The work done by Mr. Week's in his report for the Tenth and Eleventh Censuses and the annual volume of Mineral Resources has left little for his successor but the continuation of the statistical tables and the preparation of such text as refers directly to them.  Mr. Weeks, at the time of his death, had the work for collecting the statistics of coke production in 1896 well advanced, and the excellence of his system and methods have been shown in the fact that the work of collecting the statistics was carried out on his lines uninterruptedly.

  15. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  16. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  17. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Hules , John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  18. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  19. Workshop on Molecular Animation

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary February 25–26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for: producing high quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories. PMID:20947014

  20. Workshop on molecular animation.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  1. Second Annual Evaluation of DCJS Funded School Resource Officer Programs. Report of the Department of Criminal Justice Services, Fiscal Year 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuiteman, John G.

    This evaluation report is the second publication from the Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services' (DCJS) ongoing evaluation of the Virginia School Resource Officer (SRO) program. The findings are based on data submitted by 78 local SRO programs, all of which were awarded grants of federal or state monies from DCJS. The findings are…

  2. Human Resource Development: Technical Education's Challenge. Proceedings of the Annual National Clinic on Technical Education (12th, Spokane, Washington, March 26-28, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Community Coll. District 17, Spokane.

    Speeches and discussions are transcribed in this report, which also includes a listing of the American Technical Education Association (ATEA) committee members, exhibitors, officers, and directory of speakers. Speeches covered "Human Resource Development" by Gene Rutledge; "The Impact of Technical Education on Economic Development--the Mississippi…

  3. Proceedings of the Annual National Clinic on Technical Education (12th, Spokane, Washington, March 26-28, 1975). Human Resource Development: Technical Education's Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Gene; And Others

    This report includes the presentations of the speakers appearing before the National Clinic on Technical Education. Topics cover human resource development; the impact of technical education on economic development (in Mississippi); economics of allied health education; manpower implications of environmental protection; manpower needs for…

  4. Social Responsibility of Human Resource Development: How Our Definitions and Worldviews Impact Our Leadership Role. Town Forum. [Concurrent Town Forum Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Timothy G.; Brooks, Ann K.

    The question of whether human resource development (HRD) should assume a leadership role in social responsibility has not been seriously or rigorously addressed in the HRD literature. As a multidisciplinary field, HRD is influenced not only by societal needs but also by underlying disciplines, including economics, psychology, general systems,…

  5. Management of Resources. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the British Educational Administration Society. (2nd, Edinburg, Scotland, November 10, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewan, E. A., Ed.

    This publication contains four conference addresses, responses to those addresses, and a synopsis of eight discussion group reports. The report begins with a paper on staff resources in secondary schools, then considers the problem of assessing the staffing needs of secondary schools and ensuring an adequate supply of qualified secondary teachers,…

  6. 30 CFR 281.27 - Annual rental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual rental. 281.27 Section 281.27 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.27 Annual...

  7. 7 CFR 765.51 - Annual review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... according to 7 CFR part 718. (d) If the borrower has limited resource interest rate loans that are deferred... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual review. 765.51 Section 765.51 Agriculture....51 Annual review. (a) A borrower with limited resource interest rate loans is required to provide...

  8. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    SciTech Connect

    Pounds, L.R.; Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G.

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  9. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  10. Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The projections in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 2015 (AEO2015) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. For the first time, the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) is presented as a shorter edition under a newly adopted two-year release cycle. With this approach, full editions and shorter editions of the AEO will be produced in alternating years. This approach will allow EIA to focus more resources on rapidly changing energy markets both in the United States and internationally, and to consider how they might evolve over the next few years.

  11. Animals. Artists' Workshop Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, presents six works of art which feature an animal. These art works, by master artists from diverse cultures and historic periods, serve as starting points for exploring various artistic techniques. Images presented include: "Lascaux Horse" (Lascaux Cave…

  12. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1984-04-02

    Up-to-date estimates are given for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil are not included. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Geologic evaluation of critical production parameters for coalbed methane resources. Part 2. Black Warrior basin. Annual report, August 1988-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Pashin, J.C.; Ward, W.E.; Winston, R.B.; Chandler, R.V.; Bolin, D.E.

    1990-02-01

    Geologic evaluation of critical production parameters for coalbed-methane resources in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama employed an interdisciplinary approach that utilized structural, coal-quality, sedimentologic, hydrologic, and engineering data. Results indicate that geologic factors are a major control on the producibility of coalbed methane and that completion techniques may be used to increase recovery if tailored to specific geologic settings. Sedimentologic and coal-quality parameters may be used to locate regions for coalbed-methane development by characterizing the occurrence, rank, and grade of coal resources. However, high-productivity trends within those regions are localized, and geologic data suggest that productivity trends may be predictable. Several highly productive trends occur along northeast-oriented lineaments. These lineaments are the inferred surface expression of zones of enhanced permeability which are related to fractures. Productive trends also are associated with areas of low reservoir pressure, and salinity maps indicate that fresh water has migrated toward areas with low reservoir pressure. The available data indicate that structure and hydrology are critical production parameters that may be used to identify favorable well sites within regions containing significant coalbed-methane resources.

  14. Animal welfare and animal rights.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1988-05-01

    Animal liberationists tend to divide into two mutually antagonistic camps: animal welfarists, who share a utilitarian moral outlook, and animal rightists, who presuppose a structure of basic rights. However, the gap between these groups tends to be exaggerated by their allegiance to oversimplified versions of their favored moral frameworks. For their part, animal rightists should acknowledge that rights, however basic, are also defeasible by appeals to consequences. Contrariwise, animal welfarists should recognize that rights, however derivative, are capable of constraining appeals to consequences. If both sides move to more defensible theoretical positions, their remaining differences on that level may be compatible with a broad area of convergence on practical issues.

  15. Cognition and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lesley J

    2010-05-01

    Animals exhibit species-typical adaptations of behavior and may suffer stress in captivity if they are prevented from performing these patterns of behavior. This article considers whether these particular 'needs' rely on cognitive processes or are performed without complex cognition despite their appearance of behavioral complexity. Emotion and cognition in animals are also discussed, particularly whether animals can feel emotions and, if so, what ranges of emotions they might feel. Cognitive capacities that would contribute to suffering include empathy with the suffering of others, memories of negative events and suffering in anticipation of future events. Cognitive bias of individual animals toward positive or negative feelings is related to dominance of the left or right hemisphere, respectively. These biases might be reflected in the animal's preferred limb to pick up food. Hence, limb preference could be a useful measure of cognitive bias. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a cognitive condition that, it is suggested, might involve dominance of the right hemisphere. This debilitating condition is experience-dependent and not infrequently seen in animals in captivity. In conclusion, it is argued that there is an obvious need for more research on cognition as it relates to animal welfare and as a basis for changing legislature to protect animals from suffering. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271384

  16. Fossil worm burrows reveal very early terrestrial animal activity and shed light on trophic resources after the end-cretaceous mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A A

    2013-01-01

    The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms.

  17. Fossil Worm Burrows Reveal Very Early Terrestrial Animal Activity and Shed Light on Trophic Resources after the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms. PMID:23951041

  18. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  19. Animal therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed. PMID:9110848

  20. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  1. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal welfare…

  2. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  3. Animal Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  4. NERSC 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, John

    2001-12-12

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005.

  5. Annual Report: EPAct Complementary Program's Ultra-Deepwater R&D Portfolio and Unconventional Resources R&D Portfolio (30 September 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    none,; Rose, Kelly; Hakala, Alexandra; Guthrie, George

    2012-09-30

    This report summarizes FY13 research activities performed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), along with its partners in the Regional University Alliance (RUA) to fulfill research needs under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) Section 999's Complementary Program. Title IX, Subtitle J, Section 999A(d) of EPAct 2005 authorizes $50 million per year of federal oil and gas royalties, rents and bonus payments for an oil and natural gas research and development effort, the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research Program. Section 999 further prescribes four program elements for the effort, one of which is the Complementary Research Program that is to be performed by NETL. This document lays out the plan for the research portfolio for the Complementary Research Program, with an emphasis on the 2013 funding. The Complementary Program consists of two research portfolios focused on domestic resources: (1) the Deepwater and Ultra-Deepwater Portfolio (UDW) (focused on hydrocarbons in reservoirs in extreme environments) and (2) the Unconventional Resources Portfolio (UCR) (focused on hydrocarbons in shale reservoirs). These two portfolios address the science base that enables these domestic resources to be produced responsibly, informing both regulators and operators. NETL is relying on a core Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) competency in engineered-natural systems to develop this science base, allowing leveraging of decades of investment. NETL's Complementary Research Program research portfolios support the development of unbiased research and information for policymakers and the public, performing rapid predictions of possible outcomes associated with unexpected events, and carrying out quantitative assessments for energy policy stakeholders that accurately integrate the risks of safety and environmental impacts. The objective of this

  6. Assessment of the geothermal resources of Carson-Eagle valleys and Big Smoky Valley, Nevada. First annual report, May 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Koenig, B.A.; Flynn, T.; Bruce, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two geothermal investigations were completed in three Nevada locations. The regions studied were selected from areas outlined as having direct utilization potential (Trexler and others, 1979) and included the Carson-Eagle Valley, Bis Smoky Valley and Caliente. Studies were organized around the completion of a group of tasks in each area. These tasks included: geologic reconnaissance, gravity surveys, aerial photography, fluid sampling and analysis, shallow depth temperature probe surveys, soil mercury surveys, shallow electrical resistivity measurements, and temperature gradient hole drilling. Goals of the project were to provide regional information about the nature and extent of the resources and to offer a critical evaluation of the techniques employed. Results from the work in the Carson-Eagle Valley and Big Smoky Valley are presented. (MHR)

  7. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  8. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  9. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  10. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  11. [Alaskan resource development and remote power generation]. Task 7.1 -- Strategic planning. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Assessment of Alaskan opportunities for demonstrating new technologies for resource development and remote power generation was continued. The design and cost estimates for a demonstration plant to produce coal-water fuel (CWF) from low-sulfur Alaskan subbituminous coal were further reviewed to resolve issues of budget and plant capability. A preliminary evaluation was performed of potential cost and performance benefits to be derived from integrating the CWF plant with the demonstration of the AD Little/Cooper Bessemer CWF-fired diesel engine under the DOE Clean Coal Technology demonstration program. Tests on the Cooper Bessemer engine using Alaskan CWF prepared by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) were recommended to determine engine performance at two levels of coal cleaning: physical cleaning to about 3%--4% ash or additional chemical cleaning to under 2% ash (dry basis). Assistance was provided to graduate students in the Energy Engineering doctoral program at the University of North Dakota in reference to policy papers prepared by them on advanced power options, repowering strategies, and waste management. The information developed in these papers will be used by the EERC in its ongoing assessment of energy and environmental policy issues relating to its research and development program.

  12. Annual report on performance audit results for POHC (Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents) testing during RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) trial burns. Status report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Tompkins, S.B.; Bryant, V.R.; Howe, G.B.

    1989-12-01

    Audit materials containing Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHSc) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) trial burn tests. Audit materials are currently available for 27 gaseous organics in 5, 6, 7, and 9 component mixtures at parts-per-billion levels (7 to 10,000 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders in a balance gas of nitrogen. The criteria used for the selection of gaseous organic compounds is described. Stability studies indicate that all of the organics tested (with the exception of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide below 10 ppb levels) are stable enough to be used as reliable audit materials. Subsequent to completion of the stability studies, 202 performance audits have been initiated with the audit materials to assess the accuracy of the Volatile Organic Sampling Training and bag measurement methods during or prior to RCRA trial burn tests. Results of those audits and a summary table of the audit conducted for each POHC and the measurement system audited is described in the report. Audit results obtained with the audit bases during or prior to RCRA trial burn tests are generally within + or - 50% of the audit concentrations.

