Science.gov

Sample records for animal test design

  1. Design, construction and testing of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small animals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M J; Preache, M M

    1980-11-01

    This final report describes both the engineering development of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small laboratory animals, and the biological protocol for the use of such enclosures in the testing of animals to determine possible biological effects of the environment associated with HVDC transmission lines. The test enclosure which has been designed is a modular unit, which will house up to eight rat-sized animals in individual compartments. Multiple test enclosures can be used to test larger numbers of animals. A prototype test enclosure has been fabricated and tested to characterize its electrical performance characteristics. The test enclosure provides a simulation of the dominant environment associated with HVDC transmission lines; namely, a static electric field and an ion current density. A biological experimental design has been developed for assessing the effects of the dominant components of the HVDC transmission line environment.

  2. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  3. Thin film nitinol covered stents: design and animal testing.

    PubMed

    Levi, Daniel S; Williams, Ryan J; Liu, Jasen; Danon, Saar; Stepan, Lenka L; Panduranga, Mohanchandra K; Fishbein, Michael C; Carman, Greg P

    2008-01-01

    Interventionalists in many specialties have the need for improved, low profile covered stents. Thin films of nitinol (<5-10 microns) could be used to improve current covered stent technology. A "hot target" sputter deposition technique was used to create thin films of nitinol for this study. Covered stents were created from commercially available balloon-inflatable and self-expanding stents. Stents were deployed in a laboratory flow loop and in four swine. Uncovered stent portions served as controls. Postmortem examinations were performed 2-6 weeks after implantation. In short-term testing, thin film nitinol covered stents deployed in the arterial circulation showed no intimal proliferation and were easily removed from the arterial wall postmortem. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thin layer of endothelial cells on the thin film, which covered the entire film by 3 weeks. By contrast, significant neointimal hyperplasia occurred on the luminal side of stents deployed in the venous circulation. Extremely low-profile covered stents can be manufactured using thin films of nitinol. Although long-term studies are needed, thin film nitinol may allow for the development of low-profile, nonthrombogenic covered stents.

  4. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

  5. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    PubMed

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  6. Animal Exposure During Burn Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaume, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    An animal exposure test system (AETS) was designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consisted of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration. Cage temperature is measured by a thermistor located in the upper portion of the rat compartment. Animal activity is monitored by the ECG and the records indicate an increase in EMG (electromyograph) noise super-imposed by the increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases and specific events occurring during the test. The AETS was shown to be a useful tool in screening materials for the relative toxicity of their outgassing products during pyrolysis and combustion.

  7. Design of a testing strategy using non-animal based test methods: lessons learnt from the ACuteTox project.

    PubMed

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Prieto, Pilar; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Stanzel, Sven

    2013-06-01

    In the framework of toxicology, a testing strategy can be viewed as a series of steps which are taken to come to a final prediction about a characteristic of a compound under study. The testing strategy is performed as a single-step procedure, usually called a test battery, using simultaneously all information collected on different endpoints, or as tiered approach in which a decision tree is followed. Design of a testing strategy involves statistical considerations, such as the development of a statistical prediction model. During the EU FP6 ACuteTox project, several prediction models were proposed on the basis of statistical classification algorithms which we illustrate here. The final choice of testing strategies was not based on statistical considerations alone. However, without thorough statistical evaluations a testing strategy cannot be identified. We present here a number of observations made from the statistical viewpoint which relate to the development of testing strategies. The points we make were derived from problems we had to deal with during the evaluation of this large research project. A central issue during the development of a prediction model is the danger of overfitting. Procedures are presented to deal with this challenge.

  8. Implementation challenges for designing integrated in vitro testing strategies (ITS) aiming at reducing and replacing animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Krul, Cyrille; Mikulowski, Stan; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L; Vilà, Maya R

    2012-04-01

    At the IVTIP (in vitro testing industrial platform) meeting of November 26th 2009 entitled 'Toxicology in the 21st century ('21C')--working our way towards a visionary reality' all delegates endorsed the emerging concept of the '21C' vision as the way forward to enable a thorough, reliable and systematic approach to future toxicity testing without the use of animals. One of the emerging concepts focused on integrating a defined number of tests modelling in vivo-relevant and well-characterised toxicity pathways representing mechanistic endpoints. At this meeting the importance of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) as tools towards reduction and eventually replacement of the animals currently used for hazard identification and risk assessment was recognised. A follow-up IVTIP Spring 2010 meeting entitled 'Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategies (ITS)--Implementation Challenges' was organised to address pending questions about ITS. This report is not a review of the ITS literature, but a summary of the discussions triggered by presented examples on how to develop and implement ITS. Contrasts between pharmaceutical and chemical industry, as well as a list of general but practical aspects to be considered while developing an ITS emerged from the discussions. In addition, current recommendations on the validation of ITS were discussed. In conclusion, the outcome of this workshop improved the understanding of the participants of some important factors that may impact the design of an ITS in function of its purpose (e.g., screening, or early decision making versus regulatory), the context in which they need to be applied (e.g., ICH guidelines, REACH) and the status and quality of the available tools. A set of recommendations of best practices was established and the importance of the applicability of the individual tests as well as the testing strategy itself was highlighted.

  9. Design and testing of microfabricated surgical tools for large animal probe insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Shelly

    2016-08-05

    Neural probes provide therapeutic stimulation for neuropsychiatric disorders or record neural activity to investigate the workings of the brain. Researchers utilize 6 mm long temporary silicon stiffeners attached with biodissolvable adhesive to insert flexible neural probes into rat brains, but increasing the probe length fivefold makes inserting large animal probes a significant challenge because of an increased potential for buckling. This study compared the insertion success rates of 6 mm and 30 mm long silicon stiffeners that were 80 μm wide and 30 μm thick, and ascertained the material thickness and modulus of elasticity that would provide successful insertion for a 30 mm probe. Using a microdrive, stiffeners were inserted into an agarose brain phantom at controlled insertion speeds while being video-recorded. Twenty-five percent of the 30 mm silicon stiffeners fully inserted at speeds approximately four times higher than the target rate of 0.13 mm/s, while 100 percent of the 6 mm silicon stiffeners inserted successfully at target speed. Critical buckling loads (Pcr) were calculated for the 6 mm and 30 mm silicon stiffeners, and for 30 mm diamond and tungsten stiffeners, with thicknesses varying from 30-80 μm. Increasing the thickness of the material by 10 μm, 20 μm and 30 μm improved the Pcr by 2.4, 4.7 and 8.2 times, respectively, independent of the material, and substituting diamond for silicon multiplied the buckling capacity by 5.0 times. Stiffeners made of silicon for large animal probe insertion are not strong enough to withstand buckling upon insertion without a significant increase in thickness. Replacing silicon with diamond and increasing the thickness of the stiffener to 50 μm would afford a stiffener with the same Pcr capacity as the 6 mm silicon stiffener that had a 100 percent insertion success rate. Experiments should continue with diamond to determine a minimum thickness that will ensure successful

  10. Animal exposure during burn tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaume, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    An animal exposure test system has been designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consists of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram and respiration. The ECG and respiration sensors are located in a belt placed around the torso of the subject, electrode wires forming an umbilical to a connector in the top of the compartment. A cable extends from the connector to the power supply and signal conditioning electronics. These are connected to a dual-beam oscilloscope for real time monitoring and a magnetic tape recorder having three or more channels. Endpoints observed are bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, changes in respiratory pattern, respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest. The ECG record also appears to be a good method of monitoring animal activity as indicated by an increase in EMG noise superimposed on the record during increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases.

  11. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designated scrapie epidemiologist may conduct testing of animals if he or she determines such testing is... epidemiologist will select animals for testing in a manner that will provide a 95 percent confidence of detecting... lambed in the flock are available for testing, may limit the testing to all exposed and suspect...

  12. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designated scrapie epidemiologist may conduct testing of animals if he or she determines such testing is... epidemiologist will select animals for testing in a manner that will provide a 95 percent confidence of detecting... lambed in the flock are available for testing, may limit the testing to all exposed and suspect...

  13. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designated scrapie epidemiologist may conduct testing of animals if he or she determines such testing is... epidemiologist will select animals for testing in a manner that will provide a 95 percent confidence of detecting... lambed in the flock are available for testing, may limit the testing to all exposed and suspect...

  14. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... designated scrapie epidemiologist may conduct testing of animals if he or she determines such testing is... epidemiologist will select animals for testing in a manner that will provide a 95 percent confidence of detecting... lambed in the flock are available for testing, may limit the testing to all exposed and suspect...

  15. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4... Test animals. (a) All test animals shall be examined for clinical signs of illness, injury, or abnormal behavior prior to the start of a test and throughout the observation period specified in the test...

  16. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4... Test animals. (a) All test animals shall be examined for clinical signs of illness, injury, or abnormal behavior prior to the start of a test and throughout the observation period specified in the test...

  17. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment.

  18. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  19. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  20. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  1. Laboratory Animal Facilities. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1965-01-01

    Design of laboratory animal facilities must be functional. Accordingly, the designer should be aware of the complex nature of animal research and specifically the type of animal research which will be conducted in a new facility. The building of animal-care facilities in research institutions requires special knowledge in laboratory animal…

  2. An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them.

  3. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. (a) Designation. A designated scrapie...

  4. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  5. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    PubMed

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments.

  6. New EPA Guidance for Testing Pesticides Will Reduce Animal Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing guidance for requesting waivers of acute dermal toxicity testing requirements for pesticide formulations, which will lead to fewer animal tests for acute dermal toxicity for pesticides.

  7. Recommendations for animal DNA forensic and identity testing.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Garofano, Paolo; Hellman, Andreas; Ketchum, Melba; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Parson, Walther; van Haeringen, Wim; Fain, Steve; Broad, Tom

    2005-09-01

    Genetic analysis in animals has been used for many applications, such as kinship analysis, for determining the sire of an offspring when a female has been exposed to multiple males, determining parentage when an animal switches offspring with another dam, extended lineage reconstruction, estimating inbreeding, identification in breed registries, and speciation. It now also is being used increasingly to characterize animal materials in forensic cases. As such, it is important to operate under a set of minimum guidelines that assures that all service providers have a template to follow for quality practices. None have been delineated for animal genetic identity testing. Based on the model for human DNA forensic analyses, a basic discussion of the issues and guidelines is provided for animal testing to include analytical practices, data evaluation, nomenclature, allele designation, statistics, validation, proficiency testing, lineage markers, casework files, and reporting. These should provide a basis for professional societies and/or working groups to establish more formalized recommendations.

  8. Design of a small animal biopsy robot.

    PubMed

    Bebek, Ozkan; Hwang, Myun Joong; Fei, Baowei; Cavusoglu, M

    2008-01-01

    Small animals are widely used in biomedical research studies. They have compact anatomy and small organs. Therefore it is difficult to perceive tumors or cells and perform biopsies manually. Robotics technology offers a convenient and reliable solution for accurate needle insertion. In this paper, a novel 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) robot design for inserting needles into small animal subjects is proposed. The design has a compact size, is light weight, and has high resolution. Parallel mechanisms are used in the design for stable and reliable operation. The proposed robot has two gimbal joints that carry the needle mechanism. The robot can realize dexterous alignment of the needle before insertion.

  9. Hypothesis testing in animal social networks.

    PubMed

    Croft, Darren P; Madden, Joah R; Franks, Daniel W; James, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Behavioural ecologists are increasingly using social network analysis to describe the social organisation of animal populations and to test hypotheses. However, the statistical analysis of network data presents a number of challenges. In particular the non-independent nature of the data violates the assumptions of many common statistical approaches. In our opinion there is currently confusion and uncertainty amongst behavioural ecologists concerning the potential pitfalls when hypotheses testing using social network data. Here we review what we consider to be key considerations associated with the analysis of animal social networks and provide a practical guide to the use of null models based on randomisation to control for structure and non-independence in the data.

  10. Accelerated test design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an accelerated life test program for electric batteries is discussed. A number of observations and suggestions on the procedures and objectives for conducting an accelerated life test program are presented. Equations based on nonlinear regression analysis for predicting the accelerated life test parameters are discussed.

  11. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  12. Computer Designed Instruction & Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on computer designed instruction and testing at the college level are discussed in 13 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching at New Mexico State University. Titles and authors are as follows: "Don't Bother Me with Instructional Design, I'm Busy Programming! Suggestions for More Effective Educational…

  13. Large animal models for vaccine development and testing.

    PubMed

    Gerdts, Volker; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, Francois; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Wilson, Don; Walker, Stewart; Wheler, Colette; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    The development of human vaccines continues to rely on the use of animals for research. Regulatory authorities require novel vaccine candidates to undergo preclinical assessment in animal models before being permitted to enter the clinical phase in human subjects. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in reducing and replacing the number of animals used for preclinical vaccine research through the use of bioinformatics and computational biology to design new vaccine candidates. However, the ultimate goal of a new vaccine is to instruct the immune system to elicit an effective immune response against the pathogen of interest, and no alternatives to live animal use currently exist for evaluation of this response. Studies identifying the mechanisms of immune protection; determining the optimal route and formulation of vaccines; establishing the duration and onset of immunity, as well as the safety and efficacy of new vaccines, must be performed in a living system. Importantly, no single animal model provides all the information required for advancing a new vaccine through the preclinical stage, and research over the last two decades has highlighted that large animals more accurately predict vaccine outcome in humans than do other models. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of large animal models for human vaccine development and demonstrate that much of the success in bringing a new vaccine to market depends on choosing the most appropriate animal model for preclinical testing.

  14. The Potential of Adaptive Design in Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Majid, Arshad; Bae, Ok-Nam; Redgrave, Jessica; Teare, Dawn; Ali, Ali; Zemke, Daniel

    2015-10-12

    Clinical trials are the backbone of medical research, and are often the last step in the development of new therapies for use in patients. Prior to human testing, however, preclinical studies using animal subjects are usually performed in order to provide initial data on the safety and effectiveness of prospective treatments. These studies can be costly and time consuming, and may also raise concerns about the ethical treatment of animals when potentially harmful procedures are involved. Adaptive design is a process by which the methods used in a study may be altered while it is being conducted in response to preliminary data or other new information. Adaptive design has been shown to be useful in reducing the time and costs associated with clinical trials, and may provide similar benefits in preclinical animal studies. The purpose of this review is to summarize various aspects of adaptive design and evaluate its potential for use in preclinical research.

  15. Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team

    2014-03-01

    A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.

  16. Free the animals? Investigating attitudes toward animal testing in Britain and the United States.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Christopher, Andrew N

    2008-06-01

    In this study, 185 British and 143 American undergraduates completed a battery of tests that measured attitudes toward animal testing and various individual difference variables. Attitudes toward animal testing factored into two interpretable factors: general attitudes toward animal testing, and animal welfare and conditions of testing. Overall, there was support for animal testing under the right conditions, although there was also concern for the welfare of animals and the conditions under which testing takes place. There were small but significant national difference on both factors (with Americans more positive about testing and less positive about animal welfare), and a significant sex difference on the first factor (women were more negative about testing). Correlation and regression analyses showed that there were few significant individual difference predictors of both factors. These results are discussed in relation to past and future work on attitudes toward animal testing.

  17. [Animal testing ethics and human testing. Thoughts on our conduct with and our relationship to animals].

    PubMed

    Locker, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    After many years of experimental work with animals of diverse species, the author felt confronted with the question whether the great expenditure of sacrificed animal life would pay off when compared with the results gained. By self-critically considering his work, he gradually experienced a conversion from an unconcerned experimenter to a man feeling a deep sympathy with his fellow creatures. This motivated him to ponder the true nature of animals. Instead of applying ethics--though justified in its own realm--the author preferred to look at the problem using the General Systems Theory (GST), which can describe "the other side" of any system, the side into which any system may occasionally or necessarily transform. It occurred to him to assume that--provided we see a living organism as a system (as Ludwig von Bertalanffy, the founder of GST, did)--the "other side" of the animal would correspond to an innocent "genius" who suffers for man (thereby assuming a Christ-like position), whereas in its transitory life the true essence of the animal is hidden. Thus, by fancifully viewing the role of animals destined to suffer, a connection between GST and theology or religion arises. The consequence for us would be to pay honour to the test animal, irrespective of whether or not painful experiments could be avoided. The differentiation between a sacrifice (spiritually surrendering for a greater good) and a victim (involuntarily subjected to suffering) reveals that the experimental animal primarily belongs to the latter. But it can be elevated to the former when the full meaning of its suffering becomes obvious. The same holds true for "human testing", if, in contrast to the formidable atrocities, e.g. of concentration camps, the momentum of voluntariness is guaranteed, as pioneers of medical research frequently demonstrated by carrying out experiments on themselves.

  18. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.4 Animal... is an animal feed within the meaning of section 201(w) of the act and meets the requirements for...

  19. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.4 Animal... is an animal feed within the meaning of section 201(w) of the act and meets the requirements for...

  20. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.4 Animal... is an animal feed within the meaning of section 201(w) of the act and meets the requirements for...

  1. 16 CFR 1500.232 - Statement on animal testing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-15 minutes apart, prior to instilling the test material to the eye); post-treatment with systemic... the use of animal tests to determine the presence of the hazard when human data or existing animal... such tests to a minimum number of animals and advocates measures that eliminate or reduce the pain...

  2. 16 CFR 1500.232 - Statement on animal testing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-15 minutes apart, prior to instilling the test material to the eye); post-treatment with systemic... the use of animal tests to determine the presence of the hazard when human data or existing animal... such tests to a minimum number of animals and advocates measures that eliminate or reduce the pain...

  3. 77 FR 73286 - Codification of Animal Testing Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... ophthalmic anesthetic, 10-15 minutes apart, prior to instilling the test material to the eye); post-treatment... regulations on the CPSC's animal testing methods under 16 CPR part 1500 to clarify alternative test methods... replacements, reductions, or refinements to animal tests including recommendations of and test methods of...

  4. Orion: Exploration Flight Test-1 Animation (no narration)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the proposed test flight of the Orion spacecraft in 2014. During the test, which is called Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), Orion will launch from Cape Canaveral, Fla., per...

  5. Immune changes in test animals during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesnyak, A. T.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Rykova, M. P.; Meshkov, D. O.; Mastro, A.; Konstantinova, I.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past two decades, it has become apparent that changes in immune parameters occur in cosmonauts and astronauts after spaceflight. Therefore, interest has been generated in the use of animal surrogates to better understand the nature and extent of these changes, the mechanism of these changes, and to allow the possible development of countermeasures. Among the changes noted in animals after spaceflight are alterations in lymphocytic blastogenesis, cytokine function, natural killer cell activity, and colony-stimulating factors. The nature and significance of spaceflight-induced changes in immune responses will be the focus of this review.

  6. Testing Alternative Hypotheses about Animal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Lang, Michael; Lawson, Anton E.

    Research indicates that the effectiveness of instruction in the elementary classroom is enhanced when it incorporates materials that actively engage students in the generation of scientific explanations. To this end, this document describes an exercise that allows Kindergarten students to explore the basic principles of animal behavior in an…

  7. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    With an estimated 17-22 million animals used in laboratories annually in the United States, public interest in animal welfare has sparked an often emotional debate over such uses of animals. Concerns focus on balancing societal needs for continued progress in biomedical and behavioral research, for toxicity testing to safeguard the public, and for…

  8. HMX: Acute Toxicity Tests in Laboratory Animals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-30

    Nutrition expanded Rat and Mouse Maintenance Diet No. 1 (Appendix 1) but were deprived of food for a 16 h period prior to dosing. Water was available...humidity was 57% (extremes of 52%-74%). The animals were fed on BP Nutrition expanded Rat and Mouse Maintenance Diet No. 1 but were deprived of food for a... Nutrition expanded Rat and Mouse Maintenance Diet No. 1. Food and water were avail- able ad libitum throughout the study. c) Method The application site

  9. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    PubMed

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  10. Alternatives to animal testing: research, trends, validation, regulatory acceptance.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Current trends and issues in the development of alternatives to the use of animals in biomedical experimentation are discussed in this position paper. Eight topics are considered and include refinement of acute toxicity assays; eye corrosion/irritation alternatives; skin corrosion/irritation alternatives; contact sensitization alternatives; developmental/reproductive testing alternatives; genetic engineering (transgenic) assays; toxicogenomics; and validation of alternative methods. The discussion of refinement of acute toxicity assays is focused primarily on developments with regard to reduction of the number of animals used in the LD(50) assay. However, the substitution of humane endpoints such as clinical signs of toxicity for lethality in these assays is also evaluated. Alternative assays for eye corrosion/irritation as well as those for skin corrosion/irritation are described with particular attention paid to the outcomes, both successful and unsuccessful, of several validation efforts. Alternative assays for contact sensitization and developmental/reproductive toxicity are presented as examples of methods designed for the examination of interactions between toxins and somewhat more complex physiological systems. Moreover, genetic engineering and toxicogenomics are discussed with an eye toward the future of biological experimentation in general. The implications of gene manipulation for research animals, specifically, are also examined. Finally, validation methods are investigated as to their effectiveness, or lack thereof, and suggestions for their standardization and improvement, as well as implementation are reviewed.

  11. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required.

  12. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  13. 77 FR 38751 - Codification of Animal Testing Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... to eliminate or reduce the pain or discomfort that can be associated with such tests* * *.The... also advocates measures that eliminate or reduce the pain or discomfort to animals that can be... plan to reduce animal suffering: (1) The use of preemptive pain management, including...

  14. Botulinum toxin testing in animals: the questions remain unanswered.

    PubMed

    Balls, Michael

    2003-12-01

    Questions are raised concerning the testing of botulinum toxin in animals, and the British Government's answers to Parliamentary Questions on this issue are reviewed, with an emphasis on the potential for reducing, refining and replacing the animal tests, which can involve substantial severity, and on the responsibility of the Home Office so see that the Three Rs approach is fully applied in this specific case.

  15. Humane Society International's global campaign to end animal testing.

    PubMed

    Seidle, Troy

    2013-12-01

    The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in the EU through the revision of biocides and plant protection product regulations, among others. HSI is currently working to export these life-saving measures to more than a dozen industrial and emerging economies.

  16. [Non-animal toxicology in the safety testing of chemicals].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Tuula; Tähti, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop predictive test methods better than animal experiments for assessing the safety of chemical substances to man. According to today's vision this is achieved by using human cell based tissue and organ models. In the new testing strategy the toxic effects are assessed by the changes in the critical parameters of the cellular biochemical routes (AOP, adverse toxic outcome pathway-principle) in the target tissues. In vitro-tests are rapid and effective, and with them automation can be applied. The change in the testing paradigm is supported by all stakeholders: scientists, regulators and people concerned on animal welfare.

  17. Alternatives to animal testing in the safety evaluation of products.

    PubMed

    Knight, Derek J; Breheny, Damien

    2002-01-01

    The conventional method for assessing the safety of products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to agrochemicals, biocides and industrial and household chemicals - including cosmetics - involves determining their toxicological properties by using experimental animals. The aim is to identify any possible adverse effects in humans by using these animal models. Providing safe products is undoubtedly of the utmost importance but, over the last decade or so, this aim has come into conflict with strong public opinion, especially in Europe, against animal testing. Industry, academia and the regulators have worked in partnership to find other ways of evaluating the safety of products, by non-animal testing, or at least by reducing the numbers of animals required and the severity of the tests in which they are used. There is a long way to go before products can be evaluated without any animal studies, and it may be that this laudable aim is an impossible dream. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made by using a combination of in vitro tests and the prediction of properties based on chemical structure. The aim of this review is to describe these important and worthwhile developments in various areas of toxicological testing, with a focus on the European regulatory framework for general industrial and household chemicals.

  18. Non-animal test methods for predicting skin sensitization potentials.

    PubMed

    Mehling, Annette; Eriksson, Tove; Eltze, Tobias; Kolle, Susanne; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Contact allergies are complex diseases, and it is estimated that 15-20 % of the general population suffers from contact allergy, with increasing prevalence. Evaluation of the sensitization potential of a substance is usually carried out in animal models. Nowadays, there is much interest in reducing and ultimately replacing current animal tests. Furthermore, as of 2013, the EU has posed a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients that includes skin sensitization. Therefore, predictive and robust in vitro tests are urgently needed. In order to establish alternatives to animal testing, the in vitro tests must mimic the very complex interactions between the sensitizing chemical and the different parts of the immune system. This review article summarizes recent efforts to develop in vitro tests for predicting skin sensitizers. Cell-based assays, in chemico methods and, to a lesser extent, in silico methods are presented together with a discussion of their current status. With considerable progress having been achieved during the last years, the rationale today is that data from different non-animal test methods will have to be combined in order to obtain reliable hazard and potency information on potential skin sensitizers.

  19. Animal models for testing anti-prion drugs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Elezgarai, Saioa R; Eraña, Hasier; Castilla, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases belong to a group of fatal infectious diseases with no effective therapies available. Throughout the last 35 years, less than 50 different drugs have been tested in different experimental animal models without hopeful results. An important limitation when searching for new drugs is the existence of appropriate models of the disease. The three different possible origins of prion diseases require the existence of different animal models for testing anti-prion compounds. Wild type, over-expressing transgenic mice and other more sophisticated animal models have been used to evaluate a diversity of compounds which some of them were previously tested in different in vitro experimental models. The complexity of prion diseases will require more pre-screening studies, reliable sporadic (or spontaneous) animal models and accurate chemical modifications of the selected compounds before having an effective therapy against human prion diseases. This review is intended to put on display the more relevant animal models that have been used in the search of new antiprion therapies and describe some possible procedures when handling chemical compounds presumed to have anti-prion activity prior to testing them in animal models.

  20. Political incentives towards replacing animal testing in nanotechnology?

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2009-01-01

    The Treaty of Lisbon requests the European Union and the Member States to pay full regard to animal welfare issues when implementing new policies. The present article discusses how these provisions are met in the emerging area of nanotechnology. Political action plans in Europe take into account animal welfare issues to some extent. Funding programmes promote the development of non-animal test methods, however only in the area of nanotoxicology and also here not sufficiently to "pay full regard" to preventing animal testing, let alone to bring about a paradigm change in toxicology or in biomedical research as such. Ethical deliberations on nanotechnology, which influence future policies, so far do not address animal welfare at all. Considering that risk assessment of nanoproducts is conceived as a key element to protect human dignity, ethical deliberations should address the choice of the underlying testing methods and call for basing nanomaterial safety testing upon the latest scientific--and ethically acceptable--technologies. Finally, public involvement in the debate on nanotechnology should take into account information on resulting animal experiments.

  1. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.

  2. Capability Test Design and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-13

    UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Joint Test and Evaluation Methodology (JTEM),Washington,DC,20301 8. PERFORMING...refinement process for testing in a joint environment (TIJE) 2. Review the methods and processes for an evaluation strategy refinement process 3...Environment System Design Document (SDD) JTEM Capability Test Methodology (CTM) v2.0 Event Management Plan Test Plan Joint Capability Evaluation (JCE

  3. Design Factors for Educationally Effective Animations and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plass, Jan L.; Homer, Bruce D.; Hayward, Elizabeth O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews research on learning from dynamic visual representations and offers principles for the design of animations and simulations that assure their educational effectiveness. In addition to established principles, new and revised design principle are presented that have been derived from recent research. Our review focuses on the…

  4. Juvenile animal toxicity study designs to support pediatric drug development.

    PubMed

    Cappon, Gregg D; Bailey, Graham P; Buschmann, Jochen; Feuston, Maureen H; Fisher, J Edward; Hew, Kok Wah; Hoberman, Alan M; Ooshima, Yojiro; Stump, Donald G; Hurtt, Mark E

    2009-12-01

    The objective of juvenile animal toxicity studies of pharmaceuticals is to obtain safety data, including information on the potential for adverse effects on postnatal growth and development. Studies in juvenile animals may assist in identifying postnatal developmental toxicities or other adverse effects that are not adequately assessed in the routine toxicity evaluations and that cannot be safely or adequately measured in pediatric clinical trials. Unlike the traditional reproductive and developmental toxicology studies that have been discussed in the accompanying reports, the design requirements for toxicity studies in juvenile animals are not explicitly defined in regulatory guidance. However, studies in juvenile animals can be useful in providing safety information necessary to enable pediatric clinical trials in pediatric patients or when there are special concerns for toxicities that cannot be safely or adequately measured in clinical trials. These juvenile animal toxicity studies are designed on a case-by-case basis. General design considerations and examples of study designs for assessment of juvenile animal toxicity are discussed.

  5. LSP Composite Test Bed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Arthur C.; Griess, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides standalone information for the Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) Composite Substrate Test Bed Design. A six-sheet drawing set is reproduced for reference, as is some additional descriptive information on suitable sensors and use of the test bed.

  6. Questions Dog Design of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of signing a contract to help design assessments for the common standards, ACT Inc. has withdrawn from the project amid conflict-of-interest questions sparked by its own development of a similar suite of tests. Even though it involves only a small subcontract, the move by the Iowa-based test-maker, and the questions from the state…

  7. Sensors system design for discrimination between humans and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ǎgulinescu, Ana-Maria Claudia, Dr; Marcu, Ioana; Halunga, Simona; Fratu, Octavian

    2016-12-01

    The applicability areas for sensor networks vary from industrial automation, environmental observation to medical domain [1]. As the quality of life has improved, the life expectancy also increased during the last years, fact that leads to an aging of the population. It is well known that elderly people need special treatment and resources due to their decreasing capacity of self-caring. It is, thus, desirable to increase the length of independent living for this category without depriving them from the known life environment and personal habits. Another possible application is the one of child care and monitoring in closed precincts. This paper illustrates the implementation steps of a sensor network used for discriminating between the presence of a human being and of an animal that may be useful in case of medical emergency situations. The design takes into account the main challenges that may occur such as achievement of not accurate results due to the fact that children are moving much more than an adult. The basic structure is designed using Arduino platform, sensors for distance measurements, for height determination as well as DHT22 temperature sensor and sensors for motion detection and takes into account cases of walking and standing subjects. Several configurations have been tested in order to improve the relative error for discrimination between children and pet entering a room.

  8. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  9. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  10. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  11. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing....

  12. Computer-generated animation for analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeser, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The development of computer-generated animation techniques was reviewed and some examples of the current state of the art were described. A number of ways in which computer-generated animation can be used were examined in relation to the suitability for the engineering task at hand. The examples described are primarily concerned with attempting to combine two different types of simulation: that of superposition of an engineering design on the surrounding real world, and an evaluation of this simulation both from an engineering design and an aesthetic point of view.

  13. The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

  14. Animal Models for Testing the DOHaD Hypothesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the seminal work in human populations by David Barker and colleagues, several species of animals have been used in the laboratory to test the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, sheep, pigs and non-human primates have bee...

  15. Development of a Computer Animated Science Process Skills Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Michael E.; And Others

    The graphics and animation capabilities of computers offer a new dimension in science testing. Instead of presenting verbal situations or questions with accompanying pictures, computers can present simulated actions and events that are the focus of science questions. The purpose of this project was to develop a valid and reliable computer-based…

  16. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used, as well as microorganisms and higher plants. A variety of tissue cultures, including immortalised cell lines, embryonic and adult stem cells, and organotypic cultures, are also available. In vitro assays utilising bacterial, yeast, protozoal, mammalian or human cell cultures exist for a wide range of toxic and other endpoints. These may be static or perfused, and may be used individually, or combined within test batteries. Human hepatocyte cultures and metabolic activation systems offer potential assessment of metabolite activity and organ-organ interaction. Microarray technology may allow genetic expression profiling, increasing the speed of toxin detection, well prior to more invasive endpoints. Enhanced human clinical trials utilising micro- dosing, staggered dosing, and more representative study populations and durations, as well as surrogate human tissues, advanced imaging modalities and human epidemiological, sociological and psycho- logical studies, may increase our understanding of illness aetiology and pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of safe and effective pharmacologic interventions. Particularly when human tissues

  17. Ares I Static Tests Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, William; Lindemuth, Kathleen; Mich, John; White, K. Preston; Parker, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic engineering design enhances safety and reduces costs by incorporating risk assessment directly into the design process. In this paper, we assess the format of the quantitative metrics for the vehicle which will replace the Space Shuttle, the Ares I rocket. Specifically, we address the metrics for in-flight measurement error in the vector position of the motor nozzle, dictated by limits on guidance, navigation, and control systems. Analyses include the propagation of error from measured to derived parameters, the time-series of dwell points for the duty cycle during static tests, and commanded versus achieved yaw angle during tests. Based on these analyses, we recommend a probabilistic template for specifying the maximum error in angular displacement and radial offset for the nozzle-position vector. Criteria for evaluating individual tests and risky decisions also are developed.

  18. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Washington. (c) Mexican border ports. The following land border ports are designated as having...

  19. Potential complications to TB vaccine testing in animal models.

    PubMed

    Orme, Ian M

    2009-06-01

    Testing of new vaccines in animal models has certain advantages and disadvantages. As we better understand the complexity of the immune response to vaccines, new information may be complicating the assessment of the efficacy of new candidate vaccines. Four possible complications are discussed here, (i) induction of Foxp3+ T cells; (ii) induction of memory T cell subsets; (iii) location of extracellular organisms in lung necrosis; and (iv) protection against isolates of high/extreme immunopathology.

  20. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Ascomycetous Yeasts Isolated from Animals

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E.; Peláez, Teresa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that antifungal resistance in yeast isolates of veterinary origin may be an underdiagnosed threat. We tested a collection of 92 ascomycetous yeast isolates that were obtained in Spain from birds, mammals and insects for antifungal susceptibility. MICs to amphotericin B and azoles were low, and no resistant isolates were detected. Despite these results, and given the potential role of animals as reservoirs of resistant strains, continuous monitoring of antifungal susceptibility in the veterinary setting is recommended. PMID:27216048

  1. Can Animations Effectively Substitute for Traditional Teaching Methods? Part I: Preparation and Testing of Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregorius, Roberto Ma.; Santos, Rhodora; Dano, Judith B.; Gutierrez, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    Two animations, one focused on the macroscopic phenomena and particulate conception of the three states of matter and the effects of heat on these states, and the other on solution formation and solubility were produced using Adobe Flash MX software. The first was designed for and tested on elementary school (3rd-5th grade) students. The second…

  2. Optical design and testing: introduction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi Chin; Liang, Chao-Wen; Koshel, John; Sasian, Jose; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Wang, Yongtian; Zavisian, James M

    2015-10-01

    Optical design and testing have numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and bio-medical settings. This issue features original research ranging from the optical design of image and nonimage optical stimuli for human perception, optics applications, bio-optics applications, displays, and solar energy systems to novel imaging modalities from deep UV to infrared spectral imaging, a systems perspective to imaging, as well as optical measurement. In addition, new concepts and trends for optics and further optical systems will be especially highlighted in this special issue.

  3. Optical design and testing: introduction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chao-Wen; Koshel, John; Sasian, Jose; Breault, Robert; Wang, Yongtian; Fang, Yi Chin

    2014-10-10

    Optical design and testing has numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging or nonimage optical system may require the integration of optics, mechatronics, lighting technology, optimization, ray tracing, aberration analysis, image processing, tolerance compensation, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from the optical design of image and nonimage optical stimuli for human perception, optics applications, bio-optics applications, 3D display, solar energy system, opto-mechatronics to novel imaging or nonimage modalities in visible and infrared spectral imaging, modulation transfer function measurement, and innovative interferometry.

  4. Animal models of anxiety: do I need multiple tests?

    PubMed

    Ramos, André

    2008-10-01

    The combination of cutting-edge molecular technology and high-throughput phenotyping tools will not bring the expected contribution to the pre-clinical study of anxiety if not paralleled by an increase in our capacity to interpret behavioral data. Here, previous views about the multidimensional nature of emotional behaviors will be expanded and the psychological meaning and behavioral overlaps of widely used anxiety tests such as the open field, elevated plus maze and light-dark box will be discussed. It is proposed here that short-term, intra-individual variations in emotionality, although normally overlooked, constitute an important factor in the study of anxiety and can lead to unreliable estimates of the similarities between tests. The physical integration of different current tests in one single apparatus, in such a way that the emotional status of an animal becomes assessable through a series of distinct tasks, could contribute to increase reliability, rapidity and comprehensiveness in behavioral testing.

  5. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper.

