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Sample records for animales tipo bos

  1. 3D Imaging of Density Gradients Using Plenoptic BOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna; Clifford, Chris; Fahringer, Timothy; Thurow, Brian

    2016-11-01

    The combination of background oriented schlieren (BOS) and a plenoptic camera, termed Plenoptic BOS, is explored through two proof-of-concept experiments. The motivation of this work is to provide a 3D technique capable of observing density disturbances. BOS uses the relationship between density and refractive index gradients to observe an apparent shift in a patterned background through image comparison. Conventional BOS systems acquire a single line-of-sight measurement, and require complex configurations to obtain 3D measurements, which are not always conducive to experimental facilities. Plenoptic BOS exploits the plenoptic camera's ability to generate multiple perspective views and refocused images from a single raw plenoptic image during post processing. Using such capabilities, with regards to BOS, provides multiple line-of-sight measurements of density disturbances, which can be collectively used to generate refocused BOS images. Such refocused images allow the position of density disturbances to be qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The image that provides the sharpest density gradient signature corresponds to a specific depth. These results offer motivation to advance Plenoptic BOS with an ultimate goal of reconstructing a 3D density field.

  2. The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Antonio Pérez-Claros, Juan; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rook, Lorenzo; Palmqvist, Paul

    2007-09-01

    The origin of the genus Bos is a debated issue. From ˜ 0.5 Ma until historic times, the genus is well known in the Eurasian large mammal assemblages, where it is represented by Bos primigenius. This species has a highly derived cranial anatomy that shows important morphological differences from other Plio-Pleistocene Eurasian genera of the tribe Bovini such as Leptobos, Bison, Proamphibos-Hemibos, and Bubalus. The oldest clear evidence of Bos is the skull fragment ASB-198-1 from the middle Pleistocene (˜ 0.6-0.8 Ma) site of Asbole (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia). The first appearance of Bos in Europe is at the site of Venosa-Notarchirico, Italy (˜ 0.5-0.6 Ma). Although the origin of Bos has traditionally been connected with Leptobos and Bison, after a detailed anatomical and morphometric study we propose here a different origin, connecting the middle Pleistocene Eurasian forms of B. primigenius with the African Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene large size member of the tribe Bovini Pelorovis sensu stricto. The dispersal of the Bos lineage in Western Europe during middle Pleistocene times seems to coincide with the arrival of the Acheulean tool technology in this continent.

  3. Acquisition and expression of resistance by Bos indicus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus calves to Amblyomma americanum infestation.

    PubMed

    George, J E; Osburn, R L; Wikel, S K

    1985-04-01

    Purebred and crossbred Bos indicus calves were infested 1, 2, or 3 times with 10 female and 5 male Amblyomma americanum. Resistance was acquired by both the purebred and the crossbred calves after 1 infestation and resulted in statistically significant decreases in the percentages of females that engorged, the mean weights of engorged females, and the mean weights of egg masses. Comparisons between breeds of the percent of female ticks that engorged during the first and second infestations indicate that purebred B. indicus expressed a stronger acquired resistance to A. americanum more readily than did crossbred animals. However, calves of both genetic compositions displayed similar levels of resistance during a third exposure. All tick-exposed and control animals were skin tested with salivary gland extracts of A. americanum, A. cajennense and Dermacentor andersoni. Control, uninfested calves, did not display significant cutaneous reactivity to these extracts. All calves that had been infested had immediate, 30-min, 5-hr and delayed, 24-hr, skin reactions to Amblyomma species antigens. Reactions to D. andersoni salivary antigens in tests of both purebred and crossbred calves with acquired resistance to A. americanum suggest that Amblyomma species salivary gland antigens might have cross reactive moieties with a salivary extract prepared from D. andersoni. Peripheral blood lymphocyte in vitro responsiveness to Amblyomma species antigens was detected in purebred calves after a first, second, and third infestation, indicating the presence of cells of the immune system capable of recognizing and undergoing blast transformation in response to tick salivary components.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Membrane proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction: A proteomic comparison between Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) and Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Othman, Iekhsan; Yee, Tee Ting; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-11-01

    Production performance of European cattle breeds has significantly improved through various breeding programs. However, European breeds are more susceptible to heat stress compared to zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as their conception rate can range between 20 to 30% in hot seasons compared to winter. To identify cattle sperm proteins associated with zebu cattle higher fertility and heat tolerance in tropical environments, we utilised a proteomics-based approach to compare sperm from the highly fertile Malaysian indigenous breed, Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus), with sperm from the sub-fertile crossbreed, Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus). Frozen semen of three high performance bulls from each breed was processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Proteins were separated and gel bands were processed by in-gel tryptic digestion. For each breed, mass spectrometry data was acquired over 11 replicates. The analyzed data identified peptides with different expression levels (99% confidence level) and protein identification was determined by targeted MS/MS. Among the identified proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction, two proteins were up-regulated in Kedah Kelantan sperm and 7 proteins were up-regulated in or specific to Mafriwal. Our results suggest that the higher fertility of zebu cattle in tropical areas may not be related to more efficient sperm-oocyte interaction. Further analysis of the other regulated proteins in these two breeds may contribute further knowledge on the physiological reason/s for higher fertility and heat tolerance of Zebu cattle in tropical areas.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) and Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) Sperm Proteome Identifies Sperm Proteins Potentially Responsible for Higher Fertility in a Tropical Climate

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-01-01

    The fertility of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) is higher than that of the European purebred (Bos taurus) and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cattle in tropical areas. To identify proteins related to the higher thermo-tolerance and fertility of Zebu cattle, this study was undertaken to identify differences in sperm proteome between the high fertile Malaysian indigenous zebu cattle (Kedah Kelantan) and the sub-fertile crossbred cattle (Mafriwal). Frozen semen from three high performance bulls from each breed were processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Sperm proteins were then extracted, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis performed to compare proteome profiles. Gel image analysis identified protein spots of interest which were then identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry quadrupole time-of-flight (LC MS/MS Q-TOF). STRING network analysis predicted interactions between at least 20 of the identified proteins. Among the identified proteins, a number of motility and energy related proteins were present in greater abundance in Kedah Kelantan. Sperm motility evaluation by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) confirmed significantly higher motility in Kedah Kelantan. While results from this study do identify proteins that may be responsible for the higher fertility of Kedah Kelantan, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles in sperm fertility. PMID:23903046

  6. Evidence that BosR (BB0647) Is a Positive Autoregulator in Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Zhou, Jianli

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi survives in nature through a complex tick-mammalian life cycle. During its transit between ticks and mammalian hosts, B. burgdorferi must dramatically alter its outer surface profile in order to interact with and adapt to these two diverse niches. It has been established that the regulator BosR (BB0647) in B. burgdorferi plays important roles in modulating borrelial host adaptation. However, to date, how bosR expression itself is controlled in B. burgdorferi remains largely unknown. Previously, it has been shown that DNA sequences upstream of BosR harbor multiple sites for the binding of recombinant BosR, suggesting that BosR may influence its own expression in B. burgdorferi. However, direct experimental evidence supporting this putative autoregulation of BosR has been lacking. Here, we investigated the expression of bosR throughout the tick-mammal life cycle of B. burgdorferi via quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses. Our data indicated that bosR is expressed not only during mouse infection, but also during the tick acquisition, intermolt, and transmission phases. Further investigation revealed that bosR expression in B. burgdorferi is influenced by environmental stimuli, such as temperature shift and pH change. By employing luciferase reporter assays, we also identified two promoters potentially driving bosR transcription. Our study offers strong support for the long-postulated function of BosR as an autoregulator in B. burgdorferi. PMID:27324485

  7. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  8. Employee Acceptance of BOS and BES Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Gier, Joseph A.

