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Sample records for animal transmissible spongiform

  1. Pathobiology and diagnosis of animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: current knowledge, research gaps, and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that can affect several animal species and human beings. There are four animal TSE agents found in the United States: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink ...

  2. Failure to demonstrate involvement of antibodies to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of animals.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K; Widdison, J; Balachandran, A; Stevenson, D; Algire, J

    2002-10-28

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, a soil microbe, contains molecular sequences which resemble those found in neurofilaments of the brain tissue. It was hypothesized that if cattle ingest large amounts of feedstuff containing A. calcoaceticus, they may develop an autoimmune reaction, with consequences of pathological changes associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The hypothesis was tested using a small number of serum samples collected from cattle and it was found that affected individuals had elevated serum antibody levels to this organism. If this finding was substantiated, it would provide a possible means of diagnosing TSEs in vivo. In the present communication, a larger number of cattle, elk and sheep with or without TSEs were tested using A. calcoaceticus whole cell and lipopolysaccharide antigens as well as myelin basic protein (MBP). It was found that antibody levels in normal and affected animals overlapped considerably, thus casting doubt on the usefulness of these antigens as diagnostic tools for TSEs and on the hypothesis of A. calcoaceticus being a cause of TSEs.

  3. Medicinal and other products and human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    The report in March 1996 of 10 human cases of a novel from of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United Kingdom, and its possible link to the agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), raises many questions about the safety of animal-derived products and by-products entering the food chain or being used in medicine. This Memorandum updates the preventive measures put forward in 1991 to minimize the risks associated with the use of bovine-derived materials in medicinal products and medical devices. PMID:9509622

  4. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy and Meat Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Hester J. T.; Knight, Richard S. G.

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) comprise a wide-ranging group of neurodegenerative diseases found in animals and humans. They have diverse causes and geographical distributions, but have similar pathological features, transmissibility and, are ultimately, fatal. Central to all TSEs is the presence of an abnormal form of a normal host protein, namely the prion protein. Because of their potential transmissibility, these diseases have wide public health ramifications.

  5. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. TSEs have been described in several species including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, tr...

  6. Experimental Interspecies Transmission Studies of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies to Cattle: Comparison to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. Since the emergence of BSE and its pr...

  7. Fundamental immunological problems associated with "transmissible spongiform encephalopathies".

    PubMed

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2015-02-01

    "Bovine spongiform encephalopathy", "scrapie", as well as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru belong to a group of related neurological conditions termed "transmissible spongiform encephalopathies". These diseases are based on the LD50 measurement whereby saline brain homogenates are injected into experimental animals and when 50% of them develop symptoms, this is considered as transmission of the disease, but the gold standard for diagnosis is autopsy examination. However, an untenable assumption is being made in that saline brain homogenates do not cause tissue damage but it is known since the time of Pasteur, that they give rise to "post-rabies vaccination allergic encephalomyelitis". This is the fundamental flaw in the diagnosis of these diseases. A way forward, however, is to examine infectious agents, such as Acinetobacter which show molecular mimicry with myelin and elevated levels of antibodies to this microbe are found in multiple sclerosis patients and animals affected by "bovine spongiform encephalopathy".

  8. Cell culture models of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Béranger, F; Mangé, A; Solassol, J; Lehmann, S

    2001-11-30

    In this review, we describe the generation and use of cell culture models of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, also known as prion diseases. These models include chronically prion-infected cell lines, as well as cultures expressing variable amounts of wild-type, mutated, or chimeric prion proteins. These cell lines have been widely used to investigate the biology of both the normal and the pathological isoform of the prion protein. They have also contributed to the comprehension of the pathogenic processes occurring in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and in the development of new therapeutic approaches of these diseases.

  9. Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Kehrli, Marcus E; Kunkle, Robert A; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Richt, Jürgen A; Miller, Janice M; Cutlip, Randall C

    2011-05-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. The emergence of BSE and its spread to human beings in the form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) resulted in interest in susceptibility of cattle to CWD, TME and scrapie. Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for potential host ranges of known TSEs. Some interspecies transmission studies have been conducted by inoculating disease-causing prions intracerebrally (IC) rather than orally; the latter is generally effective in intraspecies transmission studies and is considered a natural route by which animals acquire TSEs. The "species barrier" concept for TSEs resulted from unsuccessful interspecies oral transmission attempts. Oral inoculation of prions mimics the natural disease pathogenesis route whereas IC inoculation is rather artificial; however, it is very efficient since it requires smaller dosage of inoculum, and typically results in higher attack rates and reduces incubation time compared to oral transmission. A species resistant to a TSE by IC inoculation would have negligible potential for successful oral transmission. To date, results indicate that cattle are susceptible to IC inoculation of scrapie, TME, and CWD but it is only when inoculated with TME do they develop spongiform lesions or clinical disease similar to BSE. Importantly, cattle are resistant to oral transmission of scrapie or CWD; susceptibility of cattle to oral transmission of TME is not yet determined.

  10. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Prion Diseases)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in animals include scrapie, which affects sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease, which affects elk and deer; ... in animals include scrapie, which affects sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease, which affects elk and deer; ...

  11. Public health issues and clinical and neurological characteristics of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from two WHO meetings.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in cattle in the United Kingdom, but has occurred subsequently also in other countries, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, which is rare but with a worldwide distribution. Recently a new variant form of CJD, with a characteristic clinical and pathological phenotype, has been identified in the United Kingdom in a series of 11 young patients. This Memorandum reports the findings of two WHO Consultations. The first, held on 2-3 April 1996, issued conclusions and recommendations on certain animal products in order to protect the health of consumers. The second, held on 14-16 May 1996, examined, inter alia, the findings associated with the new variant of CJD, compared these findings with those for other TSEs, and proposed a protocol for the diagnosis and surveillance of CJD and related diseases. PMID:9002325

  12. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-07

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals.

  13. Oral Transmission of L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent among Cattle.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    To determine oral transmissibility of the L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion, we orally inoculated 16 calves with brain homogenates of the agent. Only 1 animal, given a high dose, showed signs and died at 88 months. These results suggest low risk for oral transmission of the L-BSE agent among cattle.

  14. Oral Transmission of L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent among Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    To determine oral transmissibility of the L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion, we orally inoculated 16 calves with brain homogenates of the agent. Only 1 animal, given a high dose, showed signs and died at 88 months. These results suggest low risk for oral transmission of the L-BSE agent among cattle. PMID:28098532

  15. Laboratory activities involving transmissible spongiform encephalopathy causing agents

    PubMed Central

    Leunda, Amaya; Van Vaerenbergh, Bernadette; Baldo, Aline; Roels, Stefan; Herman, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1986 of epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a new form of neurological disease in cattle which also affected human beings, many diagnostic and research activities have been performed to develop detection and therapeutic tools. A lot of progress was made in better identifying, understanding and controlling the spread of the disease by appropriate monitoring and control programs in European countries. This paper reviews the recent knowledge on pathogenesis, transmission and persistence outside the host of prion, the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in mammals with a particular focus on risk (re)assessment and management of biosafety measures to be implemented in diagnostic and research laboratories in Belgium. Also, in response to the need of an increasing number of European diagnostic laboratories stopping TSE diagnosis due to a decreasing number of TSE cases reported in the last years, decontamination procedures and a protocol for decommissioning TSE diagnostic laboratories is proposed. PMID:24055928

  16. High-Throughput Screening of Compounds for Anti-Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Activity Using Cell-Culture and Cell-Free Models and Infected Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie in sheep (and rodent models), and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Our goal in this...Task 1: To increase the throughput of a screen for anti-PrPSc activity in the scrapie -infected neuroblastoma cell model: We developed a high...through-put version of the scrapie -infected neuroblastoma cell culture model (ScN2a). See Kocisko et al., New inhibitors of scrapie associated prion

  17. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  18. Public risk perception of relaxation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) measures in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dressel, K; Perazzini, A; Ru, G; Van Wassenhove, W

    2011-01-01

    The so-called "TSE roadmap" was published by the European Commission on July 15, 2005. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) roadmap suggests relaxation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and other animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies measures in the short, medium, and long term. According to the TSE roadmap, "Any relaxation of BSE measures following the scientific assessment should be initiated by an open discussion with all stakeholders and supported by a strong communication strategy" ( European Commission 2005 , 5). Bearing this in mind, a social scientific project was designed to (1) involve different stakeholder groups, governmental risk managers, and their scientific advisors and (2) obtain their perception of the TSE roadmap and of its implications for precautionary consumer protection in five European Union (EU) Member States. This study describes the risk perception and risk management of TSE in Europe as exemplified by the TSE roadmap. The following query guided the international comparative study: How is TSE risk perceived by four interviewed stakeholder groups in five studied countries? The risk perceptions of TSE of risk managers from the ministries in charge in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom, as well as their scientific advisors and stakeholder groups, were determined. The stakeholder groups were from three different areas involved with TSE, including farmers, consumers, and the meat/food industry. The issue to be addressed is roadmapping an adequate instrument for stakeholder involvement and for risk decision making.

  19. Stability properties of PrPSc from cattle with experimental transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), including scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), are fatal diseases of the nervous system associated with accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). Different strains of BSE exist...

  20. High-Throughput Screening of Compounds for Anti-Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Activity Using Cell-Culture and Cell-Free Models and Infected Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    animals. Two different kinds of compounds that inhibit PrPPSc in infected cells were tested for anti- scrapie activity in infected mice. A 40-base...degenerate phosphorothioate oligonucleotide developed by REPLICor Inc., was found to have strong anti- scrapie prophylactic activity in mice. This...molecule also delayed the onset of scrapie in mice when mixed into infectious brain homogenate prior to inoculation into the brains of mice. A

  1. High-Throughput Screening of Compounds for Anti-Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Activity Using Cell-Culture and Cell-Free Models and Infected Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    this cell-free screen rivaled that of scrapie -infected cell-based assays. We have recently summarized the latter assays in detail in Kocisko and...in scrapie -infected animals. Some compounds have delayed scrapie onset in rodents when administered at or near the time of peripheral infection, but...few have helped after intracerebral (ic) inoculation. Two compounds effective after ic scrapie inoculation include pentosan polysulfate (PPS) (2

  2. A Heparin Purification Process Removes Spiked Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent.

    PubMed

    Bett, Cyrus; Grgac, Ksenija; Long, Dianna; Karfunkle, Michael; Keire, David A; Asher, David M; Gregori, Luisa

    2017-01-23

    In 2000, bovine heparin was withdrawn from the US market for fear of contamination with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Thus, US heparin is currently sourced only from pig intestines. Availability of alternative sources of crude heparin, a life-saving drug, would benefit public health. Bovine heparin is an obvious option, but BSE clearance by the bovine heparin manufacturing process should be evaluated. To this end, using hamster 263K scrapie as a surrogate for BSE agent, we applied a four-step bench-scale heparin purification protocol resembling a typical heparin manufacturing process to investigate removal of the spiked scrapie agent. We removed aliquots from each step and analyzed them for residual abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)) using a sensitive in vitro method, real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay, and for infectivity using animal bioassays. The purification process reduced infectivity by 3.6 log10 and removed PrP(TSE), measured as seeding activity, by 3.4 log10. NaOH treatment was the most effective removal step tested. We also investigated NaOH at different concentrations and pH: the results showed that as much as 5.2 log10 of PrP(TSE) seeding activity was removed at pH 12.5. Thus, changes to the concentration, treatment time, and temperature of alkaline extraction might further improve removal. Our results, using a basic heparin manufacturing process, inform efforts to reintroduce safe bovine heparin in the USA.

  3. Use of murine bioassay to resolve ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathy cases showing a bovine spongiform encephalopathy molecular profile.

    PubMed

    Beck, Katy E; Sallis, Rosemary E; Lockey, Richard; Vickery, Christopher M; Béringue, Vincent; Laude, Hubert; Holder, Thomas M; Thorne, Leigh; Terry, Linda A; Tout, Anna C; Jayasena, Dhanushka; Griffiths, Peter C; Cawthraw, Saira; Ellis, Richard; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Groschup, Martin H; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

    2012-05-01

    Two cases of unusual transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) were diagnosed on the same farm in ARQ/ARQ PrP sheep showing attributes of both bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie. These cases, UK-1 and UK-2, were investigated further by transmissions to wild-type and ovine transgenic mice. Lesion profiles (LP) on primary isolation and subpassage, incubation period (IP) of disease, PrP(Sc) immunohistochemical (IHC) deposition pattern and Western blot profiles were used to characterize the prions causing disease in these sheep. Results showed that both cases were compatible with scrapie. The presence of BSE was contraindicated by the following: LP on primary isolation in RIII and/or MR (modified RIII) mice; IP and LP after serial passage in wild-type mice; PrP(Sc) deposition pattern in wild-type mice; and IP and Western blot data in transgenic mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that each case generated two distinct PrP(Sc) deposition patterns in both wild-type and transgenic mice, suggesting that two scrapie strains coexisted in the ovine hosts. Critically, these data confirmed the original differential IHC categorization that these UK-1 and UK-2 cases were not compatible with BSE.

  4. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  5. Assessing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy species barriers with an in vitro prion protein conversion assay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Carlson, Christina M.; Morawski, Aaron R.; Manthei, Alyson; Cashman, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies to understanding interspecies transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are challenging in that they typically rely upon lengthy and costly in vivo animal challenge studies. A number of in vitro assays have been developed to aid in measuring prion species barriers, thereby reducing animal use and providing quicker results than animal bioassays. Here, we present the protocol for a rapid in vitroprion conversion assay called the conversion efficiency ratio (CER) assay. In this assay cellular prion protein (PrPC) from an uninfected host brain is denatured at both pH 7.4 and 3.5 to produce two substrates. When the pH 7.4 substrate is incubated with TSE agent, the amount of PrPC that converts to a proteinase K (PK)-resistant state is modulated by the original host’s species barrier to the TSE agent. In contrast, PrPC in the pH 3.5 substrate is misfolded by any TSE agent. By comparing the amount of PK-resistant prion protein in the two substrates, an assessment of the host’s species barrier can be made. We show that the CER assay correctly predicts known prion species barriers of laboratory mice and, as an example, show some preliminary results suggesting that bobcats (Lynx rufus) may be susceptible to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) chronic wasting disease agent.

  6. Assessing Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Species Barriers with an In Vitro Prion Protein Conversion Assay

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Carlson, Christina M.; Morawski, Aaron R.; Manthei, Alyson; Cashman, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies to understanding interspecies transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are challenging in that they typically rely upon lengthy and costly in vivo animal challenge studies. A number of in vitro assays have been developed to aid in measuring prion species barriers, thereby reducing animal use and providing quicker results than animal bioassays. Here, we present the protocol for a rapid in vitro prion conversion assay called the conversion efficiency ratio (CER) assay. In this assay cellular prion protein (PrPC) from an uninfected host brain is denatured at both pH 7.4 and 3.5 to produce two substrates. When the pH 7.4 substrate is incubated with TSE agent, the amount of PrPC that converts to a proteinase K (PK)-resistant state is modulated by the original host’s species barrier to the TSE agent. In contrast, PrPC in the pH 3.5 substrate is misfolded by any TSE agent. By comparing the amount of PK-resistant prion protein in the two substrates, an assessment of the host’s species barrier can be made. We show that the CER assay correctly predicts known prion species barriers of laboratory mice and, as an example, show some preliminary results suggesting that bobcats (Lynx rufus) may be susceptible to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) chronic wasting disease agent. PMID:25867521

  7. Identification of a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion gene associated with genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy: evidence of heritable BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cattle. Classical BSE is associated with ingestion of BSE-contaminated feedstuffs. H- and L-type BSE, collectively known as atypical BSE, differ from classical BSE by displaying a different di...

  8. Identification of a heritable polymorphism in bovine PRNP associated with genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy: evidence of heritable BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cattle. Classical BSE is associated with ingestion of BSE-contaminated feedstuffs. H- and L-type BSE, collectively known as atypical BSE, differ from classical BSE by displaying a different disease phenoty...

  9. Nonenzymatic glycation at the N terminus of pathogenic prion protein in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeong-Gon; Kim, Jae-Il; Jeon, Yong-Chul; Park, Seok-Joo; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Rubenstein, Richard; Kascsak, Richard J; Carp, Richard I; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2004-07-16

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the accumulation of an abnormally folded prion protein, termed PrPSc, and the development of pathological features of astrogliosis, vacuolation, neuronal cell loss, and in some cases amyloid plaques. Although considerable structural characterization of prion protein has been reported, neither the method of conversion of cellular prion protein, PrPC, into the pathogenic isoform nor the post-translational modification processes involved is known. We report that in animal and human TSEs, one or more lysines at residues 23, 24, and 27 of PrPSc are covalently modified with advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs), which may be carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), one of the structural varieties of AGEs. The arginine residue at position 37 may also be modified with AGE, but not the arginine residue at position 25. This result suggests that nonenzymatic glycation is one of the post-translational modifications of PrP(Sc). Furthermore, immunostaining studies indicate that, at least in clinically affected hamsters, astrocytes are the first site of this glycation process.

  10. Foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Holznagel, Edgar; Yutzy, Barbara; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Kruip, Carina; Hahmann, Uwe; Bierke, Pär; Torres, Juan-Maria; Kim, Yong-Sun; Thomzig, Achim; Beekes, Michael; Hunsmann, Gerhard; Loewer, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Risk for human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-inducing agent was estimated in a nonhuman primate model. To determine attack rates, incubation times, and molecular signatures, we orally exposed 18 macaques to 1 high dose of brain material from cattle with BSE. Several macaques were euthanized at regular intervals starting at 1 year postinoculation, and others were observed until clinical signs developed. Among those who received ≥5 g BSE-inducing agent, attack rates were 100% and prions could be detected in peripheral tissues from 1 year postinoculation onward. The overall median incubation time was 4.6 years (3.7-5.3). However, for 3 macaques orally exposed on multiple occasions, incubation periods were at least 7-10 years. Before clinical signs were noted, we detected a non-type 2B signature, indicating the existence of atypical prion protein during the incubation period. This finding could affect diagnosis of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and might be relevant for retrospective studies of positive tonsillectomy or appendectomy specimens because time of infection is unknown.

  11. Laboratory activities involving transmissible spongiform encephalopathy causing agents: risk assessment and biosafety recommendations in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Leunda, Amaya; Van Vaerenbergh, Bernadette; Baldo, Aline; Roels, Stefan; Herman, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1986 of epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a new form of neurological disease in cattle which also affected human beings, many diagnostic and research activities have been performed to develop detection and therapeutic tools. A lot of progress was made in better identifying, understanding and controlling the spread of the disease by appropriate monitoring and control programs in European countries. This paper reviews the recent knowledge on pathogenesis, transmission and persistence outside the host of prion, the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in mammals with a particular focus on risk (re)assessment and management of biosafety measures to be implemented in diagnostic and research laboratories in Belgium. Also, in response to the need of an increasing number of European diagnostic laboratories stopping TSE diagnosis due to a decreasing number of TSE cases reported in the last years, decontamination procedures and a protocol for decommissioning TSE diagnostic laboratories is proposed.

  12. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  13. The prion diseases of animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect several species of animals and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, and transmissible mink encephalopat...

  14. Possible Case of Maternal Transmission of Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Captive Cheetah

    PubMed Central

    Bencsik, Anna; Debeer, Sabine; Petit, Thierry; Baron, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is considered to be related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and has been reported in domestic cats as well as in captive wild cats including cheetahs, first in the United Kingdom (UK) and then in other European countries. In France, several cases were described in cheetahs either imported from UK or born in France. Here we report details of two other FSE cases in captive cheetah including a 2nd case of FSE in a cheetah born in France, most likely due to maternal transmission. Complete prion protein immunohistochemical study on both brains and peripheral organs showed the close likeness between the two cases. In addition, transmission studies to the TgOvPrP4 mouse line were also performed, for comparison with the transmission of cattle BSE. The TgOvPrP4 mouse brains infected with cattle BSE and cheetah FSE revealed similar vacuolar lesion profiles, PrPd brain mapping with occurrence of typical florid plaques. Collectively, these data indicate that they harbor the same strain of agent as the cattle BSE agent. This new observation may have some impact on our knowledge of vertical transmission of BSE agent-linked TSEs such as in housecat FSE, or vCJD. PMID:19738899

  15. Monitoring of clinical signs in goats with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats intracerebrally infected with the BSE agent as well as five reported scrapie suspects and 346 goats subject to cull from the two herds, 24 of which were retained for further monitoring. The brain and selected lymphoid tissue were examined by postmortem tests for disease confirmation. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the short clinical protocol in detecting a scrapie case in the scrapie-affected herds was 3.9% and 99.6%, respectively, based on the presence of tremor, positive scratch test, extensive hair loss, ataxia and absent menace response. All BSE- and scrapie-affected goats displayed abnormalities in sensation (over-reactivity to external stimuli, startle responses, pruritus, absent menace response) and movement (ataxia, tremor, postural deficits) at an advanced clinical stage but the first detectable sign associated with scrapie or BSE could vary between animals. Signs of pruritus were not always present despite similar prion protein genotypes. Clinical signs of scrapie were also displayed by two scrapie cases that presented with detectable disease-associated prion protein only in lymphoid tissues. Conclusions BSE and scrapie may present as pruritic and non-pruritic forms in goats. Signs assessed for the clinical diagnosis of scrapie or BSE in goats should include postural and gait abnormalities, pruritus and visual impairment. However, many scrapie cases will be missed if detection is solely based on the display of clinical signs. PrPd accumulation in the brain appeared to be related to the severity of clinical disease but not to the display of individual neurological signs

  16. Foodborne Transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Non-Human Primates Results in Preclinical Rapid-Onset Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Alexander; Yutzy, Barbara; Kruip, Carina; Ooms, Mark; Schloot, Nanette C.; Roden, Michael; Scott, Fraser W.; Loewer, Johannes; Holznagel, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c.) infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001) which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity. PMID:25090610

  17. Foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to non-human primates results in preclinical rapid-onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Strom, Alexander; Yutzy, Barbara; Kruip, Carina; Ooms, Mark; Schloot, Nanette C; Roden, Michael; Scott, Fraser W; Loewer, Johannes; Holznagel, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c.) infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001) which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity.

  18. Inactivation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents during the manufacture of dicalcium phosphate from bone.

    PubMed

    Grobben, A H; Steele, P J; Somerville, R A; Taylor, D M

    2006-03-18

    Dicalcium phosphate was prepared from industrial crushed bone artificially contaminated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents in two experiments carried out in an accurately scaled-down laboratory model of the industrial manufacturing process. In one experiment, 10 g of mouse brain infected with the 301V strain of mouse-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent was added to the crushed bone; in the other experiment, 10 g of hamster brain infected with the 263K strain of hamster-passaged scrapie agent was added. Samples of the infectious brain and dried dicalcium phosphate were assayed for the amount of 301V or 263K infectivity present. The titre of infectivity of the 301V-infected brain was 10(7.7) intracerebral ID50/g; that of the 263K-infected brain was 10(8.0) intracerebral ID50/g. The titres of the dried samples of dicalcium phosphate were 10(2.5) ID50/g in the experiment spiked with 301V and 10(2.7) ID50/g in the experiment spiked with 263K. The calculated clearance factors were 10(3.9) for the experiment with 301V and 10(3.8) for the experiment with 263K.

  19. Dissociation of Prion Protein Amyloid Seeding from Transmission of a Spongiform Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Piccardo, Pedro; King, Declan; Telling, Glenn; Manson, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of proteins are common pathogenic mechanisms of a group of diseases called proteinopathies. The formation and spread of proteinaceous lesions within and between individuals were first described in prion diseases and proposed as the basis of their infectious nature. Recently, a similar “prion-like” mechanism of transmission has been proposed in other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. We investigated if misfolding and aggregation of corrupted prion protein (PrPTSE) are always associated with horizontal transmission of disease. Knock-in transgenic mice (101LL) expressing mutant PrP (PrP-101L) that are susceptible to disease but do not develop any spontaneous neurological phenotype were inoculated with (i) brain extracts containing PrPTSE from healthy 101LL mice with PrP plaques in the corpus callosum or (ii) brain extracts from mice overexpressing PrP-101L with neurological disease, severe spongiform encephalopathy, and formation of proteinase K-resistant PrPTSE. In all instances, 101LL mice developed PrP plaques in the area of inoculation and vicinity in the absence of clinical disease or spongiform degeneration of the brain. Importantly, 101LL mice did not transmit disease on serial passage, ruling out the presence of subclinical infection. Thus, in both experimental models the formation of PrPTSE is not infectious. These results have implications for the interpretation of tests based on the detection of protein aggregates and suggest that de novo formation of PrPTSE in the host does not always result in a transmissible prion disease. In addition, these results question the validity of assuming that all diseases due to protein misfolding can be transmitted between individuals. PMID:24027305

  20. The clearance of viruses and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents from biologicals.

    PubMed

    Farshid, Mahmood; Taffs, Rolf E; Scott, Dorothy; Asher, David M; Brorson, Kurt

    2005-10-01

    The viral and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) safety of therapeutics of biological origin (biologicals) is greatly influenced by the nature and degree of variability of the source material and by the mode of purification. Plasma-derived and recombinant DNA products currently have good viral safety records, but challenges remain. In general, large enveloped viruses are easier to remove from biologicals than small 'naked' viruses. Monoclonal antibodies and recombinant DNA biopharmaceuticals are derived from relatively homogeneous source materials and purified by multistep schemes that are robust and amenable to scientific analysis and engineering improvement. Viral clearance is more challenging for blood and cell products, as they are complex and labile. Source selection (e.g. country of origin, deferral for CJD risk factors) currently occupies the front line for ensuring that biologicals are free of TSE agents, but robust methods for their clearance from products are under development.

  1. Highly sensitive detection of small ruminant bovine spongiform encephalopathy within transmissible spongiform encephalopathy mixes by serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification.

    PubMed

    Gough, Kevin C; Bishop, Keith; Maddison, Ben C

    2014-11-01

    It is assumed that sheep and goats consumed the same bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat and bone meal that was fed to cattle and precipitated the BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom that peaked more than 20 years ago. Despite intensive surveillance for cases of BSE within the small ruminant populations of the United Kingdom and European Union, no instances of BSE have been detected in sheep, and in only two instances has BSE been discovered in goats. If BSE is present within the small ruminant populations, it may be at subclinical levels, may manifest as scrapie, or may be masked by coinfection with scrapie. To determine whether BSE is potentially circulating at low levels within the European small ruminant populations, highly sensitive assays that can specifically detect BSE, even within the presence of scrapie prion protein, are required. Here, we present a novel assay based on the specific amplification of BSE PrP(Sc) using the serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification assay (sPMCA), which specifically amplified small amounts of ovine and caprine BSE agent which had been mixed into a range of scrapie-positive brain homogenates. We detected the BSE prion protein within a large excess of classical, atypical, and CH1641 scrapie isolates. In a blind trial, this sPMCA-based assay specifically amplified BSE PrP(Sc) within brain mixes with 100% specificity and 97% sensitivity when BSE agent was diluted into scrapie-infected brain homogenates at 1% (vol/vol).

  2. Experimental transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (scrapie, chronic wasting disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy) to cattle and their differentiation from bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for identification of potential host ranges of known TSEs. This report provides a synopsis of TSE (scrapie, CWD, TME) transmission studies that have been conducted in cattle and compares these findings to those seen ...

  3. Experimental transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (scrapie, chronic wasting disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy) to cattle and their differentiation from bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for identification of potential host ranges of known TSEs. This report provides a synopsis of TSE (scrapie, CWD, TME) transmission studies that have been conducted in cattle and compares these findings to...

  4. [Prion diseases. Subacute spongiform encephalopathies in humans and animals (neural "anthropo- and zooprionoses")].

    PubMed

    Kod'ousek, R

    1999-01-01

    General review concerning current problems of subacute spongiform encephalopathies (Prion-diseases) in humans and in animals. The work is based on the aetiological conception of "Prion" as an allosteric conformational variant of the Prion-protein with autocatalytic "infectious" properties. The therm "Anthropoprionosis" and "Zooprionosis" are recommended by the author for human and animal Prion-diseases. Actual medical problems of various Prion-diseases are discussed in more detail, particularly those of aetiopathogenesis, genetics and molecular-biological principles in Prion-replication as well as the consensual neuropathological and clinical diagnostical criteria. Neuropathological findings are evaluated based on personal experience of diagnosed and/or consulted CJD-cases. On the ultrastructural level the morphological proof of abnormal secondary phagosomes in neurons of the CNS with accumulation of protein material ("prionosomes") is documented. Finally, the risks of CJD and the infectious potential of various organs and contaminated materials are also mentioned. In the methodical part, safety precautions in handling histological material from stereotactic biopsies and necropsies of brain are described, including safety techniques of autopsy in cases of CJD.

  5. SCRG1, a potential marker of autophagy in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Dron, Michel; Bailly, Yannick; Beringue, Vincent; Haeberlé, Anne-Marie; Griffond, Bernadette; Risold, Pierre-Yves; Tovey, Michael G; Laude, Hubert; Dandoy-Dron, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    The Scrg1 gene was initially discovered as one of the genes upregulated in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). Scrg1 encodes a highly conserved, cysteine-rich protein expressed principally in the central nervous system. The protein is targeted to the Golgi apparatus and large dense-core vesicles/secretory granules in neurons. We have recently shown that the Scrg1 protein is widely induced in neurons of scrapie-infected mice, suggesting that Scrg1 is involved in the host response to stress and/or the death of neurons. At the ultrastructural level, Scrg1 is associated with dictyosomes of the Golgi apparatus and autophagic vacuoles of degenerative neurons. It is well known that apoptosis plays a major role in the events leading to neuronal cell death in TSE. However, autophagy was identified in experimentally induced scrapie a long time ago and was recently reevaluated as a possible cell death program in prion diseases. The consistent association of Scrg1 with autophagic structures typical of scrapie is in agreement with the recruitment of Golgi-specific proteins in this degradation process and we suggest that Scrg1 might be used as a specific probe to identify neuronal autophagy in TSE.

  6. Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Hart, Patricia; Piccardo, Pedro; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M

    2012-05-01

    Until recently, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (classical BSE or BSE-C). However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. These atypical BSE isolates have been previously transmitted to a range of transgenic mouse models overexpressing PrP from different species at different levels, on a variety of genetic backgrounds. To control for genetic background and expression level in the analysis of these isolates, we performed here a comprehensive comparison of the neuropathological and molecular properties of all three BSE agents (BASE, BSE-C and BSE-H) upon transmission into the same gene-targeted transgenic mouse line expressing the bovine prion protein (Bov6) and a wild-type control of the same genetic background. Significantly, upon challenge with these BSE agents, we found that BASE did not produce shorter survival times in these mice compared with BSE-C, contrary to previous studies using overexpressing bovine transgenic mice. Amyloid plaques were only present in mice challenged with atypical BSE and neuropathological features, including intensity of PrP deposition in the brain and severity of vacuolar degeneration were less pronounced in BASE compared with BSE-C-challenged mice.

  7. Transmissibility of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Hamster PrP Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct forms of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE) can be distinguished from classical (C-) BSE found in cattle based on biochemical signatures of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). H-BSE is transmissible to wild-type mice-with infected mice showing a long survival period that is close to their normal lifespan-but not to hamsters. Therefore, rodent-adapted H-BSE with a short survival period would be useful for analyzing H-BSE characteristics. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility of H-BSE to hamster prion protein transgenic (TgHaNSE) mice with long survival periods. Although none of the TgHaNSE mice manifested the disease during their lifespan, PrPSc accumulation was observed in some areas of the brain after the first passage. With subsequent passages, TgHaNSE mice developed the disease with a mean survival period of 220 days. The molecular characteristics of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) in the brain were identical to those observed in first-passage mice. The distribution of immunolabeled PrPSc in the brains of TgHaNSE mice differed between those infected with H-BSE as compared to C-BSE or L-BSE, and the molecular properties of PrPres in TgHaNSE mice infected with H-BSE differed from those of the original isolate. The strain-specific electromobility, glycoform profiles, and proteolytic cleavage sites of H-BSE in TgHaNSE mice were indistinguishable from those of C-BSE, in which the diglycosylated form was predominant. These findings indicate that strain-specific pathogenic characteristics and molecular features of PrPres in the brain are altered during cross-species transmission. Typical H-BSE features were restored after back passage from TgHaNSE to bovinized transgenic mice, indicating that the H-BSE strain was propagated in TgHaNSE mice. This could result from the overexpression of the hamster prion protein.

  8. Unique properties of the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy strain and its emergence from H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy substantiated by VM transmission studies.

    PubMed

    Bencsik, Anna; Leboidre, Mikael; Debeer, Sabine; Aufauvre, Claire; Baron, Thierry

    2013-03-01

    In addition to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), which is recognized as being at the origin of the human variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 2 rare phenotypes of BSE (H-type BSE [H-BSE] and L-type BSE [L-BSE]) were identified in 2004. H-type BSE and L-BSE are considered to be sporadic forms of prion disease in cattle because they differ from C-BSE with respect to incubation period, vacuolar pathology in the brain, and biochemical properties of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP) in natural hosts and in some mouse models that have been tested. Recently, we showed that H-BSE transmitted to C57Bl/6 mice resulted in a dissociation of the phenotypic features, that is, some mice showed an H-BSE phenotype, whereas others had a C-BSE phenotype. Here, these 2 phenotypes were further studied in VM mice and compared with cattle C-BSE, H-BSE, and L-BSE. Serial passages from the C-BSE-like phenotype on VM mice retained similarities with C-BSE. Moreover, our results indicate that strains 301V and 301C derived from C-BSE transmitted to VM and C57Bl/6 mice, respectively, are fundamentally the same strain. These VM transmission studies confirm the unique properties of the C-BSE strain and support the emergence of a strain that resembles C-BSE from H-BSE.

  9. Pyroglutamyl-N-terminal prion protein fragments in sheep brain following the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Gielbert, Adriana; Thorne, Jemma K.; Hope, James

    2015-01-01

    Protein misfolding, protein aggregation and disruption to cellular proteostasis are key processes in the propagation of disease and, in some progressive neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system, the misfolded protein can act as a self-replicating template or prion converting its normal isoform into a misfolded copy of itself. We have investigated the sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, scrapie, and developed a multiple selected reaction monitoring (mSRM) mass spectrometry assay to quantify brain peptides representing the “ragged” N-terminus and the core of ovine prion protein (PrPSc) by using Q-Tof mass spectrometry. This allowed us to identify pyroglutamylated N-terminal fragments of PrPSc at residues 86, 95 and 101, and establish that these fragments were likely to be the result of in vivo processes. We found that the ratios of pyroglutamylated PrPSc fragments were different in sheep of different breeds and geographical origin, and our expanded ovine PrPSc assay was able to determine the ratio and allotypes of PrP accumulating in diseased brain of PrP heterozygous sheep; it also revealed significant differences between N-terminal amino acid profiles (N-TAAPs) in other types of ovine prion disease, CH1641 scrapie and ovine BSE. Variable rates of PrP misfolding, aggregation and degradation are the likely basis for phenotypic (or strain) differences in prion-affected animals and our mass spectrometry-based approach allows the simultaneous investigation of factors such as post-translational modification (pyroglutamyl formation), conformation (by N-TAAP analysis) and amino-acid polymorphisms (allotype ratio) which affect the kinetics of these proteostatic processes. PMID:25988175

  10. Characterization of an unusual transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in goat by transmission in knock-in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; King, Declan; Hunter, Nora; Goldmann, Wilfred; Barron, Rona M

    2013-08-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of cattle, and its transmission to humans through contaminated food is thought to be the cause of the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. BSE is believed to have spread from the recycling in cattle of ruminant tissue in meat and bone meal (MBM). However, during this time, sheep and goats were also exposed to BSE-contaminated MBM. Both sheep and goats are experimentally susceptible to BSE, and while there have been no reported natural BSE cases in sheep, two goat BSE field cases have been documented. While cases of BSE are rare in small ruminants, the existence of scrapie in both sheep and goats is well established. In the UK, during 2006-2007, a serious outbreak of clinical scrapie was detected in a large dairy goat herd. Subsequently, 200 goats were selected for post-mortem examination, one of which showed biochemical and immunohistochemical features of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)) which differed from all other infected goats. In the present study, we investigated this unusual case by performing transmission bioassays into a panel of mouse lines. Following characterization, we found that strain properties such as the ability to transmit to different mouse lines, lesion profile pattern, degree of PrP deposition in the brain and biochemical features of this unusual goat case were neither consistent with goat BSE nor with a goat scrapie herdmate control. However, our results suggest that this unusual case has BSE-like properties and highlights the need for continued surveillance.

  11. Phenotypic similarity of transmissible mink encephalopathy in cattle and L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Bessen, Richard A

    2007-12-01

    Transmissible mink encepholapathy (TME) is a foodborne transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of ranch-raised mink; infection with a ruminant TSE has been proposed as the cause, but the precise origin of TME is unknown. To compare the phenotypes of each TSE, bovine-passaged TME isolate and 3 distinct natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents (typical BSE, H-type BSE, and L-type BSE) were inoculated into an ovine transgenic mouse line (TgOvPrP4). Transgenic mice were susceptible to infection with bovine-passaged TME, typical BSE, and L-type BSE but not to H-type BSE. Based on survival periods, brain lesions profiles, disease-associated prion protein brain distribution, and biochemical properties of protease-resistant prion protein, typical BSE had a distint phenotype in ovine transgenic mice compared to L-type BSE and bovine TME. The similar phenotypic properties of L-type BSE and bovine TME in TgOvPrP4 mice suggest that L-type BSE is a much more likely candidate for the origin of TME than is typical BSE.

  12. [Maternal transmission or bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the case of "Cindy" disproved].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, B G; Margan, U; Olek, K; Wagner, V; Brenig, B

    1997-09-01

    On December 27th, 1996 a Galloway cattle named "Cindy" died of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Höxter. So far all cases of BSE reported in Germany have been imported from the UK. However, the identity and origin of "Cindy" was not clear. DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial D-loop region and DNA typing of micro-satellite sites finally revealed that "Cindy" was imported from the UK as well.

  13. Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains an...

  14. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  15. Acquired transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion to wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-07-13

    L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE that is transmissible to cattle and several lines of prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, but not to wild-type mice. In this study, we examined the transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-BSE prions to wild-type mice. Disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was detected in the brain and/or lymphoid tissues during the lifespan of mice that were asymptomatic subclinical carriers, indicating that wild-type mice were susceptible to sheep-passaged L-BSE. The morphological characteristics of the PrP(Sc) of sheep-passaged L-BSE included florid plaques that were distributed mainly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of subsequent passaged mice. The PrP(Sc) glycoform profiles of wild-type mice infected with sheep-passaged L-BSE were similar to those of the original isolate. The data indicate that sheep-passaged L-BSE has an altered host range and acquired transmissibility to wild-type mice.

  16. Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Plinston, Chris; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Suardi, Silvia; Ruggerone, Margherita; Moda, Fabio; Graziano, Silvia; Sbriccoli, Marco; Cardone, Franco; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Ingrosso, Loredana; Baron, Thierry; Richt, Juergen; Andreoletti, Olivier; Simmons, Marion; Lockey, Richard; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2012-07-01

    The association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health and raises the possibility that other ruminant TSEs may be transmissible to humans. In recent years, several novel TSEs in sheep, cattle and deer have been described and the risk posed to humans by these agents is currently unknown. In this study, we inoculated two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and H-type BSE), a chronic wasting disease (CWD) isolate and seven isolates of atypical scrapie into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP). Upon challenge with these ruminant TSEs, gene-targeted Tg mice expressing human PrP did not show any signs of disease pathology. These data strongly suggest the presence of a substantial transmission barrier between these recently identified ruminant TSEs and humans.

  17. Use of bovine recombinant prion protein and real-time quaking-induced conversion to detect transmissible mink encephalopathy prions and discriminate classical and atypical L- and H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prions are amyloid-forming proteins that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies through a process involving conversion from normal cellular prion protein to pathogenic misfolded conformation. This conversion has been used for in vitro assays including serial protein misfolding amplification...

  18. Abnormalities in Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in Sheep with Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies and Lack of a Clear Pathological Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Konold, Timm; Phelan, Laura J.; Cawthraw, Saira; Simmons, Marion M.; Chaplin, Melanie J.; González, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie is transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), which causes neurological signs in sheep, but confirmatory diagnosis is usually made postmortem on examination of the brain for TSE-associated markers like vacuolar changes and disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether testing of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) at two different sound levels could aid in the clinical diagnosis of TSEs in sheep naturally or experimentally infected with different TSE strains [classical and atypical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)] and whether any BAEP abnormalities were associated with TSE-associated markers in the auditory pathways. BAEPs were recorded from 141 clinically healthy sheep of different breeds and ages that tested negative for TSEs on postmortem tests to establish a reference range and to allow comparison with 30 sheep clinically affected or exposed to classical scrapie (CS) without disease confirmation (test group 1) and 182 clinically affected sheep with disease confirmation (test group 2). Abnormal BAEPs were found in 7 sheep (23%) of group 1 and 42 sheep (23%) of group 2. The proportion of sheep with abnormalities did not appear to be influenced by TSE strain or PrPSc gene polymorphisms. When the magnitude of TSE-associated markers in the auditory pathways was compared between a subset of 12 sheep with and 12 sheep without BAEP abnormalities in group 2, no significant differences in the total PrPSc or vacuolation scores in the auditory pathways could be found. However, the data suggested that there was a difference in the PrPSc scores depending on the TSE strain because PrPSc scores were significantly higher in sheep with BAEP abnormalities infected with classical and L-type BSE, but not with CS. The results indicated that BAEPs may be abnormal in sheep infected with TSEs but the test is not specific for TSEs and that neither vacuolation nor PrPSc accumulation appears to be

  19. Animal Meal: Production and Determination in Feedstuffs and the Origin of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Heinz

    This contribution examines what animal meal is, how it is produced in rendering plants, and means of investigating feedstuff constituents. In addition to animal meal, numerous other products of animal origin are also on the market (e.g., blood meal, bone meal, feather meal, gelatin). Constituents of animal origin can be detected in feedstuffs by microscopy, but determining the animal species from which the constituents are derived, as required by law in Germany, requires methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction. We consider the problem of trace contamination being introduced accidentally during the production of ruminants' feedstuffs containing constituents of animal origin. The future of animal meal is discussed together with alternatives for disposing of animal carcasses and slaughtery offal, i.e., composting and incineration.

  20. 75 FR 55803 - Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) agent in U.S.-licensed plasma-derived Factor VIII and (2) labeling of blood and blood components and plasma-derived products, including plasma-derived albumin and products containing plasma-derived albumin, to address the possible risk of transmission of vCJD....

  1. PrP-C1 fragment in cattle brains reveals features of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy associated PrP(sc).

    PubMed

    Serra, Fabienne; Müller, Joachim; Gray, John; Lüthi, Ramona; Dudas, Sandor; Czub, Stefanie; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2017-03-15

    Three different types of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are known and supposedly caused by distinct prion strains: the classical (C-) BSE type that was typically found during the BSE epidemic, and two relatively rare atypical BSE types, termed H-BSE and L-BSE. The three BSE types differ in the molecular phenotype of the disease associated prion protein, namely the N-terminally truncated proteinase K (PK) resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(res)). In this study, we report and analyze yet another PrP(res) type (PrP(res-2011)), which was found in severely autolytic brain samples of two cows in the framework of disease surveillance in Switzerland in 2011. Analysis of brain tissues from these animals by PK titration and PK inhibitor assays ruled out the process of autolysis as the cause for the aberrant PrP(res) profile. Immunochemical characterization of the PrP fragments present in the 2011 cases by epitope mapping indicated that PrP(res-2011) corresponds in its primary sequence to the physiologically occurring PrP-C1 fragment. However, high speed centrifugation, sucrose gradient assay and NaPTA precipitation revealed biochemical similarities between PrP(res-2011) and the disease-associated prion protein found in BSE affected cattle in terms of detergent insolubility, PK resistance and PrP aggregation. Although it remains to be established whether PrP(res-2011) is associated with a transmissible disease, our results point out the need of further research on the role the PrP-C1 aggregation and misfolding in health and disease.

  2. Use of bovine recombinant prion protein and real-time quaking-induced conversion to detect cattle transmissible mink encephalopathy prions and discriminate classical and atypical L- and H-Type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soyoun; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    Prions are amyloid-forming proteins that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies through a process involving conversion from the normal cellular prion protein to the pathogenic misfolded conformation (PrPSc). This conversion has been used for in vitro assays including serial protein misfolding amplification and real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC). RT-QuIC can be used for the detection of prions in a variety of biological tissues from humans and animals. Extensive work has been done to demonstrate that RT-QuIC is a rapid, specific, and highly sensitive prion detection assay. RT-QuIC uses recombinant prion protein to detect minute amounts of PrPSc. RT-QuIC has been successfully used to detect PrPSc from different prion diseases with a variety of substrates including hamster, human, sheep, bank vole, bovine and chimeric forms of prion protein. However, recombinant bovine prion protein has not been used to detect transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) or to differentiate types of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in samples from cattle. We evaluated whether PrPSc from TME and BSE infected cattle can be detected with RT-QuIC using recombinant bovine prion proteins, and optimized the reaction conditions to specifically detect cattle TME and to discriminate between classical and atypical BSE by conversion efficiency. We also found that substrate composed of the disease associated E211K mutant protein can be effective for the detection of TME in cattle and that wild type prion protein appears to be a practical substrate to discriminate between the different types of BSEs.

  3. Use of bovine recombinant prion protein and real-time quaking-induced conversion to detect cattle transmissible mink encephalopathy prions and discriminate classical and atypical L- and H-Type bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Soyoun; Greenlee, Justin J.