  6. Improved animal models for testing gene therapy for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Du, Liang; Zhang, Jingwan; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Flynn, Rowan; Dichek, David A

    2014-04-01

    Gene therapy delivered to the blood vessel wall could augment current therapies for atherosclerosis, including systemic drug therapy and stenting. However, identification of clinically useful vectors and effective therapeutic transgenes remains at the preclinical stage. Identification of effective vectors and transgenes would be accelerated by availability of animal models that allow practical and expeditious testing of vessel-wall-directed gene therapy. Such models would include humanlike lesions that develop rapidly in vessels that are amenable to efficient gene delivery. Moreover, because human atherosclerosis develops in normal vessels, gene therapy that prevents atherosclerosis is most logically tested in relatively normal arteries. Similarly, gene therapy that causes atherosclerosis regression requires gene delivery to an existing lesion. Here we report development of three new rabbit models for testing vessel-wall-directed gene therapy that either prevents or reverses atherosclerosis. Carotid artery intimal lesions in these new models develop within 2-7 months after initiation of a high-fat diet and are 20-80 times larger than lesions in a model we described previously. Individual models allow generation of lesions that are relatively rich in either macrophages or smooth muscle cells, permitting testing of gene therapy strategies targeted at either cell type. Two of the models include gene delivery to essentially normal arteries and will be useful for identifying strategies that prevent lesion development. The third model generates lesions rapidly in vector-naïve animals and can be used for testing gene therapy that promotes lesion regression. These models are optimized for testing helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd)-mediated gene therapy; however, they could be easily adapted for testing of other vectors or of different types of molecular therapies, delivered directly to the blood vessel wall. Our data also supports the promise of HDAd to deliver long

  7. Testing episodic memory in animals: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D P; Clayton, N S

    2001-08-01

    Episodic memory involves the encoding and storage of memories concerned with unique personal experiences and their subsequent recall, and it has long been the subject of intensive investigation in humans. According to Tulving's classical definition, episodic memory "receives and stores information about temporally dated episodes or events and temporal-spatial relations among these events." Thus, episodic memory provides information about the 'what' and 'when' of events ('temporally dated experiences') and about 'where' they happened ('temporal-spatial relations'). The storage and subsequent recall of this episodic information was thought to be beyond the memory capabilities of nonhuman animals. Although there are many laboratory procedures for investigating memory for discrete past episodes, until recently there were no previous studies that fully satisfied the criteria of Tulving's definition: they can all be explained in much simpler terms than episodic memory. However, current studies of memory for cache sites in food-storing jays provide an ethologically valid model for testing episodic-like memory in animals, thereby bridging the gap between human and animal studies memory. There is now a pressing need to adapt these experimental tests of episodic memory for other animals. Given the potential power of transgenic and knock-out procedures for investigating the genetic and molecular bases of learning and memory in laboratory rodents, not to mention the wealth of knowledge about the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the rodent hippocampus (a brain area heavily implicated in episodic memory), an obvious next step is to develop a rodent model of episodic-like memory based on the food-storing bird paradigm. The development of a rodent model system could make an important contribution to our understanding of the neural, molecular, and behavioral mechanisms of mammalian episodic memory.

  8. Copro-DNA tests for diagnosis of animal taeniid cestodes.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter

    2006-01-01

    PCR has proven its value for the diagnosis of taeniid cestodes in animal definitive hosts, although only few specific tests are available at the moment (Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus 'sheep strain'). Additional tests with specificities for further taeniids are urgently needed and new tests are currently being developed, e.g. a multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus (all strains) and Taenia spp. (all species). PCR is a technically demanding and expensive technique: DNA isolation from faecal specimens remains a laborious task because of the presence of PCR-inhibitory substances, and special precautions need to be taken to avoid false-positive results due to cross-contamination of amplification reactions. PCR, therefore, is mainly used for confirmative purposes of coproantigen-positive samples or for identification of taeniid eggs recovered from faecal specimens or from environmental samples.

  9. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND...

  10. Non-animal sensitization testing: state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Vandebriel, Rob J; van Loveren, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Predictive tests to identify the sensitizing properties of chemicals are carried out using animals. In the European Union timelines for phasing out many standard animal tests were established for cosmetics. Following this policy, the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH) favors alternative methods, if validated and appropriate. In this review the authors aim to provide a state-of-the art overview of alternative methods (in silico, in chemico, and in vitro) to identify contact and respiratory sensitizing capacity and in some occasions give a measure of potency. The past few years have seen major advances in QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) models where especially mechanism-based models have great potential, peptide reactivity assays where multiple parameters can be measured simultaneously, providing a more complete reactivity profile, and cell-based assays. Several cell-based assays are in development, not only using different cell types, but also several specifically developed assays such as three-dimenionally (3D)-reconstituted skin models, an antioxidant response reporter assay, determination of signaling pathways, and gene profiling. Some of these assays show relatively high sensitivity and specificity for a large number of sensitizers and should enter validation (or are indeed entering this process). Integrating multiple assays in a decision tree or integrated testing system is a next step, but has yet to be developed. Adequate risk assessment, however, is likely to require significantly more time and efforts.

  11. Using Design & Animation Concepts to Produce Animated Instructional Resources That Can Facilitate Open Distance Learning in Science and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasu, Isaac Ali; Yalams, Simon Madugu; Ema, Ema

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an outline on how teachers can use "The Design Process and Animation Techniques to produce animated instructional resources (AIR) which, can be used to facilitate Open Distance Learning in especially Science and Technology Education. A model of the Animated Instructional Resource was developed for the teaching of Human…

  12. Engineering test facility design definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercaw, R. W.; Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is the major focus of the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Program to facilitate commercialization and to demonstrate the commercial operability of MHD/steam electric power. The ETF will be a fully integrated commercial prototype MHD power plant with a nominal output of 200 MW sub e. Performance of this plant is expected to meet or surpass existing utility standards for fuel, maintenance, and operating costs; plant availability; load following; safety; and durability. It is expected to meet all applicable environmental regulations. The current design concept conforming to the general definition, the basis for its selection, and the process which will be followed in further defining and updating the conceptual design.

  13. Science Teachers to Ban Testing Harmful to Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Marjorie

    1980-01-01

    This article reports the adoption of new policies to restrict experiments on animals in the elementary or secondary school classroom. The controversy involving animal welfare groups is discussed as it relates to animal abuse by students. (SA)

  14. Designing Test Chips for Custom Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Griswold, T. W.; Pina, C. A.; Timoc, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Collection of design and testing procedures partly automates development of built-in test chips for CMOS integrated circuits. Testchip methodology intended especially for users of custom integratedcircuit wafers. Test-Chip Designs and Testing Procedures (including datareduction procedures) generated automatically by computer from programed design and testing rules and from information supplied by user.

  15. The evolution of juvenile animal testing for small and large molecules.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Recent formalised regulatory requirements for ensuring safe use of new drugs in children has increased the requirement, when considered relevant, to perform juvenile animal testing before commencing paediatric clinical trials. A key goal of this work is to identify or examine for a developmental or toxicity finding not seen in other toxicology testing. With our current knowledge, this paper examines what types of testing are occurring, what novel findings are being seen and their relevance in the safety evaluation process. Furthermore, trends for now and the future in the type of juvenile animal testing will be described including a need for more focused study designs and more published data on modern cross-species postnatal development.

  16. Comparison of animal sera for suitability in coagulase testing.

    PubMed

    Orth, D S; Chugg, L R; Anderson, A W

    1971-03-01

    The sera of several animals were examined for suitability in coagulase testing. The assay for coagulase-reacting factor (CRF) activities of the whole sera indicated the following relative concentrations of CRF: human > pig > rabbit > horse > bovine, chicken, and lamb. Human, pig, and rabbit sera had adequate amounts of CRF for coagulase testing. The plasmin activities of the different sera, arranged from the strongest to the weakest, were as follows: rabbit > human > lamb > horse > bovine, chicken, and pig. Fibrinolysis was observed when rabbit, human, lamb, or horse sera were incorporated into coagulase test agars. Pig serum was superior to the other sera for use in the plate test for coagulase since it had adequate amounts of CRF and the plasminogen-plasmin system was not activated by staphylokinase or staphylococcal Müller factor. Heparinized pig plasma was more suitable than citrated pig plasma since citrate interfered with the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and the use of heparinized plasma prevented false-positive coagulase reactions due to citrate utilization.

  17. Teaching habitat and animal classification to fourth graders using an engineering-design model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulcu, Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Background: The motivation for this work is built upon the premise that there is a need for research-based materials for design-based science instruction. In this paper, a small portion of our work investigating the impact of a LEGOTM engineering unit on fourth grade students' preconceptions and understanding of animals is presented. Purpose: The driving questions for our work are: (1) What is the impact of an engineering-design-based curricular module on students' understanding of habitat and animal classification? (2) What are students' misconceptions regarding animal classification and habitat? Sample: The study was conducted in an inner-city K-8 school in the northeastern region of the United States. There were two fourth grade classrooms in the school. The first classroom included seven girls and nine boys, whereas the other classroom included eight girls and eight boys. All fourth grade students participated in the study. Design and methods: In answering the research questions mixed-method approaches are used. Data collection methods included pre- and post-tests, pre- and post-interviews, student journals, and classroom observations. Identical pre- and post-tests were administered to measure students' understanding of animals. They included four multiple-choice and six open-ended questions. Identical pre- and post-interviews were administered to explore students' in-depth understanding of animals. Results: Our results show that students significantly increased their performance after instruction on both the multiple-choice questions (t = -3.586, p = .001) and the open-ended questions (t = -5.04, p = .000). They performed better on the post interviews as well. Also, it is found that design-based instruction helped students comprehend core concepts of a life science subject, animals. Conclusions: Based on these results, the main argument of the study is that engineering design is a useful framework for teaching not only physical science-related subjects, but

  18. Impact of relationships between test and training animals and among training animals on reliability of genomic prediction.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Lund, M S; Sun, D; Zhang, Q; Su, G

    2015-10-01

    One of the factors affecting the reliability of genomic prediction is the relationship among the animals of interest. This study investigated the reliability of genomic prediction in various scenarios with regard to the relationship between test and training animals, and among animals within the training data set. Different training data sets were generated from EuroGenomics data and a group of Nordic Holstein bulls (born in 2005 and afterwards) as a common test data set. Genomic breeding values were predicted using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and a Bayesian mixture model. The results showed that a closer relationship between test and training animals led to a higher reliability of genomic predictions for the test animals, while a closer relationship among training animals resulted in a lower reliability. In addition, the Bayesian mixture model in general led to a slightly higher reliability of genomic prediction, especially for the scenario of distant relationships between training and test animals. Therefore, to prevent a decrease in reliability, constant updates of the training population with animals from more recent generations are required. Moreover, a training population consisting of less-related animals is favourable for reliability of genomic prediction.

  19. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Nina; Rovida, Costanza; Daneshian, Mardas; Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian; Clewell, Harvey; Gocht, Tilman; Goldberg, Alan; Busquet, Francois; Rossi, Anna-Maria; Schwarz, Michael; Stephens, Martin; Taalman, Rob; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James; Harris, Georgina; Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council`s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century in 2007. It is now possible to provide a more defined roadmap on how to implement this vision for the four principal areas of systemic toxicity evaluation: repeat dose organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity and allergy induction (skin sensitization), as well as for the evaluation of toxicant metabolism (toxicokinetics) (Fig. 1). CAAT-Europe assembled experts from Europe, America and Asia to design a scientific roadmap for future risk assessment approaches and the outcome was then further discussed and refined in two consensus meetings with over 200 stakeholders. The key recommendations include: focusing on improving existing methods rather than favoring de novo design; combining hazard testing with toxicokinetics predictions; developing integrated test strategies; incorporating new high content endpoints to classical assays; evolving test validation procedures; promoting collaboration and data-sharing of different industrial sectors; integrating new disciplines, such as systems biology and high throughput screening; and involving regulators early on in the test development process. A focus on data quality, combined with increased attention to the scientific background of a test method, will be important drivers. Information from each test system should be mapped along adverse outcome pathways. Finally, quantitative information on all factors and key events will be fed into systems biology models that allow a probabilistic risk assessment with flexible

  20. Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeonji; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential. PMID:26191378

  1. Design considerations and test facilities for accelerated radiation effects testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Miller, C. G.; Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Test design parameters for accelerated dose rate radiation effects tests for spacecraft parts and subsystems used in long term mission (years) are detailed. A facility for use in long term accelerated and unaccelerated testing is described.

  2. Item Calibration in Incomplete Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML) as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML) procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs.…

  3. Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy; Stengel, Wolfgang; Casalegno, Carlotta; Andrew, David

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce animal testing, companies registering chemical substances under the EU REACH legislation must propose rather than conduct certain tests on animals. Third parties can submit 'scientifically valid information' relevant to these proposals to the Agency responsible, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), who are obliged to take the information into account. The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE) provided comments on nearly half of the 817 proposals for vertebrate tests on 480 substances published for comment for the first REACH deadline (between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2012). The paper summarises the response by registrants and the Agency to third party comments and highlights issues with the use of read across, in vitro tests, QSAR and weight of evidence approaches. Use of existing data and evidence that testing is legally or scientifically unjustified remain the most successful comments for third parties to submit. There is a worrying conservatism within the Agency regarding the acceptance of alternative approaches and examples of where registrants have also failed to maximise opportunities to avoid testing.

  4. In vitro vaccine potency testing: a proposal for reducing animal use for requalification testing.

    PubMed

    Brown, K; Stokes, W

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a program under which the use of animals for requalification of in vitro potency tests could be eliminated. Standard References (USDA/CVB nomenclature) would be developed, characterized, stored and monitored by selected reference laboratories worldwide. These laboratories would employ scientists skilled in protein and glycoprotein chemistry and equipped with state-of-the-art instruments for required analyses. After Standard References are established, the reference laboratories would provide them to the animal health industry as "gold standards". Companies would then establish and validate a correlation between the Standard Reference and the company Master Reference (USDA/CVB nomenclature) using an internal in vitro assay. After this correlation is established, the company could use the Standard References for qualifying, monitoring and requalifying company Master References without the use of animals. Such a program would eliminate the need for animals for requalification of Master References and the need for each company to develop and validate a battery of Master Reference Monitoring assays. It would also provide advantages in terms of reduced costs and reduced time for requalification testing. As such it would provide a strong incentive for companies to develop and use in vitro assays for potency testing.

  5. Designing special test instruments for preventive maintenance.

    PubMed

    McCullough, C E; Baker, L S

    1979-01-01

    Periodic performance testing of biomedical equipment can be made considerably more efficient by careful design of test procedures and by fabrication of special test instruments which are designed for those procedures. The design philosophy behind such procedures and instruments and its applicability to a wide variety of biomedical devices is discussed. As a practical example, an ECG machine/patient monitor test system is described and construction details are given.

  6. Dynamic testing for shuttle design verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, C. E.; Leadbetter, S. A.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    Space shuttle design verification requires dynamic data from full scale structural component and assembly tests. Wind tunnel and other scaled model tests are also required early in the development program to support the analytical models used in design verification. Presented is a design philosophy based on mathematical modeling of the structural system strongly supported by a comprehensive test program; some of the types of required tests are outlined.

  7. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    PubMed

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  8. Quality standards are needed for reporting of test accuracy studies for animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Ian A

    2010-12-01

    The STARD statement (www.stard-statement.org) emphasizes complete and transparent reporting of key elements of test accuracy studies. Guidelines for authors in many biomedical journals recommend adherence to these standards but explicit recommendations by editors of veterinary journals are limited. Adherence to standards benefits end-users of tests including doctors, veterinarians and other healthcare professionals and the human and animal patients in which the tests are used. Reporting standards also provide a structured basis for researchers and graduate students to prepare manuscripts, and subsequently can be a useful adjunct to the peer-review process. This paper discusses the purpose of STARD and its possible modification for animal disease studies, variation in reporting and design quality in human and animal disease studies, use of a different instrument (QUADAS) for assessing methodological quality, and provides some recommendations for the future. Finally, the contributions of Dr. Hollis Erb to improvements in methodological and reporting qualities of test accuracy studies in Preventive Veterinary Medicine are described.

  9. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  10. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.3 Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals...

  11. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.3 Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals...

  12. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.4 Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are...

  13. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.3 Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals...

  14. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.4 Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are...

  15. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.4 Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are...

  16. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.3 Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals...

  17. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.4 Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are...

  18. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.4 Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are...

  19. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.3 Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals...

  20. Annular phased array transducer for preclinical testing of anti-cancer drug efficacy on small animals.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Tamara; Secomski, Wojciech; Byra, Michał; Postema, Michiel; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    A technique using pulsed High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to destroy deep-seated solid tumors is a promising noninvasive therapeutic approach. A main purpose of this study was to design and test a HIFU transducer suitable for preclinical studies of efficacy of tested, anti-cancer drugs, activated by HIFU beams, in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors implanted to various organs of small animals at the depth of the order of 1-2cm under the skin. To allow focusing of the beam, generated by such transducer, within treated tissue at different depths, a spherical, 2-MHz, 29-mm diameter annular phased array transducer was designed and built. To prove its potential for preclinical studies on small animals, multiple thermal lesions were induced in a pork loin ex vivo by heating beams of the same: 6W, or 12W, or 18W acoustic power and 25mm, 30mm, and 35mm focal lengths. Time delay for each annulus was controlled electronically to provide beam focusing within tissue at the depths of 10mm, 15mm, and 20mm. The exposure time required to induce local necrosis was determined at different depths using thermocouples. Location and extent of thermal lesions determined from numerical simulations were compared with those measured using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques and verified by a digital caliper after cutting the tested tissue samples. Quantitative analysis of the results showed that the location and extent of necrotic lesions on the magnetic resonance images are consistent with those predicted numerically and measured by caliper. The edges of lesions were clearly outlined although on ultrasound images they were fuzzy. This allows to conclude that the use of the transducer designed offers an effective noninvasive tool not only to induce local necrotic lesions within treated tissue without damaging the surrounding tissue structures but also to test various chemotherapeutics activated by the HIFU beams in preclinical studies on small animals.

  1. Design and Testing of Suit Regulator Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The next generation space suit requires additional capabilities for controlling and adjusting internal pressure compared to that of historical designs. Next generation suit pressures will range from slight pressure, for astronaut prebreathe comfort, to hyperbaric pressure levels for emergency medical treatment of decompression sickness. In order to test these regulators through-out their development life cycle, novel automated test rigs are being developed. This paper addresses the design philosophy, performance requirements, physical implementation, and test results with various units under test.

  2. Toxicity testing: the search for an in vitro alternative to animal testing.

    PubMed

    May, J E; Xu, J; Morse, H R; Avent, N D; Donaldson, C

    2009-01-01

    Prior to introduction to the clinic, pharmaceuticals must undergo rigorous toxicity testing to ensure their safety. Traditionally, this has been achieved using in vivo animal models. However, besides ethical reasons, there is a continual drive to reduce the number of animals used for this purpose due to concerns such as the lack of concordance seen between animal models and toxic effects in humans. Adequate testing to ensure any toxic metabolites are detected can be further complicated if the agent is administered in a prodrug form, requiring a source of cytochrome P450 enzymes for metabolism. A number of sources of metabolic enzymes have been utilised in in vitro models, including cell lines, primary human tissue and liver extracts such as S9. This review examines current and new in vitro models for toxicity testing, including a new model developed within the authors' laboratory utilising HepG2 liver spheroids within a co-culture system to examine the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on other cell types.

  3. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    PubMed

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed.

  4. Thermal Oscar Design Test Report and Prototype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    1 UNCLAS | CG-926 RDC | D. Decker | Public | Sep 2010 Thermal Oscar Design Test Report and Prototype Distribution Statement...A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. September 2010 Report No: CG-D-05-11 Thermal Oscar Design Test Report and Prototype...06320 Thermal Oscar Design Test Report and Prototype iii UNCLAS | CG-926 RDC | D. Decker | Public | Sep 2010 Technical Report

  5. Why test animals to treat humans? On the validity of animal models.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Cameron

    2010-09-01

    Critics of animal modeling have advanced a variety of arguments against the validity of the practice. The point of one such form of argument is to establish that animal modeling is pointless and therefore immoral. In this article, critical arguments of this form are divided into three types, the pseudoscience argument, the disanalogy argument, and the predictive validity argument. I contend that none of these criticisms currently succeed, nor are they likely to. However, the connection between validity and morality is important, suggesting that critical efforts would be instructive if they addressed it in a more nuanced way.

  6. Orion: Exploration Flight Test-1 Animation (with narration by Jay Estes)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the proposed test flight of the Orion spacecraft in 2014. During the test, which is called Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), Orion will launch from Cape Canaveral, Fla., per...

  7. Formal functional test designs with a test representation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the category-partition method to the test design phase of hardware, software, or system test development is discussed. The method provides a formal framework for reducing the total number of possible test cases to a minimum logical subset for effective testing. An automatic tool and a formal language were developed to implement the method and produce the specification of test cases.

  8. Designing Infographics to support teaching complex science subject: A comparison between static and animated Infographics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Hesham Galal

    This thesis explores the proper principles and rules for creating excellent infographics that communicate information successfully and effectively. Not only does this thesis examine the creation of Infographics, it also tries to answer which format, Static or Animated Infographics, is the most effective when used as a teaching-aid framework for complex science subjects, and if compelling Infographics in the preferred format facilitate the learning experience. The methodology includes the creation of infographic using two formats (Static and Animated) of a fairly complex science subject (Phases Of The Moon), which were then tested for their efficacy as a whole, and the two formats were compared in terms of information comprehension and retention. My hypothesis predicts that the creation of an infographic using the animated format would be more effective in communicating a complex science subject (Phases Of The Moon), specifically when using 3D computer animation to visualize the topic. This would also help different types of learners to easily comprehend science subjects. Most of the animated infographics produced nowadays are created for marketing and business purposes and do not implement the analytical design principles required for creating excellent information design. I believe that science learners are still in need of more variety in their methods of learning information, and that infographics can be of great assistance. The results of this thesis study suggests that using properly designed infographics would be of great help in teaching complex science subjects that involve spatial and temporal data. This could facilitate learning science subjects and consequently impact the interest of young learners in STEM.

  9. Animals and the 3Rs in toxicology research and testing: The way forward.

    PubMed

    Stokes, W S

    2015-12-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate the use of animals in testing and the availability of many accepted alternative methods, animals are still widely used for toxicological research and testing. While research using in vitro and computational models has dramatically increased in recent years, such efforts have not yet measurably impacted animal use for regulatory testing and are not likely to do so for many years or even decades. Until regulatory authorities have accepted test methods that can totally replace animals and these are fully implemented, large numbers of animals will continue to be used and many will continue to experience significant pain and distress. In order to positively impact the welfare of these animals, accepted alternatives must be implemented, and efforts must be directed at eliminating pain and distress and reducing animal numbers. Animal pain and distress can be reduced by earlier predictive humane endpoints, pain-relieving medications, and supportive clinical care, while sequential testing and routine use of integrated testing and decision strategies can reduce animal numbers. Applying advances in science and technology to the development of scientifically sound alternative testing models and strategies can improve animal welfare and further reduce and replace animal use.

  10. 10 CFR 63.133 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design testing. 63.133 Section 63.133 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program § 63.133 Design testing. (a) During the early...

  11. 10 CFR 63.133 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design testing. 63.133 Section 63.133 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program § 63.133 Design testing. (a) During the early...

  12. 10 CFR 63.133 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design testing. 63.133 Section 63.133 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program § 63.133 Design testing. (a) During the early...

  13. 10 CFR 63.133 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design testing. 63.133 Section 63.133 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program § 63.133 Design testing. (a) During the early...

  14. 10 CFR 63.133 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design testing. 63.133 Section 63.133 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program § 63.133 Design testing. (a) During the early...

  15. 10 CFR 60.142 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design testing. 60.142 Section 60.142 Energy NUCLEAR... Performance Confirmation Program § 60.142 Design testing. (a) During the early or developmental stages of... thermal interaction effects of the waste packages, backfill, rock, and groundwater shall be conducted....

  16. 10 CFR 60.142 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design testing. 60.142 Section 60.142 Energy NUCLEAR... Performance Confirmation Program § 60.142 Design testing. (a) During the early or developmental stages of... thermal interaction effects of the waste packages, backfill, rock, and groundwater shall be conducted....

  17. Testing the new animal phylogeny: a phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Bourlat, Sarah J; Nielsen, Claus; Economou, Andrew D; Telford, Maximilian J

    2008-10-01

    The new animal phylogeny inferred from ribosomal genes some years ago has prompted a number of radical rearrangements of the traditional, morphology based metazoan tree. The two main bilaterian clades, Deuterostomia and Protostomia, find strong support, but the protostomes consist of two sister groups, Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa, not seen in morphology based trees. Although widely accepted, not all recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have supported the tripartite structure of the new animal phylogeny. Furthermore, even if the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) based phylogeny is correct, there is a frustrating lack of resolution of relationships between the phyla that make up the three clades of this tree. To address this issue, we have assembled a dataset including a large number of aligned sequence positions as well as a broad sampling of metazoan phyla. Our dataset consists of sequence data from ribosomal and mitochondrial genes combined with new data from protein coding genes (5139 amino acid and 3524 nucleotide positions in total) from 37 representative taxa sampled across the Metazoa. Our data show strong support for the basic structure of the new animal phylogeny as well as for the Mandibulata including Myriapoda. We also provide some resolution within the Lophotrochozoa, where we confirm support for a monophyletic clade of Echiura, Sipuncula and Annelida and surprising evidence of a close relationship between Brachiopoda and Nemertea.

  18. Conceptual design of ECLSS microgravity test beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodney, Matt; Dall-Bauman, Liese

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual designs were prepared for Space Station Freedom ECLSS test beds for both the Air Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) and the Water Recovery and Management Subsystem (WRMS), which will allow extended testing of equipment under microgravity conditions. The separate designs for the ARS and the WRMS include storage tanks, plumbing, and limited instrumentation that would be expected to be common to all air or water treatment equipment of interest. The beds are designed to recycle process fluids to the greatest extent possible, thus minimizing the spacecraft/test bed interface requirements. Schematic diagrams of both the ARS and the WRMS test beds are included.

  19. A powerful test for Balaam's design.

    PubMed

    Mori, Joji; Kano, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The crossover trial design (AB/BA design) is often used to compare the effects of two treatments in medical science because it performs within-subject comparisons, which increase the precision of a treatment effect (i.e., a between-treatment difference). However, the AB/BA design cannot be applied in the presence of carryover effects and/or treatments-by-period interaction. In such cases, Balaam's design is a more suitable choice. Unlike the AB/BA design, Balaam's design inflates the variance of an estimate of the treatment effect, thereby reducing the statistical power of tests. This is a serious drawback of the design. Although the variance of parameter estimators in Balaam's design has been extensively studied, the estimators of the treatment effect to improve the inference have received little attention. If the estimate of the treatment effect is obtained by solving the mixed model equations, the AA and BB sequences are excluded from the estimation process. In this study, we develop a new estimator of the treatment effect and a new test statistic using the estimator. The aim is to improve the statistical inference in Balaam's design. Simulation studies indicate that the type I error of the proposed test is well controlled, and that the test is more powerful and has more suitable characteristics than other existing tests when interactions are substantial. The proposed test is also applied to analyze a real dataset.

  20. Testing Refrigeration Trucks for the Emergency Evacuation of Companion Animals.

    PubMed

    Langman, Vaughan A; Ellifrit, Nancy; Sime, Debra; Rowe, Mike; Hogue, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in sealed refrigerator trucks scheduled to be used for transporting companion animals (dogs and cats) during an emergency evacuation. A total of 122 nonhuman animals (total weight = 1,248 kg) housed in individual crates were loaded into a 16-m refrigeration truck. Once they were loaded, the doors were closed and the percentages of O2 and CO2 were measured every 5 min by O2 and CO2 analyzers, and they were used to quantify the changes in gas pressure in the sealed truck. CO2 had a much higher-than-predicted increase, and O2 had a higher-than-predicted decrease. These 2 pressures in combination with the functionality of the respiratory system will limit the animal's ability to load O2, and over time, they will initiate asphyxia or suffocation. Over time, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the sealed truck will decrease, causing hypoxia, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) will increase, causing hypercapnia.

  1. Design of a dual slot antenna for small animal microwave ablation studies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Tyler J; Brace, Christopher L; Moon, Tyler J; Brace, Christopher L; Brace, Christopher L; Moon, Tyler J

    2016-08-01

    This study presents the development of a dual-slot antenna for small animal tumor ablation. By using a dual-slot design at 8 GHz, it was hypothesized that smaller and more spherical ablations can be produced. After computer-aided design optimization, antennas were fabricated and ablations performed at 5-20 W for 15-120 s with the objective of creating ablations with a diameter/length aspect ratio of at least 0.9. The new dual-slot design at 8 GHz created significantly more spherical ablations than a commercial antenna at 2.45 GHz in ex vivo liver tissue (Average Aspect Ratio 0.8081 vs. 0.4532, p <;<; 0.05). In vivo studies confirmed the highly spherical results ex vivo. Initial testing shows that the dual-slot antenna and 8 GHz generator can be used to ablate tumors in mice.

  2. A campaign to end animal testing: introducing the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, Gilly; Brown, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    The successful development and validation of non-animal techniques, or the analysis of existing data to satisfy regulatory requirements, provide no guarantee that this information will be used in place of animal experiments. In order to advocate for the replacement of animal-based testing requirements, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd (PISC) liaises with industry, regulatory and research agencies to establish and promote clear paths to validation and regulatory use of non-animal techniques. PISC and its members use an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of good scientific practices in place of testing on animals. Examples of how PISC and its members have applied this approach to minimise the use of animals for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation in the EU and testing of cosmetics on animals in India, are described.

  3. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  4. Testing Percutaneous Arterial Closure Devices: An Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ni Ruifang; Kranokpiraksa, Pawanrat; Pavcnik, Dusan Kakizawa, Hideaki; Uchida, Barry T.; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2009-03-15

    The ovine superficial femoral artery was used for testing the efficacy of percutaneous arterial closure devices (PACDs) in their developmental stage. Two topical devices containing chitostan, one staple-mediated PACD and a porcine small intestinal submucosa plug, were tested by follow-up angiography in 37 sheep. Absence or presence of bleeding and time to bleeding cessation were the main criteria for evaluation of PAVD efficacy. The results of these tests directed modification of individual PACDs and improved their efficacy.

  5. Artificial pigs in space: using artificial intelligence and artificial life techniques to design animal housing.

    PubMed

    Stricklin, W R; de Bourcier, P; Zhou, J Z; Gonyou, H W

    1998-10-01

    Computer simulations have been used by us since the early 1970s to gain an understanding of the spacing and movement patterns of confined animals. The work has progressed from the early stages, in which we used randomly positioned points, to current investigations of animats (computer-simulated animals), which show low levels of learning via artificial neural networks. We have determined that 1) pens of equal floor area but of different shape result in different spatial and movement patterns for randomly positioned and moving animats; 2) when group size increases under constant density, freedom of movement approaches an asymptote at approximately six animats; 3) matching the number of animats with the number of corners results in optimal freedom of movement for small groups of animats; and 4) perimeter positioning occurs in groups of animats that maximize their distance to first- and second-nearest neighbors. Recently, we developed animats that move, compete for social dominance, and are motivated to obtain resources (food, resting sites, etc.). We are currently developing an animat that learns its behavior from the spatial and movement data collected on live pigs. The animat model is then used to pretest pen designs, followed by new pig spatial data fed into the animat model, resulting in a new pen design to be tested, and the steps are repeated. We believe that methodologies from artificial-life and artificial intelligence can contribute to the understanding of basic animal behavior principles, as well as to the solving of problems in production agriculture in areas such as animal housing design.

  6. Comparison of Nonculture Blood-Based Tests for Diagnosing Invasive Aspergillosis in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    White, P Lewis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Loeffler, Juergen; Najvar, Laura K; Melchers, Willem; Herrera, Monica; Bretagne, Stephane; Wickes, Brian; Kirkpatrick, William R; Barnes, Rosemary A; Donnelly, J Peter; Patterson, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    The EuropeanAspergillusPCR Initiative (EAPCRI) has provided recommendations for the PCR testing of whole blood (WB) and serum/plasma. It is important to test these recommended protocols on nonsimulated "in vivo" specimens before full clinical evaluation. The testing of an animal model of invasive aspergillosis (IA) overcomes the low incidence of disease and provides experimental design and control that is not possible in the clinical setting. Inadequate performance of the recommended protocols at this stage would require reassessment of methods before clinical trials are performed and utility assessed. The manuscript describes the performance of EAPCRI protocols in an animal model of invasive aspergillosis. Blood samples taken from a guinea pig model of IA were used for WB and serum PCR. Galactomannan and β-d-glucan detection were evaluated, with particular focus on the timing of positivity and on the interpretation of combination testing. The overall sensitivities for WB PCR, serum PCR, galactomannan, and β-d-glucan were 73%, 65%, 68%, and 46%, respectively. The corresponding specificities were 92%, 79%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. PCR provided the earliest indicator of IA, and increasing galactomannan and β-d-glucan values were indicators of disease progression. The combination of WB PCR with galactomannan and β-d-glucan proved optimal (area under the curve [AUC], 0.95), and IA was confidently diagnosed or excluded. The EAPRCI-recommended PCR protocols provide performance comparable to commercial antigen tests, and clinical trials are warranted. By combining multiple tests, IA can be excluded or confirmed, highlighting the need for a combined diagnostic strategy. However, this approach must be balanced against the practicality and cost of using multiple tests.

  7. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    PubMed

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    test method for a given purpose. Relevance encapsulates the scientific basis of the test method, its capacity to predict adverse effects in the "target system" (i.e. human health or the environment) as well as its applicability for the intended purpose. In this chapter we focus on the validation of non-animal in vitro alternative testing methods and review the concepts, challenges, processes and tools fundamental to the validation of in vitro methods intended for hazard testing of chemicals. We explore major challenges and peculiarities of validation in this area. Based on the notion that validation per se is a scientific endeavour that needs to adhere to key scientific principles, namely objectivity and appropriate choice of methodology, we examine basic aspects of study design and management, and provide illustrations of statistical approaches to describe predictive performance of validated test methods as well as their reliability.

  8. Medical records for animals used in research, teaching, and testing: public statement from the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Field, Karl; Bailey, Michele; Foresman, Larry L; Harris, Robert L; Motzel, Sherri L; Rockar, Richard A; Ruble, Gaye; Suckow, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Medical records are considered to be a key element of a program of adequate veterinary care for animals used in research, teaching, and testing. However, prior to the release of the public statement on medical records by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), the guidance that was available on the form and content of medical records used for the research setting was not consistent and, in some cases, was considered to be too rigid. To address this concern, ACLAM convened an ad hoc Medical Records Committee and charged the Committee with the task of developing a medical record guideline that was based on both professional judgment and performance standards. The Committee provided ACLAM with a guidance document titled Public Statements: Medical Records for Animals Used in Research, Teaching, and Testing, which was approved by ACLAM in late 2004. The ACLAM public statement on medical records provides guidance on the definition and content of medical records, and clearly identifies the Attending Veterinarian as the individual who is charged with authority and responsibility for oversight of the institution's medical records program. The document offers latitude to institutions in the precise form and process used for medical records but identifies typical information to be included in such records. As a result, the ACLAM public statement on medical records provides practical yet flexible guidelines to assure that documentation of animal health is performed in research, teaching, and testing situations.

  9. NEUROBEHAVIORAL TESTING IN ANIMALS AND THE APPLICATION TO RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral evaluations are emerging as a key component in neurotoxicity testing. The tests most often used for screening are the functional observational battery (FOB) and motor activity. The FOB is a series of non-invasive observational and manipulative measures which ass...

  10. In Search of Memory Tests Equivalent for Experiments on Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Kołat, Estera; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test – Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test – Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary. PMID:25524993

  11. In search of memory tests equivalent for experiments on animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Kołat, Estera; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja

    2014-12-19

    Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test - Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test - Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary.

  12. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment, shall be cleaned and sanitized at appropriate intervals. (g) Feed, soil, and water used for the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160... PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.90 Animal and other...

  13. Los Alamos Novel Rocket Design Flight Tested

    ScienceCinema

    Tappan, Bryce

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. Researchers will now work to scale-up the design, as well as explore miniaturization of the system, in order to exploit all potential applications that would require high-energy, high-velocity, and correspondingly high safety margins.

  14. Los Alamos Novel Rocket Design Flight Tested

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, Bryce

    2014-10-23

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. Researchers will now work to scale-up the design, as well as explore miniaturization of the system, in order to exploit all potential applications that would require high-energy, high-velocity, and correspondingly high safety margins.