    Previous research on performance evaluation systems has failed to take into account user acceptance. Employee acceptance of a behaviorally-based performance appraisal system was assessed in a field experiment contrasting user preference for Behavioral Expectations Scales (BES) versus Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS). Non-union sales associates…

  9. Chemical composition of whole body and carcass of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Nardon, R F; Figueiredo, L A; Alleoni, G F

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between the chemical composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section and the chemical composition of the carcass and empty body were evaluated for Bos indicus (108 Nellore and 36 Guzerah; GuS) and tropically adapted Bos taurus (56 Caracu; CaS) bulls, averaging 20 to 24 mo of age at slaughter. Nellore cattle were represented by 56 animals from the selected herd (NeS) and 52 animals from the control herd (NeC). The CaS and GuS bulls were from selected herds. Selected herds were based on 20 yr of selection for postweaning BW. Carcass composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, and analyzing soft tissue and bones. Similarly, empty body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Bulls were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was composed of 36 NeS, 36 NeC, 36 CaS, and 36 GuS bulls and had water, ether extract (EE), protein, and ash chemically determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section and in the carcass. Group 2 was composed of 20 NeS, 16 NeC, and 20 CaS bulls and water, EE, protein, and ash were determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section, carcass, and empty body. Linear regressions were developed between the carcass and the 9th- to 11th-rib section compositions for group 1 and between carcass and empty body compositions for group 2. The 9th- to 11th-rib section percentages of water (RWt) and EE (RF) predicted the percentages of carcass water (CWt) and carcass fat (CF) with high precision: CWt, % = 29.0806 + 0.4873 × RWt, % (r(2) = 0.813, SE = 1.06) and CF, % = 10.4037 + 0.5179 × RF, % (r(2) = 0.863, SE = 1.26), respectively. Linear regressions between percentage of CWt and CF and empty body water (EBWt) and empty body fat (EBF) were also predicted with high precision: EBWt, % = -9.6821 + 1.1626 × CWt, % (r(2) = 0.878, SE = 1.43) and EBF, % = 0.3739 + 1.0386 × CF, % (r(2) = 0.982, SE = 0.65), respectively. Chemical composition of the 9th- to 11

  10. Screening of biotechnical parameters for production of bovine inter-subspecies embryonic chimeras by the aggregation of tetraploid Bos indicus and diploid crossbred Bos taurus embryos.

    PubMed

    Razza, Eduardo M; Satrapa, Rafael A; Emanuelli, Isabele P; Barros, Ciro M; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-03-01

    The aggregation of a tetraploid zebu embryo (Bos indicus, a thermotolerant breed) with a diploid taurine embryo (Bos taurus, a thermosensitive breed) should create a complete taurine fetus, whose extra-embryonic components, e.g., the chorion, is derived mainly from the zebu embryo. These zebu-derived extra-embryonic components may interact positively with the taurine embryo/fetus during pregnancy in a tropical environment. We tested different parameters for the production of tetraploid Nelore (Bos indicus) embryos to be combined via aggregation with crossbred Bos taurus (diploid) embryos in order to produce viable chimeric blastocysts. Bovine (Bos indicus or crossbred Bos taurus) embryos were produced in vitro according to standard procedures. Two-cell Bos indicus embryos were submitted to electrofusion with varying numbers of pulses (1 or 2), voltages (0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.4 and 5.0 kV/cm) and time (20, 25, 50 and 60 μs) to produce tetraploid embryos. Electrofused embryos were cultured with crossbred non-fused embryos to form chimeras that developed until the blastocyst stage. The best fusion parameter was 0.75 kV/cm for 60 μs. Four chimeric blastocysts (tetraploid Nelore with diploid crossbred Holstein) were formed after 31 attempts in 4 replicates (13%). We established an optimal procedure for the production of tetraploid Bos indicus (4n) embryos and embryonic chimeras by aggregation of crossbred Bos taurus (2n) with Bos indicus (4n) embryos. This technique would be valid in applied research, by producing exclusively taurine calves, but with placental elements from the Bos indicus breed, following transfer of these chimeras into recipient cows.

  11. Comparison of antral and preantral ovarian follicle populations between Bos indicus and Bos indicus-taurus cows with high or low antral follicles counts.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santos, K C; Siloto, L S; Santos, G M G; Morotti, F; Marcantonio, T N; Seneda, M M

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to compare populations of antral and pre-antral ovarian follicles in Bos indicus and Bos indicus-taurus cows with high and low antral follicle counts. Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 20) and Nelore X Angus (1/2 Bos indicus-taurus, n = 20) cows were subjected to follicular aspiration without regard to the stage of their oestrous cycle (day of aspiration = D0) to remove all follicles ≥3 mm and induce growth of a new follicular wave. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on D4, D19, D34, D49 and D64, and antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted. Thereafter, cows were assigned to one of two groups: high or low antral follicular count (AFC, ≥30 and ≤15 antral follicles, respectively). After D64, ovaries were collected after slaughter and processed for histological evaluation. There was high repeatability in the numbers of antral follicles for all groups (range 0.77-0.96). The mean (±SD) numbers of antral follicles were 35 ± 9 (Bos indicus) and 38 ± 6 (Bos indicus-taurus) for the high AFC group and 10 ± 3 (Bos indicus) and 12 ± 2 (Bos indicus-taurus) follicles for the low AFC. The mean number of preantral follicles in the ovaries of Bos indicus-taurus cows with high AFC (116 226 ± 83 156 follicles) was greater (p < 0.05) than that of Bos indicus cows (63 032 ± 58 705 follicles) with high AFC. However, there was no significant correlation between numbers of antral and preantral follicles.

  12. Genetic variation in bison (bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B.b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos Taurus Taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos Taurus indicus). Genetic distances,...

  13. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B. b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Genetic distances...

  14. When and how did Bos indicus introgress into Mongolian cattle?

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Ran; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yunsheng; Huang, Jieping; Chang, Zhenhua; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2014-03-10

    The Mongolian cattle are one of the most widespread breeds with strictly Bos taurus morphological features in northern China. In our current study, we presented a diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region and Y chromosome SNP markers in 25 male and 8 female samples of Mongolian cattle from the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in Western China, and detected 21 B. taurus and four Bos indicus (zebu) mtDNA haplotypes. Among four B. indicus mtDNA haplotypes, two haplotypes belonged to I1 haplogroup and the remaining two haplotypes belonged to I2 haplogroup. In contrast, all 25 male Mongolian cattle samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotype and no B. indicus haplotypes were found. Historical and archeological records indicate that B. taurus was introduced to Xinjiang during the second millennium BC and B. indicus appeared in this region by the second century AD. The two types of cattle coexisted for many centuries in Xinjiang, as depicted in clay and wooden figurines unearthed in the Astana cemetery in Turfan (3rd-8th century AD). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the earliest B. indicus introgression in the Mongolian cattle may have occurred during the 2nd-7th centuries AD through the Silk Road around the Xinjiang region. This conclusion differs from the previous hypothesis that zebu introgression to Mongolian cattle happened during the Mongol Empire era in the 13th century.