    2017-01-01

    Prions are amyloid-forming proteins that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies through a process involving conversion from the normal cellular prion protein to the pathogenic misfolded conformation (PrPSc). This conversion has been used for in vitro assays including serial protein misfolding amplification and real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC). RT-QuIC can be used for the detection of prions in a variety of biological tissues from humans and animals. Extensive work has been done to demonstrate that RT-QuIC is a rapid, specific, and highly sensitive prion detection assay. RT-QuIC uses recombinant prion protein to detect minute amounts of PrPSc. RT-QuIC has been successfully used to detect PrPSc from different prion diseases with a variety of substrates including hamster, human, sheep, bank vole, bovine and chimeric forms of prion protein. However, recombinant bovine prion protein has not been used to detect transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) or to differentiate types of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in samples from cattle. We evaluated whether PrPSc from TME and BSE infected cattle can be detected with RT-QuIC using recombinant bovine prion proteins, and optimized the reaction conditions to specifically detect cattle TME and to discriminate between classical and atypical BSE by conversion efficiency. We also found that substrate composed of the disease associated E211K mutant protein can be effective for the detection of TME in cattle and that wild type prion protein appears to be a practical substrate to discriminate between the different types of BSEs. PMID:28225797

  4. Kangaroo rats exhibit spongiform degeneration of the central auditory system similar to that found in gerbils.

    PubMed

    McGinn, M D; Faddis, B T

    1997-02-01

    Kangaroo rats develop spongiform degeneration of the central auditory system similar to that seen in the gerbil. Light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic study of the cochlear nucleus and auditory nerve root (ANR) of Dipodomys deserti and D. merriami show that spongiform lesions develop in dendrites and oligodendrocytes of the cochlear nucleus and in oligodendrocytes of the ANR that are morphologically indistinguishable from those extensively described in the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus. As in Mongolian gerbils, the spongiform degeneration in Dipodomys were much more numerous in animals continually exposed to modest levels of low-frequency noise (< 75 dB SPL). The kangaroo rats with extensive spongiform degeneration also show slightly, but significantly, elevated auditory brainstem evoked response (ABR) thresholds to low-frequency stimuli, a result also found in Mongolian gerbils. These results suggest that the elevated ABR thresholds may be the result of spongiform degeneration. Because low-frequency noise-induced spongiform degeneration has now been shown in the cochlear nucleus of animals from separate families of Rodentia (Heteromyidae and Muridae), the possibility should be investigated that similar noise-induced degenerative changes occur in the central auditory system of other mammals with good low-frequency hearing.

  5. An overview of animal prion diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of cervids and spongiform encephalopathy of primates. Although some cases of sporadic atypical scrapie and BSE have also been reported, animal prion diseases have basically occurred via the acquisition of infection from contaminated feed or via the exposure to contaminated environment. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are naturally sustaining epidemics. The transmission of BSE to human has caused more than 200 cases of variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease and has raised serious public health concerns. The present review discusses the epidemiology, clinical neuropathology, transmissibility and genetics of animal prion diseases. PMID:22044871

  6. Susceptibility of European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to alimentary challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Steele, Philip; Finlayson, Jeanie; Eaton, Samantha L; Sisó, Sílvia; Stewart, Paula; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Hamilton, Scott; Pang, Yvonne; Chianini, Francesca; Reid, Hugh W; Goldmann, Wilfred; González, Lorenzo; Castilla, Joaquín; Jeffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) are susceptible to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, when challenged intracerebrally but their susceptibility to alimentary challenge, the presumed natural route of transmission, is unknown. To determine this, eighteen deer were challenged via stomach tube with a large dose of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent and clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, presence and distribution of abnormal prion protein and the attack rate recorded. Only a single animal developed clinical disease, and this was acute with both neurological and respiratory signs, at 1726 days post challenge although there was significant (27.6%) weight loss in the preceding 141 days. The clinically affected animal had histological lesions of vacuolation in the neuronal perikaryon and neuropil, typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Abnormal prion protein, the diagnostic marker of transmissible encephalopathies, was primarily restricted to the central and peripheral nervous systems although a very small amount was present in tingible body macrophages in the lymphoid patches of the caecum and colon. Serial protein misfolding cyclical amplification, an in vitro ultra-sensitive diagnostic technique, was positive for neurological tissue from the single clinically diseased deer. All other alimentary challenged deer failed to develop clinical disease and were negative for all other investigations. These findings show that transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer via the alimentary route is possible but the transmission rate is low. Additionally, when deer carcases are subjected to the same regulations that ruminants in Europe with respect to the removal of specified offal from the human food chain, the zoonotic risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, from consumption of venison is probably

  7. Susceptibility of European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to Alimentary Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dagleish, Mark P.; Martin, Stuart; Steele, Philip; Finlayson, Jeanie; Eaton, Samantha L.; Sisó, Sílvia; Stewart, Paula; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Hamilton, Scott; Pang, Yvonne; Chianini, Francesca; Reid, Hugh W.; Goldmann, Wilfred; González, Lorenzo; Castilla, Joaquín; Jeffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) are susceptible to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, when challenged intracerebrally but their susceptibility to alimentary challenge, the presumed natural route of transmission, is unknown. To determine this, eighteen deer were challenged via stomach tube with a large dose of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent and clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, presence and distribution of abnormal prion protein and the attack rate recorded. Only a single animal developed clinical disease, and this was acute with both neurological and respiratory signs, at 1726 days post challenge although there was significant (27.6%) weight loss in the preceding 141 days. The clinically affected animal had histological lesions of vacuolation in the neuronal perikaryon and neuropil, typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Abnormal prion protein, the diagnostic marker of transmissible encephalopathies, was primarily restricted to the central and peripheral nervous systems although a very small amount was present in tingible body macrophages in the lymphoid patches of the caecum and colon. Serial protein misfolding cyclical amplification, an in vitro ultra-sensitive diagnostic technique, was positive for neurological tissue from the single clinically diseased deer. All other alimentary challenged deer failed to develop clinical disease and were negative for all other investigations. These findings show that transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer via the alimentary route is possible but the transmission rate is low. Additionally, when deer carcases are subjected to the same regulations that ruminants in Europe with respect to the removal of specified offal from the human food chain, the zoonotic risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, from consumption of venison is probably

  8. Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Johnson, Chad; Vanderloo, J.P.; Aiken, Judd M.; Hamir, A.N.; Hoover, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

  9. Profiling the culprit in Alzheimer's disease (AD): bacterial toxic proteins - Will they be significant for the aetio-pathogenesis of AD and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies?

    PubMed

    Schmitt, H Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tSEs) is still elusive. The concept that prion protein (PrP(Sc)) is the aetiological agent (infectious protein) in the tSEs has recently been questioned. In AD, the cause of the aberrant cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), resulting in the production of amyloidogenic Abeta fragments, has yet remained obscure. Moreover, the amyloid hypothesis of AD has been seriously challenged. In both AD and the tSEs, pathogens of various nature, including bacteria, have been discussed as possible causal factors. However, aetiological considerations have completely neglected microbial products such as the bacterial toxic proteins (BTPs). The present paper is aimed at drawing a "culprit profile" of these toxic molecules that can exert, at low-dosage, neuro-degeneration through various effects. Clearly, BTPs may affect cell-surface receptors including modulatory amine transmitter receptor expression, block neuro-transmitter release, increase intra-cellular Ca(2+) levels, affect intra-cellular signal transduction, change cyto-skeletal processing, alter synaptic transmission, influence APP proteolysis, interact with cell surface proteins like PrP(C) or their GPI anchors, act as chaperones inducing conformational change in proteins (e.g., PrP(C) to PrP(Sc)), alter lipid membrane integrity by affecting phospholipases or forming pores and channels, induce vacuolar (spongiform) change and elicit inflammatory reactions with cytokine production including cytokines that were demonstrated in the AD brain. Like PrP(Sc), BTPs can be heat-stable and acid-resistant. BTPs can meet the key-proteins of AD and tSEs in the lipid-rich domains of the plasma membrane called rafts. Basically, this might enable them to initiate a large variety of unfavourable molecular events, eventually resulting in pathogenetic cascades as in AD and the tSEs. All in all, their profile lends support to the

  10. In-situ spectroscopic investigation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: application of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to a scrapie-hamster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneipp, Janina; Lasch, Peter; Beekes, Michael; Naumann, Dieter

    2002-03-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), such as BSE in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in man are a group of fatal infectious diseases of the central nervous system that are far from being fully understood. Presuming the pathological changes to originate from small disease-specific compositional and structural modifications at the molecular level, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used to achieve insight into biochemical parameters underlying pathogenesis. We have developed an FTIR microspectroscopy-based strategy which, as a combination of image reconstruction and multivariate pattern recognition methods, permitted the comparison of identical substructures in the cerebellum of healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamsters in the terminal stage of the disease. Here we present FTIR data about the pathological changes of scrapie-infected and normal tissue of the gray matter structures stratum granulosum and stratum moleculare. IR spectroscopy was also applied to tissue pieces of the medulla oblongata of infected and control Syrian hamsters. Mapping data were analyzed with cluster analysis and imaging methods. We found variations in the spectra of the infected tissue, which are due to changes in carbohydrates, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and proteins.

  11. Typical and atypical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle, first detected in 1986 in the United Kingdom and subsequently in other countries. It is the most likely cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, but the origin of BSE has not been eluci...

  12. A quantitative assessment of the risk of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy by tallow-based calf milk-replacer.

    PubMed

    Paisley, Larry G; Hostrup-Pedersen, Julie

    2004-04-30

    A Monte Carlo simulation model was constructed to assess the risk of BSE transmission to calves by calf milk-replacer (CMR). We assumed that any BSE infectivity in the CMR would be associated with the allowable levels of impurities in tallow used to manufacture the milk-replacer. Simulations used three different levels of impurities, six different distributions of the BSE infectivity titers of CNS tissues and with and without inclusion of specified risk material (SRM). Our results suggest that tallow-based CMR could have been responsible for some BSE infections in nearly all simulations. The reduction in the allowable impurities in tallow and the exclusion of SRM have greatly reduced--but have not eliminated--the risk of BSE transmission by CMR The results of the simulations are associated with much uncertainty.

  13. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (b) Casings from... spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  14. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  15. ANIMAL RESERVOIRS, VECTORS, AND TRANSMISSION OF MICROSPORIDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourteen species of microsporidia have been identified as opportunistic or emerging pathogens of humans. Several genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most frequently diagnosed species in humans, have been identified in Europe in farm and companion animals including pigs, cat...

  16. Expression transmission using exaggerated animation for Elfoid.

    PubMed

    Hori, Maiya; Tsuruda, Yu; Yoshimura, Hiroki; Iwai, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We propose an expression transmission system using a cellular-phone-type teleoperated robot called Elfoid. Elfoid has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human skin, and is designed to transmit the speaker's presence to their communication partner using a camera and microphone. To transmit the speaker's presence, Elfoid sends not only the voice of the speaker but also the facial expression captured by the camera. In this research, facial expressions are recognized using a machine learning technique. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator motors. To overcome this problem, facial expressions are displayed using Elfoid's head-mounted mobile projector. In an experiment, we built a prototype system and experimentally evaluated it's subjective usability.

  17. Expression transmission using exaggerated animation for Elfoid

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Maiya; Tsuruda, Yu; Yoshimura, Hiroki; Iwai, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We propose an expression transmission system using a cellular-phone-type teleoperated robot called Elfoid. Elfoid has a soft exterior that provides the look and feel of human skin, and is designed to transmit the speaker's presence to their communication partner using a camera and microphone. To transmit the speaker's presence, Elfoid sends not only the voice of the speaker but also the facial expression captured by the camera. In this research, facial expressions are recognized using a machine learning technique. Elfoid cannot, however, display facial expressions because of its compactness and a lack of sufficiently small actuator motors. To overcome this problem, facial expressions are displayed using Elfoid's head-mounted mobile projector. In an experiment, we built a prototype system and experimentally evaluated it's subjective usability. PMID:26347686

  18. [Prions: where do we stand 20 years after the appearance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy?].

    PubMed

    Crozet, Carole; Lehmann, Sylvain

    2007-12-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) identified twenty years ago in the British cattle herds. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a TSE that occurs in humans. In 1996, scientists found a possible link between BSE and a new variant of CJD (vCJD). The fact that the non conventional infectious agent of TSE, named prions, could cross the species barrier from cattle to human through meat consumption, raised a tremendous concern for public safety in Europe. This led to the development in the following two decades of substantial and expensive measures to contain BSE and prevent its transmission to humans. In parallel, scientific programs have been funded to progress through the comprehension of the physiopathology of these fatal disorders. In Europe, the BSE epidemics is now ending and the number of cases is decreasing thanks to the strict control of animal foodstuff that was the main source of prion contamination. Only a small number of vCJD have been detected, however, additional concerns have been raised recently for public safety as secondary transmission of CJD through medical procedure and blood transfusion is possible. In addition, the possibility that the BSE was transmitted to other animals including small ruminants is also worrisome. Research efforts are now focussing on decontamination and ante mortem diagnosis of TSE to prevent animal and human transmission. However, needs for fundamental research are still important as many questions remain to be addressed to understand the mechanism of prion transmission, as well as its pathogenesis.

  19. Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Classification, Animal Reservoirs and Transmission Routes

    PubMed Central

    Doceul, Virginie; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; Demange, Antonin; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    During the past ten years, several new hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) have been identified in various animal species. In parallel, the number of reports of autochthonous hepatitis E in Western countries has increased as well, raising the question of what role these possible animal reservoirs play in human infections. The aim of this review is to present the recent discoveries of animal HEVs and their classification within the Hepeviridae family, their zoonotic and species barrier crossing potential, and possible use as models to study hepatitis E pathogenesis. Lastly, this review describes the transmission pathways identified from animal sources. PMID:27706110

  20. Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of feline spongiform encephalopathy in a German captive cheetah.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Martin; Hoffmann, Christine; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Müller, Matthias; Baumgartner, Katrin; Groschup, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects domestic cats (Felis catus) and captive wild members of the family Felidae. In this report we describe a case of FSE in a captive cheetah from the zoological garden of Nuremberg. The biochemical examination revealed a BSE-like pattern. Disease-associated scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in the lymphoreticular system and in other tissues of the affected animal, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and/or immunoblotting. Moreover, we report for the first time the use of the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique for highly sensitive detection of PrP(Sc) in the family Felidae. The widespread PrP(Sc) deposition suggests a simultaneous lymphatic and neural spread of the FSE agent. The detection of PrP(Sc) in the spleen indicates a potential for prion infectivity of cheetah blood.

  1. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is caused by a novel contagion, known to as a prion. Prions are proteins capable of converting a normal cellular protein into a prion, thereby propagating an infection. BSE is the first known prion zoonotic. As such it has attracted broad scientific and, to a r...

  2. Transmission of Helicobacter pyori in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Cellini, L; Marzio, L; Ferrero, G; Del Vino, A; Di Campli, E; Grossi, L; Toracchio, S; Artese, L

    2001-01-01

    An experimental murine model was studied to evaluate the orogastrointestinal colonization of Helicobacter pylori and the animal-to-animal transmission. Balb/C mice were infected with H. pylori and housed with uninoculated mice in cages with and without a grate on the floor. Mice were killed after 7, 14, 30, and 45 days, and samples from the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum were analyzed for H. pylori by PCR and immunohistochemistry and for histological changes. Bacterial colonization was assessed also by culture from stomach samples. H. pylori was cultured by stomach samples of infected mice at 7, 14, and 30 days. Using PCR and immunohistochemistry, H. pylori was detected in inoculated and uninoculated mice in all areas examined, with an high percentage of positive samples in the esophagus and stomach. Moreover transmission was detected, without differences, regardless of whether mice were housed with or without a grate on the floor, supporting an orooral animal transmission.

  3. Evidence of In Utero Transmission of Classical Scrapie in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stephen A. C.; Simmons, Marion M.; Bellworthy, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Classical scrapie is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), a group of fatal infectious diseases that affect the central nervous system (CNS). Classical scrapie can transmit laterally from ewe to lamb perinatally or between adult animals. Here we report detection of infectivity in tissues of an unborn fetus, providing evidence that in utero transmission of classical scrapie is also possible. PMID:24453368

  4. Evidence of in utero transmission of classical scrapie in sheep.

    PubMed

    Spiropoulos, John; Hawkins, Stephen A C; Simmons, Marion M; Bellworthy, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    Classical scrapie is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), a group of fatal infectious diseases that affect the central nervous system (CNS). Classical scrapie can transmit laterally from ewe to lamb perinatally or between adult animals. Here we report detection of infectivity in tissues of an unborn fetus, providing evidence that in utero transmission of classical scrapie is also possible.

  5. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: a tipping point in One Health and Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Hope, James

    2013-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a protein misfolding disease of cattle which belongs to the group of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases. This group also includes scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) humans. The first case of BSE was recognised in England in 1986 as a progressive, neurological condition where affected animals behaved abnormally, exhibited anxiety, ataxia, hypersensitivity to touch and noise and poor body condition. Spongiform change was observed in the brain stem of cattle at post-mortem and its similarity to scrapie in sheep stimulated biochemical investigation and transmission studies which confirmed it as a novel prion disease of cattle. Epidemiological analysis of the initial cases of disease implicated a common extended source of infection, likely to be related to feed, and stimulated a series of control measures designed to restrict feeding of mammalian-derived protein to ruminants in various parts of the United Kingdom and to prevent the use of various bovine offals in feed or food production. This article outlines the rise and fall of the incidence of BSE in the UK and Europe, its classification as a zoonotic disease with the emergence of variant CJD, the implications of it as a prion disease and challenge its diagnosis and control continues to represent worldwide.

  6. Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1995-03-01

    Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Predominant involvement of the cerebellum in guinea pigs infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

    PubMed

    Furuoka, H; Horiuchi, M; Yamakawa, Y; Sata, T

    2011-05-01

    This study reports the experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to guinea pigs and describes the cerebellar lesions in these animals. Guinea pigs were inoculated intracerebrally with 10% brain homogenates from BSE-affected cattle. These animals were designated as the first passage. Second and third passages were subsequently performed. All guinea pigs developed infection at each passage. The mean incubation period of the first passage was 370 days post-infection (dpi) and this decreased to 307 dpi and 309 dpi for the second and third passages, respectively. Mild to severe spongiform degeneration and gliosis were observed in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. In addition, the affected animals had marked pathological changes in the cerebellum characterized by severe cortical atrophy associated with Bergmann radial gliosis of the molecular layer and reduction in the width of the granular cell layer. Immunohistochemically, intense PrP(Sc) deposition and scattered plaque-like deposits were observed in the molecular and granular cell layers. Cerebellar lesions associated with severe atrophy of the cortex have not been reported in animal prion diseases, including in the experimental transmission of PrP(Sc) to small rodents. These lesions were similar to the lesions of human kuru or the VV2 variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, although typical kuru plaques or florid plaques were not observed in the affected animals.

  8. Animal models for oral transmission of Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    D'Orazio, Sarah E. F.

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been recognized as a food borne pathogen in humans since the 1980s, but we still understand very little about oral transmission of L. monocytogenes or the host factors that determine susceptibility to gastrointestinal infection, due to the lack of an appropriate small animal model of oral listeriosis. Early feeding trials suggested that many animals were highly resistant to oral infection, and the more reproducible intravenous or intraperitoneal routes of inoculation soon came to be favored. There are a fair number of previously published studies using an oral infection route, but the work varies widely in terms of bacterial strain choice, the methods used for oral transmission, and various manipulations used to enhance infectivity. This mini review summarizes the published literature using oral routes of L. monocytogenes infection and highlights recent technological advances that make oral infection a more attractive model system. PMID:24575393

  9. A collaborative Canadian-United Kingdom evaluation of an immunohistochemistry protocol to diagnose bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of domestic cattle. The disorder was reported in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s and was associated with recycling of ruminant byproducts in cattle feed. In 1996, the bovine disease was reported to be the cause of a...

  10. Social Information Transmission in Animals: Lessons from Studies of Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; MacIntosh, Andrew; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to use information provided by others to guide behavior is a widespread phenomenon in animal societies. A standard paradigm to test if and/or how animals use and transfer social information is through social diffusion experiments, by which researchers observe how information spreads within a group, sometimes by seeding new behavior in the population. In this article, we review the context, methodology and products of such social diffusion experiments. Our major focus is the transmission of information from an individual (or group thereof) to another, and the factors that can enhance or, more interestingly, inhibit it. We therefore also discuss reasons why social transmission sometimes does not occur despite being expected to. We span a full range of mechanisms and processes, from the nature of social information itself and the cognitive abilities of various species, to the idea of social competency and the constraints imposed by the social networks in which animals are embedded. We ultimately aim at a broad reflection on practical and theoretical issues arising when studying how social information spreads within animal groups. PMID:27540368

  11. Social Information Transmission in Animals: Lessons from Studies of Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; MacIntosh, Andrew; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to use information provided by others to guide behavior is a widespread phenomenon in animal societies. A standard paradigm to test if and/or how animals use and transfer social information is through social diffusion experiments, by which researchers observe how information spreads within a group, sometimes by seeding new behavior in the population. In this article, we review the context, methodology and products of such social diffusion experiments. Our major focus is the transmission of information from an individual (or group thereof) to another, and the factors that can enhance or, more interestingly, inhibit it. We therefore also discuss reasons why social transmission sometimes does not occur despite being expected to. We span a full range of mechanisms and processes, from the nature of social information itself and the cognitive abilities of various species, to the idea of social competency and the constraints imposed by the social networks in which animals are embedded. We ultimately aim at a broad reflection on practical and theoretical issues arising when studying how social information spreads within animal groups.

  12. A model to assess the risk of the introduction into Japan of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent through imported animals, meat and meat-and-bone meal.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, K; Ito, K; Yokoyama, R; Kumagai, S; Onodera, T

    2003-12-01

    The authors developed a mathematical model to assess the release risk of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent into a country through the importation of live cattle, bone-in bovine meat and meat-and-bone meal (MBM) from the United Kingdom and other countries with BSE. Monte Carlo simulation was attempted using this model and input variables. The release risk in Japan, expressed as the weight of infected MBM released in Japan between 1993 and 2000, was estimated to be 23.4 kg to 53.8 kg. The simulation also indicated that imported MBM represented the most important risk factor for releasing the BSE agent into Japan. This paper also provides details of the first five cases of BSE detected in Japan between September 2001 and the end of 2002. In addition, the results of the investigation conducted to determine the source of infection and the measures taken by the Government of Japan to prevent the BSE agent from entering the food and feed chains are also outlined.

  13. Mechanisms of arthropod transmission of plant and animal viruses.

    PubMed

    Gray, S M; Banerjee, N

    1999-03-01

    A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector's mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses.

  14. Mechanisms of Arthropod Transmission of Plant and Animal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Stewart M.; Banerjee, Nanditta

    1999-01-01

    A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector’s mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses. PMID:10066833

  15. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 96.2 Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  16. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 96.2 Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  17. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 96.2 Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  18. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 96.2 Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or...

  19. 78 FR 72859 - Concurrence With OIE Risk Designations for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... ``Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products,'' Docket No. APHIS-2008... regions for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) risk. Section 92.5 of the regulations provides that all... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Concurrence With OIE Risk Designations for Bovine...

  20. Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals.

    PubMed

    Esch, Kevin J; Petersen, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States.

  1. Transmission and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Protozoal Diseases of Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States. PMID:23297259

  2. Critical Behavior in Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, P. D.; Chang, Julius

    Using cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared in a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock in an infected premise (IP). Those farms in the neighboring of an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor interactions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The nonlocal disease transport probability can be as low as 0.01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fission cascade. Finally, we calculate that the percentage of culled animals that are actually healthy is ≈30%.

  3. Animal models for influenza virus transmission studies: A historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bouvier, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are used to simulate, under experimental conditions, the complex interactions among host, virus, and environment that affect the person-to-person spread of influenza viruses. The three species that have been most frequently employed, both past and present, as influenza virus transmission models -- ferrets, mice, and guinea pigs -- have each provided unique insights into the factors governing the efficiency with which these viruses pass from an infected host to a susceptible one. This review will highlight a few of these noteworthy discoveries, with a particular focus on the historical contexts in which each model was developed and the advantages and disadvantages of each species with regard to the study of influenza virus transmission among mammals. PMID:26126082

  4. Highly dynamic animal contact network and implications on disease transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi; White, Brad J.; Sanderson, Michael W.; Amrine, David E.; Ilany, Amiyaal; Lanzas, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Contact patterns among hosts are considered as one of the most critical factors contributing to unequal pathogen transmission. Consequently, networks have been widely applied in infectious disease modeling. However most studies assume static network structure due to lack of accurate observation and appropriate analytic tools. In this study we used high temporal and spatial resolution animal position data to construct a high-resolution contact network relevant to infectious disease transmission. The animal contact network aggregated at hourly level was highly variable and dynamic within and between days, for both network structure (network degree distribution) and individual rank of degree distribution in the network (degree order). We integrated network degree distribution and degree order heterogeneities with a commonly used contact-based, directly transmitted disease model to quantify the effect of these two sources of heterogeneity on the infectious disease dynamics. Four conditions were simulated based on the combination of these two heterogeneities. Simulation results indicated that disease dynamics and individual contribution to new infections varied substantially among these four conditions under both parameter settings. Changes in the contact network had a greater effect on disease dynamics for pathogens with smaller basic reproduction number (i.e. R0 < 2). PMID:24667241

  5. Transmission of Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Gondim, L F P; McAllister, M M; Mateus-Pinilla, N E; Pitt, W C; Mech, L D; Nelson, M E

    2004-12-01

    To determine whether deer can transmit Neospora caninum, brains of naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were fed to 4 dogs; 2 of these dogs shed oocysts. Oocysts from 1 of the dogs were tested by polymerase chain reaction and found to be positive for N. caninum and negative for Hammondia heydorni. The internal transcribed spacer 1 sequence of the new strain (designated NC-deer1) was identical to N. caninum from domestic animals, indicating that N. caninum is transmitted between wild and domestic animals, often enough to prevent divergent evolution of isolated populations of the parasite. NC-deerl oocysts were administered to a calf that developed a high antibody titer, providing evidence that N. caninum from wildlife can infect cattle. In addition, N. caninum antibody seroprevalence was detected in 64/164 (39%) free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus), 12/113 (11%) coyotes (Canis latrans), 50/193 (26%) white-tailed deer, and 8/61 (13%) moose (Alces alces). These data are consistent with a sylvatic transmission cycle of N. caninum between cervids and canids. We speculate that hunting by humans favors the transmission of N. caninum from deer to canids, because deer carcasses are usually eviscerated in the field. Infection of canids in turn increases the risk of transmitting the parasite to domestic livestock.

  6. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  7. Animal-to-Human Transmission of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104A Variant

    PubMed Central

    Orsel, Karin; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Miko, Angelika; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from a pig, a calf, and a child on a farm in the Netherlands. The isolates were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods, which suggests nonfoodborne animal-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission. Persons in close contact with farm animals should be aware of this risk. PMID:15663868

  8. Elevated manganese levels in blood and central nervous system occur before onset of clinical signs in scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, S; Sassoon, J; Knight, R; Hopkins, J; Brown, D R

    2007-06-01

    Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are neurodegenerative diseases that can only be accurately diagnosed by analysis of central nervous system tissue for the presence of an abnormal isoform of the prion protein known as PrP(Sc). Furthermore, these diseases have long incubation periods during which there are no clear symptoms but where the infectious agent could still be present in the tissues. Therefore, the development of diagnostic assays to detect a surrogate marker for the presence of prion disease is essential. Previous studies on mice experimentally infected with scrapie, an ovine spongiform encephalopathy, suggested that changes in the levels of Mn occur in the blood and brain before the onset of symptoms of the disease. To assess whether these findings have relevance to the animal diseases scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, tissues from bovine spongiform encephalopathy- and scrapie-infected cattle and sheep were analyzed for their metal content and compared with values for noninfected animals. In field cases and experimentally infected animals, elevated Mn was associated with prion infection. Although some central nervous system regions showed elevated Mn, other regions did not. The most consistent finding was an elevation of Mn in blood. This change was present in experimentally infected animals before the onset of symptoms. In scrapie-infected sheep, elevated Mn levels occurred regardless of the genotype of the sheep and were even detected in scrapie-resistant sheep in which no symptoms of disease were detected. These findings suggest that elevated blood Mn could be a potential diagnostic marker for prion infection even in the absence of apparent clinical disease.

  9. Lingering doubts about spongiform encephalopathy and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Narang, H K

    2001-07-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an infectious disease and has been transmitted orally to many other animals, including humans. There is clear evidence of maternal transmission, although disagreement on the source of the BSE agent remains. The current theories link the origin of BSE to common scrapie in sheep. Twenty different strains of the scrapie agent have been isolated from sheep. A search of the literature indicates two distinct clinical syndromes in sheep, both of which have been called scrapie. I have designated these Type I (the common type), which exhibits itchiness and lose their wool, and Type II, which exhibits trembling and ataxia. Sheep inoculated with BSE develop Type II scrapie and they exhibit trembling. When cattle or mink are injected with the Type I strain, only a few will develop a clinical disease. By contrast, no clinical disease has so far been shown in cattle or mink by feeding them with Type I-infected sheep brains. However, either by injecting or feeding with the BSE strain, 100% of calves and mink develop the clinical disease. Evidence suggests that Type II is the cause of BSE. Identical clinical signs of Type II trembling are found in kuru and many of the recent cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The BSE agent has caused spongiform encephalopathies (SEs) in domestic cats, tigers, and in some species of ruminants in zoos. The nature of the BSE agent remains unchanged when passaged through a range of species, irrespective of their genetic make up, demonstrating that variations in the host PrP gene are not a major factor in the susceptibility to the BSE agent. Since more than 85 zoo animals of many species have been diagnosed with SEs, from these studies it seems reasonable to conclude that the BSE agent can infect almost all mammalian species, including humans. For eradication of BSE and to reduce the risk of infection to humans, the development of a vaccine against BSE is suggested. Such a possibility should be fully explored.

  10. Central nervous system gene expression changes in a transgenic mouse model for bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Tortosa, Raül; Castells, Xavier; Vidal, Enric; Costa, Carme; Ruiz de Villa, María del Carmen; Sánchez, Alex; Barceló, Anna; Torres, Juan María; Pumarola, Martí; Ariño, Joaquín

    2011-10-28

    Gene expression analysis has proven to be a very useful tool to gain knowledge of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, particularly in the initial or preclinical stages. With the aim of finding new data on the events occurring in the Central Nervous System in animals affected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, a comprehensive genome wide gene expression study was conducted at different time points of the disease on mice genetically modified to model the bovine species brain in terms of cellular prion protein. An accurate analysis of the information generated by microarray technique was the key point to assess the biological relevance of the data obtained in terms of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy pathogenesis. Validation of the microarray technique was achieved by RT-PCR confirming the RNA change and immunohistochemistry techniques that verified that expression changes were translated into variable levels of protein for selected genes. Our study reveals changes in the expression of genes, some of them not previously associated with prion diseases, at early stages of the disease previous to the detection of the pathological prion protein, that might have a role in neuronal degeneration and several transcriptional changes showing an important imbalance in the Central Nervous System homeostasis in advanced stages of the disease. Genes whose expression is altered at early stages of the disease should be considered as possible therapeutic targets and potential disease markers in preclinical diagnostic tool development. Genes non-previously related to prion diseases should be taken into consideration for further investigations.

  11. Properties of L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy in intraspecies passages.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Iwamaru, Y; Kakizaki, M; Masujin, K; Imamura, M; Fukuda, S; Matsuura, Y; Shimizu, Y; Kasai, K; Mohri, S; Yokoyama, T

    2012-09-01

    The origin and transmission routes of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) remain unclear. To assess whether the biological and biochemical characteristics of atypical L-type BSE detected in Japanese cattle (BSE/JP24) are conserved during serial passages within a single host, 3 calves were inoculated intracerebrally with a brain homogenate prepared from first-passaged BSE/JP24-affected cattle. Detailed immunohistochemical and neuropathologic analysis of the brains of second-passaged animals, which had developed the disease and survived for an average of 16 months after inoculation, revealed distribution of spongiform changes and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) throughout the brain. Although immunolabeled PrP(Sc) obtained from brain tissue was characterized by the presence of PrP plaques and diffuse synaptic granular accumulations, no stellate-type deposits were detected. Western blot analysis suggested no obvious differences in PrP(Sc) molecular mass or glycoform pattern in the brains of first- and second-passaged cattle. These findings suggest failures to identify differences in mean incubation period and biochemical and neuropathologic properties of the BSE/JP24 prion between the first and second passages in cattle.

  12. Central nervous system gene expression changes in a transgenic mouse model for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression analysis has proven to be a very useful tool to gain knowledge of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, particularly in the initial or preclinical stages. With the aim of finding new data on the events occurring in the Central Nervous System in animals affected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, a comprehensive genome wide gene expression study was conducted at different time points of the disease on mice genetically modified to model the bovine species brain in terms of cellular prion protein. An accurate analysis of the information generated by microarray technique was the key point to assess the biological relevance of the data obtained in terms of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy pathogenesis. Validation of the microarray technique was achieved by RT-PCR confirming the RNA change and immunohistochemistry techniques that verified that expression changes were translated into variable levels of protein for selected genes. Our study reveals changes in the expression of genes, some of them not previously associated with prion diseases, at early stages of the disease previous to the detection of the pathological prion protein, that might have a role in neuronal degeneration and several transcriptional changes showing an important imbalance in the Central Nervous System homeostasis in advanced stages of the disease. Genes whose expression is altered at early stages of the disease should be considered as possible therapeutic targets and potential disease markers in preclinical diagnostic tool development. Genes non-previously related to prion diseases should be taken into consideration for further investigations. PMID:22035425

  13. Changes in retinal function and morphology are early clinical signs of disease in cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, M Heather West; Smith, Jodi D; Platt, Ekundayo M; Juarez, Jessica R; Timms, Leo L; Greenlee, Justin J

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to a group of fatal, transmissible protein misfolding diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). All TSEs are caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) throughout the central nervous system (CNS), which results in neuronal loss and ultimately death. Like other protein misfolding diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, TSEs are generally not diagnosed until the onset of disease after the appearance of unequivocal clinical signs. As such, identification of the earliest clinical signs of disease may facilitate diagnosis. The retina is the most accessible part of the central nervous system, and retinal pathology in TSE affected animals has been previously reported. Here we describe antemortem changes in retinal function and morphology that are detectable in BSE inoculated animals several months (up to 11 months) prior to the appearance of any other signs of clinical disease. We also demonstrate that differences in the severity of these clinical signs reflect the amount of PrPSc accumulation in the retina and the resulting inflammatory response of the tissue. These results are the earliest reported clinical signs associated with TSE infection and provide a basis for understanding the pathology and evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  14. PRIONS AND THE TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter is an invited, scholarly review of the mechanism(s) of TSEs for the 2nd edition of Metabolic Encephalopathies. Each chapter in the book assumes a professional knowledge of neuroscience and biochemistry, and the focus of the book is on the metabolic basis of dise...

  15. Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Maurício; Shoemaker, Lauren G; Cabral, Reniel B; Flores, César O; Varga, Melinda; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-09-08

    Multilevel societies, containing hierarchically nested social levels, are remarkable social structures whose origins are unclear. The social relationships of sperm whales are organized in a multilevel society with an upper level composed of clans of individuals communicating using similar patterns of clicks (codas). Using agent-based models informed by an 18-year empirical study, we show that clans are unlikely products of stochastic processes (genetic or cultural drift) but likely originate from cultural transmission via biased social learning of codas. Distinct clusters of individuals with similar acoustic repertoires, mirroring the empirical clans, emerge when whales learn preferentially the most common codas (conformism) from behaviourally similar individuals (homophily). Cultural transmission seems key in the partitioning of sperm whales into sympatric clans. These findings suggest that processes similar to those that generate complex human cultures could not only be at play in non-human societies but also create multilevel social structures in the wild.

  16. Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Maurício; Shoemaker, Lauren G.; Cabral, Reniel B.; Flores, César O.; Varga, Melinda; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel societies, containing hierarchically nested social levels, are remarkable social structures whose origins are unclear. The social relationships of sperm whales are organized in a multilevel society with an upper level composed of clans of individuals communicating using similar patterns of clicks (codas). Using agent-based models informed by an 18-year empirical study, we show that clans are unlikely products of stochastic processes (genetic or cultural drift) but likely originate from cultural transmission via biased social learning of codas. Distinct clusters of individuals with similar acoustic repertoires, mirroring the empirical clans, emerge when whales learn preferentially the most common codas (conformism) from behaviourally similar individuals (homophily). Cultural transmission seems key in the partitioning of sperm whales into sympatric clans. These findings suggest that processes similar to those that generate complex human cultures could not only be at play in non-human societies but also create multilevel social structures in the wild. PMID:26348688

  17. Transmission of Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gondim, L.F.P.; McAllister, M.M.; Mateus-Pinilla, N. E.; Pitt, W.; Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.; Lenarz, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that can cause abortions in cows. N. caninum antibody seroprevalence was detected in 64/164 (39%) free-ranging gray wolves from Minnesota, 30/150 (20%) white-tailed deer, and 8/61 (13%) moose. These data are consistent with a sylvatic transmission cycle of N. caninum between cervids and canids. Infection of canids increases the risk of transmitting the parasite to domestic livestock.

  18. Transmission line based thermoacoustic imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Murad; Kellnberger, Stephan; Sergiadis, George; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-06-01

    We have generated high resolution images of RF-Contrast in small animals using nearfield thermoacoustic system. This enables us to see some anatomical features of a mouse such as the heart, the spine and the boundary. OCIS codes: (000.0000) General; (000.0000) General [8-pt. type. For codes, see www.opticsinfobase.org/submit/ocis.

  19. Animal models for influenza virus pathogenesis, transmission, and immunology

    PubMed Central

    Thangavel, Rajagowthamee R.; Bouvier, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, infection with an influenza A or B virus manifests typically as an acute and self-limited upper respiratory tract illness characterized by fever, cough, sore throat, and malaise. However, influenza can present along a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from sub-clinical or even asymptomatic infection to a severe primary viral pneumonia requiring advanced medical supportive care. Disease severity depends upon the virulence of the influenza virus strain and the immune competence and previous influenza exposures of the patient. Animal models are used in influenza research not only to elucidate the viral and host factors that affect influenza disease outcomes in and spread among susceptible hosts, but also to evaluate interventions designed to prevent or reduce influenza morbidity and mortality in man. This review will focus on the three animal models currently used most frequently in influenza virus research -- mice, ferrets, and guinea pigs -- and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:24709389

  20. Intranasal immunization with an adenovirus vaccine protects guinea pigs from Ebola virus transmission by infected animals.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gary; Richardson, Jason S; Cutts, Todd; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary P

    2015-04-01

    Experimental Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccines have previously been shown to protect animals against a high dose intramuscular (IM) challenge, which is seen as a stringent challenge model. However, the protective efficacy against other modes of infection, such as contact with infectious hosts, is unknown. Using a previously established EBOV transmission animal model, we evaluated the efficacy of an adenovirus-based EBOV vaccine given to guinea pigs (gps) 4weeks before direct contact with untreated, infectious animals. Prior vaccination resulted in robust levels of EBOV-specific antibodies and conferred complete protection in gps. These results support the use of vaccines to prevent EBOV transmission between hosts.

  1. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... the United States, while allowing the importation of additional animals and animal products into this... continue to guard against the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) into the United States... commitment of the United States to base its BSE regulations on internationally accepted scientific...

  2. 76 FR 35185 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bovine Spongiform...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... introduction of animal diseases. The regulations in 9 CFR parts 93, 94, 95, and 96 (referred to below as the... diseases, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a chronic degenerative disease affecting the... ruminant products; certificate for inedible processed animal origin materials and products from...

  3. High-Throughput Screening of Compounds for Anti-Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Activity Using Cell-Culture and Cell-Free Models and Infected Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    inhibitors of prp(exp sc) accumulation in scrapie -infected mouse neuroblastoma cells (ScN2a) also have anti- scrapie activity in rodents. To expedite the...format. A library of 2000 drugs and natural products was screened in ScN2a cells infected with RML (Chandler) or 22L scrapie strains. Seventeen had IC

  4. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Wexler, Anthony; Ristenpart, William

    2014-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in modulating the pathogen transmission, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulence intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of a standard axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We demonstrate that the fan speed counterintuitively has no effect on the downstream plume width, a result replicated with a variety of different fan types and configurations. The results point toward a useful simplification in modeling of airborne disease transmission via fan-generated flows.

  5. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in pathogen transmission between the animals, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulent intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of an axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We show that for fan-generated turbulence the plume width is invariant with the mean airspeed and, close to the point source, increases linearly with downstream position. Importantly, the turbulent dispersivity is insensitive to the presence of meshes placed downstream from the point source, indicating that the fan length scale dictates the turbulent intensity and corresponding dispersivity.

  6. Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Classification, Animal Reservoirs and Transmission Routes.

    PubMed

    Doceul, Virginie; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; Demange, Antonin; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-10-03

    During the past ten years, several new hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) have been identified in various animal species. In parallel, the number of reports of autochthonous hepatitis E in Western countries has increased as well, raising the question of what role these possible animal reservoirs play in human infections. The aim of this review is to present the recent discoveries of animal HEVs and their classification within the Hepeviridae family, their zoonotic and species barrier crossing potential, and possible use as models to study hepatitis E pathogenesis. Lastly, this review describes the transmission pathways identified from animal sources.

  7. Mathematical Models for Estimating the Risks of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

    PubMed

    Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Cottrell, David; Elsaadany, Susie; Murray, Noel; Oraby, Tamer; Smith, Robert; Krewski, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    When the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic first emerged in the United Kingdom in the mid 1980s, the etiology of animal prion diseases was largely unknown. Risk management efforts to control the disease were also subject to uncertainties regarding the extent of BSE infections and future course of the epidemic. As understanding of BSE increased, mathematical models were developed to estimate risk of BSE infection and to predict reductions in risk in response to BSE control measures. Risk models of BSE-transmission dynamics determined disease persistence in cattle herds and relative infectivity of cattle prior to onset of clinical disease. These BSE models helped in understanding key epidemiological features of BSE transmission and dynamics, such as incubation period distribution and age-dependent infection susceptibility to infection with the BSE agent. This review summarizes different mathematical models and methods that have been used to estimate risk of BSE, and discusses how such risk projection models have informed risk assessment and management of BSE. This review also provides some general insights on how mathematical models of the type discussed here may be used to estimate risks of emerging zoonotic diseases when biological data on transmission of the etiological agent are limited.

  8. Aquaporin 1 and aquaporin 4 overexpression in bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a transgenic murine model and in cattle field cases.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carme; Tortosa, Raül; Rodríguez, Agustín; Ferrer, Isidre; Torres, Juan Maria; Bassols, Anna; Pumarola, Martí

    2007-10-17

    Aquaporins (AQP) are a family of transmembrane proteins that act as water selective channels. AQP1 and AQP4 are widely expressed in the central nervous system where they play several roles. Overexpression of AQP has been reported in some human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, but information is scanty about their distribution in the central nervous system in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Double immunohistochemistry for AQP1, AQP4 and GFAP was developed in a transgenic mouse line overexpressing the bovine cellular prion protein (BoTg110), intracerebrally infected with cattle BSE. Western blot for AQP1 and AQP4, and immunohistochemistry for both AQP and GFAP were carried out in cases of BSE-diagnosed cattle as part of surveillance plan in Catalonia (Spain). A marked increase in AQP1 and AQP4 was observed in mice at the terminal stage of the disease, when they had a wide range of clinical signs, whereas no increase could be observed in the early stage before the onset of the clinical signs. In cattle which did not show evidence of clinical signs, both AQP already showed a great increase. The AQP overexpression correlated with GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes and PrPres deposition in both cases. The results of this study suggest that AQP overexpression in glial cells could lead to an imbalance in water and ion homeostasis which could contribute to triggering the typical histopathological changes of BSE.

  9. Transcytosis of murine-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents in an in vitro bovine M cell model.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Tanaka, Sachi; Hondo, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Rose, Michael T; Kitazawa, Haruki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Katamine, Shigeru; Nishida, Noriyuki; Aso, Hisashi

    2010-12-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. BSE appears to have spread to cattle through the consumption of feed contaminated with BSE/scrapie agents. In the case of an oral infection, the agents have to cross the gut-epithelial barrier. We recently established a bovine intestinal epithelial cell line (BIE cells) that can differentiate into the M cell type in vitro after lymphocytic stimulation (K. Miyazawa, T. Hondo, T. Kanaya, S. Tanaka, I. Takakura, W. Itani, M. T. Rose, H. Kitazawa, T. Yamaguchi, and H. Aso, Histochem. Cell Biol. 133:125-134, 2010). In this study, we evaluated the role of M cells in the intestinal invasion of the murine-adapted BSE (mBSE) agent using our in vitro bovine intestinal epithelial model. We demonstrate here that M cell-differentiated BIE cells are able to transport the mBSE agent without inactivation at least 30-fold more efficiently than undifferentiated BIE cells in our in vitro model. As M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium are known to have a high ability to transport a variety of macromolecules, viruses, and bacteria from gut lumen to mucosal immune cells, our results indicate the possibility that bovine M cells are able to deliver agents of TSE, not just the mBSE agent.