  15. A "How-To" Guide for Designing Judgment Bias Studies to Assess Captive Animal Welfare.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Emily J

    2015-01-01

    Robust methods to assess nonhuman animal emotion are essential for ensuring good welfare in captivity. Cognitive bias measures such as the judgment bias task have recently emerged as promising tools to assess animal emotion. The simple design and objective response measures make judgment bias tasks suitable for use across species and contexts. In reviewing 64 studies published to date, it emerged that (a) judgment biases have been measured in a number of mammals and birds and an invertebrate; (b) no study has tested judgment bias in any species of fish, amphibian, or reptile; and (c) no study has yet investigated judgment bias in a zoo or aquarium. This article proposes that judgment bias measures are highly suitable for use with these understudied taxa and can provide new insight into welfare in endangered species housed in zoos and aquariums, where poor welfare impacts breeding success and, ultimately, species survival. The article includes a "how-to" guide to designing judgment bias tests with recommendations for working with currently neglected "exotics" including fishes, amphibians, and reptiles.

  16. Testing Multiple Outcomes in Repeated Measures Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates procedures for controlling the familywise error rate (FWR) when testing hypotheses about multiple, correlated outcome variables in repeated measures (RM) designs. A content analysis of RM research articles published in 4 psychology journals revealed that 3 quarters of studies tested hypotheses about 2 or more outcome…

  17. Component Latent Trait Models for Test Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan Whitely

    Latent trait models are presented that can be used for test design in the context of a theory about the variables that underlie task performance. Examples of methods for decomposing and testing hypotheses about the theoretical variables in task performance are given. The methods can be used to determine the processing components that are involved…

  18. Design, Disability and Play: The Animal Politics of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, Ada S.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws out the materialist import of the turn towards universal design in learning. Bringing Brian Massumi's recent work on play together with disability studies, it identifies design as integral to the embodied dynamics of classrooms. Contrasting neo-Darwinist presumptions with materialist insights by thinkers like Tim Ingold, the…

  19. The usefulness of systematic reviews of animal experiments for the design of preclinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob B M; Wever, Kimberley E; Avey, Marc T; Stephens, Martin L; Sena, Emily S; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The question of how animal studies should be designed, conducted, and analyzed remains underexposed in societal debates on animal experimentation. This is not only a scientific but also a moral question. After all, if animal experiments are not appropriately designed, conducted, and analyzed, the results produced are unlikely to be reliable and the animals have in effect been wasted. In this article, we focus on one particular method to address this moral question, namely systematic reviews of previously performed animal experiments. We discuss how the design, conduct, and analysis of future (animal and human) experiments may be optimized through such systematic reviews. In particular, we illustrate how these reviews can help improve the methodological quality of animal experiments, make the choice of an animal model and the translation of animal data to the clinic more evidence-based, and implement the 3Rs. Moreover, we discuss which measures are being taken and which need to be taken in the future to ensure that systematic reviews will actually contribute to optimizing experimental design and thereby to meeting a necessary condition for making the use of animals in these experiments justified.

  20. Optical Metamaterial Design, Fabrication, and Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    This work will focus on the development of metamaterials operating in the visible and infrared which will be constructed and tested for basic optical...permittivity at an infrared wavelength. The investigations into the 3D material did yield a possible for design using a novel material for the dielectric, but...16 2.4 Testing Using Spectrophotometry .......................................................................16 2.5 Testing Using Fourier

  1. Ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Andrew N

    2015-10-01

    This article discusses the use of animals for the safety testing of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, household products, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. It reviews changes in safety testing technology and what those changes mean from the perspective of industrial innovation, public policy and public health, economics, and ethics. It concludes that the continuing use of animals for chemical safety testing should end within the decade as cheaper, quicker, and more predictive technologies are developed and applied.

  2. Reaction wheel design, construction and qualification testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proper, Ian

    This thesis examines the design, construction, and space-qualification testing of a microsatellite class reaction wheel. A literature review compares both currently and formerly operational, as well as commercially available reaction wheel assemblies, to assess the torque and momentum generation capabilities relative to the masses of the respective units. Several potential software models for a prototype reaction wheel are constructed and compared to the units described in the literature review to determine feasibility of operation. Choosing a particular model, the prototype wheel is then constructed and baseline tests are performed to determine its operational characteristics. Finally, a series of qualification tests are performed: a life test, a vibration test and a thermal vacuum test. These tests aim to validate the ability of the prototype reaction wheel unit to operate for at least a six-month mission in a typical low Earth orbit environment.

  3. Animal pain and distress in vaccine testing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stephens, M L; Alvino, G M; Branson, J B

    2002-01-01

    National statistics on animal use in research can provide guidance in setting priorities for research into alternative methods, i.e., those methods that can replace, reduce, or refine animal-based procedures. All else being equal, fields of research causing the most suffering to the largest numbers of animals should be considered prime candidates for alternative research. We examined national statistics on animal use in research in the United States to determine the extent to which vaccine testing accounts for those animals that experience unrelieved pain and distress. During 1998, 96,536 regulated animals were reported to have experienced unrelieved pain and distress in research (laboratory-bred mice and rats, as well as all non-mammals, are excluded from the U.S. reporting system). Vaccine-related testing alone accounted for 61% of this total. Of the 58,820 animals used in such vaccine testing, nearly all were hamsters (68%) and guinea pigs (28%), at least 74% were used in potency tests, and at least 55% were used in testing of Leptospira vaccine. This analysis and an earlier one both underscore the need to develop and implement alternative methods in vaccine testing.

  4. Certification Testing Approach for Propulsion System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Henry; Popp, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The Certification of Propulsion Systems is costly and complex, involving development and qualification testing. The desire of the certification process is to assure all requirements can be demonstrated to be compliant. The purpose of this paper is to address the technical design concerns of certifying a propulsion system for flight. Presented are Pressurization, Tankage, Feed System and Combustion Instability concerns. Propulsion System Engineers are challenged with the dilemma for testing new systems to specific levels to reduce risk yet maintain budgetary targets. A methodical approach is presented to define the types of test suitable to address the technical issues for qualifying systems for retiring the risk levels. Experience of the lessons learned from supporting the Shuttle Program for Main Propulsion and On Orbit Propulsions Systems as well as previous collaborations on design concerns for certifying propulsion systems are utilized to address design concerns and verification approaches.

  5. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  6. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper will discuss the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  7. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-20

    The Early Flight Fission -- Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  8. Design, development and field testing of Cecil

    SciTech Connect

    Trovato, S.A. ); Ruggieri, S.K. )

    1990-01-01

    Inspection and cleaning of the secondary side of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator should be performed on a regular basis to prevent the degradation and early replacement of this equipment due to corrosion. Corrosion products, or sludge, settle in the secondary side of the steam generator and promote corrosion of the tube bundle. The CECIL robot was developed to improve inspection and cleaning of the secondary side of a steam generator. This paper describes the evolution in design of the CECIL robot. The design, development and field testing of the robot at India Point 2 nuclear station are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the fourth generation of its design, CECIL-4. The importance of iteration in design, test, fabrication and field application of mobile robots in a nuclear power station is discussed.

  9. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the ingredients of a wheat flour are declared in an ingredient statement, the principal ingredient of the flour shall be declared by the name(s) specified in §§ 137.105, 137.200, 137.220, 137.225 of this chapter, i.e., the first ingredient designated in the ingredient list of flour, or bromated flour,...

  10. Designing, engineering, and testing wood structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce basic structural engineering concepts in a clear, simple manner while actively involving students. This project emphasizes the fact that a good design uses materials efficiently. The test structure in this experiment can easily be built and has various design options. Even when the structure is loaded to collapsing, only one or two pieces usually break, leaving the remaining pieces intact and reusable.

  11. Conditional statistical inference with multistage testing designs.

    PubMed

    Zwitser, Robert J; Maris, Gunter

    2015-03-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how statistical inference from multistage test designs can be made based on the conditional likelihood. Special attention is given to parameter estimation, as well as the evaluation of model fit. Two reasons are provided why the fit of simple measurement models is expected to be better in adaptive designs, compared to linear designs: more parameters are available for the same number of observations; and undesirable response behavior, like slipping and guessing, might be avoided owing to a better match between item difficulty and examinee proficiency. The results are illustrated with simulated data, as well as with real data.

  12. Advanced wing design survivability testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, J.; Tobias, M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite wings on current operational aircraft are conservatively designed to account for stress/strain concentrations, and to assure specified damage tolerance. The technology that can lead to improved composite wing structures and associated structural efficiency is to increase design ultimate strain levels beyond their current limit of 3500 to 4000 micro-in/in to 6000 micro-in/in without sacrificing structural integrity, durability, damage tolerance, or survivability. Grumman, under the sponsorship of the Naval Air Development Center (NADC), has developed a high-strain composite wing design for a subsonic aircraft wing using novel and innovative design concepts and manufacturing methods, while maintaining a state-of-the-art fiber/resin system. The current advanced wing design effort addressed a tactical subsonic aircraft wing using previously developed, high-strain wing design concepts in conjunction with newer/emerging fiber and polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials to achieve the same goals, while reducing complexity. Two categories of advanced PMC materials were evaluated: toughened thermosets; and engineered thermoplastics. Advanced PMC materials offer the technological opportunity to take maximum advantage of improved material properties, physical characteristics, and tailorability to increase performance and survivability over current composite structure. Damage tolerance and survivability to various threats, in addition to structural integrity and durability, were key technical issues addressed during this study, and evaluated through test. This paper focuses on the live-fire testing, and the results performed to experimentally evaluate the survivability of the advanced wing design.

  13. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing.

  14. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  15. Opportunities for animal alternatives implementation in the evolving OECD fish testing framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews opportunities for animal alternative approaches in the FTF. These will be placed in the context of in vivo tests required in many regulatory situations for the registration of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. The Framework inte...

  16. Extending Animal Models to Explore Social Rewards Associated with Designated Smoking Areas on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochbihler, Stephanie L.; Miller, Daniel A.; Etcheverry, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Animal studies have shown that when nicotine is administered in the presence of other animals (as compared with alone), it is more rewarding. As a human analogue to these studies, rewards associated with designated smoking areas on university campuses were examined, since these areas promote using nicotine in the presence of others.…

  17. Teaching Neurophysiology, Neuropharmacology, and Experimental Design Using Animal Models of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsink, Maarten C.; Dukers, Danny F.

    2009-01-01

    Animal models have been widely used for studying the physiology and pharmacology of psychiatric and neurological diseases. The concepts of face, construct, and predictive validity are used as indicators to estimate the extent to which the animal model mimics the disease. Currently, we used these three concepts to design a theoretical assignment to…

  18. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus) Design and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Evan; Birmingham, William; Rivera, William; Romero-Talamas, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    BETA is a 1T water cooled Bitter-type magnetic system that has been designed and constructed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County to serve as a prototype of a scaled 10T version. Currently the system is undergoing magnetic, thermal and mechanical testing to ensure safe operating conditions and to prove analytical design optimizations. These magnets will function as experimental tools for future dusty plasma based and collaborative experiments. An overview of design methods used for building a custom made Bitter magnet with user defined experimental constraints is reviewed. The three main design methods consist of minimizing the following: ohmic power, peak conductor temperatures, and stresses induced by Lorentz forces. We will also discuss the design of BETA which includes: the magnet core, pressure vessel, cooling system, power storage bank, high powered switching system, diagnostics with safety cutoff feedback, and data acquisition (DAQ)/magnet control Matlab code. Furthermore, we present experimental data from diagnostics for validation of our analytical preliminary design methodologies and finite element analysis calculations. BETA will contribute to the knowledge necessary to finalize the 10 T magnet design.

  19. The Impact of Animal Rights on the Use of Animals for Biomedical Research, Product Testing and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    Clarifies the issues of animal rights as they effect animal use in research and education through an examination of the current use of animals, a historical look at animal use, and a consideration of the philosophical underpinnings of the animal rights and pro-use viewpoints. (PR)

  20. Siemens SOFC Test Article and Module Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, Joseph F.

    2011-03-31

    Preliminary design studies of the 95 kWe-class SOFC test article continue resulting in a stack architecture of that is 1/3 of 250 kWe-class SOFC advanced module. The 95 kWeclass test article is envisioned to house 20 bundles (eight cells per bundle) of Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm. Significant progress was made in the conceptual design of the internal recirculation loop. Flow analyses were initiated in order to optimize the bundle row length for the 250 kWeclass advanced module. A preferred stack configuration based on acceptable flow and thermal distributions was identified. Potential module design and analysis issues associated with pressurized operation were identified.

  1. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-05-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety.

  2. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Natalie; Sewell, Fiona; Chapman, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety. PMID:26018957

  3. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  4. Design of an Image Fusion Phantom for a Small Animal microPET/CT Scanner Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava-García, Dante; Alva-Sánchez, Héctor; Murrieta-Rodríguez, Tirso; Martínez-Dávalos, Arnulfo; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    Two separate microtomography systems recently developed at Instituto de Física, UNAM, produce anatomical (microCT) and physiological images (microPET) of small animals. In this work, the development and initial tests of an image fusion method based on fiducial markers for image registration between the two modalities are presented. A modular Helix/Line-Sources phantom was designed and constructed; this phantom contains fiducial markers that can be visualized in both imaging systems. The registration was carried out by solving the rigid body alignment problem of Procrustes to obtain rotation and translation matrices required to align the two sets of images. The microCT/microPET image fusion of the Helix/Line-Sources phantom shows excellent visual coincidence between different structures, showing a calculated target-registration-error of 0.32 mm.

  5. Design and Test of an Electrometer Test Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, C.

    2010-12-01

    I worked on a experiment that would help on testing the parts of the MSRG satellite of Stanford. The goal of my experiment is to figure out how far a probe can be moved from a piece of mass to still be able to measure the potential (voltage) between the two.A model designed in Solidworks will be used; this model is put in a vacuum chamber for precise results.

  6. Reducing animal experimentation in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency tests.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Richard; Cox, Sarah; Smitsaart, Eliana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Haas, Bernd; Maradei, Eduardo; Haydon, Daniel T; Barnett, Paul

    2011-07-26

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Manual and the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) still prescribe live challenge experiments for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) immunogenicity and vaccine potency tests. However, the EP allows for other validated tests for the latter, and specifically in vitro tests if a "satisfactory pass level" has been determined; serological replacements are also currently in use in South America. Much research has therefore focused on validating both ex vivo and in vitro tests to replace live challenge. However, insufficient attention has been given to the sensitivity and specificity of the "gold standard"in vivo test being replaced, despite this information being critical to determining what should be required of its replacement. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by examining the current live challenge tests and their associated statistics and determining the confidence that we can have in them, thereby setting a standard for candidate replacements. It determines that the statistics associated with the current EP PD(50) test are inappropriate given our domain knowledge, but that the OIE test statistics are satisfactory. However, it has also identified a new set of live animal challenge test regimes that provide similar sensitivity and specificity to all of the currently used OIE tests using fewer animals (16 including controls), and can also provide further savings in live animal experiments in exchange for small reductions in sensitivity and specificity.

  7. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant’s ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI. PMID:27138985

  8. Evolutionary exploitation of design options by the first animals with hard skeletons.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R D; Shearman, R M; Stewart, G W

    2000-05-19

    The set of viable design elements available for animals to use in building skeletons has been fully exploited. Analysis of animal skeletons in relation to the multivariate, theoretical "Skeleton Space" has shown that a large proportion of these options are used in each phylum. Here, we show that structural elements deployed in the skeletons of Burgess Shale animals (Middle Cambrian) incorporate 146 of 182 character pairs defined in this morphospace. Within 15 million years of the appearance of crown groups of phyla with substantial hard parts, at least 80 percent of skeletal design elements recognized among living and extinct marine metazoans were exploited.

  9. Quantification of the borderline range and implications for evaluating non-animal testing methods' precision.

    PubMed

    Leontaridou, Maria; Urbisch, Daniel; Kolle, Susanne N; Ott, Katharina; Mulliner, Denis S; Gabbert, Silke; Landsiedel, Robert

    2017-02-23

    Testing methods to assess the skin sensitisation potential of a substance usually use threshold criteria to dichotomise continuous experimental read-outs into yes/no conclusions. The threshold criteria are prescribed in the respective OECD test guidelines and the conclusion is used for regulatory hazard assessment, i.e. classification and labelling of the substance. We can identify a borderline range (BR) around the classification threshold within which test results are non-conclusive due to a testing method's biological and technical variability. We quantify BRs in the prediction models of the non-animal testing methods DPRA, LuSens and h-CLAT, and of the animal test LLNA, respectively. Depending on the size of the BR we find that between 6% and 28% of the substances in the sets tested with these methods were considered borderline. If the results of individual non-animal test methods are combined into integrated testing strategies (ITS), borderline test results of individual tests can also affect the overall assessment of the skin sensitisation potential of the testing strategy. This was analysed for the '2-out-of-3' ITS: Four out of 40 substances (10%) were considered borderline. Based on our findings we propose expanding the standard binary classification of substances into 'positive'/'negative' or 'hazardous'/'non-hazardous' by adding a 'borderline' or 'non-conclusive' alert for cases where test results fall within the borderline range.

  10. Severe Accident Test Station Design Document

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Mary A.; Yan, Yong; Howell, Michael; Keiser, James R.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the ORNL severe accident test station (SATS) is to provide a platform for evaluation of advanced fuels under projected beyond design basis accident (BDBA) conditions. The SATS delivers the capability to map the behavior of advanced fuels concepts under accident scenarios across various temperature and pressure profiles, steam and steam-hydrogen gas mixtures, and thermal shock. The overall facility will include parallel capabilities for examination of fuels and irradiated materials (in-cell) and non-irradiated materials (out-of-cell) at BDBA conditions as well as design basis accident (DBA) or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. Also, a supporting analytical infrastructure to provide the data-needs for the fuel-modeling components of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program will be put in place in a parallel manner. This design report contains the information for the first, second and third phases of design and construction of the SATS. The first phase consisted of the design and construction of an out-of-cell BDBA module intended for examination of non-irradiated materials. The second phase of this work was to construct the BDBA in-cell module to test irradiated fuels and materials as well as the module for DBA (i.e. LOCA) testing out-of-cell, The third phase was to build the in-cell DBA module. The details of the design constraints and requirements for the in-cell facility have been closely captured during the deployment of the out-of-cell SATS modules to ensure effective future implementation of the in-cell modules.

  11. Drag Reduction Tests on Supersonic Transport Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Langley researchers recently completed supersonic tests in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel on a nonlinear design for a supersonic transport. Although the drag reduction measured during the tests was not as great as that predicted using computational methods, significant drag reductions were achieved. Future tests will be conducted at a higher Reynolds number, which will be more representative of flight conditions. These tests will be used to identify a supersonic transport configuration that provides maximum drag reduction. Reducing drag decreases operating cost by improving fuel consumption and lowering aircraft weight. As a result, this research has the potential to help make a future high-speed civil transport (HSCT) an affordable means of travel for the flying public.

  12. Design Analysis for a Scaled Erosion Test

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    2002-04-10

    In support of a slurry wear evaluation in the pretreatment filtration and evaporation systems of RPP-WTP, Engineering Modeling and Simulation Group (EMSG) has developed the computational models to help guide component design and scaling decisions and to assist in the full-scale analyses. This report deals with the filtration system. In this project, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods were applied to ensure that the test facility design would capture the erosion phenomena expected in the full-scale cross-flow ultrafiltration facility. The literature survey was initially performed to identify the principal mechanisms of erosion for a solids laden fluid.

  13. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases.

  14. Deep Borehole Field Test Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest L.

    2016-09-30

    This report documents conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), including test packages (simulated waste packages, not containing waste) and a system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the planned Field Test Borehole (FTB). For the DBFT to have demonstration value, it must be based on conceptualization of a deep borehole disposal (DBD) system. This document therefore identifies key options for a DBD system, describes an updated reference DBD concept, and derives a recommended concept for the DBFT demonstration. The objective of the DBFT is to confirm the safety and feasibility of the DBD concept for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. The conceptual design described in this report will demonstrate equipment and operations for safe waste handling and downhole emplacement of test packages, while contributing to an evaluation of the overall safety and practicality of the DBD concept. The DBFT also includes drilling and downhole characterization investigations that are described elsewhere (see Section 1). Importantly, no radioactive waste will be used in the DBFT, nor will the DBFT site be used for disposal of any type of waste. The foremost performance objective for conduct of the DBFT is to demonstrate safe operations in all aspects of the test.

  15. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Samantha; Brown, Jeffrey; Currie, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Many vaccines are tested for quality in experiments that require the use of large numbers of animals in procedures that often cause significant pain and distress. Newer technologies have fostered the development of vaccine quality control tests that reduce or eliminate the use of animals, but the availability of these newer methods has not guaranteed their acceptance by regulators or use by manufacturers. We discuss a strategic approach that has been used to assess and ultimately increase the use of non-animal vaccine quality tests in the U.S. and U.K. Abstract In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches. PMID:26486625

  16. Spacecraft load, design and test philosophies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, B. K.

    1986-01-01

    The development of spacecraft loads, design and test philosophies at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) during the past 25 years is presented. Examples from the JPL's Viking, Voyager and Galileo spacecraft are used to explain the changes in philosophy necessary to meet the program requirements with a reduction in cost and schedule. Approaches to validate mathematical models of large structures which can't be ground tested as an overall system because of size and/or adverse effects of terrestrial conditions such as gravity are presented.

  17. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study.

  18. Crashworthy airframe design concepts: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, J. D.; Berry, V. L.

    1982-01-01

    Crashworthy floor concepts applicable to general aviation aircraft metal airframe structures were investigated. Initially several energy absorbing lower fuselage structure concepts were evaluated. Full scale floor sections representative of a twin engine, general aviation airplane lower fuselage structure were designed and fabricated. The floors featured an upper high strength platform with an energy absorbing, crushable structure underneath. Eighteen floors were fabricated that incorporated five different crushable subfloor concepts. The floors were then evaluated through static and dynamic testing. Computer programs NASTRAN and KRASH were used for the static and dynamic analysis of the floor section designs. Two twin engine airplane fuselages were modified to incorporate the most promising crashworthy floor sections for test evaluation.

  19. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Carl. M.; Mahaffey, Michael M.; Smith, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major nuclear assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4-MWt nuclear and heat transport assembly.

  20. Measuring Cognitive Load in Test Items: Static Graphics versus Animated Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindar, M.; Kabakçi Yurdakul, I.; Inan Dönmez, F.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of multimedia learning studies focus on the use of graphics in learning process but very few of them examine the role of graphics in testing students' knowledge. This study investigates the use of static graphics versus animated graphics in a computer-based English achievement test from a cognitive load theory perspective. Three…

  1. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of research is currently targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. It is important that the information gained from the alternative tests pr...

  2. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  3. The Effects of a Custom-Designed Animation Program on Learning Chinese Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a custom-designed computer animation program on learning Chinese characters by beginning learners of Chinese as Foreign Language (CFL) in a higher education setting. This study used a matched comparison quasi-experimental design to explore the effects of the customized computer program within…

  4. [Antiherpetic activity of netropsin derivatives as tested in experiments in laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Andronova, V L; Grokhovskiĭ, S L; Deriabin, P G; Gurskiĭ, G V; Galegov, G A; L'vov, D K

    2012-01-01

    Two dimeric netropsin derivatives (Lys-bis-Nt 15Lys-bis-Nt) were comprehensively tested for antiviral and toxic activity in cell cultures and laboratory animals. The two compounds were found to provide effective and selective inhibition of reproduction of herpes simplex I both in cell culture Vero E6 and in brain of infected white mice, thereby increasing the survival rate and mean life expectation of treated animals as compared to control.

  5. Ceramic high temperature receiver design and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    The High Temperature Solar Thermal Receiver, which was tested a Edwards AFB, CA during the winter of 1980-1981, evolved from technologies developed over a five year period of work. This receiver was tested at the Army Solar Furnace at White Sands, NM in 1976. The receiver, was tested successfully at 1768 deg F and showed thermal efficiencies of 85%. The results were sufficiently promising to lead ERDA to fund our development and test of a 250 kW receiver to measure the efficiency of an open cavity receiver atop a central tower of a heliostat field. This receiver was required to be design scalable to 10, 50, and 100 MW-electric sizes to show applicability to central power tower receivers. That receiver employed rectagular silicon carbide panels and vertical stanchions to achieve scalability. The construction was shown to be fully scalable; and the receiver was operated at temperatures up to 2000 deg F to achieve the performance goals of the experiment during tests at the GIT advanced components test facility during the fall of 1978.

  6. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, T.J.; Bissert, P.T.; Homce, G.T.; Yonkey, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer’s steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator’s built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer’s specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster. PMID:28018003

  7. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design.

    PubMed

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer's steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator's built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer's specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster.

  8. Wrapped multilayer insulation design and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, S. A.; Tyler, P. N.; Mills, G. L.; Kopelove, A. B.

    2014-11-01

    New vehicles need improved cryogenic propellant storage and transfer capabilities for long duration missions. Multilayer insulation (MLI) for cryogenic propellant feedlines is much less effective than MLI tank insulation, with heat leak into spiral wrapped MLI on pipes 3-10 times higher than conventional tank MLI. Better insulation for cryogenic feed lines is an important enabling technology that could help NASA reach cryogenic propellant storage and transfer requirements. Improved insulation for Ground Support Equipment could reduce cryogen losses during launch vehicle loading. Wrapped-MLI (WMLI) is a high performance multilayer insulation using innovative discrete spacer technology specifically designed for cryogenic transfer lines and Vacuum Jacketed Pipe (VJP) to reduce heat flux. The poor performance of traditional MLI wrapped on feed lines is due in part to compression of the MLI layers, with increased interlayer contact and heat conduction. WMLI uses discrete spacers that maintain precise layer spacing, with a unique design to reduce heat leak. A Triple Orthogonal Disk spacer was engineered to minimize contact area/length ratio and reduce solid heat conduction for use in concentric MLI configurations. A new insulation, WMLI, was developed and tested. Novel polymer spacers were designed, analyzed and fabricated; different installation techniques were examined; and rapid prototype nested shell components to speed installation on real world piping were designed and tested. Prototypes were installed on tubing set test fixtures and heat flux measured via calorimetry. WMLI offered superior performance to traditional MLI installed on cryogenic pipe, with 2.2 W/m2 heat flux compared to 26.6 W/m2 for traditional spiral wrapped MLI (5 layers, 77-295 K). WMLI as inner insulation in VJP can offer heat leaks as low as 0.09 W/m, compared to industry standard products with 0.31 W/m. WMLI could enable improved spacecraft cryogenic feedlines and industrial hot/cold transfer

  9. Latex agglutination test for detecting feline panleukopenia virus, canine parvovirus, and parvoviruses of fur animals.

    PubMed Central

    Veijalainen, P M; Neuvonen, E; Niskanen, A; Juokslahti, T

    1986-01-01

    A latex agglutination (LA) test for the detection of parvoviruses of fur animals, cats, and dogs was developed, and its sensitivity and specificity were compared with those of hemagglutination (HA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tissue culture isolation was used to confirm the specificity results. Fecal samples from various sources were tested, including specimens from raccoon dogs and mink which were experimentally infected with parvoviruses by oral exposure. LA compared favorably with the other tests. The ELISA was the most sensitive. When it was considered as a reference test, the corresponding sensitivities for HA and LA were 96 and 91%, respectively. The specificities were 93% for the ELISA, 95% for the HA test, and 92% for the LA test. LA seems to be a suitable technique for screening animals in the field and in laboratories in which sophisticated techniques are not available. PMID:3007568

  10. OPSAID Initial Design and Testing Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Steven A.; Stamp, Jason Edwin; Chavez, Adrian R.

    2007-11-01

    Process Control System (PCS) security is critical to our national security. Yet, there are a number of technological, economic, and educational impediments to PCS owners implementing effective security on their systems. OPSAID (Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design), a project sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability, aims to address this issue through developing and testing an open source architecture for PCS security. Sandia National Laboratories, along with a team of PCS vendors and owners, have developed and tested this PCS security architecture. This report describes their progress to date.2 AcknowledgementsThe authors acknowledge and thank their colleagues for their assistance with the OPSAID project.Sandia National Laboratories: Alex Berry, Charles Perine, Regis Cassidy, Bryan Richardson, Laurence PhillipsTeumim Technical, LLC: Dave TeumimIn addition, the authors are greatly indebted to the invaluable help of the members of the OPSAID Core Team. Their assistance has been critical to the success and industry acceptance of the OPSAID project.Schweitzer Engineering Laboratory: Rhett Smith, Ryan Bradetich, Dennis GammelTelTone: Ori Artman Entergy: Dave Norton, Leonard Chamberlin, Mark AllenThe authors would like to acknowledge that the work that produced the results presented in this paper was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE) as part of the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program. Executive SummaryProcess control systems (PCS) are very important for critical infrastructure and manufacturing operations, yet cyber security technology in PCS is generally poor. The OPSAID (Open PCS (Process Control System) Security Architecture for Interoperable Design) program is intended to address these security shortcomings by accelerating the availability and deployment of comprehensive security technology for PCS, both for existing PCS and

  11. EFFICIENT HYDROLOGICAL TRACER-TEST DESIGN (EHTD ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed that combines basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) in functional relationships that describe solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. The new method applies these initial estimates for time of travel and velocity to a hypothetical continuously stirred tank reactor as an analog for the hydrologic flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration and axial dispersion, based on a preset average tracer concentration. Root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using the preset average tracer concentration then provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass.Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to

  12. Large animal and primate models of spinal cord injury for the testing of novel therapies.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian K; Streijger, Femke; Hill, Caitlin E; Anderson, Aileen J; Bacon, Mark; Beattie, Michael S; Blesch, Armin; Bradbury, Elizabeth J; Brown, Arthur; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Case, Casey C; Colburn, Raymond W; David, Samuel; Fawcett, James W; Ferguson, Adam R; Fischer, Itzhak; Floyd, Candace L; Gensel, John C; Houle, John D; Jakeman, Lyn B; Jeffery, Nick D; Jones, Linda Ann Truett; Kleitman, Naomi; Kocsis, Jeffery; Lu, Paul; Magnuson, David S K; Marsala, Martin; Moore, Simon W; Mothe, Andrea J; Oudega, Martin; Plant, Giles W; Rabchevsky, Alexander Sasha; Schwab, Jan M; Silver, Jerry; Steward, Oswald; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Guest, James D; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2015-07-01

    Large animal and primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI) are being increasingly utilized for the testing of novel therapies. While these represent intermediary animal species between rodents and humans and offer the opportunity to pose unique research questions prior to clinical trials, the role that such large animal and primate models should play in the translational pipeline is unclear. In this initiative we engaged members of the SCI research community in a questionnaire and round-table focus group discussion around the use of such models. Forty-one SCI researchers from academia, industry, and granting agencies were asked to complete a questionnaire about their opinion regarding the use of large animal and primate models in the context of testing novel therapeutics. The questions centered around how large animal and primate models of SCI would be best utilized in the spectrum of preclinical testing, and how much testing in rodent models was warranted before employing these models. Further questions were posed at a focus group meeting attended by the respondents. The group generally felt that large animal and primate models of SCI serve a potentially useful role in the translational pipeline for novel therapies, and that the rational use of these models would depend on the type of therapy and specific research question being addressed. While testing within these models should not be mandatory, the detection of beneficial effects using these models lends additional support for translating a therapy to humans. These models provides an opportunity to evaluate and refine surgical procedures prior to use in humans, and safety and bio-distribution in a spinal cord more similar in size and anatomy to that of humans. Our results reveal that while many feel that these models are valuable in the testing of novel therapies, important questions remain unanswered about how they should be used and how data derived from them should be interpreted.

  13. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  14. Savonius wind turbines: Design and testing of unique blade designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, Paul B.

    As the idea of implementing alternative energy systems into urbanized areas continues to gain popularity, there is a growing need to improve the efficiency of such systems. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine whether or not six unique blade designs, developed by the researcher, would lead to a more efficient vertical axis Savonius wind turbine. This report provides details regarding the study of aerodynamic forces, drag coefficients, and flow characteristics around each blade as well as information pertaining to the assembly and field testing of a turbine. The researcher began by conducting wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamic simulations on a single blade with the proposed designs. The data from these experiments was then used to calculate the driving and opposing forces and drag coefficients that would be present when each blade design is used in a fully assembled turbine. Lastly, the researcher determined the theoretical maximum efficiency of each turbine by multiplying the difference between the drag coefficients with the Betz Limit (4/27). Upon analyzing the results, the researcher discovered that the forces that were reported in the CFD analysis were more than double those measured in the wind tunnel. In addition, upon calculating the performance of each blade design when assembled into a full turbine, it was found that the turbines may not perform as well as the researcher initially expected; with only one having an efficiency of greater than 12%. However, because of the differences between the wind tunnel and CFD results, the researcher suggests that further experimentation and analysis needs to be completed to accurately justify the performance calculations.

  15. 29 mm Diameter Test Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard; Naranjo, Angela Carol; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2016-08-15

    The Northstar target for Mo99 production is made up of Mo100 disks in a stack separated by coolant gaps for helium flow. A number of targets have been tested at ANL for both production of Mo99 and for thermal-hydraulic performance. These have all been with a 12 mm diameter target, even while the production goals have increased the diameter to now 29 mm. A 29 mm diameter target has been designed that is consistent with the ANL beam capabilities and the capabilities of the helium circulation system currently in use at ANL. This target is designed for 500 μA at 35 MeV electrons. While the plant design calls for 42 MeV, the chosen design point is more favorable and higher power given the limits of the ANL accelerator. The intended beam spot size is 12 mm FWHM, but the thermal analysis presented herein conservatively assumed a 10 mm FWHM beam, which results in a 44% higher beam current density at beam center.

  16. The Hanford Site 1000-Year Cap Design Test

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W. ); Ward, Anderson L. ); Wittreich, Curtis D.

    2002-12-27

    Surface barrier or capping technology is needed to isolate buried wastes. A successful cap must prevent the intrusion of plants, animals, and man into the underlying waste, minimize wind and water erosion, require minimal maintenance, and limit water intrusion to near-zero amounts. For some sites where wastes are long-lived, caps should potentially last a thousand years or more. At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State, a surface cap with a 1000-year design life was constructed and then tested and monitored for performance under wetting conditions that are extreme for the region. The cap was built in 1994 over an existing waste site as a part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability test. The above-grade barrier or cap consists of a 2-m-thick silt-loam soil overlying layers (from top down) of sand, gravel, basalt rock (riprap), and a low-permeability asphalt. Two sideslope configurations, a clean-fill gravel on a 10:1 slope and a basalt riprap on a 2:1 slope were part of the overall design and testing. Design considerations included constructability; water-balance monitoring; wind and water erosion control and monitoring; surface revegetation, biointrusion control, subsidence, and sideslope stability; and durability of the asphalt layer.

  17. Testing strategies for embryo-fetal toxicity of human pharmaceuticals. Animal models vs. in vitro approaches: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Chapin, Robert E; Haenen, Bert; Jacobs, Abigail C; Piersma, Aldert

    2012-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity testing is characterized by high animal use. For registration of pharmaceutical compounds, developmental toxicity studies are usually conducted in both rat and rabbits. Efforts have been underway for a long time to design alternatives to animal use. Implementation has lagged, partly because of uncertainties about the applicability domain of the alternatives. The reproductive cycle is complex and not all mechanisms of development can be mimicked in vitro. Therefore, efforts are underway to characterize the available alternative tests with regard to the mechanism of action they include. One alternative test is the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST), which has been studied since the late 1990s. It is a genuine 3R "alternative" assay as it is essentially animal-free. A meeting was held to review the state-of-the-art of various in vitro models for prediction of developmental toxicity. Although the predictivity of individual assays is improving, a battery of several assays is likely to have even higher predictivity, which is necessary for regulatory acceptance. The workshop concluded that an important first step is a thorough survey of the existing rat and rabbit studies, to fully characterize the frequency of responses and the types of effects seen. At the same time, it is important to continue the optimization of in vitro assays. As more experience accumulates, the optimal conditions, assay structure, and applicability of the alternative assays are expected to emerge.