  15. Diversity and evolution of 11 innate immune genes in Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus cattle

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Christopher M.; Seabury, Paul M.; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1) genes play key roles in the innate immune systems of mammals. While the TLRs recognize a variety of invading pathogens and induce innate immune responses, PGLYRP1 is directly microbicidal. We used custom allele-specific assays to genotype and validate 220 diallelic variants, including 54 nonsynonymous SNPs in 11 bovine innate immune genes (TLR1-TLR10, PGLYRP1) for 37 cattle breeds. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and we were unable to differentiate between the specialized B. t. taurus beef and dairy breeds, despite an average polymorphism density of one locus per 219 bp. Ninety-nine tagSNPs and one tag insertion-deletion polymorphism were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at all 11 innate immune loci in both subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 58 tagSNPs captured 100% of the variation at 172 loci in B. t. taurus. PolyPhen and SIFT analyses of nonsynonymous SNPs encoding amino acid replacements indicated that the majority of these substitutions were benign, but up to 31% were expected to potentially impact protein function. Several diversity-based tests provided support for strong purifying selection acting on TLR10 in B. t. taurus cattle. These results will broadly impact efforts related to bovine translational genomics. PMID:20018671

  16. Impact of Parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus Origins on Copy Number Variation in Traditional Chinese Cattle Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangzhi; Jia, Shangang; Plath, Martin; Huang, Yongzhen; Li, Congjun; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also in domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution of CNV regions (CNVRs) has not yet been examined in this context. Here, we of CNVRs, mtDNA D-loop sequence variation, and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the impact of maternal and paternal B. taurus and B. indicus origins on the distribution of CNVRs in 24 Chinese domesticated bulls. We discovered 470 genome-wide CNVRs, only 72 of which were shared by all three Y-lineages (B. taurus: Y1, Y2; B. indicus: Y3), whereas 265 were shared by inferred taurine or indicine paternal lineages, and 228 when considering their maternal taurine or indicine origins. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered eight taurine/indicine hybrids, and principal component analysis on CNVs corroborated genomic exchange during hybridization. The distribution patterns of CNVRs tended to be lineage-specific, and correlation analysis revealed significant positive or negative co-occurrences of CNVRs across lineages. Our study suggests that CNVs in Chinese cattle partly result from selective breeding during domestication, but also from hybridization and introgression. PMID:26260653

  17. Isolation and cDNA characteristics of MHC-DRA genes from gayal (Bos frontalis) and gaytle (Bos frontalis × Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Wang, Liping; Zheng, Huanli; Du, Min; Gu, Zhaobing; Yang, Yulin; Yang, Yuai

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays important roles in pathogen recognition and disease resistance. In the present study, the coding sequence and the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of MHC class II DR alpha chain (the DRA gene) from rare gayal and gaytle were cloned and analyzed to dissect structural and functional variations. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the DRA genes in gayal (Bofr-DRA) and gaytle (Bofr × BoLA-DRA) were almost identical to those for cattle and yak (99%). Compared to yak, two amino acids substitutions in the signal peptide (SP) domain for gayal were found within all Bos animals. Except for only one replacement in the amino acid within the α2 domain of the DRA protein in gayal, the additional residues were highly conserved across the species investigated. The 20 peptide-binding sites (PBS) of Bofr-DRA and Bofr × BoLA-DRA were essentially reserved in the α1 domain among all species investigated. The lesser degree of substitution in Bofr-DRA is concordant with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammals. The very high degree of conservativity of the DRA gene among ruminants, including gayal, suggests its recent evolutionary separation. PMID:26019649

  18. Metabolic and endocrine differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus females that impact the interaction of nutrition with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Roberto; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Melo, Leonardo F; Baruselli, Pietro S; Bastos, Michele R

    2016-07-01

    During the last decade, researchers have studied the differences in the reproductive physiology between Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. This manuscript focuses on the main aspects of ovarian function and circulating hormones of B. taurus and B. indicus cows and heifers. In general, there is no difference in the number of follicle waves during the estrous cycle, however B. indicus have greater antral follicle count, circulating insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) than B. taurus. Moreover, despite of B. taurus having larger ovulatory follicle diameter and maximum CL volume, they have lesser peak circulating estradiol concentrations and lesser circulating progesterone concentrations than B. indicus. We may speculate that there are two main factors related to lesser circulating concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in B. taurus when compared with B. indicus: increased liver metabolism of steroid hormones and lesser production by follicles and CL. Differences between the two genetic groups are also observed with respect to in vitro embryo production because in addition to B. indicus having greater numbers of retrieved oocytes, due to greater antral follicle count, they also have greater percentages of viable oocytes, number of blastocysts, and blastocyst rates when compared with B. taurus. Effects of dietary intake on embryo quality may differ between B. taurus and B. indicus due to different concentrations of circulating insulin and IGF1. For in vivo and in vitro embryo production, an increase in circulating insulin concentrations is negatively associated with oocyte/embryo quality and conception rates. However, this seems to be more pronounced in B. taurus breeds. Differences in ovarian function related or not to nutrition between these two genetic groups are very consistent and may be related to the influence of metabolic hormones such as insulin and IGF1.

  19. Low Levels of Exhaled Surfactant Protein A Associated With BOS After Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Petrea A.; Mirgorodskaya, Ekaterina; Hammar, Oscar S.; Viklund, Emilia A.; Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte R.; Larsson, Per J-W.; Riise, Gerdt C.; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no clinically available marker for early detection or monitoring of chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), the main long-term complication after lung transplantation. Sampling and analysis of particles in exhaled air is a valid, noninvasive method for monitoring surfactant protein A (SP-A) and albumin in the distal airways. Methods We asked whether differences in composition of exhaled particles can be detected when comparing stable lung transplant recipients (LTRs) (n = 26) with LTRs who develop BOS (n = 7). A comparison between LTRs and a matching group of healthy controls (n = 33) was also conducted. Using a system developed in-house, particles were collected from exhaled air by the principal of inertial impaction before chemical analysis by immunoassays. Results Surfactant protein A in exhaled particles and the SP-A/albumin ratio were lower (P = 0.002 and P = 0.0001 respectively) in the BOS group compared to the BOS-free group. LTRs exhaled higher amount of particles (P < 0.0001) and had lower albumin content (P < 0.0001) than healthy controls. Conclusions We conclude that low levels of SP-A in exhaled particles are associated with increased risk of BOS in LTRs. The possibility that this noninvasive method can be used to predict BOS onset deserves further study with prospective and longitudinal approaches. PMID:27795995

  20. Cryptosporidium ryanae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M

    2008-10-01

    A new species, Cryptosporidium ryanae, is described from cattle. Oocysts of C. ryanae, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and recorded as such in GenBank (AY587166, EU203216, DQ182597, AY741309, and DQ871345), are similar to those of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium bovis but smaller. This genotype has been reported to be prevalent in cattle worldwide. Oocysts obtained from a calf for the present study are the smallest Cryptosporidium oocysts reported in mammals, measuring 2.94-4.41micromx2.94-3.68microm (mean=3.16micromx3.73microm) with a length/width shape index of 1.18 (n=40). The pre-patent period for two Cryptosporidium-naïve calves fed C. ryanae oocysts was 11 days and the patent period was 15-17 days. Oocysts were not infectious for BALB/c mice or lambs. Fragments of the SSU-rDNA, HSP-70, and actin genes amplified by PCR were purified and PCR products were sequenced. Multi-locus analysis of the three unlinked loci demonstrated the new species to be distinct from all other species and also demonstrated a lack of recombination, providing further evidence of species status. Based on morphological, molecular and biological data, this geographically widespread parasite found only in Bos taurus calves is recognized as a new species and is named C. ryanae.