  10. Transcytosis of Murine-Adapted Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agents in an In Vitro Bovine M Cell Model▿ † #

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Tanaka, Sachi; Hondo, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Rose, Michael T.; Kitazawa, Haruki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Katamine, Shigeru; Nishida, Noriyuki; Aso, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. BSE appears to have spread to cattle through the consumption of feed contaminated with BSE/scrapie agents. In the case of an oral infection, the agents have to cross the gut-epithelial barrier. We recently established a bovine intestinal epithelial cell line (BIE cells) that can differentiate into the M cell type in vitro after lymphocytic stimulation (K. Miyazawa, T. Hondo, T. Kanaya, S. Tanaka, I. Takakura, W. Itani, M. T. Rose, H. Kitazawa, T. Yamaguchi, and H. Aso, Histochem. Cell Biol. 133:125-134, 2010). In this study, we evaluated the role of M cells in the intestinal invasion of the murine-adapted BSE (mBSE) agent using our in vitro bovine intestinal epithelial model. We demonstrate here that M cell-differentiated BIE cells are able to transport the mBSE agent without inactivation at least 30-fold more efficiently than undifferentiated BIE cells in our in vitro model. As M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium are known to have a high ability to transport a variety of macromolecules, viruses, and bacteria from gut lumen to mucosal immune cells, our results indicate the possibility that bovine M cells are able to deliver agents of TSE, not just the mBSE agent. PMID:20861256

  11. Implications of Heterogeneous Biting Exposure and Animal Hosts on Trypanosomiasis brucei gambiense Transmission and Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Chris M.; Chitnis, Nakul

    2015-01-01

    The gambiense form of sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease, which is presumed to be anthroponotic. However, the parasite persists in human populations at levels of considerable rarity and as such the existence of animal reservoirs has been posited. Clarifying the impact of animal host reservoirs on the feasibility of interrupting sleeping sickness transmission through interventions is a matter of urgency. We developed a mathematical model allowing for heterogeneous exposure of humans to tsetse, with animal populations that differed in their ability to transmit infections, to investigate the effectiveness of two established techniques, screening and treatment of at-risk populations, and vector control. Importantly, under both assumptions, an integrated approach of human screening and vector control was supported in high transmission areas. However, increasing the intensity of vector control was more likely to eliminate transmission, while increasing the intensity of human screening reduced the time to elimination. Non-human animal hosts played important, but different roles in HAT transmission, depending on whether or not they contributed as reservoirs. If they did not serve as reservoirs, sensitivity analyses suggested their attractiveness may instead function as a sink for tsetse bites. These outcomes highlight the importance of understanding the ecological and environmental context of sleeping sickness in optimizing integrated interventions, particularly for moderate and low transmission intensity settings. PMID:26426854

  12. Transient Fecal Shedding and Limited Animal-to-Animal Transmission of Clostridium difficile by Naturally Infected Finishing Feedlot Cattle ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Pickworth, Carrie; Loerch, Steve; LeJeune, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    To longitudinally assess fecal shedding and animal-to-animal transmission of Clostridium difficile among finishing feedlot cattle as a risk for beef carcass contamination, we tested 186 ± 12 steers (mean ± standard deviation; 1,369 samples) in an experimental feedlot facility during the finishing period and at harvest. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12.9% of steers on arrival (24/186; 0 to 33% among five suppliers). Shedding decreased to undetectable levels a week later (0%; P < 0.001), and remained low (<3.6%) until immediately prior to shipment for harvest (1.2%). Antimicrobial use did not increase fecal shedding, despite treatment of 53% of animals for signs of respiratory disease. Animals shedding C. difficile on arrival, however, had 4.6 times higher odds of receiving antimicrobials for respiratory signs than nonshedders (95% confidence interval for the odds ratio, 1.4 to 14.8; P = 0.01). Neither the toxin genes nor toxin A or B was detected in most (39/42) isolates based on two complementary multiplex PCRs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing, respectively. Two linezolid- and clindamycin-resistant PCR ribotype 078 (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/39-bp-type deletion in tcdC) isolates were identified from two steers (at arrival and week 20), but these ribotypes did not become endemic. The other toxigenic isolate (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/classic tcdC; PCR ribotype 078-like) was identified in the cecum of one steer at harvest. Spatio-temporal analysis indicated transient shedding with no evidence of animal-to-animal transmission. The association between C. difficile shedding upon arrival and the subsequent need for antimicrobials for respiratory disease might indicate common predisposing factors. The isolation of toxigenic C. difficile from bovine intestines at harvest highlights the potential for food contamination in meat processing plants. PMID:21441320

  13. Monkeypox Disease Transmission in an Experimental Setting: Prairie Dog Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Christina L.; Carroll, Darin S.; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Weiss, Sonja; Clemmons, Cody; Hughes, Christine M.; Salzer, Johanna S.; Olson, Victoria A.; Abel, Jason; Karem, Kevin L.; Damon, Inger K.

    2011-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is considered the most significant human public health threat in the genus Orthopoxvirus since the eradication of variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). MPXV is a zoonotic agent endemic to forested areas of Central and Western Africa. In 2003, MPXV caused an outbreak in the United States due to the importation of infected African rodents, and subsequent sequential infection of North American prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and humans. In previous studies, the prairie dog MPXV model has successfully shown to be very useful for understanding MPXV since the model emulates key characteristics of human monkeypox disease. In humans, percutaneous exposure to animals has been documented but the primary method of human-to-human MPXV transmission is postulated to be by respiratory route. Only a few animal model studies of MPXV transmission have been reported. Herein, we show that MPXV infected prairie dogs are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple transmission routes. All secondarily exposed animals were infected with MPXV during the course of the study. Notably, animals secondarily exposed appeared to manifest more severe disease; however, the disease course was very similar to those of experimentally challenged animals including inappetence leading to weight loss, development of lesions, production of orthopoxvirus antibodies and shedding of similar levels or in some instances higher levels of MPXV from the oral cavity. Disease was transmitted via exposure to contaminated bedding, co-housing, or respiratory secretions/nasal mucous (we could not definitively say that transmission occurred via respiratory route exclusively). Future use of the model will allow us to evaluate infection control measures, vaccines and antiviral strategies to decrease disease transmission. PMID:22164263

  14. Monkeypox disease transmission in an experimental setting: prairie dog animal model.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Christina L; Carroll, Darin S; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Weiss, Sonja; Clemmons, Cody; Hughes, Christine M; Salzer, Johanna S; Olson, Victoria A; Abel, Jason; Karem, Kevin L; Damon, Inger K

    2011-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is considered the most significant human public health threat in the genus Orthopoxvirus since the eradication of variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). MPXV is a zoonotic agent endemic to forested areas of Central and Western Africa. In 2003, MPXV caused an outbreak in the United States due to the importation of infected African rodents, and subsequent sequential infection of North American prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and humans. In previous studies, the prairie dog MPXV model has successfully shown to be very useful for understanding MPXV since the model emulates key characteristics of human monkeypox disease. In humans, percutaneous exposure to animals has been documented but the primary method of human-to-human MPXV transmission is postulated to be by respiratory route. Only a few animal model studies of MPXV transmission have been reported. Herein, we show that MPXV infected prairie dogs are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple transmission routes. All secondarily exposed animals were infected with MPXV during the course of the study. Notably, animals secondarily exposed appeared to manifest more severe disease; however, the disease course was very similar to those of experimentally challenged animals including inappetence leading to weight loss, development of lesions, production of orthopoxvirus antibodies and shedding of similar levels or in some instances higher levels of MPXV from the oral cavity. Disease was transmitted via exposure to contaminated bedding, co-housing, or respiratory secretions/nasal mucous (we could not definitively say that transmission occurred via respiratory route exclusively). Future use of the model will allow us to evaluate infection control measures, vaccines and antiviral strategies to decrease disease transmission.

  15. Transmission of Coxiella burnetii to cage mates using murine animal model.

    PubMed

    Bechah, Yassina; Raoult, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Aerosols from the products of abortions of infected animals with Coxiella burnetii were known to be the main source of infection in humans with this bacterium. However, little is known about the excretion of C. burnetii in the feces and urine of infected mice, or the dynamic of transmission between infected and healthy mice. To investigate whether C. burnetii can be excreted in the feces and urine of infected mice and whether transmission to uninfected cage mates occurs, male mice were inoculated with C. burnetii using a "whole body aerosol system" and feces and urine were collected different time points post-infection from these mice. One hour post exposure to aerosols, uninfected mice was placed with infected mice and the transmission was monitored using blood, and organs biopsies collected after sacrifice of contact mice different time points post-contact. Bacterial DNA was not detected in the feces and urine of infected mice at 3, 7, 14 and 28days post-inoculation suggesting that C. burnetii was not excreted in the feces and urine and consequently they cannot be source of contamination. However, based on the positive PCR results for lungs, blood, spleen, tracheal lymph nodes and cervical lymph nodes, some of the contact animals were considered contaminated at 8days post-contact. These results indicated that transmission of C. burnetii to contact animals occurs, and it is unlikely that feces and urine act as source of this transmission. Further experiments are needed to clarify the exact mode of contamination.

  16. Transmission of MRSA between companion animals and infected human patients presenting to outpatient medical care facilities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge Pinto; Anderson, Kevin L; Correa, Maria T; Lyman, Roberta; Ruffin, Felicia; Reller, L Barth; Fowler, Vance G

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. The importance of companion animals as reservoirs of human infections is currently unknown. The companion animals of 49 MRSA-infected outpatients (cases) were screened for MRSA carriage, and their bacterial isolates were compared with those of the infected patients using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Rates of MRSA among the companion animals of MRSA-infected patients were compared to rates of MRSA among companion animals of pet guardians attending a "veterinary wellness clinic" (controls). MRSA was isolated from at least one companion animal in 4/49 (8.2%) households of MRSA-infected outpatients vs. none of the pets of the 50 uninfected human controls. Using PFGE, patient-pets MRSA isolates were identical for three pairs and discordant for one pair (suggested MRSA inter-specie transmission p-value = 0.1175). These results suggest that companion animals of MRSA-infected patients can be culture-positive for MRSA, representing a potential source of infection or re-infection for humans. Further studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA human-animal inter-specie transmission.

  17. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy surveillance in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Kim, M J; Tark, D S; Sohn, H J; Yun, E I; Cho, I S; Choi, Y P; Kim, C L; Lee, J H; Kweon, C H; Joo, Y S; Chung, G S; Lee, J H

    2012-12-01

    National surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) began in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1996. Surveillance programmes changed overtime to comply with the guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy was designated as a notifiable disease in 1997. From July 2008, the BSE surveillance programme was intensified to test cattle in designated high-risk populations more effectively. New measures included the compulsory testing of all non-ambulatory cattle at abattoirs, and encouraging the testing of all dead cattle examined and recorded under the Mutual Aid Insurance Scheme (fallen stock). In addition, there was a vigorous search for animals suspected of being clinically infected. As a result, a total of 426,919 OIE points were achieved over a period of seven consecutive years to the end of October 2009. This enabled the submission of a successful application to the OIE in 2010 for recognition of the ROK's BSE disease status as being one of controlled risk, in accordance with Chapter 11.5. of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

  18. Animal models of disease shed light on Nipah virus pathogenesis and transmission

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Emmie; Munster, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    Nipah virus is an emerging virus infection that causes yearly disease outbreaks with high case fatality rates in Bangladesh. Nipah virus causes encephalitis and systemic vasculitis, sometimes in combination with respiratory disease. Pteropus species fruit bats are the natural reservoir of Nipah virus and zoonotic transmission can occur directly or via an intermediate host; human-to-human transmission occurs regularly. In this review we discuss the current state of knowledge on the pathogenesis and transmission of Nipah virus, focusing on dissemination of the virus through its host, known determinants of pathogenicity and routes of zoonotic and human-to-human transmission. Since data from human cases are sparse, this knowledge is largely based on the results of studies performed in animal models that recapitulate Nipah virus disease in humans. PMID:25229234

  19. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species.

  20. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that ...

  1. Social and behavioral barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.S.

    1988-12-31

    Disease and pathogens have been studied as regulators of animal populations but not really as selective forces. The authors propose that pathogens can be major selective forces influencing social behaviors when these are successful at reducing disease transmission. The behaviors whose evolution could have been influenced by pathogen effects include group size, group isolation, mixed species flocking, migration, seasonal sociality, social avoidance, and dominance behaviors. Mate choice, mating system, and sexual selection are put in a new light when examined in terms of disease transmission. It is concluded that pathogen avoidance is a more powerful selective force than has heretofore been recognized.

  2. One Health and Food-Borne Disease: Salmonella Transmission between Humans, Animals, and Plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Maloy, Stanley

    2014-02-01

    There are >2,600 recognized serovars of Salmonella enterica. Many of these Salmonella serovars have a broad host range and can infect a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects. In addition, Salmonella can grow in plants and can survive in protozoa, soil, and water. Hence, broad-host-range Salmonella can be transmitted via feces from wild animals, farm animals, and pets or by consumption of a wide variety of common foods: poultry, beef, pork, eggs, milk, fruit, vegetables, spices, and nuts. Broad-host-range Salmonella pathogens typically cause gastroenteritis in humans. Some Salmonella serovars have a more restricted host range that is associated with changes in the virulence plasmid pSV, accumulation of pseudogenes, and chromosome rearrangements. These changes in host-restricted Salmonella alter pathogen-host interactions such that host-restricted Salmonella organisms commonly cause systemic infections and are transmitted between host populations by asymptomatic carriers. The secondary consequences of efforts to eliminate host-restricted Salmonella serovars demonstrate that basic ecological principles govern the environmental niches occupied by these pathogens, making it impossible to thwart Salmonella infections without a clear understanding of the human, animal, and environmental reservoirs of these pathogens. Thus, transmission of S. enterica provides a compelling example of the One Health paradigm because reducing human infections will require the reduction of Salmonella in animals and limitation of transmission from the environment.

  3. The epidemics of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter G.

    2003-01-01

    The large epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom has been in decline since 1992, but has spread to other countries. The extensive control measures that have been put in place across the European Union and also in Switzerland should have brought the transmission of BSE under control in these countries, provided that the measures were properly enforced. Postmortem tests on brain tissue enable infected animals to be detected during the late stages of the incubation period, but tests that can be performed on live animals (including humans) and that will detect infections early are urgently needed. The number of infected animals currently entering the food chain is probably small, and the controls placed on bovine tissues in the European Union and Switzerland should ensure that any risks to human health are small and diminishing. Vigilance is required in all countries, especially in those in which there has been within-species recycling of ruminant feed. Fewer than 150 people, globally, have been diagnosed with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), but there are many uncertainties about the future course of the epidemic because of the long and variable incubation period. Better control measures are necessary to guard against the possibility of iatrogenic transmission through blood transfusion or contaminated surgical instruments. These measures will required sensitive and specific, diagnostic tests and improved decontamination methods. PMID:12751420

  4. Analysis of gene expression in white blood cells of cattle orally challenged with bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Panelli, Simona; Strozzi, Francesco; Capoferri, Rossana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Martinelli, Nicola; Capucci, Lorenzo; Lombardi, Guerino; Williams, John L

    2011-01-01

    Bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE) is one of the recently discovered atypical forms of BSE, which is transmissible to primates, and may be the bovine equivalent of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in humans. Although it is transmissible, it is unknown whether BASE is acquired through infection or arises spontaneously. In the present study, the gene expression of white blood cells (WBCs) from 5 cattle at 1 yr after oral BASE challenge was compared with negative controls using a custom microarray containing 43,768 unique gene probes. In total, 56 genes were found to be differentially expressed between BASE and control animals with a log fold change of 2 or greater. Of these, 39 were upregulated in BASE animals, while 17 were downregulated. The majority of these genes are related to immune function. In particular, BASE animals appeared to have significantly modified expression of genes linked to T- and B-cell development and activation, and to inflammatory responses. The potential impacts of these gene expression changes are described.

  5. Sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent exhibits altered pathobiological properties in bovine-PrP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Andréoletti, Olivier; Castilla, Joaquín; Herva, María Eugenia; Morales, Mónica; Alamillo, Elia; San-Segundo, Fayna Díaz; Lacroux, Caroline; Lugan, Séverine; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Langeveld, Jan; Torres, Juan María

    2007-01-01

    Sheep can be experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and the ensuing disease is similar to scrapie in terms of pathogenesis and clinical signs. BSE infection in sheep is an animal and human health concern. In this study, the transmission in BoPrP-Tg110 mice of prions from BSE-infected sheep was examined and compared to the transmission of original cattle BSE in cattle and sheep scrapie prions. Our results indicate no transmission barrier for sheep BSE prions to infect BoPrP-Tg110 mice, but the course of the disease is accelerated compared to the effects of the original BSE isolate. The shortened incubation period of sheep BSE in the model was conserved in subsequent passage in BoPrP-Tg110 mice, indicating that it is not related to infectious titer differences. Biochemical signature, lesion profile, and PrP(Sc) deposition pattern of both cattle and sheep BSE were similar. In contrast, all three sheep scrapie isolates tested showed an evident transmission barrier and further adaptation in subsequent passage. Taken together, those data indicate that BSE agent can be altered by crossing a species barrier, raising concerns about the virulence of this new prion towards other species, including humans. The BoPrP-Tg110 mouse bioassay should be considered as a valuable tool for discriminating scrapie and BSE in sheep.

  6. Hepatitis E vaccine immunization for rabbits to prevent animal HEV infection and zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Peng; Liu, Lin; Xia, Junke; Wang, Lin; Zou, Qinghua; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-09-11

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has become a significant global public health concern as increasing cases of acute and chronic hepatitis E are reported. HEV of animal origin was proved to be a possible source of human infection and a previous study showed that the recent licensed HEV 239 vaccine can serve as a candidate vaccine to manage animal sources of HEV infection. However, previous immunization strategy for rabbits was the same as that for human, which is too costly to conduct large-scale animal vaccination. In an effort to reduce the costs, three vaccination schemes were assessed in the present study. Forty specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits were divided randomly into five groups with eight animals for each and inoculated intramuscularly with different doses of HEV 239 and placebo, respectively. All animals were challenged intravenously with swine HEV-4 and rabbit HEV of different titers 7 weeks after the initial immunization and then fecal virus excretion was monitored for 10 weeks. The results indicated that immunizing rabbits with two 10μg doses of the vaccine is superior to vaccination with two 20μg doses or a single 30μg dose, which can protect rabbits against homologous and heterologous HEV infection. These findings could enable implementation of large-scale animal vaccination to prevent rabbit HEV infection and zoonotic transmission.

  7. Arranging the bouquet of disease: floral traits and the transmission of plant and animal pathogens.

    PubMed

    McArt, Scott H; Koch, Hauke; Irwin, Rebecca E; Adler, Lynn S

    2014-05-01

    Several floral microbes are known to be pathogenic to plants or floral visitors such as pollinators. Despite the ecological and economic importance of pathogens deposited in flowers, we often lack a basic understanding of how floral traits influence disease transmission. Here, we provide the first systematic review regarding how floral traits attract vectors (for plant pathogens) or hosts (for animal pathogens), mediate disease establishment and evolve under complex interactions with plant mutualists that can be vectors for microbial antagonists. Attraction of floral visitors is influenced by numerous phenological, morphological and chemical traits, and several plant pathogens manipulate floral traits to attract vectors. There is rapidly growing interest in how floral secondary compounds and antimicrobial enzymes influence disease establishment in plant hosts. Similarly, new research suggests that consumption of floral secondary compounds can reduce pathogen loads in animal pollinators. Given recent concerns about pollinator declines caused in part by pathogens, the role of floral traits in mediating pathogen transmission is a key area for further research. We conclude by discussing important implications of floral transmission of pathogens for agriculture, conservation and human health, suggesting promising avenues for future research in both basic and applied biology.

  8. Potential role of pet animals in household transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bramble, Manuel; Morris, Daniel; Tolomeo, Pam; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2011-06-01

    In this narrative review, we found numerous reports suggesting that dogs and cats may play a role in household methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission and recurrent MRSA infection in human contacts. Future work should emphasize elucidating more clearly the prevalence of MRSA in household pets and characterize transmission dynamics of MRSA humans and pet animals.

  9. Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils' relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW.

  10. Detection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy-specific PrP(Sc) by treatment with heat and guanidine thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R K; Oesch, B; Fatzer, R; Zurbriggen, A; Vandevelde, M

    1999-11-01

    The conversion of a ubiquitous cellular protein (PrP(C)), an isoform of the prion protein (PrP), to the pathology-associated isoform PrP(Sc) is one of the hallmarks of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Accumulation of PrP(Sc) has been used to diagnose BSE. Here we describe a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that involves antibodies against epitopes within the protease-resistant core of the PrP molecule to measure the amount of PrP in brain tissues from animals with BSE and normal controls. In native tissue preparations, little difference was found between the two groups. However, following treatment of the tissue with heat and guanidine thiocyanate (Gh treatment), the ELISA discriminated BSE-specific PrP(Sc) from PrP(C) in bovine brain homogenates. PrP(Sc) was identified by Western blot, centrifugation, and protease digestion experiments. It was thought that folding or complexing of PrP(Sc) is most probably reversed by the Gh treatment, making hidden antigenic sites accessible. The digestion experiments also showed that protease-resistant PrP in BSE is more difficult to detect than that in hamster scrapie. While the concentration of PrP(C) in cattle is similar to that in hamsters, PrP(Sc) sparse in comparison. The detection of PrP(Sc) by a simple physicochemical treatment without the need for protease digestion, as described in this study, could be applied to develop a diagnostic assay to screen large numbers of samples.

  11. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Legname, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions.

  12. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella. Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis, the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen. PMID:28386446

  13. Spongiform neurodegenerative disease in a Persian kitten.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, Claudia; Lossi, Laura; Arispici, Mario; Cantile, Carlo

    2007-06-01

    A congenital encephalopathy with spongiform degeneration and prominent neuronal apoptosis was observed in a 4-month-old Persian male cat with a history of depressed mental status and ataxia. On clinical examination, signs included right head tilt, ventroflexion of the head and neck, and tetraparesis. Histological examination of the central nervous system revealed multifocal, bilateral and symmetrical vacuolar degeneration of the neuropil, mainly involving the cerebellar and vestibular nuclei area, the caudal colliculi, the mesencephalic nuclei, the tegmental area and the deeper layer of the cerebral cortex. Accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilaments was detected in neuronal perikarya of the deep cortical layers, hippocampus and thalamus. Numerous pyknotic and apoptotic neurons were also observed in the cerebral cortex. These neuropathological changes differ from those observed in previous reports of spongiform degeneration of the grey matter in cats and were suggestive of a congenital neurodegenerative disease.

  14. Transcriptional changes in the brains of cattle orally infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent precede detection of infectivity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yue; Xiang, Wei; Hawkins, Steve A C; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Windl, Otto

    2009-09-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disease of cattle. BSE can be transmitted experimentally between cattle through the oral route, and in this study, brain tissue samples from animals at different time points postinoculation were analyzed for changes in gene expression. The aims of this study were to identify differentially regulated genes during the progression of BSE using microarray-based gene expression profiling and to understand the effect of prion pathogenesis on gene expression. A total of 114 genes were found to be differentially regulated over the time course of the infection, and many of these 114 genes encode proteins involved in immune response, apoptosis, cell adhesion, stress response, and transcription. This study also revealed a broad correlation between gene expression profiles and the progression of BSE in cattle. At 21 months postinoculation, the largest number of differentially regulated genes was detected, suggesting that there are many pathogenic processes in the animal brain even prior to the detection of infectivity in the central nervous systems of these orally infected cattle. Moreover, evidence is presented to suggest that it is possible to predict the infectious status of animals using the expression profiles from this study.

  15. Direct costs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy control measures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Probst, C; Gethmann, J M; Heuser, R; Niemann, H; Conraths, F J

    2013-12-01

    On 26 November 2000, the first autochthonous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in Germany. Since then, a total of 413 BSE cases have been confirmed, resulting in the culling and destruction of 17 313 heads of cattle. In view of the possible risks for human and animal health, Germany has adopted EU regulations along with some additional requirements concerning active surveillance and response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal. In this study, we used a stochastic model to estimate the costs incurred by the ensuing legislative amendments responding to BSE between November 2000 and December 2010. The total costs were estimated to range between 1847 and 2094 million Euros. They peaked in 2001 (about 394 million Euros) and declined since. About 54% of the costs (approximately 1000 million Euros) were incurred by the extension of the feed ban for animal protein to all farmed livestock. Active surveillance accounted for 21% (405 million Euros), the incineration of animal protein for 13% (249 million Euros) and the removal of specified risk material for 11% (225 million Euros). Only 1% of the costs was related to response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal, including indemnity payments for culled cattle and confiscated carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

  16. Risks of transmitting ruminant spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases) by semen and embryo transfer techniques.

    PubMed

    Wrathall, A E; Holyoak, G R; Parsonson, I M; Simmons, H A

    2008-09-15

    Early experiments suggested that scrapie transmission via sheep embryos was a possibility, and gave rise to much controversy. However, when account is taken of the complex genetic effects on ovine susceptibility to scrapie, and of the several different scrapie strains with different clinical and pathological effects, the overall conclusion now is that transmission of classical scrapie by embryo transfer is very unlikely if appropriate precautions are taken. Recent embryo transfer studies have confirmed this. Other studies in sheep have shown that from about the middle of pregnancy the placental trophoblast is liable to scrapie infection in genetically susceptible ewes if the fetus is also susceptible. Since the contrary is also true, use of resistant ewes as embryo recipients could add to the safety of the embryo transfer, at least for classical scrapie. There has been little recent research on scrapie transmission via semen in sheep, and, with hindsight, the early studies, though negative, were inadequate. There is scant information on scrapie transfer via goat semen or embryos, although one study did find that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was not transmitted via goat embryos. In cattle it has been shown that, if appropriate precautions are taken, the risks of transmitting BSE via semen and in vivo-derived embryos are negligible, and this conclusion has gained worldwide acceptance. Research on TSE transmission via reproductive technologies in deer has not yet been done, but information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, and on transmission risks in other species, provides optimism that transmission of CWD via semen and embryos of deer is unlikely. The presence of TSE infectivity in blood and various other tissues of infected animals, particularly sheep, gives rise to concerns that certain biological products currently used in reproductive technologies, e.g. pituitary gonadotrophins for superovulation, and

  17. Estimating the Relative Role of Various Subcategories of Food, Water, and Animal Contact Transmission of 28 Enteric Diseases in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Ainslie J.; Thomas, M. Kate

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Enteric illness represents a significant burden of illness in Canada and internationally. Building on previous research, an expert elicitation was undertaken to explore the routes of transmission for 28 pathogens involved in enteric illness in Canada. This article considers the subcategories of foodborne, waterborne, and animal contact transmission. Methods: As part of an expert elicitation, 31 experts were asked to provide estimates of source attribution for subcategories of foodborne (n = 15), waterborne (n = 10), and animal contact (n = 3) transmission. The results from an online survey were combined using triangular probability distributions, and median and 90% credible intervals were produced. The total proportion and estimated number of cases of enteric illness attributable to each type of food commodity, water source, and animal exposure route were calculated using results from the larger elicitation survey and from a recent Canadian foodborne burden of illness study (Thomas et al., 2013). Results: Thirty experts provided foodborne subcategory estimates for 15/28 pathogens, waterborne subcategory estimates for 14/28 pathogens and animal contact subcategory estimates for 5/28. The elicitation identified raw produce, recreational water, and farm animal contact as important risk factors for enteric illness. These results also highlighted the complexity of transmission, with greater uncertainty for certain pathogens and routes of transmission. Conclusions: This study is the first of its kind to explore subcategories of foodborne, waterborne, and animal contact transmission across such a range of enteric pathogens. Despite inherent uncertainty, these estimates present an important quantitative synthesis of the roles of foodborne commodities, water sources, and pathways of animal contact in the transmission of enteric illness in Canada. PMID:26863428

  18. Evidence of subclinical prion disease in aged mice following exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Karen L; Mabbott, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) disease in humans was almost certainly the result of consumption of food contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions. Despite probable widespread exposure of the UK population to BSE-contaminated food in the 1980s, vCJD has been identified predominantly in young individuals, and there have been fewer cases of clinical disease than anticipated. The reasons for this are uncertain. Following peripheral exposure, many prions replicate within the lymphoid tissues before infecting the central nervous system. We have shown that the effects of host age on the microarchitecture of the spleen significantly impair susceptibility to mouse-adapted prions after peripheral exposure. The transmission of prions between different mammalian species is considered to be limited by the 'species barrier', which is dependent on several factors, including an intact immune system. Thus, cross-species prion transmission may be much less efficient in aged individuals. To test this hypothesis, we compared prion pathogenesis in groups of young (6-8 weeks old) and aged (600 days old) mice injected with primary BSE brain homogenate. We showed that prion pathogenesis was impaired dramatically in aged mice when compared with young animals. Whereas most young mice succumbed to clinical prion disease, all aged mice failed to develop clinical disease during their lifespans. However, the demonstration that prion accumulation was detected in the lymphoid tissues of some aged mice after injection with primary BSE brain homogenate, in the absence of clinical signs of prion disease, has important implications for human health.

  19. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of the Retina for the Screening of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Graham, Catherine; Czub, Stefanie; Dudas, Sandor; Rasmussen, Mark A; Casey, Thomas A; Petrich, Jacob W

    2016-01-13

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are progressive, neurodegenerative disorders, of which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is of special concern because it is infectious and debilitating to humans. The possibility of using fluorescence spectroscopy to screen for BSE in cattle was explored. Fluorescence spectra from the retinas of experimentally infected BSE-positive cattle with clinical disease were compared with those from both sham-inoculated and non-inoculated BSE-negative cattle. The distinct intensity difference of about 4-10-fold between the spectra of the BSE-positive and the BSE-negative (sham-inoculated and non-inoculated) eyes suggests the basis for a means of developing a rapid, noninvasive examination of BSE in particular and TSEs in general.

  20. Shell disorder, immune evasion and transmission behaviors among human and animal retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Goh, Gerard Kian-Meng; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-08-01

    This study involves measurements of percentages of intrinsic disorder (PIDs) in the GAG protein shells of various retroviruses. Unique patterns of shell protein disorder can be seen especially when GAG proteins (matrix M, capsid C, and nucleocapsid N) of primate and non-primate retroviruses are compared. HIV-1 presents the most unique pattern of disorder distribution with generally high levels of disorder in all three proteins, while EIAV (PIDs:: 26, 29, 13) is diametrically different from HIV-1 (N C M PIDs: 39.5 ± 3.0, 44.5 ± 2.6, 56.5 ± 10.8). The HTLV viruses (CPID: 32.8 ± 3.4) resemble HIV-2 (C PID: 26.6 ± 2.9) with a moderately disordered capsid. Totally distinct patterns, however, are seen for the non-primate retroviruses. They generally have highly disordered nucleocapsids (PID > 65%) and more ordered outer shells especially the matrix. These characteristics might be attributed to the differences in the way the retroviruses are transmitted, with non-primate viruses having greater non-sexual transmission components such as oral-fecal transmission. These differences are also evolutionarily related to the ways the viruses evade the host immune systems, and thus, have implications for oncolytic virotherapy and animal models in vaccine research. The importance of protein shell disorder in immune evasion, as related to the case of HIV-1, and the difficult search for its vaccines are highlighted.

  1. Vertical transmission and fetal damage in animal models of congenital toxoplasmosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Besné-Mérida, Alejandro; Correa, Dolores

    2016-06-15

    In humans, the probability of congenital infection and fetal damage due to Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on the gestation period at which primary infection occurs. Many animal models have been used for vaccine, drug testing, or studies on host or parasite factors that affect transmission or fetal pathology, but few works have directly tested fetal infection and damage rates along gestation. So, the purpose of this work was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine if there is a model which reflects these changes as they occur in humans. We looked for papers appearing between 1970 and 2014 in major databases like Medline and Scopus, as well as gray literature. From almost 11,000 citations obtained, only 49 papers fulfilled the criteria of having data of all independent variables and at least one dependent datum for control (untreated) groups. Some interesting findings could be extracted. For example, pigs seem resistant and sheep susceptible to congenital infection. Also, oocysts cause more congenitally infected offspring than tissue cysts, bradyzoites or tachyzoites. In spite of these interesting findings, very few results on vertical transmission or fetal damage rates were similar to those described for humans and only for one of the gestation thirds, not all. Moreover, in most designs tissue cysts - with unknown number of bradyzoites - were used, so actual dose could not be established. The meta-analysis could not be performed, mainly because of great heterogeneity in experimental conditions. Nevertheless, results gathered suggest that a model could be designed to represent the increase in vertical transmission and decrease in fetal damage found in humans under natural conditions.

  2. [Biology of non-conventional transmissible agents or prions].

    PubMed

    Dormont, D

    1998-02-01

    Transmissible subacute spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are a group of human and animal diseases which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Straüssler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Kuru, fatal familial insomnia (FFI), scrapie in sheep and goat, mink and feline transmissible encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease, and bovine spongiforme encephalopathy (BSE). TSE are transmissible among individuals of the same species and some of different species. These diseases stem from a specific category of agents that have biological and physiochemical characteristics unlike other micro-organisms; they are known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agent (TSA), prions, or virinos. So far, despite considerable progress made in the molecular biology toward the understanding of neurological injury, the nature of the TSA/prions remains unknown. TSE are characterised by the pathognomic accumulation, within the central nervous system of the infected individual, of a normal protein from the host organism, the PrP (prion protein). Differences between the PrP isolated from normal individuals (PrP-c) and PrP isolated from infected individuals (PrP-res) have been investigated. There are no differences in the sequence in amino acids, and the secondary structure seems identical, but since normal PrP is totally degraded by proteinase K pathological PrP resists to enzymatic digestion. One can therefore describe two PrP isoforms: a normal isoform, the PrP-c (c for cellular), sensitive to proteinase K and present in the normal individual and in the infected patients or animals: and a pathological isoform, the PrP-res, resistant to proteinase K and present in amount proportional to the infectivity in the brains of infected individuals. The presence of TSA/prions is detectable in the spleens of infected animals early after inoculation; it is then present in the CNS following a period not exceeding a half of the total length of the experimental disease. In the CNS, PrP-res is the

  3. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

    PubMed Central

    Comoy, Emmanuel E.; Mikol, Jacqueline; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Correia, Evelyne; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Durand, Valérie; Dehen, Capucine; Andreoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Baron, Thierry; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie. PMID:26123044

  4. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period.

    PubMed

    Comoy, Emmanuel E; Mikol, Jacqueline; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Correia, Evelyne; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Durand, Valérie; Dehen, Capucine; Andreoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A; Greenlee, Justin J; Baron, Thierry; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-30

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

  5. Genotype-dependent molecular evolution of sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions in vitro affects their zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Krejciova, Zuzana; Barria, Marcelo A; Jones, Michael; Ironside, James W; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo; Head, Mark W

    2014-09-19

    Prion diseases are rare fatal neurological conditions of humans and animals, one of which (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is known to be a zoonotic form of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). What makes one animal prion disease zoonotic and others not is poorly understood, but it appears to involve compatibility between the prion strain and the host prion protein sequence. Concerns have been raised that the United Kingdom sheep flock may have been exposed to BSE early in the cattle BSE epidemic and that serial BSE transmission in sheep might have resulted in adaptation of the agent, which may have come to phenotypically resemble scrapie while maintaining its pathogenicity for humans. We have modeled this scenario in vitro. Extrapolation from our results suggests that if BSE were to infect sheep in the field it may, with time and in some sheep genotypes, become scrapie-like at the molecular level. However, the results also suggest that if BSE in sheep were to come to resemble scrapie it would lose its ability to affect humans.

  6. A mathematical framework for estimating pathogen transmission fitness and inoculum size using data from a competitive mixtures animal model.

    PubMed

    McCaw, James M; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Hurt, Aeron C; McVernon, Jodie; McLean, Angela R

    2011-04-01

    We present a method to measure the relative transmissibility ("transmission fitness") of one strain of a pathogen compared to another. The model is applied to data from "competitive mixtures" experiments in which animals are co-infected with a mixture of two strains. We observe the mixture in each animal over time and over multiple generations of transmission. We use data from influenza experiments in ferrets to demonstrate the approach. Assessment of the relative transmissibility between two strains of influenza is important in at least three contexts: 1) Within the human population antigenically novel strains of influenza arise and compete for susceptible hosts. 2) During a pandemic event, a novel sub-type of influenza competes with the existing seasonal strain(s). The unfolding epidemiological dynamics are dependent upon both the population's susceptibility profile and the inherent transmissibility of the novel strain compared to the existing strain(s). 3) Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), while providing significant potential to reduce transmission of influenza, exert selective pressure on the virus and so promote the emergence of drug-resistant strains. Any adverse outcome due to selection and subsequent spread of an NAI-resistant strain is exquisitely dependent upon the transmission fitness of that strain. Measurement of the transmission fitness of two competing strains of influenza is thus of critical importance in determining the likely time-course and epidemiology of an influenza outbreak, or the potential impact of an intervention measure such as NAI distribution. The mathematical framework introduced here also provides an estimate for the size of the transmitted inoculum. We demonstrate the framework's behaviour using data from ferret transmission studies, and through simulation suggest how to optimise experimental design for assessment of transmissibility. The method introduced here for assessment of mixed transmission events has applicability beyond

  7. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in small animal veterinarians: indirect evidence of zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Paul, N C; Moodley, A; Ghibaudo, G; Guardabassi, L

    2011-12-01

    and proper preventative measures should be taken to avoid MRSP transmission from animal patients.

  8. Presence of subclinical infection in gene-targeted human prion protein transgenic mice exposed to atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Dobie, Karen; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M

    2013-12-01

    The transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to humans, leading to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health. Until recently, TSE disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, BSE, also known as classical BSE, or BSE-C. However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. To model the risk to human health, we previously inoculated these two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and BSE-H) into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP) (HuTg) but were unable to detect any signs of TSE pathology in these mice. However, despite the absence of TSE pathology, upon subpassage of some BASE-challenged HuTg mice, a TSE was observed in recipient gene-targeted bovine PrP Tg (Bov6) mice but not in HuTg mice. Disease transmission from apparently healthy individuals indicates the presence of subclinical BASE infection in mice expressing human PrP that cannot be identified by current diagnostic methods. However, due to the lack of transmission to HuTg mice on subpassage, the efficiency of mouse-to-mouse transmission of BASE appears to be low when mice express human rather than bovine PrP.

  9. Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy develop tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, P; Cervenak, J; Yakovleva, O; Gregori, L; Pomeroy, K; Cook, A; Muhammad, F S; Seuberlich, T; Cervenakova, L; Asher, D M

    2012-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were infected experimentally with the agent of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two to four years later, six of the monkeys developed alterations in interactive behaviour and cognition and other neurological signs typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). At necropsy examination, the brains from all of the monkeys showed pathological changes similar to those described in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) of man, except that the squirrel monkey brains contained no PrP-amyloid plaques typical of that disease. Constant neuropathological features included spongiform degeneration, gliosis, deposition of abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)) and many deposits of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein (p-Tau) in several areas of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Western blots showed large amounts of proteinase K-resistant prion protein in the central nervous system. The striking absence of PrP plaques (prominent in brains of cynomolgus macaques [Macaca fascicularis] with experimentally-induced BSE and vCJD and in human patients with vCJD) reinforces the conclusion that the host plays a major role in determining the neuropathology of TSEs. Results of this study suggest that p-Tau, found in the brains of all BSE-infected monkeys, might play a role in the pathogenesis of TSEs. Whether p-Tau contributes to development of disease or appears as a secondary change late in the course of illness remains to be determined.

  10. Sociality and health: impacts of sociality on disease susceptibility and transmission in animal and human societies.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Peter M; Cremer, Sylvia; Nunn, Charles L

    2015-05-26

    This paper introduces a theme issue presenting the latest developments in research on the impacts of sociality on health and fitness. The articles that follow cover research on societies ranging from insects to humans. Variation in measures of fitness (i.e. survival and reproduction) has been linked to various aspects of sociality in humans and animals alike, and variability in individual health and condition has been recognized as a key mediator of these relationships. Viewed from a broad evolutionary perspective, the evolutionary transitions from a solitary lifestyle to group living have resulted in several new health-related costs and benefits of sociality. Social transmission of parasites within groups represents a major cost of group living, but some behavioural mechanisms, such as grooming, have evolved repeatedly to reduce this cost. Group living also has created novel costs in terms of altered susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious disease as a result of the unavoidable physiological consequences of social competition and integration, which are partly alleviated by social buffering in some vertebrates. Here, we define the relevant aspects of sociality, summarize their health-related costs and benefits, and discuss possible fitness measures in different study systems. Given the pervasive effects of social factors on health and fitness, we propose a synthesis of existing conceptual approaches in disease ecology, ecological immunology and behavioural neurosciences by adding sociality as a key factor, with the goal to generate a broader framework for organismal integration of health-related research.

  11. Climate variability, animal reservoir and transmission of scrub typhus in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoning; Ma, Yu; Tao, Xia; Wu, Xinwei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the relationships between climate variability, animal reservoirs and scrub typhus incidence in Southern China. Methods We obtained data on scrub typhus cases in Guangzhou every month from 2006 to 2014 from the Chinese communicable disease network. Time-series Poisson regression models and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) were used to evaluate the relationship between risk factors and scrub typhus. Results Wavelet analysis found the incidence of scrub typhus cycled with a period of approximately 8–12 months and long-term trends with a period of approximately 24–36 months. The DLNM model shows that relative humidity, rainfall, DTR, MEI and rodent density were associated with the incidence of scrub typhus. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the incidence scrub typhus has two main temporal cycles. Determining the reason for this trend and how it can be used for disease control and prevention requires additional research. The transmission of scrub typhus is highly dependent on climate factors and rodent density, both of which should be considered in prevention and control strategies for scrub typhus. PMID:28273079

  12. Disrupted Glutamatergic Transmission in Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Behavioral Abnormality in an Animal Model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jia; Liu, Aiyi; Shi, Michael Y; Yan, Zhen

    2017-02-08

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used animal model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we sought to reveal the neuronal circuits and molecular basis of ADHD and its potential treatment using SHR. Combined electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, chemicogenetic and behavioral approaches were utilized. We found that AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) was diminished in SHR, which was correlated with the decreased surface expression of AMPAR subunits. Administration of methylphenidate (a psychostimulant drug used to treat ADHD), which blocks dopamine transporters and norepinephrine transporters, ameliorated the behavioral deficits of adolescent SHR and restored AMPAR-mediated synaptic function. Activation of PFC pyramidal neurons with a CaMKII-driven Gq-coupled DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) also led to the elevation of AMPAR function and the normalization of ADHD-like behaviors in SHR. These results suggest that the disrupted function of AMPARs in PFC may underlie the behavioral deficits in adolescent SHR and enhancing PFC activity could be a treatment strategy for ADHD.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 08 February 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.30.

  13. Epidemiological and Genetic Data Supporting the Transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among Human and Domestic Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Traub, Rebecca; Mahmud, Rohela; Mistam, Mohd Sani

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. Methods/Findings A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0–11.7%) and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2–71.2%), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53–8.00; p = 0.003), walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91–10.73; p<0.001) and in close contact with pets or livestock (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.19–7.15; p = 0.009) were more likely to be infected with hookworms. Molecular analysis revealed that while most hookworm-positive individuals were infected with Necator americanus, Ancylostoma ceylanicum constituted 12.8% of single infections and 10.6% mixed infections with N. americanus. As for cats and dogs, 52.0% were positive for A. ceylanicum, 46.0% for Ancylostoma caninum and 2.0% for Ancylostoma braziliense and all were single infections. Conclusion This present study provided evidence based on the combination of epidemiological, conventional diagnostic and molecular tools that A. ceylanicum infection is common and that its transmission dynamic in endemic areas in Malaysia is heightened by the close contact of human and domestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats) populations. PMID:22347515

  14. Phenotype shift from atypical scrapie to CH1641 following experimental transmission in sheep.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Marion M; Moore, S Jo; Lockey, Richard; Chaplin, Melanie J; Konold, Timm; Vickery, Christopher; Spiropoulos, John

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of host and infecting strain in ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are known to be complex, and have a profound effect on the resulting phenotype of disease. In contrast to classical scrapie, the pathology in naturally-occurring cases of atypical scrapie appears more consistent, regardless of genotype, and is preserved on transmission within sheep homologous for the prion protein (PRNP) gene. However, the stability of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy phenotypes on passage across and within species is not absolute, and there are reports in the literature where experimental transmissions of particular isolates have resulted in a phenotype consistent with a different strain. In this study, intracerebral inoculation of atypical scrapie between two genotypes both associated with susceptibility to atypical forms of disease resulted in one sheep displaying an altered phenotype with clinical, pathological, biochemical and murine bioassay characteristics all consistent with the classical scrapie strain CH1641, and distinct from the atypical scrapie donor, while the second sheep did not succumb to challenge. One of two sheep orally challenged with the same inoculum developed atypical scrapie indistinguishable from the donor. This study adds to the range of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy phenotype changes that have been reported following various different experimental donor-recipient combinations. While these circumstances may not arise through natural exposure to disease in the field, there is the potential for iatrogenic exposure should current disease surveillance and feed controls be relaxed. Future sheep to sheep transmission of atypical scrapie might lead to instances of disease with an alternative phenotype and onward transmission potential which may have adverse implications for both public health and animal disease control policies.

  15. Experimental inoculation of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with Spiroplasma mirum and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME).

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Stanton, Thad B; Smith, Jodi D; Doucette, Stephanie; Kunkle, Robert A; Stasko, Judith A; Richt, Juergen A; Kehrli, Marcus E

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether or not Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) when inoculated in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and, if that was possible, to compare the clinicopathological findings with those of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in the same experimental model. For this purpose, 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or TME. Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits served as sham-inoculated controls. All animals inoculated with TME, either alone or in combination, showed clinical signs of neurologic disorder and were euthanized within 6 mo post-inoculation (MPI). None of the carcasses revealed gross lesions. Spongiform encephalopathy was observed by light microscopy and the presence of abnormal disease-causing prion protein (PrP(d)) was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB) techniques in only the raccoons administered TME. Raccoons inoculated with Spiroplasma, but not administered TME agent, were euthanized at 30 MPI. They did not show clinical neurologic signs, their brains did not have lesions of spongiform encephalopathy, and their tissues were negative for S. mirum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for PrP(d) by IHC and WB techniques. The results of this study indicate that Spiroplasma mirum does not induce TSE-like disease in raccoons.