  18. Testing for Spatial Isotropy Under General Designs.

    PubMed

    Maity, Arnab; Sherman, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Spatial modeling is typically composed of a specification of a mean function and a model for the correlation structure. A common assumption on the spatial correlation is that it is isotropic. This means that the correlation between any two observations depends only on the distance between those sites and not on their relative orientation. The assumption of isotropy is often made due to a simpler interpretation of correlation behavior and to an easier estimation problem under an assumed isotropy. The assumption of isotropy, however, can have serious deleterious effects when not appropriate. In this paper we formulate a test of isotropy for spatial observations located according to a general class of stochastic designs. Distribution theory of our test statistic is derived and we carry out extensive simulations which verify the efficacy of our approach. We apply our methodology to a data set on longleaf pine trees from an oldgrowth forest in the southern United States.

  19. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Ashikaga, Takao; Barroso, Joao; Elcombe, Cliff; Gellatly, Nicola; Galbiati, Valentina; Gibbs, Susan; Groux, Hervé; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Donald; Kern, Petra; Klaric, Martina; Kolle, Susanne; Kuehnl, Jochen; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Lindstedt, Malin; Millet, Marion; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Natsch, Andreas; Petersohn, Dirk; Pike, Ian; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schepky, Andreas; Tailhardat, Magalie; Templier, Marie; van Vliet, Erwin; Maxwell, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitization potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods – are presented here. This evaluation involved generation of data on a common set of ten substances in all methods and systematic collation of information including the level of standardisation, existing test data,potential for throughput, transferability and accessibility in cooperation with the test method developers.A workshop was held with the test method developers to review the outcome of this evaluation and to discuss the results. The evaluation informed the prioritisation of test methods for the next phase of the non-animal testing strategy development framework. Ultimately, the testing strategy – combined with bioavailability and skin metabolism data and exposure consideration – is envisaged to allow establishment of a data integration approach for skin sensitisation safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  20. The animal models of dementia and Alzheimer's disease for pre-clinical testing and clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Akshay; Banik, Avijit; Thakur, Keshav; Masters, Colin L

    2012-11-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome with abnormal degree of memory loss and impaired ability to recall events from the past often characterized by Alzheimer's disease. The various strategies to treat dementia need validation of novel compounds in suitable animal models for testing their safety and efficacy. These may include novel anti-amnesic drugs derived from synthetic chemistry or those derived from traditional herbal sources. Multiple approaches have been adopted to create reliable animal models ranging from rodents to non-human primates, where the animals are exposed to a predetermined injury or causing genetic ablation across specific regions of brain suspected to affect learning functions. In this review various animal models for Alzheimer's disease and treatment strategies in development of anti dementia drugs are discussed and an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive report of the latest developments in the field.

  1. Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandén, Torbjörn; Goudarzi, Reza; de Combarieu, Michel; Åkesson, Mattias; Hökmark, Harald

    The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8 m deep, 1.8 m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at -420 m level has been selected for the test. The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer materials submitted to severe thermal conditions with temperatures well over 100 °C during water uptake of partly saturated bentonite-based buffer materials, and to check, in due time, their properties after water saturation. The test includes two carbon steel heating canisters each 3 m high and 0.6 m diameter, surrounded by 0.6 m of buffer material. There is a 0.2 m thick sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite, while the lower heater is surrounded by bentonite only. On top of the stack of bentonite blocks is a confining plug anchored to the rock. In the slot between buffer and rock wall is a sand filter equipped with pipes to control the water pressure at the boundary, which is seldom done with an EBS in situ experiment. Both heater mid-height planes are densely instrumented in order to follow, with direct or indirect methods, buffer THM evolution. Temperature, relative humidity, stress and pore pressure have been monitored since the test start in March 2003. Total water inflow is also monitored. Firstly, the present paper describes the test design, the instrumentation, the plug anchoring system and the system for water boundary pressure control. Second, having described the test, the paper shows different measurements that illustrate evolution of temperature, saturation, suction and swelling pressure in the upper and the lower buffer.

  2. 49 CFR 178.33b-7 - Design qualification test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-7 Design qualification test. (a) Drop testing. (1) To...) Criteria for passing the drop test: The containers must not break or leak. (b) Design qualification testing... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design qualification test. 178.33b-7 Section...

  3. 49 CFR 178.33b-7 - Design qualification test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-7 Design qualification test. (a) Drop testing. (1) To...) Criteria for passing the drop test: The containers must not break or leak. (b) Design qualification testing... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design qualification test. 178.33b-7 Section...

  4. 49 CFR 178.33b-7 - Design qualification test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-7 Design qualification test. (a) Drop testing. (1) To...) Criteria for passing the drop test: The containers must not break or leak. (b) Design qualification testing... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design qualification test. 178.33b-7 Section...

  5. More is less: reducing animal use by raising awareness of the principles of efficient study design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Howard, Bryan; Hudson, Michelle; Preziosi, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Good experimental design and the appropriate use of statistical tests form the corner stone of high-quality scientific research. This is especially important when the experiments involve the use of laboratory animals, to ensure that their use is appropriate and that the minimum number of animals will be used that will provide data which are sufficiently statistically-sound to meet the objectives of the study. One way to raise awareness of the importance of efficient study design and analysis is to provide training courses. This paper reports the views of participants at two such training schools, with reference to why they felt that attendance was necessary and how effective they felt the experience had been. The implications of the responses are discussed, and considerations for future training events are noted.

  6. Animal investigation program 1978 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D D; Bernhardt, D E; Giles, K R

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, golden eagles, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1978. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring Potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently with the exception of short-lived radionuclides found in samples from animals collected soon after March 14 (the date of a nuclear test by the People's Republic of China). Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were consistent with those of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within expected environmental limits with the exception of animals exposed to sources of contamination; e.g., drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation from recent years. However, cattle tissue sampled in the fall were higher than those collected in the spring. Radionuclide tissue concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Hypothetical dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The movements of 13 mule deer outfitted with collars containing a radio transmitter unit were monitored on a weekly basis. No gross or microscopic lesions were found in necropsied animals that could be directly attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation.

  7. Optimal Design of Tests with Dichotomous and Polytomous Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Martijn P. F.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews some results on optimal design of tests with items of dichotomous and polytomous response formats and offers rules and guidelines for optimal test assembly. Discusses the problem of optimal test design for two optimality criteria. (Author/SLD)

  8. Solar Probe thermal shield design and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, Jerry M.; Miyake, Robert N.; Rainen, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the major thermal shield subsystem development activities in support of the Solar Probe study being conducted at JPL. The Solar Probe spacecraft will travel to within 4 solar radii of the sun's center to perform fundamental experiments in space physics. Exposure to 2900 earth suns at perihelion requires the spacecraft to be protected within the shadow envelope of a protective shield. In addition, the mass loss rate off of the shield at elevated temperature must comply with plasma instrument requirements and has become the driver of the shield design. This paper will focus on the analytical design work to size the shield and control the shield mass loss rate for the various spacecraft options under study, the application of carbon-carbon materials for shield components, development and preparation of carbon-carbon samples for materials testing, and a materials testing program for carbon-carbon and tungsten alloys to investigate thermal/optical properties, mass loss (carbon-carbon only), material integrity, and high velocity impact behavior.

  9. How to assess the mutagenic potential of cosmetic products without animal tests?

    PubMed

    Speit, Günter

    2009-08-01

    Animal experiments (in vivo tests) currently play a key role in genotoxicity testing. Results from in vivo tests are, in many cases, decisive for the assessment of a mutagenic potential of a test compound. The Seventh Amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive will, however, ban the European marketing of cosmetic/personal care products that contain ingredients that have been tested in animal experiments. If genotoxicity testing is solely based on the currently established in vitro tests, the attrition rate for chemicals used in cosmetic products will greatly increase due to irrelevant positive in vitro test results. There is urgent need for new and/or improved in vitro genotoxicity tests and for modified test strategies. Test strategies should consider all available information on chemistry of the test substance/the chemical class (e.g. SAR, metabolic activation and dermal adsorption). Test protocols for in vitro genotoxicity tests should be sensitive and robust enough to ensure that negative results can be accepted with confidence. It should be excluded that positive in vitro test results are due to high cytotoxicity or secondary genotoxic effects which may be thresholded and/or only occur under in vitro test conditions. Consequently, further research is needed to establish the nature of thresholds in in vitro assays and to determine the potential for incorporation of mode of action data into future risk assessments. New/improved tests have to be established and validated, considering the use of (metabolically competent) primary (skin) cells, 3D skin models and cells with defined capacity for metabolic activation (e.g. genetically engineered cell lines). The sensitivity and specificity of new and improved genotoxicity tests has to be determined by testing a battery of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals. New or adapted international guidelines will be needed for these tests. The establishment of such a new genotoxicity testing strategy will take time and the

  10. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance.

  11. Whiteboard animation for knowledge mobilization: a test case from the Slave River and Delta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Lori E. A.; Bharadwaj, Lalita A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present the co-creation of a whiteboard animation video, an enhanced e-storytelling technique for relaying traditional knowledge interview results as narratives. Design We present a design for translating interview results into a script and accompanying series of figures, followed by technical steps to create a whiteboard animation product. Method Our project used content analysis and researcher triangulation, followed by a collaborative process to develop an animated video to disseminate research findings. A 13-minute long whiteboard animation video was produced from a research study about changing environments in northern Canadian communities and was distributed to local people. Three challenging issues in the video creation process including communication issues, technical difficulties and contextual debate were resolved among the supporting agencies and researchers. Conclusions Dissemination of findings is a crucial step in the research process. Whiteboard animation video products may be a viable and culturally-appropriate form of relaying research results back to Indigenous communities in a storytelling format. PMID:26507716

  12. [Current status of safety evaluation and alternative to animal testings in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2008-05-01

    In November 2005, the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established as a part of the Division of Pharmacology at the National Center for Biological Safety and Research affiliated with Japan's National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS). JaCVAM facilitates the validation, peer-review, and international harmonization of alternative to animals testing. Key objectives of JaCVAM are: 1) facilitate 3R's(*), prioritizing Reduction and Replacement, and 2) to ensure new test methods are validated, peer reviewed, officially accepted by the regulatory agencies, and made internationally compatible. In this paper, JaCVAM's current activities and future directions are shown in the validation and peer review of alternatives to testing for skin irritation, eye irritation, phototoxicity, skin sensitization, acute toxicity, genotoxicity and endocrine disruptor screening. (*) 3R's for animal testing (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement).

  13. Opportunities and strategies to further reduce animal use for Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    PubMed

    Walker, A; Srinivas, G B

    2013-09-01

    Hamsters are routinely infected with virulent Leptospira for two purposes in the regulation of biologics: the performance of Codified potency tests and maintenance of challenge culture for the Codified potency tests. Options for reducing animal use in these processes were explored in a plenary lecture at the "International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward" held at the Center for Veterinary Biologics in September 2012. The use of validated in vitro potency assays such as those developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Leptospira (L.) canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira pomona, and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae rather than the Codified hamster vaccination-challenge assay was encouraged. Alternatives such as reduced animal numbers in the hamster vaccination-challenge testing were considered for problematic situations. Specifically, the merits of sharing challenge controls, reducing group sizes, and eliminating animals for concurrent challenge dose titration were assessed. Options for maintaining virulent, stable cultures without serial passage through hamsters or with decreased hamster use were also discussed. The maintenance of virulent Leptospira without the use of live animals is especially difficult since a reliable means to maintain virulence after multiple in vitro passages has not yet been identified.

  14. GCSE Students' Attitudes to Dissection and Using Animals in Research and Product Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Questionnaires from students passing the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) that explored attitudes to dissection and using animals in product testing administered to (n=469) students ages 14-15 showed a high level of support for peers who object to dissection, although objectors are likely to be met with derogatory comments,…

  15. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Samantha; Brown, Jeffrey; Currie, Alistair

    2011-11-29

    In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches.

  16. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...

  17. [Solving of Revesh-Krushinsky test by animals of different taxonomic groups].

    PubMed

    Pleskacheva, M G; Zorina, Z A

    2012-01-01

    There has been compared behavior of rats, corvid birds, and primates of different species at their performance of the Revesh-Krushinsky test (RKT) developed by L. V. Krushinsky to extimate the human capability for revealing rule of discrete translocation of hidden target object. RKT was introduced as an addition to the test for extrapolation of the movement direction of the bait seen only at the initial pathway fragment; this test is close to Piaget's tests (stage 6) evaluating the capability for mental representation and determination of location of the moving hidden object. During RKT, the bait, hidden from the animals, was placed, near where it was previous time: at the first test presentation--under the 1st cylinder, at the 2nd one--under the 2nd cylinder, etc. The animals were tested once. It was shown that they did not catch the necessary for successful solution rule of the bait translocation, direction and step of its translocation in each presentation. Only some of the animals solved RKT, found the bait 3 and more times in succession with no errors or with one error. Nevertheless, in all groups the number of errors was lower than that in the model situation of random search. Such optimization was a consequence of universal for all groups strategy of search in the places where the bait was found recently. With the similar number of errors, rats, birds, and monkeys performed the search differently. Rats were looking for bait mainly among the cylinders where they had found it previously, whereas monkeys and birds chosen the first the new cylinders located near the target one, which implies the existence, to the weak extent, of elements of prognosis. For all groups of animals, RKT turned out to be more difficult both of the test for extrapolation and the Piaget's test.

  18. A multi-criteria approach to camera motion design for volume data animation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Hsien; Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2013-12-01

    We present an integrated camera motion design and path generation system for building volume data animations. Creating animations is an essential task in presenting complex scientific visualizations. Existing visualization systems use an established animation function based on keyframes selected by the user. This approach is limited in providing the optimal in-between views of the data. Alternatively, computer graphics and virtual reality camera motion planning is frequently focused on collision free movement in a virtual walkthrough. For semi-transparent, fuzzy, or blobby volume data the collision free objective becomes insufficient. Here, we provide a set of essential criteria focused on computing camera paths to establish effective animations of volume data. Our dynamic multi-criteria solver coupled with a force-directed routing algorithm enables rapid generation of camera paths. Once users review the resulting animation and evaluate the camera motion, they are able to determine how each criterion impacts path generation. In this paper, we demonstrate how incorporating this animation approach with an interactive volume visualization system reduces the effort in creating context-aware and coherent animations. This frees the user to focus on visualization tasks with the objective of gaining additional insight from the volume data.

  19. Designing media for animal cell culture: CHO cells, the industrial standard.

    PubMed

    Landauer, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    The success of culturing CHO cells solely depends on functionality of the used media. Cell culture technology is more than 50 years old, and the knowledge of cell requirements increased steadily. In the beginning, animal-sourced components were the key to growth. Nowadays state-of-the-art media do not contain any animal or naturally sourced components. The compositions are based on scientific awareness of the needs of the cells. The result is high lot-to-lot consistency and high performance.In this book section, a method for the development of a synthetic, animal component-free medium is described. The composition is based on public available formulations and information based on the work of many scientists printed in numerous papers and manuscripts. The method shall help beginners to design their own medium, although some knowledge of biochemistry and animal cells is still required.

  20. Assessment of four different test designs for Hyalella azteca 10 days sediment toxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Romero, P. |; Oris, J.T.; Bailer, J.; DePoy, M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy of four experimental designs of the Hyalella azteca 10 days sediment toxicity test. The authors conducted a series of sediment toxicity tests using an EPA recommended experimental design (8 chambers with 10 organisms per treatment) and three other designs. These had the same total number of organisms (80) per treatment and the same sediment:water ratio (1:1.5) but different number of chambers (4,2,1). The number of organisms recovered, the time to sort and count the animals, as well as the time to make a water change were compared for these four designs. Logistic regression was used to analyze the recovery data while one-way analysis of variance methods were used to analyze the time responses. The results showed that the four treatments were comparable in terms of proportion of organisms recovered. However, the sorting time and the water change time decreased as the number of chambers decreased, making those designs with less chambers more desirable.

  1. Periphyton photosynthesis as an indicator of effluent toxicity: Relationship to effects on animal test species

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of freshwater and marine plants in effluent toxicity evaluations is uncommon despite the presence of test methods and recommendations for their use. It has been assumed that aquatic plants are less sensitive than animal test species and consequently, results from toxicity tests with invertebrates and fish have been used often as a surrogate data base. The study evaluated the ability of these animal toxicity tests to provide safe concentrations for in-stream periphyton. The toxicity of several samples of a treated municipal effluent were determined during a five-month period by monitoring short-term changes in periphyton photosynthesis (carbon-14 uptake) and by observing the effects on young production and survival of cultured daphnids and the fathead minnow. The effect levels from the various tests were compared. The effluent was seldom acutely toxic to Daphnia magna and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) but it was consistently acutely and chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Chronic effect levels ranged between 17 and 71% effluent. Significant inhibition and stimulation of periphyton photosynthesis occurred at concentrations of 6 to 39% effluent. Periphyton photosynthesis was a more sensitive effect parameter than animal survival and in some cases than Ceriodaphnia reproductive performance. The results indicate that effluent toxicity tests conducted routinely with daphnids and fish may not be sufficient to predict effects on indigenous flora in receiving waters.

  2. Usefulness of sediment toxicity tests with estuarine plants and animals to indicate municipal and industrial effluent impact

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The environmental impact of municipal and industrial effluents has been predicted from results from single species toxicity tests. The goal of these tests is to ensure that water quality criteria and the designated use of the waterbody is not impacted. Recently, the focus of some effluent toxicity evaluation has centered on determining the effluent impact on the sediment in the receiving water. This study evaluated the toxicities of several sediment samples collected above and below six outfalls to the Pensacola Bay system. Toxicities were determined using three macrophytic plants and four animal species. The sediments, with few exceptions, exhibited a low level of toxicity. The mysid shrimp was more sensitive than Ampelisca, Leptocheirus and the sheepshead minnow. The sensitivities of the plants, Echinochloa crusgalli, Scirpus robustus and Sesbania macrocarpa, were comparable to those of the animal species. The toxicity of time sediment, when compared to that of the effluent, determined using standard single species of plants and animals was less. Overall, the sediment toxicity tests were useful in providing insight on the impact of effluents. However, the application and usefulness of this assessment tool is highly dependent upon a variety of factors, including the geomorphological characteristics of the receiving waters.

  3. Survey of the quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research using animals.

    PubMed

    Kilkenny, Carol; Parsons, Nick; Kadyszewski, Ed; Festing, Michael F W; Cuthill, Innes C; Fry, Derek; Hutton, Jane; Altman, Douglas G

    2009-11-30

    For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%), to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods described their methods and presented the results with a measure of error or variability. This survey has identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to improve experimental design and reporting in publications describing research using animals. Scientific publication is a powerful and important source of information; the authors of scientific publications therefore have a responsibility to describe their methods and results comprehensively, accurately and transparently, and peer reviewers and

  4. The constructal-law origin of the wheel, size, and skeleton in animal design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows that the emergence of body organs is predictable as an integral part of the design for moving animal mass more easily on Earth, in accord with the constructal law of design in nature: For a finite-size open system to persist in time (to live), it must evolve such that it provides easier access to the imposed (global) currents that flow through it. Every organ destroys useful energy in two ways: Internally by thermodynamic irreversibilities and by having to be carried. From the constructal law follows the necessity of characteristic-size organs and the emergence of solid columns (legs) to facilitate the flow of stresses. This natural "wheel" endows the body with rolling (falling-forward) locomotion, with predicted speeds that agree with the observed speeds in the body mass range of 10-6-103 kg. The constructal law also accounts for animal design features for changing speeds. Skeletons (bones and legs) are solid organs that emerge in accordance with the constructal-law design of moving animal mass: More and stronger material emerges along the lines of highest stresses. A connection between animal wheel movement and swimming, water waves, and tsunamis is also made.

  5. Teaching Habitat and Animal Classification to Fourth Graders Using an Engineering-Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marulcu, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Background: The motivation for this work is built upon the premise that there is a need for research-based materials for design-based science instruction. In this paper, a small portion of our work investigating the impact of a LEGO[TM] engineering unit on fourth grade students' preconceptions and understanding of animals is presented. Purpose:…

  6. Use of animals for toxicology testing is necessary to ensure patient safety in pharmaceutical development.

    PubMed

    Mangipudy, Raja; Burkhardt, John; Kadambi, Vivek J

    2014-11-01

    There is an active debate in toxicology literature about the utility of animal testing vis-a-vis alternative in vitro paradigms. To provide a balanced perspective and add to this discourse it is important to review the current paradigms, explore pros and cons of alternatives, and provide a vision for the future. The fundamental goal of toxicity testing is to ensure safety in humans. In this article, IQ Consortium DruSafe, while submitting the view that nonclinical testing in animals is an important and critical component of the risk assessment paradigm in developing new drugs, also discusses its views on alternative approaches including a roadmap for what would be required to enhance the utilization of alternative approaches in the safety assessment process.

  7. Designing and testing of backflow-free catheters.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, O; Ivanchenko, V

    2011-06-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a drug delivery technique used to target specific regions of the central nervous system (CNS) for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer while bypassing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The application of CED is limited by low volumetric flow rate infusions in order to prevent the possibility of backflow. Consequently, a small convective flow produces poor drug distribution inside the treatment region, which can render CED treatment ineffective. Novel catheter designs and CED protocols are needed in order to improve the drug distribution inside the treatment region and prevent backflow. In order to develop novel backflow-free catheter designs, the impact of the micro-fluid injection into deformable porous media was investigated experimentally as well as numerically. Fluid injection into the porous media has a considerable effect on local transport properties such as porosity and hydraulic conductivity because of the local media deformation. These phenomena not only alter the bulk flow velocity distribution of the micro-fluid flow due to the changing porosity, but significantly modify the flow direction, and even the volumetric flow distribution, due to induced local hydraulic conductivity anisotropy. These findings help us to design backflow-free catheters with safe volumetric flow rates up to 10 μl/min. A first catheter design reduces porous media deformation in order to improve catheter performance and control an agent volumetric distribution. A second design prevents the backflow by reducing the porosity and hydraulic conductivity along a catheter's shaft. A third synergistic catheter design is a combination of two previous designs. Novel channel-inducing and dual-action catheters, as well as a synergistic catheter, were successfully tested without the occurrence of backflow and are recommended for future animal experiments.

  8. Testing therapeutic potency of anticancer drugs in animal studies: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Den Otter, Willem; Steerenberg, Peter A; Van der Laan, Jan Willem

    2002-04-01

    Regulatory authorities for medicines in European countries deal with many applications for admission to the market of anticancer drugs. Each application must be supported by preclinical and clinical data, among which testing of the therapeutic activity of drugs in animals is important. Recently, the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) has released a note for guidance on the preclinical evaluation of anticancer medicinal products. This note provides only general statements regarding tests of anticancer drugs in rodents. This stimulates considerations on how to organize and how to evaluate these tests. In this article we describe our considerations regarding these items based on our experience with applications in The Netherlands since 1993.

  9. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    advanced fuel cycle; (2) To qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR; and (3) To support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ABTR should also address the following additional objectives: (1) To incorporate and demonstrate innovative design concepts and features that may lead to significant improvements in cost, safety, efficiency, reliability, or other favorable characteristics that could promote public acceptance and future private sector investment in ABRs; (2) To demonstrate improved technologies for safeguards and security; and (3) To support development of the U.S. infrastructure for design, fabrication and construction, testing and deployment of systems, structures and components for the ABRs. Based on these objectives, a pre-conceptual design of a 250 MWt ABTR has been developed; it is documented in this report. In addition to meeting the primary and additional objectives listed above, the lessons learned from fast reactor programs in the U.S. and worldwide and the operating experience of more than a dozen fast reactors around the world, in particular the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II have been incorporated into the design of the ABTR to the extent possible.

  10. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  11. Juvenile animal studies for the development of paediatric medicines: a description and conclusions from a European Medicines Agency workshop on juvenile animal testing for nonclinical assessors.

    PubMed

    Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Due Theilade-Thomsen, Mette; Carleer, Jacqueline; Vidal, Jean-Marc; Tomasi, Paolo; Saint-Raymond, Agnes

    2010-12-01

    A workshop organised by the European Medicines Agency involved assessors and experts present in a Nonclinical Working Group evaluating juvenile animal studies for Paediatric Investigation Plans in collaboration with the Paediatric Committee and the Safety Working Party of the Committee for Human Medicinal Products. The objective of the workshop was to analyse which juvenile animal studies proposals were received and agreed by the Paediatric Committee, to check consistency and how to apply the existing European guideline on juvenile animal studies. A comparison of main organ system development in man vs. animal species was presented to guide the review and to support species selection and protocol design. An analysis of juvenile animal studies included in finalised PIP's was also presented. Out of 109 paediatric investigation plans finalised between November 2008 and March 2009, 43 included one or more juvenile animal studies. In most cases the preferred species was the rat; one species only was requested to be studied (20/22), but in a minority two species were required (2/22). When deciding on the characteristics of the juvenile animal studies, such as age of animals at study start, the age of the children targeted by the medicine was considered. It is expected that the increasing experience gained by Applicants and Regulators will allow further refining the criteria for these juvenile animal studies. Further research on this topic is highly encouraged in the European Regulatory framework.

  12. Optimal Test Design with Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the fly directly from calibrated features defining…

  13. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction: Graphics and Animation Components for Interface Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Richardson, Lucy

    We present an analysis of communicability methodology in graphics and animation components for interface design, called CAN (Communicability, Acceptability and Novelty). This methodology has been under development between 2005 and 2010, obtaining excellent results in cultural heritage, education and microcomputing contexts. In studies where there is a bi-directional interrelation between ergonomics, usability, user-centered design, software quality and the human-computer interaction. We also present the heuristic results about iconography and layout design in blogs and websites of the following countries: Spain, Italy, Portugal and France.

  14. What are the Best Animal Models for Testing Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy?

    PubMed Central

    Clowry, Gavin John; Basuodan, Reem; Chan, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Interventions to treat cerebral palsy should be initiated as soon as possible in order to restore the nervous system to the correct developmental trajectory. One drawback to this approach is that interventions have to undergo exceptionally rigorous assessment for both safety and efficacy prior to use in infants. Part of this process should involve research using animals but how good are our animal models? Part of the problem is that cerebral palsy is an umbrella term that covers a number of conditions. There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, perinatal infarcts of the middle cerebral artery, or generalized anoxia at the time of birth, indeed multiple causes, including intra-uterine infection or a genetic predisposition to infarction, may need to interact to produce a clinically significant injury. In this review, we consider which animal models best reproduce certain aspects of the condition, and the extent to which the multifactorial nature of cerebral palsy has been modeled. The degree to which the corticospinal system of various animal models human corticospinal system function and development is also explored. Where attempts have already been made to test early intervention in animal models, the outcomes are evaluated in light of the suitability of the model. PMID:25538677

  15. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O'Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  16. Cartilage regeneration and repair testing in a surrogate large animal model.

    PubMed

    Simon, Timothy M; Aberman, Harold M

    2010-02-01

    The aging human population is experiencing increasing numbers of symptoms related to its degenerative articular cartilage (AC), which has stimulated the investigation of methods to regenerate or repair AC. However, the seemingly inherent limited capacity for AC to regenerate persists to confound the various repair treatment strategies proposed or studied. Animal models for testing AC implant devices and reparative materials are an important and required part of the Food and Drug Administration approval process. Although final testing is ultimately performed in humans, animal testing allows for a wider range of parameters and combinations of test materials subjected to all the biological interactions of a living system. We review here considerations, evaluations, and experiences with selection and use of animal models and describe two untreated lesion models useful for testing AC repair strategies. These created lesion models, one deep (6 mm and through the subchondral plate) the other shallow (to the level of the subchondral bone plate) were placed in the middle one-third of the medial femoral condyle of the knee joints of goats. At 1-year neither the deep nor the shallow full-thickness chondral defects generated a repair that duplicated natural AC. Moreover, progressive deleterious changes occurred in the AC surrounding the defects. There are challenges in translation from animals to humans as anatomy and structures are different and immobilization to protect delicate repairs can be difficult. The tissues potentially generated by proposed cartilage repair strategies must be compared with the spontaneous changes that occur in similarly created untreated lesions. The prevention of the secondary changes in the surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone described in this article should be addressed with the introduction of treatments for repairs of the articulating surface.

  17. Test Design Project: Studies in Test Bias. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, David

    Item bias in a multiple-choice test can be detected by appropriate analyses of the persons x items scoring matrix. This permits comparison of groups of examinees tested with the same instrument. The test may be biased if it is not measuring the same thing in comparable groups, if groups are responding to different aspects of the test items, or if…

  18. Body-on-a-chip systems for animal-free toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Gretchen J; Esch, Mandy B; Stokol, Tracy; Hickman, James J; Shuler, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Body-on-a-chip systems replicate the size relationships of organs, blood distribution and blood flow, in accordance with human physiology. When operated with tissues derived from human cell sources, these systems are capable of simulating human metabolism, including the conversion of a prodrug to its effective metabolite, as well as its subsequent therapeutic actions and toxic side-effects. The system also permits the measurement of human tissue electrical and mechanical reactions, which provide a measure of functional response. Since these devices can be operated with human tissue samples or with in vitro tissues derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), they can play a significant role in determining the success of new pharmaceuticals, without resorting to the use of animals. By providing a platform for testing in the context of human metabolism, as opposed to animal models, the systems have the potential to eliminate the use of animals in preclinical trials. This article will review progress made and work achieved as a direct result of the 2015 Lush Science Prize in support of animal-free testing.

  19. Statistical studies of animal response data from USF toxicity screening test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical examination of animal response data obtained using Procedure B of the USF toxicity screening test method indicates that the data deviate only slightly from a normal or Gaussian distribution. This slight departure from normality is not expected to invalidate conclusions based on theoretical statistics. Comparison of times to staggering, convulsions, collapse, and death as endpoints shows that time to death appears to be the most reliable endpoint because it offers the lowest probability of missed observations and premature judgements.

  20. Design, fabrication and test of block 4 design solar cell modules. Part 2: Residential module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of the Block IV residential load module are reported. Design changes from the proposed module design through three iterations to the discontinuance of testing are outlined.

  1. Animation of multi-flexible body systems and its use in control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juengst, Carl; Stahlberg, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Animation can greatly assist the structural dynamicist and control system analyst with better understanding of how multi-flexible body systems behave. For multi-flexible body systems, the structural characteristics (mode frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) change, sometimes dramatically with large angles of rotation between bodies. With computer animation, the analyst can visualize these changes and how the system responds to active control forces and torques. A characterization of the type of system we wish to animate is presented. The lack of clear understanding of the above effects was a key element leading to the development of a multi-flexible body animation software package. The resulting animation software is described in some detail here, followed by its application to the control system analyst. Other applications of this software can be determined on an individual need basis. A number of software products are currently available that make the high-speed rendering of rigid body mechanical system simulation possible. However, such options are not available for use in rendering flexible body mechanical system simulations. The desire for a high-speed flexible body visualization tool led to the development of the Flexible Or Rigid Mechanical System (FORMS) software. This software was developed at the Center for Simulation and Design Optimization of Mechanical Systems at the University of Iowa. FORMS provides interactive high-speed rendering of flexible and/or rigid body mechanical system simulations, and combines geometry and motion information to produce animated output. FORMS is designed to be both portable and flexible, and supports a number of different user interfaces and graphical display devices. Additional features have been added to FORMS that allow special visualization results related to the nature of the flexible body geometric representations.

  2. The Impact of Designing and Evaluating Molecular Animations on How Well Middle School Students Understand the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the understanding of the particulate nature of matter by students was improved by allowing them to design and evaluate molecular animations of chemical phenomena. We developed Chemation, a learner-centered animation tool, to allow seventh-grade students to construct flipbook-like simple animations to show…

  3. 46 CFR 61.40-3 - Design verification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design verification testing. 61.40-3 Section 61.40-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-3 Design...

  4. 46 CFR 61.40-3 - Design verification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design verification testing. 61.40-3 Section 61.40-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-3 Design...

  5. 46 CFR 61.40-3 - Design verification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design verification testing. 61.40-3 Section 61.40-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-3 Design...

  6. 46 CFR 61.40-3 - Design verification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design verification testing. 61.40-3 Section 61.40-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-3 Design...

  7. 46 CFR 61.40-3 - Design verification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design verification testing. 61.40-3 Section 61.40-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-3 Design...

  8. 49 CFR 178.33b-7 - Design qualification test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design qualification test. 178.33b-7 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-7 Design qualification test. (a) Drop..., each new design must be drop tested as follows: Three groups of twenty-five filled containers must...

  9. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Robert E; Boekelheide, Kim; Cortvrindt, Rita; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Gant, Tim; Jegou, Bernard; Marczylo, Emma; van Pelt, Ans M M; Post, Janine N; Roelofs, Maarke J E; Schlatt, Stefan; Teerds, Katja J; Toppari, Jorma; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-08-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at promoting innovative approaches toward toxicological hazard and risk assessment on the basis of human and in vitro data, and replacement of animal studies. Participants addressed the state of the art regarding human and animal evidence for compound mediated testicular toxicity, reviewed existing alternative assay models, and brainstormed about future approaches, specifically considering tissue engineering. The workshop recognized the specific complexity of testicular function exemplified by dedicated cell types with distinct functionalities, as well as different cell compartments in terms of microenvironment and extracellular matrix components. This complexity hampers quick results in the realm of alternative models. Nevertheless, progress has been achieved in recent years, and innovative approaches in tissue engineering may open new avenues for mimicking testicular function in vitro. Although feasible, significant investment is deemed essential to be able to bring new ideas into practice in the laboratory. For the advancement of in vitro testicular toxicity testing, one of the most sensitive end points in regulatory reproductive toxicity testing, such an investment is highly desirable.

  10. Inconsistencies in data requirements of EU legislation involving tests on animals.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kristina; Fach, Bettina; Kolar, Roman

    2012-01-01

    European Union (EU) legislation on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires that alternative methods must be used instead of animal tests wherever they are available. Unfortunately, this provision is not implemented to its full extent when it comes to risk assessment of chemicals and new products prior to their authorization and placing on the market in the EU. In this study, we screened data requirements of relevant EU law regarding chemicals (REACH), biocides, pesticides, and food safety (Novel Food) and found that data requirements as part of the risk assessment do not always reflect state-of-the-art science and technology. Most of the data requirements we investigated still include testing on animals for many toxicological endpoints, even though more than 40 alternative testing methods accepted at the level of the EU or the OECD are available. This may be due to a multitude of reasons, including a shortage of both manpower to implement existing knowledge and expertise in the field of alternative methods, as well as unclear and misleading statements on the applicability and state of validation of alternative methods. In conclusion, we strongly suggest a homogeneous EU-wide approach for all areas involving risk assessment of substances with the goal of better implementing the 3Rs and complying with Directive 2010/63/EU. This also would streamline data requirements, save costs on various levels, and enhance product safety for consumers.

  11. The feasibility of replacing animal testing for assessing consumer safety: a suggested future direction.

    PubMed

    Fentem, Julia; Chamberlain, Mark; Sangster, Bart

    2004-12-01

    At present, we are unable to use much of the data derived from alternative (non-animal) tests for human health risk assessment. This brief Comment outlines why it is plausible that new paradigms could be developed to enable risk assessment to support consumer safety decisions, without the need to generate data in animal tests. The availability of technologies that did not exist 10 years ago makes this new approach possible. The approach is based on the concept that data and information derived from applying existing and new technologies to non-animal models can be interpreted in terms of harm and disease in man. A prerequisite is that similar data and information generated in a clinical setting are available to permit this "translation". The incorporation of this additional translation step should make it possible to use data and information generated in non-animal models as inputs to risk assessment. The new technologies include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics. Their application to in vitro and human "models" enables large amounts of data to be generated very quickly. The processing, interpretation and translation of these data need to be supported by powerful informatics capabilities and statistical tools. The use of integrated "systems biology" approaches will further support the interpretation by providing better understanding of the underlying biological complexity and mechanisms of toxicity. Clinical medicine is using the opportunities offered by the new "omics" technologies to advance the understanding of disease. The application of these technologies in clinical medicine will generate massive amounts of data that will need processing and interpretation to allow clinicians to better diagnose disease and understand the patients' responses to therapeutic interventions. Support from clinical epidemiology will be essential. If these data and information can be made generally accessible in an ethical and legal way, they should also permit

  12. Animal Guts as Ideal Reactors: An Open-Ended Project for a Course in Kinetics and Reactor Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Eric D.; Gast, Alice P.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an open-ended project tailored for a senior kinetics and reactor design course in which basic reactor design equations are used to model the digestive systems of several animals. Describes the assignment as well as the results. (DDR)

  13. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    PubMed

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.

  14. Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven.