  1. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ≤ 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605. PMID:20637126

  2. A global survey of banteng (Bos javanicus) housing and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Lewis J; Rose, Paul E

    2016-11-01

    Banteng (Bos javanicus) are an example of a species of conservation concern without current "best practice" guidance, as they have been the focus of little applied husbandry research. Despite their elevated conservation status, and established, increasing global captive population, zoos do not yet have information on optimal husbandry. To help address this problem, a husbandry survey was distributed to all global holders of banteng. Questions focused on herd demographic structure, exhibit features (including mixed-species exhibition), dietary provision, and behavioral management. Completed surveys from 16 zoos enabled analysis of contemporary practice between institutions. Results indicate differences in enclosure size between zoos, and that herd size is unlikely to predict enclosure size. Herd sizes are smaller than wild examples, and enclosure space (per animal) is significantly smaller than a potential wild range. Banteng are frequently maintained successfully in mixed species exhibits alongside a wide range of other taxa. Nutrient analysis focused on fiber and protein, and although provision of these nutrients appears comparable between zoos, more work is needed on browse and forage intake to determine overall diet suitability. Behavior management shows variation between zoos, with numerous collections providing browse but only a minority undertaking training, and not all providing enrichment. The overall diversity in findings between zoos suggest future research areas that should focus on key aspects of behavioral ecology, such as wild foraging behavior, food plant selection and day/night activity patterns, which may help underpin husbandry guidelines and excellent animal welfare. Zoo Biol. 35:546-555, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Preservation of mithun (Bos frontalis) semen at refrigeration temperature.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, M; Dhali, A; Mech, A; Khate, K; Rajkhowa, C; Mishra, D P

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility of preserving mithun (Bos frontalis) spermatozoa at refrigeration temperature using tris-egg yolk diluent. Semen samples were collected from four adult mithun bulls through rectal massage method. Good quality semen samples (n=30) were preserved at 4 degrees C using tris-egg yolk diluent for 72 h. Progressive motility, live spermatozoa count and morphological abnormalities were evaluated every 12 h until 72 h of preservation. The colour, consistency and mass activity of fresh semen samples were found to be creamy white, medium and 3+ to 4+ (5+ scale), respectively. The average (mean+/-S.E.) volume (ml), pH and spermatozoa concentration (10(6) ml(-1)) of fresh semen samples were found to be 0.6+/-0.01, 6.8+/-0.03 and 425+/-48, respectively. Progressive motility and live spermatozoa count were found to be less than 30% (P<0.01) after 48 h of storage. Head (P<0.05), midpiece (P<0.05), tail (P<0.01) and total (P<0.01) abnormalities were found to be increased significantly over the time of storage. It was observed that progressive motility and live spermatozoa count remained above 30% and 40%, respectively, until 36 h of storage. Simultaneously the percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa was found to be significantly low until 36 h of storage. The results indicate that it is possible to preserve mithun spermatozoa at refrigeration temperature in tris-egg yolk diluent, which can be further used for artificial insemination within 36 h of storage.

  4. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; Conscience, C.; Janssen, E.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.

    2014-12-01

    The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short term variation of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time, suggests that BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor to monitor electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  5. A high dynamic radiation measurement instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; Conscience, C.; Janssen, E.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.

    2015-05-01

    The Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that was active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of the BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short-term variation of total solar irradiance (TSI) with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time suggests that the BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor for monitoring electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  6. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Matthew C.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Wiggans, George R.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Weber, Kristina L.; Penedo, Cecilia T.; Berry, Donagh P.; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Machado, Marco A.; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C.; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Keele, John W.; Piper, Emily K.; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2013-01-01

    To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ≤1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset. PMID:24065982

  7. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) and other Flow Visualization Developments and Applications at GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation to be given at an internal NASA Advanced Schlieren Working Group Meeting. The presentation will cover the recent developments and applications of flow visualization methods at GRC. The topics being discussed will include the use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in the study of screech and its associated shock spacing as well as in the investigation of broadband shock noise reduction in the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests. In addition, other flow visualiztion methods will be discussed in an on-going study comparing schlieren, shadowgraph, BOS, and focusing schlieren.

  8. Assessment of sources of error in Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, Lalit; Singh, Bhavini; Giarra, Matthew; Bane, Sally; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-11-01

    Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is used to measure density gradients in a flow by tracking the apparent distortion of a target dot pattern. The quality of a BOS measurement depends on several factors such as the dot pattern, illumination, density gradients, optical system, cross-correlation algorithms and density reconstruction. To understand their contributions to the final error in the measurement and to develop an optimal set of design rules, we generate high fidelity synthetic images using ray tracing simulations. Past studies use ad-hoc models (or none) for simulating these effects and do not represent the issues introduced in a typical BOS setup, thereby limiting their utility. We have developed and implemented an image generation methodology based on ray tracing, where light rays emitted from a dot pattern are traced through the experimental setup including the density gradients, to generate high fidelity images representative of a real experiment. We apply this methodology to perform a comprehensive analysis of the various sources of error in the BOS technique and to better understand the issues involved in designing a successful experiment. The results of this study can guide future experiments and provide directions to improve the image analysis tools.

  9. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  10. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of relatively low number of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, conservation of genetic resources and maintenance of the sustainability of the breed...

  11. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from cattle (Bos taurus) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based ...

  12. A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus, was sequenced using a mixture of hierarchical and whole-genome shotgun sequencing methods. Results: We have assembled the 35 million sequence reads and applied a variety of assembly improvement techniques, creating an assembly of 2.86 billion b...

  13. Cow hair allergen (Bos d 2) content in house dust: correlation with sensitization in farmers with cow hair asthma.

    PubMed

    Hinze, S; Bergmann, K C; Løwenstein, H; Hansen, G N

    1997-03-01

    Farmers (N = 45) suffering from occupational cow hair asthma were visited at home to evaluate the concentration of cow hair major allergen Bos d 2 in the house dust and to correlate these results with measures of avoidance, degree of sensitization, clinical symptoms, and lung function. Bos d 2 was determined by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. In dust of tiles and linoleum Bos d 2 was difficult to detect, whereas dust samples of carpets often contained high concentrations of the allergen (50-520 micrograms/g fine dust). Bos d 2 levels were significantly higher when barn and living quarters were in the same building. Concentrations of cow hair-specific IgE were correlated with concentrations of Bos d 2 in house dust samples. A concentration of 20-29 micrograms Bos d 2 per gram of house dust could be established as threshold value for relevant IgE sensitization. Avoiding the barn is not a sufficient avoidance measure for cow hair asthmatics if the partner continues cattle farming. Cessation of cattle farming and avoiding the former barn results in a marked reduction in Bos d 2 concentration in living quarters, a decreased degree of sensitization, and a reduced symptom score. Farmers with cow hair asthma should avoid cattle and thoroughly clean all carpets in the living quarters to avoid continuous cow allergen exposure.

  14. DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad con grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando con seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641

  15. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D; Vu, Ninh; Leesburg, Vicki; Blackburn, Harvey D; Derr, James N

    2013-01-01

    The genetic relationship of American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) was quantified and compared with that among breeds and subspecies of cattle. Plains bison from 9 herds (N = 136), wood bison from 3 herds (N = 65), taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus) from 14 breeds (N = 244), and indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus) from 2 breeds (N = 53) were genotyped for 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Bayesian cluster analyses indicate 3 groups, 2 of which are plains bison and 1 of which is wood bison with some admixture, and genetic distances do not show plains bison and wood bison as distinct groups. Differentiation of wood bison and plains bison is also significantly less than that of cattle breeds and subspecies. These and other genetic data and historical interbreeding of bison do not support recognition of extant plains bison and wood bison as phylogenetically distinct subspecies.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of Taurine, Indicine, and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) bull spermatozoa for identification of proteins related to sperm malfunctions and subfertility in crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Muhammad Aslam, Munchakkal Kather; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Tajmul, Md; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Yadav, Savita

    2015-09-01

    Subfertility is one of the most common problems observed among Taurine × Indicine crossbred bulls in tropical countries; however, the etiology remain unknown in most of the cases. In present study, we compared the proteomic profile of spermatozoa from crossbred bulls (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) against their purebred parent lines (Holstein Friesian [Taurine] and Tharparkar [Indicine]) to find out alteration in expressions of proteins, if any. The proteomic profiles of freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from these breeds were compared by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were identified through mass spectrometry. It was observed that compared to Holstein Friesian, nine proteins were underexpressed and eight proteins were overexpressed (P < 0.05) in the spermatozoa of crossbred bulls. Similarly, four proteins were overexpressed and four proteins were underexpressed (P < 0.05) in the spermatozoa of crossbred bulls compared to Tharparkar bulls. In concurrent three breed comparison, 14 proteins were found to be differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between these breeds. From the findings of the study, it is apparent that the expression levels of several functionally significant proteins are either upregulated or downregulated in spermatozoa of crossbred bulls, which might be related to high incidence of subfertility in these bulls.