  16. Reverse Zoonotic Disease Transmission (Zooanthroponosis): A Systematic Review of Seldom-Documented Human Biological Threats to Animals

    PubMed Central

    Messenger, Ali M.; Barnes, Amber N.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research regarding zoonotic diseases often focuses on infectious diseases animals have given to humans. However, an increasing number of reports indicate that humans are transmitting pathogens to animals. Recent examples include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, influenza A virus, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of published literature regarding reverse zoonoses and highlight the need for future work in this area. Methods An initial broad literature review yielded 4763 titles, of which 4704 were excluded as not meeting inclusion criteria. After careful screening, 56 articles (from 56 countries over three decades) with documented human-to-animal disease transmission were included in this report. Findings In these publications, 21 (38%) pathogens studied were bacterial, 16 (29%) were viral, 12 (21%) were parasitic, and 7 (13%) were fungal, other, or involved multiple pathogens. Effected animals included wildlife (n = 28, 50%), livestock (n = 24, 43%), companion animals (n = 13, 23%), and various other animals or animals not explicitly mentioned (n = 2, 4%). Published reports of reverse zoonoses transmission occurred in every continent except Antarctica therefore indicating a worldwide disease threat. Interpretation As we see a global increase in industrial animal production, the rapid movement of humans and animals, and the habitats of humans and wild animals intertwining with great complexity, the future promises more opportunities for humans to cause reverse zoonoses. Scientific research must be conducted in this area to provide a richer understanding of emerging and reemerging disease threats. As a result, multidisciplinary approaches such as One Health will be needed to mitigate these problems. PMID:24586500

  17. Retinal Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Diagnosis of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tissue provides optical signatures that can be detected with great sensitivity. The fundamental hypothesis proposed in this study was that diseased or damaged central nervous system (CNS) tissue produces optical signals that can be detected and made useful for diagnosti...

  18. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy induces misfolding of alleged prion-resistant species cellular prion protein without altering its pathobiological features.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Enric; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Pintado, Belén; Ordóñez, Montserrat; Márquez, Mercedes; Fondevila, Dolors; Torres, Juan María; Pumarola, Martí; Castilla, Joaquín

    2013-05-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions were responsible for an unforeseen epizootic in cattle which had a vast social, economic, and public health impact. This was primarily because BSE prions were found to be transmissible to humans. Other species were also susceptible to BSE either by natural infection (e.g., felids, caprids) or in experimental settings (e.g., sheep, mice). However, certain species closely related to humans, such as canids and leporids, were apparently resistant to BSE. In vitro prion amplification techniques (saPMCA) were used to successfully misfold the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) of these allegedly resistant species into a BSE-type prion protein. The biochemical and biological properties of the new prions generated in vitro after seeding rabbit and dog brain homogenates with classical BSE were studied. Pathobiological features of the resultant prion strains were determined after their inoculation into transgenic mice expressing bovine and human PrP(C). Strain characteristics of the in vitro-adapted rabbit and dog BSE agent remained invariable with respect to the original cattle BSE prion, suggesting that the naturally low susceptibility of rabbits and dogs to prion infections should not alter their zoonotic potential if these animals became infected with BSE. This study provides a sound basis for risk assessment regarding prion diseases in purportedly resistant species.

  19. Nonverbal and verbal transmission of disgust from mothers to offspring: effects on children's evaluation of a novel animal.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; Borth, Maraike; Vos, Maruschka

    2013-06-01

    This study examined parent-offspring communication of disgust-related information and its effects on children's feelings of disgust and fear towards an animal. Mothers were instructed to provide information about a novel animal to their children (N=60) by studying in secrecy either disgusting or neutral attributes that were allegedly characteristic of this animal. First, mothers were instructed to do this in a nonverbal way; then they were also allowed to use verbal utterances. Results indicated that nonverbal communication of disgust by the mothers failed to produce any effects on offspring's subjective evaluations of the animal. However, verbal information transmission did have a differential impact on children's feelings of disgust and fear. That is, children to whom mothers had verbally communicated about a set of disgusting specimens not only displayed higher levels of disgust (Cohen's d=1.02) but also exhibited higher levels of fear (Cohen's d=.62) towards the novel animal as compared to children to whom mothers had verbally communicated about neutral specimens. The effect on fear was mainly due to the fact that children after the verbal neutral information exhibited a clear decline in fear, whereas children to whom mothers had provided verbal disgust information maintained a similar level of fear towards the animal. The implications of these results for the familial transmission of disgust and fear will be discussed.

  20. Assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice overexpressing deer prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Christopher M; Lockey, Richard; Holder, Thomas M; Thorne, Leigh; Beck, Katy E; Wilson, Christina; Denyer, Margaret; Sheehan, John; Marsh, Sarah; Webb, Paul R; Dexter, Ian; Norman, Angela; Popescu, Emma; Schneider, Amanda; Holden, Paul; Griffiths, Peter C; Plater, Jane M; Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Telling, Glenn C; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

    2014-02-01

    Several transgenic mouse models have been developed which facilitate the transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids and allow prion strain discrimination. The present study was designed to assess the susceptibility of the prototypic mouse line, Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-), to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, which have the ability to overcome species barriers. Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-) mice challenged with red deer-adapted BSE resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and BSE from cattle failed to transmit, indicating agent adaptation in the deer.

  1. Increased susceptibility of transgenic mice expressing human PrP to experimental sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy is not due to increased agent titre in sheep brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Plinston, Chris; Hart, Patricia; Hunter, Nora; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2014-08-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans have previously been shown to be caused by the same strain of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agent. It is hypothesized that the agent spread to humans following consumption of food products prepared from infected cattle. Despite evidence supporting zoonotic transmission, mouse models expressing human prion protein (HuTg) have consistently shown poor transmission rates when inoculated with cattle BSE. Higher rates of transmission have however been observed when these mice are exposed to BSE that has been experimentally transmitted through sheep or goats, indicating that humans may potentially be more susceptible to BSE from small ruminants. Here we demonstrate that increased transmissibility of small ruminant BSE to HuTg mice was not due to replication of higher levels of infectivity in sheep brain tissue, and is instead due to other specific changes in the infectious agent.

  2. Prion and prion-like diseases in animals.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; García, Consolación; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Andreoletti, Olivier; Torres, Juan María

    2015-09-02

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopaties (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the aggregation and accumulation of the misfolded prion protein in the brain. Other proteins such as β-amyloid, tau or Serum Amyloid-A (SAA) seem to share with prions some aspects of their pathogenic mechanism; causing a variety of so called prion-like diseases in humans and/or animals such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, Type II diabetes mellitus or amyloidosis. The question remains whether these misfolding proteins have the ability to self-propagate and transmit in a similar manner to prions. In this review, we describe the prion and prion-like diseases affecting animals as well as the recent findings suggesting the prion-like transmissibility of certain non-prion proteins.

  3. Does the Presence of Scrapie Affect the Ability of Current Statutory Discriminatory Tests To Detect the Presence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, M. J.; Vickery, C. M.; Simon, S.; Davis, L.; Denyer, M.; Lockey, R.; Stack, M. J.; O'Connor, M. J.; Bishop, K.; Gough, K. C.; Maddison, B. C.; Thorne, L.; Spiropoulos, J.

    2015-01-01

    Current European Commission (EC) surveillance regulations require discriminatory testing of all transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-positive small ruminant (SR) samples in order to classify them as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or non-BSE. This requires a range of tests, including characterization by bioassay in mouse models. Since 2005, naturally occurring BSE has been identified in two goats. It has also been demonstrated that more than one distinct TSE strain can coinfect a single animal in natural field situations. This study assesses the ability of the statutory methods as listed in the regulation to identify BSE in a blinded series of brain samples, in which ovine BSE and distinct isolates of scrapie are mixed at various ratios ranging from 99% to 1%. Additionally, these current statutory tests were compared with a new in vitro discriminatory method, which uses serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). Western blotting consistently detected 50% BSE within a mixture, but at higher dilutions it had variable success. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method consistently detected BSE only when it was present as 99% of the mixture, with variable success at higher dilutions. Bioassay and sPMCA reported BSE in all samples where it was present, down to 1%. sPMCA also consistently detected the presence of BSE in mixtures at 0.1%. While bioassay is the only validated method that allows comprehensive phenotypic characterization of an unknown TSE isolate, the sPMCA assay appears to offer a fast and cost-effective alternative for the screening of unknown isolates when the purpose of the investigation was solely to determine the presence or absence of BSE. PMID:26041899

  4. Does the Presence of Scrapie Affect the Ability of Current Statutory Discriminatory Tests To Detect the Presence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

    PubMed

    Simmons, M M; Chaplin, M J; Vickery, C M; Simon, S; Davis, L; Denyer, M; Lockey, R; Stack, M J; O'Connor, M J; Bishop, K; Gough, K C; Maddison, B C; Thorne, L; Spiropoulos, J

    2015-08-01

    Current European Commission (EC) surveillance regulations require discriminatory testing of all transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-positive small ruminant (SR) samples in order to classify them as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or non-BSE. This requires a range of tests, including characterization by bioassay in mouse models. Since 2005, naturally occurring BSE has been identified in two goats. It has also been demonstrated that more than one distinct TSE strain can coinfect a single animal in natural field situations. This study assesses the ability of the statutory methods as listed in the regulation to identify BSE in a blinded series of brain samples, in which ovine BSE and distinct isolates of scrapie are mixed at various ratios ranging from 99% to 1%. Additionally, these current statutory tests were compared with a new in vitro discriminatory method, which uses serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). Western blotting consistently detected 50% BSE within a mixture, but at higher dilutions it had variable success. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method consistently detected BSE only when it was present as 99% of the mixture, with variable success at higher dilutions. Bioassay and sPMCA reported BSE in all samples where it was present, down to 1%. sPMCA also consistently detected the presence of BSE in mixtures at 0.1%. While bioassay is the only validated method that allows comprehensive phenotypic characterization of an unknown TSE isolate, the sPMCA assay appears to offer a fast and cost-effective alternative for the screening of unknown isolates when the purpose of the investigation was solely to determine the presence or absence of BSE.

  5. Transmission and dose-response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Andrew J K; Line, John E; Hiett, Kelli; Coward, Chris; Van Diemen, Pauline M; Stevens, Mark P; Jones, Michael A; Gog, Julia R; Maskell, Duncan J

    2011-12-07

    Dose-response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. These experiments are routinely used to estimate the minimum effective infectious dose for an infectious agent, which is most commonly characterized by the dose at which 50 per cent of challenged hosts become infected-the ID(50). In turn, the ID(50) is often used to compare between different agents and quantify the effect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose-response data typically makes the assumption that hosts within a given dose group are independent. For social animals, in particular avian species, hosts are routinely housed together in groups during experimental studies. For experiments with non-infectious agents, this poses no practical or theoretical problems. However, transmission of infectious agents between co-housed animals will modify the observed dose-response relationship with implications for the estimation of the ID(50) and the comparison between different agents and treatments. We derive a simple correction to the likelihood for standard dose-response models that allows us to estimate dose-response and transmission parameters simultaneously. We use this model to show that: transmission between co-housed animals reduces the apparent value of the ID(50) and increases the variability between replicates leading to a distinctive all-or-nothing response; in terms of the total number of animals used, individual housing is always the most efficient experimental design for ascertaining dose-response relationships; estimates of transmission from previously published experimental data for Campylobacter spp. in chickens suggest that considerable transmission occurred, greatly increasing the uncertainty in the estimates of dose-response parameters reported in the literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that accounting for transmission in the analysis of dose-response data for Campylobacter spp. challenges our current understanding of the

  6. Transmission and dose–response experiments for social animals: a reappraisal of the colonization biology of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, Andrew J. K.; Line, John E.; Hiett, Kelli; Coward, Chris; Van Diemen, Pauline M.; Stevens, Mark P.; Jones, Michael A.; Gog, Julia R.; Maskell, Duncan J.

    2011-01-01

    Dose–response experiments characterize the relationship between infectious agents and their hosts. These experiments are routinely used to estimate the minimum effective infectious dose for an infectious agent, which is most commonly characterized by the dose at which 50 per cent of challenged hosts become infected—the ID50. In turn, the ID50 is often used to compare between different agents and quantify the effect of treatment regimes. The statistical analysis of dose–response data typically makes the assumption that hosts within a given dose group are independent. For social animals, in particular avian species, hosts are routinely housed together in groups during experimental studies. For experiments with non-infectious agents, this poses no practical or theoretical problems. However, transmission of infectious agents between co-housed animals will modify the observed dose–response relationship with implications for the estimation of the ID50 and the comparison between different agents and treatments. We derive a simple correction to the likelihood for standard dose–response models that allows us to estimate dose–response and transmission parameters simultaneously. We use this model to show that: transmission between co-housed animals reduces the apparent value of the ID50 and increases the variability between replicates leading to a distinctive all-or-nothing response; in terms of the total number of animals used, individual housing is always the most efficient experimental design for ascertaining dose–response relationships; estimates of transmission from previously published experimental data for Campylobacter spp. in chickens suggest that considerable transmission occurred, greatly increasing the uncertainty in the estimates of dose–response parameters reported in the literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that accounting for transmission in the analysis of dose–response data for Campylobacter spp. challenges our current understanding of

  7. Reducing foodborne pathogen persistence and transmission in animal production environments: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest strategies to reduce zoonotic pathogens in food animals are important components of the farm-to-table food safety continuum. The problem is complex; there are multiple pathogens of concern, multiple animal species under different production and management systems, and a variety of source...

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided inoculation of transmissible venereal tumor in the colon: A large animal model for colon neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Manoop S.; Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Suzuki, Rei; Shetty, Anil; Klumpp, Sherry A.; Nau, William; Stafford, Roger Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background: To develop and evaluate the feasibility of emerging interventions, animal models with accurate anatomical environment are required. Objectives: We aimed to establish a clinically relevant colorectal tumor model with canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) utilizing endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging guidance. Design: Survival study using a canine model. Setting: Endoscopic animal research laboratory at a tertiary cancer center. Materials and Methods: This study involved five canines. Interventions: A colorectal tumor model was established and evaluated in five canines under cyclosporine immune suppression. Under endoscopic imaging guidance, saline was injected into the submucosal layer forming a bleb. Subsequently, CTVT was inoculated into the bleb under EUS guidance. Endoscopy was the primary method of assessing tumor growth. Tumors developed in 60-130 days. Upon detection of lesions >1 cm, the animals were euthanized and the tumors were harvested for histopathological characterization. Main outcome measurements: Success rate of tumor growth. The presence or absence of vasculature inside tumors. Results: Colorectal tumor successfully developed in three out of the five animals (60%). Among the ones with tumor growth, average inoculated CTVT volume, incubation time, and tumor size was 1.8 cc, 65.7 days, and 2.0 cm, respectively. The two animals without tumor growth were observed for >100 days. In all the tumors, vascular structure was characterized with CD31 imunohistochemical stain. Limitations: Small number of animals. Conclusion: We succeeded in creating a new colorectal tumor canine model with CTVT utilizing EUS. PMID:27080606

  9. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in South America: a regional preventive approach.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, C; Gimeno, E J; Schudel, A A

    2003-04-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease of cattle caused by prions that was first described in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986. The BSE epizootic that commenced in the UK in the 1980s has since spread into other countries in Europe and Asia through exports of contaminated meat-and-bone meal or infected cattle. Over the past few years, other emerging or reemerging diseases have spread into previously free countries or regions through international trade. This negative effect of globalisation means that to implement successful preventive and strategic programmes to safeguard animal health, such programmes must, as a priority, take a regional approach. Global thinking, regional planning and local performance constitute the key factors for the successful control of animal diseases. In South America, initial preventive actions against BSE were adopted in 1989. Further measures adopted since then and based on new scientific and technical findings, have led to the demonstration that the region is free of BSE. These early preventive actions have reliably protected the region from importing BSE-infected material. An integral part of the project to determine the BSE status of South America was the training of personnel, the incorporation of technology and the provision of updated information through close relationships with international organisations and prominent international researcher workers. Regional activities aimed at harmonising BSE prevention programmes, producing objective and transparent data on the equivalence of regional BSE status and facilitating regional and international trade have recently been launched. Maintaining the BSE-free status of the region must be given high priority by the beef agro-industrial sectors.

  10. 9 CFR 95.4 - Restrictions on the importation of processed animal protein, offal, tankage, fat, glands, certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... blood and blood products due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 95.4 Section 95.4 Animals and Animal... derivatives, and blood and blood products due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Except as provided in... the importation can be made under conditions that will prevent the introduction of bovine...

  11. 9 CFR 95.4 - Restrictions on the importation of processed animal protein, offal, tankage, fat, glands, certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... blood and blood products due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 95.4 Section 95.4 Animals and Animal... derivatives, and blood and blood products due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Except as provided in...) Glands, unprocessed fat tissue, and blood and blood products derived from ruminants; (iii) Processed...

  12. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  13. [Vancomycin-resistant enterococci - the nature of resistance and risk of transmission from animals to humans].

    PubMed

    Hermanovská, Lýdia; Bardoň, Jan; Čermák, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora of humans and animals. Under certain circumstances, they are capable of extraintestinal conversion to opportunistic pathogens. They cause endogenous as well as exogenous community and nosocomial infections. The gastrointestinal tract of mammals provides them with favorable conditions for acquisition and spread of resistance genes, for example to vancomycin (van), from other symbiotic bacteria. Thus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) become potential reservoirs and vectors of the van genes. Their occurrence in the population of the Czech Republic was first reported by Kolář et al. in 1997. Some variants of the vanA gene cluster carried on Tn1546 which encode resistance to vancomycin are identical in humans and in animals. It means that animals, especially cattle, poultry and pigs, could be an important reservoir of VRE for humans. Kolář and Bardoň detected VRE in animals in the Czech Republic for the first time in 2000. In Europe, the glycopeptide antibiotic avoparcin, used as a growth stimulator, is responsible for selection of VRE strains in animals. Strains of Enterococcus faecium from animals may offer genes of antimicrobial resistance to other enterococci or they can be directly dangerous to human. This is demonstrated by finding isolates of E. faecalis from human patients and from pigs having very similar profiles of resistance and virulence genes. The goal of the paper was to point out the similarity between isolates of human and animal strains of enterococci resistant to vancomycin, and the possibility of their bilateral transfer between humans and animals.

  14. Increased morbidity and mortality in domestic animals eating dropped and bitten fruit in Bangladeshi villages: Implications for zoonotic disease transmission

    PubMed Central

    Openshaw, John J.; Hegde, Sonia; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Daszak, Peter; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We used data on feeding practices and domestic animal health gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to identify any association between grazing dropped fruit found on the ground or owners directly feeding bat or bird-bitten fruit and animal health. We compared mortality and morbidity in domestic animals using a mixed effects model controlling for village clustering, herd size, and proxy measures of household wealth. Thirty percent of household heads reported that their animals grazed on dropped fruit and 20% reported that they actively fed bitten fruit to their domestic herds. Household heads allowing their cattle to graze on dropped fruit were more likely to report an illness within their herd (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.31). Household heads directly feeding goats bitten fruit were more likely to report illness (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.57) and deaths (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.4). Reporting of illnesses and deaths among goats rose as the frequency of feeding bitten fruit increased. One possible explanation for this finding is the transmission of bat pathogens to domestic animals via bitten fruit consumption. PMID:26668032

  15. Increased Morbidity and Mortality in Domestic Animals Eating Dropped and Bitten Fruit in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, John J; Hegde, Sonia; Sazzad, Hossain M S; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hossain, M Jahangir; Epstein, Jonathan H; Daszak, Peter; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P

    2016-03-01

    We used data on feeding practices and domestic animal health gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to identify any association between grazing dropped fruit found on the ground or owners directly feeding bat- or bird-bitten fruit and animal health. We compared mortality and morbidity in domestic animals using a mixed effects model controlling for village clustering, herd size, and proxy measures of household wealth. Thirty percent of household heads reported that their animals grazed on dropped fruit and 20% reported that they actively fed bitten fruit to their domestic herds. Household heads allowing their cattle to graze on dropped fruit were more likely to report an illness within their herd (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.31). Household heads directly feeding goats bitten fruit were more likely to report illness (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.57) and deaths (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.4). Reporting of illnesses and deaths among goats rose as the frequency of feeding bitten fruit increased. One possible explanation for this finding is the transmission of bat pathogens to domestic animals via bitten fruit consumption.

  16. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Comments on the proposed rule were required to......

  17. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meals in animal feed by real-time polymerase chain reaction: result of an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marta; Berben, Gilbert; Fumière, Olivier; van Duijn, Gert; Mensinga-Kruize, Jonne; Reaney, Scott; Boix, Ana; von Holst, Christoph

    2007-09-05

    The commercialization of animal feeds infected by prions proved to be the main cause of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, feed bans were enforced, initially for ruminant feeds, and later for all feeds for farmed animals. The development and validation of analytical methods for the species-specific detection of animal proteins in animal feed has been indicated in the TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) Roadmap (European Commission. The TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy) roadmap. URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/food/biosafety/bse/roadmap_en.pdf, 2005) as the main condition for lifting the extended feed ban. Methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) seem to be a promising solution for this aim. The main objective of this study was to determine the applicability of four different real-time PCR methods, developed by three National expert laboratories from the European Union (EU), for the detection and identification of cattle or ruminant species in typical compound feeds, fortified with meat and bone meals (MBM) from different animal species at different concentration levels. The MBM samples utilized in this study have been treated using the sterilization condition mandatory within the European Union (steam pressure sterilization at 133 degrees C, 3 bar, and 20 min), which is an additional challenge to the PCR methods evaluated in this study. The results indicate that the three labs applying their PCR methods were able to detect 0.1% of cattle MBM, either alone or in mixtures with different materials such as fishmeal, which demonstrates the improvement made by this technique, especially when compared with results from former interlaboratory studies.

  18. The infrequency of transmission of herpesviruses between humans and animals; postulation of an unrecognised protective host mechanism.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Ahmad, A; Davies, J A

    2001-10-01

    The infrequency of natural transmission of herpesviruses between humans and animals is surprising as there is extensive contact between humans and non-human species with unequivocal evidence that host cells from non-susceptible species will support replication of herpesviruses which do not seem to naturally infect that species. This review examines natural cross-infections between human and other species and suggests that, firstly, it is possible that humans and animals do become asymptomatically or symptomatically cross-infected from other species, but the infection is not diagnosed or not diagnosable by conventional methods; secondly, an as yet unidentified novel mechanism(s) may operate to prevent infection using chemical, electrical or as yet unidentified pathways and may even be 'switched on' by exposure to the virus.

  19. Risk of parasite transmission influences perceived vulnerability to disease and perceived danger of disease-relevant animals.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Fancovicová, Jana

    2010-09-01

    Adaptationist view proposes that emotions were shaped by natural selection and their primary function is to protect humans against predators and/or disease threat. This study examined cross-cultural and inter-personal differences in behavioural immune system measured by disgust, fear and perceived danger in participants from high (Turkey) and low (Slovakia) pathogen prevalence areas. We found that behavioural immune system in Turkish participants was activated more than those of Slovakian participants when exposed to photographs depicting disease-relevant cues, but not when exposed to disease-irrelevant cues. However, participants from Slovakia, where human to human disease transmission is expected to be more prevalent than in Turkey, showed lower aversion in Germ Aversion subscale supporting hypersensitiveness of the behavioural immune system. Having animals at home was less frequent both in Turkey and in participants who perceived higher danger about disease relevant animals. Participants more vulnerable to diseases reported higher incidence of illness last year and considered perceived disease-relevant animals more dangerous than others. Females showed greater fear, disgust and danger about disease-relevant animals than males. Our results further support the finding that cultural and inter-personal differences in human personality are influenced by parasite threat.

  20. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1988-12-27

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

  1. [Recent topics on hepatitis E virus: emerging, zoonotic, and animal-to-human transmission in Japan].

    PubMed

    Mishiro, Shunji

    2004-12-01

    Hepatitis E is undoubtedly a zoonosis. Recent observations suggest that the zoonotic food-borne mode of transmission has played an important role in the spread of hepatitis E virus (HEV) among Japanese people (who in general likes eating everything uncooked or undercooked: Sushi, Sashimi, Tataki, Namagimo, Shabu-shabu, etc). Moreover, the situation seems to be worsening. Wild boar (and deer also) has recently been increasing in its number, becoming a more potent HEV reservoir to humans than before. Pork, replacing beef in people's recent fear of BSE, is being consumed increasingly, particularly in Hokkaido. It may be Japanese people that an effective HEV vaccine is most longed for by.

  2. Central nervous system extracellular matrix changes in a transgenic mouse model of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carme; Tortosa, Raül; Vidal, Enric; Padilla, Danielle; Torres, Juan Maria; Ferrer, Isidre; Pumarola, Martí; Bassols, Anna

    2009-11-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy characterised by accumulation of resistant prion protein (PrP(BSE)), neuronal loss, spongiosus and glial cell proliferation. In this study, properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) were investigated in boTg110 transgenic mice over-expressing the bovine cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) and infected with BSE. Using immunohistochemistry with Wisteria floribunda agglutinin as a specific marker for perineuronal nets (PNNs) and antibodies against aggrecan and hyaluronic acid binding protein, loss of ECM was correlated with PrP(BSE) accumulation and activation of astrocytes and microglia. PrP(BSE) accumulation and glial cell activation were detected from the earliest stages of the disease and increased in the terminal stages. Decreases in PNNs, aggrecan and hyaluronic acid were observed only in the terminal stages and correlated with the distribution of PrP(BSE) and activated glial cells. This study suggests that the loss of PNNs, aggrecan and hyaluronic acid is a consequence of PrP(BSE) accumulation. Degradation of ECM in BSE may be due to secretion of degradative enzymes by activated glial cells.

  3. Generation of a Persistently Infected MDBK Cell Line with Natural Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

    PubMed Central

    Tark, Dongseob; Kim, Hyojin; Neale, Michael H.; Kim, Minjeong; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Insoo; Joo, Yiseok; Windl, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) thought to be caused by the same prion strain as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Unlike scrapie and chronic wasting disease there is no cell culture model allowing the replication of proteinase K resistant BSE (PrPBSE) and the further in vitro study of this disease. We have generated a cell line based on the Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line over-expressing the bovine prion protein. After exposure to naturally BSE-infected bovine brain homogenate this cell line has shown to replicate and accumulate PrPBSE and maintain infection up to passage 83 after initial challenge. Collectively, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the BSE agent can infect cell lines over-expressing the bovine prion protein similar to other prion diseases. These BSE infected cells will provide a useful tool to facilitate the study of potential therapeutic agents and the diagnosis of BSE. PMID:25647616

  4. Generation of a persistently infected MDBK cell line with natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

    PubMed

    Tark, Dongseob; Kim, Hyojin; Neale, Michael H; Kim, Minjeong; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Insoo; Joo, Yiseok; Windl, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) thought to be caused by the same prion strain as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Unlike scrapie and chronic wasting disease there is no cell culture model allowing the replication of proteinase K resistant BSE (PrPBSE) and the further in vitro study of this disease. We have generated a cell line based on the Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line over-expressing the bovine prion protein. After exposure to naturally BSE-infected bovine brain homogenate this cell line has shown to replicate and accumulate PrPBSE and maintain infection up to passage 83 after initial challenge. Collectively, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the BSE agent can infect cell lines over-expressing the bovine prion protein similar to other prion diseases. These BSE infected cells will provide a useful tool to facilitate the study of potential therapeutic agents and the diagnosis of BSE.

  5. [Interspecies transmission, adaptation to humans and pathogenicity of animal influenza viruses].

    PubMed

    Munier, S; Moisy, D; Marc, D; Naffakh, N

    2010-04-01

    The emergence in 2009 of a novel A(H1N1)v influenza virus of swine origin and the regular occurrence since 2003 of human cases of infection with A(H5N1) avian influenza viruses underline the zoonotic and pandemic potential of type A influenza viruses. Influenza viruses from the wild aquatic birds reservoir usually do not replicate efficiently in humans. Domestic poultry and swine can act as intermediate hosts for the acquisition of determinants that increase the potential of transmission and adaptation to humans, through the accumulation of mutations or by genetic reassortment. The rapid evolution of influenza viruses following interspecies transmission probably results from the selection of genetic variations that favor optimal interactions between viral proteins and cellular factors, leading to an increased multiplication potential and a better escape to the host antiviral response. Whereas influenza viruses usually cause asymptomatic infections in wild aquatic birds, they may be highly pathogenic in other species. Molecular determinants of host-specificity and pathogenesis have been identified in most viral genes, notably in genes that encode viral surface glycoproteins, proteins involved in the viral genome replication, and proteins that counteract the host immune response. However, our knowledge of these numerous and interdependant determinants remains incomplete, and the molecular mechanisms involved are still to be understood.

  6. Circulation of bovine ephemeral fever in the Middle East--strong evidence for transmission by winds and animal transport.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Boaron, Orly; Klausner, Ziv; Hasoksuz, Mustafa; Shenkar, Jenny; Gafni, Ohad; Gelman, Boris; David, Dan; Klement, Eyal

    2012-08-17

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an economically important arbovirus of cattle. The main routes of its transmission between countries and continents are not completely elucidated. This study aimed to explore BEFV transmission in the Middle-East. A phylogenetic analysis was performed on the gene encoding the G protein of BEFV isolates from Israel from 2000 and 2008 with isolates from Turkey (2008), Egypt (2005), Australia (1968-1998) and East Asia (1966-2004). Calf sera collected during the years 2006-2007 were tested by serum neutralization in order to explore for recent exposure to BEFV before 2008. These were followed by a meteorological analysis, aimed to reveal movement of air parcels into Israel in the two weeks preceding the first case of BEF in Israel in 2008. The 2008 Israeli and Turkish isolates showed 99% identity and formed a new cluster with the 2000 Israeli isolate. The serological survey showed no new exposure to BEFV during 2006 and 2007. These results coincided with the meteorological analysis, which revealed that air parcels originating in Southern Turkey had reached the location of outbreak onset in Israel nine days before the discovery of the index case. The Egyptian isolate clustered phylogenetically with the Taiwanese isolates, coinciding with data on importation of cattle from China to the Middle East in the year preceding the isolation of the Egyptian isolates. These results suggest that both winds and animal transport may have an important role in trans-boundary transmission of BEFV.

  7. A small animal PET based on GAPDs and charge signal transmission approach for hybrid PET-MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jihoon; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Hu, Wei; Jung, Jin Ho; Huh, Yoonsuk; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2011-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) employing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) and charge signal transmission approach was developed for small animal imaging. Animal PET contained 16 LYSO and GAPD detector modules that were arranged in a 70 mm diameter ring with an axial field of view of 13 mm. The GAPDs charge output signals were transmitted to a preamplifier located remotely using 300 cm flexible flat cables. The position decoder circuits (PDCs) were used to multiplex the PET signals from 256 to 4 channels. The outputs of the PDCs were digitized and further-processed in the data acquisition unit. The cross-compatibilities of the PET detectors and MRI were assessed outside and inside the MRI. Experimental studies of the developed full ring PET were performed to examine the spatial resolution and sensitivity. Phantom and mouse images were acquired to examine the imaging performance. The mean energy and time resolution of the PET detector were 17.6% and 1.5 ns, respectively. No obvious degradation on PET and MRI was observed during simultaneous PET-MRI data acquisition. The measured spatial resolution and sensitivity at the CFOV were 2.8 mm and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, a 3 mm diameter line source was clearly resolved in the hot-sphere phantom images. The reconstructed transaxial PET images of the mouse brain and tumor displaying the glucose metabolism patterns were imaged well. These results demonstrate GAPD and the charge signal transmission approach can allow the development of high performance small animal PET with improved MR compatibility.

  8. Dysregulation of AMPA receptor transmission in the nucleus accumbens in animal models of cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasticity of glutamate transmission in neuronal circuits involving the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is now recognized to play a critical role in cocaine addiction. NAc neurons are excited primarily by AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) and this is required for cocaine seeking. This review will briefly describe AMPAR properties and trafficking, with a focus on studies in NAc neurons, and then consider mechanisms by which cocaine may alter AMPAR transmission. Two examples will be discussed that may be important in two different stages of addiction: learning about drugs and drug-related cues during the period of drug exposure, and persistent vulnerability to craving and relapse after abstinence is achieved. The first example is drawn from studies of cultured NAc neurons. Elevation of DA levels (as would occur following cocaine exposure) facilitates activity-dependent strengthening of excitatory synapses onto medium spiny neurons, the main cell type and projection neuron of the NAc. This occurs because activation of D1-class receptors primes AMPAR for synaptic insertion, creating a temporal window in which stimuli related to cocaine-taking are more efficacious at eliciting synaptic plasticity and thus being encoded into memory. The second example involves rat models of cocaine addiction. Cell surface and synaptic expression of AMPAR on NAc neurons is persistently increased after withdrawal from repeated cocaine exposure. We hypothesize that this increases the reactivity of NAc neurons to glutamate inputs from cortex and limbic structures, facilitating the ability of these inputs to trigger cocaine seeking and thus contributing to the persistent vulnerability to relapse that characterizes addiction. PMID:20361291

  9. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form since several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP**res) were different from classical BSE...

  10. Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies, France, 2001-2007.

    PubMed

    Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Vulin, Johann; Calavas, Didier; Baron, Thierry G M

    2008-02-01

    In France, through exhaustive active surveillance, approximately 17.1 million adult cattle were tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy from July 2001 through July 2007; approximately 3.6 million were >8 years of age. Our retrospective Western blot study of all 645 confirmed cases found that 7 were H-type and 6 were L-type.

  11. Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of transmissible mink encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis to the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE) and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques as...

  12. Detection of PrP(Sc) in peripheral tissues of clinically affected cattle after oral challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Franz, Martin; Eiden, Martin; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Greenlee, Justin; Schatzl, Hermann; Fast, Christine; Richt, Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Groschup, Martin H

    2012-12-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative prion disease that mainly affects cattle. Transmission of BSE to humans caused a variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Following infection, the protease-resistant, disease-associated isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulates in the central nervous system and in other tissues. Many countries have defined bovine tissues that may contain prions as specified risk materials, which must not enter the human or animal food chains and therefore must be discarded. Ultrasensitive techniques such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) have been developed to detect PrP(Sc) when present in minuscule amounts that are not readily detected by other diagnostic methods such as immunohistochemistry or Western blotting. This study was conducted to determine when and where PrP(Sc) can be found by PMCA in cattle orally challenged with BSE. A total of 48 different tissue samples from four cattle infected orally with BSE at various clinical stages of disease were examined using a standardized PMCA protocol. The protocol used brain homogenate from bovine PrP transgenic mice (Tgbov XV) as substrate and three consecutive rounds of PMCA. Using this protocol, PrP(Sc) was found in the brain, spinal cord, nerve ganglia, optic nerve and Peyer's patches. The presence of PrP(Sc) was confirmed in adrenal glands, as well as in mesenteric lymph nodes - a finding that was reported recently by another group. Interestingly, additional positive results were obtained for the first time in the oesophagus, abomasum, rumen and rectum of clinically affected cattle.

  13. Evaluating the risk of pathogen transmission from wild animals to domestic pigs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Hayley E; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Lapidge, Steven J; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Wild animals contribute to endemic infection in livestock as well as the introduction, reintroduction and maintenance of pathogens. The source of introduction of endemic diseases to a piggery is often unknown and the extent of wildlife contribution to such local spread is largely unexplored. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively assess the probability of domestic pigs being exposed to different pathogens from wild animals commonly found around commercial piggeries in Australia. Specifically, this study aims to quantify the probability of exposure to the pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. from European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus); Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Lawsonia intracellularis and Salmonella spp. from rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus); and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Leptospira spp., Brucella suis and L. intracellularis from feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Exposure assessments, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation modelling, were conducted to identify potential pathways of introduction and calculate the probabilities of these pathways occurring. Input parameters were estimated from a national postal survey of commercial pork producers and from disease detection studies conducted for European starlings, rats and feral pigs in close proximity to commercial piggeries in Australia. Based on the results of the exposure assessments, rats presented the highest probability of exposure of pathogens to domestic pigs at any point in time, and L. intracellularis (median 0.13, 5% and 95%, 0.05-0.23) and B. hyodysenteriae (median 0.10, 0.05-0.19) were the most likely pathogens to be transmitted. Regarding European starlings, the median probability of exposure of domestic pigs to pathogenic E. coli at any point in time was estimated to be 0.03 (0.02-0.04). The highest probability of domestic pig exposure to feral pig pathogens at any point in time was found to be for M. hyopneumoniae (median 0.013, 0

  14. Synaptic transmission changes in fear memory circuits underlie key features of an animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Marie; Varin, Christophe; Hrupka, Brian; Pemberton, Darrel J; Steckler, Thomas; Shaban, Hamdy

    2012-02-01

    Non-competitive antagonists of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) such as phencyclidine (PCP) elicit schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals. Similarly, PCP dosing in rats produces typical behavioral phenotypes that mimic human schizophrenia symptoms. Although schizophrenic behavioral phenotypes of the PCP model have been extensively studied, the underlying alterations of intrinsic neuronal properties and synaptic transmission in relevant limbic brain microcircuits remain elusive. Acute brain slice electrophysiology and immunostaining of inhibitory neurons were used to identify neuronal circuit alterations of the amygdala and hippocampus associated with changes in extinction of fear learning in rats following PCP treatment. Subchronic PCP application led to impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and marked increases in the ratio of NMDA to 2-amino-3(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated currents at lateral amygdala (LA) principal neurons without alterations in parvalbumin (PV) as well as non-PV, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD 67) immunopositive neurons. In addition, LTP was impaired at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 hippocampal pathway coincident with a reduction in colocalized PV and GAD67 immunopositive neurons in the CA3 hippocampal area. These effects occurred without changes in spontaneous events or intrinsic membrane properties of principal cells in the LA. The impairment of LTP at both amygdalar and hippocampal microcircuits, which play a key role in processing relevant survival information such as fear and extinction memory concurred with a disruption of extinction learning of fear conditioned responses. Our results show that subchronic PCP administration in rats impairs synaptic functioning in the amygdala and hippocampus as well as processing of fear-related memories.

  15. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: background, evolution, and current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P.; Will, R. G.; Bradley, R.; Asher, D. M.; Detwiler, L.

    2001-01-01

    The epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom, which began in 1986 and has affected nearly 200,000 cattle, is waning to a conclusion, but leaves in its wake an outbreak of human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, most probably resulting from the consumption of beef products contaminated by central nervous system tissue. Although averaging only 10-15 cases a year since its first appearance in 1994, its future magnitude and geographic distribution (in countries that have imported infected British cattle or cattle products, or have endogenous BSE) cannot yet be predicted. The possibility that large numbers of apparently healthy persons might be incubating the disease raises concerns about iatrogenic transmissions through instrumentation (surgery and medical diagnostic procedures) and blood and organ donations. Government agencies in many countries continue to implement new measures to minimize this risk. PMID:11266289

  16. The Leeuwenhoek Lecture 2001. Animal origins of human infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R A

    2001-06-29

    Since time immemorial animals have been a major source of human infectious disease. Certain infections like rabies are recognized as zoonoses caused in each case by direct animal-to-human transmission. Others like measles became independently sustained with the human population so that the causative virus has diverged from its animal progenitor. Recent examples of direct zoonoses are variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease arising from bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and the H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Hong Kong. Epidemics of recent animal origin are the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some retroviruses jump into and out of the chromosomal DNA of the host germline, so that they oscillate between being inherited Mendelian traits or infectious agents in different species. Will new procedures like animal-to-human transplants unleash further infections? Do microbes become more virulent upon cross-species transfer? Are animal microbes a threat as biological weapons? Will the vast reservoir of immunodeficient hosts due to the HIV pandemic provide conditions permissive for sporadic zoonoses to take off as human-to-human transmissible diseases? Do human infections now pose a threat to endangered primates? These questions are addressed in this lecture.

  17. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, has been reported in captive and free-ranging cervids. An abnormal isoform of a prion protein (PrP-CWD) has been associated with CWD in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and this prion protein can be detected with i...

  18. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Production and Inspection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ensure that these SRMs are not present in human food? What is captive bolt air-injection stunning and ... disease are condemned and not allowed into the human food supply. The brains from animals that exhibit signs ...

  19. Genetic Adaptation of Influenza A Viruses in Domestic Animals and Their Potential Role in Interspecies Transmission: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Olga; De Nardi, Marco; van der Meulen, Karen; van Reeth, Kristien; Koopmans, Marion; Harris, Kate; von Dobschuetz, Sophie; Freidl, Gudrun; Meijer, Adam; Breed, Andrew; Hill, Andrew; Kosmider, Rowena; Banks, Jill; Stärk, Katharina D C; Wieland, Barbara; Stevens, Kim; van der Werf, Sylvie; Enouf, Vincent; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Dundon, William; Cattoli, Giovanni; Capua, Ilaria

    2016-03-01

    In December 2011, the European Food Safety Authority awarded a Grant for the implementation of the FLURISK project. The main objective of FLURISK was the development of an epidemiological and virological evidence-based influenza risk assessment framework (IRAF) to assess influenza A virus strains circulating in the animal population according to their potential to cross the species barrier and cause infections in humans. With the purpose of gathering virological data to include in the IRAF, a literature review was conducted and key findings are presented here. Several adaptive traits have been identified in influenza viruses infecting domestic animals and a significance of these adaptations for the emergence of zoonotic influenza, such as shift in receptor preference and mutations in the replication proteins, has been hypothesized. Nonetheless, and despite several decades of research, a comprehensive understanding of the conditions that facilitate interspecies transmission is still lacking. This has been hampered by the intrinsic difficulties of the subject and the complexity of correlating environmental, viral and host factors. Finding the most suitable and feasible way of investigating these factors in laboratory settings represents another challenge. The majority of the studies identified through this review focus on only a subset of species, subtypes and genes, such as influenza in avian species and avian influenza viruses adapting to humans, especially in the context of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. Further research applying a holistic approach and investigating the broader influenza genetic spectrum is urgently needed in the field of genetic adaptation of influenza A viruses.

  20. Development and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacteria in animals and their public health impact.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Shewli; O'Dea, Mark; Barton, Mary; Kirkwood, Roy; Lee, Terence; Abraham, Sam

    2017-02-28

    Gram-negative bacteria are known to cause severe infections in both humans and animals. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Gram-negative bacteria is a major challenge in the treatment of clinical infections globally due to the propensity of these organisms to rapidly develop resistance against antimicrobials in use. In addition, Gram-negative bacteria possess highly efficient mechanisms through which the AMR can be disseminated between pathogenic and commensal bacteria of the same or different species. These unique traits of Gram-negative bacteria have resulted in evolution of Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials. The evergrowing resistance issue has not only resulted in limitation of treatment options but also led to increased treatment costs and mortality rates in humans and animals. With few or no new antimicrobials in production to combat severe life-threatening infections, AMR has been described as the one of the most severe, long-term threats to human health. Aside from overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in humans, another factor that has exacerbated the emergence of AMR in Gram-negative bacteria is the veterinary use of antimicrobials that belong to the same classes considered to be critically important for treating serious life-threatening infections in humans. Despite the fact that development of AMR dates back to before the introduction of antimicrobials, the recent surge in the resistance towards all available critically important antimicrobials has emerged as a major public health issue. This review thus focuses on discussing the development, transmission and public health impact of AMR in Gram-negative bacteria in animals.

  1. A novel spongiform degeneration of the grey matter in the brain of a kitten.

    PubMed

    Vidal, E; Montoliu, P; Añor, S; Sisó, S; Ferrer, I; Pumarola, M

    2004-07-01

    A young female domestic short-hair cat presented with neurological signs consistent with a multifocal encephalic lesion (depressed mental status, head tilt to the right, cervical ventroflexion, head tremors, tetraparesis, conscious propioceptive deficits in all four limbs and visual deficits). No gross lesions were seen at necropsy. On light microscopical examination lesions were found only in the brain and cervical spinal cord. A generalized vacuolation of the grey matter of the brain was observed. Special staining techniques, immunohistochemistry, lectin affinity histochemistry and ultrastructural studies were performed to characterize the lesion; preservation of the white matter and a reactive astrogliosis were demonstrated. Feline retroviruses and PrPsc were not detected. Ultrastructurally, a dilatation of intracytoplasmic membrane-bounded organelles with membrane disruption and dendritic and somatic swelling was found in astrocytes and neurons. The age of the animal and histological changes suggested a novel, possibly congenital, spongiform degeneration of the brain and cervical spinal cord.

  2. Social and Economic Aspects of the Transmission of Pathogenic Bacteria between Wildlife and Food Animals: A Thematic Analysis of Published Research Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fournier, A; Young, I; Rajić, A; Greig, J; LeJeune, J

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife is a known reservoir of pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella spp. Transmission of these pathogens between wildlife and food animals can lead to damaging impacts on the agri-food industry and public health. Several international case studies have highlighted the complex and cross-sectoral challenges involved in preventing and managing these potential transmission risks. The objective of our study was to develop a better understanding of the socio-economic aspects of the transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals to support more effective and sustainable risk mitigation strategies. We conducted qualitative thematic analysis on a purposive sample of 30/141 articles identified in a complementary scoping review of the literature in this area and identified two key themes. The first related to the framing of this issue as a 'wicked problem' that depends on a complex interaction of social factors and risk perceptions, governance and public policy, and economic implications. The second theme consisted of promising approaches and strategies to prevent and mitigate the potential risks from transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals. These included participatory, collaborative and multidisciplinary decision-making approaches and the proactive incorporation of credible scientific evidence and local contextual factors into solutions. The integration of these approaches to address 'wicked problems' in this field may assist stakeholders and decision-makers in improving the acceptability and sustainability of future strategies to reduce the transmission of pathogenic bacteria between wildlife and food animals.