    The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site.

    This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Risk-based testing of imported animals: A case study for bovine tuberculosis in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Clazien J; van der Goot, Jeanet A; van Zijderveld, Fred G; Swanenburg, Manon; Elbers, Armin R W

    2015-09-01

    In intra-EU trade, the health status of animals is warranted by issuing a health certificate after clinical inspection in the exporting country. This certificate cannot provide guarantee of absence of infection, especially not for diseases with a long incubation period and no overt clinical signs such as bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The Netherlands are officially free from bTB since 1999. However, frequent reintroductions occurred in the past 15 years through importation of infected cattle. Additional testing (AT) of imported cattle could enhance the probability of detecting an imported bTB infection in an early stage. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of risk-based AT for bTB in cattle imported into The Netherlands. A generic stochastic import risk model was developed that simulates introduction of infection into an importing country through importation of live animals. Main output parameters are the number of infected animals that is imported (Ninf), the number of infected animals that is detected by testing (Ndet), and the economic losses incurred by importing infected animals (loss). The model was parameterized for bTB. Model calculations were optimized to either maximize Ndet or to minimize loss. Model results indicate that the risk of bTB introduction into The Netherlands is very high. For the current situation in which Dutch health checks on imported cattle are limited to a clinical inspection of a random sample of 5-10% of imported animals, the calculated annual Ninf=99 (median value). Random AT of 8% of all imported cattle results in Ndet=7 (median value), while the median Ndet=75 if the sampling strategy for AT is optimized to maximize Ndet. However, in the latter scenario, loss is more than twice as large as in the current situation, because only calves are tested for which cost of detection is higher than the expected gain of preventing a possible outbreak. When optimizing the sampling strategy for AT to minimize loss, only breeding

  16. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs...

  17. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs...

  18. Building on a solid foundation: SAR and QSAR as a fundamental strategy to reduce animal testing.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, K M; Manuppello, J R; Willett, C E

    2014-01-01

    The development of more efficient, ethical, and effective means of assessing the effects of chemicals on human health and the environment was a lifetime goal of Gilman Veith. His work has provided the foundation for the use of chemical structure for informing toxicological assessment by regulatory agencies the world over. Veith's scientific work influenced the early development of the SAR models in use today at the US Environmental Protection Agency. He was the driving force behind the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development QSAR Toolbox. Veith was one of a few early pioneers whose vision led to the linkage of chemical structure and biological activity as a means of predicting adverse apical outcomes (known as a mode of action, or an adverse outcome pathway approach), and he understood at an early stage the power that could be harnessed when combining computational and mechanistic biological approaches as a means of avoiding animal testing. Through the International QSAR Foundation he organized like-minded experts to develop non-animal methods and frameworks for the assessment of chemical hazard and risk for the benefit of public and environmental health. Avoiding animal testing was Gil's passion, and his work helped to initiate the paradigm shift in toxicology that is now rendering this feasible.

  19. 10 CFR 60.142 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... construction, a program for in situ testing of such features as borehole and shaft seals, backfill, and the thermal interaction effects of the waste packages, backfill, rock, and groundwater shall be conducted. (b) The testing shall be initiated as early as is practicable. (c) A backfill test section shall...

  20. 10 CFR 60.142 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... construction, a program for in situ testing of such features as borehole and shaft seals, backfill, and the thermal interaction effects of the waste packages, backfill, rock, and groundwater shall be conducted. (b) The testing shall be initiated as early as is practicable. (c) A backfill test section shall...

  1. 10 CFR 60.142 - Design testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... construction, a program for in situ testing of such features as borehole and shaft seals, backfill, and the thermal interaction effects of the waste packages, backfill, rock, and groundwater shall be conducted. (b) The testing shall be initiated as early as is practicable. (c) A backfill test section shall...

  2. Towards the development of improved tests for negative symptoms of schizophrenia in a validated animal model.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ceren; Doostdar, Nazanin; Neill, Joanna C

    2016-10-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. There is no licensed treatment specifically for this debilitating aspect of the disorder and effect sizes of new therapies are too small to make an impact on quality of life and function. Negative symptoms are multifactorial but often considered in terms of two domains, expressive deficit incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech and avolition incorporating asociality and lack of drive. There is a clear need for improved understanding of the neurobiology of negative symptoms which can be enabled through the use of carefully validated animal models. While there are several tests for assessing sociability in animals, tests for blunted affect in schizophrenia are currently lacking. Two paradigms have recently been developed for assessing negative affect of relevance to depression in rats. Here we assess their utility for studying negative symptoms in schizophrenia using our well validated model for schizophrenia of sub-chronic (sc) treatment with Phencyclidine (PCP) in adult female rats. Results demonstrate that sc PCP treatment produces a significant negative affect bias in response to a high value reward in the optimistic and affective bias tests. Our results are not easily explained by the known cognitive deficits induced by sc PCP and support the hypothesis of a negative affective bias in this model. We suggest that further refinement of these two tests will provide a means to investigate the neurobiological basis of negative affect in schizophrenia, thus supporting the assessment of efficacy of new targets for this currently untreated symptom domain.

  3. "Play it Again": a new method for testing metacognition in animals.

    PubMed

    Foote, Allison L; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2012-03-01

    Putative metacognition data in animals may be explained by non-metacognition models (e.g., stimulus generalization). The primary objective of the present study was to develop a new method for testing metacognition in animals that may yield data that can be explained by metacognition but not by non-metacognition models. Next, we used the new method with rats. Rats were first presented with a brief noise duration which they would subsequently classify as short or long. Rats were sometimes forced to take an immediate duration test, forced to repeat the same duration, or had the choice to take the test or repeat the duration. Metacognition, but not an alternative non-metacognition model, predicts that accuracy on difficult durations is higher when subjects are forced to repeat the stimulus compared to trials in which the subject chose to repeat the stimulus, a pattern observed in our data. Simulation of a non-metacognition model suggests that this part of the data from rats is consistent with metacognition, but other aspects of the data are not consistent with metacognition. The current results call into question previous findings suggesting that rats have metacognitive abilities. Although a mixed pattern of data does not support metacognition in rats, we believe the introduction of the method may be valuable for testing with other species to help evaluate the comparative case for metacognition.

  4. Design and performance test of spacecraft test and operation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohua; Cui, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2011-06-01

    Main test processor (MTP) software is the key element of Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) for spacecraft test and operation used in the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) for years without innovation. With the increasing demand for a more efficient and agile MTP software, the new MTP software was developed. It adopts layered and plug-in based software architecture, whose core runtime server provides message queue management, share memory management and process management services and forms the framework for a configurable and open architecture system. To investigate the MTP software's performance, the test case of network response time, test sequence management capability and data-processing capability was introduced in detail. Test results show that the MTP software is common and has higher performance than the legacy one.

  5. Engineering tissue alternatives to animals: applying tissue engineering to basic research and safety testing.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Anthony; Brown, Robert; Shakesheff, Kevin

    2009-07-01

    The focus for the rapid progress in the field of tissue engineering has been the clinical potential of the technology to repair, replace, maintain or enhance the function of a particular tissue or organ. However, tissue engineering has much wider applicability in basic research and safety testing, which is often not recognized owing to the clinical focus of tissue engineers. Using examples from a recent National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council symposium, which brought together tissue engineers and scientists from other research communities, this review highlights the potential of tissue engineering to provide scientifically robust alternatives to animals to address basic research questions and improve drug and chemical development in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  6. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  7. Food preference, keeper ratings, and reinforcer effectiveness in exotic animals: the value of systematic testing.

    PubMed

    Gaalema, Diann E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Kelling, Angela S

    2011-01-01

    Food preference describes the behavior of selecting between items for consumption; reinforcer effectiveness is the functional effect of that item in controlling behavior. Food preference and reinforcer effectiveness were examined in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). A pairwise comparison between food items was used to assess food preference. High-, moderate-, and low-preference items were selected and tested for reinforcer effectiveness. High-preference items controlled behavior more effectively than less-preferred items. Caregiver ratings of food preferences were also collected for each subject, but these reports did not necessarily coincide with actual subject preferences. Caregiver ratings correlated with the food preferences of only 1 individual of each species; thus, preferences of 1 nonhuman animal may be falsely generalized to all animals of that species. Results suggest that food choice and reinforcer effectiveness should be investigated empirically and not rely on anecdotal reports.

  8. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Du, Ji-Hui; Li, Rong; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0 ± 5.9 d) rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0 ± 4.0 d), and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0 ± 2.9 d) were statistically similar (all p > 0.05) to and linearly correlated (r = 0.96, p < 0.01) with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0 ± 2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0 ± 1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0 ± 0.8 d). The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models. PMID:27294128

  9. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    PubMed

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  10. Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) Design of a Small Animal Radiotherapy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, S.; Mackie, T. R.; Jeraj, R.

    2014-03-01

    Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) was initiated with the goal of facilitating medical research by developing medical technologies including both hardware and software on an open-source platform. Our first project was to develop an integrated imaging and radiotherapy device for small animals that includes computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and radiation therapy (RT) modalities for which technical specifications were defined in the first OSMD conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in December 2011. This paper specifically focuses on the development of a small animal RT (micro-RT) system by designing a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) and a small animal treatment planning system (SATPS) to enable intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Both hardware and software projects are currently under development and their current progresses are described. After the development, both bmMLC and TPS will be validated and commissioned for a micro-RT system. Both hardware design and software development will be open-sourced after completion.

  11. GATE simulation of a new design of pinhole SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzun Ozsahin, D.; Bläckberg, L.; El Fakhri, G.; Sabet, H.

    2017-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging has gained an increased interest over the past decade since it is an excellent tool for developing new drugs and tracers. Therefore, there is a huge effort on the development of cost-effective SPECT detectors with high capabilities. The aim of this study is to simulate the performance characteristics of new designs for a cost effective, stationary SPECT system dedicated to small animal imaging with a focus on mice brain. The conceptual design of this SPECT system platform, Stationary Small Animal SSA-SPECT, is to use many pixelated CsI:TI detector modules with 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm pixels in order to achieve excellent intrinsic detector resolution where each module is backed by a single pinhole collimator with 0.3 mm hole diameter. In this work, we present the simulation results of four variations of the SSA-SPECT platform where the number of detector modules and FOV size is varied while keeping the detector size and collimator hole size constant. Using the NEMA NU-4 protocol, we performed spatial resolution, sensitivity, image quality simulations followed by a Derenzo-like phantom evaluation. The results suggest that all four SSA-SPECT systems can provide better than 0.063% system sensitivity and < 1.5 mm FWHM spatial resolution without resolution recovery or other correction techniques. Specifically, SSA-SPECT-1 showed a system sensitivity of 0.09% in combination with 1.1 mm FWHM spatial resolution.

  12. Improving the design and analysis of animal experiments: a personal odyssey.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2009-12-01

    Everybody's career depends on many chance factors: the people one meets, the opportunities which are available, or the state of a scientific discipline. Mine is no exception. I started out in agriculture, obtained a PhD in quantitative genetics, and spent most of my career concerned with the use of animals in biomedical research. Soon after I joined the Medical Research Council Laboratory Animals Centre in 1966, as their geneticist in charge of many species and strains of laboratory animals, I was introduced to Russell and Burch's book, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. It had a significant effect on my future, which has encompassed two related themes: the need for better experimental design, and the conviction that, in most research, inbred strains of rats and mice should normally be used in preference to genetically undefined outbred stocks. The establishment of the FRAME Reduction Committee has helped me to pursue both of these, although toxicologists continue to ignore basic design principles, by using outbred stocks.

  13. Reduction of animal suffering in rabies vaccine potency testing by introduction of humane endpoints.

    PubMed

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Horiya, Madoka; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated. The clinical signs were scored and body weight was monitored. The average times to death following inoculation were 10.49 and 10.99 days post-inoculation (dpi) by the potency and challenge control tests, respectively, whereas the average times to showing Score-2 signs (paralysis, trembling, and coma) were 6.26 and 6.55 dpi, respectively. Body weight loss of more than 15% appeared at 5.82 and 6.42 dpi. The data provided here support the introduction of obvious neuronal signs combined with a body weight loss of ≥15% as a humane endpoint to reduce the time of animal suffering by approximately 4 days.

  14. Dynamic (Vibration) Testing: Design-Certification of Aerospace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin K.

    2010-01-01

    Various types of dynamic testing of structures for certification purposes are described, including vibration, shock and acoustic testing. Modal testing is discussed as it frequently complements dynamic testing and is part of the structural verification/validation process leading up to design certification. Examples of dynamic and modal testing are presented as well as the common practices, procedures and standards employed.

  15. NASA Now: Engineering Design: Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Norman W. Schaeffler, a NASA aerospace research engineer, describes how wind tunnels work and how aircraft designers use them to understand aerodynamic forces at low speeds. Learn the advantage...

  16. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Brunett, A. J.; Heidet, F.; Hill, R.; Hoffman, E.; Jin, E.; Mohamed, W.; Moisseytsev, A.; Passerini, S.; Sienicki, J.; Sumner, T.; Vilim, R.; Hayes, S.

    2016-03-31

    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  17. Cost effective dynamic design and test requirements for Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.; Bangs, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study examining current spacecraft dynamic design and test requirements for the cost effective design and development of Shuttle payloads are presented. Dynamic environments, payload configurations, design/test requirements, test levels, assembly level of testing, simulation methods, prototype role, load limiting, test facilities, and flight measurements are discussed as they relate to the development of a cost effective design and test philosophy for Shuttle Spacelab payloads. It is concluded that changes to current design/test practices will minimize long range payload costs. However, changes to current practices need be quantitatively evaluated before an orderly progression to more cost effective methods can be achieved without undue risk of mission failures. Of major importance is optimization of test levels and plans for payloads and payload subsystems which will result in minimum project costs.

  18. Integration of Design, Thermal, Structural, and Optical Analysis, Including Thermal Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    1993-01-01

    In many industries there has recently been a concerted movement toward 'quality management' and the issue of how to accomplish work more efficiently. Part of this effort is focused on concurrent engineering; the idea of integrating the design and analysis processes so that they are not separate, sequential processes (often involving design rework due to analytical findings) but instead form an integrated system with smooth transfers of information. Presented herein are several specific examples of concurrent engineering methods being carried out at Langley Research Center (LaRC): integration of thermal, structural and optical analyses to predict changes in optical performance based on thermal and structural effects; integration of the CAD design process with thermal and structural analyses; and integration of analysis and presentation by animating the thermal response of a system as an active color map -- a highly effective visual indication of heat flow.

  19. Small Animal Imaging Center Design: The Facility at the UCLA Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stout, David B.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Lawson, Timothy P.; Silverman, Robert W.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Phelps, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The growing number of mouse and rat experiments, coupled with advances in small-animal imaging systems such as microPET®, optical, microCAT™, microMR, ultrasound and microSPECT, has necessitated a common technical center for imaging small animals. Procedures At the UCLA Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, we have designed and built a facility to support the research interests of a wide range of investigators from multiple disciplines. Requirements to satisfy both research and regulatory oversight have been critically examined. Support is provided for investigator training, study scheduling, data acquisition, archiving, image display, and analysis. Results The center has been in operation for more than 18 months, supporting more than 13,000 individual imaging procedures. Conclusions We have created a facility that maximizes our resource utilization while providing optimal investigator support, as well as the means to continually improve the quality and diversity of the science by integrating physical and biological sciences. PMID:16261425

  20. An Optimal Design Approach to Criterion-Referenced Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie

    2003-01-01

    A criterion-referenced computerized test is expressed as a statistical hypothesis problem. This admits that it can be studied by using the theory of optimal design. The power function of the statistical test is used as a criterion function when designing the test. A formal proof is provided showing that all items should have the same item…

  1. A Psychological Measurement of Student Testing Design Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, P. K.; Bruno, James

    An analytical technique from the field of market research called conjoint analysis was applied to a psychological measurement of student testing design preferences. Past concerns with testing design are reviewed, and a newer approach to testing is identified--the modified confidence weighted-admissible probability measurement (MCW-APM) test…

  2. 49 CFR 178.33b-7 - Design qualification test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design qualification test. 178.33b-7 Section 178... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-7 Design qualification test. (a) Drop testing. (1) To ensure that creep does not affect the ability of the container to retain the contents, each new...

  3. Effect of indigenous animals on chronic end points in freshwater sediment toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Reynoldson, T.B.; Day, K.E.; Clarke, C.; Milani, D. )

    1994-06-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted using three species of benthic invertebrates, Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, and Hexagenia limbata, with various densities of the oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex. It was shown that indigenous animals, simulated by the presence of Tubifex tubifex, did not affect survival of the test species (P [>=] 0.05) but did reduce growth in all three test species and in two species at the lowest tested densities, equivalent to 1,460 worms per square meter. At densities of Tubifex tubifex equivalent to 20,000 m[sup [minus]2], the growth of Chironomus riparius was reduced by >90%, Hyalella azteca by >60%, and Hexagenia limbata by almost 50%. The densities of oligochaetes are equivalent to those found in many contaminated sites. Therefore, it is concluded that the presence of indigenous organisms can confound the interpretation of toxicity test results, based on chronic end points. It is recommended that removal of organisms by considered before toxicity tests are conducted with freshwater sediments from sites with large populations of benthic invertebrates, especially oligochaete worms.

  4. Test Design Project: Studies in Test Adequacy. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    These studies in test adequacy focus on two problems: procedures for estimating reliability, and techniques for identifying ineffective distractors. Fourteen papers are presented on recent advances in measuring achievement (a response to Molenaar); "an extension of the Dirichlet-multinomial model that allows true score and guessing to be…

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from food and food animals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Meng, Jianghong; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Yanming; Yang, Baowei; Xi, Meili; Sheng, Jinling; Zhi, Shuai; Xia, Xiaodong

    2012-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is commonly present in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance and genetic characteristics of S. aureus from food and food animals in Shaanxi Province in China. A total of 332 nasal swabs, breast skin swabs, raw milk, and pork samples were collected from local pig, dairy farms, or local grocery stores and screened for the presence of S. aureus. S. aureus isolates were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, and polymerase chain reaction for detecting pvl and mecA genes. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were additionally tested for SCCmec type and exfoliative toxin genes. The prevalence of S. aureus was 30.6% in pig nasal swabs, 32.5% in pork, 25.7% in cow nasal swabs, 30.8% in cow breast skin swabs, and 29.3% in milk samples. Resistances were common among isolates tested against erythromycin (65.7%), tetracycline (65.7%), ciprofloxacin (52.7%), followed by gentamicin (36.7%), chloramphenicol (23.1%), cefoxitin (8.3%), and oxacillin (7.7%), but no isolate was resistant to vancomycin, amikacin, or cefoperazone. pvl gene was found in the isolates from all types of samples except from cow nasal swabs. Fourteen isolates from pig nasal swabs contained mecA gene and were considered as MRSA. PFGE analysis showed that nasal isolates differed from food isolates, but isolates from the same animal source appeared to cluster closely. The PFGE patterns of MRSA isolates were different from other S. aureus isolates from pig nasal cavity even though they were from the same source. All the MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type IV(b). No isolates contained exfoliative toxin genes. These findings indicated that S. aureus, including multidrug-resistant S. aureus, are widely spread in food animals and animal-derived foods in Shaanxi Province, China. MRSA isolates from pigs may pose potential health risks for workers in swine farms and the

  6. Accelerated Reliability Testing Utilizing Design of Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    hat to Measure ............................... 23 b. Identify Stresses ................................ 24 c . Stress Levels...36 c . Test Time ................................... 48 d. Trade Off Analysis .............................. 56 3. A nalysis...79 2. Exam ple 2 . ..................................... 92 3. Exam ple 3 . .................................... 102 C . Conclusion

  7. Engineering and Design: Laboratory Investigations and Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Requirements for Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste (HTRW) and Ordnance and Explosive Waste (OEW) Activities . b. ER 1110-1-261, Quality Assurance of...Laboratory Testing Procedures. c. ER 1110-1-263, Chemical Data Quality Management for Hazardous Waste Remedial Activities . d. ER 1110-1-2002, Cement...Slag, and Pozzolan Acceptance Testing. e. ER 1110-2-8154, Water Quality Management at Corps Civil Works Projects. f. ER 200-2-3, Environmental

  8. Design manual: Oxygen Thermal Test Article (OTTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chronic, W. L.; Baese, C. L.; Conder, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a cryogenic tank for storing liquid hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, methane, or helium for an extended period of time with minimum losses are discussed. A description of the tank and control module, assembly drawings and details of major subassemblies, specific requirements controlling development of the system, thermal concept considerations, thermal analysis methods, and a record of test results are provided. The oxygen thermal test article thermal protection system has proven that the insulation system for cryogenic vessels is effective.

  9. Creating Ribo-T: (Design, Build, Test)n.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Erik D

    2015-11-20

    Engineering biology is especially challenging given our relatively poor ability to rationally design within life's complex design landscape. Thus, moving through the engineering "design, build, test" cycle multiple times accumulates system knowledge and hopefully yields a successful design. Here I discuss the engineering process behind our recently published work creating a ribosome with tethered subunits, Ribo-T.

  10. APEX 3D Propeller Test Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    A low Reynolds number, high subsonic mach number flight regime is fairly uncommon in aeronautics. Most flight vehicles do not fly under these aerodynamic conditions. However, recently there have been a number of proposed aircraft applications (such as high altitude observation platforms and Mars aircraft) that require flight within this regime. One of the main obstacles to flight under these conditions is the ability to reliably generate sufficient thrust for the aircraft. For a conventional propulsion system, the operation and design of the propeller is the key aspect to its operation. Due to the difficulty in experimentally modeling the flight conditions in ground-based facilities, it has been proposed to conduct propeller experiments from a high altitude gliding platform (APEX). A preliminary design of a propeller experiment under the low Reynolds number, high mach number flight conditions has been devised. The details of the design are described as well as the potential data that will be collected.

  11. Computational design and experimental testing of a novel axial flow LVAD.

    PubMed

    Untaroiu, Alexandrina; Wood, Houston G; Allaire, Paul E; Throckmorton, Amy L; Day, Steven; Patel, Sonna M; Ellman, Peter; Tribble, Curt; Olsen, Don B

    2005-01-01

    Thousands of cardiac failure patients per year in the United States could benefit from long-term mechanical circulatory support as destination therapy. To provide an improvement over currently available devices, we have designed a fully implantable axial-flow ventricular assist device with a magnetically levitated impeller (LEV-VAD). In contrast to currently available devices, the LEV-VAD has an unobstructed blood flow path and no secondary flow regions, generating substantially less retrograde and stagnant flow. The pump design included the extensive use of conventional pump design equations and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling for predicting pressure-flow curves, hydraulic efficiencies, scalar fluid stress levels, exposure times to such stress, and axial fluid forces exerted on the impeller for the suspension design. Flow performance testing was completed on a plastic prototype of the LEV-VAD for comparison with the CFD predictions. Animal fit trials were completed to determine optimum pump location and cannulae configuration for future acute and long-term animal implantations, providing additional insight into the LEV-VAD configuration and implantability. Per the CFD results, the LEV-VAD produces 6 l/min and 100 mm Hg at a rotational speed of approximately 6300 rpm for steady flow conditions. The pressure-flow performance predictions demonstrated the VAD's ability to deliver adequate flow over physiologic pressures for reasonable rotational speeds with best efficiency points ranging from 25% to 30%. The CFD numerical estimations generally agree within 10% of the experimental measurements over the entire range of rotational speeds tested. Animal fit trials revealed that the LEV-VAD's size and configuration were adequate, requiring no alterations to cannulae configurations for future animal testing. These acceptable performance results for LEV-VAD design support proceeding with manufacturing of a prototype for extensive mock loop and initial acute

  12. The R.M.C. Design-Build-Test Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    Four projects were assigned to final year civil engineering undergraduates in a course on structural steel design. The projects involved the design, construction, and testing of two columns and two trusses. (TS)

  13. Translation of stem cell research: points to consider in designing preclinical animal studies.

    PubMed

    Frey-Vasconcells, Joyce; Whittlesey, Kevin J; Baum, Elona; Feigal, Ellen G

    2012-05-01

    Stem cell-based therapies hold tremendous promise for the treatment of serious diseases and injuries. Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is routinely used as part of the treatment regime for some malignancies and genetic diseases, most stem cell-based therapeutic products are investigational and still require preclinical and clinical studies to support their many novel therapeutic uses. Because of the multiple sources of stem cells, the plethora of potential applications, and the novel mechanism of action of stem cell-based therapies, there is no single set of universal guidance documents that can be used to inform the preclinical development path for these therapeutics. Specific technical issues relating to the transplantation of human cells in animals, new delivery procedures, and laborious methods to characterize transplanted cells can present further challenges in the design and execution of preclinical animal studies for stem cell-based therapeutic products. In this article, we outline important parameters to guide the design of preclinical studies for stem cell-based therapeutics. In addition, we review the types of preclinical studies that should be considered depending on the nature and specific use of the intended stem cell therapeutic product. Finally, we describe important considerations in the design and execution of specific studies to monitor the efficacy, toxicity, biodistribution, and tumorigenicity of stem cell-based therapeutics.

  14. Reproducibility of toxicity test data as a function of mouse strain, animal lot, and operator. [for bisphenol A polycarbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Furst, A.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco was evaluated for reproducibility. The variables addressed were strain of mouse, lot of animals, and operator. There was a significant difference in response between Swiss Webster mice and ICR mice, with the latter exhibiting greater resistance. These two strains of mice are not interchangeable in this procedure. Variation between individual animals was significant and unavoidable. In view of this variation, between-lot and between-operator variations appear to have no practical significance. The significant variation between individual animals stresses the need for average values based on at least four animals, and preferably values based on at least two experiments and eight animals. Efforts to compare materials should be based on the evaluation of relatively simple responses using substantial numbers of animals, rather than on elaborate evaluation of single animals

  15. Animal testing is still the best way to find new treatments for patients.

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Grignaschi, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    Experimental research proceeds by hypotheses formulated on the basis of previous or new knowledge and then tested. If they are accepted, they serve as the basis for further hypotheses, and if they are rejected new hypotheses can be developed. In other words, when we are at the frontiers of knowledge the path is forged by "trial and error". When a trial shows a hypothesis is wrong, this is a step toward making fewer errors. This process also applies to drug development. There is no magic formula at present to predict - at the pre-clinical level - the therapeutic value of a drug for people with a disease. However, pre-clinical studies are needed in order to formulate hypotheses that justify clinical trials. Without these preliminary studies in vitro and in vivo in selected animal species it would be unethical to test still unproven chemicals in humans.

  16. Prediction of child performance on a parent-child behavioral approach test with animal phobic children.

    PubMed

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Lewis, Krystal M; Cowart, Maria J W; Davis, Thompson

    2012-07-01

    A host of factors including genetic influences, temperament characteristics, learning experiences, information processing biases, parental psychopathology, and specific parenting practices have been hypothesized to contribute to the development and expression of children's phobias. In the present study, the authors focused on parental psychopathology (phobic anxiety) and parenting behaviors (warmth, involvement) in the prediction of child performance on a behavioral approach test (BAT). All children (n = 44) experienced a phobia of animals and were clinic referred. The youth completed two BATs: the first alone and the second one with a parent present. Overall, performance was greater on the parent-present BAT (58% of steps completed) than on the child-alone BAT (38% of steps completed), although considerable variability was present. Performance on the parent-present BAT was associated with parental warmth and involvement but not parental phobic anxiety. Implications of these findings were discussed, and their implications for the use of behavioral analogues tests were explored.

  17. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    PubMed

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment.

  18. Test Designers Tap Students for Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Pondering a math problem while she swings her sneakered feet from a chair, 12-year-old Andrea Guevara is helping researchers design an assessment that will shape the learning of 19 million students. The 8th grader, who came to the United States from Ecuador three years ago, is trying out two ways of providing English-language support on a…

  19. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Aeropropulsion Engines and Solid Modeling/Animation via the Integrated Forced Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grant closure report is organized in the following four chapters: Chapter describes the two research areas Design optimization and Solid mechanics. Ten journal publications are listed in the second chapter. Five highlights is the subject matter of chapter three. CHAPTER 1. The Design Optimization Test Bed CometBoards. CHAPTER 2. Solid Mechanics: Integrated Force Method of Analysis. CHAPTER 3. Five Highlights: Neural Network and Regression Methods Demonstrated in the Design Optimization of a Subsonic Aircraft. Neural Network and Regression Soft Model Extended for PX-300 Aircraft Engine. Engine with Regression and Neural Network Approximators Designed. Cascade Optimization Strategy with Neural network and Regression Approximations Demonstrated on a Preliminary Aircraft Engine Design. Neural Network and Regression Approximations Used in Aircraft Design.

  20. Animal investigation program, 1981 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues, collected from animals that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Other than naturally occurring potassium-40, cesium-137 was the only gamma-emitting radionuclide frequently detected and was within a narrow range of activity. For example, 12 of 14 cattle muscle samples contained 15 to 65 pCi of cesium-137 per kilogram. Strontium-90 and plutonium-238 or -239 tissue concentrations were similar to those of recent years. Nanocurie levels of tritium were found in tissue from two deer that drank contaminated water draining from the tunnel test areas. Annual dose estimates to man were calculated based on the daily consumption of 0.5 kg of tissue with peak radionuclide levels. The highest postulated dose was 45 millirems to the whole body from ingestion of deer muscle that drank from the tritium contaminated waters. This dose is about 9% of the radiation protection guide. Movement of deer on the NTS is discussed. In general, deer from Pahute Mesa winter in the Timber Mt. area with some movement off the NTS, while deer from Rainier Mesa winter in the Shoshone Mt. area. The sudden death of an offsite goat kid was investigated and death was attributed to enterotoxemia. No gross or microscopic lesions in necropsied animals were found that could be attributed to the effect of ionizing radiation.

  1. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1982-01-01

    An analytical methodology for advanced encapsulation designs was developed. From these methods design sensitivities are established for the development of photovoltaic module criteria and the definition of needed research tasks. Analytical models were developed to perform optical, thermal, electrical and analyses on candidate encapsulation systems. From these analyses several candidate systems were selected for qualification testing. Additionally, test specimens of various types are constructed and tested to determine the validity of the analysis methodology developed. Identified deficiencies and/or discrepancies between analytical models and relevant test data are corrected. Prediction capability of analytical models is improved. Encapsulation engineering generalities, principles, and design aids for photovoltaic module designers is generated.

  2. Test fixture design for boron-aluminum and beryllium test panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaux, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed description of the test fixture design and the backup analysis of the fixture assembly and its components are presented. The test fixture is required for the separate testing of two boron-aluminum and two beryllium compression panels. This report is presented in conjunction with a complete set of design drawings on the test fixture system.

  3. Students' Initial Knowledge State and Test Design: Towards a Valid and Reliable Test Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CoPo, Antonio Roland I.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a good test instrument involves specifications, test construction, validation, try-out, analysis and revision. The initial knowledge state of forty (40) tertiary students enrolled in Business Statistics course was determined and the same test instrument undergoes validation. The designed test instrument did not only reveal the baseline…

  4. Panel Design Variations in the Multistage Test Using the Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Park, Ryoungsun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared various panel designs of the multistage test (MST) using mixed-format tests in the context of classification testing. Simulations varied the design of the first-stage module. The first stage was constructed according to three levels of test information functions (TIFs) with three different TIF centers. Additional computerized…

  5. Space power distribution system technology. Volume 3: Test facility design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, D. K.; Cannady, M. D.; Cassinelli, J. E.; Farber, B. F.; Lurie, C.; Fleck, G. W.; Lepisto, J. W.; Messner, A.; Ritterman, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The AMPS test facility is a major tool in the attainment of more economical space power. The ultimate goals of the test facility, its primary functional requirements and conceptual design, and the major equipment it contains are discussed.

  6. Design of a multimodal fibers optic system for small animal optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Pagliazzi, Marco; Boschi, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Small animals optical imaging systems are widely used in pre-clinical research to image in vivo the bio-distribution of light emitting probes using fluorescence or bioluminescence modalities. In this work we presented a set of simulated results of a novel small animal optical imaging module based on a fibers optics matrix, coupled with a position sensitive detector, devoted to acquire bioluminescence and Cerenkov images. Simulations were performed using GEANT 4 code with the GAMOS architecture using the tissue optics plugin. Results showed that it is possible to image a 30 × 30 mm region of interest using a fiber optics array containing 100 optical fibers without compromising the quality of the reconstruction. The number of fibers necessary to cover an adequate portion of a small animal is thus quite modest. This design allows integrating the module with magnetic resonance (MR) in order to acquire optical and MR images at the same time. A detailed model of the mouse anatomy, obtained by segmentation of 3D MRI images, will improve the quality of optical 3D reconstruction.

  7. Designing the Board's New Literature Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    1968-01-01

    This article describes the problems that the College Entrance Examination Board's Committee of Review for the Examinations in English encountered in creating a fair, objective, hour-long literature achievement test which would meet four objectives--to measure the breadth of a student's reading, his understanding of that reading, his response to…

  8. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Brunett, A.; Heidet, F.; Hill, R.; Hoffman, E.; Jin, E.; Mohamed, W.; Moisseytsev, A.; Passerini, S.; Sienicki, J.; Sumner, T.; Vilim, R.; Hayes, Steven

    2016-02-29

    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  9. Inhibited Shaped Charge Launcher Testing of Spacecraft Shield Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, Donald J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a test program in which several orbital debris shield designs were impact tested using the inhibited shaped charge launcher facility at Southwest Research Institute. This facility enables researchers to study the impact of one-gram aluminum projectiles on various shielding designs at velocities above 11 km/s. A total of twenty tests were conducted on targets provided by NASA-MSFC. This report discusses in detail the shield design, the projectile parameters and the test configuration used for each test. A brief discussion of the target damage is provided, as the detailed analysis of the target response will be done by NASA-MSFC.

  10. A Testlet Assembly Design for Adaptive Multistage Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecht, Richard; Brumfield, Terry; Breithaupt, Krista

    2006-01-01

    This article describes multistage tests and some practical test development considerations related to the design and implementation of a multistage test, using the Uniform CPA (certified public accountant) Examination as a case study. The article further discusses the use of automated test assembly procedures in an operational context to produce…

  11. The Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing: Proceedings of a Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This volume contains the prepared papers and discussions of a National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council Symposium on the Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing. The purpose of the symposium was to examine the past, present, and future contributions of animals to human health…

  12. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  13. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2014-04-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  14. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2014-01-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  15. Generating Circuit Tests by Exploiting Designed Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    determine whether the circuit is in test-mode and control /AR shifting. We modified the circuit model accordingly. Figure 6.16 shows the consequences for...productive. Yehudah Freundlich opened my mind to the history and philosophy of science. He knows lots of pretty good jokes too. Glenn Kramer, Narinder...39 2.2 Modeling Circuits and Faults ...... ...................... 44 2.2.1 Circuit Models

  16. Engineering and Design: Standard Penetration Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Penetration TestDe Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name...jsfi I I US* of drlXXi~ mucl -r*ueusiog In I Decrm8e8 hcrea8ea Zither Increases Increases Increeses Decrea8es lncreeaes Increases Increeaes Zither &creases DecrU8e* nem8*s hcruses Xnt-ses tieee Utber k~ee Enclosure 2

  17. Designing Good Experiments to Test Bad Hypotheses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-15

    and detailed analysis of moment to moment behavior of people -- typically ordinary college students -- operating in this context (e.g., Mynatt ...work and the work of others (e.g., Mynatt et al. 1977), were not testing multiple hypotheses is revealing. In this study, subjects were given hypotheses...McGraw-Hill. Mynatt , C. R., Doherty, M. E., & Tweney, R.D. (1977). Confirmation bias in a simulated research environment: an experimental study of

  18. Development and testing of new upper-limb prosthetic devices: research designs for usability testing.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in prosthetic research.

  19. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  20. Methods for broth dilution susceptibility testing of bacteria isolated from aquatic animals; approved guideline-second edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to determine which antimicrobial agents should be considered for treating a bacterial pathogen. Many bacteria that cause disease in aquatic animals require growth conditions that vary substantially from routine terrestrial pathogens. It has thus ...

