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Sample records for animal transmissible spongiform

  1. Pathobiology and diagnosis of animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: current knowledge, research gaps, and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that can affect several animal species and human beings. There are four animal TSE agents found in the United States: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink ...

  2. Medicinal and other products and human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    The report in March 1996 of 10 human cases of a novel from of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United Kingdom, and its possible link to the agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), raises many questions about the safety of animal-derived products and by-products entering the food chain or being used in medicine. This Memorandum updates the preventive measures put forward in 1991 to minimize the risks associated with the use of bovine-derived materials in medicinal products and medical devices. PMID:9509622

  3. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy and Meat Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Hester J. T.; Knight, Richard S. G.

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) comprise a wide-ranging group of neurodegenerative diseases found in animals and humans. They have diverse causes and geographical distributions, but have similar pathological features, transmissibility and, are ultimately, fatal. Central to all TSEs is the presence of an abnormal form of a normal host protein, namely the prion protein. Because of their potential transmissibility, these diseases have wide public health ramifications.

  4. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. TSEs have been described in several species including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, tr...

  5. Experimental Interspecies Transmission Studies of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies to Cattle: Comparison to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. Since the emergence of BSE and its pr...

  6. Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Kehrli, Marcus E; Kunkle, Robert A; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Richt, Jürgen A; Miller, Janice M; Cutlip, Randall C

    2011-05-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. The emergence of BSE and its spread to human beings in the form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) resulted in interest in susceptibility of cattle to CWD, TME and scrapie. Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for potential host ranges of known TSEs. Some interspecies transmission studies have been conducted by inoculating disease-causing prions intracerebrally (IC) rather than orally; the latter is generally effective in intraspecies transmission studies and is considered a natural route by which animals acquire TSEs. The "species barrier" concept for TSEs resulted from unsuccessful interspecies oral transmission attempts. Oral inoculation of prions mimics the natural disease pathogenesis route whereas IC inoculation is rather artificial; however, it is very efficient since it requires smaller dosage of inoculum, and typically results in higher attack rates and reduces incubation time compared to oral transmission. A species resistant to a TSE by IC inoculation would have negligible potential for successful oral transmission. To date, results indicate that cattle are susceptible to IC inoculation of scrapie, TME, and CWD but it is only when inoculated with TME do they develop spongiform lesions or clinical disease similar to BSE. Importantly, cattle are resistant to oral transmission of scrapie or CWD; susceptibility of cattle to oral transmission of TME is not yet determined.

  7. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Justin J; Greenlee, M Heather West

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal protein-misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. TSEs have been described in several species, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in mink, and Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. These diseases are associated with the accumulation of a protease-resistant, disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (called PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system and other tissues, depending on the host species. Typically, TSEs are acquired through exposure to infectious material, but inherited and spontaneous TSEs also occur. All TSEs share pathologic features and infectious mechanisms but have distinct differences in transmission and epidemiology due to host factors and strain differences encoded within the structure of the misfolded prion protein. The possibility that BSE can be transmitted to humans as the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has brought attention to this family of diseases. This review is focused on the TSEs of livestock: bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle and scrapie in sheep and goats.

  8. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Justin J; Greenlee, M Heather West

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal protein-misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. TSEs have been described in several species, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in mink, and Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. These diseases are associated with the accumulation of a protease-resistant, disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (called PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system and other tissues, depending on the host species. Typically, TSEs are acquired through exposure to infectious material, but inherited and spontaneous TSEs also occur. All TSEs share pathologic features and infectious mechanisms but have distinct differences in transmission and epidemiology due to host factors and strain differences encoded within the structure of the misfolded prion protein. The possibility that BSE can be transmitted to humans as the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has brought attention to this family of diseases. This review is focused on the TSEs of livestock: bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle and scrapie in sheep and goats. PMID:25991695

  9. [Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: neuroinfections with unconventional immune reactions].

    PubMed

    Mitrová, E

    1997-04-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) as well as the properties of the major component of the infectious agent-prion, and the most important human and animal prion diseases are characterized. Considering the recent biochemical and molecular biological data, possible explanations of natural resistance, species barrier and lack of the immune response to the unconventional infectious particles are presented. Finally the importance of immunoblotting and immunostaining as the most specific confirmation of TSE diagnosis is underlined. (Ref. 11.)

  10. Public health issues related to animal and human spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in the United Kingdom but has occurred subsequently in several other countries. This Memorandum reviews the existing state of knowledge on all the known spongiform encephalopathies, and evaluates the pathways of transmission and associated hazards. The possible implications of the animal diseases, especially BSE, with regard to the use of animal tissues as animal feed, human food, and in the preparation of medicinal and other products for human use are discussed, with recommendations to national health authorities on appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of BSE to public and animal health. PMID:1600580

  11. Spiroplasma spp. from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy brains or ticks induce spongiform encephalopathy in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Frank O; Sanders, Dearl E; Forbes, Will A; Hagius, Sue D; Walker, Joel V; Henk, William G; Enright, Fred M; Elzer, Philip H

    2007-09-01

    Spiroplasma, small motile wall-less bacteria, are linked by molecular and serological studies to the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which include scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. In this study, two experiments were undertaken to determine the role of spiroplasma in the pathogenesis of TSE. In experiment 1, Spiroplasma mirum, a rabbit tick isolate that had previously been shown to experimentally induce spongiform encephalopathy in rodents, was inoculated intracranially (IC) into ruminants. S. mirum-inoculated deer manifested clinical signs of TSE after 1.5 to 5.5 months incubation. The deer, as well as sheep and goats, inoculated with S. mirum developed spongiform encephalopathy in a dose-dependent manner. In experiment 2, spiroplasma closely related to S. mirum were isolated from TSE-affected brains via passage in embryonated eggs, and propagated in cell-free M1D media. Spiroplasma spp. isolates from scrapie-affected sheep brain and from CWD-affected deer brain inoculated IC into sheep and goats induced spongiform encephalopathy closely resembling natural TSE in these animals. These data show spiroplasma to be consistently associated with TSE, and able experimentally to cause TSE in ruminant animal models, therein questioning the validity of studies that have concluded the prion, a miss-folded protease-resistant protein that builds up in TSE brains during the course of the disease, to be the sole causal agent. The spiroplasma infection models reported here will be important for investigating factors involved in the pathogenesis of TSE since ruminants are the natural hosts.

  12. 76 FR 38667 - Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory... available at the following link. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee...

  13. Differentiation of ruminant transmissible spongiform encephalopathy isolate types, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy and CH1641 scrapie.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J G; Sauer, M; van Keulen, L J M; Tang, Y; Bossers, A; Langeveld, J P M

    2011-01-01

    With increased awareness of the diversity of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) strains in the ruminant population, comes an appreciation of the need for improved methods of differential diagnosis. Exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been associated with the human TSE, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, emphasizing the necessity in distinguishing low-risk TSE types from BSE. TSE type discrimination in ruminants such as cattle, sheep, goats and deer, requires the application of several prion protein (PrP)-specific antibodies in parallel immunochemical tests on brain homogenates or tissue sections from infected animals. This study uses in a single incubation step, three PrP-specific antibodies and fluorescent Alexa dye-labelled anti-mouse Fabs on a Western blot. The usual amount of brain tissue needed is 0.5 mg. This multiplex application of antibodies directed towards three different PrP epitopes enabled differential diagnosis of all established main features of classical scrapie, BSE and Nor98-like scrapie in sheep and goats, as well as the currently known BSE types C, H and L in cattle. Moreover, due to an antibody-dependent dual PrP-banding pattern, for the first time CH1641 scrapie of sheep can be reliably discriminated from the other TSE isolate types in sheep.

  14. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-07

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals.

  15. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals. PMID:26742788

  16. 78 FR 11207 - Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies...

  17. Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Gregori, Luisa; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Alexeeva, Irina; Budka, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    The route of transmission of most naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infections remains speculative. To investigate urine as a potential source of TSE exposure, we used a sensitive method for detection and quantitation of TSE infectivity. Pooled urine collected from 22 hamsters showing clinical signs of 263K scrapie contained 3.8 ± 0.9 infectious doses/mL of infectivity. Titration of homogenates of kidneys and urinary bladders from the same animals gave concentrations 20,000-fold greater. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of these same tissues showed no indications of inflammatory or other pathologic changes except for occasional deposits of disease-associated prion protein in kidneys. Although the source of TSE infectivity in urine remains unresolved, these results establish that TSE infectivity is excreted in urine and may thereby play a role in the horizontal transmission of natural TSEs. The results also indicate potential risk for TSE transmission from human urine–derived hormones and other medicines. PMID:18760007

  18. Molecular aspects of disease pathogenesis in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Priola, Suzette A; Vorberg, Ina

    2004-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases are a group of rare, fatal, and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases that include kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, scrapie in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in mule deer and elk. Over the last 20 yr, they have gone from a fascinating but relatively obscure group of diseases to one that is a major agricultural and economic problem as well as a threat to human health. The shift in the relative impact of the TSE diseases began in the late 1970s when the United Kingdom altered the process by which animal carcasses were rendered to provide a protein supplement (i.e., meat and bone meal) to sheep, cattle, and other livestock. Several years later a new disease was recognized in the British cattle population. The pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the disease clearly placed it among the TSEs. The new disease was named bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by the scientific community and "mad cow disease" by the less-than-scientific press. At its peak in the UK, several thousand cattle a year were diagnosed with BSE, and millions of cattle were slaughtered. Introduction of the specified offals ban as well as banning the practice of feeding ruminants to other ruminants has led to a drastic decrease in the number of yearly BSE cases in the UK (less than 500 in 2003), and the epidemic is clearly on the wane. However, BSE has now spread throughout the rest of Europe, as well as to Japan, Russia, Canada, and Israel and thus remains a worldwide problem.A primary concern following the identification of BSE in 1985 was that it might cross species barriers to infect humans. Initially, it was thought that transmission of BSE to humans was unlikely, given that humans appeared to be resistant to scrapie, an animal TSE that had been endemic in British sheep for centuries. However, a few years after BSE was first recognized, a

  19. Laboratory activities involving transmissible spongiform encephalopathy causing agents

    PubMed Central

    Leunda, Amaya; Van Vaerenbergh, Bernadette; Baldo, Aline; Roels, Stefan; Herman, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1986 of epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a new form of neurological disease in cattle which also affected human beings, many diagnostic and research activities have been performed to develop detection and therapeutic tools. A lot of progress was made in better identifying, understanding and controlling the spread of the disease by appropriate monitoring and control programs in European countries. This paper reviews the recent knowledge on pathogenesis, transmission and persistence outside the host of prion, the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in mammals with a particular focus on risk (re)assessment and management of biosafety measures to be implemented in diagnostic and research laboratories in Belgium. Also, in response to the need of an increasing number of European diagnostic laboratories stopping TSE diagnosis due to a decreasing number of TSE cases reported in the last years, decontamination procedures and a protocol for decommissioning TSE diagnostic laboratories is proposed. PMID:24055928

  20. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  1. Public risk perception of relaxation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) measures in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dressel, K; Perazzini, A; Ru, G; Van Wassenhove, W

    2011-01-01

    The so-called "TSE roadmap" was published by the European Commission on July 15, 2005. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) roadmap suggests relaxation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and other animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies measures in the short, medium, and long term. According to the TSE roadmap, "Any relaxation of BSE measures following the scientific assessment should be initiated by an open discussion with all stakeholders and supported by a strong communication strategy" ( European Commission 2005 , 5). Bearing this in mind, a social scientific project was designed to (1) involve different stakeholder groups, governmental risk managers, and their scientific advisors and (2) obtain their perception of the TSE roadmap and of its implications for precautionary consumer protection in five European Union (EU) Member States. This study describes the risk perception and risk management of TSE in Europe as exemplified by the TSE roadmap. The following query guided the international comparative study: How is TSE risk perceived by four interviewed stakeholder groups in five studied countries? The risk perceptions of TSE of risk managers from the ministries in charge in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom, as well as their scientific advisors and stakeholder groups, were determined. The stakeholder groups were from three different areas involved with TSE, including farmers, consumers, and the meat/food industry. The issue to be addressed is roadmapping an adequate instrument for stakeholder involvement and for risk decision making. PMID:22043919

  2. A potential role for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in Neanderthal extinction.

    PubMed

    Underdown, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The Neanderthals were a Eurasian human species of the genus Homo that disappeared approximately 30,000 years ago. The cause or causes of their extinction continues to intrigue specialists and non-specialists alike. Here a contributory role for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) is suggested. TSEs could have infected Neanderthal groups as a result of general cannibalistic activity and brain tissue consumption in particular. Further infection could then have taken place through continued cannibalistic activity or via shared used of infected stone tools. A modern human hunter-gatherer proxy has been developed and applied as a hypothetical model to the Neanderthals. This hypothesis suggests that the impact of TSEs on the Neanderthals could have been dramatic and have played a large part in contributing to the processes of Neanderthal extinction. PMID:18280671

  3. Stability properties of PrPSc from cattle with experimental transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), including scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), are fatal diseases of the nervous system associated with accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). Different strains of BSE exist...

  4. Use of murine bioassay to resolve ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathy cases showing a bovine spongiform encephalopathy molecular profile.

    PubMed

    Beck, Katy E; Sallis, Rosemary E; Lockey, Richard; Vickery, Christopher M; Béringue, Vincent; Laude, Hubert; Holder, Thomas M; Thorne, Leigh; Terry, Linda A; Tout, Anna C; Jayasena, Dhanushka; Griffiths, Peter C; Cawthraw, Saira; Ellis, Richard; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Groschup, Martin H; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

    2012-05-01

    Two cases of unusual transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) were diagnosed on the same farm in ARQ/ARQ PrP sheep showing attributes of both bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie. These cases, UK-1 and UK-2, were investigated further by transmissions to wild-type and ovine transgenic mice. Lesion profiles (LP) on primary isolation and subpassage, incubation period (IP) of disease, PrP(Sc) immunohistochemical (IHC) deposition pattern and Western blot profiles were used to characterize the prions causing disease in these sheep. Results showed that both cases were compatible with scrapie. The presence of BSE was contraindicated by the following: LP on primary isolation in RIII and/or MR (modified RIII) mice; IP and LP after serial passage in wild-type mice; PrP(Sc) deposition pattern in wild-type mice; and IP and Western blot data in transgenic mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that each case generated two distinct PrP(Sc) deposition patterns in both wild-type and transgenic mice, suggesting that two scrapie strains coexisted in the ovine hosts. Critically, these data confirmed the original differential IHC categorization that these UK-1 and UK-2 cases were not compatible with BSE.

  5. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  6. Assessing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy species barriers with an in vitro prion protein conversion assay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Carlson, Christina M.; Morawski, Aaron R.; Manthei, Alyson; Cashman, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies to understanding interspecies transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are challenging in that they typically rely upon lengthy and costly in vivo animal challenge studies. A number of in vitro assays have been developed to aid in measuring prion species barriers, thereby reducing animal use and providing quicker results than animal bioassays. Here, we present the protocol for a rapid in vitroprion conversion assay called the conversion efficiency ratio (CER) assay. In this assay cellular prion protein (PrPC) from an uninfected host brain is denatured at both pH 7.4 and 3.5 to produce two substrates. When the pH 7.4 substrate is incubated with TSE agent, the amount of PrPC that converts to a proteinase K (PK)-resistant state is modulated by the original host’s species barrier to the TSE agent. In contrast, PrPC in the pH 3.5 substrate is misfolded by any TSE agent. By comparing the amount of PK-resistant prion protein in the two substrates, an assessment of the host’s species barrier can be made. We show that the CER assay correctly predicts known prion species barriers of laboratory mice and, as an example, show some preliminary results suggesting that bobcats (Lynx rufus) may be susceptible to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) chronic wasting disease agent.

  7. Assessing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy species barriers with an in vitro prion protein conversion assay.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher J; Carlson, Christina M; Morawski, Aaron R; Manthei, Alyson; Cashman, Neil R

    2015-03-10

    Studies to understanding interspecies transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are challenging in that they typically rely upon lengthy and costly in vivo animal challenge studies. A number of in vitro assays have been developed to aid in measuring prion species barriers, thereby reducing animal use and providing quicker results than animal bioassays. Here, we present the protocol for a rapid in vitro prion conversion assay called the conversion efficiency ratio (CER) assay. In this assay cellular prion protein (PrPC) from an uninfected host brain is denatured at both pH 7.4 and 3.5 to produce two substrates. When the pH 7.4 substrate is incubated with TSE agent, the amount of PrPC that converts to a proteinase K (PK)-resistant state is modulated by the original host's species barrier to the TSE agent. In contrast, PrPC in the pH 3.5 substrate is misfolded by any TSE agent. By comparing the amount of PK-resistant prion protein in the two substrates, an assessment of the host's species barrier can be made. We show that the CER assay correctly predicts known prion species barriers of laboratory mice and, as an example, show some preliminary results suggesting that bobcats (Lynx rufus) may be susceptible to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) chronic wasting disease agent.

  8. Assessing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy species barriers with an in vitro prion protein conversion assay.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher J; Carlson, Christina M; Morawski, Aaron R; Manthei, Alyson; Cashman, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    Studies to understanding interspecies transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are challenging in that they typically rely upon lengthy and costly in vivo animal challenge studies. A number of in vitro assays have been developed to aid in measuring prion species barriers, thereby reducing animal use and providing quicker results than animal bioassays. Here, we present the protocol for a rapid in vitro prion conversion assay called the conversion efficiency ratio (CER) assay. In this assay cellular prion protein (PrPC) from an uninfected host brain is denatured at both pH 7.4 and 3.5 to produce two substrates. When the pH 7.4 substrate is incubated with TSE agent, the amount of PrPC that converts to a proteinase K (PK)-resistant state is modulated by the original host's species barrier to the TSE agent. In contrast, PrPC in the pH 3.5 substrate is misfolded by any TSE agent. By comparing the amount of PK-resistant prion protein in the two substrates, an assessment of the host's species barrier can be made. We show that the CER assay correctly predicts known prion species barriers of laboratory mice and, as an example, show some preliminary results suggesting that bobcats (Lynx rufus) may be susceptible to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) chronic wasting disease agent. PMID:25867521

  9. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE): minimizing the risk of transmission by biological/biopharmaceutical products: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Kozak, R W; Golker, C F; Stadler, P

    1996-01-01

    Several guidelines and recommendations have been published on assessing the potential risk of a biological product being contaminated with an agent causing a Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE). Basic principles which can be used during the manufacturing of biological products to minimize the risk of transmission of TSE agents include the following: (i) obtaining animals, tissues or animal-derived raw materials from countries in which the relevant TSE agent is reported to be absent; (ii) screening animal-derived material for appropriate animal husbandry, feeding practices, health certification, tissue procurement and processing practices, and human-derived material for appropriate medical history information and, if relevant, plasma donor exclusion criteria; (iii) selection of tissue source of raw material with reference to potential risk for harbouring or amplifying TSE agents; (IV) human tropism of TSE agent of concern; (v) quantity of raw material used to manufacture a dose of product; (vi) number of daily doses required for indication; (vii) route of administration; (viii) indication and age of patient; and (ix) clearance capabilities by the product purification scheme. A risk evaluation will be represented for Trasylol (Aprotinin) which is manufactured from bovine lung tissue. Trasylol is a protease inhibitor used in the control of blood loss during open heart surgery. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is a concern when a product is derived from a bovine source. Even though only bovine lung tissue from BSE-free countries is used to manufacture Trasylol, it was decided, based on the primary tissue source selection, to evaluate the potential of the purification process to clear a TSE agent. Duplicate "spiking experiments" were performed using a mouse-adapted strain of scrapie as the model for BSE. Four steps in the purification process were evaluated. Titration of "spiked" loading material and output samples was performed at dilutions of 10(-4) to

  10. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a family of etiologically complex diseases--a review.

    PubMed

    Bounias, Michel; Purdey, Mark

    2002-10-01

    The upsurge of 'mad cow disease' with its human implications has raised the problem of the etiological mechanisms and the similarities or differences underlying the family of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Structural properties of prions are reviewed in connection with their natural distribution and functions, factors of transmissibility and mechanisms of pathogenicity. Polymorphism is examined in relation to disease phenotype variants. The role of oxidative factors is emphasized, while raising complexity about the role of copper ions. Further investigation directions are suggested. PMID:12389776

  11. Nonenzymatic glycation at the N terminus of pathogenic prion protein in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeong-Gon; Kim, Jae-Il; Jeon, Yong-Chul; Park, Seok-Joo; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Rubenstein, Richard; Kascsak, Richard J; Carp, Richard I; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2004-07-16

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the accumulation of an abnormally folded prion protein, termed PrPSc, and the development of pathological features of astrogliosis, vacuolation, neuronal cell loss, and in some cases amyloid plaques. Although considerable structural characterization of prion protein has been reported, neither the method of conversion of cellular prion protein, PrPC, into the pathogenic isoform nor the post-translational modification processes involved is known. We report that in animal and human TSEs, one or more lysines at residues 23, 24, and 27 of PrPSc are covalently modified with advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs), which may be carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), one of the structural varieties of AGEs. The arginine residue at position 37 may also be modified with AGE, but not the arginine residue at position 25. This result suggests that nonenzymatic glycation is one of the post-translational modifications of PrP(Sc). Furthermore, immunostaining studies indicate that, at least in clinically affected hamsters, astrocytes are the first site of this glycation process. PMID:15084583

  12. Defining and Assessing Analytical Performance Criteria for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy-Detecting Amyloid Seeding Assays.

    PubMed

    Gray, John G; Graham, Catherine; Dudas, Sandor; Paxman, Eric; Vuong, Ben; Czub, Stefanie

    2016-05-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are infectious, fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect production animal health, and thus human food safety. Enhanced TSE detection methods mimic the conjectured basis for prion replication, in vitro; biological matrices can be tested for prion activity via their ability to convert recombinant cellular prion protein (PrP) into amyloid fibrils; fluorescent spectra changes of amyloid-binding fluorophores in the reaction vessel detect fibril formation. In vitro PrP conversion techniques have high analytical sensitivity for prions, comparable with that of bioassays, yet no such protocol has gained regulatory approval for use in animal TSE surveillance programs. This study describes a timed in vitro PrP conversion protocol with accurate, well-defined analytical criteria based on probability density and mass functions of TSE(+) and TSE(-) associated thioflavin T signal times, a new approach within this field. The prion detection model used is elk chronic wasting disease (CWD) in brain tissues. The protocol and analytical criteria proved as sensitive for elk CWD as two bioassay models, and upward of approximately 1.2 log10 more sensitive than the most sensitive TSE rapid test we assessed. Furthermore, we substantiate that timing in vitro PrP conversion may be used to titrate TSE infectivity, and, as a result, provide a comprehensive extrapolation of analytical sensitivity differences between bioassay, TSE rapid tests, and in vitro PrP conversion for elk CWD.

  13. Defining and Assessing Analytical Performance Criteria for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy-Detecting Amyloid Seeding Assays.

    PubMed

    Gray, John G; Graham, Catherine; Dudas, Sandor; Paxman, Eric; Vuong, Ben; Czub, Stefanie

    2016-05-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are infectious, fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect production animal health, and thus human food safety. Enhanced TSE detection methods mimic the conjectured basis for prion replication, in vitro; biological matrices can be tested for prion activity via their ability to convert recombinant cellular prion protein (PrP) into amyloid fibrils; fluorescent spectra changes of amyloid-binding fluorophores in the reaction vessel detect fibril formation. In vitro PrP conversion techniques have high analytical sensitivity for prions, comparable with that of bioassays, yet no such protocol has gained regulatory approval for use in animal TSE surveillance programs. This study describes a timed in vitro PrP conversion protocol with accurate, well-defined analytical criteria based on probability density and mass functions of TSE(+) and TSE(-) associated thioflavin T signal times, a new approach within this field. The prion detection model used is elk chronic wasting disease (CWD) in brain tissues. The protocol and analytical criteria proved as sensitive for elk CWD as two bioassay models, and upward of approximately 1.2 log10 more sensitive than the most sensitive TSE rapid test we assessed. Furthermore, we substantiate that timing in vitro PrP conversion may be used to titrate TSE infectivity, and, as a result, provide a comprehensive extrapolation of analytical sensitivity differences between bioassay, TSE rapid tests, and in vitro PrP conversion for elk CWD. PMID:27068712

  14. Foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Holznagel, Edgar; Yutzy, Barbara; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Kruip, Carina; Hahmann, Uwe; Bierke, Pär; Torres, Juan-Maria; Kim, Yong-Sun; Thomzig, Achim; Beekes, Michael; Hunsmann, Gerhard; Loewer, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Risk for human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-inducing agent was estimated in a nonhuman primate model. To determine attack rates, incubation times, and molecular signatures, we orally exposed 18 macaques to 1 high dose of brain material from cattle with BSE. Several macaques were euthanized at regular intervals starting at 1 year postinoculation, and others were observed until clinical signs developed. Among those who received ≥5 g BSE-inducing agent, attack rates were 100% and prions could be detected in peripheral tissues from 1 year postinoculation onward. The overall median incubation time was 4.6 years (3.7-5.3). However, for 3 macaques orally exposed on multiple occasions, incubation periods were at least 7-10 years. Before clinical signs were noted, we detected a non-type 2B signature, indicating the existence of atypical prion protein during the incubation period. This finding could affect diagnosis of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and might be relevant for retrospective studies of positive tonsillectomy or appendectomy specimens because time of infection is unknown.

  15. Laboratory activities involving transmissible spongiform encephalopathy causing agents: risk assessment and biosafety recommendations in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Leunda, Amaya; Van Vaerenbergh, Bernadette; Baldo, Aline; Roels, Stefan; Herman, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1986 of epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a new form of neurological disease in cattle which also affected human beings, many diagnostic and research activities have been performed to develop detection and therapeutic tools. A lot of progress was made in better identifying, understanding and controlling the spread of the disease by appropriate monitoring and control programs in European countries. This paper reviews the recent knowledge on pathogenesis, transmission and persistence outside the host of prion, the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in mammals with a particular focus on risk (re)assessment and management of biosafety measures to be implemented in diagnostic and research laboratories in Belgium. Also, in response to the need of an increasing number of European diagnostic laboratories stopping TSE diagnosis due to a decreasing number of TSE cases reported in the last years, decontamination procedures and a protocol for decommissioning TSE diagnostic laboratories is proposed.

  16. Experimental transmission of h-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy to bovinized transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Masujin, K; Iwamaru, Y; Imamura, M; Matsuura, Y; Mohri, S; Czub, S; Yokoyama, T

    2011-09-01

    To characterize the biological and biochemical properties of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a transmission study with a Canadian H-type isolate was performed with bovinized transgenic mice (TgBoPrP), which were inoculated intracerebrally with brain homogenate from cattle with H-type BSE. All mice exhibited characteristic neurologic signs, and the subsequent passage showed a shortened incubation period. The distribution of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was determined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and paraffin-embedded tissue (PET) blot. Biochemical properties and higher molecular weight of the glycoform pattern were well conserved within mice. Immunolabeled granular PrP(Sc), aggregates, and/or plaque-like deposits were mainly detected in the following brain locations: septal nuclei, subcallosal regions, hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, interstitial nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the reticular formation of the midbrain. Weak reactivity was detected by immunohistochemistry and PET blot in the cerebral cortex, most thalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum. These findings indicate that the H-type BSE prion has biological and biochemical properties distinct from those of C-type and L-type BSE in TgBoPrP mice, which suggests that TgBoPrP mice constitute a useful animal model to distinguish isolates from BSE-infected cattle.

  17. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  18. Possible case of maternal transmission of feline spongiform encephalopathy in a captive cheetah.

    PubMed

    Bencsik, Anna; Debeer, Sabine; Petit, Thierry; Baron, Thierry

    2009-09-07

    Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is considered to be related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and has been reported in domestic cats as well as in captive wild cats including cheetahs, first in the United Kingdom (UK) and then in other European countries. In France, several cases were described in cheetahs either imported from UK or born in France. Here we report details of two other FSE cases in captive cheetah including a 2(nd) case of FSE in a cheetah born in France, most likely due to maternal transmission. Complete prion protein immunohistochemical study on both brains and peripheral organs showed the close likeness between the two cases. In addition, transmission studies to the TgOvPrP4 mouse line were also performed, for comparison with the transmission of cattle BSE. The TgOvPrP4 mouse brains infected with cattle BSE and cheetah FSE revealed similar vacuolar lesion profiles, PrP(d) brain mapping with occurrence of typical florid plaques. Collectively, these data indicate that they harbor the same strain of agent as the cattle BSE agent. This new observation may have some impact on our knowledge of vertical transmission of BSE agent-linked TSEs such as in housecat FSE, or vCJD.

  19. Monitoring of clinical signs in goats with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats intracerebrally infected with the BSE agent as well as five reported scrapie suspects and 346 goats subject to cull from the two herds, 24 of which were retained for further monitoring. The brain and selected lymphoid tissue were examined by postmortem tests for disease confirmation. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the short clinical protocol in detecting a scrapie case in the scrapie-affected herds was 3.9% and 99.6%, respectively, based on the presence of tremor, positive scratch test, extensive hair loss, ataxia and absent menace response. All BSE- and scrapie-affected goats displayed abnormalities in sensation (over-reactivity to external stimuli, startle responses, pruritus, absent menace response) and movement (ataxia, tremor, postural deficits) at an advanced clinical stage but the first detectable sign associated with scrapie or BSE could vary between animals. Signs of pruritus were not always present despite similar prion protein genotypes. Clinical signs of scrapie were also displayed by two scrapie cases that presented with detectable disease-associated prion protein only in lymphoid tissues. Conclusions BSE and scrapie may present as pruritic and non-pruritic forms in goats. Signs assessed for the clinical diagnosis of scrapie or BSE in goats should include postural and gait abnormalities, pruritus and visual impairment. However, many scrapie cases will be missed if detection is solely based on the display of clinical signs. PrPd accumulation in the brain appeared to be related to the severity of clinical disease but not to the display of individual neurological signs

  20. The prion diseases of animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect several species of animals and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, and transmissible mink encephalopat...

  1. Experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to cynomolgus macaques, a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Ono, Fumiko; Terao, Keiji; Tase, Naomi; Hiyaoka, Akio; Ohyama, Atsushi; Tezuka, Yukio; Wada, Naomi; Kurosawa, Asuka; Sato, Yuko; Tobiume, Minoru; Hagiwara, Ken'ichi; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2011-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was transmitted to three macaques by intracerebral inoculation of a brain homogenate from affected cattle detected in Japan. All monkeys developed abnormal behavioral signs, such as intermittent anorexia and hyperekplexia, around 24 months after inoculation. Neuronal symptoms, such as tremor, myoclonic jerking, and paralysis, appeared 27-44 months after inoculation. These symptoms worsened and total paralysis ensued within a year after onset. The disease duration was approximately 8-12 months. Both the incubation period and the duration of disease were shortened in the secondary transmission experiment to macaques. Heavy accumulation of disease-causing conformer(s) of prion protein (PrP(Sc)), with a similar glycoform profile to the PrP(Sc) contained in the inoculum, and severe spongiform changes in the histology of the brain, confirmed the successful transmission of BSE to monkeys. Florid plaques, a characteristic histological hallmark of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, were prominent in the cerebral cortex, in which a prion antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrP(Sc) was mostly confined to the central nervous system, although small amounts of PrP(Sc) accumulated in the peripheral nerves of monkeys, as detected by Western blotting (WB). Neither IHC nor WB detected PrP(Sc) in the lymphatic organs/tissues, such as the tonsils, spleen, and appendix.

  2. Prion Diseases: Update on Mad Cow Disease, Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, and the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Janka, Jacqueline; Maldarelli, Frank

    2004-08-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorders that share a common spongiform histopathology. TSEs may be transmitted in a sporadic, familial, iatrogenic, or zoonotic fashion. The putative infectious agent of TSE, the prion, represents a novel paradigm of infectious disease with disease transmission in the absence of nucleic acid. Several small but spectacular epidemics of TSEs in man have prompted widespread public health and food safety concerns. Although TSEs affect a comparatively small number of individuals, prion research has revealed fascinating insights of direct relevance to common illnesses. This paper reviews recent advances that have shed new light on the nature of prions and TSEs. PMID:15265460

  3. Foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to non-human primates results in preclinical rapid-onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Strom, Alexander; Yutzy, Barbara; Kruip, Carina; Ooms, Mark; Schloot, Nanette C; Roden, Michael; Scott, Fraser W; Loewer, Johannes; Holznagel, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c.) infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001) which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity.

  4. Characterization of strains of ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathy with a short PrPd profiling method.

    PubMed

    Sisó, S; Jeffrey, M; Martin, S; Chianini, F; Dagleish, M P; González, L

    2010-05-01

    Scrapie is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that naturally affects sheep and goats; these species are also susceptible to experimental infection with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. Discrimination between different strains of sheep scrapie and ovine BSE has been achieved by descriptive and quantitative profiling of deposits of the disease-associated prion protein (PrPd) in different areas of the brain, but this process is time-consuming and difficult to standardize between laboratories. The present paper describes an alternative PrPd profiling method that is less demanding and addresses these difficulties. It is based on the scoring of similar 14 PrPd types in 11 precisely defined areas of the telencephalon. When applied to 48 archived cases of experimental sheep BSE, SSBP/1, CH1641 and natural scrapie, it gave comparable results to the original profiling method, previously conducted on the same brains, and allowed differentiation between the different infectious sources. This new 'short PrPd profiling' method has the advantages of being less time-consuming and easier to standardize, so that it can be readily adopted by different laboratories to provide comparable results.

  5. Dissociation of prion protein amyloid seeding from transmission of a spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, Pedro; King, Declan; Telling, Glenn; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2013-11-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of proteins are common pathogenic mechanisms of a group of diseases called proteinopathies. The formation and spread of proteinaceous lesions within and between individuals were first described in prion diseases and proposed as the basis of their infectious nature. Recently, a similar "prion-like" mechanism of transmission has been proposed in other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. We investigated if misfolding and aggregation of corrupted prion protein (PrP(TSE)) are always associated with horizontal transmission of disease. Knock-in transgenic mice (101LL) expressing mutant PrP (PrP-101L) that are susceptible to disease but do not develop any spontaneous neurological phenotype were inoculated with (i) brain extracts containing PrP(TSE) from healthy 101LL mice with PrP plaques in the corpus callosum or (ii) brain extracts from mice overexpressing PrP-101L with neurological disease, severe spongiform encephalopathy, and formation of proteinase K-resistant PrP(TSE). In all instances, 101LL mice developed PrP plaques in the area of inoculation and vicinity in the absence of clinical disease or spongiform degeneration of the brain. Importantly, 101LL mice did not transmit disease on serial passage, ruling out the presence of subclinical infection. Thus, in both experimental models the formation of PrP(TSE) is not infectious. These results have implications for the interpretation of tests based on the detection of protein aggregates and suggest that de novo formation of PrP(TSE) in the host does not always result in a transmissible prion disease. In addition, these results question the validity of assuming that all diseases due to protein misfolding can be transmitted between individuals.

  6. [Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Part I].

    PubMed

    Zaborowski, Adam

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this work the main problems of prion diseases--also called transmissible cerebral amyloidoses (TCA) or subacute (transmissible) encephalopathies (SSE, TSE)--and clinical symptoms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are presented. Some problems of neuropathology of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and basic informations about other human prion diseases will be presented in the second part. The growth of the interest in prion diseases during last years is caused by the problem of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad cow disease") and its transmission into a human. The new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD) has appeared. Prion diseases: Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), kuru, fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and particularly the most frequent of them--Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)--have nonspecific, sometimes variable clinical (psychopathological and neurological) symptoms. The imaging, EEG, cerebrospinal fluid tests and other laboratory tests are not specific either and their diagnostic value is limited. Neuropathological studies are needed but their interpretation is often difficult. The only certain diagnostic marker for TSE is the presence of PrP(Sc), the prion protein, which is presently believed to be a direct cause for all transmissible cerebral amyloidoses (TCA). PMID:15307293

  7. Highly sensitive detection of small ruminant bovine spongiform encephalopathy within transmissible spongiform encephalopathy mixes by serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification.

    PubMed

    Gough, Kevin C; Bishop, Keith; Maddison, Ben C

    2014-11-01

    It is assumed that sheep and goats consumed the same bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat and bone meal that was fed to cattle and precipitated the BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom that peaked more than 20 years ago. Despite intensive surveillance for cases of BSE within the small ruminant populations of the United Kingdom and European Union, no instances of BSE have been detected in sheep, and in only two instances has BSE been discovered in goats. If BSE is present within the small ruminant populations, it may be at subclinical levels, may manifest as scrapie, or may be masked by coinfection with scrapie. To determine whether BSE is potentially circulating at low levels within the European small ruminant populations, highly sensitive assays that can specifically detect BSE, even within the presence of scrapie prion protein, are required. Here, we present a novel assay based on the specific amplification of BSE PrP(Sc) using the serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification assay (sPMCA), which specifically amplified small amounts of ovine and caprine BSE agent which had been mixed into a range of scrapie-positive brain homogenates. We detected the BSE prion protein within a large excess of classical, atypical, and CH1641 scrapie isolates. In a blind trial, this sPMCA-based assay specifically amplified BSE PrP(Sc) within brain mixes with 100% specificity and 97% sensitivity when BSE agent was diluted into scrapie-infected brain homogenates at 1% (vol/vol).

  8. Dynamics of the natural transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy within an intensively managed sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Martin; Witz, Janey P; Martin, Stuart; Hawkins, Steve A C; Bellworthy, Sue J; Dexter, Glenda E; Thurston, Lisa; González, Lorenzo

    2015-10-28

    Sheep are susceptible to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent and in the UK they may have been exposed to BSE via contaminated meat and bone meal. An experimental sheep flock was established to determine whether ovine BSE could be naturally transmitted under conditions of intensive husbandry. The flock consisted of 113 sheep of different breeds and susceptible PRNP genotypes orally dosed with BSE, 159 sheep subsequently born to them and 125 unchallenged sentinel controls. BSE was confirmed in 104 (92%) orally dosed sheep and natural transmission was recorded for 14 of 79 (18%) lambs born to BSE infected dams, with rates varying according to PRNP genotype. The likelihood of natural BSE transmission was linked to stage of incubation period of the dam: the attack rate for lambs born within 100 days of the death of BSE infected dams was significantly higher (9/22, 41%) than for the rest (5/57, 9%). Within the group of ewes lambing close to death, those rearing infected progeny (n = 8, for 9/12 infected lambs) showed a significantly greater involvement of lymphoid tissues than those rearing non-infected offspring (n = 8, for 0/10 infected lambs). Horizontal transmission to the progeny of non-infected mothers was recorded only once (1/205, 0.5%). This low rate of lateral transmission was attributed, at least partly, to an almost complete absence of infected placentas. We conclude that, although BSE can be naturally transmitted through dam-lamb close contact, the infection in this study flock would not have persisted due to low-efficiency maternal and lateral transmissions.

  9. Dynamics of the natural transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy within an intensively managed sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Martin; Witz, Janey P; Martin, Stuart; Hawkins, Steve A C; Bellworthy, Sue J; Dexter, Glenda E; Thurston, Lisa; González, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are susceptible to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent and in the UK they may have been exposed to BSE via contaminated meat and bone meal. An experimental sheep flock was established to determine whether ovine BSE could be naturally transmitted under conditions of intensive husbandry. The flock consisted of 113 sheep of different breeds and susceptible PRNP genotypes orally dosed with BSE, 159 sheep subsequently born to them and 125 unchallenged sentinel controls. BSE was confirmed in 104 (92%) orally dosed sheep and natural transmission was recorded for 14 of 79 (18%) lambs born to BSE infected dams, with rates varying according to PRNP genotype. The likelihood of natural BSE transmission was linked to stage of incubation period of the dam: the attack rate for lambs born within 100 days of the death of BSE infected dams was significantly higher (9/22, 41%) than for the rest (5/57, 9%). Within the group of ewes lambing close to death, those rearing infected progeny (n = 8, for 9/12 infected lambs) showed a significantly greater involvement of lymphoid tissues than those rearing non-infected offspring (n = 8, for 0/10 infected lambs). Horizontal transmission to the progeny of non-infected mothers was recorded only once (1/205, 0.5%). This low rate of lateral transmission was attributed, at least partly, to an almost complete absence of infected placentas. We conclude that, although BSE can be naturally transmitted through dam-lamb close contact, the infection in this study flock would not have persisted due to low-efficiency maternal and lateral transmissions. PMID:26511838

  10. Slow virus disease: deciphering conflicting data on the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) also called prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Frank O; Fermin, Cesar D

    2005-11-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) that manifest as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, as scrapie in sheep and goats, mad cow disease in cattle, or chronic wasting disease in cervids (deer) represent a serious human health crisis and a significant economical problem. Despite much research, the nature of the elusive pathogen directly involved with TSE is currently unresolved. This article reviews current pathogen-cell plasma membrane properties, showing that the primary biochemical marker of the prion disease is used as a receptor by the intracellular bacterium Brucella abortus. Such observation makes plausible the role for the prion in the pathogenesis of TSE, and supports the concept that Spiroplasma, a wall-less bacterium, may be a transmissible agent of TSE. Over the past three decades, we have published convincing evidence that Spiroplasma infection is associated with TSE. The bacterial-prion-receptor concept by other laboratories support a model for TSE wherein a Spiroplasma bacterium can bind to prion receptors (alone or with anchors) on the cell surface lipid raft, allowing entry of the microbe into the cell to initiate infection. The relevance of this new concept is that it offers a new window for future research involving a bacterium in the pathogenesis of TSE. Data from the bacterial-prion-receptor model will aid in the development diagnostic tests and/or treatment protocols for TSE. PMID:16276518

  11. Prionemia and leukocyte-platelet-associated infectivity in sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathy models.

    PubMed

    Lacroux, Caroline; Vilette, Didier; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Litaise, Claire; Lugan, Séverine; Morel, Nathalie; Corbière, Fabien; Simon, Stéphanie; Simmons, Hugh; Costes, Pierrette; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Lantier, Isabelle; Lantier, Frederic; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Castilla, Joaquin; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of the circulation and distribution of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents in the blood of infected individuals remain largely unknown. This clearly limits the understanding of the role of blood in TSE pathogenesis and the development of a reliable TSE blood detection assay. Using two distinct sheep scrapie models and blood transfusion, this work demonstrates the occurrence of a very early and persistent prionemia. This ability to transmit disease by blood transfusion was correlated with the presence of infectivity in white blood cells (WBC) and peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC) as detected by bioassay in mice overexpressing the ovine prion protein PrP (tg338 mice) and with the identification of abnormal PrP in WBC after using protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). Platelets and a large variety of leukocyte subpopulations also were shown to be infectious. The use of endpoint titration in tg338 mice indicated that the infectivity in WBC (per ml of blood) was 10(6.5)-fold lower than that in 1 g of posterior brainstem sample. In both WBC and brainstem, infectivity displayed similar resistance to PK digestion. The data strongly support the concept that WBC are an accurate target for reliable TSE detection by PMCA. The presence of infectivity in short-life-span blood cellular elements raises the question of the origin of prionemia.

  12. Comparative studies on the thermostability of five strains of transmissible-spongiform-encephalopathy agent.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Karen; Steele, Philip J; Taylor, David M; Somerville, Robert A

    2007-08-01

    The causal infectious agents of TSEs (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases) are renowned for their resistance to complete inactivation. Survival of TSE infectivity after autoclaving potentially compromises many procedures where TSE infectivity may be present, including surgical instrument sterilization. In the present study, the heat inactivation properties of five different TSE agents were tested in a variety of experiments by exposing them to a range of heat inactivation conditions. Although TSE infectivity was reduced after heating to 200 degrees C in a hot air oven, substantial amounts of infectivity remained. Unlike wet heat inactivation, no TSE strain-dependent differences were observed in the reduction in the amounts of infectivity produced by dry heat inactivation. However, the incubation periods of mice infected with one dry heated TSE strain, ME7, were substantially prolonged, whereas there was little or no effect for two other TSE models. Varying autoclaving conditions for three TSE strains between 132 and 138 degrees C, and times of exposure between 30 and 120 min, had little or no effect on the recovery of TSE infectivity. The results illustrate the limitations of TSE agent inactivation using heat-based methods. The results support the hypothesis that the structures of TSE agents are stabilized during heat-inactivation procedures, rendering them much more refractory to inactivation. This may occur through dehydration of the causal agents, specifically through the removal of the water of solvation from agent structures and hence stabilize interactions between prion protein and TSE agent-specific ligands. PMID:17331068

  13. Experimental treatments for human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: is there a role for pentosan polysulfate?

    PubMed

    Rainov, N G; Tsuboi, Y; Krolak-Salmon, P; Vighetto, A; Doh-Ura, K

    2007-05-01

    Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are caused by the accumulation of an abnormal isoform of the prion protein in the CNS. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in its sporadic form is the most frequent type of human TSE. At present, there is no proven specific or effective treatment available for any form of TSE. Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) has been shown to prolong the incubation period when administered to the cerebral ventricles in a rodent TSE model. Cerebroventricular administration of PPS has been carried out in 26 patients with TSEs and has been shown to be well tolerated in doses < or = 220 microg/kg/day. Proof of efficacy has been difficult because the specific and objective criteria for measurement of response have not been established yet. Preliminary clinical experience confirms extended survival in patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease receiving intraventricular PPS; however, it is still not clear if this is due to PPS itself. Further prospective investigations of long-term intraventricular PPS administration are essential for the assessment of its effects.

  14. Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Hart, Patricia; Piccardo, Pedro; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M

    2012-05-01

    Until recently, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (classical BSE or BSE-C). However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. These atypical BSE isolates have been previously transmitted to a range of transgenic mouse models overexpressing PrP from different species at different levels, on a variety of genetic backgrounds. To control for genetic background and expression level in the analysis of these isolates, we performed here a comprehensive comparison of the neuropathological and molecular properties of all three BSE agents (BASE, BSE-C and BSE-H) upon transmission into the same gene-targeted transgenic mouse line expressing the bovine prion protein (Bov6) and a wild-type control of the same genetic background. Significantly, upon challenge with these BSE agents, we found that BASE did not produce shorter survival times in these mice compared with BSE-C, contrary to previous studies using overexpressing bovine transgenic mice. Amyloid plaques were only present in mice challenged with atypical BSE and neuropathological features, including intensity of PrP deposition in the brain and severity of vacuolar degeneration were less pronounced in BASE compared with BSE-C-challenged mice.