  17. Monocyte-derived macrophages from Zebu (Bos taurus indicus) are more efficient to control Brucella abortus intracellular survival than macrophages from European cattle (Bos taurus taurus).

    PubMed

    Macedo, A A; Costa, E A; Silva, A P C; Paixão, T A; Santos, R L

    2013-02-15

    Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in the world. Considering its strict zoonotic nature, understanding of the pathogenesis and immunity of Brucella spp. in natural animal hosts is essential to prevent human infections. Natural resistance against brucellosis has been demonstrated in cattle, and it is associated with the ability of macrophages to prevent intracellular replication of Brucella abortus. Identification of breeds that are resistant to B. abortus may contribute for controlling and eradicating brucellosis in cattle. This study aimed to compare macrophages from Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) or Holstein (Bos taurus taurus) regarding their resistance to B. abortus infection. Macrophages from Nelore were significantly more efficient in controlling intracellular growth of B. abortus when compared to Holstein macrophages even under intralysosomal iron restricting conditions. Furthermore, Nelore macrophages had higher transcription levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α at 12h post-infection (hpi) and higher levels of IL-12 at 24 hpi when compared to Holstein macrophages. Conversely, Holstein macrophages had higher levels of IL-10 transcripts at 24 hpi. Macrohages from Nelore also generated more nitric oxide (NO) in response to B. abortus infection when compared to Holstein macrophages. In conclusion, cultured Nelore macrophages are more effective in controlling intracellular replication of B. abortus, suggesting that Nelore cattle is likely to have a higher degree of natural resistance to brucellosis than Holstein.

  18. Evaluation of the 14-d CIDR-PG and 9-d CIDR-PG protocols for synchronization of estrus in Bos indicus-influenced and Bos taurus beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J M; Locke, J W C; Bishop, B E; Abel, J M; Ellersieck, M R; Yelich, J V; Poock, S E; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-04-01

    Two long-term, CIDR-based estrus synchronization protocols were evaluated among Bos indicus-influenced and Bos taurus beef heifers. Treatments were evaluated on the basis of estrous response and pregnancy rate resulting from fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI), and these outcomes were analyzed retrospectively relative to reproductive tract score (RTS; Scale 1-5) at treatment initiation. Estrus was synchronized for 1139 heifers in three locations, and heifers were assigned to one of two treatments within each location based on RTS. Heifers assigned to the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol received a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert (1.38 g progesterone) on Day 0, CIDR removal on Day 14, administration of prostaglandin F2α (PG; 25 mg im) on Day 30, and administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 100 μg im) concurrent with FTAI on Day 33, 66 h after PG. Heifers assigned to the 9-d CIDR-PG protocol received administration of PG concurrent with CIDR insertion on Day 5, administration of PG concurrent with CIDR removal on Day 14, administration of PG on Day 30, and administration of GnRH concurrent with FTAI on Day 33, 66 h after PG. Estrus detection aids were applied at CIDR removal on Day 14 and at PG on Day 30 to evaluate estrous response rate. Mean RTS differed (P < 0.0001) based on biological type due to higher rates of estrous cyclicity (RTS 4 and 5) among Bos taurus heifers (72%; 416/574) than among Bos indicus-influenced heifers (27%; 150/565). The proportion of heifers expressing estrus following CIDR removal was greater (P = 0.01) among heifers assigned to the 14-d CIDR-PG treatment (88%; 492/559) compared to the 9-d CIDR-PG treatment (83%; 480/580). Estrous response following CIDR removal was also higher (P < 0.0001) among Bos taurus (95%; 547/574) compared to Bos indicus-influenced (75%; 425/565) heifers. Rate of estrous response prior to FTAI did not differ significantly based on treatment but was higher (P < 0.0001) among

  19. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P < 0.05) gestation length but did not differ in their average birth weight from A backcrosses. Among B backcrosses, B x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P < 0.05) birth weight (F(1) x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning

  20. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Temperament and acclimation to human handling influence growth, health, and reproductive responses in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F

    2014-12-01

    Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, P<0.01; B. taurus, P<0.01; B. indicus, P=0.04) or age (cows, P<0.01; heifers or steers, P<0.01). In regards to reproduction, EXC females had reduced annual pregnancy rates vs. ADQ cohorts across breed types (B. taurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma

  1. The early Middle Pleistocene archeopaleontological site of Wadi Sarrat (Tunisia) and the earliest record of Bos primigenius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Karoui-Yaakoub, Narjess; Oms, Oriol; Amri, Lamjed; López-García, Juan Manuel; Zerai, Kamel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Mtimet, Moncef-Saïd; Espigares, María-Patrocinio; Ben Haj Ali, Nebiha; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Agustí, Jordi; Khayati-Ammar, Hayet; Maalaoui, Kamel; El Khir, Maahmoudi Om; Sala, Robert; Othmani, Abdelhak; Hawas, Ramla; Gómez-Merino, Gala; Solè, Àlex; Carbonell, Eudald; Palmqvist, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Here we describe the new, rich lacustrine paleontological and archeological site of Wadi Sarrat (Le Kef, northeastern Tunisia), dated to the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, ˜0.7 Ma, by a combination of paleomagnetism and biochronology. This locality preserves the earliest record of auroch, Bos primigenius, the ancestor of the worldwide extant domestic cattle species Bos taurus, which is represented by a nearly complete, giant-sized cranium (specimen OS1). Both the cranial anatomy and the size of this specimen reflect the phylogenetic legacy inherited from its ancestor, the late Early Pleistocene African Bos buiaensis, recorded in the eastern African paleoanthropological site of Buia, Eritrea (1.0 Ma). Given that the latter species is an evolved form of the classical Early Pleistocene African buffalo Pelorovis oldowayensis, the finding of B. primigenius at Wadi Sarrat shows that the genus Bos evolved in Africa and dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, which coincides with the spread of the Acheulian technocomplex in northern Africa and Europe. Therefore, the lineage of Pelorovis-Bos has been part of the human ecological landscape since the appearance of the genus Homo in the African Early Pleistocene.

  2. Trace element distribution in selected edible tissues of zebu (Bos indicus) cattle slaughtered at Jimma, SW Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Veronique; Lopéz Alonso, Marta; Duchateau, Luc; Du Laing, Gijs; Tolosa, Tadele; Dierenfeld, Ellen; Clauss, Marcus; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2014-01-01

    The amount of trace elements present in edible bovine tissues is of importance for both animal health and human nutrition. This study presents data on trace element concentrations in semitendinosus and cardiac muscles, livers and kidneys of 60 zebu (Bos indicus) bulls, sampled at Jimma, Ethiopia. From 28 of these bulls, blood samples were also obtained. Deficient levels of copper were found in plasma, livers, kidneys and semitendinosus muscles. Suboptimal selenium concentrations were found in plasma and semitendinosus muscles. Semitendinosus muscles contained high iron concentrations. Trace elements were mainly stored in the liver, except for iron and selenium. Cardiac muscles generally contained higher concentrations of trace elements than semitendinous muscles except for zinc. A strong association was found between liver and kidney concentrations of copper, iron, cobalt and molybdenum. Liver storage was well correlated with storage in semitendinosus muscle for selenium and with cardiac muscle for cobalt and selenium. Plasma concentrations of copper, selenium, cobalt were well related with their respective liver concentrations and for cobalt and selenium, also with cardiac muscle concentrations. The data suggest multiple trace element deficiencies in zebu cattle in South-West Ethiopia, with lowered tissue concentrations as a consequence. Based on the comparison of our data with other literature, trace element concentrations in selected edible tissues of Bos indicus seem quite similar to those in Bos taurus. However, tissue threshold values for deficiency in Bos taurus cattle need to be refined and their applicability for Bos indicus cattle needs to be evaluated.