  1. Evaluation of two genetic animal models in behavioral tests of anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Fedra R; Spricigo, Luiz; Izídio, Geison S; Brüske, Gustavo R; Lopes, Douglas M; Ramos, André

    2006-03-15

    Anxiety- and depression-related disorders often appear associated and may be affected by common genetic factors. The inbred rat strains Lewis (LEW) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and the outbred rat lines Floripa H and L, which were selectively bred for high and low locomotion in the central area of the open field (OF) test, respectively, have been proposed as experimental tools to study anxiety. The main goal of the present study was to characterize the behavior of these animals in two models of anxiety, elevated plus-maze (EPM) and OF, in two models of depression, forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) and in their home-cages. Emotionality-related differences between LEW and SHR rats and between Floripa H and L rats were found in the EPM, OF and FST. Those lines showing low anxiety-like profiles in the EPM and OF (SHR and Floripa H) also showed low immobility in the FST. The TST failed to unveil any line differences. Factor analysis involving all tests revealed three independent factors with one of them associating anxiety-related measures from the OF and EPM to immobility in the FST. When observed in their home-cages, LEW and SHR rats showed no differences in general activity, but when acutely treated with imipramine (15mg/kg), only LEW rats were sensitive to its antidepressant effects. These results suggest the existence of a genetic link between two tests used in the screening of anxiolytic drugs and one test of antidepressant activity. Moreover, the LEW and SHR rat strains were shown to be an interesting model to study the comorbidity between anxiety- and depression-related disorders.

  2. Design and testing of an electromagnetic coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Hostile environments such as the hard vacuum of space, and exposure to water or caustic fluids have fostered the development of devices which allow mechanical rotary feed throughs with positive sealing without the use of conventional dynamic seals. One such device is an electromagnetic coupling which transfers motion across a hermetic seal by means of a rotating magnetic field. Static pull-out torque and dynamic heat build-up and pull-out torque tests of a synchronous reluctance homopolar coupling are reported herein. Coupling efficiencies are estimated for a range of speeds and torques.

  3. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  4. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W D; Butterfield, C

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  5. Optimal Design of Item Banks for Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Martha L.; Swanson, Len

    1998-01-01

    Applied optimal design methods to the item-bank design of adaptive testing for continuous testing situations using a version of the weighted-deviations model (M. Stocking and L. Swanson, 1993) in a simulation. Independent and overlapping item banks used items more efficiently than did a large item bank. (SLD)

  6. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    The analytical methodology for advanced encapsulation designs for the development of photovoltaic modules is presented. Analytical models are developed to test optical, thermal, electrical and structural properties of the various encapsulation systems. Model data is compared to relevant test data to improve model accuracy and develop general principles for the design of photovoltaic modules.

  7. Adaptation of the KeratinoSens™ skin sensitisation test to animal-product-free cell culture.

    PubMed

    Belot, Nathalie; Sim, Bushra; Longmore, Christopher Longmore; Roscoe, Lottie; Treasure, Carol

    2017-03-16

    Skin sensitisation is the process by which a substance leads to an allergic reaction following skin contact. The process has been described as an adverse outcome pathway (AOP), including several key events, from skin penetration and covalent protein binding, to keratinocyte activation, dendritic cell activation and T-lymphocyte proliferation. The in vitro assay KeratinoSens™ measures the activation of keratinocytes. It is fully accepted at a regulatory level (OECD TG 442d) and appropriate for compliance with a range of legislation including the EU Cosmetics Regulation, REACH, and the CLP Regulation. Currently, many in vitro methods use animal-derived components in the cell culture systems. Many stakeholders in the cosmetics industry have both scientific and ethical concerns relating to this issue and have stated a strong preference for fully human in vitro test systems. We have adapted the KeratinoSensTM method to animal product-free conditions, and carried out an in-house validation with 21 reference substances, including those listed in the Performance Standards associated with OECD TG442d. The modified method was shown to be totally equivalent to the Validated Reference Method (VRM), with comparable values for accuracy (85.7%), sensitivity (84.6%) and specificity (87.5%), and all acceptance criteria being met. In Europe, data generated by the adapted method may be used in REACH submissions, and we are now seeking approval to list the adaptation in OECD TG 442d, enabling formal compliance with a range of global regulations.

  8. Design of a Second Generation Firewire Based Data Acquisition System for Small Animal PET Scanners.

    PubMed

    Lewellen, T K; Miyaoka, R S; Macdonald, L R; Haselman, M; Dewitt, D; Hunter, William; Hauck, S

    2008-10-19

    The University of Washington developed a Firewire based data acquisition system for the MiCES small animal PET scanner. Development work has continued on new imaging scanners that require more data channels and need to be able to operate within a MRI imaging system. To support these scanners, we have designed a new version of our data acquisition system that leverages the capabilities of modern field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). The new design preserves the basic approach of the original system, but puts almost all functions into the FPGA, including the Firewire elements, the embedded processor, and pulse timing and pulse integration. The design has been extended to support implementation of the position estimation and DOl algorithms developed for the cMiCE detector module. The design is centered around an acquisition node board (ANB) that includes 65 ADC channels, Firewire 1394b support, the FPGA, a serial command bus and signal lines to support a rough coincidence window implementation to reject singles events from being sent on the Firewire bus. Adapter boards convert detector signals into differential paired signals to connect to the ANB.

  9. Abuse liability of novel 'legal high' designer stimulants: evidence from animal models.

    PubMed

    Watterson, Lucas R; Watterson, Elizabeth; Olive, Michael Foster

    2013-09-01

    In the last few years, the variety and recreational use of 'legal high' designer stimulants has increased to unprecedented levels. Since their rapid emergence in drug markets, numerous adverse physical and psychological effects have been extensively reported. However, less is understood about the potential for compulsive use of and addiction to these drugs. Recently, a small collection of scientific studies assessing the abuse liability of these drugs has emerged. This new knowledge has been derived primarily from animal studies using behaviorally based procedures which include intravenous self-administration, conditioned place preference, intracranial self-stimulation, and drug discrimination. In this review we present a brief history of the recent rise in designer stimulant use followed by a short methodological description of the aforementioned procedures. We then review neurochemical and abuse liability studies on designer stimulants that have been examined to date. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of these collective findings, our current understanding of the abuse liability of these drugs in relation to each other and the illicit drugs they are designed to mimic, and recommend future research directions.

  10. The Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Composite Heat Exchange Coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quade, Derek J.; Meador, Michael A.; Shin, Euy-Sik; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Several heat exchanger (HX) test panels were designed, fabricated and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center to explore the fabrication and performance of several designs for composite heat exchangers. The development of these light weight, high efficiency air-liquid test panels was attempted using polymer composites and carbon foam materials. The fundamental goal of this effort was to demonstrate the feasibility of the composite HX for various space exploration and thermal management applications including Orion CEV and Altair. The specific objectives of this work were to select optimum materials, designs, and to optimize fabrication procedures. After fabrication, the individual design concept prototypes were tested to determine their thermal performance and to guide the future development of full-size engineering development units (EDU). The overall test results suggested that the panel bonded with pre-cured composite laminates to KFOAM Grade L1 scored above the other designs in terms of ease of manufacture and performance.

  11. [Overregulation and unnecessary animal testing: requirements for market approval of biopharmaceuticals too rigid].

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Huub

    2012-01-01

    The first biopharmaceutical was introduced more than 30 years ago. From the beginning, experts have doubted the scientific basis for preclinical safety testing of these products on animals, including non-human primates. Long clinical experience confirms that this has no scientific basis. The many guidelines introduced over the years, including the recent revision of ICH S6, are still based on the principles of the classical safety evaluation of small molecules. The reasons for this conservatism include the risk-averse attitude of regulators in general and, at the European level, the low influx of new scientific insights due to the way the marketing authorisation is organised. The members of the scientific committees of the EMA are almost exclusively selected from within the regulatory systems and there is no limit in the time they can serve in these committees.

  12. Design and testing of small composite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of specimen size on the buckling strains of laminates subjected to low velocity projectile impact was investigated. The fiber composite selected was T300/5208 graphite/epoxy system. The quasi-isotropic laminates tested had 16 and 32 plies. The results were compared with those of a 48-ply laminate. Specimens of three different lengths with length to width aspect ratios of 1, 1.5, and 2 were also studied. The results show that (1) the specimen length does not have any significant influence on the buckling strains at failure caused by the projectile impact, and (2) the influence of specimen thickness on the strains at failure would decrease as the velocity of the impacting projectile increases.

  13. Assessment of neonatal rat's activity by the automated registration of the animal entries in the squares of a testing arena.

    PubMed

    Menshanov, Petr N; Dygalo, Nikolay N

    2007-08-30

    Automated registration of neonatal rat entries in the squares of a testing chamber is suggested for the animal locomotion assessment. This method allows detection of paddling and pivoting activities that are not accompanied by forward movement of the animal. The proposed technique is also relatively insensitive to nonlocomotor changes in a pup's body position, such as breathing and shaking, and thus offers a selective detection of locomotor-related activity. The application of the method permits the evaluation of spontaneous and stimulated motor activity of neonatal rats using relatively short test duration and a minimal number of animals.

  14. Space station prototype Sabatier reactor design verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusick, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A six-man, flight prototype carbon dioxide reduction subsystem for the SSP ETC/LSS (Space Station Prototype Environmental/Thermal Control and Life Support System) was developed and fabricated for the NASA-Johnson Space Center between February 1971 and October 1973. Component design verification testing was conducted on the Sabatier reactor covering design and off-design conditions as part of this development program. The reactor was designed to convert a minimum of 98 per cent hydrogen to water and methane for both six-man and two-man reactant flow conditions. Important design features of the reactor and test conditions are described. Reactor test results are presented that show design goals were achieved and off-design performance was stable.

  15. Design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, J.M.; Valentich, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed that will be located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The test bed will process a maximum of 50 gph of waste plus the required volume of cooling water. The test bed will evaluate the performance of a number of SCWO reactor designs. The goal of the project is to select a reactor that can be scaled up for use in a full-size waste treatment facility to process US Department of Energy mixed wastes. EG&G Idaho, Inc. will design and construct the SCWO test bed at the Water Reactor Research Test Facility (WRRTF), located in the northern region of the INEL. Private industry partners will develop and provide SCWO reactors to interface with the test bed. A number of reactor designs will be tested, including a transpiring wall, tube, and vessel-type reactor. The initial SCWO reactor evaluated will be a transpiring wall design. This design requirements report identifies parameters needed to proceed with preliminary and final design work for the SCWO test bed. A flow sheet and Process and Instrumentation Diagrams define the overall process and conditions of service and delineate equipment, piping, and instrumentation sizes and configuration Codes and standards that govern the safe engineering and design of systems and guidance that locates and interfaces test bed hardware are provided. Detailed technical requirements are addressed for design of piping, valves, instrumentation and control, vessels, tanks, pumps, electrical systems, and structural steel. The approach for conducting the preliminary and final designs and environmental and quality issues influencing the design are provided.

  16. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M K; Cohen, C; de Fraissinette, A de Brugerolle; Ponec, M; Whittle, E; Fentem, J H

    2002-05-01

    The dermatotoxicologist today is faced with a dilemma. Protection of workers and consumers from skin toxicities (irritation and allergy) associated with exposure to products, and the ingredients they contain, requires toxicological skin testing prior to manufacture, transport, or marketing. Testing for skin corrosion or irritation has traditionally been conducted in animals, particularly in rabbits via the long established Draize test method. However, this procedure, among others, has been subject to criticism, both for its limited predictive capacity for human toxicity, as well as for its use of animals. In fact, legislation is pending in the European Union which would ban the sale of cosmetic products, the ingredients of which have been tested in animals. These considerations, and advancements in both in vitro skin biology and clinical testing, have helped drive an intensive effort among skin scientists to develop alternative test methods based either on in vitro test systems (e.g. using rat, pig or human skin ex vivo, or reconstructed human skin models) or ethical clinical approaches (human volunteer studies). Tools are now in place today to enable a thorough skin corrosion and irritation assessment of new ingredients and products without the need to test in animals. Herein, we describe general testing strategies and new test methods for the assessment of skin corrosion and irritation. The methods described, and utilized within industry today, provide a framework for the practicing toxicologist to support new product development initiatives through the use of reliable skin safety testing and risk assessment tools and strategies.

  17. Testing electromagnetic fields for potential carcinogenic activity: a critical review of animal models.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, J; Kavet, R; Rafferty, C N

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the potential of electromagnetic fields (EMF) to influence the process of carcinogenesis, it will be necessary to supplement epidemiological studies with controlled laboratory studies in animals. There are now a number of suitable assays available that focus on different histopathological forms of cancer and on different stages of carcinogenesis--induction, promotion, progression. In this review we discuss eight major systems in the context of this generalized carcinogenesis paradigm. Our aim is to bring together what is currently known about the biology of carcinogenesis in these systems in order to provide a context for evaluating EMF results as they become available. We also critically discuss EMF test results that have so far been obtained in the animal models reviewed. Most of the 19 completed studies identified were negative. However, suggestive positive results were reported in three promotion assays (in rat mammary gland, in rat liver, and in mouse skin), and in one multigeneration study in mice. Results in the rat liver assay and in the multigeneration study have only been reported in abstract form and cannot be adequately evaluated. Positive results reported in both the rat mammary gland and the mouse skin systems are of weak statistical significance and have not been independently replicated. However, it may be of interest that effects in both systems appear primarily to involve the progression stage of carcinogenesis. We suggest that more definitive conclusions as to the carcinogenic potential of EMF may require expanded test protocols that reinforce traditional carcinogenesis end points with biochemical or other parameters reflective of biological processes known to be associated with carcinogenesis in the different systems. PMID:9114279

  18. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them.

  19. Design, fabrication, testing and delivery of a solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Ballheim, R. W.; Bartley, S. M.; Smith, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    A two phase program encompassing the redesign and fabrication of a solar collector which is low in cost and aesthetically appealing is described. Phase one work reviewed the current collector design and developed a low-cost design based on specific design/performance/cost requirements. Throughout this phase selected collector component materials were evaluated by testing and by considering cost, installation, maintainability and durability. The resultant collector design was composed of an absorber plate, insulation, frame, cover, desiccant and sealant. In Phase two, three collector prototypes were fabricated and evaluated for both nonthermal and thermal characteristics. Tests included static load tests of covers, burst pressure tests of absorber plates, and tests for optical characteristics of selective absorber plate coatings. The three prototype collectors were shipped to Marshall Space Flight Center for use in their solar heating and cooling test facility.

  20. Evaluation of testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Cameron, A R; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Ezanno, P; Kenny, K; Fourichon, C; Graham, D

    2015-08-01

    As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be MAP infected. A model was developed, taking account of both within-herd infection dynamics and test performance, to simulate the use of different tests at a single round of testing in a known infected herd. Model inputs included the number of animals at different stages of infection, the sensitivity and specificity of each test, and the costs of testing and culling. Testing strategies included either milk or serum ELISA alone or with fecal culture in series. Model outputs included effectiveness (detection fraction, the proportion of truly infected animals in the herd that are successfully detected by the testing strategy), cost, and cost-effectiveness (testing cost per true positive detected, total cost per true positive detected). Several assumptions were made: MAP was introduced with a single animal and no management interventions were implemented to limit within-herd transmission of MAP before this test. In medium herds, between 7 and 26% of infected animals are detected at a single round of testing, the former using the milk ELISA and fecal culture in series 5 yr after MAP introduction and the latter using fecal culture alone 15 yr after MAP introduction. The combined costs of testing and culling at a single round of testing increases with time since introduction of MAP infection, with culling costs being much greater than testing costs. The cost-effectiveness of testing varied by testing strategy. It was also

  1. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions. 707.7 Section 707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing...

  2. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions. 707.7 Section 707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing...

  3. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions. 707.7 Section 707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing...

  4. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests.

  5. How test vessel properties affect the fate of silver nitrate and sterically stabilized silver nanoparticles in two different test designs used for acute tests with Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Sakka, Yvonne; Koeser, Jan; Filser, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    The relation between test conditions such as medium composition or pH on silver nanoparticle (AgNP) behavior and its link to toxicity is one of the major topics in nanoecotoxicological research in the last years. In addition, the adaptation of the ecotoxicological standard tests for nanomaterials is intensely discussed to increase comparability and reliability of results. Due to the limitation of test material production volumes and the need for high-throughput screening, miniaturization has been proposed for several test designs. In the present study, the effect of a miniaturization of the acute Daphnia immobilization test on AgNP behavior was investigated. For this purpose, available, adsorbed, and dissolved silver fractions were measured using AgNP and silver nitrate in the following two test designs: a standard test (ST) design and a miniaturized test (MT) design with reduced test volume and less animals. Despite the increase in surface area in relation to the test volume in MT, more AgNP attached to the ST vessel surface, so that in this case, exposure concentrations were significantly lower compared to the MT assessment. Ionic silver concentrations resulting from AgNP dissolution were similar in both test designs. The same was observed for ionic silver concentrations in silver nitrate (AgNO3) treatments, but adsorbed silver was also higher in ST treatments. Assessing the structure-activity relationships revealed that surface properties such as hydrophobicity, potential binding sites, or surface roughness were of higher importance than surface:volume ratios for both test substances.

  6. Comparative juvenile safety testing of new therapeutic candidates: relevance of laboratory animal data to children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tim; Khan, Nasir K; Tassinari, Melissa S; Hurtt, Mark E

    2009-01-01

    Differences in drug response in patients of various ages including children and the elderly are common, often leading to challenges in optimizing dosages and duration of use. For example, developmental changes in renal function can dramatically alter the plasma clearance of compounds with extensive renal elimination and thus can enhance renal and systemic toxicity of these drugs. Preclinical and clinical research of new therapeutics is initially focused on adults, and provides little relevant information for children especially those who are still going through skeletal and organ development. The organ systems in the pediatric population that can be most susceptible are lungs, brain, kidneys, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems. Considering that significant differences can exist between adult and juvenile populations that may affect drug safety, major regulatory agencies around the world are encouraging and sometimes requiring companies to generate preclinical juvenile animal data to predict for potential drug toxicity in children. However, data generated from such studies are useful only if obtained using the most appropriate species at the most relevant age considering comparability of specific organ system development in question. Other factors in the design of juvenile safety studies should include the indication, existing toxicological data and likely route of human exposure. This report will discuss these factors with a focus on reviewing species-specific developmental schedules for specific target organs and relevance of preclinical data in the design and conduct of clinical pediatric studies. Specific examples will be used to discuss the relationship of preclinical juvenile toxicity observations to risk assessment in humans.

  7. Reliability based design including future tests and multiagent approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Diane

    The initial stages of reliability-based design optimization involve the formulation of objective functions and constraints, and building a model to estimate the reliability of the design with quantified uncertainties. However, even experienced hands often overlook important objective functions and constraints that affect the design. In addition, uncertainty reduction measures, such as tests and redesign, are often not considered in reliability calculations during the initial stages. This research considers two areas that concern the design of engineering systems: 1) the trade-off of the effect of a test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost and 2) the search for multiple candidate designs as insurance against unforeseen faults in some designs. In this research, a methodology was developed to estimate the effect of a single future test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost. The methodology uses assumed distributions of computational and experimental errors with re-design rules to simulate alternative future test and redesign outcomes to form a probabilistic estimate of the reliability and cost for a given design. Further, it was explored how modeling a future test and redesign provides a company an opportunity to balance development costs versus performance by simultaneously designing the design and the post-test redesign rules during the initial design stage. The second area of this research considers the use of dynamic local surrogates, or surrogate-based agents, to locate multiple candidate designs. Surrogate-based global optimization algorithms often require search in multiple candidate regions of design space, expending most of the computation needed to define multiple alternate designs. Thus, focusing on solely locating the best design may be wasteful. We extended adaptive sampling surrogate techniques to locate multiple optima by building local surrogates in sub-regions of the design space to identify optima. The efficiency of this method

  8. Development of test fixture for measurement of dielectric properties and its verification using animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takahiko; Koshiji, Kohji; Fukuda, Akiko

    2013-09-01

    The electromagnetic compatibility of implantable or wearable medical devices has often been evaluated using human phantoms to electrically mimic biological tissues. However, no currently existing test fixture can measure the electrical characteristics of gel-like materials. In this paper, we report the development of a new test fixture that consists of a coaxial tube whose outer conductor is divided along the axial direction into two sections, which facilitates filling and removal of gel-like materials in order to measure their electrical characteristics. Using this test fixture, we measured the electrical characteristics of a cow's muscular tissues up to 1 h post-mortem; these measurements allowed us to obtain the relative permittivity and conductivity of the biological tissue, which should help to enable the design of new human phantoms.

  9. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  10. A flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on a flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer. Information is given on aircraft/ground exchange, data link research activities, data link display format, a data link flight test, and the flight test setup.

  11. Multidimensional Adaptive Testing with Optimal Design Criteria for Item Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Joris; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2009-01-01

    Several criteria from the optimal design literature are examined for use with item selection in multidimensional adaptive testing. In particular, it is examined what criteria are appropriate for adaptive testing in which all abilities are intentional, some should be considered as a nuisance, or the interest is in the testing of a composite of the…

  12. Optical design for the Laser Astrometric Test of Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the Laser Astrometric Test of Relativity (LATOR) mission. LATOR is a Michelson-Morley-type experiment designed to test the pure tensor metric nature of gravitation the fundamental postulate of Einstein's theory of general relativity. With its focus on gravity's action on light propagation it complements other tests which rely on the gravitational dynamics of bodies.

  13. Designing an Affordable Usability Test for E-Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Corliss A.; Johnson, Donald M.; Shores-Ellis, Katrina D.; Crandall, Philip G.; Marcy, John A.; Seideman, Steve C.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides background and an introduction to a user-centered design and usability test in an inexpensive format that allows content experts who are novices in e-learning development to perform testing on newly developed technical training modules prior to their release. The use of a small number of test participants, avoidance of…

  14. The design of an animal PET: flexible geometry for achieving optimal spatial resolution or high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Terstegge, A; Herzog, H; Reinartz, R; Reinhart, P; Rongen, F; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Halling, H

    1997-10-01

    We present the design of a positron emission tomograph (PET) with flexible geometry dedicated to in vivo studies of small animals (TierPET). The scanner uses two pairs of detectors. Each detector consists of 400 small individual yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) scintillator crystals of dimensions 2 x 2 x 15 mm3, optically isolated and glued together, which are coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT's). The detector modules can be moved in a radial direction so that the detector-to-detector spacing can be varied. Special hardware has been built for coincidence detection, position detection, and real-time data acquisition, which is performed by a PC. The single-event data are transferred to workstations where the radioactivity distribution is reconstructed. The dimensions of the crystals and the detector layout are the result of extensive simulations which are described in this report, taking into account sensitivity, spatial resolution and additional parameters like parallax error or scatter effects. For the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction a genuine 3-D expectation-maximization (EM)-algorithm which can include the characteristics of the detector system has been implemented. The reconstruction software is flexible and matches the different detector configurations. The main advantage of the proposed animal PET scanner is its high flexibility, allowing the realization of various detector-system configurations. By changing the detector-to-detector spacing, the system is capable of either providing good spatial resolution or high sensitivity for dynamic studies of pharmacokinetics.

  15. Prototype spent-fuel canister design, analysis, and test

    SciTech Connect

    Leisher, W.B.; Eakes, R.G.; Duffey, T.A.

    1982-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was asked by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (now US Department of Energy) to design the spent fuel shipping cask system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). As a part of this task, a canister which holds liquid sodium and the spent fuel assembly was designed, analyzed, and tested. The canister body survived the regulatory Type-B 9.1-m (30-ft) drop test with no apparent leakage. However, the commercially available metal seal used in this design leaked after the tests. This report describes the design approach, analysis, and prototype canister testing. Recommended work for completing the design, when funding is available, is included.

  16. Ambient odour testing of concentrated animal feeding operations using field and laboratory olfactometers.

    PubMed

    Newby, B D; McGinley, M A

    2004-01-01

    The Missouri Air Conservation Commission regulations include regulations that limit the amount of acceptable odor from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The regulations concerning odor designate the use of a scentometer as a screening tool. The rules dictate that if an odor is detectable by an investigator at a dilution ratio of 5.4 using a scentometer then an air sample should be collected and sent to an olfactometry laboratory for an odor panel to determine the detection threshold and the intensity of the odor sample. The detection thresholds are determined following ASTM E679-91 and EN13725. The intensity is determined following ASTM E544-99. If the olfactometry laboratory determined the detection threshold of the sample to be above seven, then the CAFO would be in violation. If the olfactometry laboratory determined the intensity level to be above a level equivalent to 225 ppm of n-butanol, then the source of odor would be in violation. The CAFO odor rules came under scrutiny by representatives of the largest hog producer in the State of Missouri. Specifically, they argued that the detection threshold limit of seven in the CAFO portion of the rule was too low for the rule to realistically identify a violation. This paper presents the results of a study to find the appropriate regulatory level of odor as determined by laboratory olfactometry. The study took place from November 2001 to October 2002. Samples were collected from field locations that exhibited odor produced by confined animal feeding operations and from areas exhibiting no apparent odor. The odors were categorized based upon the scentometer level at which the odors were detectable, and then samples were sent to an odor evaluation laboratory for analysis by olfactometry.

  17. Hybrid Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Group Sequential Design to Fully Sequential Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shiyu; Lin, Haiyan; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST) have become two of the most popular modes in large-scale computer-based sequential testing. Though most designs of CAT and MST exhibit strength and weakness in recent large-scale implementations, there is no simple answer to the question of which design is better because different…

  18. Animations Need Narrations: An Experimental Test of a Dual-Coding Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Anderson, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    In two experiments, 102 mechanically naive college students viewed an animation on bicycle tire pump operation with a verbal description before or during the animation or without description. Improved performance of those receiving description during the animation supports a dual-coding hypothesis of connections between visual and verbal stimuli.…

  19. The J-2X Fuel Turbopump - Design, Development, and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellier, James G.; Hawkins, Lakiesha V.; Shinguchi, Brian H.; Marsh, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR), a NASA subcontractor, is executing the design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT&E) of a liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen two hundred ninety four thousand pound thrust rocket engine initially intended for the Upper Stage (US) and Earth Departure Stage (EDS) of the Constellation Program Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). A key element of the design approach was to base the new J-2X engine on the heritage J-2S engine with the intent of uprating the engine and incorporating SSME and RS-68 lessons learned. The J-2S engine was a design upgrade of the flight proven J-2 configuration used to put American astronauts on the moon. The J-2S Fuel Turbopump (FTP) was the first Rocketdyne-designed liquid hydrogen centrifugal pump and provided many of the early lessons learned for the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Turbopumps. This paper will discuss the design trades and analyses performed for the current J-2X FTP to increase turbine life; increase structural margins, facilitate component fabrication; expedite turbopump assembly; and increase rotordynamic stability margins. Risk mitigation tests including inducer water tests, whirligig turbine blade tests, turbine air rig tests, and workhorse gas generator tests characterized operating environments, drove design modifications, or identified performance impact. Engineering design, fabrication, analysis, and assembly activities support FTP readiness for the first J-2X engine test scheduled for July 2011.

  20. On the Design of a Flexible Stimulator for Animal Studies in Auditory Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Douglas; Gopalakrishna, Vanishree; Guo, Song; Lee, Hoi; Torlak, Murat; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Lobo, Arthur; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes the design of two stimulators (bench-top and portable) which can be used for animal studies in cochlear implants. The bench-top stimulator is controlled by a high-speed digital output board manufactured by National Instruments and is electrically isolated. The portable stimulator is controlled by a personal digital assistant (PDA) and is based on a custom interface board that communicates with the signal processor in the PDA through the secure digital IO (SDIO) slot. Both stimulators can provide 8 charge-balanced, bipolar channels of pulsatile and analog-like electrical stimulation, delivered simultaneously, interleaved or using a combination of both modes. Flexibility is provided into the construction of arbitrary, but charge-balanced, pulse shapes, which can be either symmetric or asymmetric. PMID:21804862

  1. Design and Construction of a Hydroturbine Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayli, Ece; Kavurmaci, Berat; Cetinturk, Huseyin; Kaplan, Alper; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; Tascioglu, Yigit; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    Hydropower is one of the clean, renewable, flexible and efficient energy resources. Most of the developing countries invest on this cost-effective energy source. Hydroturbines for hydroelectric power plants are tailor-made. Each turbine is designed and constructed according to the properties, namely the head and flow rate values of the specific water source. Therefore, a center (ETU Hydro-Center for Hydro Energy Research) for the design, manufacturing and performance tests of hydraulic turbines is established at TOBB University of Economics and Technology to promote research in this area. CFD aided hydraulic and structural design, geometry optimization, manufacturing and performance tests of hydraulic turbines are the areas of expertise of this center. In this paper, technical details of the design and construction of this one of a kind test facility in Turkey, is explained. All the necessary standards of IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) are met since the test facility will act as a certificated test center for hydraulic turbines.

  2. Design of Multilayer Insulation for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlow, Weston A.

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is a critical component for future, long term space missions. These missions will require the storage of cryogenic fuels for extended periods of time with little to no boil-off and MLI is vital due to its exceptional radiation shielding properties. Several MLI test articles were designed and fabricated which explored methods of assembling and connecting blankets, yielding results for evaluation. Insight gained, along with previous design experience, will be used in the design of the replacement blanket for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is slated for upcoming tests. Future design considerations are discussed which include mechanical testing to determine robustness of such a system, as well as cryostat testing of samples to give insight to the loss of thermal performance of sewn panels in comparison to the highly efficient, albeit laborious application of the original MHTB blanket.

  3. Alternatives to the use of animals in safety testing as required by the EU-Cosmetics Directive 2009.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Ingredients of cosmetic products are no longer allowed to be tested by animal experimentation (EU-Cosmetics Directive 76/768 EEC). For several toxicological endpoints this testing ban applies since March 11, 2009, while repeated dose toxicity tests and the test on skin sensitisation will follow on March 11, 2013. All currently available alternatives meeting the requirements of the first deadline are compiled in the following.

  4. Testing animal-assisted cleaning prior to transplantation in coral reef restoration

    PubMed Central

    van de Geer, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Rearing coral fragments in nurseries and subsequent transplantation onto a degraded reef is a common approach for coral reef restoration. However, if barnacles and other biofouling organisms are not removed prior to transplantation, fish will dislodge newly cemented corals when feeding on biofouling organisms. This behavior can lead to an increase in diver time due to the need to reattach the corals. Thus, cleaning nurseries to remove biofouling organisms such as algae and invertebrates is necessary prior to transplantation, and this cleaning constitutes a significant time investment in a restoration project. We tested a novel biomimicry technique of animal-assisted cleaning on nursery corals prior to transplantation at a coral reef restoration site in Seychelles, Indian Ocean. To determine whether animal-assisted cleaning was possible, preliminary visual underwater surveys were performed to quantify the fish community at the study site. Then, cleaning stations consisting of nursery ropes carrying corals and biofouling organisms, set at 0.3 m, 2 m, 4 m, 6 m and 8 m from the seabed, were placed at both the transplantation (treatment) site and the nursery (control) site. Remote GoPro video cameras recorded fish feeding at the nursery ropes without human disturbance. A reef fish assemblage of 32 species from 4 trophic levels (18.8% herbivores, 18.8% omnivores, 59.3% secondary consumers and 3.1% carnivores) consumed 95% of the barnacles on the coral nursery ropes placed 0.3 m above the seabed. Using this cleaning station, we reduced coral dislodgement from 16% to zero. This cleaning station technique could be included as a step prior to coral transplantation worldwide on the basis of location-specific fish assemblages and during the early nursery phase of sexually produced juvenile corals. PMID:26468440

  5. Testing animal-assisted cleaning prior to transplantation in coral reef restoration.

    PubMed

    Frias-Torres, Sarah; van de Geer, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Rearing coral fragments in nurseries and subsequent transplantation onto a degraded reef is a common approach for coral reef restoration. However, if barnacles and other biofouling organisms are not removed prior to transplantation, fish will dislodge newly cemented corals when feeding on biofouling organisms. This behavior can lead to an increase in diver time due to the need to reattach the corals. Thus, cleaning nurseries to remove biofouling organisms such as algae and invertebrates is necessary prior to transplantation, and this cleaning constitutes a significant time investment in a restoration project. We tested a novel biomimicry technique of animal-assisted cleaning on nursery corals prior to transplantation at a coral reef restoration site in Seychelles, Indian Ocean. To determine whether animal-assisted cleaning was possible, preliminary visual underwater surveys were performed to quantify the fish community at the study site. Then, cleaning stations consisting of nursery ropes carrying corals and biofouling organisms, set at 0.3 m, 2 m, 4 m, 6 m and 8 m from the seabed, were placed at both the transplantation (treatment) site and the nursery (control) site. Remote GoPro video cameras recorded fish feeding at the nursery ropes without human disturbance. A reef fish assemblage of 32 species from 4 trophic levels (18.8% herbivores, 18.8% omnivores, 59.3% secondary consumers and 3.1% carnivores) consumed 95% of the barnacles on the coral nursery ropes placed 0.3 m above the seabed. Using this cleaning station, we reduced coral dislodgement from 16% to zero. This cleaning station technique could be included as a step prior to coral transplantation worldwide on the basis of location-specific fish assemblages and during the early nursery phase of sexually produced juvenile corals.

  6. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    PubMed

    Chase, Ivan D; Lindquist, W Brent

    2016-01-01

    The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders). Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs) to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail) shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  7. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders). Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs) to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail) shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs. PMID:27410230

  8. Design, testing and evaluation of latching end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B.; Vandersluis, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Latching End Effector (LEE) forms part of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) for which Spar Aerospace Ltd, Space Systems Division is the prime contractor. The design, testing and performance evaluation of the Latching End Effector mechanisms is the subject of this paper focusing on: (1) ambient, thermal and vibration testing; (2) snare/rigidize performance testing and interaction during payload acquisition; and (3) latch/umbilical test results and performance.

  9. Vanguard/PLACE experiment system design and test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and testing of the NASA-GFSC Position Location and Aircraft Communications Equipment (PLACE) at C band frequency are discussed. The equipment was installed on the USNS Vanguard. The tests involved a sea test to evalute the position-location, 2-way voice, and 2-way data communications capability of PLACE and a trilateration test to position-fix the ATS-5 satellite using the PLACE system.

  10. Teaching beyond the Test: A Method for Designing Test-Preparation Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    Test-preparation classes that focus on skills will benefit students beyond the test by developing skills they can use at university. This article discusses the purposes of various tests and outlines how to design effective test-prep classes. Several practical activities are included, and an appendix provides information on common standardized…

  11. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  12. Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test /SMEAT/ facility design and operation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinners, A. H., Jr.; Correale, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the design approaches and test facility operation methods used to successfully accomplish a 56-day test for Skylab to permit evaluation of selected Skylab medical experiments in a ground test simulation of the Skylab environment with an astronaut crew. The systems designed for this test include the two-gas environmental control system, the fire suppression and detection system, equipment transfer lock, ground support equipment, safety systems, potable water system, waste management system, lighting and power system, television monitoring, communications and recreation systems, and food freezer.

  13. Advanced Control Design for Wind Turbines; Part I: Control Design, Implementation, and Initial Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to give wind turbine engineers information and examples of the design, testing through simulation, field implementation, and field testing of advanced wind turbine controls.

  14. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan C.; Resor, Brian R.; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This work established hypothetical approaches for integrating active aerodynamic devices (AADs) into the wind turbine structure and controllers.

  15. Execution of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Approaches on Common Test Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balling, R. J.; Wilkinson, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    A class of synthetic problems for testing multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) approaches is presented. These test problems are easy to reproduce because all functions are given as closed-form mathematical expressions. They are constructed in such a way that the optimal value of all variables and the objective is unity. The test problems involve three disciplines and allow the user to specify the number of design variables, state variables, coupling functions, design constraints, controlling design constraints, and the strength of coupling. Several MDO approaches were executed on two sample synthetic test problems. These approaches included single-level optimization approaches, collaborative optimization approaches, and concurrent subspace optimization approaches. Execution results are presented, and the robustness and efficiency of these approaches an evaluated for these sample problems.

  16. Conceptual Design Report for the Extreme Ecosystems Test Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    C. Barnes; J. Beller; K. Caldwell; K. Croft; R. Cherry; W. Landman

    1998-12-01

    This conceptual design supports the creation of Extreme Ecosystems Test Chambers, which will replicate deep subsurface and subocean environments characterized by high pressure (2,000 psi) and subfreezing to high temperature (-4 to 300 degrees F) with differing chemical and saturation conditions. The design provides a system to support research and development that includes heat transfer, phase change issues in porous media, microbiology in extreme environments, and carbon sequestration and extraction. The initial system design is based on the research needs to support the commercial production of methane hydrates from subsurface sediments. The design provides for three pressure vessels: a Down Hole Test Vessel, a Vertical Multi-phase Test Vessel, and a Horizontal Multi-phase Test Vessel.