  15. Reflections on a half-century in the field of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The subject of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy may properly be said to have begun with the experimental transmission of scrapie by Cuillé and Chelle in 1936, although Creutzfeldt and Jakob had described the disease that bears their names in 1920-21. Thirty more years passed before the human disease was also shown to be transmissible, in 1966, and the following half century has seen the field move from classical biology to molecular biology and genetics, and from 'slow virus' to host-encoded 'prion' protein. Because nothing is more important to the research scientist than the process of seeing a problem and devising ways of solving it, and because we live and die by our publications, as much care should be given to these vehicles of our work and reputations as to the research itself. Four aspects have been chosen for comment: authorship, abbreviations, data presentation, and references. In addition to the 'science of research' there are several 'para-scientific' activities that may be categorized as 'the politics of research', which include administrative duties, committees (e.g., scientific meetings, grant organizations), journal/book editing, peer reviewing, and public relations Many young scientists are either unaware or dismissive of the importance of these 'scientific distractions', but their potential for influencing the direction of a field of research becomes increasingly evident as careers unfold. They are subject to uses and abuses, and some guidance and examples are given by way of illustration, particular attention being paid to the process of manuscript review which, because of its anonymity, is the most vulnerable to abuse. As public and government interest in prions wanes in parallel with the disappearance of iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the flow of money to sustain research is in evident jeopardy. With an uncertain future, it nevertheless seems possible that one of two things may breathe new life into the field: either

  16. Transmissibility of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Hamster PrP Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct forms of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE) can be distinguished from classical (C-) BSE found in cattle based on biochemical signatures of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). H-BSE is transmissible to wild-type mice—with infected mice showing a long survival period that is close to their normal lifespan—but not to hamsters. Therefore, rodent-adapted H-BSE with a short survival period would be useful for analyzing H-BSE characteristics. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility of H-BSE to hamster prion protein transgenic (TgHaNSE) mice with long survival periods. Although none of the TgHaNSE mice manifested the disease during their lifespan, PrPSc accumulation was observed in some areas of the brain after the first passage. With subsequent passages, TgHaNSE mice developed the disease with a mean survival period of 220 days. The molecular characteristics of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) in the brain were identical to those observed in first-passage mice. The distribution of immunolabeled PrPSc in the brains of TgHaNSE mice differed between those infected with H-BSE as compared to C-BSE or L-BSE, and the molecular properties of PrPres in TgHaNSE mice infected with H-BSE differed from those of the original isolate. The strain-specific electromobility, glycoform profiles, and proteolytic cleavage sites of H-BSE in TgHaNSE mice were indistinguishable from those of C-BSE, in which the diglycosylated form was predominant. These findings indicate that strain-specific pathogenic characteristics and molecular features of PrPres in the brain are altered during cross-species transmission. Typical H-BSE features were restored after back passage from TgHaNSE to bovinized transgenic mice, indicating that the H-BSE strain was propagated in TgHaNSE mice. This could result from the overexpression of the hamster prion protein. PMID:26466381

  17. Transmissibility of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Hamster PrP Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct forms of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE) can be distinguished from classical (C-) BSE found in cattle based on biochemical signatures of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). H-BSE is transmissible to wild-type mice-with infected mice showing a long survival period that is close to their normal lifespan-but not to hamsters. Therefore, rodent-adapted H-BSE with a short survival period would be useful for analyzing H-BSE characteristics. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility of H-BSE to hamster prion protein transgenic (TgHaNSE) mice with long survival periods. Although none of the TgHaNSE mice manifested the disease during their lifespan, PrPSc accumulation was observed in some areas of the brain after the first passage. With subsequent passages, TgHaNSE mice developed the disease with a mean survival period of 220 days. The molecular characteristics of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) in the brain were identical to those observed in first-passage mice. The distribution of immunolabeled PrPSc in the brains of TgHaNSE mice differed between those infected with H-BSE as compared to C-BSE or L-BSE, and the molecular properties of PrPres in TgHaNSE mice infected with H-BSE differed from those of the original isolate. The strain-specific electromobility, glycoform profiles, and proteolytic cleavage sites of H-BSE in TgHaNSE mice were indistinguishable from those of C-BSE, in which the diglycosylated form was predominant. These findings indicate that strain-specific pathogenic characteristics and molecular features of PrPres in the brain are altered during cross-species transmission. Typical H-BSE features were restored after back passage from TgHaNSE to bovinized transgenic mice, indicating that the H-BSE strain was propagated in TgHaNSE mice. This could result from the overexpression of the hamster prion protein. PMID:26466381

  18. Transmissibility of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Hamster PrP Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct forms of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE) can be distinguished from classical (C-) BSE found in cattle based on biochemical signatures of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). H-BSE is transmissible to wild-type mice-with infected mice showing a long survival period that is close to their normal lifespan-but not to hamsters. Therefore, rodent-adapted H-BSE with a short survival period would be useful for analyzing H-BSE characteristics. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility of H-BSE to hamster prion protein transgenic (TgHaNSE) mice with long survival periods. Although none of the TgHaNSE mice manifested the disease during their lifespan, PrPSc accumulation was observed in some areas of the brain after the first passage. With subsequent passages, TgHaNSE mice developed the disease with a mean survival period of 220 days. The molecular characteristics of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) in the brain were identical to those observed in first-passage mice. The distribution of immunolabeled PrPSc in the brains of TgHaNSE mice differed between those infected with H-BSE as compared to C-BSE or L-BSE, and the molecular properties of PrPres in TgHaNSE mice infected with H-BSE differed from those of the original isolate. The strain-specific electromobility, glycoform profiles, and proteolytic cleavage sites of H-BSE in TgHaNSE mice were indistinguishable from those of C-BSE, in which the diglycosylated form was predominant. These findings indicate that strain-specific pathogenic characteristics and molecular features of PrPres in the brain are altered during cross-species transmission. Typical H-BSE features were restored after back passage from TgHaNSE to bovinized transgenic mice, indicating that the H-BSE strain was propagated in TgHaNSE mice. This could result from the overexpression of the hamster prion protein.

  19. Unique properties of the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy strain and its emergence from H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy substantiated by VM transmission studies.

    PubMed

    Bencsik, Anna; Leboidre, Mikael; Debeer, Sabine; Aufauvre, Claire; Baron, Thierry

    2013-03-01

    In addition to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), which is recognized as being at the origin of the human variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 2 rare phenotypes of BSE (H-type BSE [H-BSE] and L-type BSE [L-BSE]) were identified in 2004. H-type BSE and L-BSE are considered to be sporadic forms of prion disease in cattle because they differ from C-BSE with respect to incubation period, vacuolar pathology in the brain, and biochemical properties of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP) in natural hosts and in some mouse models that have been tested. Recently, we showed that H-BSE transmitted to C57Bl/6 mice resulted in a dissociation of the phenotypic features, that is, some mice showed an H-BSE phenotype, whereas others had a C-BSE phenotype. Here, these 2 phenotypes were further studied in VM mice and compared with cattle C-BSE, H-BSE, and L-BSE. Serial passages from the C-BSE-like phenotype on VM mice retained similarities with C-BSE. Moreover, our results indicate that strains 301V and 301C derived from C-BSE transmitted to VM and C57Bl/6 mice, respectively, are fundamentally the same strain. These VM transmission studies confirm the unique properties of the C-BSE strain and support the emergence of a strain that resembles C-BSE from H-BSE.

  20. Characterization of an unusual transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in goat by transmission in knock-in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; King, Declan; Hunter, Nora; Goldmann, Wilfred; Barron, Rona M

    2013-08-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of cattle, and its transmission to humans through contaminated food is thought to be the cause of the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. BSE is believed to have spread from the recycling in cattle of ruminant tissue in meat and bone meal (MBM). However, during this time, sheep and goats were also exposed to BSE-contaminated MBM. Both sheep and goats are experimentally susceptible to BSE, and while there have been no reported natural BSE cases in sheep, two goat BSE field cases have been documented. While cases of BSE are rare in small ruminants, the existence of scrapie in both sheep and goats is well established. In the UK, during 2006-2007, a serious outbreak of clinical scrapie was detected in a large dairy goat herd. Subsequently, 200 goats were selected for post-mortem examination, one of which showed biochemical and immunohistochemical features of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)) which differed from all other infected goats. In the present study, we investigated this unusual case by performing transmission bioassays into a panel of mouse lines. Following characterization, we found that strain properties such as the ability to transmit to different mouse lines, lesion profile pattern, degree of PrP deposition in the brain and biochemical features of this unusual goat case were neither consistent with goat BSE nor with a goat scrapie herdmate control. However, our results suggest that this unusual case has BSE-like properties and highlights the need for continued surveillance.

  1. Experimental transmission of an autosomal dominant spongiform encephalopathy: does the infectious agent originate in the human genome?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, H F; Ridley, R M; Crow, T J

    1985-01-01

    Marmosets inoculated intracerebrally with brain tissue from a woman with Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome (an autosomal dominant dementia associated with spongiform change and amyloid deposition) developed an encephalopathy indistinguishable from that seen in marmosets inoculated with brain tissue from a typical case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. As in Huntington's disease, in the pedigree of the patient with Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome women who subsequently developed the illness had increased fecundity. The pathogen in human transmissible dementia may arise from a sequence (which itself sometimes confers a selective advantage) located within the human genome. PMID:3926166

  2. An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Gizzi, G; van Raamsdonk, L W D; Baeten, V; Murray, I; Berben, G; Brambilla, G; von Holst, C

    2003-04-01

    Enforcing the ban on meat-and-bone meal in feed for farmed animals, and especially ruminants, is considered an important measure to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The authors describe current analytical methods for the detection and identification of animal tissues in feed. In addition, recently approved requirements, such as the ban of intra-species recycling (practice of feeding an animal species with proteins derived from the bodies, or parts of bodies, of the same species) are described. In principle, four different approaches are currently applied, i.e. microscopic analysis, polymerase chain reaction, immunoassay analysis and near infrared spectroscopy or microscopy. The principal performance characteristics of these methods are presented and compared, and their specific advantages and disadvantages described. Special emphasis is also placed on the impact of rendering conditions, particularly high temperatures and on the use of molecular biology techniques.

  3. Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains an...

  4. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  5. Elimination of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy infectivity and decontamination of surgical instruments by using radio-frequency gas-plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Baxter, H C; Campbell, G A; Whittaker, A G; Jones, A C; Aitken, A; Simpson, A H; Casey, M; Bountiff, L; Gibbard, L; Baxter, R L

    2005-08-01

    It has now been established that transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infectivity, which is highly resistant to conventional methods of deactivation, can be transmitted iatrogenically by contaminated stainless steel. It is important that new methods are evaluated for effective removal of protein residues from surgical instruments. Here, radio-frequency (RF) gas-plasma treatment was investigated as a method of removing both the protein debris and TSE infectivity. Stainless-steel spheres contaminated with the 263K strain of scrapie and a variety of used surgical instruments, which had been cleaned by a hospital sterile-services department, were examined both before and after treatment by RF gas plasma, using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. Transmission of scrapie from the contaminated spheres was examined in hamsters by the peripheral route of infection. RF gas-plasma treatment effectively removed residual organic residues on reprocessed surgical instruments and gross contamination both from orthopaedic blades and from the experimentally contaminated spheres. In vivo testing showed that RF gas-plasma treatment of scrapie-infected spheres eliminated transmission of infectivity. The infectivity of the TSE agent adsorbed on metal spheres could be removed effectively by gas-plasma cleaning with argon/oxygen mixtures. This treatment can effectively remove 'stubborn' residual contamination on surgical instruments.

  6. Acquired transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion to wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-07-13

    L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE that is transmissible to cattle and several lines of prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, but not to wild-type mice. In this study, we examined the transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-BSE prions to wild-type mice. Disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was detected in the brain and/or lymphoid tissues during the lifespan of mice that were asymptomatic subclinical carriers, indicating that wild-type mice were susceptible to sheep-passaged L-BSE. The morphological characteristics of the PrP(Sc) of sheep-passaged L-BSE included florid plaques that were distributed mainly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of subsequent passaged mice. The PrP(Sc) glycoform profiles of wild-type mice infected with sheep-passaged L-BSE were similar to those of the original isolate. The data indicate that sheep-passaged L-BSE has an altered host range and acquired transmissibility to wild-type mice.

  7. Acquired transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion to wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE that is transmissible to cattle and several lines of prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, but not to wild-type mice. In this study, we examined the transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-BSE prions to wild-type mice. Disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was detected in the brain and/or lymphoid tissues during the lifespan of mice that were asymptomatic subclinical carriers, indicating that wild-type mice were susceptible to sheep-passaged L-BSE. The morphological characteristics of the PrP(Sc) of sheep-passaged L-BSE included florid plaques that were distributed mainly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of subsequent passaged mice. The PrP(Sc) glycoform profiles of wild-type mice infected with sheep-passaged L-BSE were similar to those of the original isolate. The data indicate that sheep-passaged L-BSE has an altered host range and acquired transmissibility to wild-type mice. PMID:26169916

  8. Elimination of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy infectivity and decontamination of surgical instruments by using radio-frequency gas-plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Baxter, H C; Campbell, G A; Whittaker, A G; Jones, A C; Aitken, A; Simpson, A H; Casey, M; Bountiff, L; Gibbard, L; Baxter, R L

    2005-08-01

    It has now been established that transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infectivity, which is highly resistant to conventional methods of deactivation, can be transmitted iatrogenically by contaminated stainless steel. It is important that new methods are evaluated for effective removal of protein residues from surgical instruments. Here, radio-frequency (RF) gas-plasma treatment was investigated as a method of removing both the protein debris and TSE infectivity. Stainless-steel spheres contaminated with the 263K strain of scrapie and a variety of used surgical instruments, which had been cleaned by a hospital sterile-services department, were examined both before and after treatment by RF gas plasma, using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. Transmission of scrapie from the contaminated spheres was examined in hamsters by the peripheral route of infection. RF gas-plasma treatment effectively removed residual organic residues on reprocessed surgical instruments and gross contamination both from orthopaedic blades and from the experimentally contaminated spheres. In vivo testing showed that RF gas-plasma treatment of scrapie-infected spheres eliminated transmission of infectivity. The infectivity of the TSE agent adsorbed on metal spheres could be removed effectively by gas-plasma cleaning with argon/oxygen mixtures. This treatment can effectively remove 'stubborn' residual contamination on surgical instruments. PMID:16033987

  9. Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Plinston, Chris; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Suardi, Silvia; Ruggerone, Margherita; Moda, Fabio; Graziano, Silvia; Sbriccoli, Marco; Cardone, Franco; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Ingrosso, Loredana; Baron, Thierry; Richt, Juergen; Andreoletti, Olivier; Simmons, Marion; Lockey, Richard; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2012-07-01

    The association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health and raises the possibility that other ruminant TSEs may be transmissible to humans. In recent years, several novel TSEs in sheep, cattle and deer have been described and the risk posed to humans by these agents is currently unknown. In this study, we inoculated two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and H-type BSE), a chronic wasting disease (CWD) isolate and seven isolates of atypical scrapie into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP). Upon challenge with these ruminant TSEs, gene-targeted Tg mice expressing human PrP did not show any signs of disease pathology. These data strongly suggest the presence of a substantial transmission barrier between these recently identified ruminant TSEs and humans.

  10. Human and animal spongiform encephalopathies are the result of chronic autoimmune attack in the CNS: a novel medical theory supported by overwhelming experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B T

    2005-04-01

    Spongiform encephalopathies, also called "prion diseases", are fatal degenerative diseases of the central nervous system which can occur in animals (such as the "mad cow disease" in cattle) and also in humans. This paper presents a novel medical theory concerning the pathogenic mechanisms for various human and animal spongiform encephalopathies. It is hypothesized that various forms of prion diseases are essentially autoimmune diseases, resulting from chronic autoimmune attack of the central nervous system. A key step in the pathogenic process leading towards the development of spongiform encephalopathies involves the production of specific autoimmune antibodies against the disease-causing prion protein (PrPsc) and possibly other immunogenic macromolecules present in the brain. As precisely explained in this paper, the autoimmune antibodies produced against PrPsc are responsible for the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPc) to PrPsc, for the accumulation of PrPsc in the brain and other peripheral tissues, and also for the initiation of an antibody-mediated chronic autoimmune attack of the central nervous system neurons, which would contribute to the development of characteristic pathological changes and clinical symptoms associated with spongiform encephalopathies. The validity and correctness of the proposed theory is supported by an overwhelming body of experimental observations that are scattered in the biomedical literature. In addition, the theory also offers practical new strategies for early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of various human and animal prion diseases. PMID:15736062

  11. Abnormalities in Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in Sheep with Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies and Lack of a Clear Pathological Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Konold, Timm; Phelan, Laura J.; Cawthraw, Saira; Simmons, Marion M.; Chaplin, Melanie J.; González, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie is transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), which causes neurological signs in sheep, but confirmatory diagnosis is usually made postmortem on examination of the brain for TSE-associated markers like vacuolar changes and disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether testing of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) at two different sound levels could aid in the clinical diagnosis of TSEs in sheep naturally or experimentally infected with different TSE strains [classical and atypical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)] and whether any BAEP abnormalities were associated with TSE-associated markers in the auditory pathways. BAEPs were recorded from 141 clinically healthy sheep of different breeds and ages that tested negative for TSEs on postmortem tests to establish a reference range and to allow comparison with 30 sheep clinically affected or exposed to classical scrapie (CS) without disease confirmation (test group 1) and 182 clinically affected sheep with disease confirmation (test group 2). Abnormal BAEPs were found in 7 sheep (23%) of group 1 and 42 sheep (23%) of group 2. The proportion of sheep with abnormalities did not appear to be influenced by TSE strain or PrPSc gene polymorphisms. When the magnitude of TSE-associated markers in the auditory pathways was compared between a subset of 12 sheep with and 12 sheep without BAEP abnormalities in group 2, no significant differences in the total PrPSc or vacuolation scores in the auditory pathways could be found. However, the data suggested that there was a difference in the PrPSc scores depending on the TSE strain because PrPSc scores were significantly higher in sheep with BAEP abnormalities infected with classical and L-type BSE, but not with CS. The results indicated that BAEPs may be abnormal in sheep infected with TSEs but the test is not specific for TSEs and that neither vacuolation nor PrPSc accumulation appears to be

  12. Abnormalities in Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in Sheep with Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies and Lack of a Clear Pathological Relationship.

    PubMed

    Konold, Timm; Phelan, Laura J; Cawthraw, Saira; Simmons, Marion M; Chaplin, Melanie J; González, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie is transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), which causes neurological signs in sheep, but confirmatory diagnosis is usually made postmortem on examination of the brain for TSE-associated markers like vacuolar changes and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether testing of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) at two different sound levels could aid in the clinical diagnosis of TSEs in sheep naturally or experimentally infected with different TSE strains [classical and atypical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)] and whether any BAEP abnormalities were associated with TSE-associated markers in the auditory pathways. BAEPs were recorded from 141 clinically healthy sheep of different breeds and ages that tested negative for TSEs on postmortem tests to establish a reference range and to allow comparison with 30 sheep clinically affected or exposed to classical scrapie (CS) without disease confirmation (test group 1) and 182 clinically affected sheep with disease confirmation (test group 2). Abnormal BAEPs were found in 7 sheep (23%) of group 1 and 42 sheep (23%) of group 2. The proportion of sheep with abnormalities did not appear to be influenced by TSE strain or PrP(Sc) gene polymorphisms. When the magnitude of TSE-associated markers in the auditory pathways was compared between a subset of 12 sheep with and 12 sheep without BAEP abnormalities in group 2, no significant differences in the total PrP(Sc) or vacuolation scores in the auditory pathways could be found. However, the data suggested that there was a difference in the PrP(Sc) scores depending on the TSE strain because PrP(Sc) scores were significantly higher in sheep with BAEP abnormalities infected with classical and L-type BSE, but not with CS. The results indicated that BAEPs may be abnormal in sheep infected with TSEs but the test is not specific for TSEs and that neither vacuolation nor PrP(Sc) accumulation

  13. Animal Meal: Production and Determination in Feedstuffs and the Origin of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Heinz

    This contribution examines what animal meal is, how it is produced in rendering plants, and means of investigating feedstuff constituents. In addition to animal meal, numerous other products of animal origin are also on the market (e.g., blood meal, bone meal, feather meal, gelatin). Constituents of animal origin can be detected in feedstuffs by microscopy, but determining the animal species from which the constituents are derived, as required by law in Germany, requires methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction. We consider the problem of trace contamination being introduced accidentally during the production of ruminants' feedstuffs containing constituents of animal origin. The future of animal meal is discussed together with alternatives for disposing of animal carcasses and slaughtery offal, i.e., composting and incineration.

  14. 75 FR 55803 - Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) agent in U.S.-licensed plasma-derived Factor VIII and (2) labeling of blood and blood components and plasma-derived products, including plasma-derived albumin and products containing plasma-derived albumin, to address the possible risk of transmission of vCJD....

  15. Prion biology relevant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Novakofski, J; Brewer, M S; Mateus-Pinilla, N; Killefer, J; McCusker, R H

    2005-06-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk are a threat to agriculture and natural resources, as well as a human health concern. Both diseases are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), or prion diseases, caused by autocatalytic conversion of endogenously encoded prion protein (PrP) to an abnormal, neurotoxic conformation designated PrPsc. Most mammalian species are susceptible to TSE, which, despite a range of species-linked names, is caused by a single highly conserved protein, with no apparent normal function. In the simplest sense, TSE transmission can occur because PrPsc is resistant to both endogenous and environmental proteinases, although many details remain unclear. Questions about the transmission of TSE are central to practical issues such as livestock testing, access to international livestock markets, and wildlife management strategies, as well as intangible issues such as consumer confidence in the safety of the meat supply. The majority of BSE cases seem to have been transmitted by feed containing meat and bone meal from infected animals. In the United Kingdom, there was a dramatic decrease in BSE cases after neural tissue and, later, all ruminant tissues were banned from ruminant feed. However, probably because of heightened awareness and widespread testing, there is growing evidence that new variants of BSE are arising "spontaneously," suggesting ongoing surveillance will continue to find infected animals. Interspecies transmission is inefficient and depends on exposure, sequence homology, TSE donor strain, genetic polymorphism of the host, and architecture of the visceral nerves if exposure is by an oral route. Considering the low probability of interspecies transmission, the low efficiency of oral transmission, and the low prion levels in nonnervous tissues, consumption of conventional animal products represents minimal risk. However, detection of rare events is challenging, and TSE

  16. Kangaroo rats exhibit spongiform degeneration of the central auditory system similar to that found in gerbils.

    PubMed

    McGinn, M D; Faddis, B T

    1997-02-01

    Kangaroo rats develop spongiform degeneration of the central auditory system similar to that seen in the gerbil. Light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic study of the cochlear nucleus and auditory nerve root (ANR) of Dipodomys deserti and D. merriami show that spongiform lesions develop in dendrites and oligodendrocytes of the cochlear nucleus and in oligodendrocytes of the ANR that are morphologically indistinguishable from those extensively described in the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus. As in Mongolian gerbils, the spongiform degeneration in Dipodomys were much more numerous in animals continually exposed to modest levels of low-frequency noise (< 75 dB SPL). The kangaroo rats with extensive spongiform degeneration also show slightly, but significantly, elevated auditory brainstem evoked response (ABR) thresholds to low-frequency stimuli, a result also found in Mongolian gerbils. These results suggest that the elevated ABR thresholds may be the result of spongiform degeneration. Because low-frequency noise-induced spongiform degeneration has now been shown in the cochlear nucleus of animals from separate families of Rodentia (Heteromyidae and Muridae), the possibility should be investigated that similar noise-induced degenerative changes occur in the central auditory system of other mammals with good low-frequency hearing.

  17. Susceptibility of European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to alimentary challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Steele, Philip; Finlayson, Jeanie; Eaton, Samantha L; Sisó, Sílvia; Stewart, Paula; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Hamilton, Scott; Pang, Yvonne; Chianini, Francesca; Reid, Hugh W; Goldmann, Wilfred; González, Lorenzo; Castilla, Joaquín; Jeffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) are susceptible to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, when challenged intracerebrally but their susceptibility to alimentary challenge, the presumed natural route of transmission, is unknown. To determine this, eighteen deer were challenged via stomach tube with a large dose of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent and clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, presence and distribution of abnormal prion protein and the attack rate recorded. Only a single animal developed clinical disease, and this was acute with both neurological and respiratory signs, at 1726 days post challenge although there was significant (27.6%) weight loss in the preceding 141 days. The clinically affected animal had histological lesions of vacuolation in the neuronal perikaryon and neuropil, typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Abnormal prion protein, the diagnostic marker of transmissible encephalopathies, was primarily restricted to the central and peripheral nervous systems although a very small amount was present in tingible body macrophages in the lymphoid patches of the caecum and colon. Serial protein misfolding cyclical amplification, an in vitro ultra-sensitive diagnostic technique, was positive for neurological tissue from the single clinically diseased deer. All other alimentary challenged deer failed to develop clinical disease and were negative for all other investigations. These findings show that transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer via the alimentary route is possible but the transmission rate is low. Additionally, when deer carcases are subjected to the same regulations that ruminants in Europe with respect to the removal of specified offal from the human food chain, the zoonotic risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, from consumption of venison is probably

  18. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: what is "Atypical BSE" and can we detect it?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents induce fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and in some other mammalian species. Human TSEs include Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, Kuru and Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI). In animals, several d...

  19. Food Safety: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease).

    PubMed

    Acheson, David W. K.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is just one of a group of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Only recently has it become recognized that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are likely due to proteins known as prions. Although it has been recognized that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies may readily spread within species, the recent observations that bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle may have originated from another transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in sheep, known as scrapie, is cause for concern. Further, bovine spongiform encephalopathy has now been strongly linked with a universally fatal human neurologic disease known as new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Currently the only approach to preventing bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and subsequent new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, from ingestion of bovine spongiform encephalopathy-infected material is to avoid consumption of contaminated food. Little can be done to treat food that will destroy prions and leave a palatable product. At this stage we are continuing to learn about transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and their implications on human health. This is an ever-changing situation and has an unpredictable element in terms of the extent of the current outbreaks in England and other parts of Europe. PMID:11984426

  20. An overview of animal prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Mahmood, Saqib

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of cervids and spongiform encephalopathy of primates. Although some cases of sporadic atypical scrapie and BSE have also been reported, animal prion diseases have basically occurred via the acquisition of infection from contaminated feed or via the exposure to contaminated environment. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are naturally sustaining epidemics. The transmission of BSE to human has caused more than 200 cases of variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease and has raised serious public health concerns. The present review discusses the epidemiology, clinical neuropathology, transmissibility and genetics of animal prion diseases. PMID:22044871

  1. Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Jennelle, Christopher S; Samuel, Michael D; Nolden, Cherrie A; Keane, Delwyn P; Barr, Daniel J; Johnson, Chad; Vanderloo, Joshua P; Aiken, Judd M; Hamir, Amir N; Hoover, Edward A

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

  2. Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Johnson, Chad; Vanderloo, J.P.; Aiken, Judd M.; Hamir, A.N.; Hoover, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

  3. High-resolution differentiation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy strains by quantitative N-terminal amino acid profiling (N-TAAP) of PK-digested abnormal prion protein.

    PubMed

    Gielbert, Adriana; Davis, Linda A; Sayers, A Robin; Hope, James; Gill, Andrew C; Sauer, Maurice J

    2009-03-01

    New forms of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) continue to be identified, and consequently sensitive differential diagnosis is increasingly important both for the management of disease in humans and livestock and in providing confidence in the safety of the food chain. TSE diseases are associated with accumulation of protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(Sc)) and detection of this marker protein is central to diagnosis. Proteolysis by proteinase K (PK) generates protease-resistant products (PrP(res)) with partially variable N-termini. The conformation(s) of PrP(Sc) and thus the points of PK cleavage are thought to be dependent on the strain of prion disease. Western blot (WB) analysis of PrP(res) gives characteristic migration patterns that can be used to diagnose TSEs, but the relatively low resolution of this technique limits its ability to differentiate certain disease strains. Mass spectrometry (MS) has the capability to resolve these various PK cleavage sites to the level of individual amino acid residues. In the present study multiple selected reaction monitoring (mSRM) was used to detect and quantify PrP(res) N-terminal tryptic peptides by MS and thus to define the N-terminal amino acid profiles (N-TAAPs) of PrP(res) characteristic for various TSEs in sheep. The fragmentation behaviour of the N-terminal tryptic peptides was studied to allow selection of the transitions specific for each peptide. Different PrP(res) preparation methods were evaluated and the most effective approach applied to differentiate the N-TAAPs corresponding to various sheep TSE isolates. Marked differences were identified between the N-TAAPs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and classical scrapie, and between classical scrapie and the experimental strains SSBP/1 and CH1641, thereby validating this approach as a means of TSE-strain specific diagnosis.

  4. The risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ('mad cow disease') to human health.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1997-09-24

    Some human cases of the transmissible neurodegenerative disorder Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease recently seen in Great Britain are thought to have resulted from eating beef infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Reasons for and against this presumption are explained, and the question of a similar situation occurring in countries other than Britain-in particular, the United States-is discussed in terms of the existence of scrapie (in sheep) or unrecognized bovine spongiform encephalopathy (in cattle), the practice of recycling nonedible sheep and cattle tissue for animal nutrition, and precautionary measures already taken or under consideration by government agencies

  5. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: "mad cow disease".

    PubMed

    1996-07-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as "mad cow disease," is a fatal brain disease of cattle first recognized in the United Kingdom. In humans, the most common transmissible spongiform encephalopathy is Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD). Although no cases of CJD have been directly linked to beef consumption, an advisory committee has reported that 10 recent cases of a CJD variant may be associated with BSE. This announcement has alarmed consumers well beyond the borders of the United Kingdom.

  6. In-situ spectroscopic investigation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: application of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to a scrapie-hamster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneipp, Janina; Lasch, Peter; Beekes, Michael; Naumann, Dieter

    2002-03-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), such as BSE in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in man are a group of fatal infectious diseases of the central nervous system that are far from being fully understood. Presuming the pathological changes to originate from small disease-specific compositional and structural modifications at the molecular level, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used to achieve insight into biochemical parameters underlying pathogenesis. We have developed an FTIR microspectroscopy-based strategy which, as a combination of image reconstruction and multivariate pattern recognition methods, permitted the comparison of identical substructures in the cerebellum of healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamsters in the terminal stage of the disease. Here we present FTIR data about the pathological changes of scrapie-infected and normal tissue of the gray matter structures stratum granulosum and stratum moleculare. IR spectroscopy was also applied to tissue pieces of the medulla oblongata of infected and control Syrian hamsters. Mapping data were analyzed with cluster analysis and imaging methods. We found variations in the spectra of the infected tissue, which are due to changes in carbohydrates, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and proteins.

  7. Typical and atypical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle, first detected in 1986 in the United Kingdom and subsequently in other countries. It is the most likely cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, but the origin of BSE has not been eluci...

  8. Dissociation between transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infectivity and proteinase K-resistant PrP(Sc) levels in peripheral tissue from a murine transgenic model of TSE disease.

    PubMed

    Dobie, Karen; Barron, Rona

    2013-05-01

    Most current diagnostic tests for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) rely on the presence of proteinase K (PK)-resistant PrP(Sc) (PrP-res) in postmortem tissues as an indication of TSE disease. However, a number of studies have highlighted a discrepancy between TSE infectivity and PrP-res levels in both natural and experimental cases of TSE disease. Previously, we have shown high TSE infectivity levels in the brain tissue of mice that have a clinical TSE disease with associated vacuolar pathology but little or no detectable PrP-res. Here, the levels of TSE infectivity and PrP-res within a peripheral tissue of this mouse model were investigated. Biochemical analysis showed that low levels of PrP-res were present in the spleen tissue in comparison to the levels observed in the spleen of mice infected with ME7 or 79A. However, upon subpassage of brain and spleen tissue from clinically ill mice with little or no PrP-res detectable, similar short incubation periods to disease were observed, indicating that infectivity levels were similarly high in both tissues. Thus, the discrepancy between PrP-res and TSE infectivity was also present in the peripheral tissues of this disease model. This result indicates that peripheral tissues can contain higher levels of infectivity given the correct combination of host species, PrP genotype, and TSE agent. Therefore, the assumption that the levels of peripheral infectivity are lower than those in the central nervous system is not always correct, and this could have implications for current food safety regulations.

  9. Glycosylation of PrPC determines timing of neuroinvasion and targeting in the brain following transmissible spongiform encephalopathy infection by a peripheral route.

    PubMed

    Cancellotti, Enrico; Bradford, Barry M; Tuzi, Nadia L; Hickey, Raymond D; Brown, Debbie; Brown, Karen L; Barron, Rona M; Kisielewski, Dorothy; Piccardo, Pedro; Manson, Jean C

    2010-04-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infectivity naturally spreads from site of entry in the periphery to the central nervous system where pathological lesions are formed. Several routes and cells within the host have been identified as important for facilitating the infectious process. Expression of the glycoprotein cellular PrP (PrP(C)) is considered a key factor for replication of infectivity in the central nervous system (CNS) and its transport to the brain, and it has been suggested that the infectious agent propagates from cell to cell via a domino-like effect. However, precisely how this is achieved and what involvement the different glycoforms of PrP have in these processes remain to be determined. To address this issue, we have used our unique models of gene-targeted transgenic mice expressing different glycosylated forms of PrP. Two TSE strains were inoculated intraperitoneally into these mice to assess the contribution of diglycosylated, monoglycosylated, and unglycosylated PrP in spreading of infectivity to the brain. This study demonstrates that glycosylation of host PrP has a profound effect in determining the outcome of disease. Lack of diglycosylated PrP slowed or prevented disease onset after peripheral challenge, suggesting an important role for fully glycosylated PrP in either the replication of the infectious agent in the periphery or its transport to the CNS. Moreover, mice expressing unglycosylated PrP did not develop clinical disease, and mice expressing monoglycosylated PrP showed strikingly different neuropathologic features compared to those expressing diglycosylated PrP. This demonstrates that targeting in the brain following peripheral inoculation is profoundly influenced by the glycosylation status of host PrP.

  10. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  11. Removal of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion from large volumes of cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum by using hollow fiber anion-exchange membrane chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ming Li; Bailey, Andy; Avory, Tiffany; Tanimoto, Junji; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people who had consumed contaminated meat products from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy emphasize the need for measures aimed at preventing the transmission of the pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc) from materials derived from cattle. Highly stringent scrutiny is required for fetal bovine serum (FBS), a growth-medium supplement used in the production of parenteral vaccines and therapeutic recombinant proteins and in the ex vivo expansion of stem cells for transplantation. One such approach is the implementation of manufacturing steps dedicated to removing PrPSc from materials containing FBS. We evaluated the use of the QyuSpeed D (QSD) adsorbent hollow-fiber anion-exchange chromatographic column (Asahi Kasei Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for the removal of PrPSc from cell culture media supplemented with FBS. We first established that QSD filtration had no adverse effect on the chemical composition of various types of culture media supplemented with 10% FBS or the growth and viability characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1) cells propagated in the various culture-medium filtrates. We used a 0.6-mL QSD column for removing PrPSc from up to 1000 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FBS previously spiked with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie. The Western blot analysis, validated alongside an infectivity assay, revealed that the level of PrPSc in the initial 200mL flow-through was reduced by 2.5 to > 3 log10, compared with that of the starting material. These results indicate that QSD filtration removes PrPSc from cell culture media containing 10% FBS, and demonstrate the ease with which QSD filtration can be implemented in at industrial-scale to improve the safety of vaccines, therapeutic recombinant proteins, and ex vivo expanded stem cells produced using growth

  12. Removal of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy prion from large volumes of cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum by using hollow fiber anion-exchange membrane chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ming Li; Bailey, Andy; Avory, Tiffany; Tanimoto, Junji; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people who had consumed contaminated meat products from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy emphasize the need for measures aimed at preventing the transmission of the pathogenic prion protein (PrPSc) from materials derived from cattle. Highly stringent scrutiny is required for fetal bovine serum (FBS), a growth-medium supplement used in the production of parenteral vaccines and therapeutic recombinant proteins and in the ex vivo expansion of stem cells for transplantation. One such approach is the implementation of manufacturing steps dedicated to removing PrPSc from materials containing FBS. We evaluated the use of the QyuSpeed D (QSD) adsorbent hollow-fiber anion-exchange chromatographic column (Asahi Kasei Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for the removal of PrPSc from cell culture media supplemented with FBS. We first established that QSD filtration had no adverse effect on the chemical composition of various types of culture media supplemented with 10% FBS or the growth and viability characteristics of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1) cells propagated in the various culture-medium filtrates. We used a 0.6-mL QSD column for removing PrPSc from up to 1000 mL of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FBS previously spiked with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie. The Western blot analysis, validated alongside an infectivity assay, revealed that the level of PrPSc in the initial 200mL flow-through was reduced by 2.5 to > 3 log10, compared with that of the starting material. These results indicate that QSD filtration removes PrPSc from cell culture media containing 10% FBS, and demonstrate the ease with which QSD filtration can be implemented in at industrial-scale to improve the safety of vaccines, therapeutic recombinant proteins, and ex vivo expanded stem cells produced using growth

  13. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Prion Diseases)

    MedlinePlus

    ... when brain tissue is viewed under a microscope. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most well-known of the ... and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Foundation Inc. 341 W. 38th Street, Suite ...

  14. Guest Editorial: Managing Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Risk in the United States.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Rick

    2002-01-01

    The United States has built a triple firewall system to prevent the introduction or emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The firewalls are preventing bovine spongiform encephalopathy's introduction through bans on imports of animals and animal products, actively looking for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the US cattle herd, and banning ruminant animal feed supplements found to carry the infectious agent and spread the disease in England. PMID:11984425

  15. [Bovine spongiform encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, G

    2001-01-01

    An histórical and conceptual review is made about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or mad cows disease and an epidemiological analysis as a present and future health problem. This analysis of BSE should not be negative, considering the truths that we know today. PMID:11783042

  16. ANIMAL RESERVOIRS, VECTORS, AND TRANSMISSION OF MICROSPORIDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourteen species of microsporidia have been identified as opportunistic or emerging pathogens of humans. Several genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most frequently diagnosed species in humans, have been identified in Europe in farm and companion animals including pigs, cat...

  17. Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of feline spongiform encephalopathy in a German captive cheetah.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Martin; Hoffmann, Christine; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Müller, Matthias; Baumgartner, Katrin; Groschup, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects domestic cats (Felis catus) and captive wild members of the family Felidae. In this report we describe a case of FSE in a captive cheetah from the zoological garden of Nuremberg. The biochemical examination revealed a BSE-like pattern. Disease-associated scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in the lymphoreticular system and in other tissues of the affected animal, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and/or immunoblotting. Moreover, we report for the first time the use of the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique for highly sensitive detection of PrP(Sc) in the family Felidae. The widespread PrP(Sc) deposition suggests a simultaneous lymphatic and neural spread of the FSE agent. The detection of PrP(Sc) in the spleen indicates a potential for prion infectivity of cheetah blood.

  18. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: a tipping point in One Health and Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Hope, James

    2013-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a protein misfolding disease of cattle which belongs to the group of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases. This group also includes scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) humans. The first case of BSE was recognised in England in 1986 as a progressive, neurological condition where affected animals behaved abnormally, exhibited anxiety, ataxia, hypersensitivity to touch and noise and poor body condition. Spongiform change was observed in the brain stem of cattle at post-mortem and its similarity to scrapie in sheep stimulated biochemical investigation and transmission studies which confirmed it as a novel prion disease of cattle. Epidemiological analysis of the initial cases of disease implicated a common extended source of infection, likely to be related to feed, and stimulated a series of control measures designed to restrict feeding of mammalian-derived protein to ruminants in various parts of the United Kingdom and to prevent the use of various bovine offals in feed or food production. This article outlines the rise and fall of the incidence of BSE in the UK and Europe, its classification as a zoonotic disease with the emergence of variant CJD, the implications of it as a prion disease and challenge its diagnosis and control continues to represent worldwide.

  19. Expression transmission using exaggerated animation for Elfoid.

    PubMed

    Hori, Maiya; Tsuruda, Yu; Yoshimura, Hiroki; Iwai, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We propose an expression transmission system using a cellular-phone-type teleoperated robot called Elfoid. Elfoid has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human skin, and is designed to transmit the speaker's presence to their communication partner using a camera and microphone. To transmit the speaker's presence, Elfoid sends not only the voice of the speaker but also the facial expression captured by the camera. In this research, facial expressions are recognized using a machine learning technique. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator motors. To overcome this problem, facial expressions are displayed using Elfoid's head-mounted mobile projector. In an experiment, we built a prototype system and experimentally evaluated it's subjective usability.

  20. Expression transmission using exaggerated animation for Elfoid.

    PubMed

    Hori, Maiya; Tsuruda, Yu; Yoshimura, Hiroki; Iwai, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We propose an expression transmission system using a cellular-phone-type teleoperated robot called Elfoid. Elfoid has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human skin, and is designed to transmit the speaker's presence to their communication partner using a camera and microphone. To transmit the speaker's presence, Elfoid sends not only the voice of the speaker but also the facial expression captured by the camera. In this research, facial expressions are recognized using a machine learning technique. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator motors. To overcome this problem, facial expressions are displayed using Elfoid's head-mounted mobile projector. In an experiment, we built a prototype system and experimentally evaluated it's subjective usability. PMID:26347686

  1. Expression transmission using exaggerated animation for Elfoid

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Maiya; Tsuruda, Yu; Yoshimura, Hiroki; Iwai, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We propose an expression transmission system using a cellular-phone-type teleoperated robot called Elfoid. Elfoid has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human skin, and is designed to transmit the speaker's presence to their communication partner using a camera and microphone. To transmit the speaker's presence, Elfoid sends not only the voice of the speaker but also the facial expression captured by the camera. In this research, facial expressions are recognized using a machine learning technique. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator motors. To overcome this problem, facial expressions are displayed using Elfoid's head-mounted mobile projector. In an experiment, we built a prototype system and experimentally evaluated it's subjective usability. PMID:26347686

  2. Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission

    PubMed Central

    Park, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

  3. Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission.

    PubMed

    Park, Andrew W

    2012-07-01

    Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease.

  4. Predominant involvement of the cerebellum in guinea pigs infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

    PubMed

    Furuoka, H; Horiuchi, M; Yamakawa, Y; Sata, T

    2011-05-01

    This study reports the experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to guinea pigs and describes the cerebellar lesions in these animals. Guinea pigs were inoculated intracerebrally with 10% brain homogenates from BSE-affected cattle. These animals were designated as the first passage. Second and third passages were subsequently performed. All guinea pigs developed infection at each passage. The mean incubation period of the first passage was 370 days post-infection (dpi) and this decreased to 307 dpi and 309 dpi for the second and third passages, respectively. Mild to severe spongiform degeneration and gliosis were observed in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. In addition, the affected animals had marked pathological changes in the cerebellum characterized by severe cortical atrophy associated with Bergmann radial gliosis of the molecular layer and reduction in the width of the granular cell layer. Immunohistochemically, intense PrP(Sc) deposition and scattered plaque-like deposits were observed in the molecular and granular cell layers. Cerebellar lesions associated with severe atrophy of the cortex have not been reported in animal prion diseases, including in the experimental transmission of PrP(Sc) to small rodents. These lesions were similar to the lesions of human kuru or the VV2 variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, although typical kuru plaques or florid plaques were not observed in the affected animals.

  5. Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Classification, Animal Reservoirs and Transmission Routes

    PubMed Central

    Doceul, Virginie; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; Demange, Antonin; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    During the past ten years, several new hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) have been identified in various animal species. In parallel, the number of reports of autochthonous hepatitis E in Western countries has increased as well, raising the question of what role these possible animal reservoirs play in human infections. The aim of this review is to present the recent discoveries of animal HEVs and their classification within the Hepeviridae family, their zoonotic and species barrier crossing potential, and possible use as models to study hepatitis E pathogenesis. Lastly, this review describes the transmission pathways identified from animal sources. PMID:27706110

  6. High-dose exposure to systemic phosmet insecticide modifies the phosphatidylinositol anchor on the prion protein: the origins of new variant transmissible spongiform encephalopathies?

    PubMed

    Purdey, M

    1998-02-01

    Compulsory exposure of the UK bovine to exclusively high biannual doses of a 'systemic' pour-on formulation of an organo-phthalimido-phosphorus warblecide, phosmet, during the 1980s (combined with exposure to the lipid-bound residues of 'bioconcentrated' phosmet recycled back via the intensive feeding of meat and bone meal), initiated the 'new strain' modification of the CNS prion protein (PrP) causing the UK's bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic. A lipophilic solution of phosmet was poured along the bovine's spinal column, whence it penetrated and concentrated in phospholipids of the CNS membranes, covalently modifying endogenous phosphorylation sites on phosphatidylinositols (PIs) etc., forming a 'toxic membrane bank' of abnormally modified lipids that 'infect' any membrane proteins (such as PrP) that are programmed to conjugate onto them for anchorage to the membrane. Thus, phosmet invokes a primary covalent modification on PrP's PI anchor which, in turn, invokes an overall diverse disturbance upon CNS phosphoinositide second messenger feed back cycle, calcium homeostasis and essential free radicals; thus initiating a self-perpetuating cascade of abnormally phosphorylated PI-PrP that invokes a secondary electrostatic and allosteric disturbance on the main body of PrP impairing tertiary folding. Chaperone stress proteins conjugate onto misfolded PrP blocking its sites of proteolytic cleavage. Fresh epidemiological evidence is presented and experimental evidence referenced that adds support to a multifactorial hypothesis which proposes that BSE is a hitherto unrecognized and previously unmanifested class of subtle chronic phosmet-induced delayed neuro-excitotoxicity in the susceptible bovine.

  7. Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1995-03-01

    Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Social Information Transmission in Animals: Lessons from Studies of Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; MacIntosh, Andrew; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to use information provided by others to guide behavior is a widespread phenomenon in animal societies. A standard paradigm to test if and/or how animals use and transfer social information is through social diffusion experiments, by which researchers observe how information spreads within a group, sometimes by seeding new behavior in the population. In this article, we review the context, methodology and products of such social diffusion experiments. Our major focus is the transmission of information from an individual (or group thereof) to another, and the factors that can enhance or, more interestingly, inhibit it. We therefore also discuss reasons why social transmission sometimes does not occur despite being expected to. We span a full range of mechanisms and processes, from the nature of social information itself and the cognitive abilities of various species, to the idea of social competency and the constraints imposed by the social networks in which animals are embedded. We ultimately aim at a broad reflection on practical and theoretical issues arising when studying how social information spreads within animal groups. PMID:27540368

  9. Social Information Transmission in Animals: Lessons from Studies of Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; MacIntosh, Andrew; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to use information provided by others to guide behavior is a widespread phenomenon in animal societies. A standard paradigm to test if and/or how animals use and transfer social information is through social diffusion experiments, by which researchers observe how information spreads within a group, sometimes by seeding new behavior in the population. In this article, we review the context, methodology and products of such social diffusion experiments. Our major focus is the transmission of information from an individual (or group thereof) to another, and the factors that can enhance or, more interestingly, inhibit it. We therefore also discuss reasons why social transmission sometimes does not occur despite being expected to. We span a full range of mechanisms and processes, from the nature of social information itself and the cognitive abilities of various species, to the idea of social competency and the constraints imposed by the social networks in which animals are embedded. We ultimately aim at a broad reflection on practical and theoretical issues arising when studying how social information spreads within animal groups. PMID:27540368

  10. Mechanisms of Arthropod Transmission of Plant and Animal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Stewart M.; Banerjee, Nanditta

    1999-01-01

    A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector’s mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses. PMID:10066833

  11. Transmission and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Protozoal Diseases of Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States. PMID:23297259

  12. Critical Behavior in Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, P. D.; Chang, Julius

    Using cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared in a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock in an infected premise (IP). Those farms in the neighboring of an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor interactions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The nonlocal disease transport probability can be as low as 0.01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fission cascade. Finally, we calculate that the percentage of culled animals that are actually healthy is ≈30%.