  13. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve; Söderlund, Tim; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Gissler, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Contacts between humans and animals inevitably involve encounters possibly resulting in the human being injured. During the period of 2000 to 2014 almost 90 people died in this kind of conflict in Finland. Of these deaths, one third were associated with horses. In addition, over the same period 85 people died in traffic accidents in which an animal was hit by a car. Accidents requiring hospitalization occurred for approx. 8 000 people. PMID:27522833

  14. Calendar Year 2007 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Annual Monitoring Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - RCRA Post-Closure Permit Nos. TNHW-113, TNHW-116, and TNHW-128

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental

    2008-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2007 at the following hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units located at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; this S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm, Bear Creek Burial Grounds/Walk-In Pits (BCBG/WIP), Eastern S-3 Site Plume, Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP), Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Baste (CRSDB), few Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and East Chestnut Ridge Waste Pile (ECRWP). Hit monitoring data were obtained in accordance with the applicable Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) hazardous waste post-closure permit (PCP). The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) - Division of Solid Waste Management issued the PCPs to define the requirements for RCRA post-closure inspection, maintenance, and groundwater monitoring at the specified TSD units located within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-116), Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-113), and Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-128). Each PCP requires the Submittal of an annual RCRA groundwater monitoring report containing the groundwater sampling information and analytical results obtained at each applicable TSD unit during the preceding CY, along with an evaluation of groundwater low rates and directions and the analytical results for specified RCRA groundwater target compounds; this report is the RCRA annual groundwater monitoring report for CY 2007. The RCRA post-closure groundwater monitoring requirements specified in the above-referenced PCP for the Chestnut Ridge Regime replace those defined in the previous PCP (permit no. TNHW-088), which expired on September 18, 2005, but remained effective until the TDEC issued the new PCP in September 2006. The new PCP defines site-specific groundwater sampling and analysis requirements for the

  15. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-09-03

    Although production of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies.

  16. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  17. Developing Mature Views on Animal Use Issues: A Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Doris J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes content and conduct of a course that deals with animal use. Exposes students to a variety of perspectives from extreme to moderate concerning uses and abuses of animals. Appendix lists resources for animal uses and abuses seminar. (JRH)

  18. Preface to "Should animal welfare be law or market driven?"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bioethics Symposium, entitled “Should animal welfare be law or market driven?” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, and Canadian Society of Animal...

  19. Animal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. W.; Penner, P.

    1967-01-01

    A number of branding tools of various metals and various sizes in combination with several wetting agents were cooled with liquid nitrogen and applied for different lengths of time to calves and mature cattle. White hair appeared in the shape of the brand on the animals in place of dark hair when the application was properly carried out. Best results can be obtained by using metal irons at least 25 millimeters thick and 14 millimeters wide with xylol as a wetting agent for ten seconds in young or thin skinned animals and up to twenty seconds in mature or thick skinned animals. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 5. PMID:4229181

  20. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  1. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  2. Curriculum Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  3. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  4. Renewable energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  5. Phenotype flexibility in wild fish: Dolly Varden regulate assimilative capacity to capitalize on annual pulsed subsidies.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jonathan B; Bond, Morgan H

    2013-09-01

    1. Large digestive organs increase rates of energy gain when food is plentiful but are costly to maintain and increase rates of energy loss when food is scarce. The physiological adaptations to this trade-off differ depending on the scale and predictability of variation in food abundance. 2. Currently, there is little understanding of how animals balance trade-offs between the cost and capacity of the digestive system in response to resource pulses: rare, ephemeral periods of resource superabundance. We investigated the physiological and behavioural tactics of the fish Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) that rear in watersheds with low in situ productivity, but experience annual resource pulses from the spawning migrations of Pacific salmon. The eggs of Pacific salmon provide high-energy food for Dolly Varden. 3. Dolly Varden sampled 6 weeks prior to the resource pulse exhibited atrophy of the stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine and liver. Throughout the portion of the growing season prior to the resource pulse, fish exhibited empty stomachs, low indices of energy condition and muscle isotope signatures reflecting the previous resource pulse. 4. During the resource pulse, Dolly Varden exhibited large digestive machinery, gorged on salmon eggs and rapidly stored energy in fat reserves, somatic growth and gonad development. Dolly Varden appeared to achieve nearly their entire annual energy surplus during the ∼ 5-week period when sockeye salmon spawn. 5. Digestive flexibility provides Dolly Varden the energy efficiency required to survive and reproduce when resource abundance is concentrated into an annual pulse that is predictable, yet highly ephemeral. Although fish are known to incur extremely variable energy budgets, our study is one of the first to document digestive flexibility in wild fish. Our study emphasizes that fish can rely heavily on rare, high-magnitude foraging opportunities. Human actions that attenuate spikes in food abundance may have stronger than

  6. Phenotype flexibility in wild fish: Dolly Varden regulate assimilative capacity to capitalize on annual pulsed subsidies.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jonathan B; Bond, Morgan H

    2013-09-01

    1. Large digestive organs increase rates of energy gain when food is plentiful but are costly to maintain and increase rates of energy loss when food is scarce. The physiological adaptations to this trade-off differ depending on the scale and predictability of variation in food abundance. 2. Currently, there is little understanding of how animals balance trade-offs between the cost and capacity of the digestive system in response to resource pulses: rare, ephemeral periods of resource superabundance. We investigated the physiological and behavioural tactics of the fish Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) that rear in watersheds with low in situ productivity, but experience annual resource pulses from the spawning migrations of Pacific salmon. The eggs of Pacific salmon provide high-energy food for Dolly Varden. 3. Dolly Varden sampled 6 weeks prior to the resource pulse exhibited atrophy of the stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine and liver. Throughout the portion of the growing season prior to the resource pulse, fish exhibited empty stomachs, low indices of energy condition and muscle isotope signatures reflecting the previous resource pulse. 4. During the resource pulse, Dolly Varden exhibited large digestive machinery, gorged on salmon eggs and rapidly stored energy in fat reserves, somatic growth and gonad development. Dolly Varden appeared to achieve nearly their entire annual energy surplus during the ∼ 5-week period when sockeye salmon spawn. 5. Digestive flexibility provides Dolly Varden the energy efficiency required to survive and reproduce when resource abundance is concentrated into an annual pulse that is predictable, yet highly ephemeral. Although fish are known to incur extremely variable energy budgets, our study is one of the first to document digestive flexibility in wild fish. Our study emphasizes that fish can rely heavily on rare, high-magnitude foraging opportunities. Human actions that attenuate spikes in food abundance may have stronger than

  7. 7 CFR 633.7 - Annual payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual payments. 633.7 Section 633.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.7 Annual payments. (a) Person on the farm having an interest in the...

  8. 45 CFR 1620.5 - Annual review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual review. 1620.5 Section 1620.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PRIORITIES IN USE OF RESOURCES § 1620.5 Annual review. (a) Priorities shall be set periodically and shall be reviewed by...

  9. Animals. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    Animals are the subject of the student resource unit which is to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Animal housing and equipment, the first section, deals with controlled environment, energy requirements, esthetics, air, water, and noise. Animal waste and byproducts are covered in terms of Federal government program, some of…

  10. Animal models of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    motivational manipulation, but its sensitivity, reliability, mechanism, and optimal implementation are incompletely understood. While to date animal models have significantly expanded the neuroscience of tinnitus, they have been limited to examining sensory features. In the human condition, emotional and cognitive factors are also important. It is not clear that the emotional features of tinnitus can be further understood using animal models, but models may be applied to examine cognitive factors. A recently developed model is described that reveals an interaction between tinnitus and auditory attention. This research suggests that effective tinnitus therapy could rely on modifying attention to the sensation rather than modifying the sensation itself. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled <Annual Reviews 2016>.

  11. FY 1994 Annual Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    In accordance with the Inspector General`s Strategic Planning Policy directive, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) annually updates its Strategic Plan with budgetary and program guidance for the next fiscal year. The program guidance identifies and establishes priorities for OIG coverage of important DOE issues and operations, provides the basis for assigning OIG resources, and is the source for issues covered in Assistant Inspectors General annual work plans. The Office of the Assistant Inspector General for Audits (AIGA) publishes an Annual Work Plan in September of each year. The plan includes the OIG program guidance and shows the commitment of resources necessary to accomplish the assigned work and meet our goals. The program guidance provides the framework within which the AIGA work will be planned and accomplished. Audits included in this plan are designed to help insure that the requirements of our stakeholders have been considered and blended into a well balanced audit program.

  12. CIEE 1993 annual conference: Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The California Institute for Energy efficiency`s third annual conference highlights the results of CIEE-sponsored multiyear research in three programs: Building Energy Efficiency, Air Quality Impacts of Energy Efficiency, and End-Use Resource Planning. Results from scoping studies, Director`s discretionary research, and exploratory research are also featured.

  13. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

  14. Robotic animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretch, S. J.

    1982-08-01

    The effectiveness of the robotic systems Place and Animate at McDonnell Douglas is discussed. The systems are designed for CAD/CAM on a kinematic basis. Place allows creation, analysis, and editing of cell descriptions as part of the CAD process, and involves primitive cell configuring prior to eventual integration of the entire robot. Objects are displayed in wire frame form and movement receives an awkwardness rating automatically, indicating the percentage of the real-world joint limit that is being approached. The same program is employed in the Animate process, where verification and debugging of the robot programs proceeds. Clearances, motion limits, and correct responses to commands are checked, allowing decisions on production to be made before any robots are actually built.

  15. Grand Junction Resource Area, Resource Management Plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    Implementation of a resource management plan is proposed for the 2.0-million-acre Grand Junction Planning Area, located in west-central Colorado. Under the preferred alternative, existing withdrawals from mineral location on 124,442 acres would continue and an additional 154,067 acres would be withdrawn. Approximately 14,100 acres would be identified as unsuitable for further coal leasing. Approximately 624,701 acres would be open to oil and gas leasing without stipulations; 685,603 acres would be open to oil and gas leasing with stipulations; and 149,087 acres would be closed to oil and gas leasing. Air quality enhancement, soil stabilization, and watershed protection would be emphasized. Habitats of major wildlife species and of threatened and endangered plants and animals would be actively managed, but no new livestock management actions would be implemented. The wild horse herd would be allowed to expand from 65 to 120 animals. Paleontological sites and 11,685 archaeological sites would be protected. Approximately 1319 acres of commercial forest land would be identified as suitable for management, and 2800 cords of fuel wood would be offered for sale annually. The three existing developed recreation sites would be maintained, and the Mud Springs site would be expanded to accommodate more group use.

  16. Annual Energy Review 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2002-11-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States. It documents trends and milestones in U.S. energy production, trade, storage, pricing, and consumption. Each new year of data that is added to the time series—which now reach into 7 decades—extends the story of how Americans have acquired and used energy. It is a story of continual change as the Nation's economy grew, energy requirements expanded, resource availability shifted, and interdependencies developed among nations.

  17. Annual research briefs, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinks, Debra (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the 1989 annual progress reports of the Research Fellows of the Center for Turbulence Research. It is intended as a year end report to NASA, Ames Research Center which supports this group through core funding and by making available physical and intellectual resources. The Center for Turbulence Research is devoted to the fundamental study of turbulent flows; its objectives are to simulate advances in the physical understanding of turbulence, in turbulence modeling and simulation, and in turbulence control. The reports appearing in the following pages are grouped in the general areas of modeling, experimental research, theory, simulation and numerical methods, and compressible and reacting flows.

  18. Renewable energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  19. National Wildlife's Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presented is the Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index, a subjective analysis of the state of the nation's natural resources. Resource trends are detailed for wildlife, minerals, air, water, soil living space, and forests. (BT)

  20. Animal picobirnavirus.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Masachessi, Gisela; Mladenova, Zornitsa

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name 'Picobirnavirus' derives from the prefix 'pico' (latin for 'small') in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix 'bi' (latin for 'two') and the word 'RNA' to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for routine rotavirus surveillance by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver straining (S/S). The PAGE gels after silver staining showed a typical 'two RNA band' pattern, and it was identified as Picobirnavirus. Likewise, the feces of wild black-footed pigmy rice rats (Oryzomys nigripes) subjected for PAGE assay by the same research group in Brazil reported the presence of PBV (Pereira et al., J Gen Virol 69:2749-2754, 1988). PBVs have been detected in faeces of humans and wide range of animal species with or without diarrhoea, worldwide. The probable role of PBV as either a 'primary diarrhoeal agent' in 'immunocompetent children'; or a 'potential pathogen' in 'immunocompromised individuals' or an 'innocuous virus' in the intestine remains elusive and needs to be investigated despite the numerous reports of the presence of PBV in fecal samples of various species of domestic mammals, wild animals, birds and snakes; our current knowledge of their biology, etiology, pathogenicity or their transmission characteristics remains subtle. This review aims to analyse the veterinary and zoonotic aspects of animal Picobirnavirus infections since its discovery. PMID:25674589

  1. Animal behavior and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Houpt, K A

    1991-04-15

    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

  2. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  3. Animal papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination.