  17. MITG post-test analysis and design improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design, performance analysis, and key attributes of the Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG) were described in a 1981 IECEC paper; and the design, fabrication, and testing of prototypical MITG test assemblies were described in preceding papers in these proceedings. Each test assembly simulated a typical modular slice of the flight generator. The present paper describes a detailed thermal-stress analysis, which identified the causes of stress-related problems observed during the tests. It then describes how additional analyses were used to evaluate design changes to alleviate those problems. Additional design improvements are discussed in the next paper in these proceedings, which also describes revised fabrication procedures and updated performance estimates for the generator.

  18. Design and engineering aspects of a high resolution positron tomograph for small animal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lecomte, R.; Cadorette, J.; Richard, P.; Rodrique, S.; Rouleau, D. . Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology)

    1994-08-01

    The authors describe the Sherbrooke positron emission tomograph, a very high resolution device dedicated to dynamic imaging of small laboratory animals. Its distinctive features are: small discrete scintillation detectors based on avalanche photodiodes (APD) to achieve uniform, isotropic, very high spatial resolution; parallel processing for low deadtime and high count rate capability; multispectral data acquisition hardware to improve sensitivity and scatter correction; modularity to allow design flexibility and upgradability. The system implements the clam-shell'' sampling scheme and a rotating rod transmission source. All acquisition parameters can be adjusted under computer control. Temperature stability at the detector site is ensured by the use of thermoelectric modules. The initial system consists of one layer of 256 modules (two rings of detectors) defining 3 image slices in a 118 mm diameter by 10.5 mm thick field. The axial field can be extended to 50 mm using 4 layers of modules (8 rings of detectors). The design constraints and engineering aspects of an APD-based PET scanner are reviewed and preliminary results are reported.

  19. Thermal design, analysis and testing of the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, Richard A.; Smith, Dewey M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and describes the thermal requirements in some detail. The thermal design of the HALOE is described, together with the design process and the analytical techniques used to arrive at this design. The flight hardware has undergone environmental testing in a thermal vacuum chamber to validate the thermal design. The HALOE is a unique problem in thermal control due to its variable solar loading, its extremely sensitive optical components and the high degree of pointing accuracy required. This paper describes the flight hardware, the design process and its verification.

  20. Preconceptual design of the new production reactor circulator test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.

    1990-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study of a new circulator test facility for the New Production Reactor Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The report addresses the preconceptual design of a stand-alone test facility with all the required equipment to test the Main Circulator/shutoff valve and Shutdown Cooling Circulator/shutoff valve. Each type of circulator will be tested in its own full flow, full power helium test loop. Testing will cover the entire operating range of each unit. The loop will include a test vessel, in which the circulator/valve will be mounted, and external piping. The external flow piping will include a throttle valve, flowmeter, and heat exchanger. Subsystems will include helium handling, helium purification, and cooling water. A computer-based data acquisition and control system will be provided. The estimated costs for the design and construction of this facility are included. 2 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Design and test of a magnetic thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Mikula, A.; Banerjee, B.; Lewis, D. W.; Imlach, J.

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic thrust bearing can be employed to take thrust loads in rotating machinery. The design and construction of a prototype magnetic thrust bearing for a high load per weight application is described. The theory for the bearing is developed. Fixtures were designed and the bearing was tested for load capacity using a universal testing machine. Various shims were employed to have known gap thicknesses. A comparison of the theory and measured results is presented.

  2. Design and test of a magnetic thrust bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Mikula, A.; Banerjee, B.; Lewis, D. W.; Imlach, J.

    A magnetic thrust bearing can be employed to take thrust loads in rotating machinery. The design and construction of a prototype magnetic thrust bearing for a high load per weight application is described. The theory for the bearing is developed. Fixtures were designed and the bearing was tested for load capacity using a universal testing machine. Various shims were employed to have known gap thicknesses. A comparison of the theory and measured results is presented.

  3. Do Test Design and Uses Influence Test Preparation? Testing a Model of Washback with Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin; Andrews, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces Expectancy-value motivation theory to explain the paths of influences from perceptions of test design and uses to test preparation as a special case of washback on learning. Based on this theory, two conceptual models were proposed and tested via Structural Equation Modeling. Data collection involved over 870 test takers of…

  4. Design and test of the 172K fluidic rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of concepts for control of aircraft without moving parts or a separate source of power is described. The design and wind tunnel tests of a full scale fluidic rudder for a Cessna 172K aircraft, intended for subsequent flight tests were documented. The 172K fluidic rudder was designed to provide a control force equivalent to 3.3 degrees of deflection of the conventional rudder. In spite of an extremely thin airfoil, cascaded fluidic amplifiers were built to fit, with the capacity for generating the required level of control force. Wind tunnel tests demonstrated that the principles of lift control using ram air power are sound and reliable under all flight conditions. The tests also demonstrated that the performance of the 172K fluidic rudder is not acceptable for flight tests until the design of the scoop is modified to prevent interference with the lift control phenomenon.

  5. Designs and test results for three new rotational sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jedlicka, P.; Kozak, J.T.; Evans, J.R.; Hutt, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the designs and testing of three rotational seismometer prototypes developed at the Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences (Prague, Czech Republic). Two of these designs consist of a liquid-filled toroidal tube with the liquid as the proof mass and providing damping; we tested the piezoelectric and pressure transduction versions of this torus. The third design is a wheel-shaped solid metal inertial sensor with capacitive sensing and magnetic damping. Our results from testing in Prague and at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory of the US Geological Survey of transfer function and cross-axis sensitivities are good enough to justify the refinement and subsequent testing of advanced prototypes. These refinements and new testing are well along.

  6. Conceptual design of the MHD Engineering Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bents, D. J.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Rigo, H. S.; Pearson, C. V.; Warinner, D. K.; Hatch, A. M.; Borden, M.; Giza, D. A.

    The reference conceptual design of the MHD engineering test facility, a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commerical feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates are included and the engineering issues that should be reexamined are identified.

  7. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, James William; Bayless, Paul David; Nelson, Lee Orville; Gougar, Hans David; Kinsey, James Carl; Strydom, Gerhard; Kumar, Akansha

    2016-04-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200 MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched UCO fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technological readiness level, licensing approach and costs.

  8. Spacecraft System Integration and Test: SSTI Lewis critical design audit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. P.; Cha, K. K.

    1995-01-01

    The Critical Design Audit package is the final detailed design package which provides a comprehensive description of the SSTI mission. This package includes the program overview, the system requirements, the science and applications activities, the ground segment development, the assembly, integration and test description, the payload and technology demonstrations, and the spacecraft bus subsystems. Publication and presentation of this document marks the final requirements and design freeze for SSTI.

  9. Conceptual design of the MHD Engineering Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Rigo, H. S.; Pearson, C. V.; Warinner, D. K.; Hatch, A. M.; Borden, M.; Giza, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the MHD engineering test facility, a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commerical feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates are included and the engineering issues that should be reexamined are identified.

  10. An alternative to animal testing in the quality control of erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H; Gerhard, D; Hothorn, L A; Dingermann, T

    2011-06-01

    A physico-chemical method has been developed as an alternative to the current bioassay in normocythaemic mice for estimating the biological activity of erythropoietin batches. Capillary zone electrophoresis was used for quantification of the isoforms and their substructures were further elucidated by N-glycan mapping techniques. The analytical study was carried out on a total of 40 batches of epoetin beta which were selected to cover an adequate range of precisely established potency values. The relationship between the biological and chemical parameters was evaluated statistically in order to identify suitable covariates for the prediction of the biological activity. Out of several alternatives, a prediction model which is based on the percentages of isoforms per batch and the degree of sialidation was selected and tested. This model is comparable in terms of accuracy to the established in vivo bioassay, but is far superior in terms of precision. Further advantages of the method are improved animal welfare and savings in time and effort. The question whether the prediction model already meets the requirements for replacing the bioassay according to the ICH guideline Q6B is discussed.

  11. A detector head design for small-animal PET with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM).

    PubMed

    Moehrs, Sascha; Del Guerra, Alberto; Herbert, Deborah J; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2006-03-07

    Small-animal PET systems are now striving for sub-millimetre resolution. Current systems based upon PSPMTs and finely pixellated scintillators can be pushed to higher resolution, but at the expense of other performance parameters and a rapidly escalating cost. Moreover, depth of interaction (DOI) information is usually difficult to assess in such systems, even though this information is highly desirable to reduce the parallax error, which is often the dominant error for such high-resolution systems. In this study we propose a high-resolution detector head for a small-animal PET imaging system with intrinsic DOI information. Instead of a pixellated scintillator, our design is based upon the classic Anger camera principle, i.e. the head is constructed of modular layers each consisting of a continuous slab of scintillator, viewed by a new type of compact silicon photodetector. The photodetector is the recently developed silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) that as well as being very compact has many other attractive properties: high gain at low bias voltage, excellent single-photoelectron resolution and fast timing. A detector head of about 4 x 4 cm2 in area is proposed, constructed from three modular layers of the type described above. We perform a simulation study, using the Monte Carlo simulation package Geant4. The simulation results are used to optimize the geometry of the detector head and characterize its performance. Additionally, hit estimation algorithms are studied to determine the interaction position of annihilation photons correctly over the whole detector surface. The resulting detector has a nearly uniform efficiency for 511 keV photons of approximately 70% and an intrinsic spatial resolution of less than approximately 0.4 mm full width at half maximum (fwhm).

  12. E-cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarettes have become within only one decade an important commodity, changing the market of the most mass-killing commercial product. While a few years ago estimates suggested that in the course of the 21st century one billion people would die prematurely from tobacco consumption, e-cigarettes continuously gaining popularity promise 10-30fold lower health effects, possibly strongly changing this equation. However, they still are not a harmless life-style drug. Acceptability simply depends on whether we compare their use to smoking or to not-smoking. In the absence of long-term follow-up health data of users, additional uncertainty comes from the lack of safety data, though this uncertainty likely only is whether they represent 3 or 10% of the risk of their combustible counterpart. This means that there is little doubt that they represent a prime opportunity for smokers to switch, but also that their use by non-smokers should be avoided where possible. The real safety concerns, however, are that e-cigarettes expose their users to many compounds, contaminants and especially flavors (more than 7,000 according to recent counts), which have mostly not been tested, especially not for long-term inhalation exposure. Neither the precautionary traditional animal testing nor post-marketing surveillance will offer us data of sufficient quality or sufficiently fast to support product development and regulatory decisions. Thus, alternative methods lend themselves to fill this gap, making this new product category a possible engine for new method development and its implementation and validation.

  13. Energy Efficient Engine combustor test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D. L.; Chahrour, C. A.; Foltz, H. L.; Sabla, P. E.; Seto, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Combustor Development effort was conducted as part of the overall NASA/GE E3 Program. This effort included the selection of an advanced double-annular combustion system design. The primary intent was to evolve a design which meets the stringent emissions and life goals of the E3 as well as all of the usual performance requirements of combustion systems for modern turbofan engines. Numerous detailed design studies were conducted to define the features of the combustion system design. Development test hardware was fabricated, and an extensive testing effort was undertaken to evaluate the combustion system subcomponents in order to verify and refine the design. Technology derived from this development effort will be incorporated into the engine combustion system hardware design. This advanced engine combustion system will then be evaluated in component testing to verify the design intent. What is evolving from this development effort is an advanced combustion system capable of satisfying all of the combustion system design objectives and requirements of the E3. Fuel nozzle, diffuser, starting, and emissions design studies are discussed.

  14. Rugged telemetry system: testing results and design improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, R. Stephen; Beadle, Brad M.; Bachim, Brent L.

    1998-09-01

    A rugged telemetry system for coiled-tubing drilling and other hostile environment applications is briefly described. System performance before and after being tested in drilling operations (rotating, drilling, and reaming) was unchanged. However, in a laboratory test at 150 degrees Celsius, signal- to-noise ratio performance at higher carrier frequencies was degraded. Design improvements are also presented.

  15. Airport Pavement Test Machine Design and Cost Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    3-3 Total Initial Costs ......................................... 3-4 First Year Operational...assist the FAA in determining the full-scale testing needed to develop and verify the new design procedures The first planning meeting of the working...Douglas Aircraft Company The major conclusion from the first meeting was that full-scale test data must be generated for development and verification

  16. Multivariate Tests for Correlated Data in Completely Randomized Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Paul W., Jr.; Berry, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Provides power comparisons for three permutation tests and the Bartlett-Nanda-Pillai trace test (BNP) (M. Bartlett, 1939; D. Nanda, 1950; K. Pillai, 1955) in completely randomized experimental designs with correlated multivariate-dependent variables. The power of the BNP was generally found to be less than that of at least one of the permutation…

  17. Design, processing, and testing of LSI arrays for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipri, A. C.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of a particular process for the fabrication of large scale integrated circuits is described. Test arrays were designed, built, and tested, and then utilized. A set of optimum dimensions for LSI arrays was generated. The arrays were applied to yield improvement through process innovation, and additional applications were suggested in the areas of yield prediction, yield modeling, and process reliability.

  18. Empirical Statistical Power for Testing Multilocus Genotypic Effects under Unbalanced Designs Using a Gibbs Sampler.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chaeyoung

    2012-11-01

    Epistasis that may explain a large portion of the phenotypic variation for complex economic traits of animals has been ignored in many genetic association studies. A Baysian method was introduced to draw inferences about multilocus genotypic effects based on their marginal posterior distributions by a Gibbs sampler. A simulation study was conducted to provide statistical powers under various unbalanced designs by using this method. Data were simulated by combined designs of number of loci, within genotype variance, and sample size in unbalanced designs with or without null combined genotype cells. Mean empirical statistical power was estimated for testing posterior mean estimate of combined genotype effect. A practical example for obtaining empirical statistical power estimates with a given sample size was provided under unbalanced designs. The empirical statistical powers would be useful for determining an optimal design when interactive associations of multiple loci with complex phenotypes were examined.

  19. NASA reliability preferred practices for design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Given here is a manual that was produced to communicate within the aerospace community design practices that have contributed to NASA mission success. The information represents the best technical advice that NASA has to offer on reliability design and test practices. Topics covered include reliability practices, including design criteria, test procedures, and analytical techniques that have been applied to previous space flight programs; and reliability guidelines, including techniques currently applied to space flight projects, where sufficient information exists to certify that the technique will contribute to mission success.

  20. Hyper-X Engine Design and Ground Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voland, R. T.; Rock, K. E.; Huebner, L. D.; Witte, D. W.; Fischer, K. E.; McClinton, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    The Hyper-X Program, NASA's focused hypersonic technology program jointly run by NASA Langley and Dryden, is designed to move hypersonic, air-breathing vehicle technology from the laboratory environment to the flight environment, the last stage preceding prototype development. The Hyper-X research vehicle will provide the first ever opportunity to obtain data on an airframe integrated supersonic combustion ramjet propulsion system in flight, providing the first flight validation of wind tunnel, numerical and analytical methods used for design of these vehicles. A substantial portion of the integrated vehicle/engine flowpath development, engine systems verification and validation and flight test risk reduction efforts are experimentally based, including vehicle aeropropulsive force and moment database generation for flight control law development, and integrated vehicle/engine performance validation. The Mach 7 engine flowpath development tests have been completed, and effort is now shifting to engine controls, systems and performance verification and validation tests, as well as, additional flight test risk reduction tests. The engine wind tunnel tests required for these efforts range from tests of partial width engines in both small and large scramjet test facilities, to tests of the full flight engine on a vehicle simulator and tests of a complete flight vehicle in the Langley 8-Ft. High Temperature Tunnel. These tests will begin in the summer of 1998 and continue through 1999. The first flight test is planned for early 2000.

  1. Comparative Testing of Hemostatic Dressing in a Large Animal Model (Sus Scorofa) with Severe hepatic Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-02

    hemostatic dressings in a large animal model (Sus scrofa ) with severe hepatic injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Capt...to Date Sus scrofa 36 18 18 Note. Many fewer animals than approved were used because one of the original treatment groups (Lypressin- soaked gauze

  2. A modal test design strategy for model correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Dohrmann, C.R.

    1994-12-01

    When a modal test is to be performed for purposes of correlation with a finite element model, one needs to design the test so that the resulting measurements will provide the data needed for the correlation. There are numerous issues to consider in the design of a modal test; two important ones are the number and location of response sensors, and the number, location, and orientation of input excitation. From a model correlation perspective, one would like to select the response locations to allow a definitive, one-to-one correspondence between the measured modes and the predicted modes. Further, the excitation must be designed to excite all the modes of interest at a sufficiently high level so that the modal estimation algorithms can accurately extract the modal parameters. In this paper these two issues are examined in the context of model correlation with methodologies presented for obtaining an experiment design.

  3. Optimal design of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-test.

    PubMed

    Bürkner, Paul-Christian; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    In scientific research, many hypotheses relate to the comparison of two independent groups. Usually, it is of interest to use a design (i.e., the allocation of sample sizes m and n for fixed N=m+n) that maximizes the power of the applied statistical test. It is known that the two-sample t-tests for homogeneous and heterogeneous variances may lose substantial power when variances are unequal but equally large samples are used. We demonstrate that this is not the case for the nonparametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-test, whose application in biometrical research fields is motivated by two examples from cancer research. We prove the optimality of the design m=n in case of symmetric and identically shaped distributions using normal approximations and show that this design generally offers power only negligibly lower than the optimal design for a wide range of distributions.

  4. SMART wind turbine rotor. Design and field test

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Resor, Brian Ray; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan Randall

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This report begins with an overview of active control research at Sandia and the objectives of this project. The SMART blade, based on the DOE / SNL 9-meter CX-100 blade design, is then documented including all modifications necessary to integrate the trailing edge flaps, sensors incorporated into the system, and the fabrication processes that were utilized. Finally the test site and test campaign are described.

  5. LEDA RF distribution system design and component test results

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, W.T.; Rees, D.E.; Borchert, H.L.; McCarthy, M.; Toole, L.

    1998-12-31

    The 350 MHz and 700 MHz RF distribution systems for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) have been designed and are currently being installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Since 350 MHz is a familiar frequency used at other accelerator facilities, most of the major high-power components were available. The 700 MHz, 1.0 MW, CW RF delivery system designed for LEDA is a new development. Therefore, high-power circulators, waterloads, phase shifters, switches, and harmonic filters had to be designed and built for this applications. The final Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) RF distribution systems design will be based on much of the same technology as the LEDA systems and will have many of the RF components tested for LEDA incorporated into the design. Low power and high-power tests performed on various components of these LEDA systems and their results are presented here.

  6. Principles of appendage design in robots and animals determining terradynamic performance on flowable ground.

    PubMed

    Qian, Feifei; Zhang, Tingnan; Korff, Wyatt; Umbanhowar, Paul B; Full, Robert J; Goldman, Daniel I

    2015-10-08

    Natural substrates like sand, soil, leaf litter and snow vary widely in penetration resistance. To search for principles of appendage design in robots and animals that permit high performance on such flowable ground, we developed a ground control technique by which the penetration resistance of a dry granular substrate could be widely and rapidly varied. The approach was embodied in a device consisting of an air fluidized bed trackway in which a gentle upward flow of air through the granular material resulted in a decreased penetration resistance. As the volumetric air flow, Q, increased to the fluidization transition, the penetration resistance decreased to zero. Using a bio-inspired hexapedal robot as a physical model, we systematically studied how locomotor performance (average forward speed, v(x)) varied with ground penetration resistance and robot leg frequency. Average robot speed decreased with increasing Q, and decreased more rapidly for increasing leg frequency, ω. A universal scaling model revealed that the leg penetration ratio (foot pressure relative to penetration force per unit area per depth and leg length) determined v(x) for all ground penetration resistances and robot leg frequencies. To extend our result to include continuous variation of locomotor foot pressure, we used a resistive force theory based terradynamic approach to perform numerical simulations. The terradynamic model successfully predicted locomotor performance for low resistance granular states. Despite variation in morphology and gait, the performance of running lizards, geckos and crabs on flowable ground was also influenced by the leg penetration ratio. In summary, appendage designs which reduce foot pressure can passively maintain minimal leg penetration ratio as the ground weakens, and consequently permits maintenance of effective locomotion over a range of terradynamically challenging surfaces.

  7. Design, analysis, and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Minning, C.

    1982-01-01

    Design sensitivities are established for the development of photovoltaic module criteria and the definition of needed research tasks. The program consists of three phases. In Phase I, analytical models were developed to perform optical, thermal, electrical, and structural analyses on candidate encapsulation systems. From these analyses several candidate systems will be selected for qualification testing during Phase II. Additionally, during Phase II, test specimens of various types will be constructed and tested to determine the validity of the analysis methodology developed in Phase I. In Phse III, a finalized optimum design based on knowledge gained in Phase I and II will be developed. All verification testing was completed during this period. Preliminary results and observations are discussed. Descriptions of the thermal, thermal structural, and structural deflection test setups are included.

  8. Design and Test of an Improved Crashworthiness Small Composite Airframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terry, James E.; Hooper, Steven J.; Nicholson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this small business innovative research (SBIR) program was to evaluate the feasibility of developing small composite airplanes with improved crashworthiness. A combination of analysis and half scale component tests were used to develop an energy absorbing airframe. Four full scale crash tests were conducted at the NASA Impact Dynamics Research Facility, two on a hard surface and two onto soft soil, replicating earlier NASA tests of production general aviation airplanes. Several seat designs and restraint systems including both an air bag and load limiting shoulder harnesses were tested. Tests showed that occupant loads were within survivable limits with the improved structural design and the proper combination of seats and restraint systems. There was no loss of cabin volume during the events. The analysis method developed provided design guidance but time did not allow extending the analysis to soft soil impact. This project demonstrated that survivability improvements are possible with modest weight penalties. The design methods can be readily applied by airplane designers using the examples in this report.

  9. Design and development of MR-compatible SPECT systems for simultaneous SPECT-MR imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Hugg, James W.; Xu, Jingyan; Chen, Si; Meier, Dirk; Edelstein, William; El-Sharkawy, Abdel; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Patt, Bradley E.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a continuing design and development of MR-compatible SPECT systems for simultaneous SPECT-MR imaging of small animals. A first generation prototype SPECT system was designed and constructed to fit inside a MRI system with a gradient bore inner diameter of 12 cm. It consists of 3 angularly offset rings of 8 detectors (1"x1", 16x16 pixels MR-compatible solid-state CZT). A matching 24-pinhole collimator sleeve, made of a tungsten-compound, provides projections from a common FOV of ~25 mm. A birdcage RF coil for MRI data acquisition surrounds the collimator. The SPECT system was tested inside a clinical 3T MRI system. Minimal interference was observed on the simultaneously acquired SPECT and MR images. We developed a sparse-view image reconstruction method based on accurate modeling of the point response function (PRF) of each of the 24 pinholes to provide artifact-free SPECT images. The stationary SPECT system provides relatively low resolution of 3-5 mm but high geometric efficiency of 0.5- 1.2% for fast dynamic acquisition, demonstrated in a SPECT renal kinetics study using Tc-99m DTPA. Based on these results, a second generation prototype MR-compatible SPECT system with an outer diameter of 20 cm that fits inside a mid-sized preclinical MRI system is being developed. It consists of 5 rings of 19 CZT detectors. The larger ring diameter allows the use of optimized multi-pinhole collimator designs, such as high system resolution up to ~1 mm, high geometric efficiency, or lower system resolution without collimator rotation. The anticipated performance of the new system is supported by simulation data.

  10. Electro-impulse de-icing testing analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Schrag, R. L.; Bernhart, W. D.; Friedberg, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Electro-Impulse De-Icing (EIDI) is a method of ice removal by sharp blows delivered by a transient electromagnetic field. Detailed results are given for studies of the electrodynamic phenomena. Structural dynamic tests and computations are described. Also reported are ten sets of tests at NASA's Icing Research Tunnel and flight tests by NASA and Cessna Aircraft Company. Fabrication of system components are described and illustrated. Fatigue and electromagnetic interference tests are reported. Here, the necessary information for the design of an EIDI system for aircraft is provided.

  11. Design and simulation of a high-resolution stationary SPECT system for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekman, Freek J.; Vastenhouw, Brendan

    2004-10-01

    Exciting new SPECT systems can be created by combining pinhole imaging with compact high-resolution gamma cameras. These new systems are able to solve the problem of the limited sensitivity-resolution trade-off that hampers contemporary small animal SPECT. The design presented here (U-SPECT-III) uses a set of detectors placed in a polygonal configuration and a cylindrical collimator that contains 135 pinholes arranged in nine rings. Each ring contains 15 gold pinhole apertures that focus on the centre of the cylinder. A non-overlapping projection is acquired via each pinhole. Consequently, when a mouse brain is placed in the central field-of-view, each voxel in the cerebrum can be observed via 130 to 135 different pinholes simultaneously. A method for high-resolution scintillation detection is described that eliminates the depth-of-interaction problem encountered with pinhole cameras, and is expected to provide intrinsic detector resolutions better than 150 µm. By means of simulations U-SPECT-III is compared to a simulated dual pinhole SPECT (DP-SPECT) system with a pixelated array consisting of 2.0 × 2.0 mm NaI crystals. Analytic calculations indicate that the proposed U-SPECT-III system yields an almost four times higher linear and about sixty times higher volumetric system resolution than DP-SPECT, when the systems are compared at matching system sensitivity. In addition, it should be possible to achieve a 15 up to 30 times higher sensitivity with U-SPECT-III when the systems are compared at equal resolution. Simulated images of a digital mouse-brain phantom show much more detail with U-SPECT-III than with DP-SPECT. In a resolution phantom, 0.3 mm diameter cold rods are clearly visible with U-SPECT-III, whereas with DP-SPECT the smallest visible rods are about 0.6-0.8 mm. Furthermore, with U-SPECT-III, the image deformations outside the central plane of reconstruction that hamper conventional pinhole SPECT are strongly suppressed. Simulation results indicate

  12. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  13. Thermal Analysis and Testing of Fastrac Gas Generator Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Fastrac Engine is being developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to help meet the goal of substantially reducing the cost of access to space. This engine relies on a simple gas-generator cycle, which burns a small amount of RP-1 and oxygen to provide gas to drive the turbine and then exhausts the spent fuel. The Fastrac program envisions a combination of analysis, design and hot-fire evaluation testing. This paper provides the supporting thermal analysis of the gas generator design. In order to ensure that the design objectives were met, the evaluation tests have started on a component level and a total of 15 tests of different durations were completed to date at MSFC. The correlated thermal model results will also be compared against hot-fire thermocouple data gathered.

  14. Design and testing of a tandem row pump inducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etter, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The design and testing of a tandem row pump inducer having a supercavitating first stage with a 0.60 hub ratio is presented. The second stage tested was a helical impeller with a 0.70 hub ratio. A cubic arc transition was utilized to accomplish the hub change. The first stage had two blades and the free-vortex design approach was empirically modified based on previous experience. The recommended second stage design having four blades and using cambered blade section is presented but the model was not built or tested. The more simple helix was built instead to reduce cost. Data taken included head generation, cavitation observations and unsteady head fluctuations over the 0-100Hz range.

  15. Thermal design and TDM test of the ETS-VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaka, T.; Kanamori, K.; Takenaka, N.; Kawashima, J.; Ido, Y.; Kuriyama, Y.

    The Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) thermal design, thermal development model (TDM) test, and evaluation results are described. The allocation of the thermal control materials on the spacecraft is illustrated. The principal design approach is to minimize the interactions between the antenna tower module and the main body, and between the main body and the liquid apogee propulsion system by means of multilayer insulation blankets and low conductance graphite epoxy support structures. The TDM test shows that the thermal control subsystem is capable of maintaining the on-board components within specified temperature limits. The heat pipe network is confirmed to operate properly, and a uniform panel temperature distribution is accomplished. The thermal analytical model is experimentally verified. The validity of the thermal control subsystem design is confirmed by the modified on-orbit analytical model.

  16. A blind testing design for authenticating ancient DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Golenberg, E M; Shoshani, J

    1997-04-01

    Reproducibility is a serious concern among researchers of ancient DNA. We designed a blind testing procedure to evaluate laboratory accuracy and authenticity of ancient DNA obtained from closely related extant and extinct species. Soft tissue and bones of fossil and contemporary museum proboscideans were collected and identified based on morphology by one researcher, and other researchers carried out DNA testing on the samples, which were assigned anonymous numbers. DNA extracted using three principal isolation methods served as template in PCR amplifications of a segment of the cytochrome b gene (mitochondrial genome), and the PCR product was directly sequenced and analyzed. The results show that such a blind testing design performed in one laboratory, when coupled with phylogenetic analysis, can nonarbitrarily test the consistency and reliability of ancient DNA results. Such reproducible results obtained from the blind testing can increase confidence in the authenticity of ancient sequences obtained from postmortem specimens and avoid bias in phylogenetic analysis. A blind testing design may be applicable as an alternative to confirm ancient DNA results in one laboratory when independent testing by two laboratories is not available.

  17. Optimal Bayesian Adaptive Design for Test-Item Calibration.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Wim J; Ren, Hao

    2015-06-01

    An optimal adaptive design for test-item calibration based on Bayesian optimality criteria is presented. The design adapts the choice of field-test items to the examinees taking an operational adaptive test using both the information in the posterior distributions of their ability parameters and the current posterior distributions of the field-test parameters. Different criteria of optimality based on the two types of posterior distributions are possible. The design can be implemented using an MCMC scheme with alternating stages of sampling from the posterior distributions of the test takers' ability parameters and the parameters of the field-test items while reusing samples from earlier posterior distributions of the other parameters. Results from a simulation study demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed MCMC implementation for operational item calibration. A comparison of performances for different optimality criteria showed faster calibration of substantial numbers of items for the criterion of D-optimality relative to A-optimality, a special case of c-optimality, and random assignment of items to the test takers.

  18. Advanced radial inflow turbine rotor program: Design and dynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The advancement of small, cooled, radial inflow turbine technology in the area of operation at higher turbine inlet temperature is discussed. The first step was accomplished by designing, fabricating, and subjecting to limited mechanical testing an advanced gas generator rotating assembly comprising a radial inflow turbine and two-stage centrifugal compressor. The radial inflow turbine and second-stage compressor were designed as an integrally machined monorotor with turbine cooling taking place basically by conduction to the compressor. Design turbine inlet rotor gas temperature, rotational speed, and overall gas generator compressor pressure ratio were 1422 K (2560 R), 71,222 rpm, and 10/1 respectively. Mechanical testing on a fabricated rotating assembly and bearing system covered 1,000 cold start/stop cycles and three spins to 120 percent design speed (85,466 rpm).

  19. Design characteristics of a heat pipe test chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Karl W.; Jang, J. Hoon; Yu, Juin S.

    1992-01-01

    LeRC has designed a heat pipe test facility which will be used to provide data for validating heat pipe computer codes. A heat pipe test chamber that uses helium gas for enhancing heat transfer was investigated. The conceptual design employs the technique of guarded heating and guarded cooling to facilitate accurate measurements of heat transfer rates to the evaporator and from the condenser. The design parameters are selected for a baseline heat pipe made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 38.10 mm and a wall thickness of 1.016 mm. The heat pipe operates at a design temperature of 1000 K with an evaporator radial heat flux of 53 W/sq. cm.

  20. Design, analysis and testing of small, affordable HAWT rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricop, Mihai V.; Niculescu, Mihai L.; Cojocaru, Marius G.; Barsan, Dorin

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents affordable technologies dedicated to design, CAD modelling and manufacturing of the small-medium HAWT rotors. Three numerical tools are developed: blade/rotor design, blade modelling for industry CATIA(CATScript) and blade modelling for small scale developers. Numerical analysis of the rotors is accomplished for both performance and noise level estimation using XFLOW (LES) and an in-house code (URANS). Results are presented for a 5KW rotor at the design point only, since computations are expensive. Developement examples are included as two rotors are designed, manufactured and tested for 1.5 and 5KW. A third one, rated for 20KW is under developement. Basic testing results are also included.

  1. A TeGM6-4r antigen-based immunochromatographic test (ICT) for animal trypanosomosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Goto, Yasuyuki; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Inoue, Noboru

    2015-11-01

    Animal trypanosomosis is a disease that is distributed worldwide which results in huge economic losses due to reduced animal productivity. Endemic regions are often located in the countryside where laboratory diagnosis is costly or inaccessible. The establishment of simple, effective, and accurate field tests is therefore of great interest to the farming and veterinary sectors. Our study aimed to develop a simple, rapid, and sensitive immunochromatographic test (ICT) for animal trypanosomosis utilizing the recombinant tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r, which is conserved amongst salivarian trypanosome species. In the specificity analysis, TeGM6-4r/ICT detected all of Trypanosoma evansi-positive controls from experimentally infected water buffaloes. As expected, uninfected controls tested negative. All sera samples collected from Tanzanian and Ugandan cattle that were Trypanosoma congolense- and/or Trypanosoma vivax-positive by microscopic examination of the buffy coat were found to be positive by the newly developed TeGM6-4r/ICT, which was comparable to results from TeGM6-4r/ELISA (kappa coefficient [κ] = 0.78). TeGM6/ICT also showed substantial agreement with ELISA using Trypanosoma brucei brucei (κ = 0.64) and T. congolense (κ = 0.72) crude antigen, suggesting the high potential of TeGM6-4r/ICT as a field diagnostic test, both for research purposes and on-site diagnosis of animal trypanosomosis.

  2. NREL Next Generation Drivetrain: Mechanical Design and Test Plan (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Halse, C.

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy and industry partners are sponsoring a $3m project for design and testing of a 'Next Generation' wind turbine drivetrain at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This poster focuses on innovative aspects of the gearbox design, completed as part of an end-to-end systems engineering approach incorporating innovations that increase drivetrain reliability, efficiency, torque density and minimize capital cost.

  3. Force limit specifications vs. design limit loads in vibration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. Y.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the work presented herein is to discuss the results of force limit notching during vibration testing with respect to the traditional limit load design criteria. By using a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system approach, this work shows that with an appropriate force specification the notched response due to force limiting will result in loads comparable with the structural design limit criteria.

  4. Self Contained Test for Digital Avionics. Designers Guide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    32 * DESIGNERS GUIDE PAGE NAEC MISC 92-0369 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE PAGE 1-1 SCT Fault Detection and Isolation (without feedback...TO NOL. A through once to check the feedback line. FIGURE 1-1. SCT Fault Detection and Isolation This procedure continues through module (without...comparison. SCT design is direct and test equipmen can be more nearly systematic. Fault detection and isolation in standardized, and the prime

  5. Design, fabrication and testing of an optical temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, W. W.; Glenn, W. H.; Decker, R. O.; Mcclurg, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory breadboard optical temperature sensor based on the temperature dependent absorptive characteristics of a rare earth (europium) doped optical fiber. The principles of operation, materials characterization, fiber and optical component design, design and fabrication of an electrooptic interface unit, signal processing, and initial test results are discussed. Initial tests indicated that, after a brief warmup period, the output of the sensor was stable to approximately 1 C at room temperature or approximately + or - 0.3 percent of point (K). This exceeds the goal of 1 percent of point. Recommendations are presented for further performance improvement.

  6. Disturbance Rejection Based Test Rocket Control System Design and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a novel design and validation for the three-channel attitude controller of a STT test rocket based on the extended state observer approach. The uniform second order integral-chain state space model is firstly established for the control variable of the angle of attack, angle of sideslip and roll angle. Combined with the pole placement, the extended state observer is applied to the disturbance rejection design of the attitude controller. Through numerical and hardware-in-the-loop simulation with uncertainties considered, the effectiveness and robustness of the controller are illustrated and verified. Finally, the performance of the controller is validated by flight-test with satisfactory results.

  7. Viking '75 spacecraft design and test summary. Volume 3: Engineering test summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmberg, N. A.; Faust, R. P.; Holt, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The engineering test program for the lander and the orbiter are presented. The engineering program was developed to achieve confidence that the design was adequate to survive the expected mission environments and to accomplish the mission objective.