  13. Detection of PrPsc in Blood from Sheep Infected with the Scrapie and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agents▿

    PubMed Central

    Terry, L. A.; Howells, L.; Hawthorn, J.; Edwards, J. C.; Moore, S. J.; Bellworthy, S. J.; Simmons, H.; Lizano, S.; Estey, L.; Leathers, V.; Everest, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    The role of blood in the iatrogenic transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion disease has become an increasing concern since the reports of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) transmission through blood transfusion from humans with subclinical infection. The development of highly sensitive rapid assays to screen for prion infection in blood is of high priority in order to facilitate the prevention of transmission via blood and blood products. In the present study we show that PrPsc, a surrogate marker for TSE infection, can be detected in cells isolated from the blood from naturally and experimentally infected sheep by using a rapid ligand-based immunoassay. In sheep with clinical disease, PrPsc was detected in the blood of 55% of scrapie agent-infected animals (n = 80) and 71% of animals with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (n = 7). PrPsc was also detected several months before the onset of clinical signs in a subset of scrapie agent-infected sheep, followed from 3 months of age to clinical disease. This study confirms that PrPsc is associated with the cellular component of blood and can be detected in preclinical sheep by an immunoassay in the absence of in vitro or in vivo amplification. PMID:19740979

  14. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  15. Animal models for influenza virus transmission studies: A historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bouvier, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are used to simulate, under experimental conditions, the complex interactions among host, virus, and environment that affect the person-to-person spread of influenza viruses. The three species that have been most frequently employed, both past and present, as influenza virus transmission models -- ferrets, mice, and guinea pigs -- have each provided unique insights into the factors governing the efficiency with which these viruses pass from an infected host to a susceptible one. This review will highlight a few of these noteworthy discoveries, with a particular focus on the historical contexts in which each model was developed and the advantages and disadvantages of each species with regard to the study of influenza virus transmission among mammals. PMID:26126082

  16. Amphotropic murine leukemia viruses induce spongiform encephalomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    Münk, C; Löhler, J; Prassolov, V; Just, U; Stockschläder, M; Stocking, C

    1997-05-27

    Recombinants of amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) have found widespread use in retroviral vector systems due to their ability to efficiently and stably infect cells of several different species, including human. Previous work has shown that replication-competent recombinants containing the amphotropic env gene, encoding the major SU envelope glycoprotein that determines host tropism, induce lymphomas in vivo. We show here that these viruses also induce a spongiform encephalomyelopathy in mice inoculated perinatally. This fatal central nervous system disease is characterized by noninflammatory spongiform lesions of nerve and glial cells and their processes, and is associated with moderate astro- and microgliosis. The first clinical symptoms are ataxia, tremor, and spasticity, progressing to complete tetraparesis and incontinence, and finally death of the animal. Sequences within the amphotropic env gene are necessary for disease induction. Coinfection of A-MuLV recombinants with nonneuropathogenic ecotropic or polytropic MuLV drastically increases the incidence, degree, and distribution of the neurodegenerative disorder. The consequence of these results in view of the use of A-MuLV recombinants in the clinic is discussed.

  17. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and the safety of milk from Canadian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Tyshenko, M G

    2007-02-17

    The detection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in beef cattle closed Canadian beef export markets to 30 countries, including the USA, with devastating financial losses. The detection and confirmation of the fifth and seventh BSE-infected animals but first infected dairy cows extended the problem of risk management to Canadian dairy farmers. As the public are concerned about the safety not only of beef but also of milk and milk products that may contain disease-causing prions, this review examines the evidence for the safety of milk from studies on prions in milk or colostrum and their vertical and lateral transmission in various animal systems. The evidence indicates that the risk of contracting new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease through the consumption of milk is negligible.

  18. Elevated manganese levels in blood and central nervous system occur before onset of clinical signs in scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, S; Sassoon, J; Knight, R; Hopkins, J; Brown, D R

    2007-06-01

    Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are neurodegenerative diseases that can only be accurately diagnosed by analysis of central nervous system tissue for the presence of an abnormal isoform of the prion protein known as PrP(Sc). Furthermore, these diseases have long incubation periods during which there are no clear symptoms but where the infectious agent could still be present in the tissues. Therefore, the development of diagnostic assays to detect a surrogate marker for the presence of prion disease is essential. Previous studies on mice experimentally infected with scrapie, an ovine spongiform encephalopathy, suggested that changes in the levels of Mn occur in the blood and brain before the onset of symptoms of the disease. To assess whether these findings have relevance to the animal diseases scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, tissues from bovine spongiform encephalopathy- and scrapie-infected cattle and sheep were analyzed for their metal content and compared with values for noninfected animals. In field cases and experimentally infected animals, elevated Mn was associated with prion infection. Although some central nervous system regions showed elevated Mn, other regions did not. The most consistent finding was an elevation of Mn in blood. This change was present in experimentally infected animals before the onset of symptoms. In scrapie-infected sheep, elevated Mn levels occurred regardless of the genotype of the sheep and were even detected in scrapie-resistant sheep in which no symptoms of disease were detected. These findings suggest that elevated blood Mn could be a potential diagnostic marker for prion infection even in the absence of apparent clinical disease.

  19. Properties of L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy in intraspecies passages.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Iwamaru, Y; Kakizaki, M; Masujin, K; Imamura, M; Fukuda, S; Matsuura, Y; Shimizu, Y; Kasai, K; Mohri, S; Yokoyama, T

    2012-09-01

    The origin and transmission routes of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) remain unclear. To assess whether the biological and biochemical characteristics of atypical L-type BSE detected in Japanese cattle (BSE/JP24) are conserved during serial passages within a single host, 3 calves were inoculated intracerebrally with a brain homogenate prepared from first-passaged BSE/JP24-affected cattle. Detailed immunohistochemical and neuropathologic analysis of the brains of second-passaged animals, which had developed the disease and survived for an average of 16 months after inoculation, revealed distribution of spongiform changes and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) throughout the brain. Although immunolabeled PrP(Sc) obtained from brain tissue was characterized by the presence of PrP plaques and diffuse synaptic granular accumulations, no stellate-type deposits were detected. Western blot analysis suggested no obvious differences in PrP(Sc) molecular mass or glycoform pattern in the brains of first- and second-passaged cattle. These findings suggest failures to identify differences in mean incubation period and biochemical and neuropathologic properties of the BSE/JP24 prion between the first and second passages in cattle.

  20. Central nervous system gene expression changes in a transgenic mouse model for bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Tortosa, Raül; Castells, Xavier; Vidal, Enric; Costa, Carme; Ruiz de Villa, María del Carmen; Sánchez, Alex; Barceló, Anna; Torres, Juan María; Pumarola, Martí; Ariño, Joaquín

    2011-10-28

    Gene expression analysis has proven to be a very useful tool to gain knowledge of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, particularly in the initial or preclinical stages. With the aim of finding new data on the events occurring in the Central Nervous System in animals affected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, a comprehensive genome wide gene expression study was conducted at different time points of the disease on mice genetically modified to model the bovine species brain in terms of cellular prion protein. An accurate analysis of the information generated by microarray technique was the key point to assess the biological relevance of the data obtained in terms of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy pathogenesis. Validation of the microarray technique was achieved by RT-PCR confirming the RNA change and immunohistochemistry techniques that verified that expression changes were translated into variable levels of protein for selected genes. Our study reveals changes in the expression of genes, some of them not previously associated with prion diseases, at early stages of the disease previous to the detection of the pathological prion protein, that might have a role in neuronal degeneration and several transcriptional changes showing an important imbalance in the Central Nervous System homeostasis in advanced stages of the disease. Genes whose expression is altered at early stages of the disease should be considered as possible therapeutic targets and potential disease markers in preclinical diagnostic tool development. Genes non-previously related to prion diseases should be taken into consideration for further investigations.

  1. PRIONS AND THE TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter is an invited, scholarly review of the mechanism(s) of TSEs for the 2nd edition of Metabolic Encephalopathies. Each chapter in the book assumes a professional knowledge of neuroscience and biochemistry, and the focus of the book is on the metabolic basis of dise...

  2. Changes in retinal function and morphology are early clinical signs of disease in cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, M Heather West; Smith, Jodi D; Platt, Ekundayo M; Juarez, Jessica R; Timms, Leo L; Greenlee, Justin J

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to a group of fatal, transmissible protein misfolding diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). All TSEs are caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) throughout the central nervous system (CNS), which results in neuronal loss and ultimately death. Like other protein misfolding diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, TSEs are generally not diagnosed until the onset of disease after the appearance of unequivocal clinical signs. As such, identification of the earliest clinical signs of disease may facilitate diagnosis. The retina is the most accessible part of the central nervous system, and retinal pathology in TSE affected animals has been previously reported. Here we describe antemortem changes in retinal function and morphology that are detectable in BSE inoculated animals several months (up to 11 months) prior to the appearance of any other signs of clinical disease. We also demonstrate that differences in the severity of these clinical signs reflect the amount of PrPSc accumulation in the retina and the resulting inflammatory response of the tissue. These results are the earliest reported clinical signs associated with TSE infection and provide a basis for understanding the pathology and evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  3. [Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: the most frequent spongiform encephalopathy in humans].

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, J

    2001-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) which for many years was interpreted as one of degenerative brain processes is the most frequent spongiform encephalopathy caused by prions--molecules of erroneously conformed protein. In only few percent ill people occurrence of this pathogenic factor occurs as a result of mutation in gene PrP. Because transmissibility of prions was proved it should be supposed that in other cases CJD is a result of "infection" Susceptibility to prions depends in large part on specificity of host proteins. It creates certain individual and species specific barriers. At the present time we witness, fortunately only in single cases, occurrence in people variant CJD caused by prions originated from animals affected by "mad cow disease". Prognosis for human population is dependent on the effectiveness of between species barrier for prions. PMID:11556078

  4. Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People

    MedlinePlus

    ... many different animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses, and seals. However, certain subtypes of influenza A ... pigs, and H7N7 and H3N8 virus infections of horses. Influenza A viruses that typically infect and transmit ...

  5. Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Maurício; Shoemaker, Lauren G.; Cabral, Reniel B.; Flores, César O.; Varga, Melinda; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel societies, containing hierarchically nested social levels, are remarkable social structures whose origins are unclear. The social relationships of sperm whales are organized in a multilevel society with an upper level composed of clans of individuals communicating using similar patterns of clicks (codas). Using agent-based models informed by an 18-year empirical study, we show that clans are unlikely products of stochastic processes (genetic or cultural drift) but likely originate from cultural transmission via biased social learning of codas. Distinct clusters of individuals with similar acoustic repertoires, mirroring the empirical clans, emerge when whales learn preferentially the most common codas (conformism) from behaviourally similar individuals (homophily). Cultural transmission seems key in the partitioning of sperm whales into sympatric clans. These findings suggest that processes similar to those that generate complex human cultures could not only be at play in non-human societies but also create multilevel social structures in the wild. PMID:26348688

  6. Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Maurício; Shoemaker, Lauren G; Cabral, Reniel B; Flores, César O; Varga, Melinda; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel societies, containing hierarchically nested social levels, are remarkable social structures whose origins are unclear. The social relationships of sperm whales are organized in a multilevel society with an upper level composed of clans of individuals communicating using similar patterns of clicks (codas). Using agent-based models informed by an 18-year empirical study, we show that clans are unlikely products of stochastic processes (genetic or cultural drift) but likely originate from cultural transmission via biased social learning of codas. Distinct clusters of individuals with similar acoustic repertoires, mirroring the empirical clans, emerge when whales learn preferentially the most common codas (conformism) from behaviourally similar individuals (homophily). Cultural transmission seems key in the partitioning of sperm whales into sympatric clans. These findings suggest that processes similar to those that generate complex human cultures could not only be at play in non-human societies but also create multilevel social structures in the wild. PMID:26348688

  7. Transmission of Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gondim, L.F.P.; McAllister, M.M.; Mateus-Pinilla, N. E.; Pitt, W.; Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.; Lenarz, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that can cause abortions in cows. N. caninum antibody seroprevalence was detected in 64/164 (39%) free-ranging gray wolves from Minnesota, 30/150 (20%) white-tailed deer, and 8/61 (13%) moose. These data are consistent with a sylvatic transmission cycle of N. caninum between cervids and canids. Infection of canids increases the risk of transmitting the parasite to domestic livestock.

  8. Mathematical Models for Estimating the Risks of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

    PubMed

    Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Cottrell, David; Elsaadany, Susie; Murray, Noel; Oraby, Tamer; Smith, Robert; Krewski, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    When the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic first emerged in the United Kingdom in the mid 1980s, the etiology of animal prion diseases was largely unknown. Risk management efforts to control the disease were also subject to uncertainties regarding the extent of BSE infections and future course of the epidemic. As understanding of BSE increased, mathematical models were developed to estimate risk of BSE infection and to predict reductions in risk in response to BSE control measures. Risk models of BSE-transmission dynamics determined disease persistence in cattle herds and relative infectivity of cattle prior to onset of clinical disease. These BSE models helped in understanding key epidemiological features of BSE transmission and dynamics, such as incubation period distribution and age-dependent infection susceptibility to infection with the BSE agent. This review summarizes different mathematical models and methods that have been used to estimate risk of BSE, and discusses how such risk projection models have informed risk assessment and management of BSE. This review also provides some general insights on how mathematical models of the type discussed here may be used to estimate risks of emerging zoonotic diseases when biological data on transmission of the etiological agent are limited.

  9. Mathematical Models for Estimating the Risks of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

    PubMed

    Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Cottrell, David; Elsaadany, Susie; Murray, Noel; Oraby, Tamer; Smith, Robert; Krewski, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    When the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic first emerged in the United Kingdom in the mid 1980s, the etiology of animal prion diseases was largely unknown. Risk management efforts to control the disease were also subject to uncertainties regarding the extent of BSE infections and future course of the epidemic. As understanding of BSE increased, mathematical models were developed to estimate risk of BSE infection and to predict reductions in risk in response to BSE control measures. Risk models of BSE-transmission dynamics determined disease persistence in cattle herds and relative infectivity of cattle prior to onset of clinical disease. These BSE models helped in understanding key epidemiological features of BSE transmission and dynamics, such as incubation period distribution and age-dependent infection susceptibility to infection with the BSE agent. This review summarizes different mathematical models and methods that have been used to estimate risk of BSE, and discusses how such risk projection models have informed risk assessment and management of BSE. This review also provides some general insights on how mathematical models of the type discussed here may be used to estimate risks of emerging zoonotic diseases when biological data on transmission of the etiological agent are limited. PMID:26158300

  10. Transmission line based thermoacoustic imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Murad; Kellnberger, Stephan; Sergiadis, George; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-06-01

    We have generated high resolution images of RF-Contrast in small animals using nearfield thermoacoustic system. This enables us to see some anatomical features of a mouse such as the heart, the spine and the boundary. OCIS codes: (000.0000) General; (000.0000) General [8-pt. type. For codes, see www.opticsinfobase.org/submit/ocis.

  11. Cell-Associated Transmission of HIV Type 1 and Other Lentiviruses in Small-Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Moench, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Small-animal models of lentivirus transmission have repeatedly demonstrated transmission by cell-associated virus via vaginal, rectal, and oral routes. The earliest experiments were in the cat/feline immunodeficiency virus model, followed a decade later by successful vaginal transmission of cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in mice bearing transplanted human immune cells. After early unsuccessful attempts at cell-associated transmission in nonhuman primates, renewed investigation in diverse primate models has now confirmed the findings from the cat and humanized mouse models. Improvements in humanized mouse models have made them the preferred small-animal models to study HIV mucosal transmission. They provide complementary systems to nonhuman primate models to aid in the elucidation of the many remaining questions on the mechanism of and means to prevent both cell-associated and cell-free HIV transmission across mucosal barriers. PMID:25414420

  12. SPONGIFORM DISEASE: Experts Downplay New vCJD Fears.

    PubMed

    Balter, M

    2000-09-01

    The chilling scenario of getting "mad cow disease" from eating products of other animals besides just cows was splashed across the mainstream British press last week based on a report from a leading U.K. lab that prions--abnormal proteins linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and its human form, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease--can jump from one species to another more easily than previously believed. Although some experts say the findings raise concern about a threat to human health, others decry the media frenzy and contend that the new research adds little to what is known about the mysterious, fatal diseases. PMID:17811144

  13. Animal models for influenza virus pathogenesis, transmission, and immunology

    PubMed Central

    Thangavel, Rajagowthamee R.; Bouvier, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, infection with an influenza A or B virus manifests typically as an acute and self-limited upper respiratory tract illness characterized by fever, cough, sore throat, and malaise. However, influenza can present along a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from sub-clinical or even asymptomatic infection to a severe primary viral pneumonia requiring advanced medical supportive care. Disease severity depends upon the virulence of the influenza virus strain and the immune competence and previous influenza exposures of the patient. Animal models are used in influenza research not only to elucidate the viral and host factors that affect influenza disease outcomes in and spread among susceptible hosts, but also to evaluate interventions designed to prevent or reduce influenza morbidity and mortality in man. This review will focus on the three animal models currently used most frequently in influenza virus research -- mice, ferrets, and guinea pigs -- and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:24709389

  14. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy surveillance in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Kim, M J; Tark, D S; Sohn, H J; Yun, E I; Cho, I S; Choi, Y P; Kim, C L; Lee, J H; Kweon, C H; Joo, Y S; Chung, G S; Lee, J H

    2012-12-01

    National surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) began in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1996. Surveillance programmes changed overtime to comply with the guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy was designated as a notifiable disease in 1997. From July 2008, the BSE surveillance programme was intensified to test cattle in designated high-risk populations more effectively. New measures included the compulsory testing of all non-ambulatory cattle at abattoirs, and encouraging the testing of all dead cattle examined and recorded under the Mutual Aid Insurance Scheme (fallen stock). In addition, there was a vigorous search for animals suspected of being clinically infected. As a result, a total of 426,919 OIE points were achieved over a period of seven consecutive years to the end of October 2009. This enabled the submission of a successful application to the OIE in 2010 for recognition of the ROK's BSE disease status as being one of controlled risk, in accordance with Chapter 11.5. of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

  15. Insights into Chronic Wasting Disease and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Species Barriers by Use of Real-Time Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Kristen A.; Henderson, Davin M.; Bian, Jifeng; Telling, Glenn C.; Mathiason, Candace K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The propensity for transspecies prion transmission is related to the structural characteristics of the enciphering and new host PrP, although the exact mechanism remains incompletely understood. The effects of variability in prion protein on cross-species prion transmission have been studied with animal bioassays, but the influence of prion protein structure versus that of host cofactors (e.g., cellular constituents, trafficking, and innate immune interactions) remains difficult to dissect. To isolate the effects of protein-protein interactions on transspecies conversion, we used recombinant PrPC and real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) and compared chronic wasting disease (CWD) and classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (cBSE) prions. To assess the impact of transmission to a new species, we studied feline CWD (fCWD) and feline BSE (i.e., feline spongiform encephalopathy [FSE]). We cross-seeded fCWD and FSE into each species' full-length, recombinant PrPC and measured the time required for conversion to the amyloid (PrPRes) form, which we describe here as the rate of amyloid conversion. These studies revealed the following: (i) CWD and BSE seeded their homologous species' PrP best; (ii) fCWD was a more efficient seed for feline rPrP than for white-tailed deer rPrP; (iii) conversely, FSE more efficiently converted bovine than feline rPrP; (iv) and CWD, fCWD, BSE, and FSE all converted human rPrP, although not as efficiently as homologous sCJD prions. These results suggest that (i) at the level of protein-protein interactions, CWD adapts to a new species more readily than does BSE and (ii) the barrier preventing transmission of CWD to humans may be less robust than estimated. IMPORTANCE We demonstrate that bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions maintain their transspecies conversion characteristics upon passage to cats but that chronic wasting disease prions adapt to the cat and are distinguishable from the original prion. Additionally, we

  16. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Wexler, Anthony; Ristenpart, William

    2014-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in modulating the pathogen transmission, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulence intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of a standard axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We demonstrate that the fan speed counterintuitively has no effect on the downstream plume width, a result replicated with a variety of different fan types and configurations. The results point toward a useful simplification in modeling of airborne disease transmission via fan-generated flows.

  17. Implications of Heterogeneous Biting Exposure and Animal Hosts on Trypanosomiasis brucei gambiense Transmission and Control.

    PubMed

    Stone, Chris M; Chitnis, Nakul

    2015-10-01

    The gambiense form of sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease, which is presumed to be anthroponotic. However, the parasite persists in human populations at levels of considerable rarity and as such the existence of animal reservoirs has been posited. Clarifying the impact of animal host reservoirs on the feasibility of interrupting sleeping sickness transmission through interventions is a matter of urgency. We developed a mathematical model allowing for heterogeneous exposure of humans to tsetse, with animal populations that differed in their ability to transmit infections, to investigate the effectiveness of two established techniques, screening and treatment of at-risk populations, and vector control. Importantly, under both assumptions, an integrated approach of human screening and vector control was supported in high transmission areas. However, increasing the intensity of vector control was more likely to eliminate transmission, while increasing the intensity of human screening reduced the time to elimination. Non-human animal hosts played important, but different roles in HAT transmission, depending on whether or not they contributed as reservoirs. If they did not serve as reservoirs, sensitivity analyses suggested their attractiveness may instead function as a sink for tsetse bites. These outcomes highlight the importance of understanding the ecological and environmental context of sleeping sickness in optimizing integrated interventions, particularly for moderate and low transmission intensity settings.

  18. Implications of Heterogeneous Biting Exposure and Animal Hosts on Trypanosomiasis brucei gambiense Transmission and Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Chris M.; Chitnis, Nakul

    2015-01-01

    The gambiense form of sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease, which is presumed to be anthroponotic. However, the parasite persists in human populations at levels of considerable rarity and as such the existence of animal reservoirs has been posited. Clarifying the impact of animal host reservoirs on the feasibility of interrupting sleeping sickness transmission through interventions is a matter of urgency. We developed a mathematical model allowing for heterogeneous exposure of humans to tsetse, with animal populations that differed in their ability to transmit infections, to investigate the effectiveness of two established techniques, screening and treatment of at-risk populations, and vector control. Importantly, under both assumptions, an integrated approach of human screening and vector control was supported in high transmission areas. However, increasing the intensity of vector control was more likely to eliminate transmission, while increasing the intensity of human screening reduced the time to elimination. Non-human animal hosts played important, but different roles in HAT transmission, depending on whether or not they contributed as reservoirs. If they did not serve as reservoirs, sensitivity analyses suggested their attractiveness may instead function as a sink for tsetse bites. These outcomes highlight the importance of understanding the ecological and environmental context of sleeping sickness in optimizing integrated interventions, particularly for moderate and low transmission intensity settings. PMID:26426854

  19. Transient Fecal Shedding and Limited Animal-to-Animal Transmission of Clostridium difficile by Naturally Infected Finishing Feedlot Cattle ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Pickworth, Carrie; Loerch, Steve; LeJeune, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    To longitudinally assess fecal shedding and animal-to-animal transmission of Clostridium difficile among finishing feedlot cattle as a risk for beef carcass contamination, we tested 186 ± 12 steers (mean ± standard deviation; 1,369 samples) in an experimental feedlot facility during the finishing period and at harvest. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12.9% of steers on arrival (24/186; 0 to 33% among five suppliers). Shedding decreased to undetectable levels a week later (0%; P < 0.001), and remained low (<3.6%) until immediately prior to shipment for harvest (1.2%). Antimicrobial use did not increase fecal shedding, despite treatment of 53% of animals for signs of respiratory disease. Animals shedding C. difficile on arrival, however, had 4.6 times higher odds of receiving antimicrobials for respiratory signs than nonshedders (95% confidence interval for the odds ratio, 1.4 to 14.8; P = 0.01). Neither the toxin genes nor toxin A or B was detected in most (39/42) isolates based on two complementary multiplex PCRs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing, respectively. Two linezolid- and clindamycin-resistant PCR ribotype 078 (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/39-bp-type deletion in tcdC) isolates were identified from two steers (at arrival and week 20), but these ribotypes did not become endemic. The other toxigenic isolate (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/classic tcdC; PCR ribotype 078-like) was identified in the cecum of one steer at harvest. Spatio-temporal analysis indicated transient shedding with no evidence of animal-to-animal transmission. The association between C. difficile shedding upon arrival and the subsequent need for antimicrobials for respiratory disease might indicate common predisposing factors. The isolation of toxigenic C. difficile from bovine intestines at harvest highlights the potential for food contamination in meat processing plants. PMID:21441320

  20. The epidemics of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter G.

    2003-01-01

    The large epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom has been in decline since 1992, but has spread to other countries. The extensive control measures that have been put in place across the European Union and also in Switzerland should have brought the transmission of BSE under control in these countries, provided that the measures were properly enforced. Postmortem tests on brain tissue enable infected animals to be detected during the late stages of the incubation period, but tests that can be performed on live animals (including humans) and that will detect infections early are urgently needed. The number of infected animals currently entering the food chain is probably small, and the controls placed on bovine tissues in the European Union and Switzerland should ensure that any risks to human health are small and diminishing. Vigilance is required in all countries, especially in those in which there has been within-species recycling of ruminant feed. Fewer than 150 people, globally, have been diagnosed with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), but there are many uncertainties about the future course of the epidemic because of the long and variable incubation period. Better control measures are necessary to guard against the possibility of iatrogenic transmission through blood transfusion or contaminated surgical instruments. These measures will required sensitive and specific, diagnostic tests and improved decontamination methods. PMID:12751420

  1. The epidemics of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter G

    2003-01-01

    The large epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom has been in decline since 1992, but has spread to other countries. The extensive control measures that have been put in place across the European Union and also in Switzerland should have brought the transmission of BSE under control in these countries, provided that the measures were properly enforced. Postmortem tests on brain tissue enable infected animals to be detected during the late stages of the incubation period, but tests that can be performed on live animals (including humans) and that will detect infections early are urgently needed. The number of infected animals currently entering the food chain is probably small, and the controls placed on bovine tissues in the European Union and Switzerland should ensure that any risks to human health are small and diminishing. Vigilance is required in all countries, especially in those in which there has been within-species recycling of ruminant feed. Fewer than 150 people, globally, have been diagnosed with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), but there are many uncertainties about the future course of the epidemic because of the long and variable incubation period. Better control measures are necessary to guard against the possibility of iatrogenic transmission through blood transfusion or contaminated surgical instruments. These measures will required sensitive and specific, diagnostic tests and improved decontamination methods.

  2. Monkeypox disease transmission in an experimental setting: prairie dog animal model.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Christina L; Carroll, Darin S; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Weiss, Sonja; Clemmons, Cody; Hughes, Christine M; Salzer, Johanna S; Olson, Victoria A; Abel, Jason; Karem, Kevin L; Damon, Inger K

    2011-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is considered the most significant human public health threat in the genus Orthopoxvirus since the eradication of variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). MPXV is a zoonotic agent endemic to forested areas of Central and Western Africa. In 2003, MPXV caused an outbreak in the United States due to the importation of infected African rodents, and subsequent sequential infection of North American prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and humans. In previous studies, the prairie dog MPXV model has successfully shown to be very useful for understanding MPXV since the model emulates key characteristics of human monkeypox disease. In humans, percutaneous exposure to animals has been documented but the primary method of human-to-human MPXV transmission is postulated to be by respiratory route. Only a few animal model studies of MPXV transmission have been reported. Herein, we show that MPXV infected prairie dogs are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple transmission routes. All secondarily exposed animals were infected with MPXV during the course of the study. Notably, animals secondarily exposed appeared to manifest more severe disease; however, the disease course was very similar to those of experimentally challenged animals including inappetence leading to weight loss, development of lesions, production of orthopoxvirus antibodies and shedding of similar levels or in some instances higher levels of MPXV from the oral cavity. Disease was transmitted via exposure to contaminated bedding, co-housing, or respiratory secretions/nasal mucous (we could not definitively say that transmission occurred via respiratory route exclusively). Future use of the model will allow us to evaluate infection control measures, vaccines and antiviral strategies to decrease disease transmission. PMID:22164263

  3. Transmission of MRSA between companion animals and infected human patients presenting to outpatient medical care facilities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge Pinto; Anderson, Kevin L; Correa, Maria T; Lyman, Roberta; Ruffin, Felicia; Reller, L Barth; Fowler, Vance G

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. The importance of companion animals as reservoirs of human infections is currently unknown. The companion animals of 49 MRSA-infected outpatients (cases) were screened for MRSA carriage, and their bacterial isolates were compared with those of the infected patients using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Rates of MRSA among the companion animals of MRSA-infected patients were compared to rates of MRSA among companion animals of pet guardians attending a "veterinary wellness clinic" (controls). MRSA was isolated from at least one companion animal in 4/49 (8.2%) households of MRSA-infected outpatients vs. none of the pets of the 50 uninfected human controls. Using PFGE, patient-pets MRSA isolates were identical for three pairs and discordant for one pair (suggested MRSA inter-specie transmission p-value = 0.1175). These results suggest that companion animals of MRSA-infected patients can be culture-positive for MRSA, representing a potential source of infection or re-infection for humans. Further studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA human-animal inter-specie transmission.

  4. Animal models of disease shed light on Nipah virus pathogenesis and transmission

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Emmie; Munster, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    Nipah virus is an emerging virus infection that causes yearly disease outbreaks with high case fatality rates in Bangladesh. Nipah virus causes encephalitis and systemic vasculitis, sometimes in combination with respiratory disease. Pteropus species fruit bats are the natural reservoir of Nipah virus and zoonotic transmission can occur directly or via an intermediate host; human-to-human transmission occurs regularly. In this review we discuss the current state of knowledge on the pathogenesis and transmission of Nipah virus, focusing on dissemination of the virus through its host, known determinants of pathogenicity and routes of zoonotic and human-to-human transmission. Since data from human cases are sparse, this knowledge is largely based on the results of studies performed in animal models that recapitulate Nipah virus disease in humans. PMID:25229234

  5. Surveillance and simulation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie in small ruminants in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background After bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) emerged in European cattle livestock in 1986 a fundamental question was whether the agent established also in the small ruminants' population. In Switzerland transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in small ruminants have been monitored since 1990. While in the most recent TSE cases a BSE infection could be excluded, for historical cases techniques to discriminate scrapie from BSE had not been available at the time of diagnosis and thus their status remained unclear. We herein applied state-of-the-art techniques to retrospectively classify these animals and to re-analyze the affected flocks for secondary cases. These results were the basis for models, simulating the course of TSEs over a period of 70 years. The aim was to come to a statistically based overall assessment of the TSE situation in the domestic small ruminant population in Switzerland. Results In sum 16 TSE cases were identified in small ruminants in Switzerland since 1981, of which eight were atypical and six were classical scrapie. In two animals retrospective analysis did not allow any further classification due to the lack of appropriate tissue samples. We found no evidence for an infection with the BSE agent in the cases under investigation. In none of the affected flocks, secondary cases were identified. A Bayesian prevalence calculation resulted in most likely estimates of one case of BSE, five cases of classical scrapie and 21 cases of atypical scrapie per 100'000 small ruminants. According to our models none of the TSEs is considered to cause a broader epidemic in Switzerland. In a closed population, they are rather expected to fade out in the next decades or, in case of a sporadic origin, may remain at a very low level. Conclusions In summary, these data indicate that despite a significant epidemic of BSE in cattle, there is no evidence that BSE established in the small ruminant population in Switzerland. Classical and atypical

  6. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species.

  7. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cito, F; Rijks, J; Rantsios, A T; Cunningham, A A; Baneth, G; Guardabassi, L; Kuiken, T; Giovannini, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals. In this study, available epidemiological data for diseases transmissible from companion animals to man were analysed with the aim of developing a procedure suitable for their prioritization within a European framework. A new method and its associated questionnaire and scoring system were designed based on methods described by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Modifications were applied to allow for the paucity of specific information on companion animal transmissible diseases. The OIE method was also adapted to the subject and to the regional scope of the interprofessional network addressing zoonotic diseases transmitted via companion animals in Europe: the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO). Adaptations were made based on information collected from expert groups on viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases using a structured questionnaire, in which all questions were closed-ended. The expert groups were asked to select the most appropriate answer for each question taking into account the relevance and reliability of the data available in the scientific literature. Subsequently, the scoring of the answers obtained for each disease covered by the questionnaire was analysed to obtain two final overall scores, one for human health impact and one for agricultural economic impact. The adapted method was then applied to select the 15 most important pathogens (five for each pathogen group: viral, bacterial and parasitic) on the basis of their overall impact on public health and agriculture. The result of the prioritization exercise was a joint priority list (available at www.callistoproject.eu) of

  8. Social and behavioral barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.S.

    1988-12-31

    Disease and pathogens have been studied as regulators of animal populations but not really as selective forces. The authors propose that pathogens can be major selective forces influencing social behaviors when these are successful at reducing disease transmission. The behaviors whose evolution could have been influenced by pathogen effects include group size, group isolation, mixed species flocking, migration, seasonal sociality, social avoidance, and dominance behaviors. Mate choice, mating system, and sexual selection are put in a new light when examined in terms of disease transmission. It is concluded that pathogen avoidance is a more powerful selective force than has heretofore been recognized.

  9. One Health and Food-Borne Disease: Salmonella Transmission between Humans, Animals, and Plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Maloy, Stanley

    2014-02-01

    There are >2,600 recognized serovars of Salmonella enterica. Many of these Salmonella serovars have a broad host range and can infect a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects. In addition, Salmonella can grow in plants and can survive in protozoa, soil, and water. Hence, broad-host-range Salmonella can be transmitted via feces from wild animals, farm animals, and pets or by consumption of a wide variety of common foods: poultry, beef, pork, eggs, milk, fruit, vegetables, spices, and nuts. Broad-host-range Salmonella pathogens typically cause gastroenteritis in humans. Some Salmonella serovars have a more restricted host range that is associated with changes in the virulence plasmid pSV, accumulation of pseudogenes, and chromosome rearrangements. These changes in host-restricted Salmonella alter pathogen-host interactions such that host-restricted Salmonella organisms commonly cause systemic infections and are transmitted between host populations by asymptomatic carriers. The secondary consequences of efforts to eliminate host-restricted Salmonella serovars demonstrate that basic ecological principles govern the environmental niches occupied by these pathogens, making it impossible to thwart Salmonella infections without a clear understanding of the human, animal, and environmental reservoirs of these pathogens. Thus, transmission of S. enterica provides a compelling example of the One Health paradigm because reducing human infections will require the reduction of Salmonella in animals and limitation of transmission from the environment.

  10. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Legname, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID

  11. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Legname, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions.

  12. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID

  13. Direct costs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy control measures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Probst, C; Gethmann, J M; Heuser, R; Niemann, H; Conraths, F J

    2013-12-01

    On 26 November 2000, the first autochthonous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in Germany. Since then, a total of 413 BSE cases have been confirmed, resulting in the culling and destruction of 17 313 heads of cattle. In view of the possible risks for human and animal health, Germany has adopted EU regulations along with some additional requirements concerning active surveillance and response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal. In this study, we used a stochastic model to estimate the costs incurred by the ensuing legislative amendments responding to BSE between November 2000 and December 2010. The total costs were estimated to range between 1847 and 2094 million Euros. They peaked in 2001 (about 394 million Euros) and declined since. About 54% of the costs (approximately 1000 million Euros) were incurred by the extension of the feed ban for animal protein to all farmed livestock. Active surveillance accounted for 21% (405 million Euros), the incineration of animal protein for 13% (249 million Euros) and the removal of specified risk material for 11% (225 million Euros). Only 1% of the costs was related to response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal, including indemnity payments for culled cattle and confiscated carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

  14. Hepatitis E vaccine immunization for rabbits to prevent animal HEV infection and zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Peng; Liu, Lin; Xia, Junke; Wang, Lin; Zou, Qinghua; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-09-11

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has become a significant global public health concern as increasing cases of acute and chronic hepatitis E are reported. HEV of animal origin was proved to be a possible source of human infection and a previous study showed that the recent licensed HEV 239 vaccine can serve as a candidate vaccine to manage animal sources of HEV infection. However, previous immunization strategy for rabbits was the same as that for human, which is too costly to conduct large-scale animal vaccination. In an effort to reduce the costs, three vaccination schemes were assessed in the present study. Forty specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits were divided randomly into five groups with eight animals for each and inoculated intramuscularly with different doses of HEV 239 and placebo, respectively. All animals were challenged intravenously with swine HEV-4 and rabbit HEV of different titers 7 weeks after the initial immunization and then fecal virus excretion was monitored for 10 weeks. The results indicated that immunizing rabbits with two 10μg doses of the vaccine is superior to vaccination with two 20μg doses or a single 30μg dose, which can protect rabbits against homologous and heterologous HEV infection. These findings could enable implementation of large-scale animal vaccination to prevent rabbit HEV infection and zoonotic transmission. PMID:26212003

  15. Hepatitis E vaccine immunization for rabbits to prevent animal HEV infection and zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Peng; Liu, Lin; Xia, Junke; Wang, Lin; Zou, Qinghua; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-09-11

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has become a significant global public health concern as increasing cases of acute and chronic hepatitis E are reported. HEV of animal origin was proved to be a possible source of human infection and a previous study showed that the recent licensed HEV 239 vaccine can serve as a candidate vaccine to manage animal sources of HEV infection. However, previous immunization strategy for rabbits was the same as that for human, which is too costly to conduct large-scale animal vaccination. In an effort to reduce the costs, three vaccination schemes were assessed in the present study. Forty specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits were divided randomly into five groups with eight animals for each and inoculated intramuscularly with different doses of HEV 239 and placebo, respectively. All animals were challenged intravenously with swine HEV-4 and rabbit HEV of different titers 7 weeks after the initial immunization and then fecal virus excretion was monitored for 10 weeks. The results indicated that immunizing rabbits with two 10μg doses of the vaccine is superior to vaccination with two 20μg doses or a single 30μg dose, which can protect rabbits against homologous and heterologous HEV infection. These findings could enable implementation of large-scale animal vaccination to prevent rabbit HEV infection and zoonotic transmission.

  16. Risks of transmitting ruminant spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases) by semen and embryo transfer techniques.

    PubMed

    Wrathall, A E; Holyoak, G R; Parsonson, I M; Simmons, H A

    2008-09-15

    Early experiments suggested that scrapie transmission via sheep embryos was a possibility, and gave rise to much controversy. However, when account is taken of the complex genetic effects on ovine susceptibility to scrapie, and of the several different scrapie strains with different clinical and pathological effects, the overall conclusion now is that transmission of classical scrapie by embryo transfer is very unlikely if appropriate precautions are taken. Recent embryo transfer studies have confirmed this. Other studies in sheep have shown that from about the middle of pregnancy the placental trophoblast is liable to scrapie infection in genetically susceptible ewes if the fetus is also susceptible. Since the contrary is also true, use of resistant ewes as embryo recipients could add to the safety of the embryo transfer, at least for classical scrapie. There has been little recent research on scrapie transmission via semen in sheep, and, with hindsight, the early studies, though negative, were inadequate. There is scant information on scrapie transfer via goat semen or embryos, although one study did find that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was not transmitted via goat embryos. In cattle it has been shown that, if appropriate precautions are taken, the risks of transmitting BSE via semen and in vivo-derived embryos are negligible, and this conclusion has gained worldwide acceptance. Research on TSE transmission via reproductive technologies in deer has not yet been done, but information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, and on transmission risks in other species, provides optimism that transmission of CWD via semen and embryos of deer is unlikely. The presence of TSE infectivity in blood and various other tissues of infected animals, particularly sheep, gives rise to concerns that certain biological products currently used in reproductive technologies, e.g. pituitary gonadotrophins for superovulation, and

  17. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of the Retina for the Screening of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Graham, Catherine; Czub, Stefanie; Dudas, Sandor; Rasmussen, Mark A; Casey, Thomas A; Petrich, Jacob W

    2016-01-13

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are progressive, neurodegenerative disorders, of which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is of special concern because it is infectious and debilitating to humans. The possibility of using fluorescence spectroscopy to screen for BSE in cattle was explored. Fluorescence spectra from the retinas of experimentally infected BSE-positive cattle with clinical disease were compared with those from both sham-inoculated and non-inoculated BSE-negative cattle. The distinct intensity difference of about 4-10-fold between the spectra of the BSE-positive and the BSE-negative (sham-inoculated and non-inoculated) eyes suggests the basis for a means of developing a rapid, noninvasive examination of BSE in particular and TSEs in general.

  18. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of the Retina for the Screening of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Graham, Catherine; Czub, Stefanie; Dudas, Sandor; Rasmussen, Mark A; Casey, Thomas A; Petrich, Jacob W

    2016-01-13

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are progressive, neurodegenerative disorders, of which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is of special concern because it is infectious and debilitating to humans. The possibility of using fluorescence spectroscopy to screen for BSE in cattle was explored. Fluorescence spectra from the retinas of experimentally infected BSE-positive cattle with clinical disease were compared with those from both sham-inoculated and non-inoculated BSE-negative cattle. The distinct intensity difference of about 4-10-fold between the spectra of the BSE-positive and the BSE-negative (sham-inoculated and non-inoculated) eyes suggests the basis for a means of developing a rapid, noninvasive examination of BSE in particular and TSEs in general. PMID:26623498

  19. Evidence of subclinical prion disease in aged mice following exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Karen L; Mabbott, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) disease in humans was almost certainly the result of consumption of food contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions. Despite probable widespread exposure of the UK population to BSE-contaminated food in the 1980s, vCJD has been identified predominantly in young individuals, and there have been fewer cases of clinical disease than anticipated. The reasons for this are uncertain. Following peripheral exposure, many prions replicate within the lymphoid tissues before infecting the central nervous system. We have shown that the effects of host age on the microarchitecture of the spleen significantly impair susceptibility to mouse-adapted prions after peripheral exposure. The transmission of prions between different mammalian species is considered to be limited by the 'species barrier', which is dependent on several factors, including an intact immune system. Thus, cross-species prion transmission may be much less efficient in aged individuals. To test this hypothesis, we compared prion pathogenesis in groups of young (6-8 weeks old) and aged (600 days old) mice injected with primary BSE brain homogenate. We showed that prion pathogenesis was impaired dramatically in aged mice when compared with young animals. Whereas most young mice succumbed to clinical prion disease, all aged mice failed to develop clinical disease during their lifespans. However, the demonstration that prion accumulation was detected in the lymphoid tissues of some aged mice after injection with primary BSE brain homogenate, in the absence of clinical signs of prion disease, has important implications for human health.

  20. Genotype-dependent molecular evolution of sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions in vitro affects their zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Krejciova, Zuzana; Barria, Marcelo A; Jones, Michael; Ironside, James W; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo; Head, Mark W

    2014-09-19

    Prion diseases are rare fatal neurological conditions of humans and animals, one of which (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is known to be a zoonotic form of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). What makes one animal prion disease zoonotic and others not is poorly understood, but it appears to involve compatibility between the prion strain and the host prion protein sequence. Concerns have been raised that the United Kingdom sheep flock may have been exposed to BSE early in the cattle BSE epidemic and that serial BSE transmission in sheep might have resulted in adaptation of the agent, which may have come to phenotypically resemble scrapie while maintaining its pathogenicity for humans. We have modeled this scenario in vitro. Extrapolation from our results suggests that if BSE were to infect sheep in the field it may, with time and in some sheep genotypes, become scrapie-like at the molecular level. However, the results also suggest that if BSE in sheep were to come to resemble scrapie it would lose its ability to affect humans.

  1. Potential role of pet animals in household transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bramble, Manuel; Morris, Daniel; Tolomeo, Pam; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2011-06-01

    In this narrative review, we found numerous reports suggesting that dogs and cats may play a role in household methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission and recurrent MRSA infection in human contacts. Future work should emphasize elucidating more clearly the prevalence of MRSA in household pets and characterize transmission dynamics of MRSA humans and pet animals.

  2. Potential role of pet animals in household transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bramble, Manuel; Morris, Daniel; Tolomeo, Pam; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2011-06-01

    In this narrative review, we found numerous reports suggesting that dogs and cats may play a role in household methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission and recurrent MRSA infection in human contacts. Future work should emphasize elucidating more clearly the prevalence of MRSA in household pets and characterize transmission dynamics of MRSA humans and pet animals. PMID:21142959

  3. Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy develop tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, P; Cervenak, J; Yakovleva, O; Gregori, L; Pomeroy, K; Cook, A; Muhammad, F S; Seuberlich, T; Cervenakova, L; Asher, D M

    2012-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were infected experimentally with the agent of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two to four years later, six of the monkeys developed alterations in interactive behaviour and cognition and other neurological signs typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). At necropsy examination, the brains from all of the monkeys showed pathological changes similar to those described in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) of man, except that the squirrel monkey brains contained no PrP-amyloid plaques typical of that disease. Constant neuropathological features included spongiform degeneration, gliosis, deposition of abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)) and many deposits of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein (p-Tau) in several areas of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Western blots showed large amounts of proteinase K-resistant prion protein in the central nervous system. The striking absence of PrP plaques (prominent in brains of cynomolgus macaques [Macaca fascicularis] with experimentally-induced BSE and vCJD and in human patients with vCJD) reinforces the conclusion that the host plays a major role in determining the neuropathology of TSEs. Results of this study suggest that p-Tau, found in the brains of all BSE-infected monkeys, might play a role in the pathogenesis of TSEs. Whether p-Tau contributes to development of disease or appears as a secondary change late in the course of illness remains to be determined.

  4. Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils' relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW. PMID:22256112

  5. Presence of subclinical infection in gene-targeted human prion protein transgenic mice exposed to atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Dobie, Karen; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M

    2013-12-01

    The transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to humans, leading to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health. Until recently, TSE disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, BSE, also known as classical BSE, or BSE-C. However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. To model the risk to human health, we previously inoculated these two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and BSE-H) into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP) (HuTg) but were unable to detect any signs of TSE pathology in these mice. However, despite the absence of TSE pathology, upon subpassage of some BASE-challenged HuTg mice, a TSE was observed in recipient gene-targeted bovine PrP Tg (Bov6) mice but not in HuTg mice. Disease transmission from apparently healthy individuals indicates the presence of subclinical BASE infection in mice expressing human PrP that cannot be identified by current diagnostic methods. However, due to the lack of transmission to HuTg mice on subpassage, the efficiency of mouse-to-mouse transmission of BASE appears to be low when mice express human rather than bovine PrP.

  6. Population-Level Retrospective Study of Neurologically Expressed Disorders in Ruminants before the Onset of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in Belgium, a BSE Risk III Country

    PubMed Central

    Saegerman, C.; Berkvens, D.; Claes, L.; Dewaele, A.; Coignoul, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Cassart, D.; Brochier, B.; Costy, F.; Roels, S.; Deluyker, H.; Vanopdenbosch, E.; Thiry, E.

    2005-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study (n = 7,875) of neurologically expressed disorders (NED) in ruminants before the onset of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic (years studied, 1980 to 1997) was carried out in Belgium. The archives of all veterinary laboratories and rabies and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) epidemiosurveillance networks were consulted. For all species, a significantly higher number of NED with virological causes (rabies) was reported south of the Sambre-Meuse Valley. During the period 1992 to 1997, for which the data were complete, (i) the predicted annual incidence of NED varied significantly as a function of species and area (higher numbers in areas where rabies was present) but was always above 100 cases per million, and (ii) the mean incidence of suspected TSE cases and, among them, those investigated by histopathological examination varied significantly as a function of species and area. The positive predictive value of a presumptive clinical diagnosis of NED ranged from 0.13 (game) to 0.63 (sheep). Knowledge of the positive predictive value permits the definition of a reference point before certain actions (e.g., awareness and training campaigns) are undertaken. It also shows the usefulness of a systematic necropsy or complementary laboratory tests to establish an etiological diagnosis. TSE analysis of a small, targeted historical sampling (n = 48) permitted the confirmation of one case and uncovered another case of scrapie. The results of the present study help to develop and maintain the quality of the worldwide clinical epidemiological networks for TSE, especially in countries that in the past imported live animals, animal products, and feedstuffs from countries with TSE cases. PMID:15695693

  7. Estimating the Relative Role of Various Subcategories of Food, Water, and Animal Contact Transmission of 28 Enteric Diseases in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Ainslie J.; Thomas, M. Kate

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Enteric illness represents a significant burden of illness in Canada and internationally. Building on previous research, an expert elicitation was undertaken to explore the routes of transmission for 28 pathogens involved in enteric illness in Canada. This article considers the subcategories of foodborne, waterborne, and animal contact transmission. Methods: As part of an expert elicitation, 31 experts were asked to provide estimates of source attribution for subcategories of foodborne (n = 15), waterborne (n = 10), and animal contact (n = 3) transmission. The results from an online survey were combined using triangular probability distributions, and median and 90% credible intervals were produced. The total proportion and estimated number of cases of enteric illness attributable to each type of food commodity, water source, and animal exposure route were calculated using results from the larger elicitation survey and from a recent Canadian foodborne burden of illness study (Thomas et al., 2013). Results: Thirty experts provided foodborne subcategory estimates for 15/28 pathogens, waterborne subcategory estimates for 14/28 pathogens and animal contact subcategory estimates for 5/28. The elicitation identified raw produce, recreational water, and farm animal contact as important risk factors for enteric illness. These results also highlighted the complexity of transmission, with greater uncertainty for certain pathogens and routes of transmission. Conclusions: This study is the first of its kind to explore subcategories of foodborne, waterborne, and animal contact transmission across such a range of enteric pathogens. Despite inherent uncertainty, these estimates present an important quantitative synthesis of the roles of foodborne commodities, water sources, and pathways of animal contact in the transmission of enteric illness in Canada. PMID:26863428

  8. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

    PubMed Central

    Comoy, Emmanuel E.; Mikol, Jacqueline; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Correia, Evelyne; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Durand, Valérie; Dehen, Capucine; Andreoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Baron, Thierry; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie. PMID:26123044

  9. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period.