  4. ANIMAL COMMUNICATION.

    PubMed

    SEBEOK, T A

    1965-02-26

    Semiotics and ethology have converged in a new behavioral science, zoosemiotics. Those who are interested in the theoretical analysis of the complex problems of non-verbal behavior that arise where these two disciplines interact aim to treat comprehensively animal communication systems by the aid of representations that have proved illuminating in the study of sentences of human language. Students of zoosemiotics are concerned with codes and messages much as linguists are concerned with competence, or language, and performance, or speech. They thus face the twin tasks of constructing a model for the addresser to specify how a message is encoded and transformed into a signal carried by a variety of channels to the addressee; and of constructing a model for the addressee to specify the ways in which animals utilize their knowledge of their code to recognize the messages they receive. Finally, they assess the context of the communicative event in the hope of dissecting that which is relevant to the selection process from the rest of the background, a program for which there is as yet neither a procedural eliciting technique nor a satisfactory theoretical solution in sight.

  5. Pacific Visions: Finding, Selecting, and Using Resources for Your Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Selected Papers from PIALA 2009, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (19th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 19th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2009 Planning…

  6. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  7. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  8. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  9. 30 CFR 281.27 - Annual rental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual rental. 281.27 Section 281.27 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

  10. USGS Annual Water Data Reports

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-01

    Water resources data are published annually for use by engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and the general public. These archival products supplement direct access to current and historical water data provided by the National Water Information System (NWIS). Beginning with Water Year 2006, annual water data reports are available as individual electronic Site Data Sheets for the entire Nation for retrieval, download, and localized printing on demand. National distribution includes tabular and map interfaces for search, query, display and download of data. Data provided include extreme and mean discharge rates.

  11. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    With an estimated 17-22 million animals used in laboratories annually in the United States, public interest in animal welfare has sparked an often emotional debate over such uses of animals. Concerns focus on balancing societal needs for continued progress in biomedical and behavioral research, for toxicity testing to safeguard the public, and for…

  12. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  13. Human and Animal Vaccination Delivery to Remote Nomadic Families, Chad

    PubMed Central

    Bechir, Mahamat; Ahmed, Mahamat Abdoulaye; Wyss, Kaspar; Randolph, Thomas F.; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination services for people and livestock often fail to achieve sufficient coverages in Africa’s remote rural settings because of financial, logistic, and service delivery constraints. In Chad from 2000 through 2005, we demonstrated the feasibility of combining vaccination programs for nomadic pastoralists and their livestock. Sharing of transport logistics and equipment between physicians and veterinarians reduced total costs. Joint delivery of human and animal health services is adapted to and highly valued by hard-to-reach pastoralists. In intervention zones, for the first time ≈10% of nomadic children (>1–11 months of age) were fully immunized annually and more children and women were vaccinated per day during joint vaccination rounds than during vaccination of persons only and not their livestock (130 vs. 100, p<0.001). By optimizing use of limited logistical and human resources, public health and veterinary services both become more effective, especially at the district level. PMID:17552089

  14. The Moral Status of Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2006-01-01

    Human beings share a world and its scarce resources with other intelligent creatures, yet humans act in ways that deny other animals a dignified existence. A discussion on why notions of basic justice, entitlement, and law can, and must be extended across the species barrier is presented.

  15. Differential Annual Movement Patterns in a Migratory Species: Effects of Experience and Sexual Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Paulo E.; Sowter, David; Marques, Paulo A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Some animals migrate long distances to exploit important seasonal food resources in the northern regions of the northern hemisphere, whilst avoiding winter starvation. Changes in the individual's age and navigational skills are likely to affect migration, which in turn influences the geographic distribution of individuals. Processes such as sexual maturation and navigational abilities are affected by age, and age is thus a key factor in understanding migration patterns and differences in distribution ranges. In the present study, we investigated the effects of age on the geographic distribution of a population of Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus throughout its annual cycle, by analyzing a dataset of 19,096 records from 10,000 color-ringed gulls. In contrast to previous assumptions, the results showed that gulls were geographically segregated by age throughout the entire annual cycle, rather than showing a geographic age-related cline only in the wintering areas. This asymmetric distribution results from a reduction in the annual range of sexually mature gulls, and the differential distribution of mature and immature individuals (mature birds remained in more northern areas, compared to immature birds, throughout the annual cycle). Furthermore, although immature gulls travelled longer distances than adults, they initiated their fall migration with short movements, in contrast to adults that migrated using longer movements. The effects identified in this study explain the non-homogenous distribution of populations throughout the annual cycle, with wide implications for the development of effective human health policies and/or wildlife management strategies. PMID:21799853

  16. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  17. Linking resources with demography to understand resource limitation for bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Pacifici, L.B.; Mitchell, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    1. Identifying the resources that limit growth of animal populations is essential for effective conservation; however, resource limitation is difficult to quantify. Recent advances in geographical information systems (GIS) and resource modelling can be combined with demographic modelling to yield insights into resource limitation. 2. Using long-term data on a population of black bears Ursus americanus, we evaluated competing hypotheses about whether availability of hard mast (acorns and nuts) or soft mast (fleshy fruits) limited bears in the southern Appalachians, USA, during 1981-2002. The effects of clearcutting on habitat quality were also evaluated. Annual survival, recruitment and population growth rate were estimated using capture-recapture data from 101 females. The availability of hard mast, soft mast and clearcuts was estimated with a GIS, as each changed through time as a result of harvest and succession, and then availabilities were incorporated as covariates for each demographic parameter. 3. The model with the additive availability of hard mast and soft mast across the landscape predicted survival and population growth rate. Availability of young clearcuts predicted recruitment, but not population growth or survival. 4. Availability of hard mast stands across the landscape and availability of soft mast across the landscape were more important than hard mast production and availability of soft mast in young clearcuts, respectively. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our results indicate that older stands, which support high levels of hard mast and moderate levels of soft mast, should be maintained to sustain population growth of bears in the southern Appalachians. Simultaneously, the acreage of intermediate aged stands (10-25 years), which support very low levels of both hard mast and soft mast, should be minimized. The approach used in this study has broad application for wildlife management and conservation. State and federal wildlife agencies often

  18. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  19. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  20. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  1. Russia: update on animal experiments and alternatives in education.

    PubMed

    Jukes, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Progress continues in Russia with growing awareness and implementation of alternatives in education. Further outreach visits and negotiations for replacement have been made by InterNICHE campaigners. Russian language information resources have been complemented by the distribution of translated freeware physiology and pharmacology alternatives; and the InterNICHE Alternatives Loan Systems continue to provide valuable hands-on access to a range of learning tools. Donations of computers and alternatives have established exemplary multimedia laboratories, with software having directly replaced the annual use of several thousand animals. New agreements have been made with institutes to abandon animal experiments for teaching purposes. Work to consolidate the successes is being done, and Russian teachers have begun to present at conferences to share their experiences of implementation. Further development and implementation of alternatives is being achieved through grant funding from the InterNICHE Humane Education Award. Using a different approach, cases of determined conscientious objection have included a campaign against the use of stolen companion animals for surgery practice in the Russian Far East, and a continuing legal challenge to experiments at Moscow State University. This multi-pronged, decentralised and culturally appropriate campaigning strategy has proved to be an effective approach to achieving sustainable change in Russia.

  2. Vertically integrated educational collaboration between a college of veterinary medicine and a non-profit animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Karen; Bice, Kathryn; Craig, Tom; Howe, Lisa; Jarrett, Melissa; Jeter, Elizabeth; Kochevar, Deborah; Simpson, R Bruce; Stickney, Mark; Wesp, Ashley; Wolf, Alice M; Zoran, Debra

    2008-01-01

    The College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (CVMBS) at Texas A&M University (TAMU) has developed a multifaceted program in partnership with the Brazos Animal Shelter to provide teaching opportunities with shelter animals during all four years of the professional curriculum. In the first three semesters of the professional program, students working in small groups spend two hours per semester at the shelter performing physical examinations, administering vaccinations and anthelmintics, completing heartworm or FeLV/FIV testing, and performing simple medical treatments. In an expanded fourth-year program, groups of six students spend 16 contact hours at the shelter during two-week rotations, completing similar tasks. Through this program, each student practices animal-handling skills and routine procedures on an average of 150 to 200 dogs and cats. In addition, during third- and fourth-year surgery courses, student teams spay or neuter an average of 12 to 18 dogs or cats each week. More than 800 animals are spayed/neutered annually through this program, and each student directly participates in 12 to 15 spay/neuter survival surgeries. The program represents a creative approach to veterinary training that conscientiously uses animal resources in a positive fashion. We believe that this is a successful partnership between a state-supported veterinary college and a non-profit shelter that benefits both agencies. We encourage other veterinary colleges to explore similar partnership opportunities to provide optimal training for professional students while using animal resources efficiently.

  3. Animals on the Washington Environmental Yard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robin; Wong, Herb

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various animal-related activities that took place in the natural resource area of the Washington Elementary School's (Berkeley, CA) environmental yard. The "yard" is open 24 hours a day and is freely accessible to informal users. (JN)

  4. Deaths resulting from animal attacks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Langley, R L; Morrow, W E

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the etiology and frequency of deaths in the United States from encounters with animals. The number of deaths from venomous and nonvenomous animals is reported annually to the US Department of Health and Human Services and published in Vital Statistics of the United States. This study is a survey of all animal-related fatalities listed as E-codes 905-906 reported in the Vital Statistics of the United States from 1979 through 1990. Data were extracted uniformly from the annual reports and analyzed using descriptive statistics. From 1979 through 1990, there were 1882 animal-related deaths in the United States. Venomous animals caused 718 deaths; nonvenomous animals caused 1164 deaths. Most deaths occurred among white males. The home site was the location of injury for the majority of deaths. The majority of venomous animal-related deaths were from hymenoptera; "other specified animal" caused the majority of nonvenomous deaths. An annual average of 157 deaths from animal attacks occurred in the United States between 1979 and 1990. Both fatal and nonfatal animal-related injuries are under-recognized public health hazards. Health care providers should educate their patients on exercising caution around animals, seeking medical care after an animal injury, carrying epinephrine kits if they have a history of systemic reactions to insect stings, and wearing helmets and other protective equipment when riding or working around large animals.

  5. Domestication genomics: evidence from animals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Xie, Hai-Bing; Peng, Min-Sheng; Irwin, David; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Animal domestication has far-reaching significance for human society. The sequenced genomes of domesticated animals provide critical resources for understanding the genetic basis of domestication. Various genomic analyses have shed a new light on the mechanism of artificial selection and have allowed the mapping of genes involved in important domestication traits. Here, we summarize the published genomes of domesticated animals that have been generated over the past decade, as well as their origins, from a phylogenomic point of view. This review provides a general description of the genomic features encountered under a two-stage domestication process. We also introduce recent findings for domestication traits based on results from genome-wide association studies and selective-sweep scans for artificially selected genomic regions. Particular attention is paid to issues relating to the costs of domestication and the convergent evolution of genes between domesticated animals and humans.

  6. Phenology for science, resource management, decision making, and education

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, V.P.; Weltzin, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Fourth USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) Research Coordination Network (RCN) Annual Meeting and Stakeholders Workshop; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 21-22 September 2010; Phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle events, is rapidly emerging as a fundamental approach for understanding how ecological systems respond to environmental variation and climate change. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; http://www.usanpn.org) is a large-scale network of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, resource management agencies, and tribes. The network is dedicated to conducting and promoting repeated and integrated plant and animal phenological observations, identifying linkages with other relevant biological and physical data sources, and developing and distributing the tools to analyze these data at local to national scales. The primary goal of the USA-NPN is to improve the ability of decision makers to design strategies for climate adaptation.

  7. Phenology for Science, Resource Management, Decision Making, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Vivian P.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2011-01-01

    Fourth USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) Research Coordination Network (RCN) Annual Meeting and Stakeholders Workshop; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 21-22 September 2010; Phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle events, is rapidly emerging as a fundamental approach for understanding how ecological systems respond to environmental variation and climate change. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; http://www.usanpn.org) is a large-scale network of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, resource management agencies, and tribes. The network is dedicated to conducting and promoting repeated and integrated plant and animal phenological observations, identifying linkages with other relevant biological and physical data sources, and developing and distributing the tools to analyze these data at local to national scales. The primary goal of the USA-NPN is to improve the ability of decision makers to design strategies for climate adaptation.