  3. Gene expression in the medulla following oral infection of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciane M; Basu, Urmila; Khaniya, Bina; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Williams, John L; Moore, Stephen S; Guan, Le Luo

    2011-01-01

    The identification of variations in gene expression in response to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may help to elucidate the mechanisms of neuropathology and prion replication and discover biomarkers for disease. In this study, genes that are differentially expressed in the caudal medulla tissues of animals infected with different doses of PrP(BSE) at 12 and 45 mo post infection were compared using array containing 24,000 oligonucleotide probes. Data analysis identified 966 differentially expressed (DE) genes between control and infected animals. Genes identified in at least two of four experiments (control versus 1-g infected animals at 12 and 45-mo; control versus 100-g infected animals at 12 and 45 mo) were considered to be the genes that may be associated with BSE disease. From the 176 DE genes associated with BSE, 84 had functions described in the Gene Ontology (GO) database. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of 14 genes revealed that prion infection may cause dysfunction of several different networks, including extracellular matrix (ECM), cell adhesion, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, MAPK signaling, neurodegenerative disorder, SNARE interactions in vesicular transport, and the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta signaling pathways. The identification of DE genes will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuropathology in bovine species. Additional studies on larger number of animals are in progress in our laboratory to investigate the roles of these DE genes in pathogenesis of BSE.

  4. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R M

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose.

  5. H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism: clinical and pathologic features in wild-type and E211K cattle following intracranial inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 an H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) case was reported in an animal with an unusual polymorphism (E211K) in the prion protein gene. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele are predisposed to rapid onset of H-type BSE when exposed. The ...

  6. Disease characteristics of bovine spongiform encephalopathy following inoculation into mice via three different routes.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Christopher M; Beck, Katy E; Simmons, Marion M; Hawkins, Stephen A C; Spiropoulos, John

    2013-10-01

    Mouse-adapted transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) strains are routinely distinguished based on reproducible disease characteristics in a given mouse line following inoculation via a consistent route. We investigated whether different administration routes (oral, intragastric (i.g.) and intracerebral (i.c.)) can alter the disease characteristics in IM mice after serial dilution of a stabilized mouse-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) strain (301V). In addition, the infectivity of distal ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes (ln) sampled at three time points (35 days postinoculation (dpi), 70 dpi and terminal disease) after i.g. inoculation of 301V strain was assessed in mice by i.c. challenge. Strain characteristics were assessed according to standard methodology and PrP(Sc) immunohistochemistry deposition patterns. Mean incubation periods were prolonged following oral or i.g. inoculations compared to the i.c. route. Lesion profiles following i.c. challenges were elevated compared to i.g. and oral routes although vacuolation in the dorsal medulla was consistently high irrespective of the route of administration. Nevertheless, the same PrP(Sc) deposition pattern was associated with each route of administration. Distal and mesenteric ln infectivity was detected as early as 35 dpi and displayed consistent lesion profiles and PrP(Sc) deposition patterns. Our data suggest that although 301V retained its properties, some phenotypic parameters were affected by the route of inoculation. We conclude that bioassay data should be interpreted carefully and should be standardized for route of inoculation.

  7. Retinal function and morphology are altered in cattle infected with the prion disease transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, J D; Greenlee, J J; Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Greenlee, M H West

    2009-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein-contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations, the specific effect of abnormal prion protein on retinal morphology and function has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential functional and morphologic abnormalities in the retinas of cattle infected with a bovine-adapted isolate of transmissible mink encephalopathy. We used electroretinography and immunohistochemistry to examine retinas from 10 noninoculated and 5 transmissible mink encephalopathy-inoculated adult Holstein steers. Here we show altered retinal function, as evidenced by prolonged implicit time of the electroretinogram b-wave, in transmissible mink encephalopathy-infected cattle before the onset of clinical illness. We also demonstrate disruption of rod bipolar cell synaptic terminals, indicated by decreased immunoreactivity for the alpha isoform of protein kinase C and vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and activation of Müller glia, as evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase expression, in the retinas of these cattle at the time of euthanasia due to clinical deterioration. This is the first study to identify both functional and morphologic alterations in the retinas of TSE-infected cattle. Our results support future efforts to focus on the retina for the development of

  8. Comparison of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Isolates in Raccoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Owing to its susceptibility to various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and relatively short incubation times, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) has been suggested as a model for TSE strain differentiation. Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disease of undetermined origin in...

  9. Changes in Synaptic Transmission and Long-term Potentiation Induction as a Possible Mechanism for Learning Disability in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It has been shown that memory deficits is common in patients with MS. Recent studies using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as an animal model of MS have shown that indicated that EAE causes hippocampal-dependent impairment in learning and memory. Thus far, there have been no in vivo electrophysiological reports describing synaptic transmission in EAE animals. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the synaptic changes in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of EAE rats. Methods: To evaluate changes in synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of EAE rats, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) from the stratum radiatum of CA1 neurons, were recorded following Schaffer collateral stimulation. Results: The results showed that EAE causes deficits in synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. In addition, paired-pulse index with a 120 msec interstimulus interval was decreased in the EAE group. These findings indicate that EAE might induce suppression in synaptic transmission and LTP by increasing the inhibitory effect of GABAB receptors on the glutamate-mediated EPSP. Conclusions: In conclusion, influence of inflammation-triggered mechanisms on synaptic transmission may explain the negative effect of EAE on learning abilities in rats. PMID:27032554

  10. [Risk assessment for importing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)].

    PubMed

    Hörnlimann, B; Guidon, D; Griot, C

    1994-07-01

    Since the occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Switzerland in 1990, extensive epidemiological investigations and risk factor analyses were carried out. In this study, statistical data on meat and bone meal traded from 1985 to 1989 were analysed addressing the following questions: i) what amount of meat and bone meal was exported from Great Britain (GB) and where to and ii) what amount of meat and bone meal was imported into Switzerland and where from? The findings led to the hypothesis that imported material potentially infected with scrapie-like agents was the cause for BSE in Switzerland.

  11. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): Early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of wild and farmed cervid ruminants, including Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or moose (Alces alces). Reliable data ...

  12. Genomic characterization of a rotavirus G8P[1] detected in a child with diarrhea reveal direct animal-to-human transmission.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Magaly; Phan, Tung Gia; Galeano, Maria Eugenia; Russomando, Graciela; Parreno, Viviana; Delwart, Eric; Parra, Gabriel I

    2014-10-01

    Group A rotavirus is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children and young animals. During a retrospective analysis of samples collected from Paraguayan children under 5 years old with diarrhea, and previously negative for rotavirus and norovirus, we detected the presence of bovine rotavirus sequences by viral metagenomics. Nucleic acid was extracted direct from stool sample and determined to be G8P[1]. The genomic analyzes revealed that the strain presents an Artiodactyl-like genome (G8-P[1]-I2-R2-C2-M1-Ax-N2-T6-E12-H3) suggesting a direct animal-to-human transmission.

  13. A history of biological disasters of animal origin in North America.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, G A; Giroux, J

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines past occurrences in North America relevant to the possibility of biological disasters with animal origins. With respect to naturally occurring animal disease outbreaks, North America, while not as adversely affected by epizootics as other regions, has had its fair share of such outbreaks of both 'traditional' and emerging animal diseases. The traditional category includes such diseases as anthrax, classical swine fever, bluetongue, brucellosis, foot and mouth disease, and the family of equine encephalomyelitis viruses. The emerging diseases include relatively more recent culprits such as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, poultry enteritis mortality syndrome, and newly discovered examples of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Additionally, several serious diseases of human beings that involve animal vectors or reservoirs occur naturally in North America or have emerged in recent decades; these include plague, hantavirus, monkeypox, West Nile virus and avian-derived influenza. At the same time, there have been very few intentional attacks on livestock using biological agents and no recorded cases in North America of animals intentionally being used to transmit disease to humans. According to the historical record, therefore, naturally occurring emerging zoonoses probably constitute the greatest threat in terms of biological disasters with animal origins. However, some of the general trends in terrorist activity, such as the intensification of activities by animal rights extremists against facilities undertaking animal research, mean that the possibility of intentional animal-related biological disasters should not be discounted.

  14. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  15. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-08-24

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV.

  16. Neuropathological changes in auditory brainstem nuclei in cattle with experimentally induced bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Okada, H; Arai, S; Yokoyama, T; Mohri, S

    2011-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is characterized by the appearance of spongy lesions in the brain, particularly in the brainstem nuclei. This study evaluated the degenerative changes observed in the central auditory brainstem of BSE-challenged cattle. The neuropathological changes in the auditory brainstem nuclei were assessed by determining the severity of vacuolation and the presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Sixteen female Holstein-Friesian calves, 2-4 months of age, were inoculated intracerebrally with BSE agent. BSE-challenged animals developed the characteristic clinical signs of BSE approximately 18 months post inoculation (mpi) and advanced neurological signs after 22 mpi. Before the appearance of clinical signs (i.e. at 3, 10, 12 and 16 mpi), vacuolar change was absent or mild and PrP(Sc) deposition was minimal in the auditory brainstem nuclei. The two cattle sacrificed at 18 and 19 mpi had no clinical signs and showed mild vacuolar degeneration and moderate amounts of PrP(Sc) accumulation in the auditory brainstem pathway. In the animals challenged with BSE agent that developed clinical sings (i.e. after 20 mpi), spongy changes were more prominent in the nucleus of the inferior colliculus compared with the other nuclei of the auditory brainstem and the medial geniculate body. Neuropathological changes characterized by spongy lesions accompanied by PrP(Sc) accumulation in the auditory brainstem nuclei of BSE-infected cattle may be associated with hyperacusia.

  17. PRNP and SPRN genes polymorphism in atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases diagnosed in Polish cattle.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, Artur; Polak, Mirosław Paweł; Larska, Magdalena; Słota, Ewa

    2012-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the coding region of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been associated with the susceptibility and incubation period of prion diseases in humans and sheep. However, polymorphisms in this part of the bovine PRNP gene do not affect the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle. Studies carried out in Germany have shown that insertion/deletion-type polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the bovine prion gene are possible genetic factors modulating BSE susceptibility by changing the level of PRNP expression. No such association was observed for atypical BSE cases; however, due to the rare nature of the disease, these results should be confirmed. Additionally, a single nonsynonymous mutation in PRNP codon 211 (E211K) was described in one H-type BSE case in the USA; however, it was not found in any other cases. Here, we performed genetic characterization of PRNP promoter indel variations and determined the polymorphism of open reading frames (ORFs) of PRNP and bovine prion-like Shadoo (SPRN) genes in six Polish atypical BSE cases and compared these results to the population of clinically healthy Polish Holstein cattle. No potentially pathogenic mutations were found in the PRNP ORF in atypical BSE-affected cattle, but our study showed a high frequency of deletions at the indel loci of PRNP promoter in these animals. Additionally, a rare sequence variation in the SPRN protein-coding sequence was found in one L-type atypical BSE-affected animal.

  18. Emergence of a novel bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion from an atypical H-type BSE.

    PubMed

    Masujin, Kentaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Imamura, Morikazu; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-03-07

    The H-type of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) was serially passaged in bovinized transgenic (TgBoPrP) mice. At the fourth passage, most challenged mice showed a typical H-BSE phenotype with incubation periods of 223 ± 7.8 days. However, a different phenotype of BSE prion with shorter incubation periods of 109 ± 4 days emerged in a minor subset of the inoculated mice. The latter showed distinct clinical signs, brain pathology, and abnormal prion protein profiles as compared to H-BSE and other known BSE strains in mice. This novel prion was transmitted intracerebrally to cattle, with incubation periods of 14.8 ± 1.5 months, with phenotypes that differed from those of other bovine prion strains. These data suggest that intraspecies transmission of H-BSE in cattle allows the emergence of a novel BSE strain. Therefore, the continuation of feed ban programs may be necessary to exclude the recycling of H-BSE prions, which appear to arise spontaneously, in livestock. Such measures should help to reduce the risks from both novel and known strains of BSE.

  19. Infectivity in skeletal muscle of cattle with atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Suardi, Silvia; Vimercati, Chiara; Casalone, Cristina; Gelmetti, Daniela; Corona, Cristiano; Iulini, Barbara; Mazza, Maria; Lombardi, Guerino; Moda, Fabio; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Piccoli, Elena; Catania, Marcella; Groschup, Martin H; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Caramelli, Maria; Monaco, Salvatore; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The amyloidotic form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) termed BASE is caused by a prion strain whose biological properties differ from those of typical BSE, resulting in a clinically and pathologically distinct phenotype. Whether peripheral tissues of BASE-affected cattle contain infectivity is unknown. This is a critical issue since the BASE prion is readily transmissible to a variety of hosts including primates, suggesting that humans may be susceptible. We carried out bioassays in transgenic mice overexpressing bovine PrP (Tgbov XV) and found infectivity in a variety of skeletal muscles from cattle with natural and experimental BASE. Noteworthy, all BASE muscles used for inoculation transmitted disease, although the attack rate differed between experimental and natural cases (∼70% versus ∼10%, respectively). This difference was likely related to different prion titers, possibly due to different stages of disease in the two conditions, i.e. terminal stage in experimental BASE and pre-symptomatic stage in natural BASE. The neuropathological phenotype and PrP(res) type were consistent in all affected mice and matched those of Tgbov XV mice infected with brain homogenate from natural BASE. The immunohistochemical analysis of skeletal muscles from cattle with natural and experimental BASE showed the presence of abnormal prion protein deposits within muscle fibers. Conversely, Tgbov XV mice challenged with lymphoid tissue and kidney from natural and experimental BASE did not develop disease. The novel information on the neuromuscular tropism of the BASE strain, efficiently overcoming species barriers, underlines the relevance of maintaining an active surveillance.

  20. Experimental challenge of cattle with German atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) isolates.

    PubMed

    Balkema-Buschmann, A; Ziegler, U; McIntyre, L; Keller, M; Hoffmann, C; Rogers, R; Hills, B; Groschup, M H

    2011-01-01

    For almost two decades after the discovery of the first bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) case, it was generally accepted that only one BSE strain existed globally. However, in 2004, two novel BSE forms (L-type and H-type) were separately identified in two different European Member States, forms that differed from the classical (C-type) form by their biochemical properties and by the pattern of PrP(Sc) deposition as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). 60 atypical BSE cases have been identified worldwide as of November 2010, including one H- and one L-type BSE case each in Germany. However, it was not known whether the biological properties (pathogenesis and agent distribution, as well as transmissibility to other species) of these novel forms were the same as in classical BSE cases. Eleven calves were thus challenged intracranially, five with the German H-type and six with German L-type BSE cases. The experimental design and the clinical studies, followed by laboratory testing, are described in this manuscript.

  1. Distribution of abnormal prion protein in a sheep affected with L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Y; Iwamaru, Y; Masujin, K; Imamura, M; Mohri, S; Yokoyama, T; Okada, H

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the topographical distribution and patterns of deposition of immunolabelled abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)), interspecies transmission of atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to Cheviot ewes (ARQ/ARQ genotype) was performed. L-type BSE was successfully transmitted via the intracerebral route to a ewe, with an incubation period of 1,562 days. Minimal vacuolar change was detected in the basal ganglia, thalamus and brainstem, and PrP(Sc) accumulated throughout the brain. The L-type BSE-affected sheep was characterized by conspicuous fine particulate deposits in the neuropil, particulate and/or granular intraneuronal and intraglial deposits, and the absence of PrP(Sc) plaques or stellate deposits. In addition, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses revealed that PrP(Sc) accumulation was present in peripheral nervous tissues (including the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglion) and adrenal glands, but was absent in lymphoid tissues. These results suggest that L-type BSE has distinct and distinguishable characteristics as well as PrP(Sc) tissue tropism in sheep.

  2. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  3. Melanoma-Associated Spongiform Scleropathy in Oculodermal Melanocytosis with Primary Orbital Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ranjit, Roshni U.; Leyngold, Ilya M.; Margo, Curtis E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe spongiform scleropathy in a patient with oculodermal melanosis and without evidence of uveal melanoma. Methods Clinical-pathological correlation conducted in compliance with HIPPA (Health Insurance Privacy and Portability Act) regulations. Results Melanoma-associated spongiform scleropathy was an incidental finding in an 87-year-old woman with oculodermal melanocytosis treated for primary orbital melanoma. All previously reported cases of this scleropathy have been associated with uveal melanoma. Conclusions The mechanism of scleral degeneration in melanoma-associated spongiform scleropathy is unknown, and its clinical and prognostic significance is speculative. This is the first case of a so-called melanoma-associated spongiform scleropathy reported in an eye without uveal melanoma. PMID:27843909

  4. Intravenous Heroin-Associated Delayed Spongiform Leukoencephalopathy: Case Report and Reviews of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Pirompanich, Pattarin; Chankrachang, Siwaporn

    2015-07-01

    Heroin-associated spongiform leukoencephalopathy is a rare, and sometimes fatal, condition usually caused by vapor inhalation of heroin. The authors report a 41-year-old man who was diagnosed with delayed spongiform leukoencephalopathy three weeks after injecting heroin intravenously. He had been admitted to another hospital due to acute heroin overdose, which had occurred four hours after intravenous injection of an unknown amount of heroin. His clinical condition showed progressive improvement and he was discharged 12 days after admission. Three weeks after this episode, his cognitive functioning declined. Akinetic mutism, spasticity and hyperreflexia of all extremities were observed. Electroencephalography (EEG) and imaging of the brain showed typical characteristics of spongiform leukoencephalopathy. The three and six-month follow-up of the patient showed clinical improvement and this was corroborated through EEG measures and brain imaging. The discussion summarizes eight previously reported cases of intravenous heroin associated spongiform leukoencephalopathy and compares them to the authors'case.

  5. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium.

    PubMed

    Hu, Baiyang; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Yu, Hongwen; Abe, Yoshiteru

    2012-05-30

    We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent.

  6. Influence of laboratory animal hosts on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum and implications for an in vivo transmission model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Gargili, Aysen; Thangamani, Saravanan; Bente, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most geographically widespread arboviruses and causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. The virus circulates in nature in a vertebrate-tick cycle and ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs. Although the tick vector plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV in nature, comparatively little is known of CCHFV-tick interactions. This is mostly due to the fact that establishing tick colonies is laborious, and working with CCHFV requires a biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL4) in many countries. Nonetheless, an in vivo transmission model is essential to understand the epidemiology of the transmission cycle of CCHFV. In addition, important parameters such as vectorial capacity of tick species, levels of infection in the host necessary to infect the tick, and aspects of virus transmission by tick bite including the influence of tick saliva, cannot be investigated any other way. Here, we evaluate the influence of different laboratory animal species as hosts supporting the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum, a two-host tick. Rabbits were considered the host of choice for the maintenance of the uninfected colonies due to high larval attachment rates, shorter larval-nymphal feeding times, higher nymphal molting rates, high egg hatching rates, and higher conversion efficiency index (CEI). Furthermore, we describe the successful establishment of an in vivo transmission model for CCHFV in a BSL4 biocontainment setting using interferon knockout mice. This will give us a new tool to study the transmission and interaction of CCHFV with its tick vector. PMID:23971007

  7. Expert elicitation as a means to attribute 28 enteric pathogens to foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, and person-to-person transmission routes in Canada.

    PubMed

    Butler, Ainslie J; Thomas, M Kate; Pintar, Katarina D M

    2015-04-01

    Enteric illness contributes to a significant burden of illness in Canada and globally. Understanding its sources is a critical step in identifying and preventing health risks. Expert elicitation is a powerful tool, used previously, to obtain information about enteric illness source attribution where information is difficult or expensive to obtain. Thirty-one experts estimated transmission of 28 pathogens via major transmission routes (foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, person-to-person, and other) at the point of consumption. The elicitation consisted of a (snowball) recruitment phase; administration of a pre-survey to collect background information, an introductory webinar, an elicitation survey, a 1-day discussion, survey readministration, and a feedback exercise, and surveys were administered online. Experts were prompted to quantify changes in contamination at the point of entry into the kitchen versus point of consumption. Estimates were combined via triangular probability distributions, and medians and 90% credible-interval estimates were produced. Transmission was attributed primarily to food for Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp., all three Vibrio spp. categories explored, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Multisource pathogens (e.g., transmitted commonly through both water and food) such as Campylobacter spp., four Escherichia coli categories, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were also estimated as mostly foodborne. Water was the primary pathway for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., and person-to-person transmission dominated for six enteric viruses and Shigella spp. Consideration of the point of attribution highlighted the importance of food handling and cross-contamination in the transmission pathway. This study provides source attribution estimates of enteric illness for Canada, considering all possible transmission routes. Further research is necessary to improve our

  8. Global positioning system data-loggers: a tool to quantify fine-scale movement of domestic animals to evaluate potential for zoonotic transmission to an endangered wildlife population.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Michele B; Gillespie, Thomas R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Travis, Dominic; Lipende, Iddi; Gilagiza, Baraka; Kamenya, Shadrack; Pintea, Lilian; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M

    2014-01-01

    Domesticated animals are an important source of pathogens to endangered wildlife populations, especially when anthropogenic activities increase their overlap with humans and wildlife. Recent work in Tanzania reports the introduction of Cryptosporidium into wild chimpanzee populations and the increased risk of ape mortality associated with SIVcpz-Cryptosporidium co-infection. Here we describe the application of novel GPS technology to track the mobility of domesticated animals (27 goats, 2 sheep and 8 dogs) with the goal of identifying potential routes for Cryptosporidium introduction into Gombe National Park. Only goats (5/27) and sheep (2/2) were positive for Cryptosporidium. Analysis of GPS tracks indicated that a crop field frequented by both chimpanzees and domesticated animals was a potential hotspot for Cryptosporidium transmission. This study demonstrates the applicability of GPS data-loggers in studies of fine-scale mobility of animals and suggests that domesticated animal-wildlife overlap should be considered beyond protected boundaries for long-term conservation strategies.

  9. Microarray analysis in caudal medulla of cattle orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L M; Basu, U; Williams, J L; Moore, S S; Guan, L L

    2011-10-25

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disorder in cattle characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration during prion infection through the identification of genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between experimentally infected and non-challenged cattle. Gene expression of caudal medulla from control and orally infected animals was compared by microarray analysis using 24,000 bovine oligonucleotides representing 16,846 different genes to identify DE genes associated with BSE disease. In total, 182 DE genes were identified between normal and BSE-infected tissues (>2.0-fold change, P < 0.01); 81 DE genes had gene ontology functions, which included synapse function, calcium ion regulation, immune and inflammatory response, apoptosis, and cytoskeleton organization; 13 of these genes were found to be involved in 26 different Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression of five DE genes associated with synapse function (tachykinin, synuclein, neuropeptide Y, cocaine, amphetamine-responsive transcript, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa) and three DE genes associated with calcium ion regulation (parvalbumin, visinin-like, and cadherin) was further validated in the medulla tissue of cattle at different infection times (6, 12, 42, and 45 months post-infection) by qRT-PCR. These data will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuropathology in bovine species.

  10. On the Question of Sporadic or Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    PubMed Central

    McShane, Lisa M.; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Detwiler, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Strategies to investigate the possible existence of sporadic bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) require systematic testing programs to identify cases in countries considered to have little or no risk of orally acquired disease or to detect a stable occurrence of atypical cases in countries in which orally acquired disease is disappearing. To achieve 95% statistical confidence that the prevalence for sporadic BSE is no greater than 1 per million (i.e., the annual incidence of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease [CJD] in humans) would require negative tests in 3 million randomly selected older cattle. A link between BSE and sporadic CJD has been suggested on the basis of laboratory studies but is unsupported by epidemiologic observation. Such a link might yet be established by the discovery of a specific molecular marker or of particular combinations of trends over time of typical and atypical BSE and various subtypes of sporadic CJD, as their numbers are influenced by a continuation of current public health measures that exclude high-risk bovine tissues from the animal and human food chains. PMID:17326930

  11. Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (N67) Is a Robust Animal Model to Study Malaria Transmission by South American Anopheline Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Pimenta, Paulo F.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in the American continent and the Amazonian rainforest is the region with the highest risk of transmission. However, the lack of suitable experimental models to infect malaria vectors from the Americas has limited the progress to understand the biology of transmission in this region. Anopheles aquasalis, a major vector in coastal areas of South America, was found to be highly refractory to infection with two strains of Plasmodium falciparum (NF54 and 7G8) and with Plasmodium berghei (mouse malaria), even when the microbiota was eliminated with antibiotics and oxidative stress was reduced with uric acid. In contrast, An. aquasalis females treated with antibiotics and uric acid are susceptible to infection with a second murine parasite, Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis N67 (PyN67). Anopheles albimanus, one of the main malaria vectors in Central America, Southern Mexico and the Caribbean, was more susceptible to infection with PyN67 than An. aquasalis, even in the absence of any pre-treatment, but was still less susceptible than Anopheles stephensi. Disruption of the complement-like system in An. albimanus significantly enhanced PyN67 infection, indicating that the mosquito immune system is mounting effective antiplasmodial responses. PyN67 has the ability to infect a broad range of anophelines and is an excellent model to study malaria transmission by South American vectors. PMID:27911924

  12. The presence of disease-associated prion protein in skeletal muscle of cattle infected with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Fukuda, Shigeo; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Masujin, Kentaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Fujii, Takashi; Fujii, Kei; Kageyama, Soichi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the skeletal muscle of cattle infected with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE). The study was carried out systematically in 12 different muscle samples from 43 (3 field and 40 experimental) cases of C-BSE; however, muscle spindles were not available in many of these cases. Therefore, analysis became restricted to a total of 31 muscles in 23 cattle. Even after this restriction, low levels of PrP(Sc) were detected in the muscle spindles of the masseter, intercostal, triceps brachii, psoas major, quadriceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles from 3 field and 6 experimental clinical-stage cases. The present data indicate that small amounts of PrP(Sc) are detectable by immunohistochemistry in the skeletal muscles of animals terminally affected with C-BSE.

  13. Molecular characterisation of Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis from Cajamarca, Peru and their potential role in transmission of human and animal fascioliasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human and animal fascioliasis is emerging in many world regions, among which Andean countries constitute the largest regional hot spot and Peru the country presenting more human endemic areas. A survey was undertaken on the lymnaeid snails inhabiting the hyperendemic area of Cajamarca, where human prevalences are the highest known among the areas presenting a "valley transmission pattern", to establish which species are present, genetically characterise their populations by comparison with other human endemic areas, and discuss which ones have transmission capacity and their potential implications with human and animal infection. Methods Therefore, ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA 16S and cox1 were sequenced by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Results Results indicate the presence of three, morphologically similar, small lymnaeid species belonging to the Galba/Fossaria group: Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis. Only one combined haplotype for each species was found. The ITS-1, 16S and cox1 haplotypes of G. truncatula are new. No new haplotypes were found in the other two species. This scenario changes previous knowledge, in which only L. viator (= L. viatrix) was mentioned. Galba truncatula appears to be the most abundant, with high population densities and evident anthropophyly including usual presence in human neighbourhood. Infection by Fasciola hepatica larval stages were molecularly confirmed in two populations of this species. The nearness between G. truncatula populations presenting liver fluke infection and both human settings and schools for children, together with the absence of populations of other lymnaeid species in the locality, suggest a direct relationship with human infection. Conclusions The geographical overlap of three lymnaeid species poses problems for epidemiological studies and control action. First, a problem in classifying lymnaeid specimens in both field and laboratory activities

  14. Detection of pork and poultry meat and bone meals in animal feed using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal feed with meat and bone meal (MBM) has been the source of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and other livestock animals. Many countries have banned the use MBM as an animal feed ingredient. Spectral imaging techniques have shown potential for rapid assessment and authentication...

  15. g-FLUA2H: a web-based application to study the dynamics of animal-to-human mutation transmission for influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    g-FLUA2H is a web-based application focused on the analysis of the dynamics of influenza virus animal-to-human (A2H) mutation transmissions. The application only requires the viral protein sequences from both the animal and human host populations as input datasets. The comparative analyses between the co-aligned sequences of the two viral populations is based on a sliding window approach of size nine for statistical significance and data application to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and T-cell receptor (TCR) immune response mechanisms. The sequences at each of the aligned overlapping nonamer positions for the respective virus hosts are classified as four patterns of characteristic diversity motifs, as a basis for quantitative analyses: (i) "index", the most prevalent sequence; (ii) "major" variant, the second most common sequence and the single most prevalent variant of the index, with at least one amino acid mutation; (iii) "minor" variants, multiple different sequences, each with an incidence (percent occurrence) less than that of the major variant; and (iv) "unique" variants, each with only one occurrence in the alignment. The diversity motifs and their incidences at each of the nonamer positions allow evaluation of the mutation transmission dynamics and selectivity of the viral sequences in relation to the animal and the human hosts. g-FLUA2H is facilitated by a grid back-end for parallel processing of large sequence datasets. The web-application is publicly available at http://bioinfo.perdanauniversity.edu.my/g-FLUA2H. It can be used for a detailed characterization of the composition and incidence of mutations present in the proteomes of influenza viruses from animal and human host populations, for a better understanding of host tropism. PMID:26680743

  16. Genetic Analysis of the Gdh and Bg Genes of Animal-Derived Giardia duodenalis Isolates in Northeastern China and Evaluation of Zoonotic Transmission Potential

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yujuan; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Rongjun; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Longxian; Ling, Hong; Cao, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals, mainly distributing in some areas with poor sanitation. The proportion of the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin differs in different geographical areas. In Mainland China, genetic data of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from animals are only limited in dogs and cats. The aim of the study was to provide information on the genetic characterizations of animal-derived G. duodenalis isolates (from rabbits, sheep and cattle) at both loci in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China, and to assess the potential for zoonotic transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings 61 G. duodenalis isolates from animal feces (dairy and beef cattle, sheep and rabbits) in Heilongjiang Province were characterized at the gdh and bg loci in the present study. The gdh and bg gene sequences of sheep-derived G. duodenalis assemblage AI, and the gdh sequences of rabbit-derived G. duodenalis assemblage B had 100% similarity with those from humans, respectively. Novel subtypes of G. duodenalis were identified, with one and seven subtypes for assemblages A and E at the gdh locus, and two and three subtypes for assemblages B and E at the bg locus, respectively. Three pairs of the same bg sequences of assemblage E were observed in sheep and cattle. Conclusions/Significance This is the first description of genetic characterizations of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from rabbits, sheep and cattle in Mainland China. Homology analysis of assemblages AI and B implied the possibility of zoonotic transmission. The novel subtypes of assemblages of G. duodenalis may represent the endemic genetic characteristics of G. duodenalis in Heilongjiang Province, China. PMID:24748379

  17. Global Positioning System Data-Loggers: A Tool to Quantify Fine-Scale Movement of Domestic Animals to Evaluate Potential for Zoonotic Transmission to an Endangered Wildlife Population

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Michele B.; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Travis, Dominic; Lipende, Iddi; Gilagiza, Baraka; Kamenya, Shadrack; Pintea, Lilian; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.

    2014-01-01

    Domesticated animals are an important source of pathogens to endangered wildlife populations, especially when anthropogenic activities increase their overlap with humans and wildlife. Recent work in Tanzania reports the introduction of Cryptosporidium into wild chimpanzee populations and the increased risk of ape mortality associated with SIVcpz-Cryptosporidium co-infection. Here we describe the application of novel GPS technology to track the mobility of domesticated animals (27 goats, 2 sheep and 8 dogs) with the goal of identifying potential routes for Cryptosporidium introduction into Gombe National Park. Only goats (5/27) and sheep (2/2) were positive for Cryptosporidium. Analysis of GPS tracks indicated that a crop field frequented by both chimpanzees and domesticated animals was a potential hotspot for Cryptosporidium transmission. This study demonstrates the applicability of GPS data-loggers in studies of fine-scale mobility of animals and suggests that domesticated animal–wildlife overlap should be considered beyond protected boundaries for long-term conservation strategies. PMID:25365070

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of 626 hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates from humans and animals in China (1986-2011) showing genotype diversity and zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Li, Lingjun; Wang, Ling; Bu, Qiuning; Fu, Hongwei; Han, Jian; Zhu, Yonghong; Lu, Fengmin; Zhuang, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis E is considered as a public health problem in China. To determine the overall molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and analyze the situation of cross-species transmission between humans and swine in China over the last 25 years (1986-2011), 626 HEV complete and partial sequences (89 isolates identified by our group) isolated from humans and animals in China were retrieved from GenBank and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. There were three genotypes and 11 sub-genotypes of HEV prevailing in China. Furthermore, rabbit HEVs, of which the genotype is controversial, are also widespread in China. Genotype 1 was the most isolated genotype prior to 2000 and mainly detected in Xinjiang, Beijing and East China. However, genotype 4, which was identified in most regions of China during the last 10 years, has overtaken genotype 1 in frequency of isolation nationwide. Genotype 3 HEV strains have been found only in eastern China and were thought to be imported from Japan. Both genotypes 3 and 4 were found in humans and swine and cross-species transmission from pigs to humans of the two genotypes may have occurred in Northeast, Northwest, North, East and South China. These results indicate that HEV strains with considerable genetic diversity are widespread and the zoonotic transmission between swine and humans appears ubiquitous in China.

  19. A pilot study for targeted surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwankiti, O O; Ikeh, E I; Asala, O; Seuberlich, T

    2013-06-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), popularly known as 'mad cow disease', led to an epidemic in Europe that peaked in the mid-1990s. Its impact on developing countries, such as Nigeria, has not been fully established as information on livestock and surveillance has eluded those in charge of this task. The BSE risk to Nigeria's cattle population currently remains undetermined, which has resulted in international trade restrictions on commodities from the cattle population. This is mainly because of a lack of updated BSE risk assessments and disease surveillance data. To evaluate the feasibility of BSE surveillance in Nigeria, we carried out a pilot study targeting cattle that were presented for emergency or casualty slaughter. In total, 1551 cattle of local breeds, aged 24 months and above were clinically examined. Ataxia, recumbency and other neurological signs were topmost on our list of criteria. A total of 96 cattle, which correspond to 6.2%, presented clinical signs that supported a suspect of BSE. The caudal brainstem tissues of these animals were collected post-mortem and analysed for the disease-specific form of the prion protein using a rapid test approved by the International Animal Health Organization (OIE). None of the samples were positive for BSE. Although our findings do not exclude the presence of BSE in Nigeria, they do demonstrate that targeted sampling of clinically suspected cases of BSE is feasible in developing countries. In addition, these findings point to the possibility of implementing clinical monitoring schemes for BSE and potentially other diseases with grave economic and public health consequences.

  20. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle.

  1. Infectious titres of sheep scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents cannot be accurately predicted from quantitative laboratory test results.

    PubMed

    González, Lorenzo; Thorne, Leigh; Jeffrey, Martin; Martin, Stuart; Spiropoulos, John; Beck, Katy E; Lockey, Richard W; Vickery, Christopher M; Holder, Thomas; Terry, Linda

    2012-11-01

    It is widely accepted that abnormal forms of the prion protein (PrP) are the best surrogate marker for the infectious agent of prion diseases and, in practice, the detection of such disease-associated (PrP(d)) and/or protease-resistant (PrP(res)) forms of PrP is the cornerstone of diagnosis and surveillance of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Nevertheless, some studies question the consistent association between infectivity and abnormal PrP detection. To address this discrepancy, 11 brain samples of sheep affected with natural scrapie or experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy were selected on the basis of the magnitude and predominant types of PrP(d) accumulation, as shown by immunohistochemical (IHC) examination; contra-lateral hemi-brain samples were inoculated at three different dilutions into transgenic mice overexpressing ovine PrP and were also subjected to quantitative analysis by three biochemical tests (BCTs). Six samples gave 'low' infectious titres (10⁶·⁵ to 10⁶·⁷ LD₅₀ g⁻¹) and five gave 'high titres' (10⁸·¹ to ≥ 10⁸·⁷ LD₅₀ g⁻¹) and, with the exception of the Western blot analysis, those two groups tended to correspond with samples with lower PrP(d)/PrP(res) results by IHC/BCTs. However, no statistical association could be confirmed due to high individual sample variability. It is concluded that although detection of abnormal forms of PrP by laboratory methods remains useful to confirm TSE infection, infectivity titres cannot be predicted from quantitative test results, at least for the TSE sources and host PRNP genotypes used in this study. Furthermore, the near inverse correlation between infectious titres and Western blot results (high protease pre-treatment) argues for a dissociation between infectivity and PrP(res).

  2. Guinea Pig Prion Protein Supports Rapid Propagation of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Prions.

    PubMed

    Watts, Joel C; Giles, Kurt; Saltzberg, Daniel J; Dugger, Brittany N; Patel, Smita; Oehler, Abby; Bhardwaj, Sumita; Sali, Andrej; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2016-11-01

    The biochemical and neuropathological properties of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) prions are faithfully maintained upon transmission to guinea pigs. However, primary and secondary transmissions of BSE and vCJD in guinea pigs result in long incubation periods of ∼450 and ∼350 days, respectively. To determine if the incubation periods of BSE and vCJD prions could be shortened, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing guinea pig prion protein (GPPrP). Inoculation of Tg(GPPrP) mice with BSE and vCJD prions resulted in mean incubation periods of 210 and 199 days, respectively, which shortened to 137 and 122 days upon serial transmission. In contrast, three different isolates of sporadic CJD prions failed to transmit disease to Tg(GPPrP) mice. Many of the strain-specified biochemical and neuropathological properties of BSE and vCJD prions, including the presence of type 2 protease-resistant PrP(Sc), were preserved upon propagation in Tg(GPPrP) mice. Structural modeling revealed that two residues near the N-terminal region of α-helix 1 in GPPrP might mediate its susceptibility to BSE and vCJD prions. Our results demonstrate that expression of GPPrP in Tg mice supports the rapid propagation of BSE and vCJD prions and suggest that Tg(GPPrP) mice may serve as a useful paradigm for bioassaying these prion isolates.

  3. In vivo transmission and dynamics of deleted genomes after experimental infection of woodchuck hepatitis B virus in adult animals.

    PubMed

    La Sorsa, Valentina; Argentini, Claudio; Bruni, Roberto; Villano, Umberta; Giuseppetti, Roberto; Rapicetta, Maria

    2002-10-01

    The presence of Deleted Genomes has been shown in a number of viral models including Hepadnaviridae. The analysis of woodchuck hepatitis B virus (WHV) population after experimental infection of woodchuck 197 (W197) with WHV7-PI inoculum revealed the presence of two Deleted Genomes: DG600 lacking a 1330 bp region (Core/Polymerase/PreS1) and DG900 showing a deletion of 869 nts (Pol/PreS/S). These mutants were also present in WHV7-PI. The successive WHV experimental infections in adult animals were performed using W197-w7 inoculum containing DG600 and DG900. Infections were divided into three groups presenting different patterns of viral replication, different presence of markers, occurrence of variants and persistence of infection. The first group displayed 2-3 weeks viremic phase and WHV-DNA titres of 10-30 ng/ml; the second a longer viremic phase (8-9 weeks) and higher WHV-DNA titres (up to 78 ng/ml). In contrast, the third group exhibited lifetime presence of WHV-DNA and WHVeAg in serum and viral replication in liver. The Deleted Genomes were transmitted in the newly infected animals with the same genomic organization. DG600 was persistently found only in chronically infected woodchuck, whereas a different pattern of presence was described for DG900. The characterization of these classes of deleted mutants in woodchuck-WHV model raises new questions on the link between DGs and persistent infections.

  4. Impact of potential changes to the current bovine spongiform encephalopathy surveillance programs for slaughter cattle and fallen stock in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Murray, Noel; Shinoda, Naoki; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    Cattle slaughtered in Japan for human consumption, regardless of their age, have been tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) since October 2001. Beginning in April 2004, all fallen stock from 24 months of age also have been tested. We evaluated the impact of potential changes to the current BSE surveillance programs for both slaughter cattle and fallen stock using a simple stochastic model. We calculated the probability that a BSE-infected dairy cow, Wagyu beef animal, Wagyu-Holstein cross steer or heifer, or Holstein steer slaughtered for human consumption or arising as fallen stock would be tested and detected. Four surveillance strategies were explored for cattle slaughtered for human consumption, with the minimum age at testing set at 0, 21, 31, or 41 months. Three surveillance strategies were explored for fallen stock, with the minimum age at testing set at 24, 31, or 41 months. Increasing the minimum age of testing from 0 to 21 months for both dairy cattle and Wagyu beef cattle had very little impact on the probability that a BSE-infected animal slaughtered for human consumption would be detected. Although increasing the minimum age at testing from 21 to 31 or 41 months would lead to fewer slaughtered animals being tested, the impact on the probability of detecting infected animals would be insignificant. The probability of infected Wagyu-Holstein crosses and Holstein steers being detected at slaughter or as fallen stock would be very low under all surveillance strategies.

  5. Animal models of bovine leukemia virus and human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1: insights in transmission and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lairmore, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) are related retroviruses associated with persistent and lifelong infections and a low incidence of lymphomas within their hosts. Both viruses can be spread through contact with bodily fluids containing infected cells, most often from mother to offspring through breast milk. Each of these complex retroviruses contains typical gag, pol, and env genes but also unique, nonstructural proteins encoded from the pX region. These nonstructural genes encode the Tax and Rex regulatory proteins, as well as novel proteins essential for viral spread in vivo. Improvements in the molecular tools to test these viral determinants in cellular and animal models have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of each virus. Comparisons of BLV and HTLV-1 provide insights into mechanisms of spread and tumor formation, as well as potential approaches to therapeutic intervention against the infections.

  6. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition.

  7. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 ??m and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  8. MEAT AND BONE MEAL AND MINERAL FEED ADDITIVES MAY INCREASE THE RISK OF ORAL PRION DISEASE TRANSMISSION

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer–sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion–contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition. PMID:21218345

  9. Use of substances of animal origin in pharmaceutics and compliance with the TSE-risk guideline -- a market survey.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christoph N; Le Donne, Patrizia; Windemann, Helena

    2005-03-01

    The risk of infection with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) from the use of animal-derived substances in drug manufacturing was assessed [Swissmedic. TSE guideline to the ordinance. 2001; http://www.swissmedic.ch/files/pdf/Anleitung_TSE.pdf; The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines. Minimising the risk of transmitting animal spongiform encephalopathy agents via medicinal products. In: European Pharmacopoeia 2002; General chapter 5.2.8. http://www.pheur.org/medias/download/50208E.pdf]. In addition, the compliance of the Swiss Market Authorisation holders to implement the Swissmedic TSE guidelines was examined. To assess the compliance with the TSE guideline for products on the Swiss market a representative number of drugs were selected based on a statistical approach. The documents for the biological, anatomical and geographical origin of the animal substances used for drug manufacturing as well as for the manufacturing processes were requested to be provided within a short response period and were subsequently reviewed. A total of 438 drugs with 655 substances of animal origin were assessed during the survey. The documentation provided by the Market Authorisation holders showed, that in general the measures described in the TSE guidelines were implemented well. Therefore, the risk of these pharmaceutics to transmit TSE was considered minimized. However, the TSE documentation provided by drug companies was incomplete for approximately two-third of the drugs at the beginning of the survey. In particular for those containing excipients such as tallow derivatives or gelatine, numerous clarifications were needed prior assessment. The efforts of the drug companies to correspond to regulatory actions and to implement authoritative guidelines should be improved.

  10. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant.

    PubMed

    Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Nöremark, Maria; Langeveld, Jan P M; Stack, Mick; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Vulin, Johann; Chaplin, Melanie; Richt, Jürgen A; Jacobs, Jorg; Acín, Cristina; Monleón, Eva; Renström, Lena; Klingeborn, Berndt; Baron, Thierry G M

    2008-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form, because several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) were different from classical BSE. The differences included higher susceptibility for proteinase K, higher molecular weight of the PrP(res) bands, affinity to the N-terminus-specific antibodies 12B2 and P4, and peculiar banding pattern with antibody SAF84 showing an additional band at the 14 kDa position. The molecular characteristics were in accordance to previous descriptions of H-type BSE. This report shows that a range of Western blot techniques and antibodies can be applied to confirm H-type BSE and further describes that the ratio of the amounts of PrPres#1 and PrPres#2, after deglycosylation, depends on the antibody used during processing. Immunohistochemistry on sections of medulla at the level of the obex applying antibodies with epitopes covering a broad range of the PrP sequence showed accumulation of disease-specific PrP (PrP(d)) in the gray matter. Fine punctate deposition in the neuropil was the most predominant type and was more severe in BSE target nuclei. The types of PrP(d) deposition are described in comparison with classical BSE. PrP-gene sequencing showed 6 copy octarepeat alleles and no abnormalities. It is postulated that the disease had a spontaneous origin, rather than having had been acquired in the BSE epidemic.

  11. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is an animal prion disease that also causes variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Over the past decades, c-BSE's zoonotic potential has been the driving force in establishing extensive protective measures for animal and human health. In compl...