    PubMed

    Comoy, Emmanuel E; Mikol, Jacqueline; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Correia, Evelyne; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Durand, Valérie; Dehen, Capucine; Andreoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A; Greenlee, Justin J; Baron, Thierry; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie. PMID:26123044

  10. Shell disorder, immune evasion and transmission behaviors among human and animal retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Goh, Gerard Kian-Meng; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-08-01

    This study involves measurements of percentages of intrinsic disorder (PIDs) in the GAG protein shells of various retroviruses. Unique patterns of shell protein disorder can be seen especially when GAG proteins (matrix M, capsid C, and nucleocapsid N) of primate and non-primate retroviruses are compared. HIV-1 presents the most unique pattern of disorder distribution with generally high levels of disorder in all three proteins, while EIAV (PIDs:: 26, 29, 13) is diametrically different from HIV-1 (N C M PIDs: 39.5 ± 3.0, 44.5 ± 2.6, 56.5 ± 10.8). The HTLV viruses (CPID: 32.8 ± 3.4) resemble HIV-2 (C PID: 26.6 ± 2.9) with a moderately disordered capsid. Totally distinct patterns, however, are seen for the non-primate retroviruses. They generally have highly disordered nucleocapsids (PID > 65%) and more ordered outer shells especially the matrix. These characteristics might be attributed to the differences in the way the retroviruses are transmitted, with non-primate viruses having greater non-sexual transmission components such as oral-fecal transmission. These differences are also evolutionarily related to the ways the viruses evade the host immune systems, and thus, have implications for oncolytic virotherapy and animal models in vaccine research. The importance of protein shell disorder in immune evasion, as related to the case of HIV-1, and the difficult search for its vaccines are highlighted.

  11. Vertical transmission and fetal damage in animal models of congenital toxoplasmosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Besné-Mérida, Alejandro; Correa, Dolores

    2016-06-15

    In humans, the probability of congenital infection and fetal damage due to Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on the gestation period at which primary infection occurs. Many animal models have been used for vaccine, drug testing, or studies on host or parasite factors that affect transmission or fetal pathology, but few works have directly tested fetal infection and damage rates along gestation. So, the purpose of this work was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine if there is a model which reflects these changes as they occur in humans. We looked for papers appearing between 1970 and 2014 in major databases like Medline and Scopus, as well as gray literature. From almost 11,000 citations obtained, only 49 papers fulfilled the criteria of having data of all independent variables and at least one dependent datum for control (untreated) groups. Some interesting findings could be extracted. For example, pigs seem resistant and sheep susceptible to congenital infection. Also, oocysts cause more congenitally infected offspring than tissue cysts, bradyzoites or tachyzoites. In spite of these interesting findings, very few results on vertical transmission or fetal damage rates were similar to those described for humans and only for one of the gestation thirds, not all. Moreover, in most designs tissue cysts - with unknown number of bradyzoites - were used, so actual dose could not be established. The meta-analysis could not be performed, mainly because of great heterogeneity in experimental conditions. Nevertheless, results gathered suggest that a model could be designed to represent the increase in vertical transmission and decrease in fetal damage found in humans under natural conditions.

  12. Vertical transmission and fetal damage in animal models of congenital toxoplasmosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Besné-Mérida, Alejandro; Correa, Dolores

    2016-06-15

    In humans, the probability of congenital infection and fetal damage due to Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on the gestation period at which primary infection occurs. Many animal models have been used for vaccine, drug testing, or studies on host or parasite factors that affect transmission or fetal pathology, but few works have directly tested fetal infection and damage rates along gestation. So, the purpose of this work was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine if there is a model which reflects these changes as they occur in humans. We looked for papers appearing between 1970 and 2014 in major databases like Medline and Scopus, as well as gray literature. From almost 11,000 citations obtained, only 49 papers fulfilled the criteria of having data of all independent variables and at least one dependent datum for control (untreated) groups. Some interesting findings could be extracted. For example, pigs seem resistant and sheep susceptible to congenital infection. Also, oocysts cause more congenitally infected offspring than tissue cysts, bradyzoites or tachyzoites. In spite of these interesting findings, very few results on vertical transmission or fetal damage rates were similar to those described for humans and only for one of the gestation thirds, not all. Moreover, in most designs tissue cysts - with unknown number of bradyzoites - were used, so actual dose could not be established. The meta-analysis could not be performed, mainly because of great heterogeneity in experimental conditions. Nevertheless, results gathered suggest that a model could be designed to represent the increase in vertical transmission and decrease in fetal damage found in humans under natural conditions. PMID:27198800

  13. Spongiform encephalopathy in a captive puma (Felis concolor).

    PubMed

    Willoughby, K; Kelly, D F; Lyon, D G; Wells, G A

    1992-11-01

    A captive adult puma developed ataxia, a hypermetric gait and whole body tremor. The signs progressed over a period of six weeks. Histopathological examination following euthanasia demonstrated spongiform encephalopathy, gliosis and mild non-suppurative meningoencephalitis. Immunostaining with a polyclonal antiserum revealed prion protein (PrP) associated with these changes in sections of cervical spinal cord and medulla. This is the first confirmed case of a scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy described in a non-domestic cat in the United Kingdom.

  14. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy induces misfolding of alleged prion-resistant species cellular prion protein without altering its pathobiological features.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Enric; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Pintado, Belén; Ordóñez, Montserrat; Márquez, Mercedes; Fondevila, Dolors; Torres, Juan María; Pumarola, Martí; Castilla, Joaquín

    2013-05-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions were responsible for an unforeseen epizootic in cattle which had a vast social, economic, and public health impact. This was primarily because BSE prions were found to be transmissible to humans. Other species were also susceptible to BSE either by natural infection (e.g., felids, caprids) or in experimental settings (e.g., sheep, mice). However, certain species closely related to humans, such as canids and leporids, were apparently resistant to BSE. In vitro prion amplification techniques (saPMCA) were used to successfully misfold the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) of these allegedly resistant species into a BSE-type prion protein. The biochemical and biological properties of the new prions generated in vitro after seeding rabbit and dog brain homogenates with classical BSE were studied. Pathobiological features of the resultant prion strains were determined after their inoculation into transgenic mice expressing bovine and human PrP(C). Strain characteristics of the in vitro-adapted rabbit and dog BSE agent remained invariable with respect to the original cattle BSE prion, suggesting that the naturally low susceptibility of rabbits and dogs to prion infections should not alter their zoonotic potential if these animals became infected with BSE. This study provides a sound basis for risk assessment regarding prion diseases in purportedly resistant species.

  15. Assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice overexpressing deer prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Christopher M; Lockey, Richard; Holder, Thomas M; Thorne, Leigh; Beck, Katy E; Wilson, Christina; Denyer, Margaret; Sheehan, John; Marsh, Sarah; Webb, Paul R; Dexter, Ian; Norman, Angela; Popescu, Emma; Schneider, Amanda; Holden, Paul; Griffiths, Peter C; Plater, Jane M; Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Telling, Glenn C; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

    2014-02-01

    Several transgenic mouse models have been developed which facilitate the transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids and allow prion strain discrimination. The present study was designed to assess the susceptibility of the prototypic mouse line, Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-), to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, which have the ability to overcome species barriers. Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-) mice challenged with red deer-adapted BSE resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and BSE from cattle failed to transmit, indicating agent adaptation in the deer.

  16. Feeding of ticks on animals for transmission and xenodiagnosis in Lyme disease research.

    PubMed

    Embers, Monica E; Grasperge, Britton J; Jacobs, Mary B; Philipp, Mario T

    2013-01-01

    Transmission of the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, occurs by the attachment and blood feeding of Ixodes species ticks on mammalian hosts. In nature, this zoonotic bacterial pathogen may use a variety of reservoir hosts, but the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is the primary reservoir for larval and nymphal ticks in North America. Humans are incidental hosts most frequently infected with B. burgdorferi by the bite of ticks in the nymphal stage. B. burgdorferi adapts to its hosts throughout the enzootic cycle, so the ability to explore the functions of these spirochetes and their effects on mammalian hosts requires the use of tick feeding. In addition, the technique of xenodiagnosis (using the natural vector for detection and recovery of an infectious agent) has been useful in studies of cryptic infection. In order to obtain nymphal ticks that harbor B. burgdorferi, ticks are fed live spirochetes in culture through capillary tubes. Two animal models, mice and nonhuman primates, are most commonly used for Lyme disease studies involving tick feeding. We demonstrate the methods by which these ticks can be fed upon, and recovered from animals for either infection or xenodiagnosis. PMID:24022694

  17. Feeding of ticks on animals for transmission and xenodiagnosis in Lyme disease research.

    PubMed

    Embers, Monica E; Grasperge, Britton J; Jacobs, Mary B; Philipp, Mario T

    2013-08-31

    Transmission of the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, occurs by the attachment and blood feeding of Ixodes species ticks on mammalian hosts. In nature, this zoonotic bacterial pathogen may use a variety of reservoir hosts, but the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is the primary reservoir for larval and nymphal ticks in North America. Humans are incidental hosts most frequently infected with B. burgdorferi by the bite of ticks in the nymphal stage. B. burgdorferi adapts to its hosts throughout the enzootic cycle, so the ability to explore the functions of these spirochetes and their effects on mammalian hosts requires the use of tick feeding. In addition, the technique of xenodiagnosis (using the natural vector for detection and recovery of an infectious agent) has been useful in studies of cryptic infection. In order to obtain nymphal ticks that harbor B. burgdorferi, ticks are fed live spirochetes in culture through capillary tubes. Two animal models, mice and nonhuman primates, are most commonly used for Lyme disease studies involving tick feeding. We demonstrate the methods by which these ticks can be fed upon, and recovered from animals for either infection or xenodiagnosis.

  18. Increased susceptibility of transgenic mice expressing human PrP to experimental sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy is not due to increased agent titre in sheep brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Plinston, Chris; Hart, Patricia; Hunter, Nora; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2014-08-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans have previously been shown to be caused by the same strain of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agent. It is hypothesized that the agent spread to humans following consumption of food products prepared from infected cattle. Despite evidence supporting zoonotic transmission, mouse models expressing human prion protein (HuTg) have consistently shown poor transmission rates when inoculated with cattle BSE. Higher rates of transmission have however been observed when these mice are exposed to BSE that has been experimentally transmitted through sheep or goats, indicating that humans may potentially be more susceptible to BSE from small ruminants. Here we demonstrate that increased transmissibility of small ruminant BSE to HuTg mice was not due to replication of higher levels of infectivity in sheep brain tissue, and is instead due to other specific changes in the infectious agent.

  19. Does the Presence of Scrapie Affect the Ability of Current Statutory Discriminatory Tests To Detect the Presence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

    PubMed

    Simmons, M M; Chaplin, M J; Vickery, C M; Simon, S; Davis, L; Denyer, M; Lockey, R; Stack, M J; O'Connor, M J; Bishop, K; Gough, K C; Maddison, B C; Thorne, L; Spiropoulos, J

    2015-08-01

    Current European Commission (EC) surveillance regulations require discriminatory testing of all transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-positive small ruminant (SR) samples in order to classify them as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or non-BSE. This requires a range of tests, including characterization by bioassay in mouse models. Since 2005, naturally occurring BSE has been identified in two goats. It has also been demonstrated that more than one distinct TSE strain can coinfect a single animal in natural field situations. This study assesses the ability of the statutory methods as listed in the regulation to identify BSE in a blinded series of brain samples, in which ovine BSE and distinct isolates of scrapie are mixed at various ratios ranging from 99% to 1%. Additionally, these current statutory tests were compared with a new in vitro discriminatory method, which uses serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). Western blotting consistently detected 50% BSE within a mixture, but at higher dilutions it had variable success. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method consistently detected BSE only when it was present as 99% of the mixture, with variable success at higher dilutions. Bioassay and sPMCA reported BSE in all samples where it was present, down to 1%. sPMCA also consistently detected the presence of BSE in mixtures at 0.1%. While bioassay is the only validated method that allows comprehensive phenotypic characterization of an unknown TSE isolate, the sPMCA assay appears to offer a fast and cost-effective alternative for the screening of unknown isolates when the purpose of the investigation was solely to determine the presence or absence of BSE.

  20. Does the Presence of Scrapie Affect the Ability of Current Statutory Discriminatory Tests To Detect the Presence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

    PubMed

    Simmons, M M; Chaplin, M J; Vickery, C M; Simon, S; Davis, L; Denyer, M; Lockey, R; Stack, M J; O'Connor, M J; Bishop, K; Gough, K C; Maddison, B C; Thorne, L; Spiropoulos, J

    2015-08-01

    Current European Commission (EC) surveillance regulations require discriminatory testing of all transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-positive small ruminant (SR) samples in order to classify them as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or non-BSE. This requires a range of tests, including characterization by bioassay in mouse models. Since 2005, naturally occurring BSE has been identified in two goats. It has also been demonstrated that more than one distinct TSE strain can coinfect a single animal in natural field situations. This study assesses the ability of the statutory methods as listed in the regulation to identify BSE in a blinded series of brain samples, in which ovine BSE and distinct isolates of scrapie are mixed at various ratios ranging from 99% to 1%. Additionally, these current statutory tests were compared with a new in vitro discriminatory method, which uses serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). Western blotting consistently detected 50% BSE within a mixture, but at higher dilutions it had variable success. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method consistently detected BSE only when it was present as 99% of the mixture, with variable success at higher dilutions. Bioassay and sPMCA reported BSE in all samples where it was present, down to 1%. sPMCA also consistently detected the presence of BSE in mixtures at 0.1%. While bioassay is the only validated method that allows comprehensive phenotypic characterization of an unknown TSE isolate, the sPMCA assay appears to offer a fast and cost-effective alternative for the screening of unknown isolates when the purpose of the investigation was solely to determine the presence or absence of BSE. PMID:26041899

  1. The potential size and duration of an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in British sheep.

    PubMed

    Kao, R R; Gravenor, M B; Baylis, M; Bostock, C J; Chihota, C M; Evans, J C; Goldmann, W; Smith, A J A; McLean, A R

    2002-01-11

    Because there is a theoretical possibility that the British national sheep flock is infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), we examined the extent of a putative epidemic. An age cohort analysis based on numbers of infected cattle, dose responses of cattle and sheep to BSE, levels of exposure to infected feed, and number of BSE-susceptible sheep in the United Kingdom showed that at the putative epidemic peak in 1990, the number of cases of BSE-infected sheep would have ranged from fewer than 10 to about 1500. The model predicts that fewer than 20 clinical cases of BSE in sheep would be expected in 2001 if maternal transmission occurred at a rate of 10%. Although there are large uncertainties in the parameter estimates, all indications are that current prevalence is low; however, a simple model of flock-to-flock BSE transmission shows that horizontal transmission, if it has occurred, could eventually cause a large epidemic.

  2. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in South America: a regional preventive approach.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, C; Gimeno, E J; Schudel, A A

    2003-04-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease of cattle caused by prions that was first described in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986. The BSE epizootic that commenced in the UK in the 1980s has since spread into other countries in Europe and Asia through exports of contaminated meat-and-bone meal or infected cattle. Over the past few years, other emerging or reemerging diseases have spread into previously free countries or regions through international trade. This negative effect of globalisation means that to implement successful preventive and strategic programmes to safeguard animal health, such programmes must, as a priority, take a regional approach. Global thinking, regional planning and local performance constitute the key factors for the successful control of animal diseases. In South America, initial preventive actions against BSE were adopted in 1989. Further measures adopted since then and based on new scientific and technical findings, have led to the demonstration that the region is free of BSE. These early preventive actions have reliably protected the region from importing BSE-infected material. An integral part of the project to determine the BSE status of South America was the training of personnel, the incorporation of technology and the provision of updated information through close relationships with international organisations and prominent international researcher workers. Regional activities aimed at harmonising BSE prevention programmes, producing objective and transparent data on the equivalence of regional BSE status and facilitating regional and international trade have recently been launched. Maintaining the BSE-free status of the region must be given high priority by the beef agro-industrial sectors.

  3. Risks of transmitting scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy by semen and embryos.

    PubMed

    Wrathall, A E

    1997-04-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on transmission of scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by semen and embryos. In sheep, in particular, it is difficult to distinguish between the genetic transmission of susceptibility to scrapie and vertical transmission of the infection. Nevertheless, there is evidence that vertical transmission of infection does occur, probably across the placenta, but none to suggest a significant scrapie risk from semen. Two teams have studied scrapie transmission from experimentally infected sheep using embryo transfer. Whereas one team found no evidence for transmission, the results from the other team suggest that embryos, even after washing, might carry the disease into the offspring. In regard to goats, although genetic differences in susceptibility exist, they are much less obvious than in sheep. There is no evidence for vertical transmission or for transmission through semen and embryos. With regard to BSE, although it appears that genetic differences in susceptibility are absent or unimportant, some recent work does suggest that the disease may be passed from cow to calf. The route of transmission and stage or stages when this takes place are unclear, however. In conclusion, despite growing evidence to indicate that scrapie and BSE are unlikely to be transmitted through semen and embryos, more research is needed to confirm this. Furthermore, until all possibility of risk is ruled out, risk reduction methods must be considered, especially when semen and embryos are being imported into countries where the diseases do not exist. PMID:9329121

  4. Sociality and health: impacts of sociality on disease susceptibility and transmission in animal and human societies

    PubMed Central

    Kappeler, Peter M.; Cremer, Sylvia; Nunn, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a theme issue presenting the latest developments in research on the impacts of sociality on health and fitness. The articles that follow cover research on societies ranging from insects to humans. Variation in measures of fitness (i.e. survival and reproduction) has been linked to various aspects of sociality in humans and animals alike, and variability in individual health and condition has been recognized as a key mediator of these relationships. Viewed from a broad evolutionary perspective, the evolutionary transitions from a solitary lifestyle to group living have resulted in several new health-related costs and benefits of sociality. Social transmission of parasites within groups represents a major cost of group living, but some behavioural mechanisms, such as grooming, have evolved repeatedly to reduce this cost. Group living also has created novel costs in terms of altered susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious disease as a result of the unavoidable physiological consequences of social competition and integration, which are partly alleviated by social buffering in some vertebrates. Here, we define the relevant aspects of sociality, summarize their health-related costs and benefits, and discuss possible fitness measures in different study systems. Given the pervasive effects of social factors on health and fitness, we propose a synthesis of existing conceptual approaches in disease ecology, ecological immunology and behavioural neurosciences by adding sociality as a key factor, with the goal to generate a broader framework for organismal integration of health-related research. PMID:25870402

  5. Epidemiological and Genetic Data Supporting the Transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among Human and Domestic Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Traub, Rebecca; Mahmud, Rohela; Mistam, Mohd Sani

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. Methods/Findings A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0–11.7%) and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2–71.2%), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53–8.00; p = 0.003), walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91–10.73; p<0.001) and in close contact with pets or livestock (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.19–7.15; p = 0.009) were more likely to be infected with hookworms. Molecular analysis revealed that while most hookworm-positive individuals were infected with Necator americanus, Ancylostoma ceylanicum constituted 12.8% of single infections and 10.6% mixed infections with N. americanus. As for cats and dogs, 52.0% were positive for A. ceylanicum, 46.0% for Ancylostoma caninum and 2.0% for Ancylostoma braziliense and all were single infections. Conclusion This present study provided evidence based on the combination of epidemiological, conventional diagnostic and molecular tools that A. ceylanicum infection is common and that its transmission dynamic in endemic areas in Malaysia is heightened by the close contact of human and domestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats) populations. PMID:22347515

  6. Reverse Zoonotic Disease Transmission (Zooanthroponosis): A Systematic Review of Seldom-Documented Human Biological Threats to Animals

    PubMed Central

    Messenger, Ali M.; Barnes, Amber N.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research regarding zoonotic diseases often focuses on infectious diseases animals have given to humans. However, an increasing number of reports indicate that humans are transmitting pathogens to animals. Recent examples include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, influenza A virus, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of published literature regarding reverse zoonoses and highlight the need for future work in this area. Methods An initial broad literature review yielded 4763 titles, of which 4704 were excluded as not meeting inclusion criteria. After careful screening, 56 articles (from 56 countries over three decades) with documented human-to-animal disease transmission were included in this report. Findings In these publications, 21 (38%) pathogens studied were bacterial, 16 (29%) were viral, 12 (21%) were parasitic, and 7 (13%) were fungal, other, or involved multiple pathogens. Effected animals included wildlife (n = 28, 50%), livestock (n = 24, 43%), companion animals (n = 13, 23%), and various other animals or animals not explicitly mentioned (n = 2, 4%). Published reports of reverse zoonoses transmission occurred in every continent except Antarctica therefore indicating a worldwide disease threat. Interpretation As we see a global increase in industrial animal production, the rapid movement of humans and animals, and the habitats of humans and wild animals intertwining with great complexity, the future promises more opportunities for humans to cause reverse zoonoses. Scientific research must be conducted in this area to provide a richer understanding of emerging and reemerging disease threats. As a result, multidisciplinary approaches such as One Health will be needed to mitigate these problems. PMID:24586500

  7. Use of competing conceptions of risk in animal agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, H O; Thompson, P B; Miller, B A; Skaggs, C L

    1998-03-01

    This study considers a theory of risk as a means of coping with risk and uncertainty that have become a growing reality for animal agriculture. Microbial contaminations of food, waste management, animal products in the human diet, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) incorporate different conceptions of risk and require different approaches to handling the uncertainty involved. A dichotomous schema is suggested to assist understanding risk that may be adapted to recognizing and handling risk. The polar aspects of the proposal are the probabilistic approach at one end and the contextual understanding at the other. Probabilist conceptions of risk presume that risk is determined by probability and consequence. Contextual conceptions presume that management, law, regulation, media, and public perceptions, as well as the severity of the consequence, will figure prominently in decision making in the face of uncertainty. Relative emphasis on probabilistic characteristics shapes distinct understandings of risk that can be plotted between the poles. We are proposing that these conceptualizations need not be issues only for debate but also for recognition of the probabilistic or contextual nature of the risk. Specific actions and policy may be constructed on the basis of the conceptualization. The bovine spongiform encephalopathy/new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease complex is examined philosophically and methodologically as a contextual challenge to animal agriculture and associated industries. As such, the TSE serve as a case study of effective application of risk theory to risks in animal agriculture. PMID:9535327

  8. Transmission of Schistosoma japonicum by humans and domestic animals in the Yangtze River valley, Anhui province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Ping; Vang Johansen, Maria; Zhang, Shi-Qing; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wu, Wei-Duo; Zhang, Gong-Hua; Pan, Xin-Ping; Ju, Yang; Ørnbjerg, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the relative contribution to transmission of Schistosoma japonicum by humans and domestic animals in two villages in the Yangtze River valley in Anhui province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum in humans, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, pigs, goats, dogs and cats. Additionally, for each host species the number of individuals and the mean faecal excretion per day was determined. Results showed that both prevalence and intensity of infection varied significantly between species and between the two villages and neither of the variables gave an adequate picture of the potential transmission. Total daily egg excretion was significantly higher in Chenqiao village compared with Guanghui village. Whereas humans were the main contributors to transmission of schistosomiasis in Guanghui village (80.4%), water buffaloes accounted for nearly 90% and goats for more than 5% of the transmission in Chenqiao village. Hence, the present study suggests that schistosomiasis transmission might vary significantly within Chinese farm districts and successful control should rely on prior transmission index determinations on major potential contributors rather than routine data of prevalence and intensity of infection. Further studies should determine the value of adding other transmission variables like egg hatchability and faecal deposition habits.

  9. 78 FR 72859 - Concurrence With OIE Risk Designations for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) risk designations for 14 regions. The OIE recognizes these regions as being... ``Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products,'' Docket No. APHIS-2008... regions for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) risk. Section 92.5 of the regulations provides that...

  10. Prion and prion-like diseases in animals.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; García, Consolación; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Andreoletti, Olivier; Torres, Juan María

    2015-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopaties (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the aggregation and accumulation of the misfolded prion protein in the brain. Other proteins such as β-amyloid, tau or Serum Amyloid-A (SAA) seem to share with prions some aspects of their pathogenic mechanism; causing a variety of so called prion-like diseases in humans and/or animals such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, Type II diabetes mellitus or amyloidosis. The question remains whether these misfolding proteins have the ability to self-propagate and transmit in a similar manner to prions. In this review, we describe the prion and prion-like diseases affecting animals as well as the recent findings suggesting the prion-like transmissibility of certain non-prion proteins.

  11. Prion diseases as transmissible zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-02-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  12. Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  13. Generation of a persistently infected MDBK cell line with natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

    PubMed

    Tark, Dongseob; Kim, Hyojin; Neale, Michael H; Kim, Minjeong; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Insoo; Joo, Yiseok; Windl, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) thought to be caused by the same prion strain as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Unlike scrapie and chronic wasting disease there is no cell culture model allowing the replication of proteinase K resistant BSE (PrPBSE) and the further in vitro study of this disease. We have generated a cell line based on the Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line over-expressing the bovine prion protein. After exposure to naturally BSE-infected bovine brain homogenate this cell line has shown to replicate and accumulate PrPBSE and maintain infection up to passage 83 after initial challenge. Collectively, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the BSE agent can infect cell lines over-expressing the bovine prion protein similar to other prion diseases. These BSE infected cells will provide a useful tool to facilitate the study of potential therapeutic agents and the diagnosis of BSE.

  14. Generation of a Persistently Infected MDBK Cell Line with Natural Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

    PubMed Central

    Tark, Dongseob; Kim, Hyojin; Neale, Michael H.; Kim, Minjeong; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Insoo; Joo, Yiseok; Windl, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) thought to be caused by the same prion strain as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Unlike scrapie and chronic wasting disease there is no cell culture model allowing the replication of proteinase K resistant BSE (PrPBSE) and the further in vitro study of this disease. We have generated a cell line based on the Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line over-expressing the bovine prion protein. After exposure to naturally BSE-infected bovine brain homogenate this cell line has shown to replicate and accumulate PrPBSE and maintain infection up to passage 83 after initial challenge. Collectively, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the BSE agent can infect cell lines over-expressing the bovine prion protein similar to other prion diseases. These BSE infected cells will provide a useful tool to facilitate the study of potential therapeutic agents and the diagnosis of BSE. PMID:25647616

  15. Transmissible amyloid.

    PubMed

    Tjernberg, L O; Rising, A; Johansson, J; Jaudzems, K; Westermark, P

    2016-08-01

    There are around 30 human diseases associated with protein misfolding and amyloid formation, each one caused by a certain protein or peptide. Many of these diseases are lethal and together they pose an enormous burden to society. The prion protein has attracted particular interest as being shown to be the pathogenic agent in transmissible diseases such as kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Whether similar transmission could occur also in other amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and serum amyloid A amyloidosis is a matter of intense research and debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that novel biomaterials such as artificial spider silk are potentially amyloidogenic. Here, we provide a brief introduction to amyloid, prions and other proteins involved in amyloid disease and review recent evidence for their potential transmission. We discuss the similarities and differences between amyloid and silk, as well as the potential hazards associated with protein-based biomaterials. PMID:27002185

  16. Transmission of the virus of foot and mouth disease between animals and man*

    PubMed Central

    Hyslop, N. St. G.

    1973-01-01

    The virus of foot and mouth disease causes severe epizootics in animals and infrequently evokes painful, but transient, clinical signs in man. Adults in certain occupational groups and young children are particularly exposed to risk. Infected persons may disseminate virus for up to about 14 days. The virus can be transmitted from animals to animals, from animals to man, from man to animals and, probably, from man to man. Evidence for transfer of the disease between human and animal populations is reviewed in detail and modern methods of diagnosis are described. Predisposing factors play an important role in the development of overt foot and mouth disease in man. Subclinical infection occurs. The possibility of aerial transfer of the virus between man and domestic livestock constitutes a hazard, especially to the latter. Attention is directed to the need for sophisticated diagnostic techniques, to requirements for adequate precautions in the handling and disposal of affected animals, and to hygienic measures for disease control. PMID:4374322

  17. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form since several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP**res) were different from classical BSE...

  18. Detection of PrP(Sc) in peripheral tissues of clinically affected cattle after oral challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Franz, Martin; Eiden, Martin; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Greenlee, Justin; Schatzl, Hermann; Fast, Christine; Richt, Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Groschup, Martin H

    2012-12-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative prion disease that mainly affects cattle. Transmission of BSE to humans caused a variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Following infection, the protease-resistant, disease-associated isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulates in the central nervous system and in other tissues. Many countries have defined bovine tissues that may contain prions as specified risk materials, which must not enter the human or animal food chains and therefore must be discarded. Ultrasensitive techniques such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) have been developed to detect PrP(Sc) when present in minuscule amounts that are not readily detected by other diagnostic methods such as immunohistochemistry or Western blotting. This study was conducted to determine when and where PrP(Sc) can be found by PMCA in cattle orally challenged with BSE. A total of 48 different tissue samples from four cattle infected orally with BSE at various clinical stages of disease were examined using a standardized PMCA protocol. The protocol used brain homogenate from bovine PrP transgenic mice (Tgbov XV) as substrate and three consecutive rounds of PMCA. Using this protocol, PrP(Sc) was found in the brain, spinal cord, nerve ganglia, optic nerve and Peyer's patches. The presence of PrP(Sc) was confirmed in adrenal glands, as well as in mesenteric lymph nodes - a finding that was reported recently by another group. Interestingly, additional positive results were obtained for the first time in the oesophagus, abomasum, rumen and rectum of clinically affected cattle.

  19. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meals in animal feed by real-time polymerase chain reaction: result of an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marta; Berben, Gilbert; Fumière, Olivier; van Duijn, Gert; Mensinga-Kruize, Jonne; Reaney, Scott; Boix, Ana; von Holst, Christoph

    2007-09-01

    The commercialization of animal feeds infected by prions proved to be the main cause of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, feed bans were enforced, initially for ruminant feeds, and later for all feeds for farmed animals. The development and validation of analytical methods for the species-specific detection of animal proteins in animal feed has been indicated in the TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) Roadmap (European Commission. The TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy) roadmap. URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/food/biosafety/bse/roadmap_en.pdf, 2005) as the main condition for lifting the extended feed ban. Methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) seem to be a promising solution for this aim. The main objective of this study was to determine the applicability of four different real-time PCR methods, developed by three National expert laboratories from the European Union (EU), for the detection and identification of cattle or ruminant species in typical compound feeds, fortified with meat and bone meals (MBM) from different animal species at different concentration levels. The MBM samples utilized in this study have been treated using the sterilization condition mandatory within the European Union (steam pressure sterilization at 133 degrees C, 3 bar, and 20 min), which is an additional challenge to the PCR methods evaluated in this study. The results indicate that the three labs applying their PCR methods were able to detect 0.1% of cattle MBM, either alone or in mixtures with different materials such as fishmeal, which demonstrates the improvement made by this technique, especially when compared with results from former interlaboratory studies. PMID:17725317

  20. [Vancomycin-resistant enterococci - the nature of resistance and risk of transmission from animals to humans].

    PubMed

    Hermanovská, Lýdia; Bardoň, Jan; Čermák, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora of humans and animals. Under certain circumstances, they are capable of extraintestinal conversion to opportunistic pathogens. They cause endogenous as well as exogenous community and nosocomial infections. The gastrointestinal tract of mammals provides them with favorable conditions for acquisition and spread of resistance genes, for example to vancomycin (van), from other symbiotic bacteria. Thus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) become potential reservoirs and vectors of the van genes. Their occurrence in the population of the Czech Republic was first reported by Kolář et al. in 1997. Some variants of the vanA gene cluster carried on Tn1546 which encode resistance to vancomycin are identical in humans and in animals. It means that animals, especially cattle, poultry and pigs, could be an important reservoir of VRE for humans. Kolář and Bardoň detected VRE in animals in the Czech Republic for the first time in 2000. In Europe, the glycopeptide antibiotic avoparcin, used as a growth stimulator, is responsible for selection of VRE strains in animals. Strains of Enterococcus faecium from animals may offer genes of antimicrobial resistance to other enterococci or they can be directly dangerous to human. This is demonstrated by finding isolates of E. faecalis from human patients and from pigs having very similar profiles of resistance and virulence genes. The goal of the paper was to point out the similarity between isolates of human and animal strains of enterococci resistant to vancomycin, and the possibility of their bilateral transfer between humans and animals.

  1. [Vancomycin-resistant enterococci - the nature of resistance and risk of transmission from animals to humans].

    PubMed

    Hermanovská, Lýdia; Bardoň, Jan; Čermák, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora of humans and animals. Under certain circumstances, they are capable of extraintestinal conversion to opportunistic pathogens. They cause endogenous as well as exogenous community and nosocomial infections. The gastrointestinal tract of mammals provides them with favorable conditions for acquisition and spread of resistance genes, for example to vancomycin (van), from other symbiotic bacteria. Thus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) become potential reservoirs and vectors of the van genes. Their occurrence in the population of the Czech Republic was first reported by Kolář et al. in 1997. Some variants of the vanA gene cluster carried on Tn1546 which encode resistance to vancomycin are identical in humans and in animals. It means that animals, especially cattle, poultry and pigs, could be an important reservoir of VRE for humans. Kolář and Bardoň detected VRE in animals in the Czech Republic for the first time in 2000. In Europe, the glycopeptide antibiotic avoparcin, used as a growth stimulator, is responsible for selection of VRE strains in animals. Strains of Enterococcus faecium from animals may offer genes of antimicrobial resistance to other enterococci or they can be directly dangerous to human. This is demonstrated by finding isolates of E. faecalis from human patients and from pigs having very similar profiles of resistance and virulence genes. The goal of the paper was to point out the similarity between isolates of human and animal strains of enterococci resistant to vancomycin, and the possibility of their bilateral transfer between humans and animals. PMID:27450523

  2. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  3. [Identification of Animal Whole Blood Based on Near Infrared Transmission Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Jian; Liu, Peng-xi; Zhang, Ting-ting

    2016-01-01

    The inspection and classification for blood products are important but complicated in import-export ports or inspection and quarantine departments. For the inspection of whole blood products, open sampling can cause pollution and virulence factors in bloods samples may even endanger inspectors. Thus non-contact classification and identification methods for whole bloods of animals are needed. Spectroscopic techniques adopted in the flowcytometry need sampling blood cells during the detection; therefore they can not meet the demand of non-contact identification and classification for whole bloods of animals. Infrared absorption spectroscopy is a technique that can be used to analyze the molecular structure and chemical bonds of detected samples under the condition of non-contact. To find a feasible spectroscopic approach of non-contact detection for the species variation in whole blood samples, a near infrared transmitted spectra (NITS, 4 497.669 - 7 506.4 cm(-1)) experiment of whole blood samples of three common animals including chickens, dogs and cats has been conducted. During the experiment, the spectroscopic resolution is 5 cm(-1), and each spectrogram is an average of 5 measured spectral data. Experimental results show that all samples have a sharp absorption peak between 5 184 and 5 215 cm(-1), and a gentle absorption peak near 7 000 cm(-1). Besides, the NITS curves of different samples of same animals are similar, and only have slight differences in the whole transmittance. A correlation coefficient (CC) is induced to distinguish the differences of the three animals' whole bloods in NITS curves, and the computed CCs between NITS curves of different samples of the same animals, are greater than 0.99, whereas CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of different animals are from 0.509 48 to 0.916 13. Among which CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of chickens and cats are from 0.857 23 to 0.912 44, CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of

  4. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, has been reported in captive and free-ranging cervids. An abnormal isoform of a prion protein (PrP-CWD) has been associated with CWD in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and this prion protein can be detected with i...

  5. [Analysis of risk factors associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Cané, B G; Gimeno, E J; Manetti, J C; Van Gelderen, C; Ulloa, E; Schudel, A A

    1993-12-01

    Epidemiological studies conducted in the United Kingdom have revealed the risk factors involved in the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). This has facilitated a detailed study of risk factors associated with the possible introduction of BSE into Argentina. An analysis has been made of the numbers and geographical distribution of cattle in the country, the structure of the Veterinary Services responsible for controlling animal diseases, the way in which cattle and sheep are slaughtered, and the use of slaughter waste in the feed industry. The results of this analysis form the basis of a discussion of whether scrapie or BSE could become endemic in Argentina through contaminated feed or another route. The authors conclude that Argentina may be regarded as free from BSE, and that the importation of infected bovines is the sole potential risk for introduction of BSE in the future. PMID:8312622

  6. Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of transmissible mink encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis to the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE) and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques as...

  7. Planning for rapid response to outbreaks of animal diseases transmissible to humans via food.

    PubMed

    Savelli, C J; Abela-Ridder, B; Miyagishima, K

    2013-08-01

    Planning for rapid response to outbreaks of foodborne zoonoses requires coordination and intersectoral collaboration, making the process inherently complex. Guidance documents have been published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) on the topics of foodborne outbreak investigation, establishing food safety emergency response plans, applying risk analysis principles during food safety emergencies, and developing national food recall systems. These guides should be used as resources by national authorities to develop national plans which should each reference the other in order to maintain consistency at the country level. FAO and WHO, together with the World Organisation for Animal Health (O1E), are the international organisations responsible at the global level for the health of people and animals and for food safety and security. As such, these organisations need to continue to work together to develop an intersectoral mechanism to conduct robust and timely joint risk assessments in the face of foodborne outbreaks and other food safety emergencies. Three international instruments have the potential to aid countries in their preparedness to face outbreaks of foodborne zoonoses and organise subsequent response efforts: the International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN), the newly enhanced Global Early Warning System for Major Animal Diseases, including Zoonoses (GLEWS+), and the FAO Emergency Prevention System for Food Safety (EMPRES Food Safety). PMID:24547650

  8. A small animal PET based on GAPDs and charge signal transmission approach for hybrid PET-MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jihoon; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Hu, Wei; Jung, Jin Ho; Huh, Yoonsuk; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2011-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) employing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) and charge signal transmission approach was developed for small animal imaging. Animal PET contained 16 LYSO and GAPD detector modules that were arranged in a 70 mm diameter ring with an axial field of view of 13 mm. The GAPDs charge output signals were transmitted to a preamplifier located remotely using 300 cm flexible flat cables. The position decoder circuits (PDCs) were used to multiplex the PET signals from 256 to 4 channels. The outputs of the PDCs were digitized and further-processed in the data acquisition unit. The cross-compatibilities of the PET detectors and MRI were assessed outside and inside the MRI. Experimental studies of the developed full ring PET were performed to examine the spatial resolution and sensitivity. Phantom and mouse images were acquired to examine the imaging performance. The mean energy and time resolution of the PET detector were 17.6% and 1.5 ns, respectively. No obvious degradation on PET and MRI was observed during simultaneous PET-MRI data acquisition. The measured spatial resolution and sensitivity at the CFOV were 2.8 mm and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, a 3 mm diameter line source was clearly resolved in the hot-sphere phantom images. The reconstructed transaxial PET images of the mouse brain and tumor displaying the glucose metabolism patterns were imaged well. These results demonstrate GAPD and the charge signal transmission approach can allow the development of high performance small animal PET with improved MR compatibility.

  9. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and its epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter G; Bradley, Ray

    2003-01-01

    Since the recognition of BSE in 1986, over 180,000 cattle in the UK have developed the disease and 1-3 million are likely to have been infected with the BSE agent, most of which were slaughtered for human consumption before developing signs of the disease. The origin of the first case of BSE is unknown, but the epidemic was caused by the recycling of processed waste parts of cattle, some of which were infected with the BSE agent, to other cattle in feed. Control measures have resulted in the consistent decline of the epidemic in the UK since 1992. Cattle and feed exported from the UK have seeded smaller epidemics in other European countries, where control measures were applied later. If the control measures now in place to protect public and animal health are well enforced, the epidemic in cattle should be largely under control and any remaining risk to humans through the consumption of beef should be very small.

  10. Disease characteristics of bovine spongiform encephalopathy following inoculation into mice via three different routes.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Christopher M; Beck, Katy E; Simmons, Marion M; Hawkins, Stephen A C; Spiropoulos, John

    2013-10-01

    Mouse-adapted transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) strains are routinely distinguished based on reproducible disease characteristics in a given mouse line following inoculation via a consistent route. We investigated whether different administration routes (oral, intragastric (i.g.) and intracerebral (i.c.)) can alter the disease characteristics in IM mice after serial dilution of a stabilized mouse-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) strain (301V). In addition, the infectivity of distal ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes (ln) sampled at three time points (35 days postinoculation (dpi), 70 dpi and terminal disease) after i.g. inoculation of 301V strain was assessed in mice by i.c. challenge. Strain characteristics were assessed according to standard methodology and PrP(Sc) immunohistochemistry deposition patterns. Mean incubation periods were prolonged following oral or i.g. inoculations compared to the i.c. route. Lesion profiles following i.c. challenges were elevated compared to i.g. and oral routes although vacuolation in the dorsal medulla was consistently high irrespective of the route of administration. Nevertheless, the same PrP(Sc) deposition pattern was associated with each route of administration. Distal and mesenteric ln infectivity was detected as early as 35 dpi and displayed consistent lesion profiles and PrP(Sc) deposition patterns. Our data suggest that although 301V retained its properties, some phenotypic parameters were affected by the route of inoculation. We conclude that bioassay data should be interpreted carefully and should be standardized for route of inoculation.

  11. Evaluating the risk of pathogen transmission from wild animals to domestic pigs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Hayley E; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Lapidge, Steven J; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Wild animals contribute to endemic infection in livestock as well as the introduction, reintroduction and maintenance of pathogens. The source of introduction of endemic diseases to a piggery is often unknown and the extent of wildlife contribution to such local spread is largely unexplored. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively assess the probability of domestic pigs being exposed to different pathogens from wild animals commonly found around commercial piggeries in Australia. Specifically, this study aims to quantify the probability of exposure to the pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. from European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus); Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Lawsonia intracellularis and Salmonella spp. from rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus); and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Leptospira spp., Brucella suis and L. intracellularis from feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Exposure assessments, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation modelling, were conducted to identify potential pathways of introduction and calculate the probabilities of these pathways occurring. Input parameters were estimated from a national postal survey of commercial pork producers and from disease detection studies conducted for European starlings, rats and feral pigs in close proximity to commercial piggeries in Australia. Based on the results of the exposure assessments, rats presented the highest probability of exposure of pathogens to domestic pigs at any point in time, and L. intracellularis (median 0.13, 5% and 95%, 0.05-0.23) and B. hyodysenteriae (median 0.10, 0.05-0.19) were the most likely pathogens to be transmitted. Regarding European starlings, the median probability of exposure of domestic pigs to pathogenic E. coli at any point in time was estimated to be 0.03 (0.02-0.04). The highest probability of domestic pig exposure to feral pig pathogens at any point in time was found to be for M. hyopneumoniae (median 0.013, 0

  12. Evaluating the risk of pathogen transmission from wild animals to domestic pigs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Hayley E; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Lapidge, Steven J; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Wild animals contribute to endemic infection in livestock as well as the introduction, reintroduction and maintenance of pathogens. The source of introduction of endemic diseases to a piggery is often unknown and the extent of wildlife contribution to such local spread is largely unexplored. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively assess the probability of domestic pigs being exposed to different pathogens from wild animals commonly found around commercial piggeries in Australia. Specifically, this study aims to quantify the probability of exposure to the pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. from European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus); Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Lawsonia intracellularis and Salmonella spp. from rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus); and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Leptospira spp., Brucella suis and L. intracellularis from feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Exposure assessments, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation modelling, were conducted to identify potential pathways of introduction and calculate the probabilities of these pathways occurring. Input parameters were estimated from a national postal survey of commercial pork producers and from disease detection studies conducted for European starlings, rats and feral pigs in close proximity to commercial piggeries in Australia. Based on the results of the exposure assessments, rats presented the highest probability of exposure of pathogens to domestic pigs at any point in time, and L. intracellularis (median 0.13, 5% and 95%, 0.05-0.23) and B. hyodysenteriae (median 0.10, 0.05-0.19) were the most likely pathogens to be transmitted. Regarding European starlings, the median probability of exposure of domestic pigs to pathogenic E. coli at any point in time was estimated to be 0.03 (0.02-0.04). The highest probability of domestic pig exposure to feral pig pathogens at any point in time was found to be for M. hyopneumoniae (median 0.013, 0

  13. H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism: clinical and pathologic features in wild-type and E211K cattle following intracranial inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 an H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) case was reported in an animal with an unusual polymorphism (E211K) in the prion protein gene. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele are predisposed to rapid onset of H-type BSE when exposed. The ...

  14. Identification of a Highly Transmissible Animal-Independent Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Clone with Distinct Genomic and Cell Adhesion Properties

    PubMed Central

    Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Porcella, Stephen F.; Trivedi, Sheetal; Sullivan, Sean B.; Hafer, Cory; Kennedy, Adam D.; Barbian, Kent D.; McCarthy, Alex J.; Street, Craig; Hirschberg, David L.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Lindsay, Jodi A.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Lowy, Franklin D.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone known as ST398 has emerged as a major cause of acute infections in individuals who have close contact with livestock. More recently, the emergence of an animal-independent ST398 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) clone has been documented in several countries. However, the limited surveillance of MSSA has precluded an accurate assessment of the global spread of ST398 and its clinical relevance. Here we provide evidence that ST398 is a frequent source of MSSA infections in northern Manhattan and is readily transmitted between individuals in households. This contrasts with the limited transmissibility of livestock-associated ST398 (LA-ST398) MRSA strains between humans. Our whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that the chromosome of the human-associated ST398 MSSA clone is smaller than that of the LA-ST398 MRSA reference strain S0385, due mainly to fewer mobile genetic elements (MGEs). In contrast, human ST398 MSSA isolates harbored the prophage φ3 and the human-specific immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes chp and scn. While most of the core genome was conserved between the human ST398 MSSA clone and S0385, these strains differed substantially in their repertoire and composition of intact adhesion genes. These genetic changes were associated with significantly enhanced adhesion of human ST398 MSSA isolates to human skin keratinocytes and keratin. We propose that the human ST398 MSSA clone can spread independent of animal contact using an optimized repertoire of MGEs and adhesion molecules adapted to transmission among humans. PMID:22375071

  15. Potential for transmission of prion disease by contact lenses: an assessment of risk.

    PubMed

    Hogan, R Nick

    2003-01-01

    Prions are small proteinaceous infectious agents known to cause central nervous system infections in both animals and humans. Interest in the pathogenesis of these diseases has grown since the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad cow disease") in the United Kingdom and several other countries in Europe. Ingestion of meat products from animals infected with BSE has resulted in transmission of the disease to humans as a variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD). CJD has a long asymptomatic incubation period, is untreatable, and universally fatal. Hence concern has arisen over other possible routes of disease transmission. Because it is known that prions are found in low levels in the corneas of animals with experimentally induced prion disease, and that a case of human CJD transmission by corneal transplantation has occurred, the question of possible prion transmission through the reuse of diagnostic fitting of contact lenses has surfaced. This article reviews prion diseases of animals and humans, and the data regarding the presence and location of prions in the eye. Issues inherent in the question of corneal and contact lens transmission are discussed. Although some key information has yet to be derived, it appears that the chance of obtaining prion disease through contact lens use is negligible. PMID:12772730

  16. Antigen retrieval using sodium hydroxide for prion immunohistochemistry in bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Sato, Y; Sata, T; Sakurai, M; Endo, J; Yokoyama, T; Mohri, S

    2011-05-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections are usually used for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses in prion diseases in animals and man. However, formalin fixation cross-links proteins, reducing disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) immunolabelling. To detect PrP(Sc) in animals naturally affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie, we applied minimal pretreatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). This simple pretreatment, combined with enzymatic digestion using proteinase K (PK), was equally effective in the detection of PrP(Sc) in FFPE tissue, and superior in terms of speed, compared with the usual autoclaving method. The most effective results, without any section loss, were obtained with 10 μg/ml PK in phosphate buffered saline containing 0.1% Triton-X at room temperature for 10 min and 150 mM NaOH at 60 °C for 10 min. By this simple procedure, PrP(Sc) was visualized in the brain of animals with BSE and scrapie using a range of anti-PrP primary antibodies.