  8. Lied Animal Shelter Animal campus Renewable Energy Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Spitzmesser, AIA

    2005-11-22

    The Animal Shelter campus plan includes a new adoption center coupled with a dog adoption park, a wellness/veterinary technician education center, a show arena, and an addition to the existing shelter that will accommodate all animal control and sheltering for the Las Vegas Valley. The new facility will provide a sophisticated and innovative presentation of the animals to be adopted in an attempt to improve the public's perception of shelter animals. Additionally, the Regional Animal Campus will be a ''green building'', embodying a design intent on balancing environmental responsiveness, resource efficiency and cultural and community sensitivity. Designing an energy-efficient building helps reduce pollution from burning fossil fuels, reduce disturbance of natural habitats for the harvesting of resources and minimizes global warming. The project will be a leader in the use of renewable energy by relying on photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and solar collectors to produce a portion of the project's energy needs The building will operate more efficiently in comparison to a typical shelter through the use of monitoring and specialized cooling/heating equipment. Windows bringing in natural daylight will reduce the center's demand for electricity.

  9. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  10. Collecting and Animating Online Satellite Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Describes how to generate automated classroom resources from the Internet. Topics covered include viewing animated satellite weather images using file transfer protocol (FTP); sources of images on the Internet; shareware available for viewing images; software for automating image retrieval; procedures for animating satellite images; and storing…

  11. 1994 MCAP annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harmony, S.C.; Boyack, B.E.

    1995-04-01

    VELCOR is an integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants. The entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena, including reactor coolant system and containment thermal-hydraulic response, core heatup, degradation and relocation, and fission product release and transport is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework for both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Its current uses include the estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. Independent assessment efforts have been successfully completed by the US and international MELCOR user communities. Most of these independent assessment efforts have been conducted to support the needs and fulfill the requirements of the individual user organizations. The resources required to perform an extensive set of model and integral code assessments are large. A prudent approach to fostering code development and maturation is to coordinate the individual assessment efforts of the MELCOR user community. While retaining individual control over assessment resources, each organization using the MELCOR code could work with the other users to broaden assessment coverage and minimize duplication. In recognition of these considerations, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) has initiated the MELCOR Cooperative Assessment Program (MCAP), a vehicle for coordinating and standardizing the assessment practices of the various MELCOR users. In addition, the user community will have a forum to better communicate lessons learned regarding MELCOR applications, capabilities, and user guidelines and limitations and to provide a user community perspective on code development needs and priorities. This second Annual Report builds on the foundation laid with the first Annual Report.

  12. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  13. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  14. Web resources for stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Peng, Xing; Ye, Lili; Wang, Jiajia; Song, Fuhai; Bai, Zhouxian; Han, Guangchun; Ji, Fengmin; Lei, Hongxing

    2015-02-01

    In this short review, we have presented a brief overview on major web resources relevant to stem cell research. To facilitate more efficient use of these resources, we have provided a preliminary rating based on our own user experience of the overall quality for each resource. We plan to update the information on an annual basis. PMID:25701763

  15. Venomous animals: clinical toxinology.

    PubMed

    White, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Venomous animals occur in numerous phyla and present a great diversity of taxa, toxins, targets, clinical effects and outcomes. Venomous snakes are the most medically significant group globally and may injure >1.25 million humans annually, with up to 100 000 deaths and many more cases with long-term disability. Scorpion sting is the next most important cause of envenoming, but significant morbidity and even deaths occur following envenoming with a wide range of other venomous animals, including spiders, ticks, jellyfish, marine snails, octopuses and fish. Clinical effects vary with species and venom type, including local effects (pain, swelling, sweating, blistering, bleeding, necrosis), general effects (headache, vomiting, abdominal pain, hypertension, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias and arrest, convulsions, collapse, shock) and specific systemic effects (paralytic neurotoxicity, neuroexcitatory neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, interference with coagulation, haemorrhagic activity, renal toxicity, cardiac toxicity). First aid varies with organism and envenoming type, but few effective first aid methods are recommended, while many inappropriate or frankly dangerous methods are in widespread use. For snakebite, immobilisation of the bitten limb, then the whole patient is the universal method, although pressure immobilisation bandaging is recommended for bites by non-necrotic or haemorrhagic species. Hot water immersion is the most universal method for painful marine stings. Medical treatment includes both general and specific measures, with antivenom being the principal tool in the latter category. However, antivenom is available only for a limited range of species, not for all dangerous species, is in short supply in some areas of highest need, and in many cases, is supported by historical precedent rather than modern controlled trials.

  16. Storytelling through animation: Oxford Sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, D. M.; Cook, A.

    2013-12-01

    Oxford Sparks is a portal that launched in 2012, with the aim of bringing together resources that have been created across the University of Oxford and elsewhere for the purpose of wider engagement with science. To bring attention to this site, Oxford Sparks developed a set of high-quality short animations, each designed to tell a story relating to a current area of science. These animations have been launched on YouTube, and will shortly be available on iTunesU, and have covered broad areas of science from subduction zones (';Underwater Volcano Disaster'), through the early history of the solar system (';Rogue Planet') to the workings of the Large Hadron Collider (';A quick look around the LHC'). The animations have each been developed in close collaboration with researchers, created by a team with experience of education, engagement and outreach. The two minute scripts are intended to be both widely accessible and viewable as ';stand alone' stories. To this end, the scripts are humorous; while the animations are delightfully quirky, and created by professional animator with a degree-level science background. The animations are also intended to be used as ';lesson starters' in school, and educational activities graded for different age groups are being developed in parallel with the animations. They have been used, successfully, on pre-university summer schools, and in university classes. We are gathering both quantitative (analytics) and qualitative (school teacher and student focus group) feedback to monitor the success of the project, and to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In the first year since launch, Oxford Sparks animations were viewed over 80,000 times on YouTube, in part due to the surge of interest in the Large Hadron Collider animation after the discovery of the Higgs Boson.

  17. New Beginnings: The Library as an Information and Resource Basket. Selected Papers from PIALA 2008: Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (18th, Colonia, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia, November 17-21, 2001)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horie, Ruth H., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2008 Planning Committee, the Officers and Executive Board, and Acknowledgements, followed by the Schedule of Events and a…

  18. PIALA '96. Jaketo Jaketak Kobban Alele Eo--Identifying, Using and Sharing Local Resources. Proceedings of the Annual Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (6th, Majuro, Marshall Islands, November 5-8, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.

    This 1996 PIALA conference explores ways to identify and make available local resources on the Marshall Islands. The traditional Marshallese word, "Alele," which means "the basket which holds the tools, treasures and resources needed for everyday life," is also the name of Majuro's public library, museum and Marshall Islands Depository and is…

  19. Inter-annual and inter-individual variations in survival exhibit strong seasonality in a hibernating rodent.

    PubMed

    Le Cœur, Christie; Chantepie, Stéphane; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Robert, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Most research on the demography of wild animal populations has focused on characterizing the variation in the mortality of organisms as a function of intrinsic and environmental characteristics. However, such variation in mortality is difficult to relate to functional life history components (e.g. reproduction, dispersal, hibernation) due to the difficulty in monitoring biological processes at a sufficiently fine timescale. In this study, we used a 10-year individual-based data set with an infra-annual timescale to investigate both intra- and inter-annual survival patterns according to intrinsic and environmental covariates in an introduced population of a small hibernating rodent, the Siberian chipmunk. We compared three distinct periods related to particular life history events: spring reproduction, summer reproduction and hibernation. Our results revealed strong interactions between intrinsic and temporal effects. First, survival of male chipmunks strongly decreases during the reproduction periods, while survival is high and equal between sexes during hibernation. Second, the season of birth affects the survival of juveniles during their first hibernation, which does not have long-lasting consequences at the adult stage. Third, at an inter-annual scale, we found that high food resource availability before hibernation and low chipmunk densities specifically favour subsequent winter survival. Overall, our results confirm that the well-known patterns of yearly and inter-individual variation of mortality observed in animals are themselves strongly variable within a given year, suggesting that they are associated with various functional components of the animals' life history.

  20. Inter-annual and inter-individual variations in survival exhibit strong seasonality in a hibernating rodent.

    PubMed

    Le Cœur, Christie; Chantepie, Stéphane; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Robert, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Most research on the demography of wild animal populations has focused on characterizing the variation in the mortality of organisms as a function of intrinsic and environmental characteristics. However, such variation in mortality is difficult to relate to functional life history components (e.g. reproduction, dispersal, hibernation) due to the difficulty in monitoring biological processes at a sufficiently fine timescale. In this study, we used a 10-year individual-based data set with an infra-annual timescale to investigate both intra- and inter-annual survival patterns according to intrinsic and environmental covariates in an introduced population of a small hibernating rodent, the Siberian chipmunk. We compared three distinct periods related to particular life history events: spring reproduction, summer reproduction and hibernation. Our results revealed strong interactions between intrinsic and temporal effects. First, survival of male chipmunks strongly decreases during the reproduction periods, while survival is high and equal between sexes during hibernation. Second, the season of birth affects the survival of juveniles during their first hibernation, which does not have long-lasting consequences at the adult stage. Third, at an inter-annual scale, we found that high food resource availability before hibernation and low chipmunk densities specifically favour subsequent winter survival. Overall, our results confirm that the well-known patterns of yearly and inter-individual variation of mortality observed in animals are themselves strongly variable within a given year, suggesting that they are associated with various functional components of the animals' life history. PMID:26969470

  1. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  2. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  3. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS.

  4. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  5. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440493

  6. Scavengers on the Move: Behavioural Changes in Foraging Search Patterns during the Annual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara; Urios, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Background Optimal foraging theory predicts that animals will tend to maximize foraging success by optimizing search strategies. However, how organisms detect sparsely distributed food resources remains an open question. When targets are sparse and unpredictably distributed, a Lévy strategy should maximize foraging success. By contrast, when resources are abundant and regularly distributed, simple Brownian random movement should be sufficient. Although very different groups of organisms exhibit Lévy motion, the shift from a Lévy to a Brownian search strategy has been suggested to depend on internal and external factors such as sex, prey density, or environmental context. However, animal response at the individual level has received little attention. Methodology/Principal Findings We used GPS satellite-telemetry data of Egyptian vultures Neophron percnopterus to examine movement patterns at the individual level during consecutive years, with particular interest in the variations in foraging search patterns during the different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. breeding vs. non-breeding). Our results show that vultures followed a Brownian search strategy in their wintering sojourn in Africa, whereas they exhibited a more complex foraging search pattern at breeding grounds in Europe, including Lévy motion. Interestingly, our results showed that individuals shifted between search strategies within the same period of the annual cycle in successive years. Conclusions/Significance Results could be primarily explained by the different environmental conditions in which foraging activities occur. However, the high degree of behavioural flexibility exhibited during the breeding period in contrast to the non-breeding period is challenging, suggesting that not only environmental conditions explain individuals' behaviour but also individuals' cognitive abilities (e.g., memory effects) could play an important role. Our results support the growing awareness about the role of

  7. Information resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    A wide variety of entities across North America are involved in wildlife disease investigations; however, the formal assembly of multidimensional programs that primarily address disease for the benefit of free-ranging wildlife is rather limited. The Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS), the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), and the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) are selected examples. These programs are highlighted because of the scope of their capabilities and long-term involvement in assisting State and Federal natural resource agencies combat wildlife disease. A variety of other sources for possible assistance in addressing wildlife disease issues exists throughout North America and globally. It is prudent for wildlife conservation field biologists, managers, and administrators to be aware of such local resources. Ideally, awareness and knowledge of the types of assistance those programs can provide should be obtained prior to disease crisis events since appropriate, timely intervention often is required to minimize wildlife losses from disease and prevent the establishment of new infectious diseases within wildlife populations and geographic areas. Increasing recognition of the substantial number of infectious diseases being transferred between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has led to increased collaborative investigations between wildlife, domestic, and human health programs. That collaboration has led to a heightened focus on wildlife disease within some public health and agriculture agencies. For purposes of this Chapter, wildlife disease is narrowly defined as those diseases (infectious and noninfectious) causing morbidity and mortality in free-ranging wildlife populations. Therefore, there is no focus on the numerous fish disease or environmental contaminant programs that exist on behalf of North American fauna.

  8. Animal models of pituitary neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lines, K.E.; Stevenson, M.; Thakker, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary neoplasias can occur as part of a complex inherited disorder, or more commonly as sporadic (non-familial) disease. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms causing such pituitary tumours have identified dysregulation of >35 genes, with many revealed by studies in mice, rats and zebrafish. Strategies used to generate these animal models have included gene knockout, gene knockin and transgenic over-expression, as well as chemical mutagenesis and drug induction. These animal models provide an important resource for investigation of tissue-specific tumourigenic mechanisms, and evaluations of novel therapies, illustrated by studies into multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a hereditary syndrome in which ∼30% of patients develop pituitary adenomas. This review describes animal models of pituitary neoplasia that have been generated, together with some recent advances in gene editing technologies, and an illustration of the use of the Men1 mouse as a pre clinical model for evaluating novel therapies. PMID:26320859

  9. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- ...