  3. Cryotolerance and global gene-expression patterns of Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus in vitro- and in vivo-produced blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Caixeta, Ester S; Paschoal, Daniela M; Martins, Alicio; Machado, Rui; Buratini, José; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2014-10-01

    In a 2×2 factorial experimental design, embryo development, cryotolerance and global gene expression of Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) and Simmental (Bos taurus taurus) blastocysts produced in vitro (IVP) and in vivo (multiple ovulation derived embryo, MODE) were assessed. Blastocyst production was higher in Nellore than in Simmental (47.7±2.0% vs 27.0±2.0%) cows. The total numbers of ova or embryos recovered (5.5±0.9 vs 3.7±0.8) and transferable embryos (3.8±1.0 vs 2.3±0.8) per cow were not different between breeds. Simmental and MODE (34.6% and 38.5%, n=75 and 70) blastocysts had higher survival rates after cryopreservation compared with Nellore and IVP (20.2% and 18.1%, n=89 and 94) embryos, respectively. Differences between transcriptomes were addressed by principal-component analysis, which indicated that gene expression was affected by subspecies (158 genes), origin (532 genes) and interaction between both subspecies and origin (53 genes). Several functional processes and pathways relevant to lipid metabolism and embryo viability involving differentially expressed genes were identified. The lipid metabolism-related genes were upregulated in Simmental (AUH and ELOVL6) and IVP (ACSL3 and ACSL6) blastocysts. The expression profiles of genes related to mitochondrial metabolism (ATP5B), oxidative stress (GPX4), apoptosis (DAD1, DAP, PRDX2), heat shock (HSPA5), pregnancy (IFNT2, PAG2) and cell differentiation (KRT18) varied between experimental groups.

  4. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus) and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (P<0.05). Nellore had higher phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain-2, alpha actin-1, triosephosphate isomerase and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. However, Angus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (P<0.05). Therefore, proteins involved in contraction and muscle organization, myofilaments expressed in fast or slow-twitch fibers and heat shock proteins localized in mitochondria or sarcoplasmic reticulum and involved in cell flux of calcium and apoptosis might be associated with differences in beef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force

  5. Cryosurvival and pregnancy rates after exposure of IVF-derived Bos indicus embryos to forskolin before vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sanches, B V; Marinho, L S R; Filho, B D O; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Meirinhos, M L G; Silva-Santos, K C; Ferreira, C R; Seneda, M M

    2013-09-01

    In vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos are more sensitive to cryopreservation than their in vivo counterparts due to their higher lipid concentrations, whereas Bos indicus IVP embryos are even more sensitive than Bos taurus IVP embryos. To examine the effects of a lipolytic agent, before vitrification of Bos indicus IVP embryos, on embryo survival, viability, and pregnancy rates, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, Bos indicus (Nelore) embryos were produced from abattoir-derived ovaries and allocated into two groups. In the treatment group, 10 μM of forskolin was added to the in vitro culture medium on Day 5 and incubated for 48 hours. On Day 7 of culture, IVP-expanded blastocysts from both the control (n = 101) and treatment (n = 112) groups were vitrified with ethylene glycol and DMSO via the Cryotop procedure. Although there was no significant difference between the rates of blastocoel reexpansion and hatching of the embryos exposed to forskolin (87.5% and 70.5%, respectively) compared with the control embryos (79.2% and 63.3%, respectively), the numerically superior rates of the embryos exposed to forskolin led to another experiment. In experiment 2, blastocysts produced from the ovum pick up were exposed or not exposed to the lipolytic agent and vitrified as in experiment 1. Embryos treated with forskolin had higher pregnancy rates than the control group (48.8% vs. 18.5%). In view of these results, 1908 Bos indicus embryos were produced from ovum pick up, exposed to the lipolytic agent, and blastocysts were transferred to recipients, and the pregnancy rates of the embryos of various breeds were compared. The mean pregnancy rate obtained was 43.2%. All data were analyzed by chi-square or by binary logistic regression (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, treatment with forskolin before vitrification improved cryotolerance of Bos indicus IVP embryos, resulting in good post-transfer pregnancy rates.

  6. Immunological adjuvant effect of Boswellia serrata (BOS 2000) on specific antibody and cellular response to ovalbumin in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Khajuria, A; Singh, J; Singh, S; Suri, K A; Qazi, G N

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the biopolymeric fraction BOS 2000 from Boswellia serrata was evaluated for its potential ability as adjuvants on the immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. Balb/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100 μg alone or with OVA 100 μg dissolved in saline containing alum (200 μg) or BOS 2000 (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg) on Days 1 and 15. Two weeks later, OVA specific antibodies in serum; concanavalin A (Con A), OVA stimulated splenocyte proliferation, CD4/CD8/CD80/CD86 analysis in spleen cells and its estimation of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN gamma) from cell culture supernatant were measured. OVA specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody levels in serum were significantly enhanced by BOS 2000 (80 μg) compared with OVA control group. Moreover, the adjuvant effect of BOS 2000 (80 μg) on the OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibody responses to OVA in mice were more significant than those of alum. BOS 2000 significantly enhanced the Con A and OVA induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA immunized mice especially at a dose of 80 μg (p<0.001). However, no significant differences were observed among the OVA group and OVA/alum group. At a dose of 80 μg (p<0.001), there was a significant increase in the CD4/CD8 and CD80/CD86 analysis in spleen cells and cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) profile in the spleen cell culture supernatant was observed. In conclusion, BOS 2000 seems to be a promising balanced Th1 and Th2 directing immunological adjuvants which can enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine.

  7. Technologies for fixed-time artificial insemination and their influence on reproductive performance of Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Bó, G A; Cutaia, L; Peres, L C; Pincinato, D; Maraña, D; Baruselli, P S

    2007-01-01

    The adaptation of Bos indicus cattle to tropical and subtropical environments has led to their widespread distribution around the world. Although artificial insemination (AI) is one of the best alternatives to introduce new genetics into Bos indicus herds, the peculiarity of their temperament and the tendency to show short oestrus (many of them during the night) greatly affects the effectiveness of genetic improvement programs. Therefore, the most useful alternative to increase the number of females that are inseminated is the use of protocols that allow for AI without the need for oestrus detection, usually called fixed-time AI (FTAI). Besides, the development of protocols to advance the resumption of cyclicity during the early postpartum period has a great impact on beef production and will allow for the inclusion of a significantly larger population of animals into genetic improvement programs. Fixed-time AI protocols using progestin devices, oestradiol and eCG have resulted in consistent pregnancy rates in suckled Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus cows. Furthermore, fertility in the successive cycles and the overall pregnancy rates at the end of the breeding season, have been shown to be improved by the use of progestin devices at the beginning of the breeding season. In summary, exogenous control of luteal and follicular development has facilitated the application of assisted reproductive technologies in Bos indicus-influenced cattle, by offering the possibility of planning programs without the necessity of oestrus detection and may provide the opportunity to improve reproductive performance of beef cattle in tropical climates.