  12. The impact of diseases on the importation of animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Walton, T E

    2000-01-01

    For decades the veterinary services of the United States and other nations protected their livestock and poultry industries from the ravages of introduced animal diseases by rigorous import restrictions. This policy of zero risk frequently translated to no or reduced trade in animals and animal products or dramatic trade inequities. However, GATT articles enforced by the WTO require that imported products be treated no less favorably than domestically produced goods with regard to animal health restrictions. Under authority from the WTO, the OIE establishes recommendations and guidelines for the regulation of trade in animals and products of animal origin through the OIE International Animal Health Code, sets animal health standards, and reports global animal health situations and statuses. Diseases often have a dramatic impact on the animal agricultural industries of a nation--disease outbreaks may be deleterious to the competitiveness of the products of one nation but offer opportunities for others. The potential dangers of lax vigilance, insufficient scientifically valid data, inadequate SPS measures, and errors in assessing risk can turn the heady experience of seemingly unlimited growth in international markets and demand for one's products into a catastrophic return to reality. The experience of the United Kingdom and countries of Europe with bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a case in point. It is estimated that the cost of the outbreak of this disease to the economy of the UK has been more than $3 billion. Responses of their trading partners, including the US, to this outbreak were abrupt and restrictive. Although the decision was controversial, the US stopped importation of live cattle from the UK in the late 1980's and subsequently, in 1997, importation of all products of ruminant origin was stopped from all countries of Europe. The transmission of the disease to continental Europe and the disclosure that the pathogen was associated with a fatal human

  13. Neuronal degeneration in the gerbil brainstem is associated with spongiform lesions.

    PubMed

    McGinn, M D; Faddis, B T

    1998-05-01

    Spongiform lesions arise in dendrites and glia in the brainstem of domestic Mongolian gerbils. Most pronounced within the cochlear nucleus (CN), this disorder is dynamic and progressive; the lesions increase in number, size, and extent with age. It has not been clear whether these spongioid lesions either cause or are associated with significant neural degeneration. In contrast, feral Mongolian gerbils (wild-trapped in Tuva) and their offspring show few spongiform lesions. The Tuvan gerbils provide an appropriate within-species control. We compared degeneration in the brainstem of domestic and Tuvan gerbils using the amino-cupric-silver (ACS) stain of de Olmos et al. [(1994) Neurotoxicol. Teratol., 16:545-561]. Positive histologic controls were provided by cerebellar stab wounds in domestic gerbils and by unilateral kainic acid injections into the CN of Tuvan gerbils. The ACS stain revealed extensive degeneration of axons, terminals, dendrites, and neurons in the brainstem of domestic gerbils. Neurodegeneration was most pronounced in the CN and was coextensive with spongiform lesions. Neurodegeneration was also seen in the trapezoid body, lateral lemniscus, and inferior colliculus, but was less pronounced than in the CN. The cerebellar stab wounds resulted in silver-stained Purkinje cells restricted to the stab wound local region. Kainic acid produced extensive neuronal and spongiform degeneration of the injected CN that was very similar to that spontaneously occurring in domestic gerbils. In contrast, the non-injected CN of Tuvan gerbils showed no neuronal or spongiform degeneration with the ACS stain. We conclude that, in domestic gerbils, the naturally occurring spongiform lesions of the CN and the accompanying neurodegeneration are both results of a common mechanism, most probably excitotoxic.

  14. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrPSc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M.; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A.; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrPSc). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrPSc against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorbtion assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrPSc after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrPSc can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrPSc detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrPSc that may stabilize the aggregates. PMID:22226540

  15. 78 FR 11207 - Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... to discuss FDA's draft risk assessment model for potential exposure to the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) agent in Red Blood Cells for transfusion in the United States. FDA intends to...

  16. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrP Sc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

    PubMed

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J

    2012-05-25

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(Sc)). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrP(Sc) against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorption assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrP(Sc) after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrP(Sc) can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrP(Sc) detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrP(Sc) that may stabilize the aggregates.

  17. Simulation of between-farm transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Ontario, Canada using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Krishna K; Revie, Crawford W; Hurnik, Daniel; Poljak, Zvonimir; Sanchez, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a viral disease of swine, has major economic impacts on the swine industry. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM) is a spatial, stochastic, farm level state-transition modeling framework originally developed to simulate highly contagious and foreign livestock diseases. The objectives of this study were to develop a model to simulate between-farm spread of a homologous strain of PRRS virus in Ontario swine farms via direct (animal movement) and indirect (sharing of trucks between farms) contacts using the NAADSM and to compare the patterns and extent of outbreak under different simulated conditions. A total of 2552 swine farms in Ontario province were allocated to each census division of Ontario and geo-locations of the farms were randomly generated within the agriculture land of each Census Division. Contact rates among different production types were obtained using pig movement information from four regions in Canada. A total of 24 scenarios were developed involving various direct (movement of infected animals) and indirect (pig transportation trucks) contact parameters in combination with alternating the production type of the farm in which the infection was seeded. Outbreaks were simulated for one year with 1000 replications. The median number of farms infected, proportion of farms with multiple outbreaks and time to reach the peak epidemic were used to compare the size, progression and extent of outbreaks. Scenarios involving spread only by direct contact between farms resulted in outbreaks where the median percentage of infected farms ranged from 31.5 to 37% of all farms. In scenarios with both direct and indirect contact, the median percentage of infected farms increased to a range from 41.6 to 48.6%. Furthermore, scenarios with both direct and indirect contact resulted in a 44% increase in median epidemic size when compared to the direct contact scenarios. Incorporation of both animal

  18. Comparative aspects of bovine spongiform encephalopathy isolates found in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be subdivided into at least three groups: classical, H-type, and L-type. The latter 2 designations are based on higher or lower apparent molecular mass profiles of the unglycosylated PrP**Sc band in a western blot and are collectively referred to as atypica...

  19. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the effect of oral exposure dose on attack rate and incubation period in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wells, G A H; Konold, T; Arnold, M E; Austin, A R; Hawkins, S A C; Stack, M; Simmons, M M; Lee, Y H; Gavier-Widén, D; Dawson, M; Wilesmith, J W

    2007-04-01

    The dose-response of cattle exposed to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent is an important component of modelling exposure risks for animals and humans and thereby, the modulation of surveillance and control strategies for BSE. In two experiments calves were dosed orally with a range of amounts of a pool of brainstems from BSE-affected cattle. Infectivity in the pool was determined by end-point titration in mice. Recipient cattle were monitored for clinical disease and, from the incidence of pathologically confirmed cases and their incubation periods (IPs), the attack rate and IP distribution according to dose were estimated. The dose at which 50 % of cattle would be clinically affected was estimated at 0.20 g brain material used in the experiment, with 95 % confidence intervals of 0.04-1.00 g. The IP was highly variable across all dose groups and followed a log-normal distribution, with decreasing mean as dose increased. There was no evidence of a threshold dose at which the probability of infection became vanishingly small, with 1/15 (7 %) of animals affected at the lowest dose (1 mg).

  20. Detection and discrimination of classical and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy by real-time quaking-induced conversion.

    PubMed

    Orrú, Christina D; Favole, Alessandra; Corona, Cristiano; Mazza, Maria; Manca, Matteo; Groveman, Bradley R; Hughson, Andrew G; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Caramelli, Maria; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Casalone, Cristina; Caughey, Byron

    2015-04-01

    Statutory surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) indicates that cattle are susceptible to both classical BSE (C-BSE) and atypical forms of BSE. Atypical forms of BSE appear to be sporadic and thus may never be eradicated. A major challenge for prion surveillance is the lack of sufficiently practical and sensitive tests for routine BSE detection and strain discrimination. The real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) test, which is based on prion-seeded fibrillization of recombinant prion protein (rPrPSen), is known to be highly specific and sensitive for the detection of multiple human and animal prion diseases but not BSE. Here, we tested brain tissue from cattle affected by C-BSE and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-type BSE or L-BSE) with the RT-QuIC assay and found that both BSE forms can be detected and distinguished using particular rPrPSen substrates. Specifically, L-BSE was detected using multiple rPrPSen substrates, while C-BSE was much more selective. This substrate-based approach suggests a diagnostic strategy for specific, sensitive, and rapid detection and discrimination of at least some BSE forms.

  1. Complex proteinopathy with accumulations of prion protein, hyperphosphorylated tau, α-synuclein and ubiquitin in experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy of monkeys.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, Pedro; Cervenak, Juraj; Bu, Ming; Miller, Lindsay; Asher, David M

    2014-07-01

    Proteins aggregate in several slowly progressive neurodegenerative diseases called 'proteinopathies'. Studies with cell cultures and transgenic mice overexpressing mutated proteins suggested that aggregates of one protein induced misfolding and aggregation of other proteins as well - a possible common mechanism for some neurodegenerative diseases. However, most proteinopathies are 'sporadic', without gene mutation or overexpression. Thus, proteinopathies in WT animals genetically close to humans might be informative. Squirrel monkeys infected with the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent developed an encephalopathy resembling variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with accumulations not only of abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)), but also three other proteins: hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau), α-synuclein and ubiquitin; β-amyloid protein (Aβ) did not accumulate. Severity of brain lesions correlated with spongiform degeneration. No amyloid was detected. These results suggested that PrP(TSE) enhanced formation of p-tau and aggregation of α-synuclein and ubiquitin, but not Aβ, providing a new experimental model for neurodegenerative diseases associated with complex proteinopathies.

  2. Enhanced Virulence of Sheep-Passaged Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent Is Revealed by Decreased Polymorphism Barriers in Prion Protein Conversion Studies

    PubMed Central

    Priem, Jan; Langeveld, Jan P. M.; van Keulen, Lucien J. M.; van Zijderveld, Fred G.; Andreoletti, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be efficiently transmitted to small ruminants (sheep and goats) with certain prion protein (PrP) genotypes. Polymorphisms in PrP of both the host and donor influence the transmission efficiency of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in general. These polymorphisms in PrP also modulate the PrP conversion underlying TSE agent replication. Here we demonstrate that single-round protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) can be used to assess species and polymorphism barriers at the molecular level. We assessed those within and between the ovine and bovine species in vitro using a variety of natural scrapie and experimentally generated cross-species BSE agents. These BSE agents include ovBSE-ARQ isolates (BSE derived from sheep having the ARQ/ARQ PrP genotype), and two unique BSE-derived variants: BSE passaged in VRQ/VRQ sheep and a cow BSE agent isolate generated by back-transmission of ovBSE-ARQ into its original host. PMCA allowed us to quantitatively determine PrP conversion profiles that correlated with known in vivo transmissibility and susceptibility in the two ruminant species in which strain-specific molecular signatures, like its molecular weight after protease digestion, were maintained. Furthermore, both BSE agent isolates from ARQ and VRQ sheep demonstrated a surprising transmission profile in which efficient transmissions to both sheep and bovine variants was combined. Finally, all data support the notion that ARQ-derived sheep BSE points to a significant increase in virulence compared to all other tested scrapie- and BSE-derived variants reflected by the increased conversion efficiencies of previously inefficient convertible PrP variants (including the so-called “resistant” sheep ARR variant). IMPORTANCE Prion diseases such as scrapie in sheep and goats, BSE in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans are fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by prions. BSE is known to

  3. A species barrier limits transmission of chronic wasting disease to mink (Mustela vison)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) occurs as sporadic outbreaks associated with ingestion of feed presumably contaminated with some type of prion disease. Mink lack a species barrier to primary oral challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, whereas they have a barrier to such challenge ...

  4. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of wild and farmed cervid ruminants in the North America, including white tailed, black tailed and mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and Shira's moose. CWD, like the other TSEs, is associated with accumulation of an abnorm...

  5. Experimental Inoculation of Spiroplasma mirum and Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) into Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of spongiform encephalopathy in raccoons (Procyon lotor), 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon...

  6. Potential risk of zoonotic transmission from young swine to human: seroepidemiological and genetic characterization of hepatitis E virus in human and various animals in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Geng, J; Wang, L; Wang, X; Fu, H; Bu, Q; Liu, P; Zhu, Y; Wang, M; Sui, Y; Zhuang, H

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the prevalence of infection and genotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV) among different species of animals, people whose works are related to pigs and the general population in the suburb of Beijing, China. Serum and faecal samples were collected from 10 animal species and humans. Anti-HEV was detected by enzyme immunoassays (EIA); HEV RNA was amplified by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method. PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The isolated swine HEV sequences were analysed phylogenetically. The positive rates of serum anti-HEV in swine, cattle, milk cow, horse, sheep, donkey, dog, duck, chicken, pig farm workers and slaughterhouse workers, and general population were 81.17% (802/988), 25.29% (66/261), 14.87% (40/269), 14.29% (40/280), 9.30% (53/514), 0 (0/25), 0 (0/20), 2.53% (8/316), 3.03% (7/231), 58.73% (37/63), 35.87% (66/184) and 20.06% (538/2682), respectively. The anti-HEV prevalence in adult swine (≥ 6 months) and younger swine (≤ 3 months) was 91.49% (591/646) and 61.7% (211/342), respectively. The positive rate of HEV RNA in young swine faeces was 47.94% (93/194). All 93 isolates from the younger swine shared 87.8-100% nucleotide homology with each other and had identities of 75.6-78.9%, 73.9-76.1%, 76.4-80.6% and 83.1-95.0% with the corresponding regions of genotypes 1-4 HEV, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, subgenotype 4d. These results suggest a potential risk of zoonotic transmission of HEV from younger swine to farmers who rear pigs.

  7. Animal-assisted therapy with children suffering from insecure attachment due to abuse and neglect: a method to lower the risk of intergenerational transmission of abuse?

    PubMed

    Parish-Plass, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Children suffering from insecure attachment due to severe abuse and/or neglect are often characterized by internal working models which, although perhaps adaptive within the original family situation, are inappropriate and maladaptive in other relationships and situations. Such children have a higher probability than the general population of becoming abusing or neglecting parents. Besides the usual goals of psychotherapy, an overall goal is to stop the cycle of abuse in which abused children may grow up to be abusing parents. Therapy with these children is complicated by their distrust in adults as well as difficulties in symbolization due to trauma during the preverbal stage. Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) provides avenues for circumventing these difficulties, as well as providing additional tools for reaching the inner world of the client. This article gives a brief background of the connection between insecure attachment and intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect as well as a brief overview of the principles of AAT in a play therapy setting. A rationale for the use of AAT as a unique therapy technique for children having suffered from abuse and neglect is followed by a number of clinical examples illustrating AAT.

  8. Assessing the time taken for a surveillance system to detect a re-emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Simons, Robin R L; Arnold, Mark E; Adkin, Amie

    2017-03-01

    During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in July 2001 the European Commission established a surveillance scheme for the comprehensive sampling of all BSE clinical suspects, healthy slaughter (HS) animals >30months, and all emergency slaughter and fallen stock animals tested when >24months. With the exponential decline in classical BSE cases, this comprehensive surveillance system has been successively modified to become risk-based, targeting those exit streams and ages where cases from the original epidemic are most likely to be detected. Such reductions in testing are not without losses in the information subsequently collected, which could affect the sensitivity of the surveillance system to relatively small changes in the underlying prevalence of BSE across the European Union (EU). Here we report on a cohort-based approach to estimate the time taken for EU surveillance to observe a theoretical re-emergence of BSE in cattle. A number of surveillance schemes were compared. The baseline scheme considered detection being triggered by at least one case in the 'age window' 48-72 months in the fallen stock or emergency slaughter exit streams. Alternative schemes changed the start and end of this age window as well as considering testing for HS cattle. Under the baseline scheme, an estimated 15 years would lapse ([2.5th, 97.5th] percentiles=[10,24]) prior to detection, during which time 2867 infected animals ([2.5th, 97.5th]=[1722,6967]) would enter the slaughter population. These animals would be predominantly young animals (majority <24months) showing no clinical signs. This baseline scheme reduced the time to detection by 2 years, compared to a scheme where only clinical suspects were tested assuming BSE symptoms are recognised to the same degree by veterinary surgeons. Additional testing of younger animals did not improve detection as young infected animals were unlikely to test positive, but testing of older animals reduced the time to detection

  9. The basic reality of mind and spongiform diseases.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, S

    2001-11-01

    A change in handedness (chirality) in some amino acids appears to be the basic physical change in degradation-resistant proteins (prions) found in conditions such as Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and ovine scrapie. The affected structures are primarily innervated by cholinergic nerves. Much evidence suggests that these so-called prions (here named chirons) are harmless, non-infectious products. The importance of the cholinergic system allows a new simplified interpretation of these conditions. The main steps are the acetylcholine-cholinesterase splitting of body water with release of free protons in solution, followed by electron dissipation, dioxygen activation and Ca-fluxes. Abiotic physics conserves parity and symmetry by equal amounts of L- and D-forms of molecules. In contrast, the asymmetric pattern of life must be homochiral. Such biomolecules dissolve in water and are thus able to interact in cholinergic hydrodynamics. It is supposed that the instability of the composite weak force by beta-decay causes changes in chirality. These extremely rare events are not frequent enough to explain disease pathology. Experimental, accidental, surgical and abusive inoculations will propagate chirons according to the physical law of self-replication, which also occurs in test tubes without added biological products. Chirons will not be degraded into amino acids in the alimentary canal and will, because they are indigestible, leave the body with the faeces. Chirons are inert also to the immune system and will be engulfed without reaction by phagocytosing cells. They are then stored away in tissues, where they do no harm (if not detected and suspected to be deleterious, thereby causing pathogenic anxiety). The cholinergic system reacts to all kinds of integrity threats and it is this reaction which I propose causes the so-called prion diseases. This pathology seems generally valid, and is here exemplified

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the medulla tissue from cattle in response to bovine spongiform encephalopathy using digital gene expression tag profiling.

    PubMed

    Basu, Urmila; Almeida, Luciane; Olson, N Eric; Meng, Yan; Williams, John L; Moore, Stephen S; Guan, Le Luo

    2011-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible, fatal neurodegenerative disorder of cattle produced by prions. The use of excessive parallel sequencing for comparison of gene expression in bovine control and infected tissues may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms associated with this disease. In this study, tag profiling Solexa sequencing was used for transcriptome analysis of bovine brain tissues. Replicate libraries were prepared from mRNA isolated from control and infected (challenged with 100 g of BSE-infected brain) medulla tissues 45 mo after infection. For each library, 5-6 million sequence reads were generated and approximately 67-70% of the reads were mapped against the Bovine Genome database to approximately 13,700-14,120 transcripts (each having at least one read). About 42-47% of the total reads mapped uniquely. Using the GeneSifter software package, 190 differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified (>2.0-fold change, p < .01): 73 upregulated and 117 downregulated. Seventy-nine DE genes had functions described in the Gene Ontology (GO) database and 16 DE genes were involved in 38 different pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Digital analysis expression by tag profiling may be a powerful approach to comprehensive transcriptome analysis to identify changes associated with disease progression, leading to a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of pathogenesis of BSE.

  11. Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prions, infectious agents associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, are primarily composed of the misfolded and pathogenic form (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein. Because PrPSc retains infectivity after undergoing routine sterilizing processes, the cause of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) outbreaks are suspected to be feeding cattle meat and bone meals (MBMs) contaminated with the prion. To assess the validity of prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease, which is produced in the industrial manufacturing process of MBMs, we pooled, homogenized, and heat treated the spinal cords of BSE-infected cows under various experimental conditions. Results Prion inactivation was analyzed quantitatively in terms of the infectivity and PrPSc of the treated samples. Following treatment at 140°C for 1 h, infectivity was reduced to 1/35 of that of the untreated samples. Treatment at 180°C for 3 h was required to reduce infectivity. However, PrPSc was detected in all heat-treated samples by using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique, which amplifies PrPScin vitro. Quantitative analysis of the inactivation efficiency of BSE PrPSc was possible with the introduction of the PMCA50, which is the dilution ratio of 10% homogenate needed to yield 50% positivity for PrPSc in amplified samples. Conclusions Log PMCA50 exhibited a strong linear correlation with the transmission rate in the bioassay; infectivity was no longer detected when the log PMCA50 of the inoculated sample was reduced to 1.75. The quantitative PMCA assay may be useful for safety evaluation for recycling and effective utilization of MBMs as an organic resource. PMID:23835086

  12. Neuroanatomical distribution of disease-associated prion protein in experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle after intracerebral inoculation.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shigeo; Onoe, Sadao; Nikaido, Satoshi; Fujii, Kei; Kageyama, Soichi; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Masujin, Kentaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Kasai, Kazuo; Yoshioka, Miyako; Murayama, Yuichi; Mohri, Shirou; Yokoyama, Takashi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The pathologic disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) has been shown to be expressed in the central nervous system of Holstein cattle inoculated intracerebrally with 3 sources of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) isolates. Several regions of the brain and spinal cord were analyzed for PrP(Sc) expression by immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses. Animals euthanized at 10 months post-inoculation (mpi) showed PrP(Sc) deposits in the brainstem and thalamus, but no vacuolation; this suggested that the BSE agent might exhibit area-dependent tropism in the brain. At 16 and 18 mpi, a small amount of vacuolation was detected in the brainstem and thalamus, but not in the cerebral cortices. At 20 to 24 mpi, when clinical symptoms were apparent, heavy PrP(Sc) deposits were evident throughout the brain and spinal cord. The mean time to the appearance of clinical symptoms was 19.7 mpi, and the mean survival time was 22.7 mpi. These findings show that PrP(Sc) accumulation was detected approximately 10 months before the clinical symptoms of BSE became apparent. In addition, the 3 sources of BSE prion induced no detectable differences in the clinical signs, incubation periods, neuroanatomical location of vacuoles, or distribution and pattern of PrP(Sc) depositions in the brain.

  13. Clinical and pathologic features of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Justin J; Smith, Jodi D; West Greenlee, M Heather; Nicholson, Eric M

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases have been ascribed to the classical form of the disease. H-type and L-type BSE cases have atypical molecular profiles compared to classical BSE and are thought to arise spontaneously. However, one case of H-type BSE was associated with a heritable E211K mutation in the prion protein gene. The purpose of this study was to describe transmission of this unique isolate of H-type BSE when inoculated into a calf of the same genotype by the intracranial route. Electroretinograms were used to demonstrate preclinical deficits in retinal function, and optical coherence tomography was used to demonstrate an antemortem decrease in retinal thickness. The calf rapidly progressed to clinical disease (9.4 months) and was necropsied. Widespread distribution of abnormal prion protein was demonstrated within neural tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. While this isolate is categorized as BSE-H due to a higher molecular mass of the unglycosylated PrP(Sc) isoform, a strong labeling of all 3 PrP(Sc) bands with monoclonal antibodies 6H4 and P4, and a second unglycosylated band at approximately 14 kDa when developed with antibodies that bind in the C-terminal region, it is unique from other described cases of BSE-H because of an additional band 23 kDa demonstrated on western blots of the cerebellum. This work demonstrates that this isolate is transmissible, has a BSE-H phenotype when transmitted to cattle with the K211 polymorphism, and has molecular features that distinguish it from other cases of BSE-H described in the literature.

  14. Cows for fear: is BSE a threat to human health? Bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, J

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-a disease that causes lack of coordination, muscle twitching or jerking, dementia, and, eventually, death-suddenly appeared in Great Britain. It is believed that the victims contracted the disease from eating the beef of cattle stricken with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease. As of December 1997, at least 25 people in the United Kingdom and France have contracted vCJD. PMID:9485478

  15. Oral Transmissibility of Prion Disease Is Enhanced by Binding to Soil Particles

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J; Pedersen, Joel A; Chappell, Rick J; McKenzie, Debbie; Aiken, Judd M

    2007-01-01

    Soil may serve as an environmental reservoir for prion infectivity and contribute to the horizontal transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [TSEs]) of sheep, deer, and elk. TSE infectivity can persist in soil for years, and we previously demonstrated that the disease-associated form of the prion protein binds to soil particles and prions adsorbed to the common soil mineral montmorillonite (Mte) retain infectivity following intracerebral inoculation. Here, we assess the oral infectivity of Mte- and soil-bound prions. We establish that prions bound to Mte are orally bioavailable, and that, unexpectedly, binding to Mte significantly enhances disease penetrance and reduces the incubation period relative to unbound agent. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that across the doses of TSE agent tested, Mte increased the effective infectious titer by a factor of 680 relative to unbound agent. Oral exposure to Mte-associated prions led to TSE development in experimental animals even at doses too low to produce clinical symptoms in the absence of the mineral. We tested the oral infectivity of prions bound to three whole soils differing in texture, mineralogy, and organic carbon content and found soil-bound prions to be orally infectious. Two of the three soils increased oral transmission of disease, and the infectivity of agent bound to the third organic carbon-rich soil was equivalent to that of unbound agent. Enhanced transmissibility of soil-bound prions may explain the environmental spread of some TSEs despite the presumably low levels shed into the environment. Association of prions with inorganic microparticles represents a novel means by which their oral transmission is enhanced relative to unbound agent. PMID:17616973

  16. Quantifying the relative amounts of PrP polymorphisms present in prions isolated from heterozygous prion-infected animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prions cause protein misfolding diseases, such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. They propagate infections by converting a normal cellular prion protein into a prion (PrPSc). PrPC and PrPSc are isosequential and differ only in their respective conformations. PrPC is monomeric and sensit...

  17. Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Fiona; Goldmann, Wilfred; Foster, James; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are natural hosts of the prion disease, scrapie. They are also susceptible to experimental challenge with various scrapie strains and with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle and has been accidentally transmitted to a range of other species, including man. Incidence and incubation period of clinical disease in sheep following inoculation is controlled by the PRNP gene, which has different alleles defined on the basis of polymorphisms, particularly at codons 136, 154 and 171, although other codons are associated with survival time, and the exact responses of the sheep may be influenced by other breed-related differences. Here we report the results of a long term single study of experimental scrapie and BSE susceptibility of sheep of Cheviot, Poll Dorset and Suffolk breeds, originating from New Zealand and of a wide range of susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. Responses were compared with those of sheep from a closed Cheviot flock of UK origin (Roslin Cheviot flock). The unusually long observation period (6–8 years for most, but up to 12 years for others) allows us to draw robust conclusions about rates of survival of animals previously regarded as resistant to infection, particularly PRNP heterozygotes, and is the most comprehensive such study reported to date. BSE inoculation by an intracerebral route produced disease in all genotype groups with differing incubation periods, although M112T and L141F polymorphisms seemed to give some protection. Scrapie isolate SSBP/1, which has the shortest incubation period in sheep with at least one VRQ PRNP allele, also produced disease following sub-cutaneous inoculation in ARQ/ARQ animals of New Zealand origin, but ARQ/ARQ sheep from the Roslin flock survived the challenge. Our results demonstrate that the links between PRNP genotype and clinical prion disease in sheep are much less secure than previously thought, and may break down when, for example, a different breed of sheep is moved

  18. Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie.

    PubMed

    Houston, Fiona; Goldmann, Wilfred; Foster, James; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are natural hosts of the prion disease, scrapie. They are also susceptible to experimental challenge with various scrapie strains and with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle and has been accidentally transmitted to a range of other species, including man. Incidence and incubation period of clinical disease in sheep following inoculation is controlled by the PRNP gene, which has different alleles defined on the basis of polymorphisms, particularly at codons 136, 154 and 171, although other codons are associated with survival time, and the exact responses of the sheep may be influenced by other breed-related differences. Here we report the results of a long term single study of experimental scrapie and BSE susceptibility of sheep of Cheviot, Poll Dorset and Suffolk breeds, originating from New Zealand and of a wide range of susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. Responses were compared with those of sheep from a closed Cheviot flock of UK origin (Roslin Cheviot flock). The unusually long observation period (6-8 years for most, but up to 12 years for others) allows us to draw robust conclusions about rates of survival of animals previously regarded as resistant to infection, particularly PRNP heterozygotes, and is the most comprehensive such study reported to date. BSE inoculation by an intracerebral route produced disease in all genotype groups with differing incubation periods, although M112T and L141F polymorphisms seemed to give some protection. Scrapie isolate SSBP/1, which has the shortest incubation period in sheep with at least one VRQ PRNP allele, also produced disease following sub-cutaneous inoculation in ARQ/ARQ animals of New Zealand origin, but ARQ/ARQ sheep from the Roslin flock survived the challenge. Our results demonstrate that the links between PRNP genotype and clinical prion disease in sheep are much less secure than previously thought, and may break down when, for example, a different breed of sheep is moved

  19. Transmission of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer: implications for disease spread and management.

    PubMed

    Jennelle, Christopher S; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.

  20. Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

  1. 9 CFR 95.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... containing the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent in infected animals, as listed in the FSIS... spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) minimal-risk region. A region listed in § 94.18(a)(3) of this subchapter..., kidney. Positive for a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. A sheep or goat for which a diagnosis...

  2. 9 CFR 95.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... containing the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent in infected animals, as listed in the FSIS... spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) minimal-risk region. A region listed in § 94.18(a)(3) of this subchapter..., kidney. Positive for a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. A sheep or goat for which a diagnosis...

  3. 9 CFR 95.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... containing the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent in infected animals, as listed in the FSIS... spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) minimal-risk region. A region listed in § 94.18(a)(3) of this subchapter..., kidney. Positive for a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. A sheep or goat for which a diagnosis...

  4. 9 CFR 95.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... containing the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent in infected animals, as listed in the FSIS... spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) minimal-risk region. A region listed in § 94.18(a)(3) of this subchapter..., kidney. Positive for a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. A sheep or goat for which a diagnosis...

  5. Primary transmission of chronic wasting disease versus scrapie prions from small ruminants to transgenic mice expressing ovine and cervid prion protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) reservoirs that could lead to disease re-emergence is imperative to U.S. scrapie eradication efforts. Transgenic mice expressing the cervid (TgElk) or ovine (Tg338) prion protein have aided characterization of chronic wasting disease (CWD) an...

  6. Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of BSE and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human PrP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has demonstrated that cattle TSEs can pose a risk to human health and raises the possibility that other ruminant TSEs may be transmissible to humans. In recent years, several new TSEs in shee...

  7. Detection of PrP(Sc) in peripheral tissues of clinically affected cattle after oral challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative prion disease that affects cattle and can be transmitted to human beings as new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). A protease-resistant, disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (PrP**Sc) accumulates in the central ner...

  8. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) mutants transmissible by air are susceptible to human and animal neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Du, Lanying; Li, Ye; Zhao, Guangyu; Wang, Lili; Zou, Peng; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo

    2013-10-15

    A laboratory-generated reassortant H5 hemagglutinin (HA)/influenza A(H1N1) strain containing 4 mutations in influenza A(H5N1) HA has become transmissible by air among mammals. Here, we constructed 15 influenza A(H5N1) pseudoviruses containing a single mutation or a combination of mutations and showed that the pseudoviruses were susceptible to neutralizing antibodies from patients with influenza A(H5N1) infection and from mice immunized with a vaccine containing the conserved HA1 sequence of influenza A(H5N1). These results indicate that antibodies in patients currently infected by influenza A(H5N1) and antibodies induced by vaccines containing conserved sequences in HA1 of wild-type influenza A(H5N1) are highly effective in cross-neutralizing future influenza A(H5N1) mutants with airborne transmissibility, suggesting that human influenza pandemics caused by these influenza A(H5N1) variants can be prevented.

  9. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission.

  10. Animal Reservoir, Natural and Socioeconomic Variations and the Transmission of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Chenzhou, China, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Basta, Nicole; Cazelles, Bernard; Li, Xiu-Jun; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Wu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Bi-Yun; Yang, Hui-Suo; Xu, Bing; Grenfell, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background China has the highest incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) worldwide. Reported cases account for 90% of the total number of global cases. By 2010, approximately 1.4 million HFRS cases had been reported in China. This study aimed to explore the effect of the rodent reservoir, and natural and socioeconomic variables, on the transmission pattern of HFRS. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on monthly HFRS cases were collected from 2006 to 2010. Dynamic rodent monitoring data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data, climate data, and socioeconomic data were also obtained. Principal component analysis was performed, and the time-lag relationships between the extracted principal components and HFRS cases were analyzed. Polynomial distributed lag (PDL) models were used to fit and forecast HFRS transmission. Four principal components were extracted. Component 1 (F1) represented rodent density, the NDVI, and monthly average temperature. Component 2 (F2) represented monthly average rainfall and monthly average relative humidity. Component 3 (F3) represented rodent density and monthly average relative humidity. The last component (F4) represented gross domestic product and the urbanization rate. F2, F3, and F4 were significantly correlated, with the monthly HFRS incidence with lags of 4 months (r = −0.289, P<0.05), 5 months (r = −0.523, P<0.001), and 0 months (r = −0.376, P<0.01), respectively. F1 was correlated with the monthly HFRS incidence, with a lag of 4 months (r = 0.179, P = 0.192). Multivariate PDL modeling revealed that the four principal components were significantly associated with the transmission of HFRS. Conclusions The monthly trend in HFRS cases was significantly associated with the local rodent reservoir, climatic factors, the NDVI, and socioeconomic conditions present during the previous months. The findings of this study may facilitate the development of early warning systems for the

  11. Oolong tea extract as a substitute for uranyl acetate in staining of ultrathin sections based on examples of animal tissues for transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaohua; Liu, Bin

    2017-03-20

    Oolong tea extract (OTE) was assessed for its potential as an electron stain to substitute for uranyl acetate (UA) in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A comparative analysis of the ultrastructures of biological specimens (i.e. compound eye and sciatic nerve tissue) stained by different methods (UA and 0.1% OTE) has been performed. Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the OTE double staining method and the traditional double staining method, except the contrast in the OTE method was slightly lower than the UA method. Nevertheless, the OTE method yielded better or equal details in collagen fibres, neurofilaments and basal lamina in the mammalian sciatic nerve samples, as well as in the microvilli between the cornea and crystalline cone of the insect compound eye. On the whole, it was suggested that OTE could potentially be used as a nonradioactive and hazard-free alternative to UA in TEM staining.

  12. Rapid fingerprinting of sterols and related compounds in vegetable and animal oils and phytosterol enriched- margarines by transmission mode direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alberici, Rosana M; Fernandes, Gabriel D; Porcari, Andréia M; Eberlin, Marcos N; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-11-15

    Plant-derived sterols, often referred to as phytosterols, are important constituents of plant membranes where they assist in maintaining phospholipid bilayer stability. Consumption of phytosterols has been suggested to positively affect human health by reducing cholesterol levels in blood via inhibition of its absorption in the small intestine, thus protecting against heart attack and stroke. Sterols are challenging analytes for mass spectrometry, since their low polarity makes them difficult to ionize by both electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), typically requiring derivatization steps to overcome their low ionization efficiencies. We present a fast and reliable method to characterize the composition of phytosterols in vegetable oils and enriched margarines. The method requires no derivatization steps or sample extraction procedures thanks to the use of transmission mode direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (TM-DART-MS).

  13. Detection of bovine central nervous system tissue as bovine spongiform encephalopathy risk material by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR in raw and cooked beef products.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xi-Ju; Ma, Gui-Ping; Li, Bing-Ling; Yang, Jin-Liang; Yu-Wang; Li, Yan-Xin; Liu, Xu-Hui; Liu, Quan-Guo

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the association of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (nvCJD) in humans with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Many countries established legislation of banning central nervous system (CNS) tissues, which are regarded as BSE-specified risk materials (SRM), in human food supply because of the potential transmission of BSE to humans. A real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay using the bovine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA template for the detection of CNS tissues in raw and cooked beef products was developed in this study. The results showed that (1) this method can detect CNS tissues from bovine and ovine origins, but not from porcine and avian ones; (2) GFAP mRNA can only be detected from brain and spinal cords rather than other tissues; (3) the GFAP mRNA was detectable in CNS tissues even after dilution to 0.001%; and (4) the assay was unaffected by heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 min or storage at room temperature for 4 days, and at 4 degrees C for at least 15 days.

  14. Polymorphism of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Polish cattle affected by classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, Artur; Czarnik, Urszula; Urszula, Czarnik; Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P; Strychalski, Janusz; Słota, Ewa

    2012-05-01

    Recent attempts to discover genetic factors affecting cattle resistance/susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have led to the identification of two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms, located within the promoter and intron 1 of the prion protein gene PRNP, showing a significant association with the occurrence of classical form of the disease. Because the effect of the polymorphisms was studied only in few populations, in this study we investigated whether previously described association of PRNP indel polymorphisms with BSE susceptibility in cattle is also present in Polish cattle population. We found a significant relation between the investigated PRNP indel polymorphisms (23 and 12 bp indels), and susceptibility of Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle to classical BSE (P < 0.05). The deletion variants of both polymorphisms were related to increased susceptibility, whereas insertion variants were protective against BSE.

  15. Postinhibitory rebound neurons and networks are disrupted in retrovirus-induced spongiform neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Davey, Robert A.; Lynch, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Certain retroviruses induce progressive spongiform motor neuron disease with features resembling prion diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. With the neurovirulent murine leukemia virus (MLV) FrCasE, Env protein expression within glia leads to postsynaptic vacuolation, cellular effacement, and neuronal loss in the absence of neuroinflammation. To understand the physiological changes associated with MLV-induced spongiosis, and its neuronal specificity, we employed patch-clamp recordings and voltage-sensitive dye imaging in brain slices of the mouse inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain nucleus that undergoes extensive spongiosis. IC neurons characterized by postinhibitory rebound firing (PIR) were selectively affected in FrCasE-infected mice. Coincident with Env expression in microglia and in glia characterized by NG2 proteoglycan expression (NG2 cells), rebound neurons (RNs) lost PIR, became hyperexcitable, and were reduced in number. PIR loss and hyperexcitability were reversed by raising internal calcium buffer concentrations in RNs. PIR-initiated rhythmic circuits were disrupted, and spontaneous synchronized bursting and prolonged depolarizations were widespread. Other IC neuron cell types and circuits within the same degenerative environment were unaffected. Antagonists of NMDA and/or AMPA receptors reduced burst firing in the IC but did not affect prolonged depolarizations. Antagonists of L-type calcium channels abolished both bursts and slow depolarizations. IC infection by the nonneurovirulent isogenic virus Friend 57E (Fr57E), whose Env protein is structurally similar to FrCasE, showed no RN hyperactivity or cell loss; however, PIR latency increased. These findings suggest that spongiform neurodegeneration arises from the unique excitability of RNs, their local regulation by glia, and the disruption of this relationship by glial expression of abnormal protein. PMID:25252336

  16. Hepacivirus NS3/4A Proteases Interfere with MAVS Signaling in both Their Cognate Animal Hosts and Humans: Implications for Zoonotic Transmission.

    PubMed

    Anggakusuma; Brown, Richard J P; Banda, Dominic H; Todt, Daniel; Vieyres, Gabrielle; Steinmann, Eike; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Multiple novel members of the genus Hepacivirus have recently been discovered in diverse mammalian species. However, to date, their replication mechanisms and zoonotic potential have not been explored in detail. The NS3/4A serine protease of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is critical for cleavage of the viral polyprotein. It also cleaves the cellular innate immune adaptor MAVS, thus decreasing interferon (IFN) production and contributing to HCV persistence in the human host. To investigate the conservation of fundamental aspects of the hepaciviral life cycle, we explored if MAVS cleavage and suppression of innate immune signaling represent a common mechanism employed across different clades of the genus Hepacivirus to enhance viral replication. To estimate the zoonotic potential of these nonhuman hepaciviruses, we assessed if their NS3/4A proteases were capable of cleaving human MAVS. NS3/4A proteases of viruses infecting colobus monkeys, rodents, horses, and cows cleaved the MAVS proteins of their cognate hosts and interfered with the ability of MAVS to induce the IFN-β promoter. All NS3/4A proteases from nonhuman viruses readily cleaved human MAVS. Thus, NS3/4A-dependent cleavage of MAVS is a conserved replication strategy across multiple clades within the genus Hepacivirus Human MAVS is susceptible to cleavage by these nonhuman viral proteases, indicating that it does not pose a barrier for zoonotic transmission of these viruses to humans.

  17. Impact of climate change and man-made irrigation systems on the transmission risk, long-term trend and seasonality of human and animal fascioliasis in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afshan, Kiran; Fortes-Lima, Cesar A; Artigas, Patricio; Valero, Adela M; Qayyum, Mazhar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of the province of Punjab, Pakistan are endemic for fascioliasis, resulting in high economic losses due to livestock infection but also affecting humans directly. The prevalence in livestock varies pronouncedly in space and time (1-70%). Climatic factors influencing fascioliasis presence and potential spread were analysed based on data from five meteorological stations during 1990-2010. Variables such as wet days (Mt), water-budget-based system (Wb-bs) indices and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were obtained and correlated with geographical distribution, seasonality patterns and the two-decade evolution of fascioliasis in livestock throughout the province. The combined approach by these three indices proved to furnish a useful tool to analyse the complex epidemiology that includes (i) sheep-goats and cattlebuffaloes presenting different immunological responses to fasciolids; (ii) overlap of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica; (iii) co-existence of highlands and lowlands in the area studied; and (iv) disease transmission following bi-seasonality with one peak related to natural rainfall and another peak related to man-made irrigation. Results suggest a human infection situation of concern and illustrate how climate and anthropogenic environment modifications influence both geographical distribution and seasonality of fascioliasis risks. Increased fascioliasis risk throughout the Punjab plain and its decrease in the northern highlands of the province became evident during the study period. The high risk in the lowlands is worrying given that Punjab province largely consists of low-altitude, highly irrigated plains. The importance of livestock in this province makes it essential to prioritise adequate control measures. An annual treatment scheme to control the disease is recommended to be applied throughout the whole province.

  18. Spontaneous obesity-linked type 2 diabetes in the absence of islet amyloid in a cynomolgus monkey infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Strom, A; Yutzy, B; Kruip, C; Völker, I; Schloot, N C; Roden, M; Scott, F W; Löwer, J; Holznagel, E

    2013-09-01

    A 9-year-old cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) infected orally with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia 4 years post infection (p.i.). This macaque R984 was exposed to a BSE dose that causes a simian form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) within 5 years p.i. in other macaques. All orally BSE-infected macaques developed a significant weight gain within the first 2 years p.i. compared with non-BSE-infected age- and sex-matched control animals, suggesting increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast, macaque R984 developed rapid weight loss, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria and had to be euthanatized 4 years p.i. before clinical signs of vCJD. Pancreas histopathological evaluation revealed severe islet degeneration but, remarkably, no islet amyloid deposits were present. Immunostaining of pancreas sections for insulin and glucagon confirmed the loss of endocrine cells. In addition, prions were present in the adenohypophysis but not in other areas of the brain, indicating centripetal prion spread from the gut during the preclinical phase of BSE infection. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of macaque R984 became abnormal with age and resembled T2D. This unusual case of spontaneous T2D in the absence of islet amyloid deposits could have been due to early prion spread from the periphery to the endocrine system or could have occurred spontaneously.

  19. Mapping of neurotrophins and their receptors in the adult mouse brain and their role in the pathogenesis of a transgenic murine model of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Marco-Salazar, P; Márquez, M; Fondevila, D; Rabanal, R M; Torres, J M; Pumarola, M; Vidal, E

    2014-05-01

    Neurotrophins are a family of growth factors that act on neuronal cells. The neurotrophins include nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3, -4 and -5. The action of neurotrophins depends on two transmembrane-receptor signalling systems: (1) the tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) family of tyrosine kinase receptors (Trk A, Trk B and Trk C) and (2) the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)). The interaction between neurotrophic factors and their receptors may be involved in the mechanisms that regulate the differential susceptibility of neuronal populations in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of neurotrophins in the pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) using a transgenic mouse overexpressing bovine prnp (BoTg 110). Histochemistry for Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for the abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrP(d)), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and the receptors Trk A, Trk B, Trk C and p75(NTR) was performed. The lesions and the immunolabelling patterns were assessed semiquantitatively in different areas of the brain. No significant differences in the immunolabelling of neurotrophins and their receptors were observed between BSE-inoculated and control animals, except for p75(NTR), which showed increased expression correlating with the distribution of lesions, PrP(d) deposition and gliosis in the BSE-inoculated mice.

  20. Virus quantitation by transmission electron microscopy, TCID₅₀, and the role of timing virus harvesting: a case study of three animal viruses.

    PubMed

    Malenovska, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Quantitation of viruses is practised widely in both basic and applied virology. Infectious titration in cell cultures, the most common approach to it, is quite labour-intensive and alternative protocols are therefore sought. One of the alternatives is transmission electron microscope (TEM) quantitation using latex particles at a known concentration as a reference for counting virus particles. If virus TCID₅₀ is determined in parallel, the ratio of infectious to non-infectious virus particles may be established. This study employs such an approach to compute the number of virus particles and TCID₅₀, and establish their correlation for three viruses: Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1), Feline calicivirus (FCV) and Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Each of the viruses was grown in five replicates until complete cytopathology was recorded (time 0), then frozen. They were thawed, filter-sterilised and left for additional periods of 16, 32 and 48 h at 37°C. At each time point, the infectious ability of the virus was characterised by TCID50 and the number of virions quantified by TEM, in order to evaluate the influence of timing on virus harvest. The virus particle count determined by TEM did not change for any of the viruses throughout the experiment. The relationship between virus particle counts with TCID₅₀ at time 0 showed good linearity response; their ratio was almost constant. The virus particle-to-TCID₅₀ ratio varied between 146 and 426 (mean±SD: 282±103) for CAdV-1, between 36 and 79 (57±18) for FCV and between 110 and 249 (167±53) for BoHV-1. The proportion of non-infectious particles did not change throughout the experiment for either CAdV-1 or BoHV-1. However, a decrease in virus infectious ability disclosed by TCID₅₀ indicated that the fraction of non-infectious particles in FCV increased 300,000 times when time 0 and 48 h were compared. The quantitation of viruses with TEM is a simple and rapid protocol for virus quantitation but account must

  1. Detection and partial discrimination of atypical and classical bovine spongiform encephalopathies in cattle and primates using real-time quaking-induced conversion assay

    PubMed Central

    Levavasseur, Etienne; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Comoy, Emmanuel; Culeux, Audrey; Grznarova, Katarina; Privat, Nicolas; Simoneau, Steve; Flan, Benoit; Sazdovitch, Véronique; Seilhean, Danielle; Baron, Thierry; Haïk, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The transmission of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE) through contaminated meat product consumption is responsible for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. More recent and atypical forms of BSE (L-BSE and H-BSE) have been identified in cattle since the C-BSE epidemic. Their low incidence and advanced age of onset are compatible with a sporadic origin, as are most cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Transmissions studies in primates and transgenic mice expressing a human prion protein (PrP) indicated that atypical forms of BSE may be associated with a higher zoonotic potential than classical BSE, and require particular attention for public health. Recently, methods designed to amplify misfolded forms of PrP have emerged as promising tools to detect prion strains and to study their diversity. Here, we validated real-time quaking-induced conversion assay for the discrimination of atypical and classical BSE strains using a large series of bovine samples encompassing all the atypical BSE cases detected by the French Centre of Reference during 10 years of exhaustive active surveillance. We obtained a 100% sensitivity and specificity for atypical BSE detection. In addition, the assay was able to discriminate atypical and classical BSE in non-human primates, and also sporadic CJD and vCJD in humans. The RT-QuIC assay appears as a practical means for a reliable detection of atypical BSE strains in a homologous or heterologous PrP context. PMID:28231300

  2. Detection of bovine meat and bone meal in animal feed at a level of 0.1%.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; Bouw, El M; Buntjer, Jaap B; Lenstra, Johannes A; Van Raamsdonk, Leo W D

    2006-01-01

    For the control of the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle via feedstuff, a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with ruminant-specific Bov-B SINE primers, SYBR Green fluorescence detection, and melting curve analysis. In formulated cattle and chicken feed samples spiked with pure bovine and sheep meat and bone meal heated at 133 degrees C for 20 min, a contamination level of 0.1% was detected.