  10. Effective leadership in animal groups when no individual has pertinent information about resource locations: How interactions between leaders and followers can result in Lévy walk movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding how a few informed individuals are able to influence the foraging behaviour of a group and enhance its ability to navigate towards a resource. This research has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of effective leadership. Here using a simple exactly solvable model we show how effective leadership could operate when no individual in the group has pertinent information about the locations of resources. Simple interactions between an ignorant leader and its followers are found to result in Lévy walk movement patterns that can optimize random searches. The findings may account for the Lévy walk movement patterns seen in some marine predators and for the frequent formation of groups of 2 or 3 ungulates when resources become scarce.

  11. Rainforest Depiction in Children's Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses how rainforests are portrayed in children's resources. Twenty books and 12 websites on rainforests, designed for pupils aged between 9 and 14 years, were examined to determine the types and range of animals depicted and how plant life in general is portrayed. The most commonly depicted animal was the orang-utan and other…

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  13. 76 FR 39470 - Integrated Resource Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ..., and energy storage resources. Each portfolio was optimized for the lowest net Present Value of Revenue... both peak load (in MW) and annual net system energy (in GWh) through 2029. Peak load is predicted to... under the high-growth forecast. Net system energy is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of...

  14. Animal models for human diseases.

    PubMed

    Rust, J H

    1982-01-01

    The use of animal models for the study of human disease is, for the most part, a recent development. This discussion of the use of animal models for human diseases directs attention to the sterile period, early advances, some personal experiences, the human as the model, biological oddities among common laboratory animals, malignancies in laboratory animals, problems created by federal regulations, cancer tests with animals, and what the future holds in terms of the use of animal models as an aid to understanding human disease. In terms of early use of animal models, there was a school of rabbis, some of whom were also physicians, in Babylon who studied and wrote extensively on ritual slaughter and the suitability of birds and beasts for food. Considerable detailed information on animal pathology, physiology, anatomy, and medicine in general can be found in the Soncino Babylonian Talmudic Translations. The 1906 edition of the "Jewish Encyclopedia," has been a rich resource. Although it has not been possible to establish what diseases of animals were studied and their relationship to the diseases of humans, there are fascinating clues to pursue, despite the fact that these were sterile years for research in medicine. The quotation from the Talmud is of interest: "The medical knowledge of the Talmudist was based upon tradition, the dissection of human bodies, observation of disease and experiments upon animals." A bright light in the lackluster years of medical research was provided by Galen, considered the originator of research in physiology and anatomy. His dissection of animals and work on apes and other lower animals were models for human anatomy and physiology and the bases for many treatises. Yet, Galen never seemed to suggest that animals could serve as models for human diseases. Most early physicians who can be considered to have been students of disease developed their medical knowledge by observing the sick under their care. 1 early medical investigator

  15. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  16. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Johnson, Devin S.; Alldredge, Mat W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: 1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error.

  17. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Mevin B; Hanks, Ephraim M; Johnson, Devin S; Alldredge, Mat W

    2013-11-01

    1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error.

  18. Secretary's annual report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This second annual report of the DOE covers activities of all elements of the department except the independent FERC, which issues its own annual report. Individual chapters concern a posture statement, conservation, solar and other renewable energy, fossil energy, electric energy, nuclear energy, the environment, defense programs, international programs, general science programs, energy information, economic regulation, energy production, and support operations. The following appendixes are also included: foreign direct investments in US energy sources and supplies, exports of energy resources by foreign companies, major recipients of DOE funding, actions taken regarding disclosure of energy assets by DOE employees, financial assistance programs for alternative fuel demonstration facilities, and 1978 budget summary. 16 figures, 56 tables. (RWR)

  19. Toxicity bioassays: water-pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. June 1986-May 1988 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for June 1986-May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic animals and plants. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fishes and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (This updated bibliography contains 62 citations, 12 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Toxicity bioassays: Water pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. June 1986-February 1990 (A bibliography from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for June 1986-February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity-bioassay studies of water-pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic animals and plants. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fishes and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (This updated bibliography contains 145 citations, 51 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. Toxicity bioassays: water-pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. June 1986-June 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for June 1986-June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water-pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic animals and plants. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fishes and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (This updated bibliography contains 94 citations, 32 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. 21 CFR 516.30 - Annual reports for a MUMS-designated drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Designation of a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.30 Annual reports for a MUMS-designated drug... investigational new animal drug file addressed to the Director of the Office of Minor Use and Minor Species...

  3. 21 CFR 516.30 - Annual reports for a MUMS-designated drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Designation of a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.30 Annual reports for a MUMS-designated drug... investigational new animal drug file addressed to the Director of the Office of Minor Use and Minor Species...

  4. 21 CFR 516.30 - Annual reports for a MUMS-designated drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Designation of a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.30 Annual reports for a MUMS-designated drug... investigational new animal drug file addressed to the Director of the Office of Minor Use and Minor Species...

  5. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  6. What I Learned at the NCSS Annual Meeting--2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    This is the author's third time writing a column on Internet-focused sessions and exhibit resources at the NCSS annual meeting, which, this past November, met in Houston. One of the features that most impresses teachers who participate at the NCSS annual meeting is the exhibit hall, with hundreds of booths representing textbook and trade book…

  7. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Bromine. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1993-09-01

    ;Contents: Domestic Data Coverage, Background (Definitions, Grades, and Specifications, Geology-Resources, Technology, Byproducts and Coproducts, Substitutes, Economic Factors, Operating Factors); Annual Review (Legislation and Government Programs, Production, Consumption and Uses, Prices, Foreign Trade, World Review, Current Research); Outlook (Petroleum, Sanitary Preparations, Fire Retardants, Other Uses).

  8. 43 CFR 2524.2 - Annual proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual proof. 2524.2 Section 2524.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within...

  9. 43 CFR 2524.2 - Annual proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Annual proof. 2524.2 Section 2524.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within...

  10. 43 CFR 2521.5 - Annual proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.5 Annual proof. (a) Showing required. (1) In order to test the sincerity and good faith of claimants under the desert... a desert-land entry unless made on account of that particular entry, and expenditures once...

  11. 43 CFR 2521.5 - Annual proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.5 Annual proof. (a) Showing required. (1) In order to test the sincerity and good faith of claimants under the desert... a desert-land entry unless made on account of that particular entry, and expenditures once...

  12. 43 CFR 2521.5 - Annual proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.5 Annual proof. (a) Showing required. (1) In order to test the sincerity and good faith of claimants under the desert... a desert-land entry unless made on account of that particular entry, and expenditures once...

  13. 43 CFR 2524.2 - Annual proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual proof. 2524.2 Section 2524.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within...

  14. 43 CFR 2521.5 - Annual proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.5 Annual proof. (a) Showing required. (1) In order to test the sincerity and good faith of claimants under the desert... a desert-land entry unless made on account of that particular entry, and expenditures once...

  15. 43 CFR 2524.2 - Annual proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual proof. 2524.2 Section 2524.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within...

  16. Office of Management Services 1989 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Designed to serve both as an activity report on Office of Management Services (OMS) progress during 1989 and a catalog of OMS services and products, this annual report focuses on the management of human and technical resources in a scholarly environment. Programs and services are reported in four sections: (1) Applied Research and Development (the…

  17. Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Madigan.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. District Court, District of Columbia, held that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) violated the Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (FLAWA) by excluding birds, rats, and mice in its definition of "animal." The inclusion of birds, rats, and mice would further the purpose of FLAWA, which is to ensure the humane treatment of animals used in research facilities. Although the USDA's regulations are generally entitled to judicial deference, the USDA's decisions must have a reasonable basis in law. The USDA erred by focusing on its resources and staffing concerns, rather than the intended use of birds, rats, and mice. The court noted that birds, rats, and mice share the same basic needs as other animals, and have a similar capacity for pain. The USDA's refusal to expand the definiton of "animal," and the USDA's denial of rulemaking petitions submitted by animal welfare groups were "arbitrary and capricious;" thus violating FLAWA.

  18. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  19. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  20. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  1. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  2. Roles of Animation Tools in Understanding Programming Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Andres; Joy, Mike; Sutinen, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Computer generated animations are resources used to explain how programs are executed in order to clarify the relevant programming concepts. However, whilst trying to understand new programming concepts it is not clear how and when students benefit from an animation if they are using the tool on their own. To clarify the role of an animation tool…

  3. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  4. Physics for Animation Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  5. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  6. Interlibrary Cooperation and Resource Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittel, Dorothy

    Based on fiscal year 1986 annual reports from 48 states, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, this report describes interlibrary cooperation and resource sharing activities supported by the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title III, funds. In response to the 1984 amendment to Title III (which required each state to include in…

  7. Interlibrary Cooperation and Resource Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittel, Dorothy

    Based on fiscal year 1985 annual reports from 48 states, this report describes interlibrary cooperation and resource-sharing activities supported by Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title III, funds during 1985. A summary of types of activities reported includes the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of communication networks…

  8. Annual Fund. Estate Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Robert L.; Jarc, Jerry A.

    The first of a series, this publication consists of two symposium presentations. The first paper, "Annual Fund: Cornerstone of Development," by Robert L. Stuhr, defines the annual fund concept in the context of institutional development and provides five requisites for a successful annual fund: it must (1) be part of an ongoing development…

  9. 50 CFR 19.32 - Annual reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... wildlife for purposes of administering or protecting land, water, wildlife, livestock, domestic animals, human life or crops, shall file with the Director, an annual report on or before July 1 for the... identifying whether the permit was issued to protect land, water, wildlife, livestock, domestic animals,...

  10. 50 CFR 19.32 - Annual reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wildlife for purposes of administering or protecting land, water, wildlife, livestock, domestic animals, human life or crops, shall file with the Director, an annual report on or before July 1 for the... identifying whether the permit was issued to protect land, water, wildlife, livestock, domestic animals,...

  11. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  12. Longevity suppresses conflict in animal societies.

    PubMed

    Port, Markus; Cant, Michael A

    2013-10-23

    Models of social conflict in animal societies generally assume that within-group conflict reduces the value of a communal resource. For many animals, however, the primary cost of conflict is increased mortality. We develop a simple inclusive fitness model of social conflict that takes this cost into account. We show that longevity substantially reduces the level of within-group conflict, which can lead to the evolution of peaceful animal societies if relatedness among group members is high. By contrast, peaceful outcomes are never possible in models where the primary cost of social conflict is resource depletion. Incorporating mortality costs into models of social conflict can explain why many animal societies are so remarkably peaceful despite great potential for conflict.

  13. Farm animal genomics and informatics: an update

    PubMed Central

    Fadiel, Ahmed; Anidi, Ifeanyi; Eichenbaum, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    Farm animal genomics is of interest to a wide audience of researchers because of the utility derived from understanding how genomics and proteomics function in various organisms. Applications such as xenotransplantation, increased livestock productivity, bioengineering new materials, products and even fabrics are several reasons for thriving farm animal genome activity. Currently mined in rapidly growing data warehouses, completed genomes of chicken, fish and cows are available but are largely stored in decentralized data repositories. In this paper, we provide an informatics primer on farm animal bioinformatics and genome project resources which drive attention to the most recent advances in the field. We hope to provide individuals in biotechnology and in the farming industry with information on resources and updates concerning farm animal genome projects. PMID:16275782

  14. Annual report to Congress, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-31

    Created by Congress in 1977 as an independent entity within the Department of Energy, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the principal and authoritative source of comprehensive energy data for the Congress, the Federal Government, the States, and the public. With the mandate to ``collect, assemble, evaluate, analyze, and disseminate data and information,`` EIA`s mission has been defined to: maintain a comprehensive data and information program relevant to energy resources and reserves, energy production, energy demand, energy technologies, and related financial and statistical information relevant to the adequacy of energy resources to meet the Nation`s demands in the near and longer term future. Develop and maintain analytical tool and collection and processing systems; provide analyses that are accurate, timely, and objective; and provide information dissemination services. This annual report summarizes EIA`s activities and accomplishments in 1993.

  15. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.

  16. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods. PMID:26364776

  17. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  18. Incontinence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  19. Scleroderma - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scleroderma ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scleroderma : American College of Rheumatology -- www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/scleroderma.asp National Institute ...

  20. Epilepsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : Epilepsy Foundation -- www.efa.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...

  1. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  2. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  3. Alzheimer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Alzheimer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Alzheimer disease : Alzheimer's Association -- www.alz.org Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center -- www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers ...