  8. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation.

  9. Genome-wide association study for feedlot average daily gain in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Gomes, R C; Garcia, J F; Fukumasu, H; Silva, S L; Leme, P R; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2014-06-01

    The genome-wide association study (GWAS) results are presented for average daily gain (ADG) in Nellore cattle. Phenotype of 720 male Bos indicus animals with information of ADG in feedlots and 354,147 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from a database added by information from Illumina Bovine HD (777,962 SNPs) and Illumina BovineSNP50 (54,609) by imputation were used. After quality control and imputation, 290,620 SNPs remained in the association analysis, using R package Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model and Regression method GRAMMAR-Gamma. A genomic region with six significant SNPs, at Bonferroni-corrected significance, was found on chromosome 3. The most significant SNP (rs42518459, BTA3: 85849977, p = 9.49 × 10(-8)) explained 5.62% of the phenotypic variance and had the allele substitution effect of -0.269 kg/day. Important genes such as PDE4B, LEPR, CYP2J2 and FGGY are located near this region, which is overlapped by 12 quantitative trait locus (QTLs) described for several production traits. Other regions with markers with suggestive effects were identified in BTA6 and BTA10. This study showed regions with major effects on ADG in Bos indicus in feedlots. This information may be useful to increase the efficiency of selecting this trait and to understand the physiological processes involved in its regulation.

  10. Isolation and characteristics of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) in the Chinese yakow (Bos grunniens×Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Xi, Dongmei; Wu, Min; Fan, Yueyuan; Huo, Yinqiang; Leng, Jing; Gou, Xiao; Mao, Huaming; Deng, Weidong

    2012-05-01

    The Chinese yakow is the offspring of yak (Bos grunniens) and Yellow cattle (Bos taurus). The melanocortin 1receptor gene (MC1R) plays a crucial role in determining coat colour of mammals. To investigate the relationship of polymorphism of the MC1R with coat colour in the Chinese yakow, the coding sequence (CDS) and the flanking region of MC1R were sequenced from 84 Chinese yakow samples and compared with the sequences of the MC1R from other bovid species. A fragment of 1134 base pair (bp) sequences including the full CDS (954bp) and parts of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (162 and 18bp, respectively) of the Chineseyakow MC1R were obtained. A total of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 4 SNPs (T-129C, A-127C, C-106T, G-1A) in the 5'-untranslated region and 9 SNPs (C201T, T206C, C340A, C375T, T663C, G714C, C870T, G871A and T890C) in the CDS were identified, revealing high genetic variability. Four novel SNPs including T206C, G714C, C870T and T890C, which have not been reported previously in bovid species, were retrieved. Within 9 coding SNPs, C201T, C375T, T663C and C870T were silent mutations, while T206C, C340A, G714C, G871A and T890C were mis-sense mutations, corresponding to amino acid changes p.L69P, p.Q114K, p.K238N, p.A291N and p.I297T, respectively. Amino acid sequences alignment showed a more than 96% similarity with other ruminates. However, three classical bovine MC1R loci the E(D), E(+) and e were not retrieved in the Chinese yakow, indicating other genes or factors could be involved in affecting coat colour in this species.

  11. Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical compositions, free amino acid contents, and antioxidant activities of different cuts of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef. Beef preferences and prices in the Korean market depend on cut. Therefore, comparisons were made between high-preference (gr...

  12. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  13. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  14. [Different threshold concentrations for sensitization by cattle hair allergen Bos d 2 in atopic and non-atopic farmers].

    PubMed

    Hinze, S; Bergmann, K C; Løwenstein, H; Hansen, G N

    1996-02-01

    Several threshold values for indoor allergens leading to IgE sensitization were proposed. Currently such values exists for allergens of house dust mite, cat, dog, and cockroach and cattle. A high sensitization is known as an important risk factor in the development of asthma. This study was undertaken to examine threshold values of major cow hair allergen Bos d 2 in the house dust of atopic and nonatopic cow hair asthmatic farmers. 45 patients with cow hair asthma were visited at their homes. House dust samples were taken from corridor, living room, and bedroom. The concentration of Bos d 2 was determined by means of rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Additionally, samples of venous blood were taken to demonstrate specific IgE towards cow epithelia by CAP-RAST. Five patients were excluded from further investigations because they have given up their cattle for less than 6 months. In 21 patients occurred typical atopic stigmata like infantil history of atopic eczema, hay fever or milk crust, while the other 19 subjects did not show an atopic diathesis. High sensitization towards cow epithelia (specific IgE > 0.7 kU/l in CAP-RAST) occurred significantly more often in atopics than in nonatopics. In atopic subjects the allergen concentrations leading to IgE sensitization amounted to 1-20 micrograms Bos d 2/g dust, whereas in nonatopics were found higher Bos d 2 threshold values (25-50 micrograms/g dust). The present study suggests that in nonatopic cow hair asthmatics high indoor Bos d 2 levels lead to IgE sensitization as well as the close contact to cattle.

  15. Genetic characterization of MHC class II DQB exon 2 variants in gayal (Bos frontalis).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongke; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Hao, Tiantian; Chen, Yuhan; Yang, Yuai

    2014-09-03

    In the present study, exon 2 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQB gene from 39 gayals (Bos frontalis) was isolated, characterized and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 36 DQB exon 2 variants among 39 gayals. These variants exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions with most amino acid variations occurring at positions forming the peptide-binding sites (PBS). The DQB loci were analysed for patterns of synonymous (dS) and non-synonymous (dN) substitution. The gayals were observed to be under strong balancing selection in the DQB exon 2 PBS (dN = 0.094, P = 0.001). It appears that this variability among gayals could confer the ability to mount immune responses to a wide variety of peptides or pathogens.

  16. Genetic characterization of MHC class II DQB exon 2 variants in gayal (Bos frontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Hao, Tiantian; Chen, Yuhan; Yang, Yuai

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, exon 2 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQB gene from 39 gayals (Bos frontalis) was isolated, characterized and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 36 DQB exon 2 variants among 39 gayals. These variants exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions with most amino acid variations occurring at positions forming the peptide-binding sites (PBS). The DQB loci were analysed for patterns of synonymous (d S) and non-synonymous (d N) substitution. The gayals were observed to be under strong balancing selection in the DQB exon 2 PBS (d N = 0.094, P = 0.001). It appears that this variability among gayals could confer the ability to mount immune responses to a wide variety of peptides or pathogens. PMID:26019566

  17. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain).

    PubMed

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980's and 2000's are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  18. Mineral deficiency status of ranging zebu (Bos indicus) cattle around the Gilgel Gibe catchment, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Veronique; Yisehak, Kechero; Belay, Duguma; Van Hecke, Thomas; Du Laing, Gijs; Duchateau, Luc; Janssens, Geert P J

    2013-06-01

    Mineral deficiencies in cattle, widespread in East Africa, impair optimal health and production and consequently place a great burden on the farmers' income. Therefore, detection of shortages and imbalances of specific minerals is essential. Our objective was to evaluate the mineral status of grazing cattle around the Gilgel Gibe catchment in Ethiopia and associated factors. In study I, individual animal plasma and herd faecal Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, S, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were determined in adult zebu cattle (Bos indicus; n=90) grazing at three altitudes around the catchment, whilst recording body condition score and sex. In study II, liver samples of adult male zebu cattle (n=53) were analysed for Cu, Zn, Fe, Se and Mo concentrations and inspected for parasitic infections. Plasma and liver analyses revealed a Cu deficiency problem in the area, since 68 and 47 % of cattle, respectively, were Cu deprived according to diagnostic criteria for Bos taurus cattle. High hepatic Mo concentrations in 17 % of cases might reflect excessive dietary Mo intake. Liver Se and plasma Na concentrations were too low in 92 and 80 % of cattle. Plasma Mn concentrations were largely below the detection limit. Plasma Cu as well as Ca concentrations were lower in the lowest altitude compared to the highest altitude group (P<0.05), whereas lean to medium cattle had lower plasma Cu concentrations (P<0.05). No differences in hepatic mineral concentrations were detected between cattle with different types of parasitic infection. In conclusion, bovine mineral deficiencies were present in the Gilgel Gibe area and were associated with grazing altitude and body condition score.