  17. Social and Economic Aspects of the Transmission of Pathogenic Bacteria between Wildlife and Food Animals: A Thematic Analysis of Published Research Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fournier, A; Young, I; Rajić, A; Greig, J; LeJeune, J

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife is a known reservoir of pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella spp. Transmission of these pathogens between wildlife and food animals can lead to damaging impacts on the agri-food industry and public health. Several international case studies have highlighted the complex and cross-sectoral challenges involved in preventing and managing these potential transmission risks. The objective of our study was to develop a better understanding of the socio-economic aspects of the transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals to support more effective and sustainable risk mitigation strategies. We conducted qualitative thematic analysis on a purposive sample of 30/141 articles identified in a complementary scoping review of the literature in this area and identified two key themes. The first related to the framing of this issue as a 'wicked problem' that depends on a complex interaction of social factors and risk perceptions, governance and public policy, and economic implications. The second theme consisted of promising approaches and strategies to prevent and mitigate the potential risks from transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals. These included participatory, collaborative and multidisciplinary decision-making approaches and the proactive incorporation of credible scientific evidence and local contextual factors into solutions. The integration of these approaches to address 'wicked problems' in this field may assist stakeholders and decision-makers in improving the acceptability and sustainability of future strategies to reduce the transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals. PMID:25611914

  18. Social and Economic Aspects of the Transmission of Pathogenic Bacteria between Wildlife and Food Animals: A Thematic Analysis of Published Research Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fournier, A; Young, I; Rajić, A; Greig, J; LeJeune, J

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife is a known reservoir of pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella spp. Transmission of these pathogens between wildlife and food animals can lead to damaging impacts on the agri-food industry and public health. Several international case studies have highlighted the complex and cross-sectoral challenges involved in preventing and managing these potential transmission risks. The objective of our study was to develop a better understanding of the socio-economic aspects of the transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals to support more effective and sustainable risk mitigation strategies. We conducted qualitative thematic analysis on a purposive sample of 30/141 articles identified in a complementary scoping review of the literature in this area and identified two key themes. The first related to the framing of this issue as a 'wicked problem' that depends on a complex interaction of social factors and risk perceptions, governance and public policy, and economic implications. The second theme consisted of promising approaches and strategies to prevent and mitigate the potential risks from transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals. These included participatory, collaborative and multidisciplinary decision-making approaches and the proactive incorporation of credible scientific evidence and local contextual factors into solutions. The integration of these approaches to address 'wicked problems' in this field may assist stakeholders and decision-makers in improving the acceptability and sustainability of future strategies to reduce the transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals.

  19. Detection of typical and atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie prion strains by prion protein motif-grafted antibodies.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Francesca; Acutis, Pierluigi; Mazza, Maria; Nodari, Sabrina; Colussi, Silvia; Corona, Cristiano; Barocci, Simone; Gabrielli, Armando; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Moroncini, Gianluca

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate further the reactivity of prion-specific monoclonal antibodies containing the 89-112 or 136-158 prion protein (PrP) polypeptides, immunoprecipitations were performed on brain extracts from Italian bovines, sheep and goats with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. No binding of IgG 89-112 or IgG 136-158 to PrP in normal brain extracts was detected. Conversely, both reagents immunoprecipitated PrP from bovine and bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathies, and from typical and atypical scrapie brain extracts. The immunoprecipitated PrP bands mirrored the Western blot (WB) profile of the different prion strains, indicating universal affinity of two independent PrP regions for disease-associated PrP conformers regardless of species source and strain properties. Immunoprecipitation with motif-grafted antibodies increased the sensitivity of conventional detection methods based on centrifugation followed by WB, which was confirmed by assay of diluted samples using both methods. These reagents or derivative molecules may thus find broad applications in prion detection and research.

  20. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R M

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose. PMID:16032229

  1. Comparison of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Isolates in Raccoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Owing to its susceptibility to various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and relatively short incubation times, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) has been suggested as a model for TSE strain differentiation. Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disease of undetermined origin in...

  2. Retinal function and morphology are altered in cattle infected with the prion disease transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, J D; Greenlee, J J; Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Greenlee, M H West

    2009-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein-contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations, the specific effect of abnormal prion protein on retinal morphology and function has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential functional and morphologic abnormalities in the retinas of cattle infected with a bovine-adapted isolate of transmissible mink encephalopathy. We used electroretinography and immunohistochemistry to examine retinas from 10 noninoculated and 5 transmissible mink encephalopathy-inoculated adult Holstein steers. Here we show altered retinal function, as evidenced by prolonged implicit time of the electroretinogram b-wave, in transmissible mink encephalopathy-infected cattle before the onset of clinical illness. We also demonstrate disruption of rod bipolar cell synaptic terminals, indicated by decreased immunoreactivity for the alpha isoform of protein kinase C and vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and activation of Müller glia, as evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase expression, in the retinas of these cattle at the time of euthanasia due to clinical deterioration. This is the first study to identify both functional and morphologic alterations in the retinas of TSE-infected cattle. Our results support future efforts to focus on the retina for the development of

  3. Genetic Adaptation of Influenza A Viruses in Domestic Animals and Their Potential Role in Interspecies Transmission: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Olga; De Nardi, Marco; van der Meulen, Karen; van Reeth, Kristien; Koopmans, Marion; Harris, Kate; von Dobschuetz, Sophie; Freidl, Gudrun; Meijer, Adam; Breed, Andrew; Hill, Andrew; Kosmider, Rowena; Banks, Jill; Stärk, Katharina D C; Wieland, Barbara; Stevens, Kim; van der Werf, Sylvie; Enouf, Vincent; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Dundon, William; Cattoli, Giovanni; Capua, Ilaria

    2016-03-01

    In December 2011, the European Food Safety Authority awarded a Grant for the implementation of the FLURISK project. The main objective of FLURISK was the development of an epidemiological and virological evidence-based influenza risk assessment framework (IRAF) to assess influenza A virus strains circulating in the animal population according to their potential to cross the species barrier and cause infections in humans. With the purpose of gathering virological data to include in the IRAF, a literature review was conducted and key findings are presented here. Several adaptive traits have been identified in influenza viruses infecting domestic animals and a significance of these adaptations for the emergence of zoonotic influenza, such as shift in receptor preference and mutations in the replication proteins, has been hypothesized. Nonetheless, and despite several decades of research, a comprehensive understanding of the conditions that facilitate interspecies transmission is still lacking. This has been hampered by the intrinsic difficulties of the subject and the complexity of correlating environmental, viral and host factors. Finding the most suitable and feasible way of investigating these factors in laboratory settings represents another challenge. The majority of the studies identified through this review focus on only a subset of species, subtypes and genes, such as influenza in avian species and avian influenza viruses adapting to humans, especially in the context of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. Further research applying a holistic approach and investigating the broader influenza genetic spectrum is urgently needed in the field of genetic adaptation of influenza A viruses. PMID:25630935

  4. Emergence of a novel bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion from an atypical H-type BSE

    PubMed Central

    Masujin, Kentaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Imamura, Morikazu; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The H-type of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) was serially passaged in bovinized transgenic (TgBoPrP) mice. At the fourth passage, most challenged mice showed a typical H-BSE phenotype with incubation periods of 223 ± 7.8 days. However, a different phenotype of BSE prion with shorter incubation periods of 109 ± 4 days emerged in a minor subset of the inoculated mice. The latter showed distinct clinical signs, brain pathology, and abnormal prion protein profiles as compared to H-BSE and other known BSE strains in mice. This novel prion was transmitted intracerebrally to cattle, with incubation periods of 14.8 ± 1.5 months, with phenotypes that differed from those of other bovine prion strains. These data suggest that intraspecies transmission of H-BSE in cattle allows the emergence of a novel BSE strain. Therefore, the continuation of feed ban programs may be necessary to exclude the recycling of H-BSE prions, which appear to arise spontaneously, in livestock. Such measures should help to reduce the risks from both novel and known strains of BSE. PMID:26948374

  5. Infectivity in skeletal muscle of cattle with atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Suardi, Silvia; Vimercati, Chiara; Casalone, Cristina; Gelmetti, Daniela; Corona, Cristiano; Iulini, Barbara; Mazza, Maria; Lombardi, Guerino; Moda, Fabio; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Piccoli, Elena; Catania, Marcella; Groschup, Martin H; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Caramelli, Maria; Monaco, Salvatore; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The amyloidotic form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) termed BASE is caused by a prion strain whose biological properties differ from those of typical BSE, resulting in a clinically and pathologically distinct phenotype. Whether peripheral tissues of BASE-affected cattle contain infectivity is unknown. This is a critical issue since the BASE prion is readily transmissible to a variety of hosts including primates, suggesting that humans may be susceptible. We carried out bioassays in transgenic mice overexpressing bovine PrP (Tgbov XV) and found infectivity in a variety of skeletal muscles from cattle with natural and experimental BASE. Noteworthy, all BASE muscles used for inoculation transmitted disease, although the attack rate differed between experimental and natural cases (∼70% versus ∼10%, respectively). This difference was likely related to different prion titers, possibly due to different stages of disease in the two conditions, i.e. terminal stage in experimental BASE and pre-symptomatic stage in natural BASE. The neuropathological phenotype and PrP(res) type were consistent in all affected mice and matched those of Tgbov XV mice infected with brain homogenate from natural BASE. The immunohistochemical analysis of skeletal muscles from cattle with natural and experimental BASE showed the presence of abnormal prion protein deposits within muscle fibers. Conversely, Tgbov XV mice challenged with lymphoid tissue and kidney from natural and experimental BASE did not develop disease. The novel information on the neuromuscular tropism of the BASE strain, efficiently overcoming species barriers, underlines the relevance of maintaining an active surveillance.

  6. Distribution of abnormal prion protein in a sheep affected with L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Y; Iwamaru, Y; Masujin, K; Imamura, M; Mohri, S; Yokoyama, T; Okada, H

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the topographical distribution and patterns of deposition of immunolabelled abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)), interspecies transmission of atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to Cheviot ewes (ARQ/ARQ genotype) was performed. L-type BSE was successfully transmitted via the intracerebral route to a ewe, with an incubation period of 1,562 days. Minimal vacuolar change was detected in the basal ganglia, thalamus and brainstem, and PrP(Sc) accumulated throughout the brain. The L-type BSE-affected sheep was characterized by conspicuous fine particulate deposits in the neuropil, particulate and/or granular intraneuronal and intraglial deposits, and the absence of PrP(Sc) plaques or stellate deposits. In addition, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses revealed that PrP(Sc) accumulation was present in peripheral nervous tissues (including the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglion) and adrenal glands, but was absent in lymphoid tissues. These results suggest that L-type BSE has distinct and distinguishable characteristics as well as PrP(Sc) tissue tropism in sheep.

  7. Emergence of a novel bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion from an atypical H-type BSE.

    PubMed

    Masujin, Kentaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Imamura, Morikazu; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The H-type of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) was serially passaged in bovinized transgenic (TgBoPrP) mice. At the fourth passage, most challenged mice showed a typical H-BSE phenotype with incubation periods of 223 ± 7.8 days. However, a different phenotype of BSE prion with shorter incubation periods of 109 ± 4 days emerged in a minor subset of the inoculated mice. The latter showed distinct clinical signs, brain pathology, and abnormal prion protein profiles as compared to H-BSE and other known BSE strains in mice. This novel prion was transmitted intracerebrally to cattle, with incubation periods of 14.8 ± 1.5 months, with phenotypes that differed from those of other bovine prion strains. These data suggest that intraspecies transmission of H-BSE in cattle allows the emergence of a novel BSE strain. Therefore, the continuation of feed ban programs may be necessary to exclude the recycling of H-BSE prions, which appear to arise spontaneously, in livestock. Such measures should help to reduce the risks from both novel and known strains of BSE. PMID:26948374

  8. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of wild and farmed cervid ruminants, including Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or moose (Alces alces). Reliable data ...

  9. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium.

    PubMed

    Hu, Baiyang; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Yu, Hongwen; Abe, Yoshiteru

    2012-05-30

    We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent.

  10. Intravenous Heroin-Associated Delayed Spongiform Leukoencephalopathy: Case Report and Reviews of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Pirompanich, Pattarin; Chankrachang, Siwaporn

    2015-07-01

    Heroin-associated spongiform leukoencephalopathy is a rare, and sometimes fatal, condition usually caused by vapor inhalation of heroin. The authors report a 41-year-old man who was diagnosed with delayed spongiform leukoencephalopathy three weeks after injecting heroin intravenously. He had been admitted to another hospital due to acute heroin overdose, which had occurred four hours after intravenous injection of an unknown amount of heroin. His clinical condition showed progressive improvement and he was discharged 12 days after admission. Three weeks after this episode, his cognitive functioning declined. Akinetic mutism, spasticity and hyperreflexia of all extremities were observed. Electroencephalography (EEG) and imaging of the brain showed typical characteristics of spongiform leukoencephalopathy. The three and six-month follow-up of the patient showed clinical improvement and this was corroborated through EEG measures and brain imaging. The discussion summarizes eight previously reported cases of intravenous heroin associated spongiform leukoencephalopathy and compares them to the authors'case.

  11. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  12. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital: Potential Human-to-Animal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Jennifer C.; Walker, Robert D.; Caron, John P.; Kloos, Wesley E.; George, Carol G.; Hollis, Richard J.; Jones, Ronald N.; Pfaller, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    During a 13-month period, 11 equine patients visiting a veterinary teaching hospital for various diagnostic and surgical procedures developed postprocedural infections from which methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were isolated. The S. aureus isolates were identified by conventional methods that included Gram staining, tests for colonial morphology, tests for clumping factor, and tests for coagulase and urease activities and were also tested with the API STAPH IDENT system. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by the disk diffusion method. The biochemical profile and antibiogram of each isolate suggested that the isolates may have come from a common source. Because MRSA strains are very uncommon animal isolates but are rather common human isolates, a nasal swab specimen for culture was collected voluntarily from five persons associated with equine surgery and recovery in an attempt to identify a possible source of the organisms. MRSA strains were isolated from three of the five people, with one person found to be colonized with two biotypes of MRSA. The MRSA isolates from the people appeared to be identical to the isolates from horses. Further study of the isolates included SmaI and EagI macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis conducted in two different laboratories. The results indicated that both the equine and human isolates were members of a very closely related group which appear to have originated from a common source. On the basis of the pattern associated with the infection, it is speculated that the members of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff were the primary source of the infection, although the specific mode of transmission is unclear. PMID:10203505

  13. Extent of Mycobacterium bovis transmission among animals of dairy and beef cattle and deer farms in South Korea determined by variable-number tandem repeats typing.

    PubMed

    Je, Sungmo; Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae-Myoung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2015-04-17

    Identifying sources of Mycobacterium bovis transmission would be essential for establishing effective control programs of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a major zoonosis threatening human health worldwide. As an effort to determine the extent of M. bovis transmission among dairy and beef cattle and deer populations, a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method was employed for analysis of 131 M. bovis isolates from 59 Holstein dairy cattle, 39 Korean beef cattle, and 33 deer. Of 31 MIRU-VNTR markers, 15 showed allelic diversity. The most discriminatory locus for M. bovis isolates was VNTR 3336 (h=0.59) followed by QUB 26, MIRU 31, VNTR 2401, and VNTR 3171 which showed high discriminatory power (h=0.43). The combined VNTR loci had an allelic diversity of 0.83. On the basis of the VNTR profiles of 30 VNTR loci, 24 genotypes were identified, and two genotypes were highly prevalent among all M. bovis isolates (33.6% and 19.1%, respectively), thus indicating that more than 50% of the isolates shared common molecular characteristics. Six additional genotypes were common in 2 of the 3 animal species, suggesting a wide interspecies transmission of M. bovis. This study thus demonstrates that MIRU-VNTR typing is useful in differentiation of M. bovis isolates and that M. bovis transmission occurs frequently among farmed animal species, highlighting the importance of bovine TB control programs in different animal species which are often raised in the same villages.

  14. Microarray analysis in caudal medulla of cattle orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L M; Basu, U; Williams, J L; Moore, S S; Guan, L L

    2011-10-25

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disorder in cattle characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration during prion infection through the identification of genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between experimentally infected and non-challenged cattle. Gene expression of caudal medulla from control and orally infected animals was compared by microarray analysis using 24,000 bovine oligonucleotides representing 16,846 different genes to identify DE genes associated with BSE disease. In total, 182 DE genes were identified between normal and BSE-infected tissues (>2.0-fold change, P < 0.01); 81 DE genes had gene ontology functions, which included synapse function, calcium ion regulation, immune and inflammatory response, apoptosis, and cytoskeleton organization; 13 of these genes were found to be involved in 26 different Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression of five DE genes associated with synapse function (tachykinin, synuclein, neuropeptide Y, cocaine, amphetamine-responsive transcript, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa) and three DE genes associated with calcium ion regulation (parvalbumin, visinin-like, and cadherin) was further validated in the medulla tissue of cattle at different infection times (6, 12, 42, and 45 months post-infection) by qRT-PCR. These data will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuropathology in bovine species.

  15. A stochastic model of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic in Canada.

    PubMed

    Oraby, Tamer; Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Elsaadany, Susie; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) appeared in the United Kingdom in the mid 1980s, and has been attributed to the use of meat and bone meal (MBM) in cattle feed contaminated with a scrapie-like agent. Import of infectious materials from a country where BSE has occurred is believed to be the major factor underlying the spread of the BSE epidemic to other countries. This study presents a new stochastic model developed to estimate risk of BSE from importation of cattle infected with the BSE agent. The model describes the propagation of the BSE agent through the Canadian cattle herd through rendering and feeding processes, following importation of cattle with infectious prions. This model was used estimate the annual number of newly infected animals each year over the period 1980-2019. Model predictions suggested that the number of BSE infections in Canada might have been approximately 40-fold greater than the actual number of clinically diagnosed cases. Under complete compliance with the 2007 ban on feeding MBM, this model further predicts that BSE is disappearing from the Canadian cattle system. A series of sensitivity analyses was also conducted to test the robustness of model predictions to alternative assumptions about factors affecting the evolution of the Canadian BSE epidemic. PMID:27556562

  16. Transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein resistant to classical scrapie but susceptible to sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical scrapie.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Herva, María Eugenia; Andréoletti, Olivier; Padilla, Danielle; Lacroux, Caroline; Cassard, Hervé; Lantier, Isabelle; Castilla, Joaquin; Torres, Juan Maria

    2009-08-01

    How susceptible pigs are to infection with sheep prions is unknown. We show, through transmission experiments in transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein (PrP), that the susceptibility of this mouse model to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be enhanced after its passage in ARQ sheep, indicating that the pathogenicity of the BSE agent is modified after passage in sheep. Transgenic mice expressing porcine PrP were, nevertheless, completely resistant to infection with a broad panel of classical scrapie isolates from different sheep PrP genotypes and with different biochemical characteristics. The atypical (Nor98 like) isolate (SC-PS152) was the only scrapie isolate capable of transmission in these mice, although with a marked transmission barrier. Unexpectedly, the atypical scrapie agent appeared to undergo a strain phenotype shift upon transmission to porcine-PrP transgenic mice and acquired new strain properties, suggesting that atypical scrapie agent may exhibit different phenotypes depending on the host cellular PrP or other genetic factors.

  17. The presence of disease-associated prion protein in skeletal muscle of cattle infected with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Fukuda, Shigeo; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Masujin, Kentaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Fujii, Takashi; Fujii, Kei; Kageyama, Soichi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the skeletal muscle of cattle infected with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE). The study was carried out systematically in 12 different muscle samples from 43 (3 field and 40 experimental) cases of C-BSE; however, muscle spindles were not available in many of these cases. Therefore, analysis became restricted to a total of 31 muscles in 23 cattle. Even after this restriction, low levels of PrP(Sc) were detected in the muscle spindles of the masseter, intercostal, triceps brachii, psoas major, quadriceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles from 3 field and 6 experimental clinical-stage cases. The present data indicate that small amounts of PrP(Sc) are detectable by immunohistochemistry in the skeletal muscles of animals terminally affected with C-BSE.

  18. Genomic characterization of a rotavirus G8P[1] detected in a child with diarrhea reveal direct animal-to-human transmission.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Magaly; Phan, Tung Gia; Galeano, Maria Eugenia; Russomando, Graciela; Parreno, Viviana; Delwart, Eric; Parra, Gabriel I

    2014-10-01

    Group A rotavirus is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children and young animals. During a retrospective analysis of samples collected from Paraguayan children under 5 years old with diarrhea, and previously negative for rotavirus and norovirus, we detected the presence of bovine rotavirus sequences by viral metagenomics. Nucleic acid was extracted direct from stool sample and determined to be G8P[1]. The genomic analyzes revealed that the strain presents an Artiodactyl-like genome (G8-P[1]-I2-R2-C2-M1-Ax-N2-T6-E12-H3) suggesting a direct animal-to-human transmission.

  19. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  20. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV.

  1. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  2. A pilot study for targeted surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwankiti, O O; Ikeh, E I; Asala, O; Seuberlich, T

    2013-06-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), popularly known as 'mad cow disease', led to an epidemic in Europe that peaked in the mid-1990s. Its impact on developing countries, such as Nigeria, has not been fully established as information on livestock and surveillance has eluded those in charge of this task. The BSE risk to Nigeria's cattle population currently remains undetermined, which has resulted in international trade restrictions on commodities from the cattle population. This is mainly because of a lack of updated BSE risk assessments and disease surveillance data. To evaluate the feasibility of BSE surveillance in Nigeria, we carried out a pilot study targeting cattle that were presented for emergency or casualty slaughter. In total, 1551 cattle of local breeds, aged 24 months and above were clinically examined. Ataxia, recumbency and other neurological signs were topmost on our list of criteria. A total of 96 cattle, which correspond to 6.2%, presented clinical signs that supported a suspect of BSE. The caudal brainstem tissues of these animals were collected post-mortem and analysed for the disease-specific form of the prion protein using a rapid test approved by the International Animal Health Organization (OIE). None of the samples were positive for BSE. Although our findings do not exclude the presence of BSE in Nigeria, they do demonstrate that targeted sampling of clinically suspected cases of BSE is feasible in developing countries. In addition, these findings point to the possibility of implementing clinical monitoring schemes for BSE and potentially other diseases with grave economic and public health consequences. PMID:22594841

  3. A pilot study for targeted surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwankiti, O O; Ikeh, E I; Asala, O; Seuberlich, T

    2013-06-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), popularly known as 'mad cow disease', led to an epidemic in Europe that peaked in the mid-1990s. Its impact on developing countries, such as Nigeria, has not been fully established as information on livestock and surveillance has eluded those in charge of this task. The BSE risk to Nigeria's cattle population currently remains undetermined, which has resulted in international trade restrictions on commodities from the cattle population. This is mainly because of a lack of updated BSE risk assessments and disease surveillance data. To evaluate the feasibility of BSE surveillance in Nigeria, we carried out a pilot study targeting cattle that were presented for emergency or casualty slaughter. In total, 1551 cattle of local breeds, aged 24 months and above were clinically examined. Ataxia, recumbency and other neurological signs were topmost on our list of criteria. A total of 96 cattle, which correspond to 6.2%, presented clinical signs that supported a suspect of BSE. The caudal brainstem tissues of these animals were collected post-mortem and analysed for the disease-specific form of the prion protein using a rapid test approved by the International Animal Health Organization (OIE). None of the samples were positive for BSE. Although our findings do not exclude the presence of BSE in Nigeria, they do demonstrate that targeted sampling of clinically suspected cases of BSE is feasible in developing countries. In addition, these findings point to the possibility of implementing clinical monitoring schemes for BSE and potentially other diseases with grave economic and public health consequences.

  4. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle. PMID:26319996

  5. Infectious titres of sheep scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents cannot be accurately predicted from quantitative laboratory test results.

    PubMed

    González, Lorenzo; Thorne, Leigh; Jeffrey, Martin; Martin, Stuart; Spiropoulos, John; Beck, Katy E; Lockey, Richard W; Vickery, Christopher M; Holder, Thomas; Terry, Linda

    2012-11-01

    It is widely accepted that abnormal forms of the prion protein (PrP) are the best surrogate marker for the infectious agent of prion diseases and, in practice, the detection of such disease-associated (PrP(d)) and/or protease-resistant (PrP(res)) forms of PrP is the cornerstone of diagnosis and surveillance of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Nevertheless, some studies question the consistent association between infectivity and abnormal PrP detection. To address this discrepancy, 11 brain samples of sheep affected with natural scrapie or experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy were selected on the basis of the magnitude and predominant types of PrP(d) accumulation, as shown by immunohistochemical (IHC) examination; contra-lateral hemi-brain samples were inoculated at three different dilutions into transgenic mice overexpressing ovine PrP and were also subjected to quantitative analysis by three biochemical tests (BCTs). Six samples gave 'low' infectious titres (10⁶·⁵ to 10⁶·⁷ LD₅₀ g⁻¹) and five gave 'high titres' (10⁸·¹ to ≥ 10⁸·⁷ LD₅₀ g⁻¹) and, with the exception of the Western blot analysis, those two groups tended to correspond with samples with lower PrP(d)/PrP(res) results by IHC/BCTs. However, no statistical association could be confirmed due to high individual sample variability. It is concluded that although detection of abnormal forms of PrP by laboratory methods remains useful to confirm TSE infection, infectivity titres cannot be predicted from quantitative test results, at least for the TSE sources and host PRNP genotypes used in this study. Furthermore, the near inverse correlation between infectious titres and Western blot results (high protease pre-treatment) argues for a dissociation between infectivity and PrP(res).

  6. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle.

  7. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    PubMed

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings. PMID:27236304

  8. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    PubMed

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings.

  9. Transmissibility of caprine scrapie in ovine transgenic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of domestic sheep and goats. The current US and Canadian control programs are based on diagnosis by identification of abnormal prion protein in brain or lymphoid tissues with selective culling of genetically susceptible sheep exp...

  10. Modeling of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a two-species feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Richard; Lehman, Clarence

    2013-06-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, otherwise known as mad cow disease, can spread when an individual cow consumes feed containing the infected tissues of another individual, forming a one-species feedback loop. Such feedback is the primary means of transmission for BSE during epidemic conditions. Following outbreaks in the European Union and elsewhere, many governments enacted legislation designed to limit the spread of such diseases via elimination or reduction of one-species feedback loops in agricultural systems. However, two-species feedback loops-those in which infectious material from one-species is consumed by a secondary species whose tissue is then consumed by the first species-were not universally prohibited and have not been studied before. Here we present a basic ecological disease model which examines the rôle feedback loops may play in the spread of BSE and related diseases. Our model shows that there are critical thresholds between the infection's expansion and decrease related to the lifespan of the hosts, the growth rate of the prions, and the amount of prions circulating between hosts. The ecological disease dynamics can be intrinsically oscillatory, having outbreaks as well as refractory periods which can make it appear that the disease is under control while it is still increasing. We show that non-susceptible species that have been intentionally inserted into a feedback loop to stop the spread of disease do not, strictly by themselves, guarantee its control, though they may give that appearance by increasing the refractory period of an epidemic's oscillations. We suggest ways in which age-related dynamics and cross-species coupling should be considered in continuing evaluations aimed at maintaining a safe food supply. PMID:23746801

  11. Detection of pork and poultry meat and bone meals in animal feed using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal feed with meat and bone meal (MBM) has been the source of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and other livestock animals. Many countries have banned the use MBM as an animal feed ingredient. Spectral imaging techniques have shown potential for rapid assessment and authentication...

  12. Expert elicitation as a means to attribute 28 enteric pathogens to foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, and person-to-person transmission routes in Canada.

    PubMed

    Butler, Ainslie J; Thomas, M Kate; Pintar, Katarina D M

    2015-04-01

    Enteric illness contributes to a significant burden of illness in Canada and globally. Understanding its sources is a critical step in identifying and preventing health risks. Expert elicitation is a powerful tool, used previously, to obtain information about enteric illness source attribution where information is difficult or expensive to obtain. Thirty-one experts estimated transmission of 28 pathogens via major transmission routes (foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, person-to-person, and other) at the point of consumption. The elicitation consisted of a (snowball) recruitment phase; administration of a pre-survey to collect background information, an introductory webinar, an elicitation survey, a 1-day discussion, survey readministration, and a feedback exercise, and surveys were administered online. Experts were prompted to quantify changes in contamination at the point of entry into the kitchen versus point of consumption. Estimates were combined via triangular probability distributions, and medians and 90% credible-interval estimates were produced. Transmission was attributed primarily to food for Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp., all three Vibrio spp. categories explored, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Multisource pathogens (e.g., transmitted commonly through both water and food) such as Campylobacter spp., four Escherichia coli categories, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were also estimated as mostly foodborne. Water was the primary pathway for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., and person-to-person transmission dominated for six enteric viruses and Shigella spp. Consideration of the point of attribution highlighted the importance of food handling and cross-contamination in the transmission pathway. This study provides source attribution estimates of enteric illness for Canada, considering all possible transmission routes. Further research is necessary to improve our

  13. Global positioning system data-loggers: a tool to quantify fine-scale movement of domestic animals to evaluate potential for zoonotic transmission to an endangered wildlife population.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Michele B; Gillespie, Thomas R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Travis, Dominic; Lipende, Iddi; Gilagiza, Baraka; Kamenya, Shadrack; Pintea, Lilian; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M

    2014-01-01

    Domesticated animals are an important source of pathogens to endangered wildlife populations, especially when anthropogenic activities increase their overlap with humans and wildlife. Recent work in Tanzania reports the introduction of Cryptosporidium into wild chimpanzee populations and the increased risk of ape mortality associated with SIVcpz-Cryptosporidium co-infection. Here we describe the application of novel GPS technology to track the mobility of domesticated animals (27 goats, 2 sheep and 8 dogs) with the goal of identifying potential routes for Cryptosporidium introduction into Gombe National Park. Only goats (5/27) and sheep (2/2) were positive for Cryptosporidium. Analysis of GPS tracks indicated that a crop field frequented by both chimpanzees and domesticated animals was a potential hotspot for Cryptosporidium transmission. This study demonstrates the applicability of GPS data-loggers in studies of fine-scale mobility of animals and suggests that domesticated animal-wildlife overlap should be considered beyond protected boundaries for long-term conservation strategies.

  14. Influenza A virus infection of healthy piglets in an abattoir in Brazil: animal-human interface and risk for interspecies transmission

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Ariane Ribeiro; Fornells, Luz Alba Maria Garcete; Reis, Felicidade da Costa; Rezende, Daiana Jacinto; Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Couceiro, José Nelson dos Santos Silva; Santos, Norma Suely de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs. PMID:23903968

  15. Methicillin (Oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from major food animals and their potential transmission to humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, John Hwa

    2003-11-01

    From May 2001 to April 2003, various types of specimens from cattle, pigs, and chickens were collected and examined for the presence of methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). S. aureus was isolated and positively identified by using Gram staining, colony morphology, tests for coagulase and urease activities, and an API Staph Ident system. Among 1,913 specimens collected from the animals, 421 contained S. aureus; of these, 28 contained S. aureus resistant to concentrations of oxacillin higher than 2 micro g/ml. Isolates from 15 of the 28 specimens were positive by PCR for the mecA gene. Of the 15 mecA-positive MRSA isolates, 12 were from dairy cows and 3 were from chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of mecA-positive MRSA strains were performed by the disk diffusion method. All isolates were resistant to members of the penicillin family, such as ampicillin, oxacillin, and penicillin. All isolates were also susceptible to amikacin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. To determine molecular epidemiological relatedness of these 15 animal MRSA isolates to isolates from humans, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns were generated by arbitrarily primed PCR. The RAPD patterns of six of the isolates from animals were identical to the patterns of certain isolates from humans. The antibiotypes of the six animal isolates revealed types similar to those of the human isolates. These data suggested that the genomes of the six animal MRSA isolates were very closely related to those of some human MRSA isolates and were a possible source of human infections caused by consuming contaminated food products made from these animals. PMID:14602604

  16. Molecular characterisation of Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis from Cajamarca, Peru and their potential role in transmission of human and animal fascioliasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human and animal fascioliasis is emerging in many world regions, among which Andean countries constitute the largest regional hot spot and Peru the country presenting more human endemic areas. A survey was undertaken on the lymnaeid snails inhabiting the hyperendemic area of Cajamarca, where human prevalences are the highest known among the areas presenting a "valley transmission pattern", to establish which species are present, genetically characterise their populations by comparison with other human endemic areas, and discuss which ones have transmission capacity and their potential implications with human and animal infection. Methods Therefore, ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA 16S and cox1 were sequenced by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Results Results indicate the presence of three, morphologically similar, small lymnaeid species belonging to the Galba/Fossaria group: Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis. Only one combined haplotype for each species was found. The ITS-1, 16S and cox1 haplotypes of G. truncatula are new. No new haplotypes were found in the other two species. This scenario changes previous knowledge, in which only L. viator (= L. viatrix) was mentioned. Galba truncatula appears to be the most abundant, with high population densities and evident anthropophyly including usual presence in human neighbourhood. Infection by Fasciola hepatica larval stages were molecularly confirmed in two populations of this species. The nearness between G. truncatula populations presenting liver fluke infection and both human settings and schools for children, together with the absence of populations of other lymnaeid species in the locality, suggest a direct relationship with human infection. Conclusions The geographical overlap of three lymnaeid species poses problems for epidemiological studies and control action. First, a problem in classifying lymnaeid specimens in both field and laboratory activities

  17. Global Positioning System Data-Loggers: A Tool to Quantify Fine-Scale Movement of Domestic Animals to Evaluate Potential for Zoonotic Transmission to an Endangered Wildlife Population

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Michele B.; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Travis, Dominic; Lipende, Iddi; Gilagiza, Baraka; Kamenya, Shadrack; Pintea, Lilian; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.

    2014-01-01

    Domesticated animals are an important source of pathogens to endangered wildlife populations, especially when anthropogenic activities increase their overlap with humans and wildlife. Recent work in Tanzania reports the introduction of Cryptosporidium into wild chimpanzee populations and the increased risk of ape mortality associated with SIVcpz-Cryptosporidium co-infection. Here we describe the application of novel GPS technology to track the mobility of domesticated animals (27 goats, 2 sheep and 8 dogs) with the goal of identifying potential routes for Cryptosporidium introduction into Gombe National Park. Only goats (5/27) and sheep (2/2) were positive for Cryptosporidium. Analysis of GPS tracks indicated that a crop field frequented by both chimpanzees and domesticated animals was a potential hotspot for Cryptosporidium transmission. This study demonstrates the applicability of GPS data-loggers in studies of fine-scale mobility of animals and suggests that domesticated animal–wildlife overlap should be considered beyond protected boundaries for long-term conservation strategies. PMID:25365070

  18. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrP Sc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

    PubMed

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J

    2012-05-25

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(Sc)). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrP(Sc) against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorption assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrP(Sc) after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrP(Sc) can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrP(Sc) detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrP(Sc) that may stabilize the aggregates.

  19. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: are the cows mad or full of carbohydrates?

    PubMed

    Frey, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The non-forage feeding of dairy cows rich in fast absorption carbohydrates, the low value of their euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp suggest a dysregulation of carbohydrate metabolism able to produce neurodegenerative disorders. Comparisons between Alzheimer's disease developed in diabetes mellitus and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) direct the discussion of the origin of BSE not only towards a contamination by prion proteins. PMID:11939480

  20. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: are the cows mad or full of carbohydrates?

    PubMed

    Frey, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The non-forage feeding of dairy cows rich in fast absorption carbohydrates, the low value of their euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp suggest a dysregulation of carbohydrate metabolism able to produce neurodegenerative disorders. Comparisons between Alzheimer's disease developed in diabetes mellitus and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) direct the discussion of the origin of BSE not only towards a contamination by prion proteins.

  1. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition.

  2. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 ??m and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  3. MEAT AND BONE MEAL AND MINERAL FEED ADDITIVES MAY INCREASE THE RISK OF ORAL PRION DISEASE TRANSMISSION

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer–sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion–contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition. PMID:21218345

  4. Long-term impacts of bovine spongiform encephalopathy on beef risk perceptions and risk attitudes in Canada.

    PubMed

    Muringai, Violet; Goddard, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the objective was to examine whether or not changes in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) concerns exert an effect on people's risk perceptions and risk attitudes regarding consuming beef in Canada, 8 years after finding the first domestic animal with BSE. Data were collected from two surveys (2071 respondents) conducted with the same respondents in 2008 and 2011 in Canada. Data on meat consumption for the same households were also available from the Nielsen Homescan panel over the period 2002 to 2009. Based on census data, the current sample is generally not representative of the Canadian population, but the sample is unique in that the same individuals responded to two surveys and there is an ability to track their evolving household purchases of beef before the first survey and between the two surveys. In essence, alterations in beef risk perceptions are significantly influenced by changes in concerns regarding (1) feed given to livestock, (2) animal diseases and BSE, (3) trust in manufacturers, the government, and farmers, and (4) demographic characteristics. There were significant differences in beef purchases across households, with alterations to their risk perceptions and risk attitudes. In conclusion, although the first domestic incident of BSE was in 2003, concerns regarding BSE are still contributing to consumers' risk perceptions but not to their risk attitudes with respect to consumption of beef in 2011. PMID:27556567

  5. Efficient Transmission and Characterization of Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease Strains in Bank Voles

    PubMed Central

    Nonno, Romolo; Bari, Michele A. Di; Cardone, Franco; Vaccari, Gabriele; Fazzi, Paola; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Cartoni, Claudia; Ingrosso, Loredana; Boyle, Aileen; Galeno, Roberta; Sbriccoli, Marco; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Bruce, Moira; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Agrimi, Umberto

    2006-01-01

    Transmission of prions between species is limited by the “species barrier,” which hampers a full characterization of human prion strains in the mouse model. We report that the efficiency of primary transmission of prions from Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients to a wild rodent species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), is comparable to that reported in transgenic mice carrying human prion protein, in spite of a low prion protein–sequence homology between man and vole. Voles infected with sporadic and genetic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease isolates show strain-specific patterns of spongiform degeneration and pathological prion protein–deposition, and accumulate protease-resistant prion protein with biochemical properties similar to the human counterpart. Adaptation of genetic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease isolates to voles shows little or no evidence of a transmission barrier, in contrast to the striking barriers observed during transmission of mouse, hamster, and sheep prions to voles. Our results imply that in voles there is no clear relationship between the degree of homology of the prion protein of the donor and recipient species and susceptibility, consistent with the view that the prion strain gives a major contribution to the species barrier. The vole is therefore a valuable model to study human prion diversity and, being susceptible to a range of animal prions, represents a unique tool for comparing isolates from different species. PMID:16518470

  6. Efficient transmission and characterization of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease strains in bank voles.

    PubMed

    Nonno, Romolo; Di Bari, Michele A; Cardone, Franco; Vaccari, Gabriele; Fazzi, Paola; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Cartoni, Claudia; Ingrosso, Loredana; Boyle, Aileen; Galeno, Roberta; Sbriccoli, Marco; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Bruce, Moira; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Agrimi, Umberto

    2006-02-01

    Transmission of prions between species is limited by the "species barrier," which hampers a full characterization of human prion strains in the mouse model. We report that the efficiency of primary transmission of prions from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients to a wild rodent species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), is comparable to that reported in transgenic mice carrying human prion protein, in spite of a low prion protein-sequence homology between man and vole. Voles infected with sporadic and genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates show strain-specific patterns of spongiform degeneration and pathological prion protein-deposition, and accumulate protease-resistant prion protein with biochemical properties similar to the human counterpart. Adaptation of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease isolates to voles shows little or no evidence of a transmission barrier, in contrast to the striking barriers observed during transmission of mouse, hamster, and sheep prions to voles. Our results imply that in voles there is no clear relationship between the degree of homology of the prion protein of the donor and recipient species and susceptibility, consistent with the view that the prion strain gives a major contribution to the species barrier. The vole is therefore a valuable model to study human prion diversity and, being susceptible to a range of animal prions, represents a unique tool for comparing isolates from different species.

  7. Detection and discrimination of classical and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy by real-time quaking-induced conversion.

    PubMed

    Orrú, Christina D; Favole, Alessandra; Corona, Cristiano; Mazza, Maria; Manca, Matteo; Groveman, Bradley R; Hughson, Andrew G; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Caramelli, Maria; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Casalone, Cristina; Caughey, Byron

    2015-04-01

    Statutory surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) indicates that cattle are susceptible to both classical BSE (C-BSE) and atypical forms of BSE. Atypical forms of BSE appear to be sporadic and thus may never be eradicated. A major challenge for prion surveillance is the lack of sufficiently practical and sensitive tests for routine BSE detection and strain discrimination. The real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) test, which is based on prion-seeded fibrillization of recombinant prion protein (rPrPSen), is known to be highly specific and sensitive for the detection of multiple human and animal prion diseases but not BSE. Here, we tested brain tissue from cattle affected by C-BSE and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-type BSE or L-BSE) with the RT-QuIC assay and found that both BSE forms can be detected and distinguished using particular rPrPSen substrates. Specifically, L-BSE was detected using multiple rPrPSen substrates, while C-BSE was much more selective. This substrate-based approach suggests a diagnostic strategy for specific, sensitive, and rapid detection and discrimination of at least some BSE forms.

  8. Complex proteinopathy with accumulations of prion protein, hyperphosphorylated tau, α-synuclein and ubiquitin in experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy of monkeys.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, Pedro; Cervenak, Juraj; Bu, Ming; Miller, Lindsay; Asher, David M

    2014-07-01

    Proteins aggregate in several slowly progressive neurodegenerative diseases called 'proteinopathies'. Studies with cell cultures and transgenic mice overexpressing mutated proteins suggested that aggregates of one protein induced misfolding and aggregation of other proteins as well - a possible common mechanism for some neurodegenerative diseases. However, most proteinopathies are 'sporadic', without gene mutation or overexpression. Thus, proteinopathies in WT animals genetically close to humans might be informative. Squirrel monkeys infected with the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent developed an encephalopathy resembling variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with accumulations not only of abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)), but also three other proteins: hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau), α-synuclein and ubiquitin; β-amyloid protein (Aβ) did not accumulate. Severity of brain lesions correlated with spongiform degeneration. No amyloid was detected. These results suggested that PrP(TSE) enhanced formation of p-tau and aggregation of α-synuclein and ubiquitin, but not Aβ, providing a new experimental model for neurodegenerative diseases associated with complex proteinopathies.

  9. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is an animal prion disease that also causes variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Over the past decades, c-BSE's zoonotic potential has been the driving force in establishing extensive protective measures for animal and human health. In compl...

  10. Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disorder of farmed raised mink. As with the other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the disorder is associated with accumulation of the misfolded prion protein in the brain and an invariably fatal outcome. TME outbreaks have been rare but...

  11. The impact of diseases on the importation of animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Walton, T E

    2000-01-01

    For decades the veterinary services of the United States and other nations protected their livestock and poultry industries from the ravages of introduced animal diseases by rigorous import restrictions. This policy of zero risk frequently translated to no or reduced trade in animals and animal products or dramatic trade inequities. However, GATT articles enforced by the WTO require that imported products be treated no less favorably than domestically produced goods with regard to animal health restrictions. Under authority from the WTO, the OIE establishes recommendations and guidelines for the regulation of trade in animals and products of animal origin through the OIE International Animal Health Code, sets animal health standards, and reports global animal health situations and statuses. Diseases often have a dramatic impact on the animal agricultural industries of a nation--disease outbreaks may be deleterious to the competitiveness of the products of one nation but offer opportunities for others. The potential dangers of lax vigilance, insufficient scientifically valid data, inadequate SPS measures, and errors in assessing risk can turn the heady experience of seemingly unlimited growth in international markets and demand for one's products into a catastrophic return to reality. The experience of the United Kingdom and countries of Europe with bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a case in point. It is estimated that the cost of the outbreak of this disease to the economy of the UK has been more than $3 billion. Responses of their trading partners, including the US, to this outbreak were abrupt and restrictive. Although the decision was controversial, the US stopped importation of live cattle from the UK in the late 1980's and subsequently, in 1997, importation of all products of ruminant origin was stopped from all countries of Europe. The transmission of the disease to continental Europe and the disclosure that the pathogen was associated with a fatal human

  12. Analysis of air ions in biological exposure systems, near HV dc electric power transmission lines, in rooms containing ion generators, and near exposed humans and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaune, William T.; Gillis, Murlin F.; Weigel, Richard J.

    1983-11-01

    A number of systems containing space charge are analyzed using the transit-time technique developed in an earlier paper. (1) An inequality is derived for a room containing an air-ion generator which relates the ion source current to the minimum space-charge density. (2) Published wind-tunnel data are treated, and the characteristics of space-charge plumes produced downstream from localized corona and radioactive sources are explained. (3) Space-charge data published by other researchers can be evaluated; three examples are given, and in two of them published space-charge densities substantially exceed calculated upper-bound values. (4) Formulae are derived for the extrapolation of ground-level space-charge-density, electric field, and ion-current-density data to points above ground level; these formulae are useful for characterizing the three-dimensional environments in systems where only ground-level measurements are available. (5) A simple upper bound is derived for ground-level space-charge densities produced by high-voltage direct-current (HV dc) transmission lines, and it is shown that actual lines do produce densities closely approaching this upper-bound value. (6) The perturbed space-charge density at the surface of the body of an animal or human exposed to air ions and electric fields is estimated, and it is shown that perturbed and unperturbed space-charge densities are approximately equal for exposure conditions simulating those at ground level near HV dc transmission lines.

  13. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: how safe is eating beef?

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Prayson, Richard A

    2005-03-01

    Cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) have been found in North American cattle. Its human counterpart, called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (variant CJD), is rare but seems to be linked to eating diseased beef. Many questions remain about these diseases, such as why young people seem at greater risk of variant CJD. Also, are some people more genetically at risk for acquiring variant CJD than others? PMID:15825799

  14. Experimental Inoculation of Spiroplasma mirum and Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) into Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of spongiform encephalopathy in raccoons (Procyon lotor), 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon...

  15. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of wild and farmed cervid ruminants in the North America, including white tailed, black tailed and mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and Shira's moose. CWD, like the other TSEs, is associated with accumulation of an abnorm...

  16. Clinical and pathologic features of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Justin J; Smith, Jodi D; West Greenlee, M Heather; Nicholson, Eric M

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases have been ascribed to the classical form of the disease. H-type and L-type BSE cases have atypical molecular profiles compared to classical BSE and are thought to arise spontaneously. However, one case of H-type BSE was associated with a heritable E211K mutation in the prion protein gene. The purpose of this study was to describe transmission of this unique isolate of H-type BSE when inoculated into a calf of the same genotype by the intracranial route. Electroretinograms were used to demonstrate preclinical deficits in retinal function, and optical coherence tomography was used to demonstrate an antemortem decrease in retinal thickness. The calf rapidly progressed to clinical disease (9.4 months) and was necropsied. Widespread distribution of abnormal prion protein was demonstrated within neural tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. While this isolate is categorized as BSE-H due to a higher molecular mass of the unglycosylated PrP(Sc) isoform, a strong labeling of all 3 PrP(Sc) bands with monoclonal antibodies 6H4 and P4, and a second unglycosylated band at approximately 14 kDa when developed with antibodies that bind in the C-terminal region, it is unique from other described cases of BSE-H because of an additional band 23 kDa demonstrated on western blots of the cerebellum. This work demonstrates that this isolate is transmissible, has a BSE-H phenotype when transmitted to cattle with the K211 polymorphism, and has molecular features that distinguish it from other cases of BSE-H described in the literature.