  4. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  5. Scoliosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00626 National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  6. Lupus - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lupus ... The following organizations are good resources for information on systemic lupus erythematosus : The Lupus Foundation of America -- www.lupus.org The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  7. SIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - SIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on SIDS : American SIDS Institute -- www.sids.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/sids National ...

  8. Migraine - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  9. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  10. Psoriasis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - psoriasis ... The following organizations are good resources for information about psoriasis : American Academy of Dermatology -- www.aad.org/skin-conditions/dermatology-a-to-z/psoriasis National Institute of ...

  11. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  12. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  13. Ostomy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ostomy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on ostomies: American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons -- www.fascrs.org/patients/treatments-screening and www.fascrs.org/ ...

  14. Animal mindreading: what's the problem?

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2015-04-01

    Research on mindreading in animals has the potential to address fundamental questions about the nature and origins of the human capacity to ascribe mental states, but it is a research programme that seems to be in trouble. Between 1978 and 2000 several groups used a range of methods, some with considerable promise, to ask whether animals can understand a variety of mental states. Since that time, many enthusiasts have become sceptics, empirical methods have become more limited, and it is no longer clear what research on animal mindreading is trying to find. In this article I suggest that the problems are theoretical and methodological: there is difficulty in conceptualising alternatives to 'full-blown' mindreading, and reluctance to use the kinds of empirical methods necessary to distinguish mindreading from other psychological mechanisms. I also suggest ways of tackling the theoretical and methodological problems that draw on recent studies of mindreading in humans, and the resources of experimental psychology more generally. In combination with the use of inanimate control stimuli, species that are unlikely to be capable of mindreading, and the 'goggles method', these approaches could restore both vigour and rigour to research on animal mindreading. PMID:25102928

  15. Water resources data for California water year 1994. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon state line. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Friebel, M.F.; Markham, K.L.; Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.

    1995-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1994 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 187 gaging stations, stage and contents for 47 lakes and reservoirs, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 6 stations. Also included are two low-flow partial-record stations.

  16. Water resources data for California, water year 1993. Volume 4. Northern Central valley basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon State line. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Markham, K.L.; Anderson, S.W.

    1994-04-01

    Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 190 gaging stations, stage and contents for 41 lakes and reservoirs, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 8 stations. Also included are two low-flow partial-record stations.

  17. Water resources data for California, water year 1992. Volume 4. Northern central valley basins and the great basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon state line. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.W.; Mullen, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Markham, K.L.

    1993-05-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 190 gaging stations; stage and contents for 44 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 3 stations; and water quality for 10 stations. Also included are two low-flow partial-record stations.

  18. "Name" that Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  19. Ethology and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, D R

    1981-12-01

    Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

  20. Animals in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  1. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  2. Engineering large animal models of human disease.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Sheets, Timothy P; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site-specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of gene editing tools we will see a dramatic increase in animal model resources available for both the study of human disease and the translation of this knowledge into the clinic. Comparative pathology will be central to the productive use of these animal models and the successful translation of new therapeutic strategies.

  3. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-21

    In this report, up-to-date estimates are presented for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil resources, such as those that exist in formations of very low permeability, are not included. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  4. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.

    1985-05-27

    In this report, up-to-date estimates are presented for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil resources, such as those that exist in formations of very low permeability, are not included. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Animals of the Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on how desert animals have adapted to dryness and heat, how and when animals move on the desert, and nocturnal/diurnal animals. Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. Ready-to-copy pages are included for a…

  7. Animals in Disguise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary C.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which first grade students learn why camouflage is important to an animal's survival. Students see living examples of animals who use camouflage for protection, then create their own camouflaged animals and hide them around the classroom. For assessment, students write and illustrate five things they learned from the study…

  8. Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)

  9. Student Attitudes Towards Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The attitudes of 127 college students toward 30 different animals was assessed via a like/dislike questionnaire. Results indicated that female students disliked more animals than did males, and that non-Biology majors disliked more animals than did Biology majors. (SL)

  10. 18 CFR 11.8 - Adjustment of annual charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjustment of annual charges. 11.8 Section 11.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... in effect as fixed unless changed as authorized by law....

  11. 18 CFR 11.8 - Adjustment of annual charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustment of annual charges. 11.8 Section 11.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... in effect as fixed unless changed as authorized by law....

  12. Water resources data for Idaho, water year 1992. Volume 1. Great Basin and Snake River Basin above King Hill. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 91-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Harenberg, W.A.; Jones, M.L.; O'Dell, I.; Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.

    1993-03-25

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of ground water. The two volumes of the report contain discharge records for 194 stream-gaging stations and 42 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 4 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 7 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 24 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations, 400 wells, and 11 lakes; daily totals for 1 precipitation gage; and water levels for 475 observation wells.

  13. 78 FR 9729 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Submission, Exhibitor, Annual Review, and Amendment Forms) used by the Institutional Animal Care and Use ] Committee (NPS IACUC/the Committee) to ensure compliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), its regulations... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care...

  14. [About animal allergy].

    PubMed

    Haahtela, Tari

    2016-01-01

    Although the opinions about animals and animal allergies may be extreme, animals can even be indispensable for the well-being of humans. The immune tolerance of many modern city dwellers is insufficiently developed, predisposing the skin and mucous membranes to allergic inflammation. There is no need in infancy to avoid animals, and animal contacts in early childhood rather protect from the development of allergies. Pet allergens are present in small amounts everywhere, not only in places where they live. General instructions on avoidance do not exist. New forms of desensitization therapy may in the future bring relief for those having strong symptoms. PMID:27522834

  15. Combining US and Brazilian microsatellite data for a meta-analysis of sheep (Ovis aries) breed diversity: facilitating the FAO Global Plan of Action for Conserving Animal Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Mariante, Arthur da Silva; Blackburn, Harvey D

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellites are commonly used to understand genetic diversity among livestock populations. Nevertheless, most studies have involved the processing of samples in one laboratory or with common standards across laboratories. Our objective was to identify an approach to facilitate the merger of microsatellite data for cross-country comparison of genetic resources when samples were not evaluated in a single laboratory. Eleven microsatellites were included in the analysis of 13 US and 9 Brazilian sheep breeds (N = 706). A Bayesian approach was selected and evaluated with and without a shared set of samples analyzed by each country. All markers had a posterior probability of greater than 0.5, which was higher than predicted as reasonable by the software used. Sensitivity analysis indicated no difference between results with or without shared samples. Cluster analysis showed breeds to be partitioned by functional groups of hair, meat, or wool types (K = 7 and 12 of STRUCTURE). Cross-country comparison of hair breeds indicated substantial genetic distances and within breed variability. The selected approach can facilitate the merger and analysis of microsatellite data for cross-country comparison and extend the utility of previously collected molecular markers. In addition, the result of this type of analysis can be used in new and existing conservation programs.

  16. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  17. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals.

  18. Water resources assessment and prediction in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangsheng; Dai, Ning; Yang, Jianqing; Wang, Jinxing

    2016-10-01

    Water resources assessment in China, can be classified into three groups: (i) comprehensive water resources assessment, (ii) annual water resources assessment, and (iii) industrial project water resources assessment. Comprehensive water resources assessment is the conventional assessment where the frequency distribution of water resources in basins or provincial regions are analyzed. For the annual water resources assessment, water resources of the last year in basins or provincial regions are usually assessed. For the industrial project water resources assessment, the water resources situation before the construction of industrial project has to be assessed. To address the climate and environmental changes, hydrological and statistical models are widely applied for studies on assessing water resources changes. For the water resources prediction in China usually the monthly runoff prediction is used. In most low flow seasons, the flow recession curve is commonly used as prediction method. In the humid regions, the rainfall-runoff ensemble prediction (ESP) has been widely applied for the monthly runoff prediction. The conditional probability method for the monthly runoff prediction was also applied to assess next month runoff probability under a fixed initial condition.

  19. Inter-annual variation in the foraging ecology of a brown bear population in southwest Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stricker, C. A.; Kovach, S. D.; Collins, G. H.; Farley, S. D.; Rye, R. O.; Hinkes, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    Brown bear (Ursus arctos) population size correlates with density of high-quality food resources. We report on a ten-year study (1993 - 2003) of brown bear nutritional ecology in southwestern Alaska during which changes in resource availability and density occurred. The diets of 21 female bears captured multiple years were characterized by stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S) of guard hairs and putative diet items, followed by application of a Bayesian mixing model to derive assimilated diet estimates. Diet estimates were subsequently used to characterize individual-level resource specialization. Over the entire study period, salmon accounted for the highest proportion of bear diets (42.1%), followed by berries (24.5%), mammals (13.5%), freshwater fish (11.2%), and other plant matter (8.7%). The average salmon contribution to bear diets declined significantly from 48% to 34% following a precipitous reduction in salmon escapement mid-way through the study, after which the bear population shifted toward a more generalist diet. However, evaluation of individual animals recaptured multiple times during the study revealed variation in inter-annual dietary habits unrelated to the salmon crash. Individual variation presumably reflects local density changes in a variety of resources, with concomitant annual shifts in the degree of individual specialization. We also relate these patterns to other individual traits, such as reproductive status, home range, and habitat use to better constrain foraging habits. This study provides unique insights into the nutritional ecology of Alaskan brown bears and complements traditional wildlife studies by offering important covariates to better understand changes in population vital rates.

  20. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    PubMed

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade.

  1. Companion animals: Translational scientist's new best friends.

    PubMed

    Kol, Amir; Arzi, Boaz; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Farmer, Diana L; Nolta, Jan A; Rebhun, Robert B; Chen, Xinbin; Griffiths, Leigh G; Verstraete, Frank J M; Murphy, Christopher J; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge and resources derived from veterinary medicine represent an underused resource that could serve as a bridge between data obtained from diseases models in laboratory animals and human clinical trials. Naturally occurring disease in companion animals that display the defining attributes of similar, if not identical, diseases in humans hold promise for providing predictive proof of concept in the evaluation of new therapeutics and devices. Here we outline comparative aspects of naturally occurring diseases in companion animals and discuss their current uses in translational medicine, benefits, and shortcomings. Last, we envision how these natural models of disease might ultimately decrease the failure rate in human clinical trials and accelerate the delivery of effective treatments to the human clinical market.

  2. Companion animals: Translational scientist's new best friends.

    PubMed

    Kol, Amir; Arzi, Boaz; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Farmer, Diana L; Nolta, Jan A; Rebhun, Robert B; Chen, Xinbin; Griffiths, Leigh G; Verstraete, Frank J M; Murphy, Christopher J; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge and resources derived from veterinary medicine represent an underused resource that could serve as a bridge between data obtained from diseases models in laboratory animals and human clinical trials. Naturally occurring disease in companion animals that display the defining attributes of similar, if not identical, diseases in humans hold promise for providing predictive proof of concept in the evaluation of new therapeutics and devices. Here we outline comparative aspects of naturally occurring diseases in companion animals and discuss their current uses in translational medicine, benefits, and shortcomings. Last, we envision how these natural models of disease might ultimately decrease the failure rate in human clinical trials and accelerate the delivery of effective treatments to the human clinical market. PMID:26446953

  3. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    PubMed

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade. PMID:21809759

  4. Water resources data for Hawaii and other Pacific areas, water year 1989. Volume 2. Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, federated states of Micronesia, Palau, and American Samoa. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1988-30 September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, R.A.; Kunishige, V.E.; Lum, M.G.

    1996-05-01

    Water-resources data for the 1989 water year for other Pacific areas consist of records of discharge, and water quality of streams and stage of a lake and reservoir; water levels and water quality in wells; stage in a tide gage; and rainfall. This report volume 2 contains discharge records for 26 gaging stations; stage only for 2 gaging stations; water quality at 11 gaging stations, one streamflow partial record station, and 54 wells; water levels for 28 observations wells; and tide stages for one tide gage station. Also included are 2 crest-stage partial record stations, 4 miscellaneous partial-record stations, 15 low-flow partial-record stations, and 19 rainfall stations.