  3. Airborne transmission of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Jason M; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J

    2012-09-15

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets.

  4. Sulfated Dextrans Enhance In Vitro Amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy PrPSc and Enable Ultrasensitive Detection of Bovine PrPSc

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Masujin, Kentaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Matsuura, Yuichi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Onoe, Sadao; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou

    2010-01-01

    Background Prions, infectious agents associated with prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and scrapie in sheep and goats, are primarily comprised of PrPSc, a protease-resistant misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein PrPC. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) is a highly sensitive technique used to detect minute amounts of scrapie PrPSc. However, the current PMCA technique has been unsuccessful in achieving good amplification in cattle. The detailed distribution of PrPSc in BSE-affected cattle therefore remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We report here that PrPSc derived from BSE-affected cattle can be amplified ultra-efficiently by PMCA in the presence of sulfated dextran compounds. This method is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrPSc from the saliva, palatine tonsils, lymph nodes, ileocecal region, and muscular tissues of BSE-affected cattle. Individual differences in the distribution of PrPSc in spleen and cerebrospinal fluid samples were observed in terminal-stage animals. However, the presence of PrPSc in blood was not substantiated in the BSE-affected cattle examined. Conclusions/Significance The distribution of PrPSc is not restricted to the nervous system and can spread to peripheral tissues in the terminal disease stage. The finding that PrPSc could be amplified in the saliva of an asymptomatic animal suggests a potential usefulness of this technique for BSE diagnosis. This highly sensitive method also has other practical applications, including safety evaluation or safety assurance of products and byproducts manufactured from bovine source materials. PMID:20957174

  5. The evolution of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy--Canadian consumer and producer behavior.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study the dynamics of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) held by Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers were evaluated. Since the first domestic case of BSE in 2003, Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers have needed to make decisions on whether or not their purchasing/production behavior should change. Such changes in their behavior may relate to their levels of risk perceptions about BSE, risk perceptions that may be evolving over time and be affected by BSE media information available. An econometric analysis of the behavior of consumers and cow-calf producers might identify the impacts of evolving BSE risk perceptions. Risk perceptions related to BSE are evaluated through observed market behavior, an approach that differs from traditional stated preference approaches to eliciting risk perceptions at a particular point in time. BSE risk perceptions may be specified following a Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) derived from sociology, psychology, and economics. Based on the SARF, various quality and quantity indices related to BSE media information are used as explanatory variables in risk perception equations. Risk perceptions are approximated using a predictive difference approach as defined by Liu et al. (1998). Results showed that Canadian consumer and cow-calf producer risk perceptions related to BSE have been amplified or attenuated by both quantity and quality of BSE media information. Government policies on risk communications need to address the different roles of BSE information in Canadian consumers' and cow-calf producers' behavior.

  6. Autoantibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein in the sera of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Sachiko; Miyasho, Taku; Maeda, Naoyuki; Doh-ura, Katsumi; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    It is desirable to make the diagnosis in live cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and thus surrogate markers for the disease have been eagerly sought. Serum proteins from BSE cattle were analyzed by 2-D Western blotting and TOF-MS. Autoantibodies against proteins in cytoskeletal fractions prepared from normal bovine brains were found in the sera of BSE cattle. The protein recognized was identified to be glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which is expressed mainly in astrocytes in the brain. The antigen protein, GFAP, was also found in the sera of BSE cattle. The percentages of both positive sera in the autoantibody and GFAP were 44.0% for the BSE cattle, 0% for the healthy cattle, and 5.0% for the clinically suspected BSE-negative cattle. A significant relationship between the presence of GFAP and the expression of its autoantibody in the serum was recognized in the BSE cattle. These findings suggest a leakage of GFAP into the peripheral blood during neurodegeneration associated with BSE, accompanied by the autoantibody production, and might be useful in understanding the pathogenesis and in developing a serological diagnosis of BSE in live cattle.

  7. The Canadian Management of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Historical and Scientific Perspective, 1990-2014.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Alexandra E; Shamy, Michel C F

    2015-11-01

    On February 11, 2015, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency announced that a cow born and raised in Alberta had tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease. BSE is a prion disease of cattle that, when transmitted to humans, produces a fatal neurodegenerative disease known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We believe that this latest case of BSE in Canadian cattle suggests the timeliness of a review of the management of BSE in Canada from a historically and scientifically informed perspective. In this article, we ask: how did the Canadian management of BSE between 1990 and 2014 engage with the contemporary understanding of BSE's human health implications? We propose that Canadian policies largely ignored the implicit medical nature of BSE, treating it as a purely agricultural and veterinary issue. In this way, policies to protect Canadians were often delayed and incomplete, in a manner disturbingly reminiscent of Britain's failed management of BSE. Despite assurances to the contrary, it is premature to conclude that BSE (and with it the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is a thing of Canada's past: BSE remains very much an issue in Canada's present.

  8. In vitro amplification of H-type atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy by protein misfolding cyclic amplification

    PubMed Central

    O‘Connor, Matthew J.; Bishop, Keith; Workman, Robert G.; Maddison, Ben C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The in vitro amplification of prions by serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification has been shown to detect PrPSc to levels at least as sensitive as rodent bioassay but in a fraction of the time. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a zoonotic prion disease in cattle and has been shown to occur in 3 distinct forms, classical BSE (C-BSE) and 2 atypical BSE forms (L-BSE and H-BSE). Atypical forms are usually detected in asymptomatic, older cattle and are suggested to be spontaneous forms of the disease. Here, we show the development of a serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification method for the detection of H-BSE. The assay could detect PrPSc from 3 distinct experimental isolates of H-BSE, could detect PrPSc in as little as 1×10−12 g of brain material and was highly specific. Additionally, the product of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification at all dilutions of seed analyzed could be readily distinguished from L-BSE, which did not amplify, and C-BSE, which had PrPSc with distinct protease K-resistance and protease K-resistant PrPSc molecular weights. PMID:28281929

  9. [Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

    2011-02-01

    The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies.

  10. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  11. Universal white blood cell reduction in Europe: has transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease been prevented?

    PubMed

    Vamvakas, Eleftherios C

    2011-04-01

    Universal white blood cell (WBC) reduction was introduced in Europe to prevent transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) by transfusion. Findings from rodent models indicate that WBC reduction should not prevent vCJD transmission because the residual plasma infectivity suffices to infect transfusion recipients even under optimistic infectivity assumptions. Although infectivity in human blood may not partition in the manner in which it is distributed in rodents, prion-reduction filters remove the residual plasma infectivity in rodent models. Precautionary introduction of prion filtration in the UK--for patients without dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and in the absence of a reported case of vCJD transmission attributable to infectivity residing in plasma--is consistent with the (already in place for such subjects) precautionary importation to the UK of fresh frozen plasma from low-risk countries. Thus, implementation of prion filtration in the UK does not imply that universal WBC reduction--as currently practiced in Europe--does not abrogate transmission of vCJD. Because neither a human case of vCJD transmission through transfusion of WBC-reduced red blood cells nor a case of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy transmission by WBC-reduced transfusion to sheep has been reported, it cannot be concluded that ordinary WBC reduction is ineffective in preventing transfusion transmission in humans. Accordingly, universal WBC reduction for the prevention of vCJD in Europe should continue.

  12. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  13. Immunohistochemical distinction between preclinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Thuring, C M A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M; Vromans, M E W; van Zijderveld, F G; Sweeney, T

    2005-01-01

    Sheep are susceptible experimentally to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the clinical signs being indistinguishable from those of scrapie. Because of the possibility of natural ovine BSE infection, laboratory tests are needed to distinguish between scrapie and BSE infection. The objectives of this study were to determine whether (1) PrPSc accumulates in biopsy samples of the tonsil or third eyelid, or both, of BSE-infected sheep before the appearance of clinical disease, and (2) such samples from BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep differ in respect of PrPSc accumulations. Homozygous ARQ sheep (n = 10) were dosed orally at 4-5 months of age with a brain homogenate from BSE-infected cattle. Third eyelid and tonsillar biopsy samples were taken at < or = 6 monthly intervals post-infection and examined immunohistochemically for PrPSc. Third eyelid protuberances were difficult to identify, resulting in many unsuitable samples; however, third eyelid samples shown to contain lymphoid follicles were invariably negative for PrPSc. In contrast, tonsillar biopsy samples became positive for PrPSc from 11 to 20 months post-infection. Consistent differences in the morphology of PrPSc granules in tingible body macrophages (TBMs) between BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep were detected with anti-peptide antibodies directed towards amino acids 93-106 of the ovine prion protein: thus, PrPSc appeared as single granules in TBMs of tonsillar sections from BSE-infected sheep, whereas clusters of PrPSc granules were observed within TBMs in the tonsils of scrapie-infected sheep. In contrast, antibodies against epitopes situated N- and C-terminally from the 93-106 region of the ovine prion protein revealed no differences between BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep in terms of PrPSc granules in TBMs.

  14. Quantitative analysis of wet-heat inactivation in bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Yukiko; Bo, Xiao; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Somerville, Robert A.; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Mohri, Shirou

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► We quantitatively analyzed wet-heat inactivation of the BSE agent. ► Infectivity of the BSE macerate did not survive 155 °C wet-heat treatment. ► Once the sample was dehydrated, infectivity was observed even at 170 °C. ► A quantitative PMCA assay was used to evaluate the degree of BSE inactivation. - Abstract: The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent is resistant to conventional microbial inactivation procedures and thus threatens the safety of cattle products and by-products. To obtain information necessary to assess BSE inactivation, we performed quantitative analysis of wet-heat inactivation of infectivity in BSE-infected cattle spinal cords. Using a highly sensitive bioassay, we found that infectivity in BSE cattle macerates fell with increase in temperatures from 133 °C to 150 °C and was not detected in the samples subjected to temperatures above 155 °C. In dry cattle tissues, infectivity was detected even at 170 °C. Thus, BSE infectivity reduces with increase in wet-heat temperatures but is less affected when tissues are dehydrated prior to the wet-heat treatment. The results of the quantitative protein misfolding cyclic amplification assay also demonstrated that the level of the protease-resistant prion protein fell below the bioassay detection limit by wet-heat at 155 °C and higher and could help assess BSE inactivation. Our results show that BSE infectivity is strongly resistant to wet-heat inactivation and that it is necessary to pay attention to BSE decontamination in recycled cattle by-products.

  15. Worldwide risks of animal diseases: introduction.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E

    2006-01-01

    Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.

  16. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > From Insects or Animals > Animal Bites Health Issues Listen Español ...

  17. Highly Efficient Prion Transmission by Blood Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Andréoletti, Olivier; Litaise, Claire; Simmons, Hugh; Corbière, Fabien; Lugan, Séverine; Costes, Pierrette; Schelcher, François; Vilette, Didier; Grassi, Jacques; Lacroux, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    It is now clearly established that the transfusion of blood from variant CJD (v-CJD) infected individuals can transmit the disease. Since the number of asymptomatic infected donors remains unresolved, inter-individual v-CJD transmission through blood and blood derived products is a major public health concern. Current risk assessments for transmission of v-CJD by blood and blood derived products by transfusion rely on infectious titers measured in rodent models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) using intra-cerebral (IC) inoculation of blood components. To address the biological relevance of this approach, we compared the efficiency of TSE transmission by blood and blood components when administrated either through transfusion in sheep or by intra-cerebral inoculation (IC) in transgenic mice (tg338) over-expressing ovine PrP. Transfusion of 200 µL of blood from asymptomatic infected donor sheep transmitted prion disease with 100% efficiency thereby displaying greater virulence than the transfusion of 200 mL of normal blood spiked with brain homogenate material containing 103ID50 as measured by intracerebral inoculation of tg338 mice (ID50 IC in tg338). This was consistent with a whole blood titer greater than 103.6 ID50 IC in tg338 per mL. However, when the same blood samples were assayed by IC inoculation into tg338 the infectious titers were less than 32 ID per mL. Whereas the transfusion of crude plasma to sheep transmitted the disease with limited efficacy, White Blood Cells (WBC) displayed a similar ability to whole blood to infect recipients. Strikingly, fixation of WBC with paraformaldehyde did not affect the infectivity titer as measured in tg338 but dramatically impaired disease transmission by transfusion in sheep. These results demonstrate that TSE transmission by blood transfusion can be highly efficient and that this efficiency is more dependent on the viability of transfused cells than the level of infectivity measured by IC

  18. Evaluation of the Possible Transmission of BSE and Scrapie to Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)

    PubMed Central

    Teliousis, Konstantinos; Petrakis, Spyros; Eleftheriadis, Eleftherios; Arapoglou, Fotis; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Nicolaou, Anna; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Krey, Grigorios; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2009-01-01

    In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many species, the key event in disease pathogenesis is the accumulation of an abnormal conformational isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). While the precise mechanism of the PrPC to PrPSc conversion is not understood, it is clear that host PrPC expression is a prerequisite for effective infectious prion propagation. Although there have been many studies on TSEs in mammalian species, little is known about TSE pathogenesis in fish. Here we show that while gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) orally challenged with brain homogenates prepared either from a BSE infected cow or from scrapie infected sheep developed no clinical prion disease, the brains of TSE-fed fish sampled two years after challenge did show signs of neurodegeneration and accumulation of deposits that reacted positively with antibodies raised against sea bream PrP. The control groups, fed with brains from uninfected animals, showed no such signs. Remarkably, the deposits developed much more rapidly and extensively in fish inoculated with BSE-infected material than in the ones challenged with the scrapie-infected brain homogenate, with numerous deposits being proteinase K-resistant. These plaque-like aggregates exhibited congophilia and birefringence in polarized light, consistent with an amyloid-like component. The neurodegeneration and abnormal deposition in the brains of fish challenged with prion, especially BSE, raises concerns about the potential risk to public health. As fish aquaculture is an economically important industry providing high protein nutrition for humans and other mammalian species, the prospect of farmed fish being contaminated with infectious mammalian PrPSc, or of a prion disease developing in farmed fish is alarming and requires further evaluation. PMID:19636413

  19. Experimental H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy characterized by plaques and glial- and stellate-type prion protein deposits.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Masujin, Kentaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Kasai, Kazuo; Mohri, Shirou; Yokoyama, Takashi; Czub, Stefanie

    2011-06-23

    Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has recently been identified in Europe, North America, and Japan. It is classified as H-type and L-type BSE according to the molecular mass of the disease-associated prion protein (Pr(PSc)). To investigate the topographical distribution and deposition patterns of immunolabeled Pr(PSc), H-type BSE isolate was inoculated intracerebrally into cattle. H-type BSE was successfully transmitted to 3 calves, with incubation periods between 500 and 600 days. Moderate to severe spongiform changes were detected in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. H-type BSE was characterized by the presence of PrP-immunopositive amyloid plaques in the white matter of the cerebrum, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Moreover, intraglial-type immunolabeled Pr(PSc) was prominent throughout the brain. Stellate-type immunolabeled Pr(PSc) was conspicuous in the gray matter of the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus, but not in the brainstem. In addition, Pr(PSc) accumulation was detected in the peripheral nervous tissues, such as trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, optic nerve, retina, and neurohypophysis. Cattle are susceptible to H-type BSE with a shorter incubation period, showing distinct and distinguishable phenotypes of Pr(PSc) accumulation.

  20. Experimental H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy characterized by plaques and glial- and stellate-type prion protein deposits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has recently been identified in Europe, North America, and Japan. It is classified as H-type and L-type BSE according to the molecular mass of the disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc). To investigate the topographical distribution and deposition patterns of immunolabeled PrPSc, H-type BSE isolate was inoculated intracerebrally into cattle. H-type BSE was successfully transmitted to 3 calves, with incubation periods between 500 and 600 days. Moderate to severe spongiform changes were detected in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. H-type BSE was characterized by the presence of PrP-immunopositive amyloid plaques in the white matter of the cerebrum, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Moreover, intraglial-type immunolabeled PrPSc was prominent throughout the brain. Stellate-type immunolabeled PrPSc was conspicuous in the gray matter of the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus, but not in the brainstem. In addition, PrPSc accumulation was detected in the peripheral nervous tissues, such as trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, optic nerve, retina, and neurohypophysis. Cattle are susceptible to H-type BSE with a shorter incubation period, showing distinct and distinguishable phenotypes of PrPSc accumulation. PMID:21699704

  1. The brain in experimental portal-systemic encephalopathy. I. Morphological changes in three animal models.

    PubMed

    Pilbeam, C M; Anderson, R M; Bhathal, P S

    1983-08-01

    Morphological features of three models of portal-systemic encephalopathy in the rat were studied and compared with plasma ammonia levels and clinical observations. Carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis with terminal coma produced a wide variety of structural changes in the brain whose severity was related to plasma ammonia levels at the time of death. These changes included diffuse gliosis, Alzheimer cells and focal neuronal necrosis but did not include spongiform changes in cerebral or cerebellar cortex. Porta-caval anastomosis (PCA) did not appear to produce any significant neurological symptoms. Rats with PCA of durations 1-30 weeks were studied and over this time the structural changes included astrocytic nuclear swelling, swelling of perivascular astrocytic foot-processes and spongiform change in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. No evidence of Alzheimer cells or gliosis was seen and plasma ammonia levels at no stage exceed twice the normal levels. Porta-caval anastomosis followed by gavage feeding with ammoniated cationic exchange resin produced severe neurological symptoms and marked hyperammonaemia. In these animals not only astrocytes but oligodendrocytes and neurons showed nuclear and cytoplasmic swelling and numerous Alzheimer type II cells were seen, together with a diffuse gliosis, but no evidence of spongiform change in the cerebral or cerebellar cortex was seen. It is concluded that ammonium ions are important in the genesis of morphological changes in the brain in rat models of portal-systemic encephalopathy, but the relevance of these changes to neurological dysfunction is uncertain.

  2. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  3. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  4. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  5. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... encephalopathies, which also includes scrapie of sheep and goats and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk and ... TSEs include, among others, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, transmissible ...

  6. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  7. Antibiotics in Animal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão, Amílcar C.

    The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods

  8. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  9. Using linked household-level data sets to explain consumer response to bovine spongiform encepalopathy (BSE) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Maynard, Leigh J; Butler, J S; Goddard, Ellen W

    2011-01-01

    Household-level Canadian meat purchases from 2002 to 2008 and a Food Opinions Survey conducted in 2008 were used to explore consumer responses to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) at the national level in Canada. Consumption in terms of the number of unit purchases was analyzed with a random-effects negative binomial model. In this study, household heterogeneity in meat purchases was partially explained using data from a self-reported food opinions survey. Of special interest was the hypothesis that consumers responded consistently to BSE in a one-time survey and in actual meat purchase behavior spanning years. Regional differences appeared, with consumers in eastern Canada reacting most negatively to BSE. Consumers responded more to the perception that food decision makers are honest about food safety than to the perception that they are knowledgeable, in maintaining beef purchases during BSE events.

  10. Complementary studies detecting classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in jejunum, ileum and ileocaecal junction in incubating cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recently we have described the distribution of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infectivity and/or PrPSc in Peyer’s patches (PP) of the small intestine of orally BSE infected cattle. In this follow-up study additional jejunal and ileal PP’s and ileocaecal-junction tissue samples from 1, 4, and 24 months post infection (mpi) were examined by mouse (Tgbov XV) bioassay. Infectivity was demonstrated in ileal PP’s 4 mpi and the distribution/extent of infectivity at 24 mpi was comparable to those seen at earlier time points, revealing no indication for a decline/clearance. These data are relevant for the definition of Specified Risk Materials in the context of the TSE legislation worldwide. PMID:24359408

  11. Minimal involvement of the circumventricular organs in the pathogenesis of spontaneously arising and experimentally induced classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sisó, S; Martin, S; Konold, T; Hawkins, S A C; Thurston, L; Simmons, M M; Stack, M J; Jeffrey, M; González, L

    2012-01-01

    In sheep infected experimentally with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, amplification of infectivity in peripheral organs during early preclinical stages is thought to contribute to high titres of the agent being detected in blood, with subsequent haematogenous neuroinvasion through the circumventricular organs (CVOs). In contrast, little disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) or infectivity is detected in the peripheral tissues of cattle during the preclinical and clinical stages of BSE. The aim of this study was to investigate immunohistochemically the role of haematogenous neuroinvasion in cattle with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced BSE. There was almost complete absence of PrP(d) in the peripheral organs of BSE infected cattle. Additionally, there was minimal involvement of the CVOs during preclinical disease and there was progressive caudorostral accumulation of PrP(d) in the brain. These findings do not support haematogenous neuroinvasion in the bovine disease.

  12. Complementary studies detecting classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in jejunum, ileum and ileocaecal junction in incubating cattle.

    PubMed

    Fast, Christine; Keller, Markus; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Hills, Bob; Groschup, Martin H

    2013-12-21

    Recently we have described the distribution of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infectivity and/or PrPSc in Peyer's patches (PP) of the small intestine of orally BSE infected cattle. In this follow-up study additional jejunal and ileal PP's and ileocaecal-junction tissue samples from 1, 4, and 24 months post infection (mpi) were examined by mouse (Tgbov XV) bioassay. Infectivity was demonstrated in ileal PP's 4 mpi and the distribution/extent of infectivity at 24 mpi was comparable to those seen at earlier time points, revealing no indication for a decline/clearance. These data are relevant for the definition of Specified Risk Materials in the context of the TSE legislation worldwide.

  13. Risk of transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease via blood and blood products. The French risk-analysis over the last 15 years.

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Trouvin, J-H

    2013-09-01

    Risk of transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (infectious agent, responsible of spongiform encephalopathy) via blood and blood components (including the plasma-derived medicinal products such as coagulation factors and immunoglobulins) have been a subject of concern for Health authorities since the early 1980s, with a regain of interest in the 1990s, with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak followed few years after with the notification of the first cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The risk-analysis and measures taken by the French authorities in the period 1990-2010 will be described with the various assumptions and working hypothesis used and revisited as new findings become available.

  14. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Animals Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Data Disaster Farming Food and Nutrition Forestry Health and Safety Organic ... One Health Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Data Disaster Farming Food and Nutrition Forestry Health and Safety Organic ...

  15. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of meat... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST,...

  16. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of meat... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST,...

  17. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of meat... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST,...

  18. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of meat... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST,...

  19. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of meat... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST,...

  20. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  1. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Yale, O.S.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a power transmission. It comprises: in combination, a master gear having at least one annular tooth set, means for drivingly engaging the master gear with a power source, driven shaft, a yoke member attached to the shaft and including a screw pump housing extending radially with respect to the shaft with a pair of ports in spaced relation, a pump screw rotatable in the housing and a pump gear attached to the screw and engaging the annular tooth set, and a casing for transmission fluid. The pump housing being located for immersion in the fluid.

  2. Role of import and export regulatory animal health officials in international control and surveillance for animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Bokma, Bob H

    2006-10-01

    The challenges to those who regulate the import and export of animals and animal products are escalating, due to the evolving nature of animal and human disease agents. The diseases and agents of interest may include low pathogenic avian influenza, bluetongue, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and foot-and-mouth disease. Fear of an incursion of an unknown or incompletely understood threat can significantly limit risk tolerance. The fear may be that an incursion will affect export trade or tourism. An incomplete knowledge of the animal health situation in the exporting country, due to insufficient surveillance for the disease agent of concern, may limit the application of science in import decisions. In addition, the disease agent may be inappropriately considered exotic if it has not been described. As a result, excessive safeguards for disease agents that do not present any new threat may be employed. To confront these challenges, we are striving toward transparency in international reporting. Moreover, regulatory import decisions exceeding the recommendations of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code and the Aquatic Animal Health Code of the World Organization for Animal Health must be fair and science-based.

  3. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  4. Excelsior Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinkamp, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  5. Animal Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  6. Animal Allies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young teenagers' adoption of animal personas in their creative writing classes, and the way these classroom activities follow Montessori principles. Considers both the role of imagination in the animal identification and the psychological and pedagogical significance of the underlying development of unconscious kinship with Earth and its…

  7. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Transmisión del VIH Recommend on ...

  8. A Comparison of Classical and H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated with E211K Prion Protein Polymorphism in Wild-Type and EK211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, S. Jo; West Greenlee, M. Heather; Smith, Jodi D.; Vrentas, Catherine E.; Nicholson, Eric M.; Greenlee, Justin J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamate amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele may be predisposed to rapid onset of BSE-H when exposed or to the potential development of a genetic BSE. This study was conducted to better understand the relationship between the K211 polymorphism and its effect on BSE phenotype. BSE-H from the US 2006 case was inoculated intracranially (IC) in one PRNP wild-type (EE211) calf and one EK211 calf. In addition, one wild-type calf and one EK211 calf were inoculated IC with brain homogenate from a US 2003 classical BSE case. All cattle developed clinical disease. The survival time of the E211K BSE-H inoculated EK211 calf (10 months) was shorter than the wild-type calf (18 months). This genotype effect was not observed in classical BSE inoculated cattle (both 26 months). Significant changes in retinal function were observed in H-type BSE challenged cattle only. Cattle challenged with the same inoculum showed similar severity and neuroanatomical distribution of vacuolation and disease-associated prion protein deposition in the brain, though differences in neuropathology were observed between E211K BSE-H and classical BSE inoculated animals. Western blot results for brain tissue from challenged animals were consistent with the inoculum strains. This study demonstrates that the phenotype of E211K BSE-H remains stable when transmitted to cattle without the K211 polymorphism, and exhibits a number of features that differ from classical BSE in both wild-type and heterozygous EK211 animals. PMID:27695695

  9. A Comparison of Classical and H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated with E211K Prion Protein Polymorphism in Wild-Type and EK211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation.

    PubMed

    Moore, S Jo; West Greenlee, M Heather; Smith, Jodi D; Vrentas, Catherine E; Nicholson, Eric M; Greenlee, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamate amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele may be predisposed to rapid onset of BSE-H when exposed or to the potential development of a genetic BSE. This study was conducted to better understand the relationship between the K211 polymorphism and its effect on BSE phenotype. BSE-H from the US 2006 case was inoculated intracranially (IC) in one PRNP wild-type (EE211) calf and one EK211 calf. In addition, one wild-type calf and one EK211 calf were inoculated IC with brain homogenate from a US 2003 classical BSE case. All cattle developed clinical disease. The survival time of the E211K BSE-H inoculated EK211 calf (10 months) was shorter than the wild-type calf (18 months). This genotype effect was not observed in classical BSE inoculated cattle (both 26 months). Significant changes in retinal function were observed in H-type BSE challenged cattle only. Cattle challenged with the same inoculum showed similar severity and neuroanatomical distribution of vacuolation and disease-associated prion protein deposition in the brain, though differences in neuropathology were observed between E211K BSE-H and classical BSE inoculated animals. Western blot results for brain tissue from challenged animals were consistent with the inoculum strains. This study demonstrates that the phenotype of E211K BSE-H remains stable when transmitted to cattle without the K211 polymorphism, and exhibits a number of features that differ from classical BSE in both wild-type and heterozygous EK211 animals.

  10. Speciation of animal fat: Needs and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy; Ofori, Jack Appiah

    2017-05-24

    The use of pork fat is a concern for Muslims and Jews, who for religious reasons avoid consuming anything that is pig-derived. The use of bovine materials, including beef fat, is prohibited in Hinduism and may also pose a risk of carrying the infectious agent for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vegetable oils are sometimes adulterated with animal fat or pork fat with beef fat for economic gain. The development of methods to determine the species origin of fat has therefore become a priority due to the complex and global nature of the food trade, which creates opportunities for the fraudulent use of these animal fats as food ingredients. However, determining the species origin of fats in processed foods or composite blends is an arduous task as the adulterant has a composition that is very similar to that of the original fat or oil. This review examines some of the methods that have been developed for fat speciation, including both fat-based and DNA-based methods, their shortcomings, and the need for additional alternatives. Protein-based methods, specifically immunoassays targeting residual proteins in adipose tissue, that are being explored by researchers as a new tool for fat speciation will also be discussed.

  11. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  12. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... acquired CJD. CJD belongs to a family of human and animal diseases known as the transmissible spongiform ... CJD is the most common of the known human TSEs. Other human TSEs include kuru, fatal familial ...

  13. Rotorcraft transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this presentation outlines that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  14. Farm Animals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets Pets Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish Horses Reptiles and Amphibians Turtles Kept ... including cattle; sheep; pigs; goats; llamas; alpacas; and poultry only happens at petting zoos or on farm ...

  15. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  16. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  17. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  18. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.

  19. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  20. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  1. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  2. Methods for Differentiating Prion Types in Food-Producing Animals

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Kevin C.; Rees, Helen C.; Ives, Sarah E.; Maddison, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Prions are an enigma amongst infectious disease agents as they lack a genome yet confer specific pathologies thought to be dictated mainly, if not solely, by the conformation of the disease form of the prion protein (PrPSc). Prion diseases affect humans and animals, the latter including the food-producing ruminant species cattle, sheep, goats and deer. Importantly, it has been shown that the disease agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. Current diagnostic tests can distinguish different prion types and in food-producing animals these focus on the differentiation of BSE from the non-zoonotic agents. Whilst BSE cases are now rare, atypical forms of both scrapie and BSE have been reported, as well as two types of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Typing of animal prion isolates remains an important aspect of prion diagnosis and is now becoming more focused on identifying the range of prion types that are present in food-producing animals and also developing tests that can screen for emerging, novel prion diseases. Here, we review prion typing methodologies in light of current and emerging prion types in food-producing animals. PMID:26580664

  3. Transmission Investment: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    McGarvey, Joe

    2006-10-15

    This primer highlights recent trends in transmission investment, summarizes the division of jurisdictional authority over transmission, and presents four alternative models for transmission ownership. (author)

  4. A pilot study of the impact of bovine spongiform encephalopathy on the futures of rural youth and Canadian farming.

    PubMed

    Cook, Trevor M; Brook, Ryan K; Sindhwani, Madhu; Thurston, Wilfreda E

    2011-01-01

    There is an abundance of literature examining the economic impact of Canada's bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) outbreak, but few studies examined the impact of such a crisis on health at the individual, family, or community levels. In particular, rural youth represent an under-researched population despite being at risk for a unique set of social and health concerns. In this pilot study, our objectives were to explore how rural youth responded to Canada's BSE crisis and how they perceived themselves, their families, and their communities to have been impacted. Seven youths (n = 7), recruited from within a university setting using a snowball sampling method, were interviewed. They represent a segment of rural, agriculturally based youth who are resilient due to good parental support. Although they reported high stress in their families during the immediate crisis in 2003, they did not report lasting high levels of stress or negative health effects due to BSE. They did report a decline in rural community health, identifying a reduction in community activities and in the participation of families in community activities. Participants identified elements that discourage youth from pursuing farming as a career and expressed concern for the future of family farming. The results are discussed in terms of the ability of agriculturally based youth to make the transition to adulthood. The implications have importance for future research and policy that addresses the structural supports for choice making, the long-term success for rural youth in transitioning to adult status, and the future of agriculture.

  5. Disease and Injury from Companion Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Philip M.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy related to common pet-associated diseases and injuries. Discusses transmission of pet-related health hazards and methods of treatment. Describes preventive measures aimed at safe animal care and control. (RJC)

  6. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  7. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  8. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  9. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  10. The natural atypical scrapie phenotype is preserved on experimental transmission and sub-passage in PRNP homologous sheep

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Atypical scrapie was first identified in Norwegian sheep in 1998 and has subsequently been identified in many countries. Retrospective studies have identified cases predating the initial identification of this form of scrapie, and epidemiological studies have indicated that it does not conform to the behaviour of an infectious disease, giving rise to the hypothesis that it represents spontaneous disease. However, atypical scrapie isolates have been shown to be infectious experimentally, through intracerebral inoculation in transgenic mice and sheep. The first successful challenge of a sheep with 'field' atypical scrapie from an homologous donor sheep was reported in 2007. Results This study demonstrates that atypical scrapie has distinct clinical, pathological and biochemical characteristics which are maintained on transmission and sub-passage, and which are distinct from other strains of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in the same host genotype. Conclusions Atypical scrapie is consistently transmissible within AHQ homozygous sheep, and the disease phenotype is preserved on sub-passage. PMID:20219126

  11. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  12. Planetary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

    1987-04-21

    A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

  13. Overdrive transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.F.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an overdrive transmission device for use with a motor vehicle. It consists of: a housing; a driving shaft rotatably mounted within the housing; a planetary gear-train; a driven shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and driven by the planetary gear train; and, a device for selectively connecting the planetary gear carrier to the housing or to the driven shaft for rotation; a hydraulically actuated piston adapted to forcibly contact the clutch friction members of the second clutch; a source of working fluid; a pump in fluid flow communication with the source of working fluid; a first valve downstream of the pump and in fluid flow communication with the pump and the hydraulically activated piston.

  14. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-03-10

    An automatic transmission is described comprising wheel members each having discs defining an inner space therebetween; turnable blades and vane members located in the inner space between the discs of at least one of the wheel members, the turnable blades being mechanically connected with the vane members. Each of the turnable blades has an inner surface and an outer surface formed by circular cylindrical surfaces having a common axis, each of the turnable blades being turnable about the common axis of the circular cylindrical surfaces forming the inner and outer surfaces of the respective blade; levers turnable about the axes and supporting the blades; the discs having openings extending coaxially with the surfaces which describe the blades. The blades are partially received in the openings of the discs; and a housing accommodating the wheel members and the turnable blades and the vane members.

  15. Disrupted SOX10 function causes spongiform neurodegeneration in gray tremor mice

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Sarah R.; Lee, Inyoul; Ebeling, Christine; Stephenson, Dennis A.; Schweitzer, Kelsey M.; Baxter, David; Moon, Tara M.; LaPierre, Sarah; Jaques, Benjamin; Silvius, Derek; Wegner, Michael; Hood, Leroy E.; Carlson, George; Gunn, Teresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Mice homozygous for the gray tremor (gt) mutation have a pleiotropic phenotype that includes pigmentation defects, megacolon, whole body tremors, sporadic seizures, hypo- and dysmyelination of the CNS and PNS, vacuolation of the CNS, and early death. Vacuolation similar to that caused by prions was originally reported to be transmissible, but subsequent studies showed the inherited disease was not infectious. The gt mutation mapped to distal mouse chromosome 15, to the same region as Sox10, which encodes a transcription factor with essential roles in neural crest survival and differentiation. As dominant mutations in mouse or human SOX10 cause white spotting and intestinal aganglionosis, we screened the Sox10 coding region for mutations in gt/gt DNA. An adenosine to guanine transversion was identified in exon 2 that changes a highly conserved glutamic acid residue in the SOX10 DNA binding domain to glycine. This mutant allele was not seen in wildtype mice, including the related GT/Le strain, and failed to complement a Sox10 null allele. Gene expression analysis revealed significant down-regulation of genes involved in myelin lipid biosynthesis pathways in gt/gt brains. Knockout mice for some of these genes develop CNS vacuolation and/or myelination defects, suggesting that their down-regulation may contribute to these phenotypes in gt mutants and could underlie the neurological phenotypes associated with Peripheral demyelinating neuropathy-Central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy-Waardenburg syndrome-Hirschsprung (PCWH) disease, caused by mutations in human SOX10. PMID:25399070

  16. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm.

  17. EMF Responses in Farm Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Larry E. ); R Matthes, JH Bernhardt, and MH Repacholi

    1999-10-19

    Relatively few studies have been performed investigating the effects of EMF exposure on farm animals. Most of those that have been described in the literature are of surveys of animals living in the vicinity of power transmission lines. Even fewer studies have been conducted in large animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Results generally provide little evidence that electric and/or magnetic fields at environmental levels (under transmission lines up to 1000 kV) affect farm animals. There is limited evidence that cows exposed to EMF may exhibit slight changes in length of estrous cycle, although associated hormones (eg. progesterone) appear to be unaffected. The effects of electric fields on development in swine (some increase in birth defects and malformations) exposed to high strength electric fields were not consistent across generations nor supported by comparable rodent studies. Finally, electrical currents and"stray voltages", parameters associated with EMF, are found on some farms above perception levels. These voltages and currents can produce behavioral changes in farm animals and may impact production or health of the animals.

  18. Hydromechanical transmission

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr. deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A power transmission having three planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the three sun gears, all of which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. The input shaft also drives the carrier of the third planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the third planetary assembly drives the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and a first clutching means connects the second carrier with the output in a second range, the brake for grounding the first carrier then being released. A second clutching means enables the third ring gear to drive the output shaft in a third range.

  19. Cross-species transmission of CWD prions.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Timothy D; Sigurdson, Christina J

    2016-01-01

    Prions cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals and can be transmitted zoonotically. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly transmissible prion disease of wild deer and elk that affects cervids over extensive regions of the United States and Canada. The risk of cross-species CWD transmission has been experimentally evaluated in a wide array of mammals, including non-human primates and mouse models expressing human cellular prion protein. Here we review the determinants of cross-species CWD transmission, and propose a model that may explain a structural barrier for CWD transmission to humans.

  20. Chlamydial Infection in Animals: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shewen, Patricia E.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the literature concerning chlamydial infection in birds and animals, particularly domestic animals is presented. Following a general discussion of the agent, the nature of chlamydial infection and diagnostic criteria, information regarding disease is summarized for each species. The possibility of zoonotic transmission is also discussed. PMID:6988075

  1. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  2. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  3. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  4. Sexual transmission of Lyme disease: challenging the tickborne disease paradigm.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Raphael B; Middelveen, Marianne J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. In this article, we explore the clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidence for sexual transmission of Lyme disease in animal models and humans. Although the likelihood of sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete remains speculative, the possibility of Lyme disease transmission via intimate human contact merits further study.

  5. Animal papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination.

  6. Horizontal Transmission of Cytosolic Sup35 Prions by Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu; Hossinger, André; Hofmann, Julia P.; Denner, Philip

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prions are infectious protein particles that replicate by templating their aggregated state onto soluble protein of the same type. Originally identified as the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, prions in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) are epigenetic elements of inheritance that induce phenotypic changes of their host cells. The prototype yeast prion is the translation termination factor Sup35. Prions composed of Sup35 or its modular prion domain NM are heritable and are transmitted vertically to progeny or horizontally during mating. Interestingly, in mammalian cells, protein aggregates derived from yeast Sup35 NM behave as true infectious entities that employ dissemination strategies similar to those of mammalian prions. While transmission is most efficient when cells are in direct contact, we demonstrate here that cytosolic Sup35 NM prions are also released into the extracellular space in association with nanometer-sized membrane vesicles. Importantly, extracellular vesicles are biologically active and are taken up by recipient cells, where they induce self-sustained Sup35 NM protein aggregation. Thus, in mammalian cells, extracellular vesicles can serve as dissemination vehicles for protein-based epigenetic information transfer. PMID:27406566

  7. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  8. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  9. The epidemiology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the Republic of Ireland before and after the reinforced feed ban.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eoin; McGrath, Guy; Sheridan, Hazel; More, Simon J; Aznar, Inma

    2012-06-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease spread by the inclusion in cattle feed of meat and bone meal made from cattle infected with the BSE agent. In the Republic of Ireland, a reinforced feed ban on mammalian meat and bone meal (MMBM) was introduced on 17th October 1996 to stop further infection of cattle. Between then and July 2010, 44 cases of BSE from 40 herds have been born, termed "born after the reinforced ban" or "BARB" cases. The objectives of this project were: (a) to describe the epidemiology of these BARB cases, (b) to determine area-level risk factors for BSE herds and how they related to the stage of the BSE epidemic, and (c) to evaluate whether the spatial pattern of BSE cases was non-random and had changed over time. The BSE epidemic was divided into three phases: cases born prior to 1991, born 1991-October 1996 and BARB cases. To determine the area level risk factors for BSE herds, a case-control study was conducted for each phase of the epidemic. We selected four control herds for each herd with one or more BSE cases. A grid of hexagons of 10 km diameter was created covering the territory of the Republic of Ireland and BSE herds and control herds were assigned to a hexagon. The numbers of cattle herds, dairy herds, piggeries and poultry holdings within the hexagons containing these case and control herds were enumerated. To evaluate the spatial pattern of BSE cases, standardised mortality ratios were calculated for each hexagon, and Oden's Ipop was used to investigate clustering. The descriptive analysis showed "feeding of concentrates" as the only common factor to all BARB cases for which information existed. The case-control study identified being a dairy herd as a risk factor during the pre-1991 phase of the BSE epidemic. Dairy herd type, a large proportion of local herds which were dairy and large numbers of piggeries and poultry holdings locally were also risk factors during the 1991-1996 phase. For the post-October 1996

  10. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  11. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  12. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains?

  13. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  14. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    PubMed

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology.

  15. A comparison of classical and H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism in wild type and EK211 cattle following intracranial inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamine amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although t...

  16. Manual with auxiliary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission of the type in which a manual transmission has two parallel shafts. One shaft is connected through a transmission clutch to an engine in which manual transmission is connected in series to an auxiliary transmission having high and low speed transmission lines. The auxiliary transmission has a high speed transmission line equipped with a hydraulic clutch and a low speed transmission line equipped with a one-way clutch for allowing the overrun of the output side of the low speed transmission line so that the low speed transmission line is established when the hydraulic clutch is released. The high speed transmission is established when the hydraulic clutch is applied. A sleeve shaft is on one of the two shafts. A transmission gear mechanism connects the sleeve shaft to the other shaft. One shaft has an extension with a fixed gear. A coacting gear is fixed on the sleeve shaft, the hydraulic clutch and coacting gear positioned on the extension of one shaft, an idle gear mechanism in meshing engagement with both the coacting gear and the fixed gear. The idle gear mechanism has a low speed transmission line one-way clutch, and the hydraulic clutch is operable to connect and disconnect the sleeve shaft to and from the one shaft.

  17. Coexistence of two forms of disease-associated prion protein in extracerebral tissues of cattle infected with H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Masujin, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE in aged cattle. H-BSE is characterized by the presence of two proteinase K-resistant forms of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)), identified as PrP(Sc) #1 and PrP(Sc) #2, in the brain. To investigate the coexistence of different PrP(Sc) forms in the extracerebral tissues of cattle experimentally infected with H-BSE, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses were performed by using N-terminal-, core-region- and C-terminal-specific anti-prion protein antibodies. Our results demonstrated that two distinct forms of PrP(Sc) coexisted in the various extracerebral tissues.

  18. Zoonotic Transmission of Waterborne Disease: A Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Waters, Edward K; Hamilton, Andrew J; Sidhu, Harvinder S; Sidhu, Leesa A; Dunbar, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne parasites that infect both humans and animals are common causes of diarrhoeal illness, but the relative importance of transmission between humans and animals and vice versa remains poorly understood. Transmission of infection from animals to humans via environmental reservoirs, such as water sources, has attracted attention as a potential source of endemic and epidemic infections, but existing mathematical models of waterborne disease transmission have limitations for studying this phenomenon, as they only consider contamination of environmental reservoirs by humans. This paper develops a mathematical model that represents the transmission of waterborne parasites within and between both animal and human populations. It also improves upon existing models by including animal contamination of water sources explicitly. Linear stability analysis and simulation results, using realistic parameter values to describe Giardia transmission in rural Australia, show that endemic infection of an animal host with zoonotic protozoa can result in endemic infection in human hosts, even in the absence of person-to-person transmission. These results imply that zoonotic transmission via environmental reservoirs is important.