  8. A multi-analyte biosensor for the simultaneous label-free detection of pathogens and biomarkers in point-of-need animal testing.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Melanie; Fechner, Peter; Gauglitz, Günter

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, a multi-analyte biosensor platform has been developed using the label-free 1-lambda-reflectometry technique. This platform is the first, which does not use imaging techniques, but is able to perform multi-analyte measurements. It is designed to be portable and cost-effective and therefore allows for point-of-need testing or on-site field-testing with possible applications in diagnostics. This work highlights the application possibilities of this platform in the field of animal testing, but is also relevant and transferable to human diagnostics. The performance of the platform has been evaluated using relevant reference systems like biomarker (C-reactive protein) and serology (anti-Salmonella antibodies) as well as a panel of real samples (animal sera). The comparison of the working range and limit of detection shows no loss of performance transferring the separate assays to the multi-analyte setup. Moreover, the new multi-analyte platform allows for discrimination between sera of animals infected with different Salmonella subtypes.

  9. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    PubMed

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2010-12-31

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web"). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  10. Tracing Water Sources of Terrestrial Animal Populations with Stable Isotopes: Laboratory Tests with Crickets and Spiders

    PubMed Central

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Sabo, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the “water web”). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change. PMID:21209877

  11. Design package test weights for fuel retrieval system (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-10-26

    This is a design package that documents the development of test weights used in the Spent Nuclear Fuels subproject Fuel Retrieval System. The K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project consists of the safe retrieval, preparation, and repackaging of the spent fuel stored at the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins for interim safe storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) scrap baskets and fuel baskets will be loaded and weighed under water. The equipment used to weigh the loaded fuel baskets requires daily calibration checks, using test weights traceable to National Institute of Standards Testing (NIST) standards. The test weights have been designated as OCRWM related in accordance with HNF-SD-SNF-RF'T-007 (McCormack).

  12. Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation test reactor design report

    SciTech Connect

    Haroldsen, B.L.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Mills, B.E.; Brown, B.G.; Rousar, D.C.

    1996-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is working with GenCorp, Aerojet and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation to develop a transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor. The transpiring wall reactor promises to mitigate problems of salt deposition and corrosion by forming a protective boundary layer of pure supercritical water. A laboratory scale test reactor has been assembled to demonstrate the concept. A 1/4 scale transpiring wall reactor was designed and fabricated by Aerojet using their platelet technology. Sandia`s Engineering Evaluation Reactor serves as a test bed to supply, pressurize and heat the waste; collect, measure and analyze the effluent; and control operation of the system. This report describes the design, test capabilities, and operation of this versatile and unique test system with the transpiring wall reactor.

  13. Design and Status of RERTR Irradiation Tests in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Wachs; Richard G. Ambrosek; Gray Chang; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2006-10-01

    Irradiation testing of U-Mo based fuels is the central component of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program fuel qualification plan. Several RERTR tests have recently been completed or are planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, ID. Four mini-plate experiments in various stages of completion are described in detail, including the irradiation test design, objectives, and irradiation conditions. Observations made during and after the in-reactor RERTR-7A experiment breach are summarized. The irradiation experiment design and planned irradiation conditions for full-size plate test are described. Progress toward element testing will be reviewed.

  14. Design and test of a pump failure anticipator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frarey, J. L.; Wilson, D. S.; Burchill, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted on two different types of pumps in order to refine the concept and to finalize design details of a positive displacement internal gear pump and a shroudless centrifugal pump. A concept and a system that could be used with pumps to allow a rapid judgement to be made of the suitability of the pump for futher service is developed. Test results and detailed data analysis are included.

  15. Design and testing of ultralite fabric reflux tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, K.A.; Antoniak, Z.I.; King, L.L.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of Ultralite Fabric Reflux Tubes intended to provide thermal control for a Lunar Colony. The Ultralite Fabric Reflux Tubes, under this phase of development, are constructed of thin-walled copper liners overwrapped with aluminoborosilicate fabric. These devices were constructed and tested in air at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and subsequently taken to the NASA Johnson Space Center for thermal vacuum experimentation.

  16. Design and testing of Ultralite Fabric Reflux Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, K.A.; Antoniak, Z.I.; King, L.L.; Hollenberg, G.W. )

    1993-01-10

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of Ultralite Tubes intended to provide thermal management for habitat modules in a lunar colony. The Ultralite Fabric Reflux Tubes, under this phase of development, are constructed of thin-walled copper liners overwrapped with aluminoborosilicate fabric. These devices were constructed and tested in air at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and subsequently taken to the NASA Johnson Space Center for thermal vacuum experimentation.

  17. HyRAM Testing Strategy and Quality Design Elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, John Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Strategy document and tentative schedule for testing of HyRAM, a software toolkit that integrates data and methods relevant to assessing the safety of hydrogen fueling and storage infrastructure. Because proposed and existing features in HyRAM that support testing are important factors in this discussion, relevant design considerations of HyRAM are also discussed. However, t his document does not cover all of HyRAM desig n, nor is the full HyRAM software development schedule included.

  18. Importance of sampling design and analysis in animal population studies: a comment on Sergio et al

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Schmid, Hans

    2008-01-01

    1. The use of predators as indicators and umbrellas in conservation has been criticized. In the Trentino region, Sergio et al. (2006; hereafter SEA) counted almost twice as many bird species in quadrats located in raptor territories than in controls. However, SEA detected astonishingly few species. We used contemporary Swiss Breeding Bird Survey data from an adjacent region and a novel statistical model that corrects for overlooked species to estimate the expected number of bird species per quadrat in that region. 2. There are two anomalies in SEA which render their results ambiguous. First, SEA detected on average only 6.8 species, whereas a value of 32 might be expected. Hence, they probably overlooked almost 80% of all species. Secondly, the precision of their mean species counts was greater in two-thirds of cases than in the unlikely case that all quadrats harboured exactly the same number of equally detectable species. This suggests that they detected consistently only a biased, unrepresentative subset of species. 3. Conceptually, expected species counts are the product of true species number and species detectability p. Plenty of factors may affect p, including date, hour, observer, previous knowledge of a site and mobbing behaviour of passerines in the presence of predators. Such differences in p between raptor and control quadrats could have easily created the observed effects. Without a method that corrects for such biases, or without quantitative evidence that species detectability was indeed similar between raptor and control quadrats, the meaning of SEA's counts is hard to evaluate. Therefore, the evidence presented by SEA in favour of raptors as indicator species for enhanced levels of biodiversity remains inconclusive. 4. Synthesis and application. Ecologists should pay greater attention to sampling design and analysis in animal population estimation. Species richness estimation means sampling a community. Samples should be representative for the

  19. Injector Cavities Fabrication, Vertical Test Performance and Primary Cryomodule Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haipeng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Clemens, William; Davis, G; Macha, Kurt; Overton, Roland; Spell, D.

    2015-09-01

    After the electromagnetic design and the mechanical design of a β=0.6, 2-cell elliptical SRF cavity, the cavity has been fabricated. Then both 2-cell and 7-cell cavities have been bench tuned to the target values of frequency, coupling external Q and field flatness. After buffer chemistry polishing (BCP) and high pressure rinses (HPR), Vertical 2K cavity test results have been satisfied the specifications and ready for the string assembly. We will report the cavity performance including Lorenz Force Detuning (LFD) and Higher Order Modes (HOM) damping data. Its integration with cavity tuners to the cryomodule design will be reported.

  20. Design, fabrication, and test of lightweight shell structure, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A cylindrical shell skirt structure 4.57 m (180 in.) in diameter and 3.66 m (144 in.) high was subjected to a design and analysis study using a wide variety of structural materials and concepts. The design loading of 1225.8 N/cm (700 lb/in.) axial compression and 245.2 N/cm (140 lb/in.) torsion is representative of that expected on a typical space tug skirt section. Structural concepts evaluated included honeycomb sandwich, truss, isogrid, and skin/stringer/frame. The materials considered included a wide variety of structural metals as well as glass, graphite, and boron-reinforced composites. The most unique characteristic of the candidate designs is that they involve the use of very thin-gage material. Fabrication and structural test of small panels and components representative of many of the candidate designs served to demonstrate proposed fabrication techniques and to verify design and analysis methods.

  1. Skin sensitisation: the Colipa strategy for developing and evaluating non-animal test methods for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aeby, Pierre; Ashikaga, Takao; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Diembeck, Walter; Gerberick, Frank; Kern, Petra; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schroeder, Klaus; Tailhardat, Magali; Teissier, Silvia; Winkler, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by small reactive chemicals (haptens). Currently, the sensitising potential and potency of new chemicals is usually characterised using data generated via animal studies, such as the local lymph node assay (LLNA). There are, however, increasing public and political concerns regarding the use of animals for the testing of new chemicals. Consequently, the development of in vitro, in chemico or in silico models for predicting the sensitising potential and/or potency of new chemicals is receiving widespread interest. The Colipa Skin Tolerance task force currently collaborates with and/or funds several academic research groups to expand our understanding of the molecular and cellular events occurring during the acquisition of skin sensitisation. Knowledge gained from this research is being used to support the development and evaluation of novel alternative approaches for the identification and characterisation of skin sensitizing chemicals. At present three non-animal test methods (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA), Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitisation Test (MUSST) and human Cell Line Activation Test (hCLAT)) have been evaluated in Colipa interlaboratory ring trials for their potential to predict skin sensitisation potential and were recently submitted to ECVAM for formal pre-validation. Data from all three test methods will now be used to support the study and development of testing strategy approaches for skin sensitiser potency prediction. This publication represents the current viewpoint of the cosmetics industry on the feasibility of replacing the need for animal test data for informing skin sensitisation risk assessment decisions.

  2. Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.

  3. Flow-induced vibration testing of replacement thermowell designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslinger, K. H.

    2003-09-01

    Inconel 600 Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) in Nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) has necessitated the repair/replacement of various small bore nozzles. These repairs/replacements must be designed to avoid unwanted vibrations. So, to this end, new RTD-Thermowell-Nozzle replacement designs were developed and subjected to flow testing over a velocity range from 9.14 to 33.53m/s (30-110ft/s), and temperatures ranging from 121°C to 316°C (250-600°F). The replacement nozzles are welded on the pipe OD, rather than on the pipe ID. A split, tapered ferrule is used to support the nozzle tip inside the pipe bore. This maintains high thermowell tip-resonance frequencies with the objective of avoiding self-excitation from vortex shedding that is believed to have caused failures in an earlier design during initial, precritical plant startup testing. The flow testing was complicated by the small size of the thermowell tips (5.08mm or 0.2in ID), which necessitated use of a complement of low temperature and high temperature instrumentation. Since the high temperature device had an internal resonance (750Hz) within the frequency range of interest (0-2500Hz), adequate sensor correlations had to be derived from low temperature tests. The current nozzle/thermowell design was tested concurrently with two slight variations of the replacement design. The acceleration signals were acquired during incremental and continuous flow sweeps, nominally at 5kHz sampling rates and for time domain processing as high as 25kHz. Whereas vortex-shedding frequencies were predicted to prevail between 400 and 1500Hz, no such response was observed at these frequencies. Rather, the thermowell tips responded due to turbulent buffeting with a peak response that was related directly to flow velocity. Lift direction response was always larger than drag direction response. The thermowell tips also responded at their natural tip frequencies in a narrow band random fashion. At the higher

  4. The Change Detection Advantage for Animals: An Effect of Ancestral Priorities or Progeny of Experimental Design?

    PubMed Central

    Laeng, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The “animate monitoring” hypothesis proposes that humans are evolutionarily predisposed to recruit attention toward animals. Support for this has repeatedly been obtained through the change detection paradigm where animals are detected faster than artifacts. The present study shows that the advantage for animals does not stand up to more rigorous experimental controls. Experiment 1 used artificially generated change detection scenes and counterbalanced identical target objects across two sets of scenes. Results showed that detection performance is determined more by the surrounding scene than semantic category. Experiment 2 used photographs from the original studies and replaced the target animals with artifacts in the exact same locations, such that the surrounding scene was kept constant while manipulating the target category. Results replicated the original studies when photos were not manipulated but agreed with the findings of our first experiment in that the advantage shifted to the artifacts when object categories replaced each other in the original scenes. A third experiment used inverted and blurred images so as to disrupt high-level perception but failed to erase the advantage for animals. Hence, the present set of results questions whether the supposed attentional advantage for animals can be supported by evidence from the change detection paradigm. PMID:27433331

  5. [The Spanish translation of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals: current and future solutions].

    PubMed

    Díez, F Gutiérrez; León, F Crespo

    2004-12-01

    This article presents some of the problems that arose when preparing the Spanish translation of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). It contains a list of the language and translation problems encountered and the solutions that were found, some of which are only provisional. The problems are in part due to the lack of a multi-lingual terminological database approved by the OIE. The need for such a database, as well as for the harmonisation of veterinary terminology by the OIE Steering Committee and the Ad hoc Group on language policy, is discussed.

  6. Suitability of temperature-sensitive transponders to measure body temperature during animal experiments required for regulatory tests.

    PubMed

    Hartinger, Joachim; Külbs, Daniela; Volkers, Peter; Cussler, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Body temperature is a clinical parameter in vaccine quality control to detect systemic side-effects or to monitor progression of infectious diseases. Moreover, changes in body temperature are used as clinical parameters to define humane endpoints in animal experiments. However, measuring body temperature via the rectal route can be troublesome and distressing to the animal. Non-invasive measurement methods were developed in recent years. The aim of this investigation was to study and to compare rectally measured body temperature with data obtained with implanted temperature-sensitive transponders (TST) in mice, guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs under the controlled conditions of regulatory testing.

  7. Design, fabrication, test, qualification, and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of solar cell modules is detailed with emphasis upon laminating and interconnecting the panels that hold the simicrystalline silicon cells. Design problems and enviromental tests are described as well as performance characteristics.

  8. Design, fabrication, test, qualification, and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The fabrication of solar cell modules is detailed with emphasis upon laminating and interconnecting the panels that hold the simicrystalline silicon cells. Design problems and enviromental tests are described as well as performance characteristics.

  9. [Alternative methods to animal experiments. What can they afford in the safety testing of chemical substances under REACH?].

    PubMed

    Lilienblum, Werner

    2008-12-01

    Alternative methods to safety studies using laboratory animals have been accepted by the OECD in areas such as local toxicity and mutagenicity. In more complex important fields, such as systemic single and repeated dose toxicity, toxicokinetics, sensitisation, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, it is expected that the development and validation of computerised methods, testing batteries (in vitro and in silico) and tiered testing systems will need many years and have to overcome many scientific and regulatory obstacles, which makes it extremely difficult to predict the outcome and the time needed. Therefore, the validated alternative methods available will only have a limited impact on reducing the numbers of animals required under REACH. In the midterm, the strategy should be more directed towards the refinement or reduction of in vivo testing because the replacement concerning complex toxicological endpoints is at present not in sight.

  10. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report*.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Clewell, Harvey; Kimber, Ian; Rossi, Annamaria; Blaauboer, Bas; Burrier, Robert; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; Hasiwa, Nina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Jaworska, Joanna; Knudsen, Thomas B; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Locke, Paul; Maxwell, Gavin; McKim, James; McVey, Emily A; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Patlewicz, Grace; Pelkonen, Olavi; Roggen, Erwin; Rovida, Costanza; Ruhdel, Irmela; Schwarz, Michael; Schepky, Andreas; Schoeters, Greet; Skinner, Nigel; Trentz, Kerstin; Turner, Marian; Vanparys, Philippe; Yager, James; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. Based on a major analysis of the status of alternative methods (Adler et al., 2011) and its independent review (Hartung et al., 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. Five whitepapers were commissioned addressing toxicokinetics, skin sensitization, repeated-dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity testing. An expert workshop of 35 participants from Europe and the US discussed and refined these whitepapers, which were subsequently compiled to form the present report. By prioritizing the many options to move the field forward, the expert group hopes to advance regulatory science.

  11. Hardware synthesis from DDL. [Digital Design Language for computer aided design and test of LSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. M.; Shiva, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The details of the digital systems can be conveniently input into the design automation system by means of Hardware Description Languages (HDL). The Computer Aided Design and Test (CADAT) system at NASA MSFC is used for the LSI design. The Digital Design Language (DDL) has been selected as HDL for the CADAT System. DDL translator output can be used for the hardware implementation of the digital design. This paper addresses problems of selecting the standard cells from the CADAT standard cell library to realize the logic implied by the DDL description of the system.

  12. Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, J.; Ferl, J.; Wilson, J.W.; Clowdsley, M.S.; DeAngelis, G.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.J.

    2002-05-08

    In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs.

  13. Revisiting a Cognitive Framework for Test Design: Applications for a Computerized Perceptual Speed Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderton, David L.

    This paper highlights the need for a systematic, content aware, and theoretically-based approach to test design. The cognitive components approach is endorsed, and is applied to the development of a computerized perceptual speed test. Psychometric literature is reviewed and shows that: every major multi-factor theory includes a clerical/perceptual…

  14. Survey of electrical submersible systems design, application, and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.O.; Lea, J.F.

    1996-05-01

    The electrical submersible pump industry has numerous recommended practices and procedures addressing various facets of the operation. Ascertaining the appropriate technique is tedious. Seldom are all the documents available at one location. This synopsis of all the industry practices provides a ready reference for testing, design, and application of electrical submersible pumping systems. An extensive bibliography identifies significant documents for further reference.

  15. Computer aided design of jet engine test cell exhaust systems

    SciTech Connect

    Collings, D.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized design procedure that provides a multi-directional analysis of available data is a proven method of developing accurate cost models and performing system trade-offs. The application to the engineering of exhaust silencing systems for jet engine test cells is discused.

  16. Design and Test Requirements for Space Flight Pressurized Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-26

    establishes the baseline requirements for the design, fabrication, assembly, installation, test, inspection, operation, and maintenance of pressure systems...18 4.8 Operation and Maintenance Requirements ..................................................................... 18 4.8.1 Operating Procedure...18 4.8.2 Inspection and Maintenance

  17. Some Current Problems in Simulator Design, Testing and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    Concerned with the general problem of the effectiveness of simulator training, this report reflects information developed during the conduct of aircraft simulator training research projects sponsored by the Air Force, Army, Navy, and Coast Guard. Problems are identified related to simulator design, testing, and use, all of which impact upon…

  18. Testing effects in mixed- versus pure-list designs.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Christopher A; Littrell-Baez, Megan K; Sensenig, Amanda E; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of list composition in the testing effect. Across three experiments, participants learned items through study and initial testing or study and restudy. List composition was manipulated, such that tested and restudied items appeared either intermixed in the same lists (mixed lists) or in separate lists (pure lists). In Experiment 1, half of the participants received mixed lists and half received pure lists. In Experiment 2, all participants were given both mixed and pure lists. Experiment 3 followed Erlebacher's (Psychological Bulletin, 84, 212-219, 1977) method, such that mixed lists, pure tested lists, and pure restudied lists were given to independent groups. Across all three experiments, the final recall results revealed significant testing effects for both mixed and pure lists, with no reliable difference in the magnitude of the testing advantage across list designs. This finding suggests that the testing effect is not subject to a key boundary condition-list design-that impacts other memory phenomena, including the generation effect.

  19. 4MOST fiber feed preliminary design: prototype testing and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Dionne M.; Kelz, Andreas; Barden, Samuel C.; Bauer, Svend-Marian; Ehrlich, Katjana; Haynes, Roger; Jahn, Thomas; Saviauk, Allar; de Jong, Roelof S.

    2016-08-01

    The 4MOST instrument is a multi-object-spectrograph for the ESO-VISTA telescope. The 4MOST fiber feed subsystem is composed of a fiber positioner (AESOP) holding 2436 science fibers based on the Echidna tilting spine concept, and the fiber cable, which feeds two low-resolution spectrographs (1624 fibers) and one high-resolution spectrograph (812 fibers). In order to optimize the fiber feed subsystem design and provide essential information required for the spectrograph design, prototyping and testing has been undertaken. In this paper we give an overview of the current fiber feed subsystem design and present the preliminary FRD, scrambling, throughput and system performance impact results for: maximum and minimum spine tilt, fiber connectors, cable de-rotator simulator for fiber cable lifetime tests.

  20. Design of Octupole Channel for Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, Sergey; Carlson, Kermit; Castellotti, Riccardo; Valishev, Alexander; Wesseln, Steven

    2016-06-01

    We present the design of octupole channel for Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). IOTA is a test accelerator at Fermilab, aimed to conduct research towards high-intensity machines. One of the goals of the project is to demonstrate high nonlinear betatron tune shifts while retaining large dynamic aperture in a realistic accelerator design. At the first stage the tune shift will be attained with a special channel of octupoles, which creates a variable octupole potential over a 1.8 m length. The channel consists of 18 identical air-cooled octupole magnets. The magnets feature a simple low-cost design, while meeting the requirements on maximum gradient - up to 1.4 kG/cm³, and field quality - strength of harmonics below 1%. Numerical simulations show that the channel is capable of producing a nonlinear tune shift of 0.08 without restriction of dynamic aperture of the ring.

  1. Design, fabrication and testing of single spoke resonators at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Ristori, L.; Apollinari, G.; Borissov, E.; Gonin, I.V.; Khabiboulline, T.N.; Mukherjee, A.; Nicol, T.H.; Ozelis, J.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sergatskov, D.A.; Wagner, R.; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    The Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) linac R&D program is building a pulsed 30 MeV superconducting H- linac. The linac incorporates superconducting solenoids, high power RF vector modulators and superconducting spoke-type accelerating cavities starting at 10 MeV. This will be the first application and demonstration of any of these technologies in a low-energy, high-intensity proton/H- linac. The HINS effort is relevant to a high intensity, superconducting H- linac that might serve the next generation of neutrino physics and muon storage ring/collider experiments. In this paper we present the RF design, the mechanical design, the fabrication, the chemistry and testing of the first two SSR1 (Single Spoke Resonator type-1) prototype cavities that were built. These cavities operate at 325 MHz with {beta} = 0.21. The design and testing of the input coupler and the tuning mechanism are also discussed.

  2. Design, Development and Testing of Airplanes for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The opportunity for a piggyback mission to Mars aboard an Ariane 5 rocket in the early spring of 1999 set off feverish design activity at several NASA centers. This report describes the contract work done by faculty, students, and consultants at the California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo California (Cal poly/SLO) to support the NASA/Ames design, construction and test efforts to develop a simple and robust Mars Flyer configuration capable of performing a practical science mission on Mars. The first sections will address the conceptual design of a workable Mars Flyer configuration which started in the spring and summer of 1999. The following sections will focus on construction and flight test of two full-scale vehicles. The final section will reflect on the overall effort and make recommendations for future work.

  3. Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step

  4. Design realization towards the qualification test of ITER cold circulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Patel, P.; Das, J.; Srinivasa, M.; Shukla, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cold circulators, part of ITER Cryo-distribution system, have now reached to a stage of final qualification to demonstrate the design to cater the maximum mass flow and operational demands of the toroidal field (TF) superconducting magnet of ITER with a very high isentropic efficiency. The design for the two numbers of TF cold circulators are now complete gratifying additionally the operational requirements of poloidal field & central solenoid superconducting magnet as well as the cryopumps towards the fulfilment of standardization aspects. Management of physical and functional interfaces has been identified as one the most critical aspect towards the performance of cold circulator. All the interfaces of cold circulators have been analysed with the help of optimized interfacing parameters of Test Auxiliary Cold Box (TACB) and cryogenic test facility at JAEA, Japan during the course of design finalization. Testing at the warm conditions after completion of precise manufacturing of cold circulators has been performed before integrating into the TACB to fulfil the Japanese as well as European regulatory requirements simultaneously. The paper elaborates the methodology of interface management and control, analysis performed towards the interface management and preliminary test results towards the qualification test of the ITER cold circulator.

  5. Optimization applications in aircraft engine design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, T. K.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with the NASA-sponsored STAEBL program, optimization methods based primarily upon the versatile program COPES/CONMIN were introduced over the past few years to a broad spectrum of engineering problems in structural optimization, engine design, engine test, and more recently, manufacturing processes. By automating design and testing processes, many repetitive and costly trade-off studies have been replaced by optimization procedures. Rather than taking engineers and designers out of the loop, optimization has, in fact, put them more in control by providing sophisticated search techniques. The ultimate decision whether to accept or reject an optimal feasible design still rests with the analyst. Feedback obtained from this decision process has been invaluable since it can be incorporated into the optimization procedure to make it more intelligent. On several occasions, optimization procedures have produced novel designs, such as the nonsymmetric placement of rotor case stiffener rings, not anticipated by engineering designers. In another case, a particularly difficult resonance contraint could not be satisfied using hand iterations for a compressor blade, when the STAEBL program was applied to the problem, a feasible solution was obtained in just two iterations.

  6. Surgical technique: establishing a pre-clinical large animal model to test aortic valve leaflet substitute

    PubMed Central

    Knirsch, Walter; Cesarovic, Niko; Krüger, Bernard; Schmiady, Martin; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Frese, Laura; Dave, Hitendu; Hoerstrup, Simon Philipp; Hübler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To overcome current limitations of valve substitutes and tissue substitutes the technology of tissue engineering (TE) continues to offer new perspectives in congenital cardiac surgery. We report our experiences and results implanting a decellularized TE patch in nine sheep in orthotropic position as aortic valve leaflet substitute. Establishing the animal model, feasibility, cardiopulmonary bypass issues and operative technique are highlighted. PMID:28149571

  7. Soil test and bermudagrass forage yield responses to animal waste and FGD gypsum ammendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of soil and plant responses to animal or industrial byproducts is needed for effective use of these potential amendments on reclaimed mine soil. This study compared seven treatments of 11.2 Mg ha-1 flue gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum (control), 896 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer (13-13-13), 22.4 M...

  8. Young Children's Extension of Novel Labels to Novel Animate Items in Three Testing Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    The present research explores young children's extension of novel labels to novel animate items. Three experiments were performed by means of the intermodal preferential looking (IPL) paradigm. In Experiment 1, after repeated exposure to novel word-object associations, 24- and 36-month-olds extend novel labels on the basis of shape similarity, in…

  9. Design, test, and applications of the Alaska SAR Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berwin, R. W.; Cuddy, D. T.; Hilland, J. E.; Holt, B.

    1992-01-01

    The key science requirements, the overall design, and the innovative testing approaches that have been used to ensure the functionality of the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) are described. The facility is to play an important role in the remote sensing applications of Arctic oceanography, geology, glaciology, hydrology, and ecosystem processes. Attention is given to the ASF's three major components: the Receiving Ground Station, the SAR Processing System, and the Archive and Operations System. The ASF hardware configuration and software support, through extensive design and implementaton reviews, were shown to satisfy the initial memorandum of agreement first initiated by NASA for the establishment of a receiving ground station and image processing facility at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and also to satisfy the science objectives formulated by the prelaunch Science Working team. The testing strategy and techniques used in the implementation of the ASF to assure functionality is outlined. The test structures, approach, and environment are considered.

  10. Super nickel-cadmium battery design and life test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, R. S.

    The super nickel-cadmium (S Ni/Cd) cell design utilizes polymer impregnated zirconia separators which are inert in place of degradable nylon separators. The positive and negative electrodes are manufactured by electrochemical impregnation methods which produce more stable electrodes than the chemically deposited electrodes used in the standard Ni/Cd cell. The quantity of electrolyte used in the S Ni/Cd cell was also increased in comparison to the standard Ni/Cd cell. Accelerated and real-time life tests are presented. Ten years of real-time geosynchronous orbit (GEO) life test have been obtained at 80 percent depth of discharge. Low earth orbit test data are presented along with charge potential data as a function of charge rate and temperature. Six different sizes of S Ni/Cd cells ranging in size from 5 to 50 Ah have been designed and built.

  11. Documentation of Stainless Steel Lithium Circuit Test Section Design. Suppl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas J. (Compiler); Martin, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team was tasked by Naval Reactors Prime Contract Team (NRPCT) to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped lithium (Li) flow circuit. This Li circuit takes advantage of work in progress at the EFF TF on a stainless steel sodium/potassium (NaK) circuit. The effort involved modifying the original stainless steel NaK circuit such that it could be operated with Li in place of NaK. This new design considered freeze/thaw issues and required the addition of an expansion tank and expansion/extrusion volumes in the circuit plumbing. Instrumentation has been specified for Li and circuit heaters have been placed throughout the design to ensure adequate operational temperatures and no uncontrolled freezing of the Li. All major components have been designed and fabricated prior to circuit redesign for Li and were not modified. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, Li to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. The reactor segment, based on a Los Alamos National Laboratory 100-kW design study with 120 fuel pins, is the only prototypic component in the circuit. However, due to earlier funding constraints, a 37-pin partial-array of the core, including the central three rings of fuel pins (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in the full design), was selected for fabrication and test. This Technical Publication summarizes the design and integration of the pumped liquid metal Li flow circuit as of May 1, 2005. This supplement contains drawings, analysis, and calculations

  12. Documentation of Stainless Steel Lithium Circuit Test Section Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, T. J.; Martin, J. J.; Stewart, E. T.; Rhys, N. O.

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team was tasked by Naval Reactors Prime Contract Team (NRPCT) to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped lithium (Li) flow circuit. This Li circuit takes advantage of work in progress at the EFF TF on a stainless steel sodium/potassium (NaK) circuit. The effort involved modifying the original stainless steel NaK circuit such that it could be operated with Li in place of NaK. This new design considered freeze/thaw issues and required the addition of an expansion tank and expansion/extrusion volumes in the circuit plumbing. Instrumentation has been specified for Li and circuit heaters have been placed throughout the design to ensure adequate operational temperatures and no uncontrolled freezing of the Li. All major components have been designed and fabricated prior to circuit redesign for Li and were not modified. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, Li to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. The reactor segment, based on a Los Alamos National Laboratory 100-kW design study with 120 fuel pins, is the only prototypic component in the circuit. However, due to earlier funding constraints, a 37-pin partial-array of the core, including the central three rings of fuel pins (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in the full design), was selected for fabrication and test. This Technical Publication summarizes the design and integration of the pumped liquid metal Li flow circuit as of May 1, 2005.

  13. Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Combs, S.K.; Easterly, C.E.; Lunsford, R.V.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.; White, J.A.; Williamson, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper.

  14. Design and Testing of a Cold Gas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashem, A. A.

    2004-10-01

    Cold gas propulsion systems are relatively low-tech cheap devices. Total system mass disadvantage may be limited for low total impulse systems. Mission analysis of a cold gas system was conducted for the two binding extremes of isothermal and isentropic propellant expansion within the tank. Nozzle performance was initially modeled using empirical relations; subsequently two-dimensional axisymmetric, turbulent Navier-Stocks model was used. The results were in close agreement. For specified total impulse and average thrust a preliminary design analysis was conducted. The impact of hardware characteristics on optimum design configuration is discussed. An experimental dual thrust cold gas system, with a turn down ratio of 10 was designed. Test results include high and low thrust pulses and the effects of varying the pressure regulators set pressure. Close agreement with specified design values was achieved.

  15. Hypersonic wing test structure design, analysis, and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide the analyses, data, and hardware required to experimentally validate the beaded panel concept and demonstrate its usefulness as a basis for design of a hypersonic research airplane (HRA). Combinations of beaded panel structure, heat shields, channel caps, and corrugated webs for ribs and spars were analyzed for the wing of a specified HRA to operate at Mach 8 with a life span of 150 flights. Detailed analyses, conducted in accordance with established design criteria, included aerodynamic heating and load predictions, transient structural thermal calculations, extensive NASTRAN computer modeling, and structural optimization. After geometry was established for the total wing, part of the wing (85 sq ft) was designed, fabricated, and assembled into a test structure to experimentally verify the structural adequacy of the beaded panel design concept.

  16. Space shuttle orbiter windshield system design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K.; Suppanz, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development and testing of primary structural elements that are necessary to design a windshield system for the space shuttle orbiter are summarized. The elements include the outer (heat shield) panes, the inner pressure panes, the seals for both panes, and components of both window frames. One test article representing a pressure pane, including frames and seals, was tested under two sets of conditions. One set represented 100 mission cycles with temperature and pressure typical of those exerted on the innermost pane of the three-pane window system, and the second set represented 100 mission cycles with temperature and pressure typical of those exerted on a middle pane. A second test article representing an outer (heat sheild) pane was tested to conditions of 120 entry cycles, which equates to 100 entry cycles plus sufficient fatigue on the pane to account for 100 boost cycles. All elements of the design survived the test conditions in good condition. Window system for the shuttle orbiter vehicle.

  17. Animal Investigation Program (AIP), A.I.P. summary report on and around the Nevada Test Site from 1982--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the Animal Investigation Program conducted from 1982--1995 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (R and IE), formerly Radiation Sciences Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site. The surveillance program was designed to measure levels and trends of radionuclides in animals on and around the Nevada Test Site to ascertain whether world-wide fallout, current radiation levels, and associated doses, to the general public were in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally had the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well-being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results indicated that no significant amounts of biological radionuclides had been detected in the near offsite areas or on the NTS, except in animals drinking water that drains from tunnels in Area 12.

  18. Design of Refractory Metal Life Test Heat Pipe and Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Heat pipe life tests have seldom been conducted on a systematic basis. Typically, one or more heat pipes are built and tested for an extended period at a single temperature with simple condenser loading. Results are often reported describing the wall material, working fluid, test temperature, test duration, and occasionally the nature of any failure. Important information such as design details, processing procedures, material assay, power throughput, and radial power density are usually not mentioned. We propose to develop methods to generate carefully controlled data that conclusively establish heat pipe operating life with material-fluid combinations capable of extended operation. The test approach detailed in this Technical Publication will use 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipe units that have an approximate12-in length and 5/8-in diameter. Two specific test series have been identified: (1) Long-term corrosion rates based on ASTM-G-68-80 (G-series) and (2) corrosion trends in a cross-correlation sequence at various temperatures and mass fluences based on a Fisher multifactor design (F-series). Evaluation of the heat pipe hardware will be performed in test chambers purged with an inert purified gas (helium or helium/argon mixture) at low pressure (10-100 torr) to provide thermal coupling between the heat pipe condenser and calorimeter. The final pressure will be selected to minimize the potential for voltage breakdown between the heat pipe and radio frequency (RF) induction coil (RF heating is currently the planned method of powering the heat pipes). The proposed calorimeter is constructed from a copper alloy and relies on a laminar flow water-coolant channel design to absorb and transport energy

  19. Monitoring of small laboratory animal experiments by a designated web-based database.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, T; Grohmann, C; Schumacher, U; Krüll, A

    2015-10-01

    Multiple-parametric small animal experiments require, by their very nature, a sufficient number of animals which may need to be large to obtain statistically significant results.(1) For this reason database-related systems are required to collect the experimental data as well as to support the later (re-) analysis of the information gained during the experiments. In particular, the monitoring of animal welfare is simplified by the inclusion of warning signals (for instance, loss in body weight >20%). Digital patient charts have been developed for human patients but are usually not able to fulfill the specific needs of animal experimentation. To address this problem a unique web-based monitoring system using standard MySQL, PHP, and nginx has been created. PHP was used to create the HTML-based user interface and outputs in a variety of proprietary file formats, namely portable document format (PDF) or spreadsheet files. This article demonstrates its fundamental features and the easy and secure access it offers to the data from any place using a web browser. This information will help other researchers create their own individual databases in a similar way. The use of QR-codes plays an important role for stress-free use of the database. We demonstrate a way to easily identify all animals and samples and data collected during the experiments. Specific ways to record animal irradiations and chemotherapy applications are shown. This new analysis tool allows the effective and detailed analysis of huge amounts of data collected through small animal experiments. It supports proper statistical evaluation of the data and provides excellent retrievable data storage.

  20. Application of usability testing for improving PACS workstation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Bradley J.; Kossack, Merrick F.

    2000-05-01

    User-centered design is a critical step in the product development cycle. It is an iterative process consisting of product design, implementation, and evaluation stages. Industry-standard usability metrics were employed to evaluate two sequential versions of commercial Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) workstation software as part of this process. They were evaluated 6 months apart by five radiologists with varying PACS experience. All radiologists were naive to the specific workstation tested. After a brief workstation overview, they were videotaped as they completed scenarios that closely simulated typical radiological practice. Each scenario consisted of various task categories. The task duration, nature and number of errors, help requests, and operator's manual consultations were recorded. After evaluating the first software version, areas for improvement were identified and the application design modified. An unexpected result was the rewriting of the software manual to be task- and process-based rather than feature-based. Testing of the second version revealed a 22% improvement in performance time and 30% decrease in the number of errors compared to the first. Usability testing objectively identifies areas for improvement in the PACS workstation software. Additionally, it provides quantitative measures that may be used to prioritize and suggest future design efforts. Performing this evaluation as early as possible results in the rapid evolution of an application that will maximize radiologists' productivity and satisfaction.