  5. Reducing environmental pollution using animal feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Graham, H; Simmins, P H; Sands, J

    2003-01-01

    The global livestock population is estimated to be close to 4 billion animals, and to produce around 500 million tons of manure annually (Baidoo, 2003). This is expected to increase in the future with the projected greater demand for meat for human consumption. The problem of manure disposal is exacerbated by the concentration of animal production in increasingly large units, to obtain economies of scale and keep up with the demand for cheap food. The primary environmentalfactors are manure volume, manure nitrogen and phosphorus contents, methane production and odour (Jongbloed and Lenis, 1998). Legislation in many regions now restricts the amount of manure that can be applied per hectare, to prevent environmental pollution (Centner, 2001; Pellini and Morris, 2001). There are a number of strategies the animal production industry can take to reduce environmental impact. These include taking steps to improve the efficiency of conversion of feed into edible products, reduce feed wastage and formulate diets that more closely satisfy animal requirements for specific nutrients. At present 50-80% of the nitrogen and phosphorus fed to animals are not utilized but are excreted via manure and urine to the environment (Baidoo, 2003). Biotechnology could play a very important role in reducing the environmental impact of animal production. Examples include the development of animals more efficient at converting nutrients into edible products, and of higher quality, more digestible feedstuffs. Biotechnology can also be used to produce a range of feed additives that can improve the efficiency of animal production, including for example recombinant somatrophin, amino acids and enzymes. This paper summarizes a series of four experiments looking at the effects of microbial xylanase or phytase supplementation on excretion in swine and poultry. This summary indicates that the inclusion of these enzymes in animal feeds can reduce manure volume by up to 14%, and nitrogen and phosphorus

  6. Japanese macaques as laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Isa, Tadashi; Yamane, Itaru; Hamai, Miya; Inagaki, Haruhisa

    2009-10-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), along with rhesus and long-tailed macaques, is one of the macaca species. In Japan, it has been preferred for use as a laboratory animal, particularly in the field of neuroscience, because of its high level of intelligence and its gentle nature. In addition, the species has a relatively homogeneous genetic background and field researchers have accumulated abundant information on the social behavior of wild Japanese macaques. As future neuroscience research will undoubtedly be more focused on the higher cognitive functions of the brain, including social behavior among multiple individuals, the Japanese macaque can be expected to become even more valuable as a laboratory animal in the near future. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has launched a National BioResource Project (NBRP) to establish a stable breeding and supply system for Japanese macaques for laboratory use. The project is in progress and should lead to the establishment of a National Primate Center in Japan, which will support the supply of monkeys as well as social outreach and handling of animal welfare issues.

  7. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  8. Availability of online educational content concerning topics of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Petervary, Nicolette; Allen, Tim; Stokes, William S; Banks, Ron E

    2016-05-01

    Animal welfare is an important area of study for professionals in fields of animal care and use, and many turn to self-learning resources to gain a better understanding of topics in this area. We assessed the state of these self-learning resources by evaluating open access, freely available resources on the internet with respect to their content and the reliability of their information. We categorized content using a modified list of the topics described in the American College of Animal Welfare's Role Delineation Document, and we identified subject areas that are underrepresented among freely available resources. We identified that the field needs more content describing practical information on subtopics of animal transportation, humane education and economic issues in animal welfare. We also suggest a targeted approach to improve and increase particular aspects of content that concerns the impacts of human, animal and environment interactions on animal welfare. We recommend that veterinary societies place more emphasis on welfare policies in their websites. Additionally, the field of animal welfare would benefit from more available and authoritative information on certain species and uses of animals that are presently underrepresented.

  9. Availability of online educational content concerning topics of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Petervary, Nicolette; Allen, Tim; Stokes, William S; Banks, Ron E

    2016-05-01

    Animal welfare is an important area of study for professionals in fields of animal care and use, and many turn to self-learning resources to gain a better understanding of topics in this area. We assessed the state of these self-learning resources by evaluating open access, freely available resources on the internet with respect to their content and the reliability of their information. We categorized content using a modified list of the topics described in the American College of Animal Welfare's Role Delineation Document, and we identified subject areas that are underrepresented among freely available resources. We identified that the field needs more content describing practical information on subtopics of animal transportation, humane education and economic issues in animal welfare. We also suggest a targeted approach to improve and increase particular aspects of content that concerns the impacts of human, animal and environment interactions on animal welfare. We recommend that veterinary societies place more emphasis on welfare policies in their websites. Additionally, the field of animal welfare would benefit from more available and authoritative information on certain species and uses of animals that are presently underrepresented. PMID:27096187

  10. Pestiviruses in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

    2006-08-25

    Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

  11. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  12. The representative animal

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experimental performance be considered. Behavior analysis tends to favor the ontogenetic over the phylogenetic component, yet both components are responsible for the performance of each individual animal. This paper raises questions about the role of genotype variables in the use of representative animals to understand human behavior. Examples indicating the role of genotype in human behavior are also discussed. The final section of the paper deals with considerations of genotype in the design of animal experiments. PMID:22478186

  13. Our love for animals.

    PubMed

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  14. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  15. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  16. Resource Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  17. Tracking Migratory Animals: Going Online for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Describes a project in which students pick a migratory animal and track it during migration using internet resources. Employs background readings, authentic research data, and questions to experts to enable students to have meaningful learning experiences. (DDR)

  18. Whole animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be used to investigate the whole animal, oftentimes in a single exam which provides opportunities to perform longitudinal studies and dynamic imaging of the same subject, and hence minimizes the experimental variability, requirement for the number of animals, and the time to perform a given experiment. Whole animal imaging can be performed by a number of techniques including x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, fluorescence imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, among others. Individual imaging techniques provide different kinds of information regarding the structure, metabolism, and physiology of the animal. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, and none serves every purpose of image acquisition from all regions of an animal. In this review, a broad overview of basic principles, available contrast mechanisms, applications, challenges, and future prospects of many imaging techniques employed for whole animal imaging is provided. Our main goal is to briefly describe the current state of art to researchers and advanced students with a strong background in the field of animal research. PMID:20836038

  19. Inhalation exposure of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F

    1976-01-01

    Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed. PMID:1017420

  20. Microcomputers in Agriculture. A Resource Guide for California Community College Faculty in Agriculture & Natural Resources. Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This resource guide contains descriptions of microcomputer programs that are suitable for use in community college courses in agriculture and natural resources. Product descriptions are organized according to the following subject areas: agricultural business, animal production, farm mechanics, farm management, forestry and natural resources,…

  1. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Todd

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued assessing habitat and population enhancement projects for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Habitat enhancement measures, as outlined in recommendations from the 1996, 1997, and 1998 annual reports, were monitored during field season 1999, 2000, and 2001. Post assessments were used to evaluate habitat quality, stream morphology and fish populations where enhancement projects were implemented.

  2. [Biotechnology and animal health].

    PubMed

    Desmettre, P

    1993-06-01

    The development of the first vaccines for use in animals, by Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th Century, was an initial step in applying biotechnology to animal health. However, it is only much more recently that decisive progress has been made in finding applications for biotechnology, in both detecting and preventing infectious and parasitic diseases. This progress has shown the way to developing a range of procedures, the application of which will benefit the health of domestic and wild animals, enhance the well-being of companion animals, develop the performance of sporting animals and improve the productivity of farm animals, while also serving to protect human health. Such progress results from the increasingly rapid application of knowledge gained in the material and life sciences, all of which contribute to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Similarly, reagents and diagnostic techniques have been made more specific, sensitive, reproducible, rapid and robust by updating them through recent discoveries in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology (monoclonal antibodies, nucleic probes, deoxyribonucleic acid amplification and many more). The development of new vaccines which combine efficacy, duration of protection, innocuity, stability, multivalence and ease of use (subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines and anti-idiotype vaccines) has resulted from recent progress in immunology, immunochemistry, molecular biology and biochemistry. Finally, the availability of new anti-infective, anti-parasitic agents and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents (capable of stimulating the specific and non-specific defence mechanisms of the body) demonstrates that biotechnology is continuing to find new applications in the field of animal health. New diagnostic techniques, vaccines and therapeutic substances are the most immediate applications of knowledge which may, in the future, extend to the development of transgenic animals of revised

  3. Ode to an Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelken, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    People know little about the non-domesticated animals that live around them. Somehow, they seem remote. In stories they hear about them, animals are often acting, speaking, and dressing like people. This article presents a lesson where students learn about the native species of their area while exploring the concept of interdependence through…

  4. Lights, Camera, Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Joan M.

    1984-01-01

    A fifth-grade class was taught how animated films are made by actually making some. Each cartoon involved four parts: title, artwork, credits, and storyboard. In addition to learning about animation, they had the experience of thinking in logical sequence and of working cooperatively. (CS)

  5. Plant or Animal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  6. Animating Preservice Teachers' Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Zandra; Amador, Julie; Estapa, Anne; Weston, Tracy; Aming-Attai, Rachael; Kosko, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of animation in mathematics teacher education courses is one method for transforming practices and promoting practice-based education. Animation can be used as an approximation of practice that engages preservice teachers (PSTs) in creating classroom scenes in which they select characters, regulate movement, and construct…

  7. Animals in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  8. Small Animal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  9. Exploring Animals, Glossopedia Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveen, Lois

    2007-01-01

    It's the first day of the "Animals" unit for Tami Brester's third-grade class and the first day her students are using Glossopedia, a free online multimedia science encyclopedia. But you wouldn't know that from observing the kids, who are excitedly researching animals on the internet. This is inquiry-based learning of a special kind, incorporating…

  10. Inuit-Style Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)

  11. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  12. Dreams of the Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  13. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  14. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  15. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  16. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  17. Animals. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The material in this unit is designed to provide upper elementary students with information and experiences to develop a better understanding and appreciation of the variety of animals living today. Unit goals include fostering a better understanding of animals' roles in nature, developing observational skills, facilitating understanding of man's…

  18. Art, Animals and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Children enjoy learning experiences that revolve around animals. Describes a course in which middle-grade students took a field trip to the zoo and sketched various animals. When the students returned to class, they had to do a highly detailed painting based on their favorite sketch. (RM)

  19. Conceiving Animal Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brauner, Charles J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "Ethics and Animals" (Miller & Williams, 1983). Maintains that this collection of essays is an excellent example of applied philosophy, showing a profile of philosophy as a force for enlightenment. Reviews the rights of animals and the bases of moral behavior toward them. (JDH)

  20. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine. PMID:26900122

  1. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine.

  2. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    1999-10-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

  3. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  4. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    PubMed

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  5. Should we enhance animals?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Much bioethical discussion has been devoted to the subject of human enhancement through various technological means such as genetic modification. Although many of the same technologies could be, indeed in many cases already have been, applied to non-human animals, there has been very little consideration of the concept of “animal enhancement”, at least not in those specific terms. This paper addresses the notion of animal enhancement and the ethical issues surrounding it. A definition of animal enhancement is proposed that provides a framework within which to consider these issues; and it is argued that if human enhancement can be considered to be a moral obligation, so too can animal enhancement. PMID:19880704

  6. 48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Care of laboratory animals. 1552.223-72 Section 1552.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Academy of Sciences (NAS)—National Research Council...

  7. 48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Care of laboratory animals. 1552.223-72 Section 1552.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Academy of Sciences (NAS)—National Research Council...

  8. Analyzing animal movements using Brownian bridges.

    PubMed

    Horne, Jon S; Garton, Edward O; Krone, Stephen M; Lewis, Jesse S

    2007-09-01

    By studying animal movements, researchers can gain insight into many of the ecological characteristics and processes important for understanding population-level dynamics. We developed a Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM) for estimating the expected movement path of an animal, using discrete location data obtained at relatively short time intervals. The BBMM is based on the properties of a conditional random walk between successive pairs of locations, dependent on the time between locations, the distance between locations, and the Brownian motion variance that is related to the animal's mobility. We describe two critical developments that enable widespread use of the BBMM, including a derivation of the model when location data are measured with error and a maximum likelihood approach for estimating the Brownian motion variance. After the BBMM is fitted to location data, an estimate of the animal's probability of occurrence can be generated for an area during the time of observation. To illustrate potential applications, we provide three examples: estimating animal home ranges, estimating animal migration routes, and evaluating the influence of fine-scale resource selection on animal movement patterns.

  9. Progress With Nonhuman Animal Models of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, John C

    2016-09-01

    Nonhuman animals have been major contributors to the science of the genetics of addiction. Given the explosion of interest in genetics, it is fair to ask, are we making reasonable progress toward our goals with animal models? I will argue that our goals are changing and that overall progress has been steady and seems likely to continue apace. Genetics tools have developed almost incredibly rapidly, enabling both more reductionist and more synthetic or integrative approaches. I believe that these approaches to making progress have been unbalanced in biomedical science, favoring reductionism, particularly in animal genetics. I argue that substantial, novel progress is also likely to come in the other direction, toward synthesis and abstraction. Another area in which future progress with genetic animal models seems poised to contribute more is the reconciliation of human and animal phenotypes, or consilience. The inherent power of the genetic animal models could be more profitably exploited. In the end, animal research has continued to provide novel insights about how genes influence individual differences in addiction risk and consequences. The rules of the genetics game are changing so fast that it is hard to remember how comparatively little we knew even a generation ago. Rather than worry about whether we have been wasting time and resources asking the questions we have been, we should look to the future and see if we can come up with some new ones. The valuable findings from the past will endure, and the sidetracks will be forgotten. PMID:27588527

  10. Hemophilia - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  11. Diabetes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  12. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  13. Arthritis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  14. Sustaining the National Geothermal Data System: Considerations for a System Wide Approach and Node Maintenance, Geothermal Resources Council 37th Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 29-October 2, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Lee; Chickering, Cathy; Anderson, Arlene; Richard, Stephen M.