  19. Activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathway is associated with neuronal degeneration in MoMuLV-ts1-induced spongiform encephalomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun-Taek; Waters, Kara; Stoica, George; Qiang, Wenan; Liu, Na; Scofield, Virginia L; Wong, Paul K Y

    2004-07-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutant of Moloney murine leukemia virus-TB (MoMuLV-ts1)-mediated neuronal death in mice is likely due to both loss of glial support and release of cytokines and neurotoxins from ts1-infected glial cells. Cytotoxic mediators present in ts1-induced spongiform lesions may generate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated whether ER stress signaling is involved in ts1-mediated neuronal loss in the brain of infected mice. ts1-infected brainstems were found to show significant increases in phosphorylation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha. In addition, increased expression of growth arrest DNA damage 153 (GADD153), glucose-regulated protein 78, and caspase-12 were accompanied by increases in processing of caspase-12 and its downstream target, caspase-3. All of these events are markers of ER stress. We observed that GADD153 and cleaved caspase-3 were present in degenerative neurons in the lesions of infected mice, but not in uninfected controls. Phosphorylated calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-alpha was significantly increased, and was coexpressed with GADD153 in a large proportion of neurons undergoing early and advanced degenerative changes. Finally, neuronal degeneration in spongiform lesions was associated with increase in calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation in mitochondria. Together, these results suggest that ts1 infection-mediated neuronal degeneration in mice may result from activation of ER stress signaling pathways, presumably initiated by perturbation of Ca(2+) homeostasis. Our findings highlight the importance of the ER stress signaling pathway in ts1 infection-induced neuronal degeneration and death.

  20. Prions and the Potential Transmissibility of Protein Misfolding Diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Allison; Groveman, Bradley R.; Caughey, Byron

    2016-01-01

    Prions, or infectious proteins, represent a major frontier in the study of infectious agents. The prions responsible for mammalian transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are due primarily to infectious self-propagation of misfolded prion proteins. TSE prion structures remain ill-defined, other than being highly structured, self-propagating, and often fibrillar protein multimers with the capacity to seed, or template, the conversion of their normal monomeric precursors into a pathogenic form. Purified TSE prions usually take the form of amyloid fibrils, which are self-seeding ultrastructures common to many serious protein misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and Lou Gehrig’s (amytrophic lateral sclerosis). Indeed, recent reports have now provided evidence of prion-like propagation of several misfolded proteins from cell to cell, if not from tissue to tissue or individual to individual. These findings raise concerns that various protein misfolding diseases might have spreading, prion-like etiologies that contribute to pathogenesis or prevalence. PMID:23808331

  1. Amyloid Structure and Assembly: Insights from Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsbury, C.; Wall, J.; Baxa, U.; Simon, M. N.; Steven, A. C.; Engel, A.; Aebi, U.; Muller, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates implicated in several common diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Similar structures are also the molecular principle of the infectious spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep, and of the so-called yeast prions, inherited non-chromosomal elements found in yeast and fungi. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is often used to delineate the assembly mechanism and structural properties of amyloid aggregates. In this review we consider specifically contributions and limitations of STEM for the investigation of amyloid assembly pathways, fibril polymorphisms and structural models of amyloid fibrils. This type of microscopy provides the only method to directly measure the mass-per-length (MPL) of individual filaments. Made on both in vitro assembled and ex vivo samples, STEM mass measurements have illuminated the hierarchical relationships between amyloid fibrils and revealed that polymorphic fibrils and various globular oligomers can assemble simultaneously from a single polypeptide. The MPLs also impose strong constraints on possible packing schemes, assisting in molecular model building when combined with high-resolution methods like solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  2. Amyloid structure and assembly: insights from scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goldsbury, Claire; Baxa, Ulrich; Simon, Martha N; Steven, Alasdair C; Engel, Andreas; Wall, Joseph S; Aebi, Ueli; Müller, Shirley A

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates implicated in several common diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Similar structures are also the molecular principle of the infectious spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep, and of the so-called yeast prions, inherited non-chromosomal elements found in yeast and fungi. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is often used to delineate the assembly mechanism and structural properties of amyloid aggregates. In this review we consider specifically contributions and limitations of STEM for the investigation of amyloid assembly pathways, fibril polymorphisms and structural models of amyloid fibrils. This type of microscopy provides the only method to directly measure the mass-per-length (MPL) of individual filaments. Made on both in vitro assembled and ex vivo samples, STEM mass measurements have illuminated the hierarchical relationships between amyloid fibrils and revealed that polymorphic fibrils and various globular oligomers can assemble simultaneously from a single polypeptide. The MPLs also impose strong constraints on possible packing schemes, assisting in molecular model building when combined with high-resolution methods like solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  3. Cryptosporidiosis associated with animal contacts.

    PubMed

    Stantic-Pavlinic, Mirjana; Xiao, Lihua; Glaberman, Scott; Lal, Altaf A; Orazen, Toni; Rataj-Verglez, Aleksandra; Logar, Jernej; Berce, Ingrid

    2003-02-28

    Transmission of Cryptosporidium sp. within the general public was studied. We were looking for a possible risk of infection associated with animal contacts. Investigation of the animal contacts of affected individuals led to the formulation of the hypothesis that animals are a source of cryptosporidiosis. The research was done in the Region of Ljubljana, an area with 587,000 inhabitants during a period of three years. Stool specimens of 338 persons with acute enteric diseases were positive for Cryptosporidium sp. Diagnosis was done with an immunofluorescence test and modified Ziel-Neelsen staining. Processing of statistical data was done with the medical software application EPI INFO 6. According to our questionnaire, direct contact with animals occurred in 49 of the 338 cases of cryptosporidiosis, and was more frequently registered in males (Odds ratio = 1.96). Subgenotyping analysis revealed the presence of two subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum bovine (GPB and GPC) in humans. These data indicate that genetic heterogeneity in C. parvum bovine genotype exists in a localized area and that farm animals can be a source of infection.

  4. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  5. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... 1 page] Portuguese [PDF - 1 page] Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  6. Influence of breed and genotype on the onset and distribution of infectivity and disease-associated prion protein in sheep following oral infection with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent.

    PubMed

    McGovern, G; Martin, S; Jeffrey, M; Bellworthy, S J; Spiropoulos, J; Green, R; Lockey, R; Vickery, C M; Thurston, L; Dexter, G; Hawkins, S A C; González, L

    2015-01-01

    The onset and distribution of infectivity and disease-specific prion protein (PrP(d)) accumulation was studied in Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARR and ARR/ARR prion protein gene (Prnp) genotypes (where A stands for alanine, R for arginine and Q for glutamine at codons 136, 154 and 171 of PrP), following experimental oral infection with cattle-derived bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. Groups of sheep were killed at regular intervals and a wide range of tissues taken for mouse bioassay or immunohistochemistry (IHC), or both. Bioassay results for infectivity were mostly coincident with those of PrP(d) detection by IHC both in terms of tissues and time post infection. Neither PrP(d) nor infectivity was detected in any tissues of BSE-dosed ARQ/ARR or ARR/ARR sheep or of undosed controls. Moreover, four ARQ/ARQ Suffolk sheep, which were methionine (M)/threonine heterozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, did not show any biological or immunohistochemical evidence of infection, while those homozygous for methionine (MARQ/MARQ) did. In MARQ/MARQ sheep of both breeds, initial PrP(d) accumulation was identified in lymphoreticular system (LRS) tissues followed by the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS) and finally by the autonomic nervous system and peripheral nervous system and other organs. Detection of infectivity closely mimicked this sequence. No PrP(d) was observed in the ENS prior to its accumulation in the CNS, suggesting that ENS involvement occurred simultaneously to that of, or followed centrifugal spread from, the CNS. The distribution of PrP(d) within the ENS further suggested a progressive spread from the ileal plexus to other ENS segments via neuronal connections of the gut wall. Differences between the two breeds were noted in terms of involvement of LRS and ENS tissues, with Romney sheep showing a more delayed and less consistent PrP(d) accumulation than Suffolk sheep in such tissues. Whether this

  7. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  8. Animal Talk in Cocopa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Margaret

    1978-01-01

    This article discusses an abnormal type of speech in the Cocopa language called animal talk, which deals with how humans refer to the communication between humans and animals and between animals themselves. The derivation of animal talk from normal speech and speech of mythical animals is discussed. (NCR)

  9. Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Robert V

    2002-05-01

    Human rabies is rare in the United States; however, an estimated 40,000 patients receive rabies postexposure prophylaxis each year. Misconceptions about the transmission of rabies are plentiful, particularly regarding bats. Most cases of human rabies caused by bat variants have no definitive history of animal bite. Three hypotheses are proposed and reviewed for the transmission of rabies from bats to human beings. They include nonbite transmission (including aerosol transmission), the alternate host hypothesis (an intermediate animal host that acquires rabies from a bat and then transmits rabies to human beings), and minimized or unrecognized bat bites. Nonbite transmission of rabies is very rare, and aerosol transmission has never been well documented in the natural environment. The known pathogenesis of rabies and available data suggest that all or nearly all cases of human rabies attributable to bats were transmitted by bat bites that were minimized or unrecognized by the patients.

  10. Recycling of meat and bone meal animal feed by vacuum pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chaala, A; Roy, C

    2003-10-01

    Due to the recent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in the European beef industry, the use of animal-derived products to feed cattle is now severely restricted. Large quantities of waste animal meat and bone meal (MBM), also known as animal flour, have to be safely disposed of or transformed. One disposal option is pyrolysis. Vacuum pyrolysis of an animal flour sample has been performed in a laboratory reactor. The results obtained revealed that vacuum pyrolysis can be an attractive alternative to incineration and cement kilns. The process generated a combustible gas (15.1 wt %), a high calorific value oil (35.1 wt %), a solid residue rich in minerals (39.1 wt %), and an aqueous phase rich in organics (10.7 wt %). The gas and the aqueous phase can be used to provide heat to the vacuum pyrolysis reactor and the MBM drying unit. The oil can be used alone or mixed with petroleum products as a fuel in boilers or gas turbines. Conversion of animal waste by pyrolysis into fuels can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases. It is suggested to use the solid residue for agricultural soil enrichment in minerals and as a soil moisturizer.

  11. Animal migration and infectious disease risk.

    PubMed

    Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca; Han, Barbara A

    2011-01-21

    Animal migrations are often spectacular, and migratory species harbor zoonotic pathogens of importance to humans. Animal migrations are expected to enhance the global spread of pathogens and facilitate cross-species transmission. This does happen, but new research has also shown that migration allows hosts to escape from infected habitats, reduces disease levels when infected animals do not migrate successfully, and may lead to the evolution of less-virulent pathogens. Migratory demands can also reduce immune function, with consequences for host susceptibility and mortality. Studies of pathogen dynamics in migratory species and how these will respond to global change are urgently needed to predict future disease risks for wildlife and humans alike.

  12. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  14. Game Animals of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game animals typical of Colorado. Discussions in both English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game animals, individual game species, and introduced species of game animals. (RE)

  15. Influenza viruses: transmission between species.

    PubMed

    Webster, R G; Hinshaw, V S; Bean, W J; Sriram, G

    1980-02-25

    The only direct evidence for transmission of influenza viruses between species comes from studies on swine influenza viruses. Antigenically and genetically identical Hsw1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs and man on the same farm in Wisconsin, U.S.A. The isolation of H3N2 influenza viruses from a wide range of lower animals and birds suggests that influenza viruses of man can spread to the lower orders. Under some conditions the H3N2 viruses can persist for a number of years in some species. The isolation, from aquatic birds, of a large number of influenza A viruses that possess surface proteins antigenically similar to the viruses isolated from man, pigs and horses provides indirect evidence for inter-species transmission. There is now a considerable body of evidence which suggests that influenza viruses of lower animals and birds may play a role in the origin of some of the pandemic strains of influenza A viruses. There is no direct evidence that the influenza viruses in aquatic birds are transmitted to man, but they may serve as a genetic pool from which some genes may be introduced into humans by recombination. Preliminary evidence suggests that the molecular basis of host range and virulence may be related to the RNA segments coding for one of the polymerase proteins (P3) and for the nucleoprotein (NP).

  16. Detecting social transmission in networks.

    PubMed

    Hoppitt, William; Boogert, Neeltje J; Laland, Kevin N

    2010-04-21

    In recent years researchers have drawn attention to a need for new methods with which to identify the spread of behavioural innovations through social transmission in animal populations. Network-based analyses seek to recognise diffusions mediated by social learning by detecting a correspondence between patterns of association and the flow of information through groups. Here we introduce a new order of acquisition diffusion analysis (OADA) and develop established time of acquisition diffusion analysis (TADA) methods further. Through simulation we compare the merits of these and other approaches, demonstrating that OADA and TADA have greater power and lower Type I error rates than available alternatives, and specifying when each approach should be deployed. We illustrate the new methods by applying them to reanalyse an established dataset corresponding to the diffusion of foraging innovations in starlings, where OADA and TADA detect social transmission that hitherto had been missed. The methods are potentially widely applicable by researchers wishing to detect social learning in natural and captive populations of animals, and to facilitate this we provide code to implement OADA and TADA in the statistical package R.

  17. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  18. First cases of animal diseases published since 2000. 1. Dogs.

    PubMed

    Elsinghorst, Th A M

    2003-09-01

    In this first article of a series of papers listing first case reports of animal diseases published since 2000, the following 19 cases of dog diseases are discussed: Blastomycotic granuloma involving the cranial vena cava. Congenital myocardial hamartoma. Discospondylitis: three cases caused respectively by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy in a Labrador Retriever. Emphysematous prostatitis. Erythema multiforme major caused by a Parvovirus infection of keratinocytes. Hemochromatosis due to repeated blood transfusions. Intraspinal synovial cyst. Juvenile nephropathy in the Collie and the Irish Wolfhound. Primary cerebellar cortical degeneration (abiotrophy) in a Scottish terrier. Primary pulmonary artery chondrosarcoma. Renal dysplasia in a Bull Mastiff. Rhabdomyosarcoma (botryoid sarcoma) of the urinary bladder in a Maltese. Spinal mast cell tumor. Spongiform degeneration of the white matter in the central nervous system of Australian Cattle dog. Systemic pasteurellosis caused by Pasteurella canis. Thymic hemorrhage caused by dicumarol intoxication. Undimerized biclonal gammopathy with a single heavy chain class IgA in a dog with multiple myeloma. After a short introduction, the bibliographical data and the abstract of the author(s) and mostly some additional information derived from the article are given. The article will be regularly updated adding overlooked as well as new first reports.

  19. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  20. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Powers, Jenny G; Nichols, Tracy; Balachandran, Aru; Cummings, Bruce; Wild, Margaret A; VerCauteren, Kurt; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (PrP(CWD)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (CWD). A section of obex from 85 CWD-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in 10 axonal tracts, the subependymal area of the fourth ventricle, and the thin subpial astrocytic layer (glial limitans). Data was placed in a formula to generate an overall obex score. Data suggests that PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration has a unique and relatively consistent pattern of progression throughout a section of obex. This scoring technique utilizing a single section of obex may prove useful in future work for estimating the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in peripheral tissues and the nervous system in elk with CWD.

  1. [Surveillance and control of imported animal diseases. Role of the OIE and veterinary services].

    PubMed

    Angot, Jean-Luc

    2009-11-01

    Many animal diseases have received major media attention in recent years, including foot-and-mouth disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and avian influenza. Epizootics are on the increase, notably owing to globalization, ecological upheavals, and global warming. It is estimated that three-quarters of emerging and re-emerging diseases are zoonoses, i.e. diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Changes in eating habits, along with population growth and increasingly large populations at risk have all contributed to the upsurge of zoonoses. The fight against animal diseases is a major issue not only for animal health but also for human health, economics and politics. Veterinary services, whose work is recognized as an "international public good" by the World Bank, must be considered in terms of all those involved in animal health, including formal services, veterinarians and their assistants and organized livestock farmers, working together in close partnership. When veterinary services fail in a single country, it is the entire world that is threatened. Animal disease outbreaks are even more of a problem when they occur in countries that have no effective surveillance and preventive animal health network. Veterinary Services are an important instrument of public health and are necessary to protect the livestock economy. Industrialized countries must therefore help developing countries to eradicate their animal diseases, and countries with efficient veterinary infrastructures must encourage failing countries to adopt an effective early detection and rapid response system. OIE, the World Organization for Animal Health, has developed quality standards and norms for evaluating veterinary services, and provides an interactive tool (PVS, Performance of Veterinary Services) designed to facilitate their implementation. Assessments conducted by specifically trained experts allow international donors such as the World Bank to target investments where

  2. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identify weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.

  3. Physics for Animation Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  4. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  5. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

  6. Understanding ebola virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-02-03

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  7. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  8. Pixel selection for near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) discrimination between fish and terrestrial animal species in animal protein by-product meals.

    PubMed

    Riccioli, Cecilia; Pérez-Marín, Dolores; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio; Saeys, Wouter; Garrido-Varo, Ana

    2011-07-01

    This paper proposes a method based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for discriminating between terrestrial and fish species in animal protein by-products used in livestock feed. Four algorithms (Mahalanobis distance, Kennard-Stone, spatial interpolation, and binning) were compared in order to select an appropriate subset of pixels for further partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The method was applied to a set of 50 terrestrial and 40 fish meals analyzed in the 1000-1700 nm range. Models were then tested using an external validation set comprising 45 samples (25 fish and 20 terrestrial). The PLS-DA models obtained using the four subset-selection algorithms yielded a classification accuracy of 99.80%, 99.79%, 99.85%, and 99.61%, respectively. The results represent a first step for the analysis of mixtures of species and suggest that NIR-CI, providing valuable information on the origin of animal components in processed animal proteins, is a promising method that could be used as part of the EU feed control program aimed at eradicating and preventing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and related diseases.

  9. Emerging diseases and their impact on animal commerce: the Argentine lesson.

    PubMed

    Cané, B G; Leanes, L F; Mascitelli, L O

    2004-10-01

    As a result of the Argentine experience with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001, a need was postulated for the establishment of efficient supranational schemes for continuous surveillance of the interrelations between tropical extractives livestock systems and the prairies that are optimal for the feeding of livestock in the southern region of South America. FMD in Argentina and in other countries, new or re-emerging risks from avian influenza with potential risks for public health, the spongiform encephalopathies, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, and classical swine fever, among other animal diseases, have generated a strong reaction and evolution within the veterinary services of the country. These present lessons will influence decision-making within countries and should be accepted by the technical and scientific community. From the perspective of the official animal health sector and with the FMD eradication plan as a basis within the national territory, we have worked not only to achieve international recognition and credibility within animal health systems, but also to realize the formation of a regional block of countries that can be recognized internationally as an area with equivalent animal health status. We emphasize not only that this lesson is useful in FMD, but also that it is possible to apply the valuable conclusions reached for other emerging or re-emerging diseases.

  10. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    PubMed

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

  11. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  12. Vector independent transmission of the vector-borne bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    van der Sluijs, Mirjam Tineke Willemijn; de Smit, Abraham J; Moormann, Rob J M

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from dam to fetus, or horizontal via direct contract. For several BTV-serotypes, vertical (transplacental) transmission has been described, resulting in severe congenital malformations. Transplacental transmission had been mainly associated with live vaccine strains. Yet, the European BTV-8 strain demonstrated a high incidence of transplacental transmission in natural circumstances. The relevance of transplacental transmission for the epizootiology is considered limited, especially in enzootic areas. However, transplacental transmission can have a substantial economic impact due to the loss of progeny. Inactivated vaccines have demonstrated to prevent transplacental transmission. Vector-free horizontal transmission has also been demonstrated. Since direct horizontal transmission requires close contact of animals, it is considered only relevant for within-farm spreading of BTV. The genetic determinants which enable vector-free transmission are present in virus strains circulating in the field. More research into the genetic changes which enable vector-free transmission is essential to better evaluate the risks associated with outbreaks of new BTV serotypes and to design more appropriate control measures.

  13. Contact transmission of influenza virus between ferrets imposes a looser bottleneck than respiratory droplet transmission allowing propagation of antiviral resistance

    PubMed Central

    Frise, Rebecca; Bradley, Konrad; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Galiano, Monica; Elderfield, Ruth A.; Stilwell, Peter; Ashcroft, Jonathan W.; Fernandez-Alonso, Mirian; Miah, Shahjahan; Lackenby, Angie; Roberts, Kim L.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Barclay, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. It is important to elucidate the stringency of bottlenecks during transmission to shed light on mechanisms that underlie the evolution and propagation of antigenic drift, host range switching or drug resistance. The virus spreads between people by different routes, including through the air in droplets and aerosols, and by direct contact. By housing ferrets under different conditions, it is possible to mimic various routes of transmission. Here, we inoculated donor animals with a mixture of two viruses whose genomes differed by one or two reverse engineered synonymous mutations, and measured the transmission of the mixture to exposed sentinel animals. Transmission through the air imposed a tight bottleneck since most recipient animals became infected by only one virus. In contrast, a direct contact transmission chain propagated a mixture of viruses suggesting the dose transferred by this route was higher. From animals with a mixed infection of viruses that were resistant and sensitive to the antiviral drug oseltamivir, resistance was propagated through contact transmission but not by air. These data imply that transmission events with a looser bottleneck can propagate minority variants and may be an important route for influenza evolution. PMID:27430528

  14. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  16. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  17. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  18. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated insertion/deletion polymorphisms of the prion protein gene in the four beef cattle breeds from North China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiang-Yuan; Feng, Fu-Ying; Xue, Su-Yuan; Hou, Ting; Liu, Hui-Rong

    2011-10-01

    Two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP), a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter region and a 12-bp indel within intron I, are associated with the susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. In the present study, the polymorphism frequencies of the two indels in four main beef cattle breeds (Hereford, Simmental, Black Angus, and Mongolian) from North China were studied. The results showed that the frequencies of deletion genotypes and alleles of 23- and 12-bp indels were lower, whereas the frequencies of insertion genotypes and alleles of the two indels were higher in Mongolian cattle than in the other three cattle breeds. In Mongolian cattle, the 23-bp insertion / 12-bp insertion was the major haplotype, whereas in Hereford, Simmental, and Black Angus cattle, the 23-bp deletion / 12-bp deletion was the major haplotype. These results demonstrated that Mongolian cattle could be more resistant to BSE, compared with the other three cattle breeds, because of its relatively low frequencies of deletion genotypes and alleles of 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms. Thus, this race could be important for selective breeding to improve resistance against BSE in this area.

  19. Immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated prion protein in the peripheral nervous system in experimental H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Iwamaru, Y; Yokoyama, T; Mohri, S

    2013-07-01

    H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been identified in aged cattle in Europe and North America. To determine the localization of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the peripheral nerve tissues of cattle affected with H-type BSE, we employed highly sensitive immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence techniques with the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) system. PrP(Sc) deposition was detected in the inferior ganglia, sympathetic nerve trunk, vagus nerve, spinal nerves, cauda equina, and adrenal medulla, using this system. Notably, granular PrP(Sc) deposits were present mainly in the Schwann cells and fibroblast-like cells and occasionally along certain nerve fibers at the surface of the axons. In the adrenal gland, PrP(Sc) immunolabeling was observed within the sympathetic nerve fibers and nerve endings in the adrenal medulla. Although our results were limited to only 3 experimental cases, these results suggest that the TSA system, a highly sensitive immunohistochemical procedure, may help in elucidating the peripheral pathogenesis of H-type BSE.

  20. Detection of disease-associated prion protein in the optic nerve and the adrenal gland of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy by using highly sensitive immunolabeling procedures.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou

    2012-04-01

    A sensitive immunohistochemical procedure, the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) system, was applied to detect the localization of immunolabeled disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in cattle affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). In this procedure, immunolabeling could be visualized in the optic nerve and the adrenal medulla. In the optic nerve, the dual immunofluorescent technique showed that the granular PrP(Sc) was occasionally detected in the astrocytes, microglia, and myelin sheath adjacent to the axon. Clustered PrP(Sc) was also scattered in association with microglial cells and astrocytes of the optic nerve. In the adrenal gland, PrP(Sc) immunolabeling was confined within the sympathetic nerve fibers and endings. The results suggest that (1) PrP(Sc) might centrifugally spread within and between glial cells and/or the non-axonal (also known as ad-axonal) region of nerve fibers, rather than the axonal and/or extracellular space pathway in the optic nerve, and (2) the sympathetic innervations might be important for the trafficking of BSE agent in the adrenal glands of cattle. This study also suggests that tyramide-based immunochemical analysis should be performed to detect immunolabeled PrP(Sc) in the extracerebral tissues of BSE-affected cattle.

  1. Detection of Atypical H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Discrimination of Bovine Prion Strains by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Masujin, Kentaro; Orrú, Christina D; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Groveman, Bradley R; Raymond, Lynne D; Hughson, Andrew G; Caughey, Byron

    2016-03-01

    Prion diseases of cattle include the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE) and the atypical H-type BSE (H-BSE) and L-type BSE (L-BSE) strains. Although the C- and L-BSE strains can be detected and discriminated by ultrasensitive real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays, no such test has yet been described for the detection of H-BSE or the discrimination of each of the major bovine prion strains. Here, we demonstrate an RT-QuIC assay for H-BSE that can detect as little as 10(-9) dilutions of brain tissue and neat cerebrospinal fluid samples from clinically affected cattle. Moreover, comparisons of the reactivities with different recombinant prion protein substrates and/or immunoblot band profiles of proteinase K-treated RT-QuIC reaction products indicated that H-, L-, and C-BSE have distinctive prion seeding activities and can be discriminated by RT-QuIC on this basis.

  2. Significant differences in incubation times in sheep infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy result from variation at codon 141 in the PRNP gene.

    PubMed

    Tan, Boon Chin; Blanco, Anthony R Alejo; Houston, E Fiona; Stewart, Paula; Goldmann, Wilfred; Gill, Andrew C; de Wolf, Christopher; Manson, Jean C; McCutcheon, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    The susceptibility of sheep to prion infection is linked to variation in the PRNP gene, which encodes the prion protein. Common polymorphisms occur at codons 136, 154 and 171. Sheep which are homozygous for the A(136)R(154)Q(171) allele are the most susceptible to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The effect of other polymorphisms on BSE susceptibility is unknown. We orally infected ARQ/ARQ Cheviot sheep with equal amounts of BSE brain homogenate and a range of incubation periods was observed. When we segregated sheep according to the amino acid (L or F) encoded at codon 141 of the PRNP gene, the shortest incubation period was observed in LL(141) sheep, whilst incubation periods in FF(141) and LF(141) sheep were significantly longer. No statistically significant differences existed in the expression of total prion protein or the disease-associated isoform in BSE-infected sheep within each genotype subgroup. This suggested that the amino acid encoded at codon 141 probably affects incubation times through direct effects on protein misfolding rates.

  3. Animal models in virus research: their utility and limitations.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2013-11-01

    Viral diseases are important threats to public health worldwide. With the number of emerging viral diseases increasing the last decades, there is a growing need for appropriate animal models for virus studies. The relevance of animal models can be limited in terms of mimicking human pathophysiology. In this review, we discuss the utility of animal models for studies of influenza A viruses, HIV and SARS-CoV in light of viral emergence, assessment of infection and transmission risks, and regulatory decision making. We address their relevance and limitations. The susceptibility, immune responses, pathogenesis, and pharmacokinetics may differ between the various animal models. These complexities may thwart translating results from animal experiments to the humans. Within these constraints, animal models are very informative for studying virus immunopathology and transmission modes and for translation of virus research into clinical benefit. Insight in the limitations of the various models may facilitate further improvements of the models.

  4. Transmissibility of the monkeypox virus clades via respiratory transmission: investigation using the prairie dog-monkeypox virus challenge system.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Christina L; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S; Clemmons, Cody; Salzer, Johanna S; Nagy, Tamas; Hughes, Christine M; Olson, Victoria A; Karem, Kevin L; Damon, Inger K

    2013-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is endemic within Africa where it sporadically is reported to cause outbreaks of human disease. In 2003, an outbreak of human MPXV occurred in the US after the importation of infected African rodents. Since the eradication of smallpox (caused by an orthopoxvirus (OPXV) related to MPXV) and cessation of routine smallpox vaccination (with the live OPXV vaccinia), there is an increasing population of people susceptible to OPXV diseases. Previous studies have shown that the prairie dog MPXV model is a functional animal model for the study of systemic human OPXV illness. Studies with this model have demonstrated that infected animals are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple routes of exposure causing subsequent infection, but were not able to prove that infected animals could transmit the virus exclusively via the respiratory route. Herein we used the model system to evaluate the hypothesis that the Congo Basin clade of MPXV is more easily transmitted, via respiratory route, than the West African clade. Using a small number of test animals, we show that transmission of viruses from each of the MPXV clade was minimal via respiratory transmission. However, transmissibility of the Congo Basin clade was slightly greater than West African MXPV clade (16.7% and 0% respectively). Based on these findings, respiratory transmission appears to be less efficient than those of previous studies assessing contact as a mechanism of transmission within the prairie dog MPXV animal model.

  5. Blocking transmission of vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Schorderet-Weber, Sandra; Noack, Sandra; Selzer, Paul M; Kaminsky, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are responsible for significant health problems in humans, as well as in companion and farm animals. Killing the vectors with ectoparasitic drugs before they have the opportunity to pass on their pathogens could be the ideal way to prevent vector borne diseases. Blocking of transmission might work when transmission is delayed during blood meal, as often happens in ticks. The recently described systemic isoxazolines have been shown to successfully prevent disease transmission under conditions of delayed pathogen transfer. However, if the pathogen is transmitted immediately at bite as it is the case with most insects, blocking transmission becomes only possible if ectoparasiticides prevent the vector from landing on or, at least, from biting the host. Chemical entities exhibiting repellent activity in addition to fast killing, like pyrethroids, could prevent pathogen transmission even in cases of immediate transfer. Successful blocking depends on effective action in the context of the extremely diverse life-cycles of vectors and vector-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance which are summarized in this review. This complexity leads to important parameters to consider for ectoparasiticide research and when considering the ideal drug profile for preventing disease transmission.

  6. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  7. Animal Communication: What Do Animals Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Eugene S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of animal communication, including possible relationships between the physical structure of vocalizations and their functions in communicating. Provides tables of mammalian and avian sounds (by species/family) used in hostile and friendly appeasing contexts. (JN)

  8. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  9. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... issues? Additional Information I gave my dog a drug and he got sick. How do I report ...

  10. "Name" that Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  11. Working with Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Charles F., III; Hodge, Guy

    1978-01-01

    After discussing various job categories involving working with animals, the authors give more specific information about the occupations of humane agent, animal care attendant, conservation officer, veterinary technician, and zoo keeper. (MF)

  12. A transmissible Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease-like agent is prevalent in the human population.

    PubMed Central

    Manuelidis, E E; Manuelidis, L

    1993-01-01

    The etiology of most human dementias is unknown. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a relatively uncommon human dementia, is caused by a transmissible virus-like agent. Molecular markers that are specific for the agent have not yet been defined. However, the infectious disease can be transmitted to rodents from both brain and infected buffy coat (blood) samples. To determine whether human CJD infections are more widespread than is apparent from the low incidence of neurological disease, we attempted to transmit CJD from buffy coat samples of 30 healthy volunteers who had no family history of dementing illness. Primary transmissions from 26 of 30 individuals produced CJD-like spongiform changes in the brains of recipient hamsters at 200-500 days postinoculation. This positive evidence of viremia was found for individuals in all age groups (20-30, 40-50, and 61-71 years old), whereas 12 negatively scored brain samples failed to produce similar changes in hamsters observed for > 900 days in the same setting. We suggest that a CJD agent endemically infects humans but only infrequently produces an infectious dementia. Disease expression is likely to be influenced by several host factors in combination with viral variants that have altered neurovirulence. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8356076

  13. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)

  15. Software For Animated Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, F.; Bancroft, G.; Kelaita, P.

    1992-01-01

    Graphics Animation System (GAS) software package serves as easy-to-use, menu-driven program providing fast, simple viewing capabilities as well as more-complex features for rendering and animation in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Displays two- and three-dimensional objects along with computed data and records animation sequences on video digital disk, videotape, and 16-mm film. Written in C.

  16. Animation in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Martin L.

    Directed to the class or individual with limited film making equipment, this paper presents a "hands on" guide to the production of animated cartoons. Its 14 sections deal with the following topics: understanding animation; choosing subject matter for an animation; writing a script; getting the timing right; choosing a camera and projector;…

  17. Careers Working with Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1985-01-01

    Surveys careers in working with animals and gives suggestions for use of this topic in the classroom. Activities involve identifying reasons for choosing any career, careers involving animals (traditional and nontraditional), community personnel, and pros and cons of animal careers. Two student activity sheets are included for duplicating. (DH)

  18. Zoonotic Poxviruses Associated with Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Danielle M.; Reynolds, Mary G.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Contemporary enthusiasm for the ownership of exotic animals and hobby livestock has created an opportunity for the movement of poxviruses—such as monkeypox, cowpox, and orf—outside their traditional geographic range bringing them into contact with atypical animal hosts and groups of people not normally considered at risk. It is important that pet owners and practitioners of human and animal medicine develop a heightened awareness for poxvirus infections and understand the risks that can be associated with companion animals and livestock. This article reviews the epidemiology and clinical features of zoonotic poxviruses that are most likely to affect companion animals. Abstract Understanding the zoonotic risk posed by poxviruses in companion animals is important for protecting both human and animal health. The outbreak of monkeypox in the United States, as well as current reports of cowpox in Europe, point to the fact that companion animals are increasingly serving as sources of poxvirus transmission to people. In addition, the trend among hobbyists to keep livestock (such as goats) in urban and semi-urban areas has contributed to increased parapoxvirus exposures among people not traditionally considered at high risk. Despite the historic notoriety of poxviruses and the diseases they cause, poxvirus infections are often missed. Delays in diagnosing poxvirus-associated infections in companion animals can lead to inadvertent human exposures. Delays in confirming human infections can result in inappropriate treatment or prolonged recovery. Early recognition of poxvirus-associated infections and application of appropriate preventive measures can reduce the spread of virus between companion animals and their owners. This review will discuss the epidemiology and clinical features associated with the zoonotic poxvirus infections most commonly associated with companion animals. PMID:26486622

  19. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  20. Seasonal forecast of St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission, Florida.

    PubMed

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Day, Jonathan F; Stieglitz, Marc; Zebiak, Stephen; Cane, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Disease transmission forecasts can help minimize human and domestic animal health risks by indicating where disease control and prevention efforts should be focused. For disease systems in which weather-related variables affect pathogen proliferation, dispersal, or transmission, the potential for disease forecasting exists. We present a seasonal forecast of St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission in Indian River County, Florida. We derive an empiric relationship between modeled land surface wetness and levels of SLEV transmission in humans. We then use these data to forecast SLEV transmission with a seasonal lead. Forecast skill is demonstrated, and a real-time seasonal forecast of epidemic SLEV transmission is presented. This study demonstrates how weather and climate forecast skill-verification analyses may be applied to test the predictability of an empiric disease forecast model.

  1. Animal virus discovery: improving animal health, understanding zoonoses, and opportunities for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of viral genomes has accelerated due to improvement in DNA sequencing technology. Sources of animal samples and molecular methods for the identification of novel viral pathogens and steps to determine their pathogenicity are listed. The difficulties for predicting future cross-species transmissions are highlighted by the wide diversity of known viral zoonoses. Recent surveys of viruses in wild and domesticated animals have characterized numerous viruses including some closely related to those infecting humans. The detection of multiple genetic lineages within viral families infecting a single host species, phylogenetically interspersed with viruses found in other host species, reflects frequent past cross-species transmissions. Numerous opportunities for the generation of novel vaccines will arise from a better understanding of animal viromes. PMID:22463981

  2. Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies (Diptera, Muscidae): a review

    PubMed Central

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Muenworn, Vithee; Desquesnes, Marc; Desoli, Florian; Charoenviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Duvallet, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Stomoxys flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens present in the blood and skin of their animal hosts, especially livestock, but occasionally humans. In livestock, their direct effects are disturbance, skin lesions, reduction of food intake, stress, blood loss, and a global immunosuppressive effect. They also induce the gathering of animals for mutual protection; meanwhile they favor development of pathogens in the hosts and their transmission. Their indirect effect is the mechanical transmission of pathogens. In case of interrupted feeding, Stomoxys can re-start their blood meal on another host. When injecting saliva prior to blood-sucking, they can inoculate some infected blood remaining on their mouthparts. Beside this immediate transmission, it was observed that Stomoxys may keep some blood in their crop, which offers a friendly environment for pathogens that could be regurgitated during the next blood meal; thus a delayed transmission by Stomoxys seems possible. Such a mechanism has a considerable epidemiological impact since it allows inter-herd transmission of pathogens. Equine infectious anemia, African swine fever, West Nile, and Rift Valley viruses are known to be transmitted by Stomoxys, while others are suspected. Rickettsia (Anaplasma, Coxiella), other bacteria and parasites (Trypanosoma spp., Besnoitia spp.) are also transmitted by Stomoxys. Finally, Stomoxys was also found to act as an intermediate host of the helminth Habronema microstoma and may be involved in the transmission of some Onchocerca and Dirofilaria species. Being cosmopolite, Stomoxys calcitrans might have a worldwide and greater impact than previously thought on animal and human pathogen transmission. PMID:23985165

  3. Hepatitis E virus: foodborne, waterborne and zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2013-09-25

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, mainly through waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission routes. HEV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus classified in the family Hepeviridae and encompasses four known Genotypes (1-4), at least two new putative genotypes of mammalian HEV, and one floating genus of avian HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEVs only affect humans, while Genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic and autochthonous infections in both humans and several other animal species worldwide. HEV has an ever-expanding host range and has been identified in numerous animal species. Swine serve as a reservoir species for HEV transmission to humans; however, it is likely that other animal species may also act as reservoirs. HEV poses an important public health concern with cases of the disease definitively linked to handling of infected pigs, consumption of raw and undercooked animal meats, and animal manure contamination of drinking or irrigation water. Infectious HEV has been identified in numerous sources of concern including animal feces, sewage water, inadequately-treated water, contaminated shellfish and produce, as well as animal meats. Many aspects of HEV pathogenesis, replication, and immunological responses remain unknown, as HEV is an extremely understudied but important human pathogen. This article reviews the current understanding of HEV transmission routes with emphasis on food and environmental sources and the prevalence of HEV in animal species with zoonotic potential in humans.

  4. Pregnancy & perinatal transmission update.

    PubMed

    Denison, R

    1998-09-01

    According to a June 1998 report from UNAIDS, the majority of children infected with HIV acquired it from their mothers during or near birth. One way to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV is to increase prevention efforts for women. Other ways to prevent perinatal transmission include using AZT treatment, avoiding breastfeeding, and choosing a C-section delivery instead of a vaginal delivery. One important study, called the Thai study, promoted a shorter course of AZT therapy that was less expensive, more accessible, and still prevented transmission in many cases. Several reasons are cited for why some women continue breastfeeding, despite the increased risk of transmitting HIV to their babies. An important factor in preventing perinatal transmission is the overall health of the mother, and her ability to maintain her health and treatment regimen while caring for a newborn.

  5. Downhole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  6. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  7. Multiplex television transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

  8. Continuously Variable Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Chain slides along two cones, in novel transmission concept. Transmission includes chain drive between two splined shafts. Chain sprockets follow surfaces of two cones. As one chain sprocket moves toward smaller diameter other chain sprocket moves toward larger diameter, thereby changing "gear" ratio. Movement initiated by tension applied to chain by planetary gear mechanism. Device positive, simple, and efficient over wide range of speed ratios.

  9. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  10. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals.

  11. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on January 30... (Commission), 18 CFR 381.302, Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC (Zephyr), Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC...

  12. Multistate differential transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.

    1987-09-01

    A multistate transmission is described having an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears with planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the planetary gear train means connected to the output shaft; b. first bypass means connecting the input shaft to the planetary gear train means; c. differential transmission means for receiving its input from the input shaft and having means to adjust the torque and speed output infinitely variable over its range of operation for each state of the transmission; d. power return means for receiving the output of the differential transmission means; e. means including clutch operated speed reversing means for interconnecting the sun gear in the planetary gear train means with the power return means; f. the power return means including a first gear to receive the output of the differential transmission means; g. first multispeed transmission means connecting the means for supporting the carrier shaft to the first bypass means.

  13. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  14. 9 CFR 94.11 - Restrictions on importation of meat and other animal products from specified regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.11 Restrictions on importation of meat and...

  15. Transmissibility of Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome in rodent models: New insights into the molecular underpinnings of prion infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Angelo Di Bari, Michele; Pirisinu, Laura

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, have revealed the bewildering phenomenon of transmissibility in neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, the experimental transmissibility of prion-like neurodegenerative diseases via template directed misfolding has become the focus of intense research. Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) is an inherited prion disease associated with mutations in the prion protein gene. However, with the exception of a few GSS cases with P102L mutation characterized by co-accumulation of protease-resistant PrP core (PrPres) of ∼21 kDa, attempts to transmit to rodents GSS associated to atypical misfolded prion protein with ∼8 kDa PrPres have been unsuccessful. As a result, these GSS subtypes have often been considered as non-transmissible proteinopathies rather than true prion diseases. In a recent study we inoculated bank voles with GSS cases associated with P102L, A117V and F198S mutations and found that they transmitted efficiently and produced distinct pathological phenotypes, irrespective of the presence of 21 kDa PrPres in the inoculum. This study demonstrates that GSS is a genuine prion disease characterized by both transmissibility and strain variation. We discuss the implications of these findings for the understanding of the heterogeneous clinic-pathological phenotypes of GSS and of the molecular underpinnings of prion infectivity. PMID:27892798

  16. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans

    PubMed Central

    Tenter, Astrid M.; Heckeroth, Anja R.; Weiss, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide. Its causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii, is a facultatively heteroxenous, polyxenous protozoon that has developed several potential routes of transmission within and between different host species. If first contracted during pregnancy, T. gondii may be transmitted vertically by tachyzoites that are passed to the foetus via the placenta. Horizontal transmission of T. gondii may involve three life-cycle stages, i.e. ingesting infectious oocysts from the environment or ingesting tissue cysts or tachyzoites which are contained in meat or primary offal (viscera) of many different animals. Transmission may also occur via tachyzoites contained in blood products, tissue transplants, or unpasteurised milk. However, it is not known which of these routes is more important epidemiologically. In the past, the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, in particular of pigs and sheep, has been regarded as a major route of transmission to humans. However, recent studies showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in meat-producing animals decreased considerably over the past 20 years in areas with intensive farm management. For example, in several countries of the European Union prevalences of T. gondii in fattening pigs are now <1%. Considering these data it is unlikely that pork is still a major source of infection for humans in these countries. However, it is likely that the major routes of transmission are different in human populations with differences in culture and eating habits. In the Americas, recent outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans have been associated with oocyst contamination of the environment. Therefore, future epidemiological studies on T. gondii infections should consider the role of oocysts as potential sources of infection for humans, and methods to monitor these are currently being developed. This review presents recent epidemiological data on T. gondii, hypotheses on the major routes of

  17. Ultrasensitive detection of PrP(Sc) in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of macaques infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Imamura, Morikazu; Ono, Fumiko; Shibata, Hiroaki; Tobiume, Minoru; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Shimozaki, Noriko; Terao, Keiji; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2014-11-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by the prominent accumulation of the misfolded form of a normal cellular protein (PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system. The pathological features and biochemical properties of PrP(Sc) in macaque monkeys infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion have been found to be similar to those of human subjects with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Non-human primate models are thus ideally suited for performing valid diagnostic tests and determining the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents. In the current study, we developed a highly efficient method for in vitro amplification of cynomolgus macaque BSE PrP(Sc). This method involves amplifying PrP(Sc) by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) using mouse brain homogenate as a PrP(C) substrate in the presence of sulfated dextran compounds. This method is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white blood cells (WBCs), as well as in the peripheral tissues of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the BSE prion. After clinical signs of the disease appeared in three macaques, we detected PrP(Sc) in the CSF by serial PMCA, and the CSF levels of PrP(Sc) tended to increase with disease progression. In addition, PrP(Sc) was detectable in WBCs at the clinical phases of the disease in two of the three macaques. Thus, our highly sensitive, novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of the tissue distribution of PrP(Sc) in non-human primate models of CJD.

  18. Evaluation of rapid post-mortem test kits for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) screening in Japan: Their analytical sensitivity to atypical BSE prions.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Ken'ichi; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Tabeta, Naoko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Tobiume, Minoru

    2017-03-30

    A classical type of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), recognized in 1987, had a large impact on public health due to its zoonotic link to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by the human consumption of dietary products contaminated with the C-BSE prion. Thus, a number of countries implemented BSE surveillance using rapid post-mortem test kits that were approved for detection of the C-BSE prion in the cattle brain. However, as atypical BSE (L- and H-BSE) cases emerged in subsequent years, the efficacy of the kits for the detection of atypical BSE prions became a matter of concern. In response to this, laboratories in the European Union and Canada evaluated the kits used in their countries. Here, we carried out an evaluation study of NippiBL®, a kit currently used for BSE screening in Japan. By applying the kit to cattle brains of field cases of C-BSE and L-BSE, and an experimental case of H-BSE, we showed its comparable sensitivities to C, L-, and H-BSE prions, and satisfactory performance required by the European Food Safety Authority. In addition to NippiBL®, two kits (TeSeE® and FRELISA®) formerly used in Japan were effective for detection of the L-BSE prion, although the two kits were unable to be tested for the H-BSE prion due to the discontinuation of domestic sales during this study. These results indicate that BSE screening in Japan is as effective as those in other countries, and it is unlikely that cases of atypical BSE have been overlooked.

  19. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Adney, Danielle R.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  20. Animal experiments: conference report.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jane

    1986-06-21

    Researchers who use animal subjects and representatives from the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and moderate antivivisection groups held a press seminar in London in June 1986. Their intention was to correct what is seen by scientists as the misinforming of the public by the press, which tends to highlight confrontations between researchers and animal rights advocates. Dawson summarizes the major issues discussed, which included a proposal that local review committees be established, criticism of researchers for not justifying their work more completely to the public and to the press, and disagreement over the need to use animals in research with human applications. Scientists and antivivisectionists also aired their differences over the problem of pain in animal experimentation and over the usefulness of animal behavior studies.