  17. Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie.

    PubMed

    Houston, Fiona; Goldmann, Wilfred; Foster, James; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are natural hosts of the prion disease, scrapie. They are also susceptible to experimental challenge with various scrapie strains and with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle and has been accidentally transmitted to a range of other species, including man. Incidence and incubation period of clinical disease in sheep following inoculation is controlled by the PRNP gene, which has different alleles defined on the basis of polymorphisms, particularly at codons 136, 154 and 171, although other codons are associated with survival time, and the exact responses of the sheep may be influenced by other breed-related differences. Here we report the results of a long term single study of experimental scrapie and BSE susceptibility of sheep of Cheviot, Poll Dorset and Suffolk breeds, originating from New Zealand and of a wide range of susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. Responses were compared with those of sheep from a closed Cheviot flock of UK origin (Roslin Cheviot flock). The unusually long observation period (6-8 years for most, but up to 12 years for others) allows us to draw robust conclusions about rates of survival of animals previously regarded as resistant to infection, particularly PRNP heterozygotes, and is the most comprehensive such study reported to date. BSE inoculation by an intracerebral route produced disease in all genotype groups with differing incubation periods, although M112T and L141F polymorphisms seemed to give some protection. Scrapie isolate SSBP/1, which has the shortest incubation period in sheep with at least one VRQ PRNP allele, also produced disease following sub-cutaneous inoculation in ARQ/ARQ animals of New Zealand origin, but ARQ/ARQ sheep from the Roslin flock survived the challenge. Our results demonstrate that the links between PRNP genotype and clinical prion disease in sheep are much less secure than previously thought, and may break down when, for example, a different breed of sheep is moved

  18. Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie.

    PubMed

    Houston, Fiona; Goldmann, Wilfred; Foster, James; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are natural hosts of the prion disease, scrapie. They are also susceptible to experimental challenge with various scrapie strains and with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle and has been accidentally transmitted to a range of other species, including man. Incidence and incubation period of clinical disease in sheep following inoculation is controlled by the PRNP gene, which has different alleles defined on the basis of polymorphisms, particularly at codons 136, 154 and 171, although other codons are associated with survival time, and the exact responses of the sheep may be influenced by other breed-related differences. Here we report the results of a long term single study of experimental scrapie and BSE susceptibility of sheep of Cheviot, Poll Dorset and Suffolk breeds, originating from New Zealand and of a wide range of susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. Responses were compared with those of sheep from a closed Cheviot flock of UK origin (Roslin Cheviot flock). The unusually long observation period (6-8 years for most, but up to 12 years for others) allows us to draw robust conclusions about rates of survival of animals previously regarded as resistant to infection, particularly PRNP heterozygotes, and is the most comprehensive such study reported to date. BSE inoculation by an intracerebral route produced disease in all genotype groups with differing incubation periods, although M112T and L141F polymorphisms seemed to give some protection. Scrapie isolate SSBP/1, which has the shortest incubation period in sheep with at least one VRQ PRNP allele, also produced disease following sub-cutaneous inoculation in ARQ/ARQ animals of New Zealand origin, but ARQ/ARQ sheep from the Roslin flock survived the challenge. Our results demonstrate that the links between PRNP genotype and clinical prion disease in sheep are much less secure than previously thought, and may break down when, for example, a different breed of sheep is moved

  19. Relationship between clinical signs and postmortem test status in cattle experimentally infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Various clinical protocols have been developed to aid in the clinical diagnosis of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which is confirmed by postmortem examinations based on vacuolation and accumulation of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd) in the brain. The present study investigated the occurrence and progression of sixty selected clinical signs and behaviour combinations in 513 experimentally exposed cattle subsequently categorised postmortem as confirmed or unconfirmed BSE cases. Appropriate undosed or saline inoculated controls were examined similarly and the data analysed to explore the possible occurrence of BSE-specific clinical expression in animals unconfirmed by postmortem examinations. Results Based on the display of selected behavioural, sensory and locomotor changes, 20 (67%) orally dosed and 17 (77%) intracerebrally inoculated pathologically confirmed BSE cases and 21 (13%) orally dosed and 18 (6%) intracerebrally inoculated but unconfirmed cases were considered clinical BSE suspects. None of 103 controls showed significant signs and were all negative on diagnostic postmortem examinations. Signs indicative of BSE suspects, particularly over-reactivity and ataxia, were more frequently displayed in confirmed cases with vacuolar changes in the brain. The display of several BSE-associated signs over time, including repeated startle responses and nervousness, was significantly more frequent in confirmed BSE cases compared to controls, but these two signs were also significantly more frequent in orally dosed cattle unconfirmed by postmortem examinations. Conclusions The findings confirm that in experimentally infected cattle clinical abnormalities indicative of BSE are accompanied by vacuolar changes and PrPd accumulation in the brainstem. The presence of more frequently expressed signs in cases with vacuolar changes is consistent with this pathology representing a more advanced stage of disease. That BSE-like signs or sign

  20. Animal-assisted therapy with children suffering from insecure attachment due to abuse and neglect: a method to lower the risk of intergenerational transmission of abuse?

    PubMed

    Parish-Plass, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Children suffering from insecure attachment due to severe abuse and/or neglect are often characterized by internal working models which, although perhaps adaptive within the original family situation, are inappropriate and maladaptive in other relationships and situations. Such children have a higher probability than the general population of becoming abusing or neglecting parents. Besides the usual goals of psychotherapy, an overall goal is to stop the cycle of abuse in which abused children may grow up to be abusing parents. Therapy with these children is complicated by their distrust in adults as well as difficulties in symbolization due to trauma during the preverbal stage. Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) provides avenues for circumventing these difficulties, as well as providing additional tools for reaching the inner world of the client. This article gives a brief background of the connection between insecure attachment and intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect as well as a brief overview of the principles of AAT in a play therapy setting. A rationale for the use of AAT as a unique therapy technique for children having suffered from abuse and neglect is followed by a number of clinical examples illustrating AAT. PMID:18411863

  1. Animal-assisted therapy with children suffering from insecure attachment due to abuse and neglect: a method to lower the risk of intergenerational transmission of abuse?

    PubMed

    Parish-Plass, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Children suffering from insecure attachment due to severe abuse and/or neglect are often characterized by internal working models which, although perhaps adaptive within the original family situation, are inappropriate and maladaptive in other relationships and situations. Such children have a higher probability than the general population of becoming abusing or neglecting parents. Besides the usual goals of psychotherapy, an overall goal is to stop the cycle of abuse in which abused children may grow up to be abusing parents. Therapy with these children is complicated by their distrust in adults as well as difficulties in symbolization due to trauma during the preverbal stage. Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) provides avenues for circumventing these difficulties, as well as providing additional tools for reaching the inner world of the client. This article gives a brief background of the connection between insecure attachment and intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect as well as a brief overview of the principles of AAT in a play therapy setting. A rationale for the use of AAT as a unique therapy technique for children having suffered from abuse and neglect is followed by a number of clinical examples illustrating AAT.

  2. 9 CFR 94.15 - Animal products and materials; movement and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED... Act (7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.). (d) Meat and other products of ruminants or swine from regions listed in... part are met. (e) Any meat or other animal products not otherwise eligible for entry into the...

  3. Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

  4. Transmission of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer: implications for disease spread and management.

    PubMed

    Jennelle, Christopher S; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.

  5. Detection of PrP(Sc) in peripheral tissues of clinically affected cattle after oral challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative prion disease that affects cattle and can be transmitted to human beings as new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). A protease-resistant, disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (PrP**Sc) accumulates in the central ner...

  6. The Development of Novel Recombinant Human Gelatins as Replacements for Animal-Derived Gelatin in Pharmaceutical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, David; Chang, Robert; Williams, Kim E.; Polarek, James W.

    We have developed a recombinant expression system to produce a series of novel recombinant human gelatins that can substitute for animal sourced gelatin preparations currently used in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. This system allows the production of human sequence gelatins, or, if desired, gelatins from any other species depending on the availability of the cloned gene. The gelatins produced with this recombinant system are of defined molecular weight, unlike the animal-sourced gelatins, which consist of numerous polypeptides of varying size. The fermentation and purification process used to prepare these recombinant gelatins does not use any human- or animal-derived components and thus this recombinant material should be free from viruses and agents that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The recombinant gelatins exhibit lot-to-lot reproducibility and we have performed extensive analytical testing on them. We have demonstrated the utility of these novel gelatins as biological stabilizers and plasma expanders, and we have shown they possess qualities that are important in applications where gel formation is critical. Finally, we provide examples of how our system allows the engineering of these recombinant gelatins to optimize the production process.

  7. DNA polymorphisms of the prion doppel gene region in four different German cattle breeds and cows tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Balbus, N; Humeny, A; Kashkevich, K; Henz, I; Fischer, C; Becker, C-M; Schiebel, K

    2005-11-01

    Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene PRNP have been shown to influence the susceptibility/resistance to prion infections in human and sheep. In addition, the T174M polymorphism within the flanking prion doppel gene (PRND) was thought to be involved in susceptibility to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. To study a possible influence of DNA polymorphisms of the bovine PRND gene in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), previously identified and newly isolated DNA polymorphisms were genotyped in all available German cattle that tested positive for BSE. Genotypes and calculated haplotypes were compared with breeding bulls serving as controls. Analysis of the four major breeds Schwarzbunt (Holstein Friesian), Rotbunt (Holstein Red), Fleckvieh (Simmental), and Braunvieh (Swiss Brown) resulted in the isolation of the previously known polymorphisms R50H and R132Q and two novel synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C4820T and A5063T. Comparative genotype and haplotype analysis of BSE and control animals revealed a significantly different distribution of polymorphisms C4815T and R132Q in Fleckvieh animals but not in the other breeds tested. No association to BSE susceptibility was detectable for polymorphisms R50H and A5063T.

  8. Decontamination studies with the agents of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D M; Fraser, H; McConnell, I; Brown, D A; Brown, K L; Lamza, K A; Smith, G R

    1994-01-01

    Macerates of bovine brain infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, and rodent brain infected with the 263K or ME7 strains of scrapie agent, were subjected to porous-load autoclaving at temperatures between 134 and 138 degrees C for < or = 60 min. Bioassay in rodents showed that none of the regimens produced complete inactivation. Homogenates of BSE-infected bovine brain were exposed for < or = 120 min to solutions of sodium hypochlorite or sodium dichloroisocyanurate containing < or = 16,500 ppm available chlorine. There was no detectable survival of infectivity after the hypochlorite treatments but none of the dichloroisocyanurate solutions produced complete inactivation. Homogenates of BSE-infected bovine brain, and rodent brain infected with the 263K and ME7 strains of scrapie agent, were exposed for < or = 120 min to 1M or 2M sodium hydroxide but no procedure produced complete inactivation of all agents tested. PMID:7832638

  9. Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of BSE and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human PrP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has demonstrated that cattle TSEs can pose a risk to human health and raises the possibility that other ruminant TSEs may be transmissible to humans. In recent years, several new TSEs in shee...

  10. Primary transmission of chronic wasting disease versus scrapie prions from small ruminants to transgenic mice expressing ovine and cervid prion protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) reservoirs that could lead to disease re-emergence is imperative to U.S. scrapie eradication efforts. Transgenic mice expressing the cervid (TgElk) or ovine (Tg338) prion protein have aided characterization of chronic wasting disease (CWD) an...

  11. Postinhibitory rebound neurons and networks are disrupted in retrovirus-induced spongiform neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Davey, Robert A.; Lynch, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Certain retroviruses induce progressive spongiform motor neuron disease with features resembling prion diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. With the neurovirulent murine leukemia virus (MLV) FrCasE, Env protein expression within glia leads to postsynaptic vacuolation, cellular effacement, and neuronal loss in the absence of neuroinflammation. To understand the physiological changes associated with MLV-induced spongiosis, and its neuronal specificity, we employed patch-clamp recordings and voltage-sensitive dye imaging in brain slices of the mouse inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain nucleus that undergoes extensive spongiosis. IC neurons characterized by postinhibitory rebound firing (PIR) were selectively affected in FrCasE-infected mice. Coincident with Env expression in microglia and in glia characterized by NG2 proteoglycan expression (NG2 cells), rebound neurons (RNs) lost PIR, became hyperexcitable, and were reduced in number. PIR loss and hyperexcitability were reversed by raising internal calcium buffer concentrations in RNs. PIR-initiated rhythmic circuits were disrupted, and spontaneous synchronized bursting and prolonged depolarizations were widespread. Other IC neuron cell types and circuits within the same degenerative environment were unaffected. Antagonists of NMDA and/or AMPA receptors reduced burst firing in the IC but did not affect prolonged depolarizations. Antagonists of L-type calcium channels abolished both bursts and slow depolarizations. IC infection by the nonneurovirulent isogenic virus Friend 57E (Fr57E), whose Env protein is structurally similar to FrCasE, showed no RN hyperactivity or cell loss; however, PIR latency increased. These findings suggest that spongiform neurodegeneration arises from the unique excitability of RNs, their local regulation by glia, and the disruption of this relationship by glial expression of abnormal protein. PMID:25252336

  12. Postinhibitory rebound neurons and networks are disrupted in retrovirus-induced spongiform neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Davey, Robert A; Sivaramakrishnan, Shobhana; Lynch, William P

    2014-08-01

    Certain retroviruses induce progressive spongiform motor neuron disease with features resembling prion diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. With the neurovirulent murine leukemia virus (MLV) FrCasE, Env protein expression within glia leads to postsynaptic vacuolation, cellular effacement, and neuronal loss in the absence of neuroinflammation. To understand the physiological changes associated with MLV-induced spongiosis, and its neuronal specificity, we employed patch-clamp recordings and voltage-sensitive dye imaging in brain slices of the mouse inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain nucleus that undergoes extensive spongiosis. IC neurons characterized by postinhibitory rebound firing (PIR) were selectively affected in FrCasE-infected mice. Coincident with Env expression in microglia and in glia characterized by NG2 proteoglycan expression (NG2 cells), rebound neurons (RNs) lost PIR, became hyperexcitable, and were reduced in number. PIR loss and hyperexcitability were reversed by raising internal calcium buffer concentrations in RNs. PIR-initiated rhythmic circuits were disrupted, and spontaneous synchronized bursting and prolonged depolarizations were widespread. Other IC neuron cell types and circuits within the same degenerative environment were unaffected. Antagonists of NMDA and/or AMPA receptors reduced burst firing in the IC but did not affect prolonged depolarizations. Antagonists of L-type calcium channels abolished both bursts and slow depolarizations. IC infection by the nonneurovirulent isogenic virus Friend 57E (Fr57E), whose Env protein is structurally similar to FrCasE, showed no RN hyperactivity or cell loss; however, PIR latency increased. These findings suggest that spongiform neurodegeneration arises from the unique excitability of RNs, their local regulation by glia, and the disruption of this relationship by glial expression of abnormal protein. PMID:25252336

  13. Animal models for prion-like diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Eraña, Hasier; Venegas, Vanesa; Elezgarai, Saioa R; Harrathi, Chafik; Castilla, Joaquín

    2015-09-01

    Prion diseases or Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting several mammalian species being Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD) the most representative in human beings, scrapie in ovine, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in bovine and Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in cervids. As stated by the "protein-only hypothesis", the causal agent of TSEs is a self-propagating aberrant form of the prion protein (PrP) that through a misfolding event acquires a β-sheet rich conformation known as PrP(Sc) (from scrapie). This isoform is neurotoxic, aggregation prone and induces misfolding of native cellular PrP. Compelling evidence indicates that disease-specific protein misfolding in amyloid deposits could be shared by other disorders showing aberrant protein aggregates such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and systemic Amyloid A amyloidosis (AA amyloidosis). Evidences of shared mechanisms of the proteins related to each disease with prions will be reviewed through the available in vivo models. Taking prion research as reference, typical prion-like features such as seeding and propagation ability, neurotoxic species causing disease, infectivity, transmission barrier and strain evidences will be analyzed for other protein-related diseases. Thus, prion-like features of amyloid β peptide and tau present in AD, α-synuclein in PD, SOD-1, TDP-43 and others in ALS and serum α-amyloid (SAA) in systemic AA amyloidosis will be reviewed through models available for each disease. PMID:25907990

  14. Spontaneous obesity-linked type 2 diabetes in the absence of islet amyloid in a cynomolgus monkey infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Strom, A; Yutzy, B; Kruip, C; Völker, I; Schloot, N C; Roden, M; Scott, F W; Löwer, J; Holznagel, E

    2013-09-01

    A 9-year-old cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) infected orally with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia 4 years post infection (p.i.). This macaque R984 was exposed to a BSE dose that causes a simian form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) within 5 years p.i. in other macaques. All orally BSE-infected macaques developed a significant weight gain within the first 2 years p.i. compared with non-BSE-infected age- and sex-matched control animals, suggesting increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast, macaque R984 developed rapid weight loss, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria and had to be euthanatized 4 years p.i. before clinical signs of vCJD. Pancreas histopathological evaluation revealed severe islet degeneration but, remarkably, no islet amyloid deposits were present. Immunostaining of pancreas sections for insulin and glucagon confirmed the loss of endocrine cells. In addition, prions were present in the adenohypophysis but not in other areas of the brain, indicating centripetal prion spread from the gut during the preclinical phase of BSE infection. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of macaque R984 became abnormal with age and resembled T2D. This unusual case of spontaneous T2D in the absence of islet amyloid deposits could have been due to early prion spread from the periphery to the endocrine system or could have occurred spontaneously.

  15. Mapping of neurotrophins and their receptors in the adult mouse brain and their role in the pathogenesis of a transgenic murine model of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Marco-Salazar, P; Márquez, M; Fondevila, D; Rabanal, R M; Torres, J M; Pumarola, M; Vidal, E

    2014-05-01

    Neurotrophins are a family of growth factors that act on neuronal cells. The neurotrophins include nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3, -4 and -5. The action of neurotrophins depends on two transmembrane-receptor signalling systems: (1) the tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) family of tyrosine kinase receptors (Trk A, Trk B and Trk C) and (2) the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)). The interaction between neurotrophic factors and their receptors may be involved in the mechanisms that regulate the differential susceptibility of neuronal populations in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of neurotrophins in the pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) using a transgenic mouse overexpressing bovine prnp (BoTg 110). Histochemistry for Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for the abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrP(d)), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and the receptors Trk A, Trk B, Trk C and p75(NTR) was performed. The lesions and the immunolabelling patterns were assessed semiquantitatively in different areas of the brain. No significant differences in the immunolabelling of neurotrophins and their receptors were observed between BSE-inoculated and control animals, except for p75(NTR), which showed increased expression correlating with the distribution of lesions, PrP(d) deposition and gliosis in the BSE-inoculated mice.

  16. Sporadic fatal insomnia with spongiform degeneration in the thalamus and widespread PrPSc deposits in the brain.

    PubMed

    Piao, Yue-Shan; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2005-06-01

    We report a case of human prion disease of 29 months duration in a 74-year-old Japanese man. The disease started with progressive sleeplessness and dementia. MRI showed gradually progressive cerebral atrophy. Neuronal loss, spongiform change and gliosis were evident in the thalamus and cerebral cortex, as well as in the striatum and amygdaloid nucleus. In the cerebellar cortex, mild-to-moderate depletion of Pukinje cells and spongiform change were observed. Mild neuronal loss in the inferior olivary nucleus was also seen. Immunohistochemistry revealed widespread perivacuolar deposits of abnormal prion protein (PrPsc) in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, and brainstem, and minimal plaque-like deposits of PrPSc in the cerebellar cortex. In the cerebellar plaque-like deposits, the presence of amyloid fibrils was confirmed ultrastructurally. The entire pathology appeared to lie halfway between those of CJD and fatal insomnia, and further demonstrated the relationship between spongiform degeneration and PrPSc deposits, especially in the diseased thalamus. By immunoblotting, the thalamus was shown to contain the lowest amount of PrPSc among the brain regions examined. The PrPSc of type 2, in which the ratio of the three glycoforms was compatible with that of sporadic fatal insomnia (MM2-thalamic variant) reported previously, was also demonstrated. Analysis of the prion protein gene (PRNP) showed no mutation, and homozygosity for methionine at codon 129. In conclusion, we considered that this patient had been suffering from sporadic, pathologically atypical fatal insomnia.

  17. Magnetization transfer ratio may be a surrogate of spongiform change in human prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Durrenajaf; Hyare, Harpreet; Wroe, Stephen; Webb, Thomas; Macfarlane, Rebecca; Rudge, Peter; Collinge, John; Powell, Caroline; Brandner, Sebastian; So, Po-Wah; Walker, Sarah; Mead, Simon; Yousry, Tarek; Thornton, John S

    2010-10-01

    Human prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by misfolding of the prion protein. There are no useful biomarkers of disease progression. Cerebral cortex spongiform change, one of the classical pathological features of prion disease, resolves in prion-infected transgenic mice following prion protein gene knockout. We investigated the cross-sectional, longitudinal and post-mortem cerebral magnetization transfer ratios as a surrogate for prion disease pathology. Twenty-three prion disease patients with various prion protein gene mutations and 16 controls underwent magnetization transfer ratio and conventional magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T. For each subject, whole-brain, white and grey matter magnetization transfer ratio histogram mean, peak height, peak location, and magnetization transfer ratio at 25th, 50th and 75th percentile were computed and correlated with several cognitive, functional and neuropsychological scales. Highly significant associations were found between whole brain magnetization transfer ratio and prion disease (P < 0.01). Additionally, highly significant correlations were found between magnetization transfer ratio histogram parameters and clinical, functional and neuropsychological scores (P < 0.01). Longitudinally, decline in the Clinician's Dementia Rating scale was correlated with decline in magnetization transfer ratio. To investigate the histological correlates of magnetization transfer ratio, formalin-fixed cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres from 19 patients and six controls underwent magnetization transfer ratio imaging at 1.5 T, with mean magnetization transfer ratio calculated from six regions of interest, and findings were followed-up in six variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases with 9.4 T high-resolution magnetization transfer imaging on frontal cortex blocks, with semi-quantitative histopathological scoring of spongiosis, astrocytosis and prion protein deposition. Post-mortem magnetization transfer ratios

  18. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission.

  19. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission. PMID:26374235

  20. The evolution of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy--Canadian consumer and producer behavior.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study the dynamics of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) held by Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers were evaluated. Since the first domestic case of BSE in 2003, Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers have needed to make decisions on whether or not their purchasing/production behavior should change. Such changes in their behavior may relate to their levels of risk perceptions about BSE, risk perceptions that may be evolving over time and be affected by BSE media information available. An econometric analysis of the behavior of consumers and cow-calf producers might identify the impacts of evolving BSE risk perceptions. Risk perceptions related to BSE are evaluated through observed market behavior, an approach that differs from traditional stated preference approaches to eliciting risk perceptions at a particular point in time. BSE risk perceptions may be specified following a Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) derived from sociology, psychology, and economics. Based on the SARF, various quality and quantity indices related to BSE media information are used as explanatory variables in risk perception equations. Risk perceptions are approximated using a predictive difference approach as defined by Liu et al. (1998). Results showed that Canadian consumer and cow-calf producer risk perceptions related to BSE have been amplified or attenuated by both quantity and quality of BSE media information. Government policies on risk communications need to address the different roles of BSE information in Canadian consumers' and cow-calf producers' behavior.

  1. Brain-Specific Superoxide Dismutase 2 Deficiency Causes Perinatal Death with Spongiform Encephalopathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Izuo, Naotaka; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Noda, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Kojima, Shuji; Sasaki, Toru; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to greatly contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including neurodegeneration. Impairment of mitochondrial energy production and increased mitochondrial oxidative damage are considered early pathological events that lead to neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, SOD2) is a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that converts toxic superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. To investigate the pathological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the central nervous system, we generated brain-specific SOD2-deficient mice (B-Sod2(-/-)) using nestin-Cre-loxp system. B-Sod2(-/-) showed perinatal death, along with severe growth retardation. Interestingly, these mice exhibited spongiform neurodegeneration in motor cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem, accompanied by gliosis. In addition, the mutant mice had markedly decreased mitochondrial complex II activity, but not complex I or IV, in the brain based on enzyme histochemistry. Furthermore, brain lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the B-Sod2(-/-), without any compensatory alterations of the activities of other antioxidative enzymes, such as catalase or glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that SOD2 protects the neural system from oxidative stress in the perinatal stage and is essential for infant survival and central neural function in mice. PMID:26301039

  2. The Canadian Management of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Historical and Scientific Perspective, 1990-2014.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Alexandra E; Shamy, Michel C F

    2015-11-01

    On February 11, 2015, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency announced that a cow born and raised in Alberta had tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease. BSE is a prion disease of cattle that, when transmitted to humans, produces a fatal neurodegenerative disease known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We believe that this latest case of BSE in Canadian cattle suggests the timeliness of a review of the management of BSE in Canada from a historically and scientifically informed perspective. In this article, we ask: how did the Canadian management of BSE between 1990 and 2014 engage with the contemporary understanding of BSE's human health implications? We propose that Canadian policies largely ignored the implicit medical nature of BSE, treating it as a purely agricultural and veterinary issue. In this way, policies to protect Canadians were often delayed and incomplete, in a manner disturbingly reminiscent of Britain's failed management of BSE. Despite assurances to the contrary, it is premature to conclude that BSE (and with it the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is a thing of Canada's past: BSE remains very much an issue in Canada's present. PMID:26357946

  3. Brain-Specific Superoxide Dismutase 2 Deficiency Causes Perinatal Death with Spongiform Encephalopathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Izuo, Naotaka; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Noda, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Kojima, Shuji; Sasaki, Toru; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to greatly contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including neurodegeneration. Impairment of mitochondrial energy production and increased mitochondrial oxidative damage are considered early pathological events that lead to neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, SOD2) is a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that converts toxic superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. To investigate the pathological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the central nervous system, we generated brain-specific SOD2-deficient mice (B-Sod2−/−) using nestin-Cre-loxp system. B-Sod2−/− showed perinatal death, along with severe growth retardation. Interestingly, these mice exhibited spongiform neurodegeneration in motor cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem, accompanied by gliosis. In addition, the mutant mice had markedly decreased mitochondrial complex II activity, but not complex I or IV, in the brain based on enzyme histochemistry. Furthermore, brain lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the B-Sod2−/−, without any compensatory alterations of the activities of other antioxidative enzymes, such as catalase or glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that SOD2 protects the neural system from oxidative stress in the perinatal stage and is essential for infant survival and central neural function in mice. PMID:26301039

  4. The Canadian Management of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Historical and Scientific Perspective, 1990-2014.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Alexandra E; Shamy, Michel C F

    2015-11-01

    On February 11, 2015, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency announced that a cow born and raised in Alberta had tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease. BSE is a prion disease of cattle that, when transmitted to humans, produces a fatal neurodegenerative disease known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We believe that this latest case of BSE in Canadian cattle suggests the timeliness of a review of the management of BSE in Canada from a historically and scientifically informed perspective. In this article, we ask: how did the Canadian management of BSE between 1990 and 2014 engage with the contemporary understanding of BSE's human health implications? We propose that Canadian policies largely ignored the implicit medical nature of BSE, treating it as a purely agricultural and veterinary issue. In this way, policies to protect Canadians were often delayed and incomplete, in a manner disturbingly reminiscent of Britain's failed management of BSE. Despite assurances to the contrary, it is premature to conclude that BSE (and with it the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is a thing of Canada's past: BSE remains very much an issue in Canada's present.

  5. Brain-Specific Superoxide Dismutase 2 Deficiency Causes Perinatal Death with Spongiform Encephalopathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Izuo, Naotaka; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Noda, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Kojima, Shuji; Sasaki, Toru; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to greatly contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including neurodegeneration. Impairment of mitochondrial energy production and increased mitochondrial oxidative damage are considered early pathological events that lead to neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, SOD2) is a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that converts toxic superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. To investigate the pathological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the central nervous system, we generated brain-specific SOD2-deficient mice (B-Sod2(-/-)) using nestin-Cre-loxp system. B-Sod2(-/-) showed perinatal death, along with severe growth retardation. Interestingly, these mice exhibited spongiform neurodegeneration in motor cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem, accompanied by gliosis. In addition, the mutant mice had markedly decreased mitochondrial complex II activity, but not complex I or IV, in the brain based on enzyme histochemistry. Furthermore, brain lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the B-Sod2(-/-), without any compensatory alterations of the activities of other antioxidative enzymes, such as catalase or glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that SOD2 protects the neural system from oxidative stress in the perinatal stage and is essential for infant survival and central neural function in mice.

  6. Rapid fingerprinting of sterols and related compounds in vegetable and animal oils and phytosterol enriched- margarines by transmission mode direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alberici, Rosana M; Fernandes, Gabriel D; Porcari, Andréia M; Eberlin, Marcos N; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-11-15

    Plant-derived sterols, often referred to as phytosterols, are important constituents of plant membranes where they assist in maintaining phospholipid bilayer stability. Consumption of phytosterols has been suggested to positively affect human health by reducing cholesterol levels in blood via inhibition of its absorption in the small intestine, thus protecting against heart attack and stroke. Sterols are challenging analytes for mass spectrometry, since their low polarity makes them difficult to ionize by both electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), typically requiring derivatization steps to overcome their low ionization efficiencies. We present a fast and reliable method to characterize the composition of phytosterols in vegetable oils and enriched margarines. The method requires no derivatization steps or sample extraction procedures thanks to the use of transmission mode direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (TM-DART-MS).

  7. Rapid fingerprinting of sterols and related compounds in vegetable and animal oils and phytosterol enriched- margarines by transmission mode direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alberici, Rosana M; Fernandes, Gabriel D; Porcari, Andréia M; Eberlin, Marcos N; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-11-15

    Plant-derived sterols, often referred to as phytosterols, are important constituents of plant membranes where they assist in maintaining phospholipid bilayer stability. Consumption of phytosterols has been suggested to positively affect human health by reducing cholesterol levels in blood via inhibition of its absorption in the small intestine, thus protecting against heart attack and stroke. Sterols are challenging analytes for mass spectrometry, since their low polarity makes them difficult to ionize by both electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), typically requiring derivatization steps to overcome their low ionization efficiencies. We present a fast and reliable method to characterize the composition of phytosterols in vegetable oils and enriched margarines. The method requires no derivatization steps or sample extraction procedures thanks to the use of transmission mode direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (TM-DART-MS). PMID:27283681

  8. Quantitative analysis of wet-heat inactivation in bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Yukiko; Bo, Xiao; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Somerville, Robert A.; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Mohri, Shirou

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► We quantitatively analyzed wet-heat inactivation of the BSE agent. ► Infectivity of the BSE macerate did not survive 155 °C wet-heat treatment. ► Once the sample was dehydrated, infectivity was observed even at 170 °C. ► A quantitative PMCA assay was used to evaluate the degree of BSE inactivation. - Abstract: The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent is resistant to conventional microbial inactivation procedures and thus threatens the safety of cattle products and by-products. To obtain information necessary to assess BSE inactivation, we performed quantitative analysis of wet-heat inactivation of infectivity in BSE-infected cattle spinal cords. Using a highly sensitive bioassay, we found that infectivity in BSE cattle macerates fell with increase in temperatures from 133 °C to 150 °C and was not detected in the samples subjected to temperatures above 155 °C. In dry cattle tissues, infectivity was detected even at 170 °C. Thus, BSE infectivity reduces with increase in wet-heat temperatures but is less affected when tissues are dehydrated prior to the wet-heat treatment. The results of the quantitative protein misfolding cyclic amplification assay also demonstrated that the level of the protease-resistant prion protein fell below the bioassay detection limit by wet-heat at 155 °C and higher and could help assess BSE inactivation. Our results show that BSE infectivity is strongly resistant to wet-heat inactivation and that it is necessary to pay attention to BSE decontamination in recycled cattle by-products.

  9. Impact of climate change and man-made irrigation systems on the transmission risk, long-term trend and seasonality of human and animal fascioliasis in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afshan, Kiran; Fortes-Lima, Cesar A; Artigas, Patricio; Valero, Adela M; Qayyum, Mazhar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of the province of Punjab, Pakistan are endemic for fascioliasis, resulting in high economic losses due to livestock infection but also affecting humans directly. The prevalence in livestock varies pronouncedly in space and time (1-70%). Climatic factors influencing fascioliasis presence and potential spread were analysed based on data from five meteorological stations during 1990-2010. Variables such as wet days (Mt), water-budget-based system (Wb-bs) indices and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were obtained and correlated with geographical distribution, seasonality patterns and the two-decade evolution of fascioliasis in livestock throughout the province. The combined approach by these three indices proved to furnish a useful tool to analyse the complex epidemiology that includes (i) sheep-goats and cattlebuffaloes presenting different immunological responses to fasciolids; (ii) overlap of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica; (iii) co-existence of highlands and lowlands in the area studied; and (iv) disease transmission following bi-seasonality with one peak related to natural rainfall and another peak related to man-made irrigation. Results suggest a human infection situation of concern and illustrate how climate and anthropogenic environment modifications influence both geographical distribution and seasonality of fascioliasis risks. Increased fascioliasis risk throughout the Punjab plain and its decrease in the northern highlands of the province became evident during the study period. The high risk in the lowlands is worrying given that Punjab province largely consists of low-altitude, highly irrigated plains. The importance of livestock in this province makes it essential to prioritise adequate control measures. An annual treatment scheme to control the disease is recommended to be applied throughout the whole province. PMID:24893010

  10. Impact of climate change and man-made irrigation systems on the transmission risk, long-term trend and seasonality of human and animal fascioliasis in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afshan, Kiran; Fortes-Lima, Cesar A; Artigas, Patricio; Valero, Adela M; Qayyum, Mazhar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of the province of Punjab, Pakistan are endemic for fascioliasis, resulting in high economic losses due to livestock infection but also affecting humans directly. The prevalence in livestock varies pronouncedly in space and time (1-70%). Climatic factors influencing fascioliasis presence and potential spread were analysed based on data from five meteorological stations during 1990-2010. Variables such as wet days (Mt), water-budget-based system (Wb-bs) indices and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were obtained and correlated with geographical distribution, seasonality patterns and the two-decade evolution of fascioliasis in livestock throughout the province. The combined approach by these three indices proved to furnish a useful tool to analyse the complex epidemiology that includes (i) sheep-goats and cattlebuffaloes presenting different immunological responses to fasciolids; (ii) overlap of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica; (iii) co-existence of highlands and lowlands in the area studied; and (iv) disease transmission following bi-seasonality with one peak related to natural rainfall and another peak related to man-made irrigation. Results suggest a human infection situation of concern and illustrate how climate and anthropogenic environment modifications influence both geographical distribution and seasonality of fascioliasis risks. Increased fascioliasis risk throughout the Punjab plain and its decrease in the northern highlands of the province became evident during the study period. The high risk in the lowlands is worrying given that Punjab province largely consists of low-altitude, highly irrigated plains. The importance of livestock in this province makes it essential to prioritise adequate control measures. An annual treatment scheme to control the disease is recommended to be applied throughout the whole province.

  11. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: is it an autoimmune disease due to bacteria showing molecular mimicry with brain antigens?

    PubMed Central

    Ebringer, A; Thorpe, C; Pirt, J; Wilson, C; Cunningham, P; Ettelaie, C

    1997-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) could be an autoimmune disease produced following exposure of cattle to feedstuffs containing bacteria showing molecular mimicry between bacterial components and bovine tissue. Analysis of molecular sequence databases (Genbank and SwissProt) shows that three bacteria (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus,Ruminococcus albus, and Agrobacter tumefaciens) share sequences with the encephalitogenic peptide of bovine myelin, while three molecules in Escherichia coli show molecular mimicry with host-encoded prion protein. Immune responses against these bacteria at both T and B cell levels may cause neurological tissue injury resembling BSE. The role of these bacteria in BSE, if any, merits further investigation. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9370514

  12. Virus quantitation by transmission electron microscopy, TCID₅₀, and the role of timing virus harvesting: a case study of three animal viruses.

    PubMed

    Malenovska, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Quantitation of viruses is practised widely in both basic and applied virology. Infectious titration in cell cultures, the most common approach to it, is quite labour-intensive and alternative protocols are therefore sought. One of the alternatives is transmission electron microscope (TEM) quantitation using latex particles at a known concentration as a reference for counting virus particles. If virus TCID₅₀ is determined in parallel, the ratio of infectious to non-infectious virus particles may be established. This study employs such an approach to compute the number of virus particles and TCID₅₀, and establish their correlation for three viruses: Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1), Feline calicivirus (FCV) and Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Each of the viruses was grown in five replicates until complete cytopathology was recorded (time 0), then frozen. They were thawed, filter-sterilised and left for additional periods of 16, 32 and 48 h at 37°C. At each time point, the infectious ability of the virus was characterised by TCID50 and the number of virions quantified by TEM, in order to evaluate the influence of timing on virus harvest. The virus particle count determined by TEM did not change for any of the viruses throughout the experiment. The relationship between virus particle counts with TCID₅₀ at time 0 showed good linearity response; their ratio was almost constant. The virus particle-to-TCID₅₀ ratio varied between 146 and 426 (mean±SD: 282±103) for CAdV-1, between 36 and 79 (57±18) for FCV and between 110 and 249 (167±53) for BoHV-1. The proportion of non-infectious particles did not change throughout the experiment for either CAdV-1 or BoHV-1. However, a decrease in virus infectious ability disclosed by TCID₅₀ indicated that the fraction of non-infectious particles in FCV increased 300,000 times when time 0 and 48 h were compared. The quantitation of viruses with TEM is a simple and rapid protocol for virus quantitation but account must

  13. Human prion diseases: surgical lessons learned from iatrogenic prion transmission.

    PubMed

    Bonda, David J; Manjila, Sunil; Mehndiratta, Prachi; Khan, Fahd; Miller, Benjamin R; Onwuzulike, Kaine; Puoti, Gianfranco; Cohen, Mark L; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Cali, Ignazio

    2016-07-01

    The human prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, have captivated our imaginations since their discovery in the Fore linguistic group in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s. The mysterious and poorly understood "infectious protein" has become somewhat of a household name in many regions across the globe. From bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly identified as mad cow disease, to endocannibalism, media outlets have capitalized on these devastatingly fatal neurological conditions. Interestingly, since their discovery, there have been more than 492 incidents of iatrogenic transmission of prion diseases, largely resulting from prion-contaminated growth hormone and dura mater grafts. Although fewer than 9 cases of probable iatrogenic neurosurgical cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) have been reported worldwide, the likelihood of some missed cases and the potential for prion transmission by neurosurgery create considerable concern. Laboratory studies indicate that standard decontamination and sterilization procedures may be insufficient to completely remove infectivity from prion-contaminated instruments. In this unfortunate event, the instruments may transmit the prion disease to others. Much caution therefore should be taken in the absence of strong evidence against the presence of a prion disease in a neurosurgical patient. While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) have devised risk assessment and decontamination protocols for the prevention of iatrogenic transmission of the prion diseases, incidents of possible exposure to prions have unfortunately occurred in the United States. In this article, the authors outline the historical discoveries that led from kuru to the identification and isolation of the pathological prion proteins in addition to providing a brief description of human prion diseases and iatrogenic forms of CJD, a brief history of prion disease nosocomial transmission

  14. Experimental H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy characterized by plaques and glial- and stellate-type prion protein deposits.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Masujin, Kentaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Kasai, Kazuo; Mohri, Shirou; Yokoyama, Takashi; Czub, Stefanie

    2011-06-23

    Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has recently been identified in Europe, North America, and Japan. It is classified as H-type and L-type BSE according to the molecular mass of the disease-associated prion protein (Pr(PSc)). To investigate the topographical distribution and deposition patterns of immunolabeled Pr(PSc), H-type BSE isolate was inoculated intracerebrally into cattle. H-type BSE was successfully transmitted to 3 calves, with incubation periods between 500 and 600 days. Moderate to severe spongiform changes were detected in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. H-type BSE was characterized by the presence of PrP-immunopositive amyloid plaques in the white matter of the cerebrum, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Moreover, intraglial-type immunolabeled Pr(PSc) was prominent throughout the brain. Stellate-type immunolabeled Pr(PSc) was conspicuous in the gray matter of the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus, but not in the brainstem. In addition, Pr(PSc) accumulation was detected in the peripheral nervous tissues, such as trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, optic nerve, retina, and neurohypophysis. Cattle are susceptible to H-type BSE with a shorter incubation period, showing distinct and distinguishable phenotypes of Pr(PSc) accumulation.

  15. Airborne Transmission of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J.

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets. PMID:22807521

  16. Contaminants in feed for food-producing animals.

    PubMed

    Moreno-López, J

    2002-01-01

    Outbreaks of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and food borne microbial infections, dioxin contaminated animal products, the presence of veterinary drug residues, microbial resistance to antibiotics, mycotoxins, agricultural and industrial chemicals, etc. are serious concerns for the food industry in many countries. Since the direct links between feed safety and safety of foods of animal origin are obvious, feed production and manufacture should be considered as an integral part of the food production chain. Industry is responsible for the quality and safety of food and feed that is produced. This paper is a brief review of some microorganisms as source of infections for farm animals that could result in human illnesses. These include Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spiralis, prions, Listeria monocytogenes, EHEC, Campylobacter, Clostridium botulinum, Hog Cholera virus, Foot and Mouth Disease virus, etc. as well as other contaminants associated with animal feed such as mycotoxins, veterinary drugs, dioxins and PCB and Genetically Modified Organisms.

  17. Animal picobirnavirus.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Masachessi, Gisela; Mladenova, Zornitsa

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name 'Picobirnavirus' derives from the prefix 'pico' (latin for 'small') in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix 'bi' (latin for 'two') and the word 'RNA' to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for routine rotavirus surveillance by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver straining (S/S). The PAGE gels after silver staining showed a typical 'two RNA band' pattern, and it was identified as Picobirnavirus. Likewise, the feces of wild black-footed pigmy rice rats (Oryzomys nigripes) subjected for PAGE assay by the same research group in Brazil reported the presence of PBV (Pereira et al., J Gen Virol 69:2749-2754, 1988). PBVs have been detected in faeces of humans and wide range of animal species with or without diarrhoea, worldwide. The probable role of PBV as either a 'primary diarrhoeal agent' in 'immunocompetent children'; or a 'potential pathogen' in 'immunocompromised individuals' or an 'innocuous virus' in the intestine remains elusive and needs to be investigated despite the numerous reports of the presence of PBV in fecal samples of various species of domestic mammals, wild animals, birds and snakes; our current knowledge of their biology, etiology, pathogenicity or their transmission characteristics remains subtle. This review aims to analyse the veterinary and zoonotic aspects of animal Picobirnavirus infections since its discovery. PMID:25674589

  18. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    MedlinePlus

      Topics Animal Health Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Disaster and Emergency Preparedness Employee Services Energy Environment and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition ...

  19. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Shingles Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH ...

  20. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  1. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  2. Detection of disease-associated prion protein in the posterior portion of the small intestine involving the continuous Peyer's patch in cattle orally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Iwamaru, Y; Imamura, M; Masujin, K; Matsuura, Y; Murayama, Y; Mohri, S; Yokoyama, T

    2011-08-01

    Twenty-eight calves were exposed to 5 g of homogenized brainstems confirmed as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents. Two to five animals were sequentially killed for post-mortem analyses 20 months post-inoculation (MPI) at intervals of 6 or 12 months. Samples from animals challenged orally with BSE agents were examined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Immunolabelled, disease-associated prion protein (PrPsc) was detected in a small portion of follicles in the continuous Peyer's patch from the posterior portion of the small intestine involving the entire ileum and the posterior jejunum but not in the discrete Peyer's patches in the remaining jejunum in preclinical animals at 20, 36, and 48 MPI. The PrPsc-positive cells corresponded to tingible body macrophages on double immunofluorescence labelling. In addition, PrPsc accumulated in 7 of 14 animals in the central nervous system (CNS) after 34 MPI, and five of them developed clinical signs and were killed at 34, 46, 58, and 66 MPI. Two preclinical animals killed at 36 and 48 MPI presented the earliest detectable and smallest deposition of immunolabelled PrPsc in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, the spinal trigeminal nucleus of the medulla oblongata at the obex region, and/or the intermediolateral nucleus of the 13th thoracic segment of the spinal cord. Based on serial killing, no PrPsc was detectable in the CNS, including the medulla oblongata at the obex level, before 30 MPI, by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. These results are important for understanding the pathogenesis of BSE.

  3. [Importation of infectious diseases to Europe via animals and animal products: risks and pathways].

    PubMed

    Brugère-Picoux, Jeanne; Chomel, Bruno

    2009-11-01

    Importation of tropical infectious diseases to Europe via animals and animal products. Most emerging and resurgent diseases observed in France in recent decades have been zoonoses, and some have caused unprecedented health crises. The growing international trade in domestic and wild animals and foodstuffs of animal origin is contributing to the emergence or resurgence of such zoonoses, along with accidental or deliberate introduction of certain species into new geographical areas, and the recent craze for exotic pets. Thus, in France, we have witnessed the introduction and sometimes the establishment of new diseases through insect vectors (e.g. bluetongue), foodstuffs of animal origin intended for human or animal consumption (e.g. bovine spongiform encephalopathy and trichinellosis), and diseased or asymptomatically infected animals. This is notably the case of the highly pathogenic influenza virus subtype H5N1 carried by poultry and wild birds, and also pathogens carried by imported pet species (e.g. rabid dogs illegally imported from Morocco, and pet rats infected with cowpox virus). Globalization and global warming will also favor the emergence of new tropical diseases in Europe, and especially African diseases such as Rift Valley fever. Finally, it should be remembered that some diseases with potentially severe economic consequences have disappeared from Europe while remaining active on other continents. This is the case of rinderpest, for example, which led to the creation of the first veterinary school in the world (in Lyon, France) nearly 250 years ago, and which has now been eradicated from Europe.

  4. Worldwide risks of animal diseases: introduction.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E

    2006-01-01

    Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.

  5. Evaluation of the possible transmission of BSE and scrapie to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Salta, Evgenia; Panagiotidis, Cynthia; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Petrakis, Spyros; Eleftheriadis, Eleftherios; Arapoglou, Fotis; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Nicolaou, Anna; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Krey, Grigorios; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2009-01-01

    In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many species, the key event in disease pathogenesis is the accumulation of an abnormal conformational isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). While the precise mechanism of the PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) conversion is not understood, it is clear that host PrP(C) expression is a prerequisite for effective infectious prion propagation. Although there have been many studies on TSEs in mammalian species, little is known about TSE pathogenesis in fish. Here we show that while gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) orally challenged with brain homogenates prepared either from a BSE infected cow or from scrapie infected sheep developed no clinical prion disease, the brains of TSE-fed fish sampled two years after challenge did show signs of neurodegeneration and accumulation of deposits that reacted positively with antibodies raised against sea bream PrP. The control groups, fed with brains from uninfected animals, showed no such signs. Remarkably, the deposits developed much more rapidly and extensively in fish inoculated with BSE-infected material than in the ones challenged with the scrapie-infected brain homogenate, with numerous deposits being proteinase K-resistant. These plaque-like aggregates exhibited congophilia and birefringence in polarized light, consistent with an amyloid-like component. The neurodegeneration and abnormal deposition in the brains of fish challenged with prion, especially BSE, raises concerns about the potential risk to public health. As fish aquaculture is an economically important industry providing high protein nutrition for humans and other mammalian species, the prospect of farmed fish being contaminated with infectious mammalian PrP(Sc), or of a prion disease developing in farmed fish is alarming and requires further evaluation.