    2013-09-23

    Since the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office has funded $33.7 million for multiple data digitization and aggregation projects focused on making vast amounts of geothermal relevant data available to industry for advancing geothermal exploration. These projects are collectively part of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), a distributed, networked system for maintaining, sharing, and accessing data in an effort to lower the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Determining “who owns” and “who maintains” the NGDS and its data nodes (repositories in the distributed system) is yet to be determined. However, the invest- ment in building and populating the NGDS has been substantial, both in terms of dollars and time; it is critical that this investment be protected by ensuring sustainability of the data, the software and systems, and the accessibility of the data. Only then, will the benefits be fully realized. To keep this operational system sustainable will require four core elements: continued serving of data and applications; maintenance of system operations; a governance structure; and an effective business model. Each of these presents a number of challenges. Data being added to the NGDS are not strictly geothermal but data considered relevant to geothermal exploration and develop- ment, including vast amounts of oil and gas and groundwater wells, among other data. These are relevant to a broader base of users. By diversifying the client base to other users and other fields, the cost of maintaining core infrastructure can be spread across an array of stakeholders and clients. It is presumed that NGDS will continue to provide free and open access to its data resources. The next-phase NGDS operation should be structured to eventually pursue revenue streams to help off-set sustainability expenses as necessary and appropriate, potentially including income from: grants and contracts

  15. Geothermal resources of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  16. Mars resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-05-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  17. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  18. Biomass energies: resources, links, constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: radiation and photosynthesis; primary production and biomass; resources; wood for energy; silviculture; requirements and effects; crop residues; residues for energy conversion; sugar crops and grain; cassava; fuel crops; aquatic plants; freshwater plants; ocean algae; animal wastes; Chinese biogas generation; and ecodisasters.

  19. Does the Animal Welfare Act apply to free-ranging animals?

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Daniel M

    2003-01-01

    Despite the long-standing role that institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) have played in reviewing and approving studies at academic institutions, compliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) is not always complete for government natural resource agencies that use free-ranging animals in research and management studies. Even at universities, IACUCs face uncertainties about what activities are covered and about how to judge proposed research on free-ranging animals. One reason for much of the confusion is the AWA vaguely worded exemption for "field studies." In particular, fish are problematic because of the AWA exclusion of poikilothermic animals. However, most university IACUCs review studies on all animals, and the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) has published the "IRAC Principles," which extend coverage to all vertebrates used by federal researchers. Despite this extended coverage, many scientists working on wild animals continue to view compliance with the AWA with little enthusiasm. IACUCs, IACUC veterinarians, wildlife veterinarians, and fish and wildlife biologists must learn to work together to comply with the law and to protect the privilege of using free-ranging animals in research.

  20. Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group.

    PubMed

    Day, M J; Karkare, U; Schultz, R D; Squires, R; Tsujimoto, H

    2015-02-01

    In 2012 and 2013, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) undertook fact-finding visits to several Asian countries, with a view to developing advice for small companion animal practitioners in Asia related to the administration of vaccines to dogs and cats. The VGG met with numerous first opinion practitioners, small animal association leaders, academic veterinarians, government regulators and industry representatives and gathered further information from a survey of almost 700 veterinarians in India, China, Japan and Thailand. Although there were substantial differences in the nature and magnitude of the challenges faced by veterinarians in each country, and also differences in the resources available to meet those challenges, overall, the VGG identified insufficient undergraduate and postgraduate training in small companion animal microbiology, immunology and vaccinology. In most of the countries, there has been little academic research into small animal infectious diseases. This, coupled with insufficient laboratory diagnostic support, has limited the growth of knowledge concerning the prevalence and circulating strains of key infectious agents in most of the countries visited. Asian practitioners continue to recognise clinical infections that are now considered uncommon or rare in western countries. In particular, canine rabies virus infection poses a continuing threat to animal and human health in this region. Both nationally manufactured and international dog and cat vaccines are variably available in the Asian countries, but the product ranges are small and dominated by multi-component vaccines with a licensed duration of immunity (DOI) of only 1 year, or no description of DOI. Asian practitioners are largely unaware of current global trends in small animal vaccinology or of the WSAVA vaccination guidelines. Consequently, most practitioners continue to deliver annual revaccination with both core and non

  1. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  2. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  3. Crafting a career in molecular animation.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Janet

    2014-10-01

    When I first set out on a path to becoming a cell biologist, I would have never imagined that it would lead to a career in molecular animation. I had always thought I would follow a more traditional route. What happened? In this essay, I will describe the experiences that led to my decision to forge a career as an academic molecular animator, and how my work has evolved over the years. I will also provide some resources and advice for those who may be considering following a similar route.

  4. Crafting a career in molecular animation

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, Janet

    2014-01-01

    When I first set out on a path to becoming a cell biologist, I would have never imagined that it would lead to a career in molecular animation. I had always thought I would follow a more traditional route. What happened? In this essay, I will describe the experiences that led to my decision to forge a career as an academic molecular animator, and how my work has evolved over the years. I will also provide some resources and advice for those who may be considering following a similar route. PMID:25267313

  5. Precision Editing of Large Animal Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenfang (Spring); Carlson, Daniel F.; Walton, Mark W.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.; Hackett, Perry B.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animals are an important source of protein and nutrition for most humans and will play key roles in satisfying the increasing demand for food in an ever-increasing world population. The past decade has experienced a revolution in the development of methods that permit the introduction of specific alterations to complex genomes. This precision will enhance genome-based improvement of farm animals for food production. Precision genetics also will enhance the development of therapeutic biomaterials and models of human disease as resources for the development of advanced patient therapies. PMID:23084873

  6. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    SciTech Connect

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  7. Windows on animal minds.

    PubMed

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  8. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed. PMID:22215021

  9. Southwestern desert resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halvorson, William L.; van Riper, Charles; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2010-01-01

    The southwestern deserts stretch from southeastern California to west Texas and then south to central Mexico. The landscape of this region is known as basin and range topography featuring to "sky islands" of forest rising from the desert lowlands which creates a uniquely diverse ecology. The region is further complicated by an international border, where governments have caused difficulties for many animal populations. This book puts a spotlight on individual research projects which are specific examples of work being done in the area and when they are all brought together, to shed a general light of understanding the biological and cultural resources of this vast region so that those same resources can be managed as effectively and efficiently as possible. The intent is to show that collaborative efforts among federal, state agency, university, and private sector researchers working with land managers, provides better science and better management than when scientists and land managers work independently.

  10. Mineral resource of the month: phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate rock minerals provide the only significant global resources of phosphorus, which is an essential element for plant and animal nutrition. Phosphate rock is used primarily as a principal component of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, but also to produce elemental phosphorus and animal feed.

  11. Food for Thought: Resourcing Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2009-01-01

    J.M. Coetzee's "Elizabeth Costello" is an overtly philosophical novel, at the heart of which are questions concerning the relation of human beings to animals and the discussion of animal rights. The nature of its subject matter and the prominence it gives to dialogue, sometimes of an almost Platonic kind, make it a rich potential resource for…

  12. Comparative analyses of animal-tracking data reveal ecological significance of endothermy in fishes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Goldman, Kenneth J; Caselle, Jennifer E; Chapman, Demian D; Papastamatiou, Yannis P

    2015-05-12

    Despite long evolutionary separations, several sharks and tunas share the ability to maintain slow-twitch, aerobic red muscle (RM) warmer than ambient water. Proximate causes of RM endothermy are well understood, but ultimate causes are unclear. Two advantages often proposed are thermal niche expansion and elevated cruising speeds. The thermal niche hypothesis is generally supported, because fishes with RM endothermy often exhibit greater tolerance to broad temperature ranges. In contrast, whether fishes with RM endothermy cruise faster, and achieve any ecological benefits from doing so, remains unclear. Here, we compiled data recorded by modern animal-tracking tools for a variety of free-swimming marine vertebrates. Using phylogenetically informed allometry, we show that both cruising speeds and maximum annual migration ranges of fishes with RM endothermy are 2-3 times greater than fishes without it, and comparable to nonfish endotherms (i.e., penguins and marine mammals). The estimated cost of transport of fishes with RM endothermy is twice that of fishes without it. We suggest that the high energetic cost of RM endothermy in fishes is offset by the benefit of elevated cruising speeds, which not only increase prey encounter rates, but also enable larger-scale annual migrations and potentially greater access to seasonally available resources. PMID:25902489

  13. Comparative analyses of animal-tracking data reveal ecological significance of endothermy in fishes

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y.; Goldman, Kenneth J.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Chapman, Demian D.; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite long evolutionary separations, several sharks and tunas share the ability to maintain slow-twitch, aerobic red muscle (RM) warmer than ambient water. Proximate causes of RM endothermy are well understood, but ultimate causes are unclear. Two advantages often proposed are thermal niche expansion and elevated cruising speeds. The thermal niche hypothesis is generally supported, because fishes with RM endothermy often exhibit greater tolerance to broad temperature ranges. In contrast, whether fishes with RM endothermy cruise faster, and achieve any ecological benefits from doing so, remains unclear. Here, we compiled data recorded by modern animal-tracking tools for a variety of free-swimming marine vertebrates. Using phylogenetically informed allometry, we show that both cruising speeds and maximum annual migration ranges of fishes with RM endothermy are 2–3 times greater than fishes without it, and comparable to nonfish endotherms (i.e., penguins and marine mammals). The estimated cost of transport of fishes with RM endothermy is twice that of fishes without it. We suggest that the high energetic cost of RM endothermy in fishes is offset by the benefit of elevated cruising speeds, which not only increase prey encounter rates, but also enable larger-scale annual migrations and potentially greater access to seasonally available resources. PMID:25902489

  14. Spatial overlap in a solitary carnivore: support for the land tenure, kinship or resource dispersion hypotheses?

    PubMed

    Elbroch, L Mark; Lendrum, Patrick E; Quigley, Howard; Caragiulo, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    There are several alternative hypotheses about the effects of territoriality, kinship and prey availability on individual carnivore distributions within populations. The first is the land-tenure hypothesis, which predicts that carnivores regulate their density through territoriality and temporal avoidance. The second is the kinship hypothesis, which predicts related individuals will be clumped within populations, and the third is the resource dispersion hypothesis, which suggests that resource richness may explain variable sociality, spatial overlap or temporary aggregations of conspecifics. Research on the socio-spatial organization of animals is essential in understanding territoriality, intra- and interspecific competition, and contact rates that influence diverse ecology, including disease transmission between conspecifics and courtship behaviours. We explored these hypotheses with data collected on a solitary carnivore, the cougar (Puma concolor), from 2005 to 2012 in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, Wyoming, USA. We employed 27 annual home ranges for 13 cougars to test whether home range overlap was better explained by land tenure, kinship, resource dispersion or some combination of the three. We found support for both the land tenure and resource dispersion hypotheses, but not for kinship. Cougar sex was the primary driver explaining variation in home range overlap. Males overlapped significantly with females, whereas the remaining dyads (F-F, M-M) overlapped significantly less. In support for the resource dispersion hypothesis, hunting opportunity (the probability of a cougar killing prey in a given location) was often higher in overlapping than in non-overlapping portions of cougar home ranges. In particular, winter hunt opportunity rather than summer hunt opportunity was higher in overlapping portions of female-female and male-female home ranges. Our results may indicate that solitary carnivores are more tolerant of sharing key resources with unrelated

  15. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    PubMed

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  16. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  17. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  18. Physics for Animation Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-11-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing (and now indispensable) component of their industry. Art students are keenly aware of these trends and understand that their future careers require them to have a broader exposure to science than in the past. Unfortunately, at present there is little overlap between art and science in the typical high school or college curriculum. This article describes our experience in bridging this gap at San Jose State University, with the hope that readers will find ideas that can be used in their own schools.

  19. Animal transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  20. NPP Beauty Pass Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animator's conception shows the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite orbiting the earth and interpreting weather data through it's myriad sensors. The Satellite is part of a bridge mission...