  6. Evaluation of the Possible Transmission of BSE and Scrapie to Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)

    PubMed Central

    Teliousis, Konstantinos; Petrakis, Spyros; Eleftheriadis, Eleftherios; Arapoglou, Fotis; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Nicolaou, Anna; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Krey, Grigorios; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2009-01-01

    In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many species, the key event in disease pathogenesis is the accumulation of an abnormal conformational isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). While the precise mechanism of the PrPC to PrPSc conversion is not understood, it is clear that host PrPC expression is a prerequisite for effective infectious prion propagation. Although there have been many studies on TSEs in mammalian species, little is known about TSE pathogenesis in fish. Here we show that while gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) orally challenged with brain homogenates prepared either from a BSE infected cow or from scrapie infected sheep developed no clinical prion disease, the brains of TSE-fed fish sampled two years after challenge did show signs of neurodegeneration and accumulation of deposits that reacted positively with antibodies raised against sea bream PrP. The control groups, fed with brains from uninfected animals, showed no such signs. Remarkably, the deposits developed much more rapidly and extensively in fish inoculated with BSE-infected material than in the ones challenged with the scrapie-infected brain homogenate, with numerous deposits being proteinase K-resistant. These plaque-like aggregates exhibited congophilia and birefringence in polarized light, consistent with an amyloid-like component. The neurodegeneration and abnormal deposition in the brains of fish challenged with prion, especially BSE, raises concerns about the potential risk to public health. As fish aquaculture is an economically important industry providing high protein nutrition for humans and other mammalian species, the prospect of farmed fish being contaminated with infectious mammalian PrPSc, or of a prion disease developing in farmed fish is alarming and requires further evaluation. PMID:19636413

  7. Minimal involvement of the circumventricular organs in the pathogenesis of spontaneously arising and experimentally induced classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sisó, S; Martin, S; Konold, T; Hawkins, S A C; Thurston, L; Simmons, M M; Stack, M J; Jeffrey, M; González, L

    2012-01-01

    In sheep infected experimentally with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, amplification of infectivity in peripheral organs during early preclinical stages is thought to contribute to high titres of the agent being detected in blood, with subsequent haematogenous neuroinvasion through the circumventricular organs (CVOs). In contrast, little disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) or infectivity is detected in the peripheral tissues of cattle during the preclinical and clinical stages of BSE. The aim of this study was to investigate immunohistochemically the role of haematogenous neuroinvasion in cattle with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced BSE. There was almost complete absence of PrP(d) in the peripheral organs of BSE infected cattle. Additionally, there was minimal involvement of the CVOs during preclinical disease and there was progressive caudorostral accumulation of PrP(d) in the brain. These findings do not support haematogenous neuroinvasion in the bovine disease.

  8. Complementary studies detecting classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in jejunum, ileum and ileocaecal junction in incubating cattle.

    PubMed

    Fast, Christine; Keller, Markus; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Hills, Bob; Groschup, Martin H

    2013-12-21

    Recently we have described the distribution of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infectivity and/or PrPSc in Peyer's patches (PP) of the small intestine of orally BSE infected cattle. In this follow-up study additional jejunal and ileal PP's and ileocaecal-junction tissue samples from 1, 4, and 24 months post infection (mpi) were examined by mouse (Tgbov XV) bioassay. Infectivity was demonstrated in ileal PP's 4 mpi and the distribution/extent of infectivity at 24 mpi was comparable to those seen at earlier time points, revealing no indication for a decline/clearance. These data are relevant for the definition of Specified Risk Materials in the context of the TSE legislation worldwide.

  9. Estimation of the Exposure of the UK Population to the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent through Dietary Intake During the Period 1980 to 1996

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Wang, Yin-Han

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has declined to 1 since 2012 in the UK, uncertainty remains regarding possible future cases and the size of the subclinical population that may cause secondary transmission of the disease through blood transfusion. Estimating the number of individuals who were exposed to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infectious agent and may be susceptible to vCJD will help to clarify related public health concerns and plan strategies. In this paper, we explore this estimate by describing the probability of potential exposure due to dietary intake throughout the BSE epidemic period from 1980 to 1996 as a stochastic Poisson process. We estimate the age- and gender-specific exposure intensities in food categories of beef and beef-containing dishes, burgers and kebabs, pies, and sausages, separating the two periods of 1980–1989 and 1990–1996 due to the specified bovine offal legislation of 1989. The estimated total number of (living) exposed individuals during each period is 5,089,027 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4,514,963–6,410,317), which was obtained by multiplying the population size of different birth cohorts by the probability of exposure via dietary intake and the probability of survival until the end of 2013. The estimated number is approximately doubled, assuming a contamination rate of . Among those individuals estimated, 31,855 (95% CI 26,849–42,541) are susceptible to infection. We also examined the threshold hypothesis by fitting an extreme-value distribution to the estimated infectious dose of the exposed individuals and obtained a threshold estimate of 13.7 bID50 (95% CI 6.6–26.2 bID50) (Weibull). The results provide useful information on potential carriers of prion disease who may pose a threat of infection via blood transfusion and thus provide insight into the likelihood of new incidents of vCJD occurring in the future. PMID:24736322

  10. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  11. Facsimile transmissions.

    PubMed

    Grant, A E

    1996-04-01

    Some provincial regulators of nursing are setting out professional standards for the use of facsimile transmissions. While the facsimile machine is a tool that can improve client care through the timely, accurate transmission of vital information, nurses should recognize the potential hazards. Clear policies and procedures for the usage and management of facsimile transmissions are necessary to ensure that legal and professional standards are met.

  12. A model (BSurvE) for evaluating national surveillance programs for bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Prattley, D J; Morris, R S; Cannon, R M; Wilesmith, J W; Stevenson, M A

    2007-10-16

    Our BSurvE spreadsheet model estimates the BSE prevalence in a national cattle population, and can be used to evaluate and compare alternative strategies for a national surveillance program. Each individual surveillance test has a point value (based on demographic and epidemiological information) that reflects the likelihood of detecting BSE in an animal of a given age leaving the population via the stated surveillance stream. A target sum point value for the country is calculated according to a user-defined design prevalence and confidence level, the number of cases detected in animals born after the selected starting date and the national adult-herd size. Surveillance tests carried out on different sub-populations of animals are ranked according to the number of points gained per unit cost, and the results can be used in designing alternative surveillance programs. PMID:17517443

  13. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  14. The dangers of disease transmission by artificial insemination and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Philpott, M

    1993-01-01

    This review summarizes the major infectious diseases of the three major agricultural species (cattle, sheep and pigs) and horses, and presents the evidence for and against the possibility of infectious agents being transmitted between animals via the venereal route or by the use of semen or early embryos in commercial artificial insemination (AI) or embryo transfer (ET). Cattle feature most prominently in the widespread distribution of frozen semen, and national and international organizations have set out guidelines to work towards disease-free bull studs with semen free from potential pathogens. With the control of major epizootic diseases, attention has been focused on such diseases as IBR, BVD and blue tongue, where clinical signs are rarely evident but the detection of virus in semen is of great importance. New information on the relevance of bacterial disease such as Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, campylobacteriosis and leptospirosis is reviewed, along with details of the mycoplasma and ureaplasma species of the bull's genital tract. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has attracted much research and semen is not regarded as a source of infection. New work on the pathogenesis of a number of diseases and the use of new biotechnology in diagnosis is included. The International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) has encouraged a great deal of experimental work--much originating in Canada--on the risk of transmission of disease from donors to recipients via a 7-day-old blastocyst. There has been much success in demonstrating that with an approved protocol of handling the embryos, to date there is very little danger in disease transmission with both viruses and bacteria. The mycoplasma group appear more intractable and the role of BSE is still being evaluated. In sheep, scrapie, Brucella ovis infection and blue tongue feature in current work. In the pig there is a surge in international movement of pig semen, and Aujeszky's disease and the new so-called Blue Ear

  15. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  16. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  17. Adenosine A1 receptor protein levels and activity is increased in the cerebral cortex in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in bovine spongiform encephalopathy-infected bovine-PrP mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Agustín; Martín, Mairena; Albasanz, José Luís; Barrachina, Marta; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Torres, Juan María; Ferrer, Isidro

    2006-10-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by neuronal loss, astrocytic gliosis, spongiform change, and abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrP) deposition. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most prevalent human prion disease, whereas scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are the most common animal prion diseases. Several candidates have been proposed as mediators of degeneration in prion diseases, one of them glutamate. Recent studies have shown reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor/phospholipase C signaling in the cerebral cortex in CJD, suggesting that this important neuromodulator and neuroprotector pathway is attenuated in CJD. Adenosine is involved in the regulation of different metabolic processes under physiological and pathologic conditions. Adenosine function is mediated by adenosine receptors, which are categorized into 4 types: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. A1Rs are G-protein-coupled receptors that induce the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. The most dramatic inhibitory actions of adenosine receptors are on the glutamatergic system. For these reasons, we examined the levels of A1Rs in the frontal cortex of 12 patients with CJD and 6 age-matched controls and in BSE-infected bovine-PrP transgenic mice (BoPrP-Tg110 mice) at different postincubation times to address modifications in A1Rs with disease progression. A significant increase in the protein levels of A1Rs was found in the cerebral cortex in CJD and in the murine BSE model at advanced stages of the disease and coincidental with the appearance of PrP expression. In addition, the activity of A1Rs was analyzed by in vitro assays with isolated membranes of the frontal cortex in CJD. Increased activity of the receptor, as revealed by the decreased forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in response to the A1R agonists cyclohexyl adenosine and cyclopentyl adenosine, was observed in CJD cases when compared with controls. Finally, mRNA A1R levels were similar in CJD and control cases, thus

  18. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... such animals. We are proposing to make these amendments after conducting a thorough review of relevant... Commodities,'' published in the Federal Register on January 4, 2005 (70 FR 460-553). The delay of... September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379). DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or...

  19. 76 FR 35185 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bovine Spongiform...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... regulations allow, under specified conditions, the importation of certain live ruminants and ruminant products..., including VS Form 16-3, permit application; certification statements for the importation of ruminants and ruminant products; certificate for inedible processed animal origin materials and products from...

  20. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 16, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No...: For information concerning live ruminants, contact Dr. Betzaida Lopez, Import Animal Staff... information regarding ruminant products and for other information regarding this proposed rule, contact...

  1. A Comparison of Classical and H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated with E211K Prion Protein Polymorphism in Wild-Type and EK211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, S. Jo; West Greenlee, M. Heather; Smith, Jodi D.; Vrentas, Catherine E.; Nicholson, Eric M.; Greenlee, Justin J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamate amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele may be predisposed to rapid onset of BSE-H when exposed or to the potential development of a genetic BSE. This study was conducted to better understand the relationship between the K211 polymorphism and its effect on BSE phenotype. BSE-H from the US 2006 case was inoculated intracranially (IC) in one PRNP wild-type (EE211) calf and one EK211 calf. In addition, one wild-type calf and one EK211 calf were inoculated IC with brain homogenate from a US 2003 classical BSE case. All cattle developed clinical disease. The survival time of the E211K BSE-H inoculated EK211 calf (10 months) was shorter than the wild-type calf (18 months). This genotype effect was not observed in classical BSE inoculated cattle (both 26 months). Significant changes in retinal function were observed in H-type BSE challenged cattle only. Cattle challenged with the same inoculum showed similar severity and neuroanatomical distribution of vacuolation and disease-associated prion protein deposition in the brain, though differences in neuropathology were observed between E211K BSE-H and classical BSE inoculated animals. Western blot results for brain tissue from challenged animals were consistent with the inoculum strains. This study demonstrates that the phenotype of E211K BSE-H remains stable when transmitted to cattle without the K211 polymorphism, and exhibits a number of features that differ from classical BSE in both wild-type and heterozygous EK211 animals. PMID:27695695

  2. A Comparison of Classical and H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated with E211K Prion Protein Polymorphism in Wild-Type and EK211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, S. Jo; West Greenlee, M. Heather; Smith, Jodi D.; Vrentas, Catherine E.; Nicholson, Eric M.; Greenlee, Justin J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamate amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele may be predisposed to rapid onset of BSE-H when exposed or to the potential development of a genetic BSE. This study was conducted to better understand the relationship between the K211 polymorphism and its effect on BSE phenotype. BSE-H from the US 2006 case was inoculated intracranially (IC) in one PRNP wild-type (EE211) calf and one EK211 calf. In addition, one wild-type calf and one EK211 calf were inoculated IC with brain homogenate from a US 2003 classical BSE case. All cattle developed clinical disease. The survival time of the E211K BSE-H inoculated EK211 calf (10 months) was shorter than the wild-type calf (18 months). This genotype effect was not observed in classical BSE inoculated cattle (both 26 months). Significant changes in retinal function were observed in H-type BSE challenged cattle only. Cattle challenged with the same inoculum showed similar severity and neuroanatomical distribution of vacuolation and disease-associated prion protein deposition in the brain, though differences in neuropathology were observed between E211K BSE-H and classical BSE inoculated animals. Western blot results for brain tissue from challenged animals were consistent with the inoculum strains. This study demonstrates that the phenotype of E211K BSE-H remains stable when transmitted to cattle without the K211 polymorphism, and exhibits a number of features that differ from classical BSE in both wild-type and heterozygous EK211 animals.

  3. Risk of transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease via blood and blood products. The French risk-analysis over the last 15 years.

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Trouvin, J-H

    2013-09-01

    Risk of transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (infectious agent, responsible of spongiform encephalopathy) via blood and blood components (including the plasma-derived medicinal products such as coagulation factors and immunoglobulins) have been a subject of concern for Health authorities since the early 1980s, with a regain of interest in the 1990s, with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak followed few years after with the notification of the first cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The risk-analysis and measures taken by the French authorities in the period 1990-2010 will be described with the various assumptions and working hypothesis used and revisited as new findings become available.

  4. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  5. Retrovirus-induced murine motor neuron disease: mapping the determinant of spongiform degeneration within the envelope gene.

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Y; Hanna, Z; Savard, P; Brousseau, R; Robitaille, Y; Jolicoeur, P

    1989-01-01

    The Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus (MuLV) induces a degenerative myeloencephalopathy leading to hind-limb paralysis when inoculated into newborn mice. To map the viral DNA sequences encoding the determinant of neurological degeneration, we constructed chimeric viruses in vitro with parental genomes from Cas-Br-E MuLV and from nonparalytogenic MuLVs. We found that a 1.5-kilobase-pair env Cas-Br-E fragment was sufficient to confer the full paralysis-inducing potential to chimeric viruses. This region encodes the 19 carboxyl-terminal residues of the leader sequence, all of gp70, and the 45 amino-terminal residues of the transmembrane protein (p15E). Within this env region, we identified a 372-base-pair fragment which was necessary for the full paralysis-inducing potential of the virus and which influenced the development of the disease in a strain-dependent manner. This domain encodes the 19 carboxyl-terminal residues of the leader peptide and the first 67 amino-terminal residues of gp70. We propose that Cas-Br-E MuLV induces spongiform degeneration through binding of its gp70 to a specific cellular receptor. Images PMID:2542954

  6. Surviving bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): farm women's discussion of the effects of BSE on food provisioning practices.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Lynn; Rondeau, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The economic vulnerability of beef and other farm families following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in Canada poses a risk to their household food provisioning practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of BSE since 2003 on the food provisioning practices of beef and other farm families in three Canadian provinces. Semi-structured, face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 farm women (6 in Alberta, 6 in Ontario, and 10 in Nova Scotia) that focused on their food provisioning strategies. Women also provided basic sociodemographic information about their households. While the farm women interviewed revealed that BSE exerted a financial impact on their farm operation, it did not prevent them from eating foods that they valued as wholesome, safe, and healthy for their family. There was no hesitancy in consuming beef from Canadian sources; in fact, beef consumption often increased because of decisions to keep slaughtered cows for home consumption rather than accept low cull cow prices. Other food provisioning strategies reported included seeking out alternative markets, purchasing food on credit, and directing off-farm income to purchase food.

  7. Antibiotics in Animal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão, Amílcar C.

    The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods

  8. [A review of the current research on prions. The evidence suggests the possibility of transmission of the mad cow disease to humans].

    PubMed

    Grandien, M; Wahren, B

    1998-11-25

    Further evidence of the transmissibility of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) across the species barrier from cow to man has been derived from epidemiological analysis and the characterisation of prion strains. Recent research has shown the persistence of prions after experimental transmission to resistant murine species, and subclinical persistence in cows. The accumulation of pathological prion proteins in tonsils and appendix has been demonstrated prior to clinical confirmation of the presence of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Current prion research is focused on the involvement of B lymphocytes as carriers, on the species barrier and cellular receptors, and on macromolecules involved in the conformational change from normal to pathological prion proteins.

  9. The animal scientist in a changing society.

    PubMed

    Spencer, S

    1999-10-01

    Despite the lack of any credible scientific evidence to oppose the use of animal performance-enhancing agents, acceptance of performance enhancers seems no closer than it was a decade ago--at least among the European Community and its major trading partners. Consumers are suspicious of new technologies, and politicians are wary of legalizing growth promoters when the relative price of animal products has never been cheaper. Among the factors that have recently re-fuelled consumer concerns over farming methods are: bovine spongiform encephalopathy, cloning of farm animals, and genetic manipulation of crops. Meanwhile, politicians try to balance the interests of the environmentalist, farming, and welfare lobbies with the politico-economic realities of an expanding European Community and the demands of the GATT agreement. In the United States, where corporate influence over political actions is more overtly established than in Europe, some new technologies have been introduced. This has further antagonized many consumers. As scientists with a direct interest in animal performance enhancers, we need to re-assess our positions--if for no other reason than to protect our research (and personal) incomes. We could probably better protect our own interests--and those of the farming community--if we raised our eyes from the microscope to look at the wider view. There are two challenges for animal production scientists: to identify truly acceptable ways of enhancing animal performance and to be highly active in bringing scientific consensus to the attention of both the public and the political establishments. PMID:10527113

  10. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  11. Evidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.

    PubMed

    Saegerman, Claude; Humblet, Marie-France; Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Zanella, Gina; Martinelle, Ludovic

    2012-03-01

    If diseases of food-producing animals or zoonoses (re-)emerge, early clinical decision making is of major importance. In this particular condition, it is difficult to apply a classic evidence-based veterinary medicine process, because of a lack of available published data. A method based on the partition of field clinical observations (evidences) could be developed as an interesting alternative approach. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to improve the early clinical detection in two cases of emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and bluetongue due to the serotype 8-virus in cattle. PMID:22374122

  12. Prion transmission

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ben C

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years. PMID:20948292

  13. Rotorcraft transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Highlighted here is that portion of the Lewis Research Center's helicopter propulsion systems program that deals with drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase life, reliability, and maintainability, to reduce weight, noise, and vibration, and to maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development, followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  14. Animal welfare and animal rights.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1988-05-01

    Animal liberationists tend to divide into two mutually antagonistic camps: animal welfarists, who share a utilitarian moral outlook, and animal rightists, who presuppose a structure of basic rights. However, the gap between these groups tends to be exaggerated by their allegiance to oversimplified versions of their favored moral frameworks. For their part, animal rightists should acknowledge that rights, however basic, are also defeasible by appeals to consequences. Contrariwise, animal welfarists should recognize that rights, however derivative, are capable of constraining appeals to consequences. If both sides move to more defensible theoretical positions, their remaining differences on that level may be compatible with a broad area of convergence on practical issues.

  15. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... acquired CJD. CJD belongs to a family of human and animal diseases known as the transmissible spongiform ... CJD is the most common of the known human TSEs. Other human TSEs include kuru, fatal familial ...

  16. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  17. Animal therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed. PMID:9110848

  18. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  19. Consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated beef and the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Wang, Yin-Han; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2013-11-01

    To date, the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) risk assessments that have been performed have primarily focused on predicting future vCJD cases in the United Kingdom, which underwent a bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic between 1980 and 1996. Surveillance of potential BSE cases was also used to assess vCJD risk, especially in other BSE-prevalent EU countries. However, little is known about the vCJD risk for uninfected individuals who accidentally consume BSE-contaminated meat products in or imported from a country with prevalent BSE. In this article, taking into account the biological mechanism of abnormal prion PrP(res) aggregation in the brain, the probability of exposure, and the expected amount of ingested infectivity, we establish a stochastic mean exponential growth model of lifetime exposure through dietary intake. Given the findings that BSE agents behave similarly in humans and macaques, we obtained parameter estimates from experimental macaque data. We then estimated the accumulation of abnormal prions to assess lifetime risk of developing clinical signs of vCJD. Based on the observed number of vCJD cases and the estimated number of exposed individuals during the BSE epidemic period from 1980 to 1996 in the United Kingdom, an exposure threshold hypothesis is proposed. Given the age-specific risk of infection, the hypothesis explains the observations very well from an extreme-value distribution fitting of the estimated BSE infectivity exposure. The current BSE statistics in the United Kingdom are provided as an example.

  20. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  1. Animal Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  2. Rotorcraft transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this presentation outlines that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  3. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.

  4. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  5. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  6. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  7. 77 FR 57570 - Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in the Selection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee, and Request for Nominations for Nonvoting Industry Representatives on the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee AGENCY: Food and Drug... to serve on the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee for the Center...

  8. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  9. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  10. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  11. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  12. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve; Söderlund, Tim; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Gissler, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Contacts between humans and animals inevitably involve encounters possibly resulting in the human being injured. During the period of 2000 to 2014 almost 90 people died in this kind of conflict in Finland. Of these deaths, one third were associated with horses. In addition, over the same period 85 people died in traffic accidents in which an animal was hit by a car. Accidents requiring hospitalization occurred for approx. 8 000 people. PMID:27522833

  13. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  14. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  15. Methods for Differentiating Prion Types in Food-Producing Animals.

    PubMed

    Gough, Kevin C; Rees, Helen C; Ives, Sarah E; Maddison, Ben C

    2015-01-01

    Prions are an enigma amongst infectious disease agents as they lack a genome yet confer specific pathologies thought to be dictated mainly, if not solely, by the conformation of the disease form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Prion diseases affect humans and animals, the latter including the food-producing ruminant species cattle, sheep, goats and deer. Importantly, it has been shown that the disease agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. Current diagnostic tests can distinguish different prion types and in food-producing animals these focus on the differentiation of BSE from the non-zoonotic agents. Whilst BSE cases are now rare, atypical forms of both scrapie and BSE have been reported, as well as two types of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Typing of animal prion isolates remains an important aspect of prion diagnosis and is now becoming more focused on identifying the range of prion types that are present in food-producing animals and also developing tests that can screen for emerging, novel prion diseases. Here, we review prion typing methodologies in light of current and emerging prion types in food-producing animals. PMID:26580664

  16. A species barrier limits transmission of chronic wasting disease to mink (Mustela vison)

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Robert D.; Baszler, Timothy V.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.; Schneider, David A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Liggitt, H. Denny; Knowles, Donald P.

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) occurs as sporadic outbreaks associated with ingestion of feed presumably contaminated with some type of prion disease. Mink lack a species barrier to primary oral challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, whereas they have a barrier to such challenge with scrapie. We investigated whether mink have a species barrier to chronic wasting disease (CWD) by performing primary intracerebral (IC) and primary oral challenge with CWD-positive elk brain. Primary IC challenge resulted in clinical disease in two of eight mink at 31–33 months incubation. Affected mink had spongiform vacuolation and astrocytosis within the central nervous system and immunoreactivity to disease-associated prion protein (PrPd) in brain, retina and lymph node. CWD IC recipients had significantly lower brain vacuolation and PrPd deposition scores, significantly lower cerebrocortical astrocyte counts and significantly higher hippocampal astrocyte counts than TME IC recipients. Primary oral challenge with CWD-positive elk brain (n=22) or with CWD-negative elk brain given IC (n=7) or orally (n=23) did not result in clinical or microscopic abnormalities during 42 months observation. Novel prion gene polymorphisms were identified at codon 27 (arginine/tryptophan) and codon 232 (arginine/lysine). This study shows that, whilst CWD can cause disease when given IC to mink, the lesions are not characteristic of TME, transmission is inefficient compared with TME and oral challenge does not result in disease. The demonstration of a species barrier in cervid-to-mustelid prion transmission indicates that mink are unlikely to be involved in natural CWD transmission. PMID:18343853

  17. EU-Approved Rapid Tests for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Detect Atypical Forms: A Study for Their Sensitivities

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Daniela; Davidse, Aart; Langeveld, Jan P. M.; Varello, Katia; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Groschup, Martin H.; Ingravalle, Francesco; Bozzetta, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004 it become clear that atypical bovine spongiform encephalopthies (BSEs) exist in cattle. Whenever their detection has relied on active surveillance plans implemented in Europe since 2001 by rapid tests, the overall and inter-laboratory performance of these diagnostic systems in the detection of the atypical strains has not been studied thoroughly to date. To fill this gap, the present study reports on the analytical sensitivity of the EU-approved rapid tests for atypical L- and H-type and classical BSE in parallel. Each test was challenged with two dilution series, one created from a positive pool of the three BSE forms according to the EURL standard method of homogenate preparation (50% w/v) and the other as per the test kit manufacturer's instructions. Multilevel logistic models and simple logistic models with the rapid test as the only covariate were fitted for each BSE form analyzed as directed by the test manufacturer's dilution protocol. The same schemes, but excluding the BSE type, were then applied to compare test performance under the manufacturer's versus the water protocol. The IDEXX HerdChek ® BSE-scrapie short protocol test showed the highest sensitivity for all BSE forms. The IDEXX® HerdChek BSE-scrapie ultra short protocol, the Prionics® - Check WESTERN and the AJ Roboscreen® BetaPrion tests showed similar sensitivities, followed by the Roche® PrionScreen, the Bio-Rad® TeSeE™ SAP and the Prionics® - Check PrioSTRIP in descending order of analytical sensitivity. Despite these differences, the limit of detection of all seven rapid tests against the different classes of material set within a 2 log10 range of the best-performing test, thus meeting the European Food Safety Authority requirement for BSE surveillance purposes. These findings indicate that not many atypical cases would have been missed surveillance since 2001 which is important for further epidemiological interpretations of the sporadic character of atypical forms. PMID

  18. The epidemiology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the Republic of Ireland before and after the reinforced feed ban.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eoin; McGrath, Guy; Sheridan, Hazel; More, Simon J; Aznar, Inma

    2012-06-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease spread by the inclusion in cattle feed of meat and bone meal made from cattle infected with the BSE agent. In the Republic of Ireland, a reinforced feed ban on mammalian meat and bone meal (MMBM) was introduced on 17th October 1996 to stop further infection of cattle. Between then and July 2010, 44 cases of BSE from 40 herds have been born, termed "born after the reinforced ban" or "BARB" cases. The objectives of this project were: (a) to describe the epidemiology of these BARB cases, (b) to determine area-level risk factors for BSE herds and how they related to the stage of the BSE epidemic, and (c) to evaluate whether the spatial pattern of BSE cases was non-random and had changed over time. The BSE epidemic was divided into three phases: cases born prior to 1991, born 1991-October 1996 and BARB cases. To determine the area level risk factors for BSE herds, a case-control study was conducted for each phase of the epidemic. We selected four control herds for each herd with one or more BSE cases. A grid of hexagons of 10 km diameter was created covering the territory of the Republic of Ireland and BSE herds and control herds were assigned to a hexagon. The numbers of cattle herds, dairy herds, piggeries and poultry holdings within the hexagons containing these case and control herds were enumerated. To evaluate the spatial pattern of BSE cases, standardised mortality ratios were calculated for each hexagon, and Oden's Ipop was used to investigate clustering. The descriptive analysis showed "feeding of concentrates" as the only common factor to all BARB cases for which information existed. The case-control study identified being a dairy herd as a risk factor during the pre-1991 phase of the BSE epidemic. Dairy herd type, a large proportion of local herds which were dairy and large numbers of piggeries and poultry holdings locally were also risk factors during the 1991-1996 phase. For the post-October 1996

  19. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  20. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  1. Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts’ biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

  2. Disease and Injury from Companion Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Philip M.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy related to common pet-associated diseases and injuries. Discusses transmission of pet-related health hazards and methods of treatment. Describes preventive measures aimed at safe animal care and control. (RJC)

  3. Overdrive transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.F.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an overdrive transmission device for use with a motor vehicle. It consists of: a housing; a driving shaft rotatably mounted within the housing; a planetary gear-train; a driven shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and driven by the planetary gear train; and, a device for selectively connecting the planetary gear carrier to the housing or to the driven shaft for rotation; a hydraulically actuated piston adapted to forcibly contact the clutch friction members of the second clutch; a source of working fluid; a pump in fluid flow communication with the source of working fluid; a first valve downstream of the pump and in fluid flow communication with the pump and the hydraulically activated piston.

  4. Planetary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

    1987-04-21

    A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

  5. Animal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. W.; Penner, P.

    1967-01-01

    A number of branding tools of various metals and various sizes in combination with several wetting agents were cooled with liquid nitrogen and applied for different lengths of time to calves and mature cattle. White hair appeared in the shape of the brand on the animals in place of dark hair when the application was properly carried out. Best results can be obtained by using metal irons at least 25 millimeters thick and 14 millimeters wide with xylol as a wetting agent for ten seconds in young or thin skinned animals and up to twenty seconds in mature or thick skinned animals. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 5. PMID:4229181

  6. The New Spongiform University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Russy, Candace

    1998-01-01

    The great works of Western civilization, long held up to college students as models of human achievement, are rapidly being replaced by trivia and by multicultural and poststructural studies. With the growth of postmodern studies has come a decline in broad-based core requirements. This paper recommends rooting postmodernism out of the university…

  7. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  8. Curriculum Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  9. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  10. A comparison of classical and H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism in wild type and EK211 cattle following intracranial inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamine amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although t...

  11. Hydromechanical transmission

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr. deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A power transmission having three planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the three sun gears, all of which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. The input shaft also drives the carrier of the third planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the third planetary assembly drives the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and a first clutching means connects the second carrier with the output in a second range, the brake for grounding the first carrier then being released. A second clutching means enables the third ring gear to drive the output shaft in a third range.

  12. [Animal hygiene and environmental hygiene].

    PubMed

    Strauch, D

    1986-12-01

    Animal Hygiene has developed historically from the field of Animal Health Care and is as a part of Veterinary Hygiene now about 100 years old. From her very beginning Animal Hygiene has dealt with the influences of the live and inanimate environment on the health of animals an also investigated the reverse developments. From a historical point of view it can be stated that Animal Hygiene has done active research in the field of environmental hygiene ever since. This tendency was intensified by the modern developments of keeping animals in confinements, enlargement of livestock, new kinds of residues like slurry which demanded a change in the management of arable and forage land combined with an increase in the agricultural utilization of residues form the municipal area like sewage sludge and compost made from refuse. Based on selected examples from the field of production and processing of animals the research on Animal Hygiene in the framework of environmental hygiene is described. This refers especially to emissions and other environmental problems (malodor, dust, airborne microbes) which derive from keeping animals in confinements as well as such which are caused by storage and utilization of animal residues (farm-yard manure, urine, slurry). The most serious problems are caused by production and utilization of slurry (transmission of infectious agents, malodors, damages of soils, plants, surface and ground waters by excess fertilization of arable and forage land). It was Animal Hygiene which made most valuable contributions for solving such problems of environmental hygiene. It was also Animal Hygiene which warned of the possible negative environmental influences of disinfectants. Respective investigations were made and recommendations to avoid damages to the environment given. Also in the field of the agricultural utilization of residues from the municipal area (sewage, sewage sludge, refuse composts) Animal Hygiene has developed basic investigation methods

  13. Cross-species transmission of CWD prions.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Timothy D; Sigurdson, Christina J

    2016-01-01

    Prions cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals and can be transmitted zoonotically. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly transmissible prion disease of wild deer and elk that affects cervids over extensive regions of the United States and Canada. The risk of cross-species CWD transmission has been experimentally evaluated in a wide array of mammals, including non-human primates and mouse models expressing human cellular prion protein. Here we review the determinants of cross-species CWD transmission, and propose a model that may explain a structural barrier for CWD transmission to humans. PMID:26809254

  14. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

  15. Robotic animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretch, S. J.

    1982-08-01

    The effectiveness of the robotic systems Place and Animate at McDonnell Douglas is discussed. The systems are designed for CAD/CAM on a kinematic basis. Place allows creation, analysis, and editing of cell descriptions as part of the CAD process, and involves primitive cell configuring prior to eventual integration of the entire robot. Objects are displayed in wire frame form and movement receives an awkwardness rating automatically, indicating the percentage of the real-world joint limit that is being approached. The same program is employed in the Animate process, where verification and debugging of the robot programs proceeds. Clearances, motion limits, and correct responses to commands are checked, allowing decisions on production to be made before any robots are actually built.

  16. Enterococci with Glycopeptide Resistance in Turkeys, Turkey Farmers, Turkey Slaughterers, and (Sub)Urban Residents in the South of The Netherlands: Evidence for Transmission of Vancomycin Resistance from Animals to Humans?

    PubMed Central

    Stobberingh, Ellen; van den Bogaard, Anthony; London, Nancy; Driessen, Christel; Top, Janetta; Willems, Rob

    1999-01-01

    The number of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) relative to the total number of enterococci was determined in fecal samples from turkeys and three human populations in 1996, each with a different level of contact with turkeys, i.e., turkey farmers, turkey slaughterers, and (sub)urban residents. The percentage of VRE relative to the total enterococcal population (i.e., the degree of resistance) was low (2 to 4%) in all groups (except in six samples). No difference was observed between farmers who used avoparcin and those who did not. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the VRE isolates from the different populations were quite heterogeneous, but isolates with the same PFGE pattern were found among animal and human isolates, in addition to the isolates which were described previously (A. E. van den Bogaard, L. B. Jensen, and E. E. Stobberingh, N. Engl. J. Med. 337:1558–1559, 1997). Detailed molecular characterization of vanA-containing transposons from different isolates showed, that in addition to a previously reported strain, similar transposons were present in VRE isolates from turkeys and turkey farmers. Moreover, similar VanA elements were found not only in isolates with the same PFGE pattern but also in other strains from both humans and animals. PMID:10471567

  17. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  18. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  19. Horizontal Transmission of Cytosolic Sup35 Prions by Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu; Hossinger, André; Hofmann, Julia P.; Denner, Philip

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prions are infectious protein particles that replicate by templating their aggregated state onto soluble protein of the same type. Originally identified as the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, prions in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) are epigenetic elements of inheritance that induce phenotypic changes of their host cells. The prototype yeast prion is the translation termination factor Sup35. Prions composed of Sup35 or its modular prion domain NM are heritable and are transmitted vertically to progeny or horizontally during mating. Interestingly, in mammalian cells, protein aggregates derived from yeast Sup35 NM behave as true infectious entities that employ dissemination strategies similar to those of mammalian prions. While transmission is most efficient when cells are in direct contact, we demonstrate here that cytosolic Sup35 NM prions are also released into the extracellular space in association with nanometer-sized membrane vesicles. Importantly, extracellular vesicles are biologically active and are taken up by recipient cells, where they induce self-sustained Sup35 NM protein aggregation. Thus, in mammalian cells, extracellular vesicles can serve as dissemination vehicles for protein-based epigenetic information transfer. PMID:27406566

  20. EMF Responses in Farm Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Larry E. ); R Matthes, JH Bernhardt, and MH Repacholi

    1999-10-19

    Relatively few studies have been performed investigating the effects of EMF exposure on farm animals. Most of those that have been described in the literature are of surveys of animals living in the vicinity of power transmission lines. Even fewer studies have been conducted in large animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Results generally provide little evidence that electric and/or magnetic fields at environmental levels (under transmission lines up to 1000 kV) affect farm animals. There is limited evidence that cows exposed to EMF may exhibit slight changes in length of estrous cycle, although associated hormones (eg. progesterone) appear to be unaffected. The effects of electric fields on development in swine (some increase in birth defects and malformations) exposed to high strength electric fields were not consistent across generations nor supported by comparable rodent studies. Finally, electrical currents and"stray voltages", parameters associated with EMF, are found on some farms above perception levels. These voltages and currents can produce behavioral changes in farm animals and may impact production or health of the animals.

  1. Chlamydial Infection in Animals: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shewen, Patricia E.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the literature concerning chlamydial infection in birds and animals, particularly domestic animals is presented. Following a general discussion of the agent, the nature of chlamydial infection and diagnostic criteria, information regarding disease is summarized for each species. The possibility of zoonotic transmission is also discussed. PMID:6988075

  2. Sexual transmission of Lyme disease: challenging the tickborne disease paradigm.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Raphael B; Middelveen, Marianne J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. In this article, we explore the clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidence for sexual transmission of Lyme disease in animal models and humans. Although the likelihood of sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete remains speculative, the possibility of Lyme disease transmission via intimate human contact merits further study.

  3. Thrips transmission of tospoviruses.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Jacobson, Alana L; Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the disease tomato spotted wilt was first described in Australia. Since that time, knowledge of this disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips (insects in the order Thysanoptera) has revealed a complex relationship between the virus, vector, plant host, and environment. Numerous tospoviruses and thrips vectors have been described, revealing diversity in plant host range and geographical distributions. Advances in characterization of the tripartite interaction between the virus, vector, and plant host have provided insight into molecular and ecological relationships. Comparison to animal-infecting viruses in the family Bunyaviridae has enabled the identification of commonalities between tospoviruses and other bunyaviruses in transmission by arthropod vectors and molecular interactions with hosts. This review provides a special emphasis on TSWV and Frankliniella occidentalis, the model tospovirus-thrips pathosystem. However, other virus-vector combinations are also of importance and where possible, comparisons are made between different viruses and thrips vectors. PMID:26340723

  4. Coexistence of two forms of disease-associated prion protein in extracerebral tissues of cattle infected with H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Masujin, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE in aged cattle. H-BSE is characterized by the presence of two proteinase K-resistant forms of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)), identified as PrP(Sc) #1 and PrP(Sc) #2, in the brain. To investigate the coexistence of different PrP(Sc) forms in the extracerebral tissues of cattle experimentally infected with H-BSE, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses were performed by using N-terminal-, core-region- and C-terminal-specific anti-prion protein antibodies. Our results demonstrated that two distinct forms of PrP(Sc) coexisted in the various extracerebral tissues. PMID:27010466

  5. Coexistence of two forms of disease-associated prion protein in extracerebral tissues of cattle infected with H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, Hiroyuki; MIYAZAWA, Kohtaro; MASUJIN, Kentaro; YOKOYAMA, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE in aged cattle. H-BSE is characterized by the presence of two proteinase K-resistant forms of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc), identified as PrPSc #1 and PrPSc #2, in the brain. To investigate the coexistence of different PrPSc forms in the extracerebral tissues of cattle experimentally infected with H-BSE, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses were performed by using N-terminal-, core-region- and C-terminal-specific anti-prion protein antibodies. Our results demonstrated that two distinct forms of PrPSc coexisted in the various extracerebral tissues. PMID:27010466

  6. Animal behavior and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Houpt, K A

    1991-04-15

    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

  7. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  8. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  9. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  10. Mother to offspring transmission of chronic wasting disease in reeves' muntjac deer.

    PubMed

    Nalls, Amy V; McNulty, Erin; Powers, Jenny; Seelig, Davis M; Hoover, Clare; Haley, Nicholas J; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Anderson, Kelly; Stewart, Paula; Goldmann, Wilfred; Hoover, Edward A; Mathiason, Candace K

    2013-01-01

    The horizontal transmission of prion diseases has been well characterized in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk and scrapie of sheep, and has been regarded as the primary mode of transmission. Few studies have monitored the possibility of vertical transmission occurring within an infected mother during pregnancy. To study the potential for and pathway of vertical transmission of CWD in the native cervid species, we used a small cervid model-the polyestrous breeding, indoor maintainable, Reeves' muntjac deer-and determined that the susceptibility and pathogenesis of CWD in these deer reproduce that in native mule and white-tailed deer. Moreover, we demonstrate here that CWD prions are transmitted from doe to fawn. Maternal CWD infection also appears to result in lower percentage of live birth offspring. In addition, evolving evidence from protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assays on fetal tissues suggest that covert prion infection occurs in utero. Overall, our findings demonstrate that transmission of prions from mother to offspring can occur, and may be underestimated for all prion diseases.

  11. Animal papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination.

  12. ANIMAL COMMUNICATION.

    PubMed

    SEBEOK, T A

    1965-02-26

    Semiotics and ethology have converged in a new behavioral science, zoosemiotics. Those who are interested in the theoretical analysis of the complex problems of non-verbal behavior that arise where these two disciplines interact aim to treat comprehensively animal communication systems by the aid of representations that have proved illuminating in the study of sentences of human language. Students of zoosemiotics are concerned with codes and messages much as linguists are concerned with competence, or language, and performance, or speech. They thus face the twin tasks of constructing a model for the addresser to specify how a message is encoded and transformed into a signal carried by a variety of channels to the addressee; and of constructing a model for the addressee to specify the ways in which animals utilize their knowledge of their code to recognize the messages they receive. Finally, they assess the context of the communicative event in the hope of dissecting that which is relevant to the selection process from the rest of the background, a program for which there is as yet neither a procedural eliciting technique nor a satisfactory theoretical solution in sight.

  13. Hydatid disease in the Turkana District of Kenya. III. The significance of wild animals in the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus, with particular reference to Turkana and Masailand in Kenya.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, C N; Karstad, L; Stevenson, P; Arundel, J H

    1983-02-01

    The results are given of a study on the role of wildlife in the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus in the Turkana and Narok Districts of Kenya. A total of 76 wild carnivores belonging to three separate species was examined from Turkana District. Echinococcus adults were found in 11 of 38 silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and in six of 22 golden jackals (Canis aureus). This is the first record of golden jackals being infected with this parasite in Kenya. None of 16 spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) harboured the parasite. Morphological features of the parasites obtained from the jackals were compared with material obtained from dogs in the same area. No morphological differences were recorded when this material was compared with data reported by others, hence the Turkana material belonged to the single species E. granulosus. Three silver-backed jackals and three puppies (Canis familiaris) were successfully infected with protoscolices obtained from a hydatid cyst surgically removed from a Turkana patient. Three spotted hyaenas fed the same material failed to become infected. None of 152 wild herbivores of five species examined in Turkana harboured hydatid cysts. The natural jackal infections in this District are thought to be incidental and dependent on the continuance of the domestic cycle. The role of the Turkana themselves in the perpetuation of the cycle is discussed. Twenty-six wild herbivores of six species were examined for hydatid cysts, in Narok District; hydatids were found in three wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and a single topi (Damaliscus korrigum). The discovery of fertile cysts in wildebeest and the reported infections in lions (Panthera leo), Cape hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus) and silver-backed jackals, support previous evidence of the existence of a wildlife cycle in the Masailand and Serengeti regions of East Africa. The relationship of this cycle to the domestic cycle operating in the same area is unclear and requires further

  14. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... Healthcare Providers: Sexual Transmission of Zika Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  15. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.

  16. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    PubMed

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology. PMID:18198116

  17. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    PubMed

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology.

  18. Influence of breed and genotype on the onset and distribution of infectivity and disease-associated prion protein in sheep following oral infection with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent.

    PubMed

    McGovern, G; Martin, S; Jeffrey, M; Bellworthy, S J; Spiropoulos, J; Green, R; Lockey, R; Vickery, C M; Thurston, L; Dexter, G; Hawkins, S A C; González, L

    2015-01-01

    The onset and distribution of infectivity and disease-specific prion protein (PrP(d)) accumulation was studied in Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARR and ARR/ARR prion protein gene (Prnp) genotypes (where A stands for alanine, R for arginine and Q for glutamine at codons 136, 154 and 171 of PrP), following experimental oral infection with cattle-derived bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. Groups of sheep were killed at regular intervals and a wide range of tissues taken for mouse bioassay or immunohistochemistry (IHC), or both. Bioassay results for infectivity were mostly coincident with those of PrP(d) detection by IHC both in terms of tissues and time post infection. Neither PrP(d) nor infectivity was detected in any tissues of BSE-dosed ARQ/ARR or ARR/ARR sheep or of undosed controls. Moreover, four ARQ/ARQ Suffolk sheep, which were methionine (M)/threonine heterozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, did not show any biological or immunohistochemical evidence of infection, while those homozygous for methionine (MARQ/MARQ) did. In MARQ/MARQ sheep of both breeds, initial PrP(d) accumulation was identified in lymphoreticular system (LRS) tissues followed by the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS) and finally by the autonomic nervous system and peripheral nervous system and other organs. Detection of infectivity closely mimicked this sequence. No PrP(d) was observed in the ENS prior to its accumulation in the CNS, suggesting that ENS involvement occurred simultaneously to that of, or followed centrifugal spread from, the CNS. The distribution of PrP(d) within the ENS further suggested a progressive spread from the ileal plexus to other ENS segments via neuronal connections of the gut wall. Differences between the two breeds were noted in terms of involvement of LRS and ENS tissues, with Romney sheep showing a more delayed and less consistent PrP(d) accumulation than Suffolk sheep in such tissues. Whether this

  19. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  20. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  1. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  2. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  3. Traceability in the food animal industry and supermarket chains.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, R G

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1950s, consumers in the United Kingdom (UK) have learned to expect cheap, but safe food. A number of incidents in the 1980s and 1990s caused public alarm and loss of confidence in the role of producers and the Government in the food supply. This review examines the impact of recent food scares in the UK, where scrutiny of the food industry has led to the introduction of new controls at all stages of production. Animal feed manufacture, livestock production, slaughter and the use or disposal of animal by-products are now controlled in ways unimagined prior to the identification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the late 1980s. Traceability has become an important issue for consumers and, by proxy, for the multiple retailers that service consumer needs. Retailers have increasingly managed the food chain to ensure high standards that can be proven by audit. The retailers have also found that a commercial advantage can be gained from certain aspects of source verification. In order to maximise sales in a depressed market, producer groups have themselves developed a multiplicity of assurance schemes.

  4. Atypical prion diseases in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Tranulis, Michael A; Benestad, Sylvie L; Baron, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the "scrapie form" (PrP(Sc)), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans. PMID:21598097

  5. Retroviral Transmission and Breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    van De Perre, Philippe; Cartoux, Michel

    1995-09-01

    Transmission of animal retroviruses has been demonstrated both for oncogenic retroviruses and animal lentiviruses. In humans, breast-feeding is the major route for mother-to-child transmission of Human T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus type I (HTLV-I). HTLV-I transmission by breast milk is associated with ingestion of infected cells and can be prevented by formula-feeding. Breast-feeding transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) has only been recently recognized as responsible for one to two thirds of mother-to-child transmission in breast-fed populations. A primary HIV-1 infection acquired in mothers after the baby has begun breast-feeding is associated with a particularly high risk of transmission. Breast milk transmission appears to result from the coexistence of HIV-1 and an inadequate humoral response in milk. Due to the dramatic impact of formula-feeding on child morbidity and mortality, it is suggested that present recommendation continue to promote breast-feeding in women living in settings where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the primary causes of infant deaths, as in many developing countries. On the other hand, in settings where infectious diseases and malnutrition are not the primary causes of infant deaths, as in most of the developed world, mothers with a proven HIV-1 infection should be advised not to breast-feed their babies.

  6. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Powers, Jenny G; Nichols, Tracy; Balachandran, Aru; Cummings, Bruce; Wild, Margaret A; VerCauteren, Kurt; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (PrP(CWD)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (CWD). A section of obex from 85 CWD-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in 10 axonal tracts, the subependymal area of the fourth ventricle, and the thin subpial astrocytic layer (glial limitans). Data was placed in a formula to generate an overall obex score. Data suggests that PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration has a unique and relatively consistent pattern of progression throughout a section of obex. This scoring technique utilizing a single section of obex may prove useful in future work for estimating the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in peripheral tissues and the nervous system in elk with CWD. PMID:26185123

  7. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Powers, Jenny G; Nichols, Tracy; Balachandran, Aru; Cummings, Bruce; Wild, Margaret A; VerCauteren, Kurt; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (PrP(CWD)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (CWD). A section of obex from 85 CWD-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in 10 axonal tracts, the subependymal area of the fourth ventricle, and the thin subpial astrocytic layer (glial limitans). Data was placed in a formula to generate an overall obex score. Data suggests that PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration has a unique and relatively consistent pattern of progression throughout a section of obex. This scoring technique utilizing a single section of obex may prove useful in future work for estimating the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in peripheral tissues and the nervous system in elk with CWD.

  8. Prions and the Potential Transmissibility of Protein Misfolding Diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Allison; Groveman, Bradley R.; Caughey, Byron

    2016-01-01

    Prions, or infectious proteins, represent a major frontier in the study of infectious agents. The prions responsible for mammalian transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are due primarily to infectious self-propagation of misfolded prion proteins. TSE prion structures remain ill-defined, other than being highly structured, self-propagating, and often fibrillar protein multimers with the capacity to seed, or template, the conversion of their normal monomeric precursors into a pathogenic form. Purified TSE prions usually take the form of amyloid fibrils, which are self-seeding ultrastructures common to many serious protein misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and Lou Gehrig’s (amytrophic lateral sclerosis). Indeed, recent reports have now provided evidence of prion-like propagation of several misfolded proteins from cell to cell, if not from tissue to tissue or individual to individual. These findings raise concerns that various protein misfolding diseases might have spreading, prion-like etiologies that contribute to pathogenesis or prevalence. PMID:23808331

  9. Amyloid structure and assembly: insights from scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goldsbury, Claire; Baxa, Ulrich; Simon, Martha N; Steven, Alasdair C; Engel, Andreas; Wall, Joseph S; Aebi, Ueli; Müller, Shirley A

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates implicated in several common diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Similar structures are also the molecular principle of the infectious spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep, and of the so-called yeast prions, inherited non-chromosomal elements found in yeast and fungi. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is often used to delineate the assembly mechanism and structural properties of amyloid aggregates. In this review we consider specifically contributions and limitations of STEM for the investigation of amyloid assembly pathways, fibril polymorphisms and structural models of amyloid fibrils. This type of microscopy provides the only method to directly measure the mass-per-length (MPL) of individual filaments. Made on both in vitro assembled and ex vivo samples, STEM mass measurements have illuminated the hierarchical relationships between amyloid fibrils and revealed that polymorphic fibrils and various globular oligomers can assemble simultaneously from a single polypeptide. The MPLs also impose strong constraints on possible packing schemes, assisting in molecular model building when combined with high-resolution methods like solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  10. Amyloid Structure and Assembly: Insights from Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsbury, C.; Wall, J.; Baxa, U.; Simon, M. N.; Steven, A. C.; Engel, A.; Aebi, U.; Muller, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates implicated in several common diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Similar structures are also the molecular principle of the infectious spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep, and of the so-called yeast prions, inherited non-chromosomal elements found in yeast and fungi. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is often used to delineate the assembly mechanism and structural properties of amyloid aggregates. In this review we consider specifically contributions and limitations of STEM for the investigation of amyloid assembly pathways, fibril polymorphisms and structural models of amyloid fibrils. This type of microscopy provides the only method to directly measure the mass-per-length (MPL) of individual filaments. Made on both in vitro assembled and ex vivo samples, STEM mass measurements have illuminated the hierarchical relationships between amyloid fibrils and revealed that polymorphic fibrils and various globular oligomers can assemble simultaneously from a single polypeptide. The MPLs also impose strong constraints on possible packing schemes, assisting in molecular model building when combined with high-resolution methods like solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  11. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  12. Zoonotic Transmission of Waterborne Disease: A Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Waters, Edward K; Hamilton, Andrew J; Sidhu, Harvinder S; Sidhu, Leesa A; Dunbar, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne parasites that infect both humans and animals are common causes of diarrhoeal illness, but the relative importance of transmission between humans and animals and vice versa remains poorly understood. Transmission of infection from animals to humans via environmental reservoirs, such as water sources, has attracted attention as a potential source of endemic and epidemic infections, but existing mathematical models of waterborne disease transmission have limitations for studying this phenomenon, as they only consider contamination of environmental reservoirs by humans. This paper develops a mathematical model that represents the transmission of waterborne parasites within and between both animal and human populations. It also improves upon existing models by including animal contamination of water sources explicitly. Linear stability analysis and simulation results, using realistic parameter values to describe Giardia transmission in rural Australia, show that endemic infection of an animal host with zoonotic protozoa can result in endemic infection in human hosts, even in the absence of person-to-person transmission. These results imply that zoonotic transmission via environmental reservoirs is important. PMID:26733222

  13. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  14. Paraffin-embedded tissue blot as a sensitive method for discrimination between classical scrapie and experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep.

    PubMed

    Webb, Paul R; Denyer, Margaret; Gough, Julie; Spiropoulos, John; Simmons, Marion M; Spencer, Yvonne I

    2011-05-01

    The paraffin-embedded tissue (PET) blot was modified for use as a tool to differentiate between classical scrapie and experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep. Medulla (obex) from 21 cases of classical scrapie and 6 cases of experimental ovine BSE were used to develop the method such that it can be used as a tool to differentiate between BSE and scrapie in the same way that differential immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been used previously. The differential PET blot successfully differentiated between all of the scrapie and ovine BSE cases. Differentiation was permitted more easily with PET blot than by differential IHC, with accurate observations possible at the macroscopic level. At the microscopic level, sensitivity was such that discrimination by the differential PET blot could be made with more confidence than with differential IHC in cases where the immunohistochemical differences were subtle. The differential PET blot makes use of harsh epitope demasking conditions, and, because of the differences in the way prion protein is processed in different prion diseases, it can serve as a new, highly sensitive method to discriminate between classical scrapie and experimental BSE in sheep.

  15. Detection of Atypical H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Discrimination of Bovine Prion Strains by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Masujin, Kentaro; Orrú, Christina D; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Groveman, Bradley R; Raymond, Lynne D; Hughson, Andrew G; Caughey, Byron

    2016-03-01

    Prion diseases of cattle include the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE) and the atypical H-type BSE (H-BSE) and L-type BSE (L-BSE) strains. Although the C- and L-BSE strains can be detected and discriminated by ultrasensitive real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays, no such test has yet been described for the detection of H-BSE or the discrimination of each of the major bovine prion strains. Here, we demonstrate an RT-QuIC assay for H-BSE that can detect as little as 10(-9) dilutions of brain tissue and neat cerebrospinal fluid samples from clinically affected cattle. Moreover, comparisons of the reactivities with different recombinant prion protein substrates and/or immunoblot band profiles of proteinase K-treated RT-QuIC reaction products indicated that H-, L-, and C-BSE have distinctive prion seeding activities and can be discriminated by RT-QuIC on this basis.

  16. Immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated prion protein in the peripheral nervous system in experimental H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Iwamaru, Y; Yokoyama, T; Mohri, S

    2013-07-01

    H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been identified in aged cattle in Europe and North America. To determine the localization of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the peripheral nerve tissues of cattle affected with H-type BSE, we employed highly sensitive immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence techniques with the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) system. PrP(Sc) deposition was detected in the inferior ganglia, sympathetic nerve trunk, vagus nerve, spinal nerves, cauda equina, and adrenal medulla, using this system. Notably, granular PrP(Sc) deposits were present mainly in the Schwann cells and fibroblast-like cells and occasionally along certain nerve fibers at the surface of the axons. In the adrenal gland, PrP(Sc) immunolabeling was observed within the sympathetic nerve fibers and nerve endings in the adrenal medulla. Although our results were limited to only 3 experimental cases, these results suggest that the TSA system, a highly sensitive immunohistochemical procedure, may help in elucidating the peripheral pathogenesis of H-type BSE.

  17. Significant differences in incubation times in sheep infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy result from variation at codon 141 in the PRNP gene.

    PubMed

    Tan, Boon Chin; Blanco, Anthony R Alejo; Houston, E Fiona; Stewart, Paula; Goldmann, Wilfred; Gill, Andrew C; de Wolf, Christopher; Manson, Jean C; McCutcheon, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    The susceptibility of sheep to prion infection is linked to variation in the PRNP gene, which encodes the prion protein. Common polymorphisms occur at codons 136, 154 and 171. Sheep which are homozygous for the A(136)R(154)Q(171) allele are the most susceptible to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The effect of other polymorphisms on BSE susceptibility is unknown. We orally infected ARQ/ARQ Cheviot sheep with equal amounts of BSE brain homogenate and a range of incubation periods was observed. When we segregated sheep according to the amino acid (L or F) encoded at codon 141 of the PRNP gene, the shortest incubation period was observed in LL(141) sheep, whilst incubation periods in FF(141) and LF(141) sheep were significantly longer. No statistically significant differences existed in the expression of total prion protein or the disease-associated isoform in BSE-infected sheep within each genotype subgroup. This suggested that the amino acid encoded at codon 141 probably affects incubation times through direct effects on protein misfolding rates.

  18. Detection of Atypical H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Discrimination of Bovine Prion Strains by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Masujin, Kentaro; Orrú, Christina D.; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Groveman, Bradley R.; Raymond, Lynne D.; Hughson, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases of cattle include the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE) and the atypical H-type BSE (H-BSE) and L-type BSE (L-BSE) strains. Although the C- and L-BSE strains can be detected and discriminated by ultrasensitive real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays, no such test has yet been described for the detection of H-BSE or the discrimination of each of the major bovine prion strains. Here, we demonstrate an RT-QuIC assay for H-BSE that can detect as little as 10−9 dilutions of brain tissue and neat cerebrospinal fluid samples from clinically affected cattle. Moreover, comparisons of the reactivities with different recombinant prion protein substrates and/or immunoblot band profiles of proteinase K-treated RT-QuIC reaction products indicated that H-, L-, and C-BSE have distinctive prion seeding activities and can be discriminated by RT-QuIC on this basis. PMID:26739160

  19. Detection of Atypical H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Discrimination of Bovine Prion Strains by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Masujin, Kentaro; Orrú, Christina D; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Groveman, Bradley R; Raymond, Lynne D; Hughson, Andrew G; Caughey, Byron

    2016-03-01

    Prion diseases of cattle include the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE) and the atypical H-type BSE (H-BSE) and L-type BSE (L-BSE) strains. Although the C- and L-BSE strains can be detected and discriminated by ultrasensitive real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays, no such test has yet been described for the detection of H-BSE or the discrimination of each of the major bovine prion strains. Here, we demonstrate an RT-QuIC assay for H-BSE that can detect as little as 10(-9) dilutions of brain tissue and neat cerebrospinal fluid samples from clinically affected cattle. Moreover, comparisons of the reactivities with different recombinant prion protein substrates and/or immunoblot band profiles of proteinase K-treated RT-QuIC reaction products indicated that H-, L-, and C-BSE have distinctive prion seeding activities and can be discriminated by RT-QuIC on this basis. PMID:26739160

  20. Transmission of Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Answers for Patients . Top of Page Related Pages Transmission for Healthcare Providers Cover Your Cough Clean Hands ...

  1. Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... not shingles. For more information about shingles, see Transmission . When Is a Person Contagious? A person with ...

  2. [Animal- assisted therapy in health care facilities].

    PubMed

    Jofré M, Leonor

    2005-09-01

    Animal-assisted therapy is a novel interventional program with important benefits in the management of patients with chronic diseases and prolonged hospitalization. The relationship between animals and patients facilitates adaptation to a new, stressing hospital environment, helps in diminishing anxiety, stress, pain and blood pressure and increases mobility and muscular strength. This therapy can be developed by pets themselves or by specially trained animals. Dogs are the most frequently used animals because of their training and sociability skills. Patients and animals participating in these programs require special care in order to avoid transmission of infectious diseases associated with pets, hypersensitivity and accidents during their visits. Implementation of animal - assisted therapy in care centers requires a permanent revision of suggested guidelines and program objectives. PMID:16077894

  3. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  4. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  5. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  6. Transmission loss in manatee habitats.

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Miller, James H

    2006-10-01

    The Florida manatee is regularly exposed to high volumes of vessel traffic and other human-related noise because of its coastal distribution. Quantifying specific aspects of the manatee's acoustic environment will allow for a better understanding of how these animals respond to both natural and human-induced changes in their environment. Transmission loss measurements were made in 24 sampling sites that were chosen based on the frequency of manatee presence. The Monterey-Miami Parabolic Equation model was used to relate environmental parameters to transmission loss in two extremely shallow water environments: seagrass beds and dredged habitats. Model accuracy was verified by field tests at all modeled sites. Results indicated that high-use grassbeds have higher levels of transmission loss for frequencies above 2 kHz compared to low-use sites of equal food species composition and density. This also happens to be the range of most efficient sound propagation inside the grassbed habitat and includes the dominant frequencies of manatee vocalizations. The acoustic environment may play a more important role in manatee grassbed selection than seagrass coverage or species composition, as linear regression analysis showed no significant correlation between usage and either total grass coverage, individual species coverage, or aerial pattern. PMID:17069327

  7. Animal migration and infectious disease risk.

    PubMed

    Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca; Han, Barbara A

    2011-01-21

    Animal migrations are often spectacular, and migratory species harbor zoonotic pathogens of importance to humans. Animal migrations are expected to enhance the global spread of pathogens and facilitate cross-species transmission. This does happen, but new research has also shown that migration allows hosts to escape from infected habitats, reduces disease levels when infected animals do not migrate successfully, and may lead to the evolution of less-virulent pathogens. Migratory demands can also reduce immune function, with consequences for host susceptibility and mortality. Studies of pathogen dynamics in migratory species and how these will respond to global change are urgently needed to predict future disease risks for wildlife and humans alike.

  8. Exotic rotaviruses in animals and rotaviruses in exotic animals.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Souvik; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2014-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are a major cause of viral diarrhea in the young of mammals and birds. RVA strains with certain genotype constellations or VP7-VP4 (G-P) genotype combinations are commonly found in a particular host species, whilst unusual or exotic RVAs have also been reported. In most cases, these exotic rotaviruses are derived from RVA strains common to other host species, possibly through interspecies transmission coupled with reassortment events, whilst a few other strains exhibit novel genotypes/genetic constellations rarely found in other RVAs. The epidemiology and evolutionary patterns of exotic rotaviruses in humans have been thoroughly reviewed previously. On the other hand, there is no comprehensive review article devoted to exotic rotaviruses in domestic animals and birds so far. The present review focuses on the exotic/unusual rotaviruses detected in livestock (cattle and pigs), horses and companion animals (cats and dogs). Avian rotaviruses (group D, group F and group G strains), including RVAs, which are genetically divergent from mammalian RVAs, are also discussed. Although scattered and limited studies have reported rotaviruses in several exotic animals and birds, including wildlife, these data remain to be reviewed. Therefore, a section entitled "rotaviruses in exotic animals" was included in the present review. PMID:25674582

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  10. Ultrasensitive detection of PrP(Sc) in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of macaques infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Imamura, Morikazu; Ono, Fumiko; Shibata, Hiroaki; Tobiume, Minoru; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Shimozaki, Noriko; Terao, Keiji; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2014-11-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by the prominent accumulation of the misfolded form of a normal cellular protein (PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system. The pathological features and biochemical properties of PrP(Sc) in macaque monkeys infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion have been found to be similar to those of human subjects with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Non-human primate models are thus ideally suited for performing valid diagnostic tests and determining the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents. In the current study, we developed a highly efficient method for in vitro amplification of cynomolgus macaque BSE PrP(Sc). This method involves amplifying PrP(Sc) by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) using mouse brain homogenate as a PrP(C) substrate in the presence of sulfated dextran compounds. This method is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white blood cells (WBCs), as well as in the peripheral tissues of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the BSE prion. After clinical signs of the disease appeared in three macaques, we detected PrP(Sc) in the CSF by serial PMCA, and the CSF levels of PrP(Sc) tended to increase with disease progression. In addition, PrP(Sc) was detectable in WBCs at the clinical phases of the disease in two of the three macaques. Thus, our highly sensitive, novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of the tissue distribution of PrP(Sc) in non-human primate models of CJD.

  11. A Bayesian back-calculation method to estimate the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Canada during the period 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Oraby, Tamer; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seventeen typical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) were detected in Canada the period of 2003-2011. The clinical incidence of BSE was censored by early slaughter, death, or exportation of infected cattle due to the long incubation period of BSE disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the infection incidence of BSE in birth cohorts during 1996-2004 and project infection frequency through to 2007. An estimate of the number of asymptomatic infected cattle slaughtered for human consumption is also provided. The number of incident, asymptomatic cases was assumed to follow a Poisson process. A Bayesian back-calculation approach was used to project the risk of contracting BSE in those birth cohorts. Model parameters and inputs were taken from scientific literature and governmental data sources. The projected number of infected cattle in birth cohorts spanning the period 1996-2007 was 492, with median 95% credible interval 258-830. If the requirement to remove specified risk material (SRM) from cattle prior to entering the food chain was not in place, the predicted number of slaughtered infected in the human food chain from 1996-2010 was 298, with a 95% credible interval 156-500. The magnitude of the BSE epidemic in Canada for 1996-2007 birth cohorts was estimated to be approximately 28-fold higher than the number of clinical cases detected through to October 2011. Although some of those cattle were slaughtered for human consumption, the requirement of SRM removal may have prevented most of the infectious material from entering the food chain. PMID:27556564

  12. [Surveillance and control of imported animal diseases. Role of the OIE and veterinary services].

    PubMed

    Angot, Jean-Luc

    2009-11-01

    Many animal diseases have received major media attention in recent years, including foot-and-mouth disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and avian influenza. Epizootics are on the increase, notably owing to globalization, ecological upheavals, and global warming. It is estimated that three-quarters of emerging and re-emerging diseases are zoonoses, i.e. diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Changes in eating habits, along with population growth and increasingly large populations at risk have all contributed to the upsurge of zoonoses. The fight against animal diseases is a major issue not only for animal health but also for human health, economics and politics. Veterinary services, whose work is recognized as an "international public good" by the World Bank, must be considered in terms of all those involved in animal health, including formal services, veterinarians and their assistants and organized livestock farmers, working together in close partnership. When veterinary services fail in a single country, it is the entire world that is threatened. Animal disease outbreaks are even more of a problem when they occur in countries that have no effective surveillance and preventive animal health network. Veterinary Services are an important instrument of public health and are necessary to protect the livestock economy. Industrialized countries must therefore help developing countries to eradicate their animal diseases, and countries with efficient veterinary infrastructures must encourage failing countries to adopt an effective early detection and rapid response system. OIE, the World Organization for Animal Health, has developed quality standards and norms for evaluating veterinary services, and provides an interactive tool (PVS, Performance of Veterinary Services) designed to facilitate their implementation. Assessments conducted by specifically trained experts allow international donors such as the World Bank to target investments where

  13. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  14. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identify weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.

  15. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identifymore » weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.« less

  16. Transmission in the guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Lowen, Anice C; Bouvier, Nicole M; Steel, John

    2014-01-01

    The ability of an influenza virus to transmit efficiently from human-to-human is a major factor in determining the epidemiological impact of that strain. The use of a relevant animal model to identify viral determinants of transmission, as well as host and environmental factors affecting transmission efficiency, is therefore critical for public health. The characterization of newly emerging influenza viruses in terms of their potential to transmit in a mammalian host is furthermore an important part of pandemic risk assessment. For these reasons, a guinea pig model of influenza virus transmission was developed in 2006. The guinea pig provides an important alternative to preexisting models for influenza. Most influenza viruses do not readily transmit among mice. Ferrets, while highly relevant, are expensive and can be difficult to obtain in high numbers. Moreover, it is generally accepted that efforts to accurately model human disease are strengthened by the use of multiple animal species. Herein, we provide an overview of influenza virus infectivity, growth, and transmission in the guinea pig and highlight knowledge gained on the topic of influenza virus transmission using the guinea pig model.

  17. [Parasitic zoonotic disease agents in human and animal drinking water].

    PubMed

    Karanis, P

    2000-08-01

    Human- and veterinary important parasites of the subkingdom of protozoans and helminths infect humans and animals by ingestion of parasites in contaminated water. The parasites are excreted from the body of infected humans, livestock, zoo animals, companion animals or wild animals in the feces. Recreational waters, agricultural practices and wild animals serve as vehicles of transmission of the parasites in the water supplies. The following topics are addressed: a) the life cycles of parasitic diseases-causing agents with proven or potential transmission via water b) the development and the current research status of the analytical techniques for the detection of parasitic diseases-causing agents from water c) the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water supplies and in treated water d) the possible water sources and transmission ways of the parasites into the water supplies e) the behaviour and the possibilities for the removal or elimination of the parasites by water treatment.

  18. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    PubMed

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). PMID:26697715

  19. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    PubMed

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

  20. Emerging diseases and their impact on animal commerce: the Argentine lesson.

    PubMed

    Cané, B G; Leanes, L F; Mascitelli, L O

    2004-10-01

    As a result of the Argentine experience with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001, a need was postulated for the establishment of efficient supranational schemes for continuous surveillance of the interrelations between tropical extractives livestock systems and the prairies that are optimal for the feeding of livestock in the southern region of South America. FMD in Argentina and in other countries, new or re-emerging risks from avian influenza with potential risks for public health, the spongiform encephalopathies, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, and classical swine fever, among other animal diseases, have generated a strong reaction and evolution within the veterinary services of the country. These present lessons will influence decision-making within countries and should be accepted by the technical and scientific community. From the perspective of the official animal health sector and with the FMD eradication plan as a basis within the national territory, we have worked not only to achieve international recognition and credibility within animal health systems, but also to realize the formation of a regional block of countries that can be recognized internationally as an area with equivalent animal health status. We emphasize not only that this lesson is useful in FMD, but also that it is possible to apply the valuable conclusions reached for other emerging or re-emerging diseases.

  1. Pixel selection for near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) discrimination between fish and terrestrial animal species in animal protein by-product meals.

    PubMed

    Riccioli, Cecilia; Pérez-Marín, Dolores; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio; Saeys, Wouter; Garrido-Varo, Ana

    2011-07-01

    This paper proposes a method based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for discriminating between terrestrial and fish species in animal protein by-products used in livestock feed. Four algorithms (Mahalanobis distance, Kennard-Stone, spatial interpolation, and binning) were compared in order to select an appropriate subset of pixels for further partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The method was applied to a set of 50 terrestrial and 40 fish meals analyzed in the 1000-1700 nm range. Models were then tested using an external validation set comprising 45 samples (25 fish and 20 terrestrial). The PLS-DA models obtained using the four subset-selection algorithms yielded a classification accuracy of 99.80%, 99.79%, 99.85%, and 99.61%, respectively. The results represent a first step for the analysis of mixtures of species and suggest that NIR-CI, providing valuable information on the origin of animal components in processed animal proteins, is a promising method that could be used as part of the EU feed control program aimed at eradicating and preventing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and related diseases.

  2. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  3. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

  4. Elective automatic shift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Redzinski, G.E.

    1986-09-02

    For use in vehicle of the type having an engine coupled with traction wheels through a driveline including a change-speed transmission, the transmission includes drive direction reversing means, a drive direction selector for manual control of the reversing means and having a forward and reverse position, the transmission including ratio changing means, a manual gear selector for operation of the ratio changing means for shifting the transmission into a selected gear, and control means responsive to a control signal for upshifting and downshifting between first and second gears.

  5. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  6. Apicomplexan parasites: environmental contamination and transmission.

    PubMed

    Siński, Edward; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2004-01-01

    The Apicomplexa are a diverse group of intracellular parasitic protists. The majority of species from the classes Coccidea, Haemosporea and Piroplasmea are responsible for widespread diseases of humans and domestic animals. Oocysts of these parasites can persist for long periods of time in the environment (i.e. in water, soil, on vegetation and other food resources), maintaining their infectivity even under harsh environmental conditions and therefore are important for dispersal and transmission to hosts. This review will address the biology, transmission patterns and survival in the environment of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Toxoplasma species, the most common causes of human diseases.

  7. Physics for Animation Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  8. White Band Disease transmission in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis

    PubMed Central

    Gignoux-Wolfsohn, S. A.; Marks, Christopher J.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    The global rise in coral diseases has severely impacted coral reef ecosystems, yet often little is known about these diseases, including how they are transmitted. White Band Disease (WBD), for example, has caused unparalleled declines in live Acropora cover, spreading rapidly throughout the Caribbean by unknown means. Here we test four putative modes of WBD transmission to the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: two animal vectors (Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea) and waterborne transmission to intact and injured coral tissues. Using aquarium-based infection experiments, we determine that C. abbreviata, but not C. caribaea, acts as both a vector and reservoir for transmission of the WBD pathogen. We also demonstrate waterborne transmission to injured, but not intact staghorn coral tissues. The combination of transmission by both animal vectors and through the water column helps explain how WBD is spread locally and across the Caribbean. PMID:23150775

  9. Contact transmission of influenza virus between ferrets imposes a looser bottleneck than respiratory droplet transmission allowing propagation of antiviral resistance.

    PubMed

    Frise, Rebecca; Bradley, Konrad; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Galiano, Monica; Elderfield, Ruth A; Stilwell, Peter; Ashcroft, Jonathan W; Fernandez-Alonso, Mirian; Miah, Shahjahan; Lackenby, Angie; Roberts, Kim L; Donnelly, Christl A; Barclay, Wendy S

    2016-07-19

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. It is important to elucidate the stringency of bottlenecks during transmission to shed light on mechanisms that underlie the evolution and propagation of antigenic drift, host range switching or drug resistance. The virus spreads between people by different routes, including through the air in droplets and aerosols, and by direct contact. By housing ferrets under different conditions, it is possible to mimic various routes of transmission. Here, we inoculated donor animals with a mixture of two viruses whose genomes differed by one or two reverse engineered synonymous mutations, and measured the transmission of the mixture to exposed sentinel animals. Transmission through the air imposed a tight bottleneck since most recipient animals became infected by only one virus. In contrast, a direct contact transmission chain propagated a mixture of viruses suggesting the dose transferred by this route was higher. From animals with a mixed infection of viruses that were resistant and sensitive to the antiviral drug oseltamivir, resistance was propagated through contact transmission but not by air. These data imply that transmission events with a looser bottleneck can propagate minority variants and may be an important route for influenza evolution.

  10. Contact transmission of influenza virus between ferrets imposes a looser bottleneck than respiratory droplet transmission allowing propagation of antiviral resistance

    PubMed Central

    Frise, Rebecca; Bradley, Konrad; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Galiano, Monica; Elderfield, Ruth A.; Stilwell, Peter; Ashcroft, Jonathan W.; Fernandez-Alonso, Mirian; Miah, Shahjahan; Lackenby, Angie; Roberts, Kim L.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Barclay, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. It is important to elucidate the stringency of bottlenecks during transmission to shed light on mechanisms that underlie the evolution and propagation of antigenic drift, host range switching or drug resistance. The virus spreads between people by different routes, including through the air in droplets and aerosols, and by direct contact. By housing ferrets under different conditions, it is possible to mimic various routes of transmission. Here, we inoculated donor animals with a mixture of two viruses whose genomes differed by one or two reverse engineered synonymous mutations, and measured the transmission of the mixture to exposed sentinel animals. Transmission through the air imposed a tight bottleneck since most recipient animals became infected by only one virus. In contrast, a direct contact transmission chain propagated a mixture of viruses suggesting the dose transferred by this route was higher. From animals with a mixed infection of viruses that were resistant and sensitive to the antiviral drug oseltamivir, resistance was propagated through contact transmission but not by air. These data imply that transmission events with a looser bottleneck can propagate minority variants and may be an important route for influenza evolution. PMID:27430528

  11. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  12. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  13. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  14. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  16. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  17. Attenuation correction for small animal PET tomographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Patrick L.; Rannou, Fernando R.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2005-04-01

    Attenuation correction is one of the important corrections required for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET). This work will compare the quantitative accuracy of attenuation correction using a simple global scale factor with traditional transmission-based methods acquired either with a small animal PET or a small animal x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. Two phantoms (one mouse-sized and one rat-sized) and two animal subjects (one mouse and one rat) were scanned in CTI Concorde Microsystem's microPET® Focus™ for emission and transmission data and in ImTek's MicroCAT™ II for transmission data. PET emission image values were calibrated against a scintillation well counter. Results indicate that the scale factor method of attenuation correction places the average measured activity concentration about the expected value, without correcting for the cupping artefact from attenuation. Noise analysis in the phantom studies with the PET-based method shows that noise in the transmission data increases the noise in the corrected emission data. The CT-based method was accurate and delivered low-noise images suitable for both PET data correction and PET tracer localization.

  18. A transmissible Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease-like agent is prevalent in the human population.

    PubMed Central

    Manuelidis, E E; Manuelidis, L

    1993-01-01

    The etiology of most human dementias is unknown. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a relatively uncommon human dementia, is caused by a transmissible virus-like agent. Molecular markers that are specific for the agent have not yet been defined. However, the infectious disease can be transmitted to rodents from both brain and infected buffy coat (blood) samples. To determine whether human CJD infections are more widespread than is apparent from the low incidence of neurological disease, we attempted to transmit CJD from buffy coat samples of 30 healthy volunteers who had no family history of dementing illness. Primary transmissions from 26 of 30 individuals produced CJD-like spongiform changes in the brains of recipient hamsters at 200-500 days postinoculation. This positive evidence of viremia was found for individuals in all age groups (20-30, 40-50, and 61-71 years old), whereas 12 negatively scored brain samples failed to produce similar changes in hamsters observed for > 900 days in the same setting. We suggest that a CJD agent endemically infects humans but only infrequently produces an infectious dementia. Disease expression is likely to be influenced by several host factors in combination with viral variants that have altered neurovirulence. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8356076

  19. [Guidelines for animal and meat inspection procedures in the slaughterhouse].

    PubMed

    Schnöller, A

    2006-08-01

    Over the last few decades there have been significant developments in livestock and meat inspection systems in slaughterhouses. The most highly developed countries have taken the lead in bringing about these changes by enacting new legislation. These new national laws have been reflected by the Codex Alimentarius in its Codes of Good Practice and this has served to harmonise world trade in foodstuffs. The author identifies the different aspects to be considered when carrying out a veterinary inspection of animals and animal products in the slaughterhouse, bearing in mind the need to protect public and animal health. Although this article only covers cattle, many of the concepts set forth can be applied to other livestock species. Information obtained from the slaughterhouse is useful to primary production; conversely, information compiled in the primary production process makes for more efficient use of slaughterhouse resources. This information makes it possible to carry out risk-based inspections, which will gradually replace traditional procedures. Conventional inspections are often very rigid and mechanical and incapable of measuring the seriousness of hazards or of determining the probability that they will occur. Emerging biological, physical and chemical hazards, as well as new technologies, mean that we cannot become complacent about inspection procedures but must continue to be alert and to keep pace with the constant changes in food safety sciences. Another new trend is the active participation of operators, who must shoulder primary responsibility in upholding the safety of the food they produce. Official veterinary inspection in the slaughterhouse plays several roles: the detection of animal diseases, the inspection of meat and meat products and the verification of audits carried out by the private sector. In recent years, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis and cases of dioxin poisoning have highlighted the need for traceability of foodstuffs

  20. [Guidelines for animal and meat inspection procedures in the slaughterhouse].

    PubMed

    Schnöller, A

    2006-08-01

    Over the last few decades there have been significant developments in livestock and meat inspection systems in slaughterhouses. The most highly developed countries have taken the lead in bringing about these changes by enacting new legislation. These new national laws have been reflected by the Codex Alimentarius in its Codes of Good Practice and this has served to harmonise world trade in foodstuffs. The author identifies the different aspects to be considered when carrying out a veterinary inspection of animals and animal products in the slaughterhouse, bearing in mind the need to protect public and animal health. Although this article only covers cattle, many of the concepts set forth can be applied to other livestock species. Information obtained from the slaughterhouse is useful to primary production; conversely, information compiled in the primary production process makes for more efficient use of slaughterhouse resources. This information makes it possible to carry out risk-based inspections, which will gradually replace traditional procedures. Conventional inspections are often very rigid and mechanical and incapable of measuring the seriousness of hazards or of determining the probability that they will occur. Emerging biological, physical and chemical hazards, as well as new technologies, mean that we cannot become complacent about inspection procedures but must continue to be alert and to keep pace with the constant changes in food safety sciences. Another new trend is the active participation of operators, who must shoulder primary responsibility in upholding the safety of the food they produce. Official veterinary inspection in the slaughterhouse plays several roles: the detection of animal diseases, the inspection of meat and meat products and the verification of audits carried out by the private sector. In recent years, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis and cases of dioxin poisoning have highlighted the need for traceability of foodstuffs

  1. Animal models in virus research: their utility and limitations.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2013-11-01

    Viral diseases are important threats to public health worldwide. With the number of emerging viral diseases increasing the last decades, there is a growing need for appropriate animal models for virus studies. The relevance of animal models can be limited in terms of mimicking human pathophysiology. In this review, we discuss the utility of animal models for studies of influenza A viruses, HIV and SARS-CoV in light of viral emergence, assessment of infection and transmission risks, and regulatory decision making. We address their relevance and limitations. The susceptibility, immune responses, pathogenesis, and pharmacokinetics may differ between the various animal models. These complexities may thwart translating results from animal experiments to the humans. Within these constraints, animal models are very informative for studying virus immunopathology and transmission modes and for translation of virus research into clinical benefit. Insight in the limitations of the various models may facilitate further improvements of the models.

  2. No H- and L-type cases in Belgium in cattle diagnosed with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (1999-2008) aging seven years and older

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic presented homogeneity of the phenotype. This classical BSE (called C-type) was probably due to the contamination of the food chain by a single prion strain. However, due to the active surveillance and better techniques, two rare variants of BSE have been recently reported in different continents without a clear correlation to the BSE epidemic. These emerging types behave as different strains of BSE and were named H-type and L-type according to the high and low molecular mass of the unglycosylated fragment of their proteinase K resistant prion protein (PrPres). In these types, the proportion of the un-, mono- and di-glycosylated fragments of PrP (glycoprofile) is also atypical and represents an effective diagnostic parameter. This study evaluated the presence of such types in bovine of 7 years and older in Belgium. Results The Belgian BSE archive contained 41 bovines of at least 7 years of age. The biochemical features of their PrPres were analyzed by Western blot with five antibodies recognising different regions of PrPres, from N- to C-terminus: 12B2, 9A2, Sha31, SAF84 and 94B4. All antibodies clearly detected PrPres except 12B2 antibody, which is specific for N-terminal region 101-105, a PrP region that is only retained in H-types. The glycoprofiles did correspond to that of C-type (with more than 55% of diglycosylated PrPres using antibody 94B4). Therefore, all cases have the features of C-type BSE. Conclusions This study supports that, among the BSE cases of 7 years and older identified in Belgium, none was apparently of the H- or L- type. This is consistent with the very rare occurrence of atypical BSE and the restricted dimension of Belgium. These results shed some light on the worldwide prevalence of atypical BSE. PMID:20492661

  3. Subcritical Water Hydrolysis Effectively Reduces the In Vitro Seeding Activity of PrPSc but Fails to Inactivate the Infectivity of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prions

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Okada, Hiroyuki; Takata, Eri; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Shimozaki, Noriko; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou; Tsutsumi, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The global outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been attributed to the recycling of contaminated meat and bone meals (MBMs) as feed supplements. The use of MBMs has been prohibited in many countries; however, the development of a method for inactivating BSE prions could enable the efficient and safe use of these products as an organic resource. Subcritical water (SCW), which is water heated under pressure to maintain a liquid state at temperatures below the critical temperature (374°C), exhibits strong hydrolytic activity against organic compounds. In this study, we examined the residual in vitro seeding activity of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc) and the infectivity of BSE prions after SCW treatments. Spinal cord homogenates prepared from BSE-infected cows were treated with SCW at 230–280°C for 5–7.5 min and used to intracerebrally inoculate transgenic mice overexpressing bovine prion protein. Serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) analysis detected no PrPSc in the SCW-treated homogenates, and the mice treated with these samples survived for more than 700 days without any signs of disease. However, sPMCA analyses detected PrPSc accumulation in the brains of all inoculated mice. Furthermore, secondary passage mice, which inoculated with brain homogenates derived from a western blotting (WB)-positive primary passage mouse, died after an average of 240 days, similar to mice inoculated with untreated BSE-infected spinal cord homogenates. The PrPSc accumulation and vacuolation typically observed in the brains of BSE-infected mice were confirmed in these secondary passage mice, suggesting that the BSE prions maintained their infectivity after SCW treatment. One late-onset case, as well as asymptomatic but sPMCA-positive cases, were also recognized in secondary passage mice inoculated with brain homogenates from WB-negative but sPMCA-positive primary passage mice. These results indicated that SCW-mediated hydrolysis was

  4. Subcritical Water Hydrolysis Effectively Reduces the In Vitro Seeding Activity of PrPSc but Fails to Inactivate the Infectivity of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prions.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Okada, Hiroyuki; Takata, Eri; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Shimozaki, Noriko; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou; Tsutsumi, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The global outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been attributed to the recycling of contaminated meat and bone meals (MBMs) as feed supplements. The use of MBMs has been prohibited in many countries; however, the development of a method for inactivating BSE prions could enable the efficient and safe use of these products as an organic resource. Subcritical water (SCW), which is water heated under pressure to maintain a liquid state at temperatures below the critical temperature (374°C), exhibits strong hydrolytic activity against organic compounds. In this study, we examined the residual in vitro seeding activity of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc) and the infectivity of BSE prions after SCW treatments. Spinal cord homogenates prepared from BSE-infected cows were treated with SCW at 230-280°C for 5-7.5 min and used to intracerebrally inoculate transgenic mice overexpressing bovine prion protein. Serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) analysis detected no PrPSc in the SCW-treated homogenates, and the mice treated with these samples survived for more than 700 days without any signs of disease. However, sPMCA analyses detected PrPSc accumulation in the brains of all inoculated mice. Furthermore, secondary passage mice, which inoculated with brain homogenates derived from a western blotting (WB)-positive primary passage mouse, died after an average of 240 days, similar to mice inoculated with untreated BSE-infected spinal cord homogenates. The PrPSc accumulation and vacuolation typically observed in the brains of BSE-infected mice were confirmed in these secondary passage mice, suggesting that the BSE prions maintained their infectivity after SCW treatment. One late-onset case, as well as asymptomatic but sPMCA-positive cases, were also recognized in secondary passage mice inoculated with brain homogenates from WB-negative but sPMCA-positive primary passage mice. These results indicated that SCW-mediated hydrolysis was

  5. Subcritical Water Hydrolysis Effectively Reduces the In Vitro Seeding Activity of PrPSc but Fails to Inactivate the Infectivity of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prions.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Okada, Hiroyuki; Takata, Eri; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Shimozaki, Noriko; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou; Tsutsumi, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The global outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been attributed to the recycling of contaminated meat and bone meals (MBMs) as feed supplements. The use of MBMs has been prohibited in many countries; however, the development of a method for inactivating BSE prions could enable the efficient and safe use of these products as an organic resource. Subcritical water (SCW), which is water heated under pressure to maintain a liquid state at temperatures below the critical temperature (374°C), exhibits strong hydrolytic activity against organic compounds. In this study, we examined the residual in vitro seeding activity of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc) and the infectivity of BSE prions after SCW treatments. Spinal cord homogenates prepared from BSE-infected cows were treated with SCW at 230-280°C for 5-7.5 min and used to intracerebrally inoculate transgenic mice overexpressing bovine prion protein. Serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) analysis detected no PrPSc in the SCW-treated homogenates, and the mice treated with these samples survived for more than 700 days without any signs of disease. However, sPMCA analyses detected PrPSc accumulation in the brains of all inoculated mice. Furthermore, secondary passage mice, which inoculated with brain homogenates derived from a western blotting (WB)-positive primary passage mouse, died after an average of 240 days, similar to mice inoculated with untreated BSE-infected spinal cord homogenates. The PrPSc accumulation and vacuolation typically observed in the brains of BSE-infected mice were confirmed in these secondary passage mice, suggesting that the BSE prions maintained their infectivity after SCW treatment. One late-onset case, as well as asymptomatic but sPMCA-positive cases, were also recognized in secondary passage mice inoculated with brain homogenates from WB-negative but sPMCA-positive primary passage mice. These results indicated that SCW-mediated hydrolysis was

  6. Comparison of histological lesions and immunohistochemical staining of proteinase-resistant prion protein in a naturally occurring spongiform encephalopathy of free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with those of chronic wasting disease of captive mule deer.

    PubMed

    Spraker, T R; Zink, R R; Cummings, B A; Wild, M A; Miller, M W; O'Rourke, K I

    2002-01-01

    In this investigation, the nature and distribution of histologic lesions and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) of a proteinase-resistant prion protein were compared in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) dying of a naturally occurring spongiform encephalopathy (SE) and captive mule deer dying of chronic wasting disease (CWD). Sixteen free-ranging deer with SE, 12 free-ranging deer without SE, and 10 captive deer with CWD were examined at necropsy. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and duplicate sections were stained with a monoclonal antibody (F89/160.1.5). Histological lesions in the free-ranging deer with SE and captive deer with CWD were found throughout the brain and spinal cord but were especially prominent in the myelencephalon, diencephalon, and rhinencephalon. The lesions were characterized by spongiform degeneration of gray matter neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation and degeneration of neurons, and astrocytosis. IHC was found throughout the brain and retina of deer with SE and CWD. Positive IHC was found in lymphoid tissue of deer with SE and CWD. Histologic lesions and IHC were not found in multiple sections of integument, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and urogenital systems of deer with SE or CWD. Comparison of histologic lesions and IHC in tissues of free-ranging deer with those of captive deer provides strong evidence that these two diseases are indistinguishable morphologically.

  7. 9 CFR 95.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulations at 9 CFR 310.22(a). Suspect for a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. (1) A sheep or goat... in infected animals, as listed in the FSIS regulations at 9 CFR 310.22(a). Specified risk materials... of containing the BSE agent in infected animals, as listed in the FSIS regulations at 9 CFR...

  8. Serotonin in animal models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Compagnon, P; Ernouf, D; Narcisse, G; Daoust, M

    1993-01-01

    Ethanol naive alcohol preferring rodents have low serotonin transmission. Both pharmacological, biochemical and behavioral studies show that increased serotonin transmission influence reduces ethanol consumption in animals. This paper develops the role of serotonin in different lines of ethanol preferring rats and mice, and shows a regulation of 5-HT1A receptors in alcoholised dependent mice. Different sensitivities to ethanol observed between ethanol-preferring and non-preferring rats or mice seems to be at the root of the maintenance of alcohol intake.

  9. Best practices for planning events encouraging human-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Erdozain, G; KuKanich, K; Chapman, B; Powell, D

    2015-03-01

    Educational events encouraging human-animal interaction include the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. It is estimated that 14% of all disease in the USA caused by Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, non-O157 STECs, Listeria monocytogenes, non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica were attributable to animal contact. This article reviews best practices for organizing events where human-animal interactions are encouraged, with the objective of lowering the risk of zoonotic disease transmission.

  10. Slowing heterosexual HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Ronald, A R

    1995-06-01

    HIV-1 is spreading rapidly through heterosexual intercourse in many societies. Slowing the transmission of this virus is the most urgent global public health priority. Our understanding of the biologic differences between societies that account for most vacancies in heterosexual HIV transmission are now understood. Effective interventions to slow transmission must be designed, implemented, and evaluated. Human and fiscal resources must be provided through a shared global effort. The consequences of failing to do so will lead to a world catastrophe of unprecedented magnitude. PMID:7673667

  11. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  12. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  13. Hepatitis E Virus: Foodborne, Waterborne and Zoonotic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Yugo, Danielle M.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, mainly through waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission routes. HEV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus classified in the family Hepeviridae and encompasses four known Genotypes (1–4), at least two new putative genotypes of mammalian HEV, and one floating genus of avian HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEVs only affect humans, while Genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic and autochthonous infections in both humans and several other animal species worldwide. HEV has an ever-expanding host range and has been identified in numerous animal species. Swine serve as a reservoir species for HEV transmission to humans; however, it is likely that other animal species may also act as reservoirs. HEV poses an important public health concern with cases of the disease definitively linked to handling of infected pigs, consumption of raw and undercooked animal meats, and animal manure contamination of drinking or irrigation water. Infectious HEV has been identified in numerous sources of concern including animal feces, sewage water, inadequately-treated water, contaminated shellfish and produce, as well as animal meats. Many aspects of HEV pathogenesis, replication, and immunological responses remain unknown, as HEV is an extremely understudied but important human pathogen. This article reviews the current understanding of HEV transmission routes with emphasis on food and environmental sources and the prevalence of HEV in animal species with zoonotic potential in humans. PMID:24071919

  14. Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies (Diptera, Muscidae): a review.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Muenworn, Vithee; Desquesnes, Marc; Desoli, Florian; Charoenviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Duvallet, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Stomoxys flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens present in the blood and skin of their animal hosts, especially livestock, but occasionally humans. In livestock, their direct effects are disturbance, skin lesions, reduction of food intake, stress, blood loss, and a global immunosuppressive effect. They also induce the gathering of animals for mutual protection; meanwhile they favor development of pathogens in the hosts and their transmission. Their indirect effect is the mechanical transmission of pathogens. In case of interrupted feeding, Stomoxys can re-start their blood meal on another host. When injecting saliva prior to blood-sucking, they can inoculate some infected blood remaining on their mouthparts. Beside this immediate transmission, it was observed that Stomoxys may keep some blood in their crop, which offers a friendly environment for pathogens that could be regurgitated during the next blood meal; thus a delayed transmission by Stomoxys seems possible. Such a mechanism has a considerable epidemiological impact since it allows inter-herd transmission of pathogens. Equine infectious anemia, African swine fever, West Nile, and Rift Valley viruses are known to be transmitted by Stomoxys, while others are suspected. Rickettsia (Anaplasma, Coxiella), other bacteria and parasites (Trypanosoma spp., Besnoitia spp.) are also transmitted by Stomoxys. Finally, Stomoxys was also found to act as an intermediate host of the helminth Habronema microstoma and may be involved in the transmission of some Onchocerca and Dirofilaria species. Being cosmopolite, Stomoxys calcitrans might have a worldwide and greater impact than previously thought on animal and human pathogen transmission. PMID:23985165

  15. Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies (Diptera, Muscidae): a review

    PubMed Central

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Muenworn, Vithee; Desquesnes, Marc; Desoli, Florian; Charoenviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Duvallet, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Stomoxys flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens present in the blood and skin of their animal hosts, especially livestock, but occasionally humans. In livestock, their direct effects are disturbance, skin lesions, reduction of food intake, stress, blood loss, and a global immunosuppressive effect. They also induce the gathering of animals for mutual protection; meanwhile they favor development of pathogens in the hosts and their transmission. Their indirect effect is the mechanical transmission of pathogens. In case of interrupted feeding, Stomoxys can re-start their blood meal on another host. When injecting saliva prior to blood-sucking, they can inoculate some infected blood remaining on their mouthparts. Beside this immediate transmission, it was observed that Stomoxys may keep some blood in their crop, which offers a friendly environment for pathogens that could be regurgitated during the next blood meal; thus a delayed transmission by Stomoxys seems possible. Such a mechanism has a considerable epidemiological impact since it allows inter-herd transmission of pathogens. Equine infectious anemia, African swine fever, West Nile, and Rift Valley viruses are known to be transmitted by Stomoxys, while others are suspected. Rickettsia (Anaplasma, Coxiella), other bacteria and parasites (Trypanosoma spp., Besnoitia spp.) are also transmitted by Stomoxys. Finally, Stomoxys was also found to act as an intermediate host of the helminth Habronema microstoma and may be involved in the transmission of some Onchocerca and Dirofilaria species. Being cosmopolite, Stomoxys calcitrans might have a worldwide and greater impact than previously thought on animal and human pathogen transmission. PMID:23985165

  16. "Name" that Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  17. Ethology and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, D R

    1981-12-01

    Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

  18. Animals in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  19. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  20. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.