  19. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla

    PubMed Central

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  20. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes.

  1. A direct approach for instantaneous 3D density field reconstruction from background-oriented schlieren (BOS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, F.; Todoroff, V.; Plyer, A.; Le Besnerais, G.; Donjat, D.; Micheli, F.; Champagnat, F.; Cornic, P.; Le Sant, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for reconstruction of instantaneous density volume from 3D background-oriented schlieren (3DBOS) measurements, with a validation on a dedicated flexible experimental BOS bench. In contrast to previous works, we use a direct formulation where density is estimated from measured deviation fields without the intermediate step of density gradient reconstruction. Regularization techniques are implemented to deal with the ill-posed problem encountered. The resulting high-dimensional optimization is conducted by conjugate gradient techniques. A parallel algorithm, implemented on graphics processing unit, helps to speed up the calculation. The resulting software is validated on synthetic BOS images of a 3D density field issued from a numerical simulation. Then, we describe a dedicated 3DBOS experimental facility which has been built to study various BOS settings and to assess the performance of the proposed numerical reconstruction process. Results on various datasets illustrate the potential of the method for flow characterization and measurement in real-world conditions.

  2. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:23794917

  3. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596

  4. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  5. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    PubMed

    G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  6. Assessment of Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Structure in Yak (Bos grunniens)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenming; Fang, Lei; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Chai, Shatuo; Liu, Shujie; Schonewille, Jan Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the microbial community composition in the rumen of yaks under different feeding regimes. Microbial communities were assessed by sequencing bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments obtained from yaks (Bos grunniens) from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Samples were obtained from 14 animals allocated to either pasture grazing (Graze), a grazing and supplementary feeding regime (GSF), or an indoor feeding regime (Feed). The predominant bacterial phyla across feeding regimes were Bacteroidetes (51.06%) and Firmicutes (32.73%). At genus level, 25 genera were shared across all samples. The relative abundance of Prevotella in the graze and GSF regime group were significantly higher than that in the feed regime group. Meanwhile, the relative abundance of Ruminococcus was lower in the graze group than the feed and GSF regime groups. The most abundant archaeal phylum was Euryarchaeota, which accounted for 99.67% of the sequences. Ten genera were detected across feeding regimes, seven genera were shared by all samples, and the most abundant was genus Methanobrevibacter (91.60%). The relative abundance of the most detected genera were similar across feeding regime groups. Our results suggest that the ruminal bacterial community structure differs across yak feeding regimes while the archaeal community structures are largely similar. PMID:28223980

  7. Comparison of meat quality between eland (Taurotragus oryx) and cattle (Bos taurus) raised under similar conditions.

    PubMed

    Bartoň, Luděk; Bureš, Daniel; Kotrba, Radim; Sales, James

    2014-01-01

    Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of meat were compared between non-domestic eland (Taurotragus oryx) bulls (n=6) and domestic Fleckvieh (Bos taurus) bulls (n=6) which were finished under controlled conditions of feeding and management. Musculus longissimus lumborum from eland were darker and less yellow in colour, with a higher pH24 and lower contents of intramuscular fat and total collagen, compared to cattle. Contents (mg/100 g muscle tissue) and proportions (g/100 g of FA determined) of SFA and MUFA were higher (P<0.01) in cattle. Although the proportion of total PUFA were higher (P<0.001) in eland, contents of PUFA were similar between species. Meat from cattle was consistently scored higher (P<0.05) for sensory texture characteristics, juiciness, flavour, and overall acceptance. We concluded that bulls of eland provided low-fat meat with a beneficial fatty acid composition from a human nutrition perspective, but with lower sensory scores, compared to bull beef.

  8. New cryptic karyotypic differences between cattle (Bos taurus) and goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    De Lorenzi, Lisa; Planas, Jordi; Rossi, Elena; Malagutti, Luca; Parma, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) and goat (Capra hircus) belong to the Bovidae family, and they share a common ancestor 19.7-21.5 Ma ago (MYA). The Bovidae family apparently experienced a rapid species radiation in the middle Miocene. The present day cattle and goat possess the same diploid chromosome number (2n = 60) and structurally similar autosomes, except that a small subcentromeric portion of cattle chromosome nine has been translocated to goat chromosome 14. In this study, we adopted a new strategy that involves the use of bioinformatics approach to detect unknown cryptic chromosome divergences between cattle and goat using and subsequent validation using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. We identified two hypothetical discrepancies between the cattle and goat genome assemblies: an inversion in the goat chromosome 13 and a transposition in the goat chromosome 6. The FISH technique allowed clear validation of the existence of a new 7.4 Mb chromosomal inversion in the goat chromosome 13. Regarding the transposition in the goat chromosome six, FISH analyses revealed that the cattle and goat genomes shared the same organization, with the assembly of the goat genome being the correct one. Moreover, we defined, for the first time, the size and orientation of the translocated fragment involved in the evolutionary translocation between cattle chromosomes 9 and goat chromosome 14. Our results suggest that bioinformatics represents an efficient method for detecting cryptic chromosome divergences among species.

  9. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zavarez, Ludmilla B.; Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ferenčaković, Maja; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M.; Curik, Ino; Cole, John B.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of relatively low numbers of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, which affects conservation of genetic resources and sustainability of this breed. Here, we investigated the distribution of autozygosity levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a sample of 1,278 Nellore cows, genotyped for over 777,000 SNPs. We found ROH segments larger than 10 Mb in over 70% of the samples, representing signatures most likely related to the recent massive use of few sires. However, the average genome coverage by ROH (>1 Mb) was lower than previously reported for other cattle breeds (4.58%). In spite of 99.98% of the SNPs being included within a ROH in at least one individual, only 19.37% of the markers were encompassed by common ROH, suggesting that the ongoing selection for weight, carcass and reproductive traits in this population is too recent to have produced selection signatures in the form of ROH. Three short-range highly prevalent ROH autosomal hotspots (occurring in over 50% of the samples) were observed, indicating candidate regions most likely under selection since before the foundation of Brazilian Nellore cattle. The putative signatures of selection on chromosomes 4, 7, and 12 may be involved in resistance to infectious diseases and fertility, and should be subject of future investigation. PMID:25688258

  10. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, Jacqueline; Modolo, Diego Grando; de Souza, Edislane Barreiros; de Melo, Thatiana Corrêa; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Magnelli, Roberta Fiusa; de Carvalho, Márcio Augusto Caldas Rocha; de Sá Júnior, Paulo Luis; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Franco; Beçak, Willy; Stocco, Rita de Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA) and comet assay (CA). Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control). Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine. PMID:26783529

  11. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20(th) century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets.

  12. Neospora caninum: evaluation of vertical transmission in slaughtered dairy cows (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Macedo, César Augusto Barbosa de; Macedo, Madlaine Frigo Silveira Barbosa de; Cardim, Sergio Tosi; Paiva, Milaine Cristiane Dantas Custódio; Taroda, Alessandra; Barros, Luiz Daniel; Cunha, Ivo Alexandre Leme da; Zulpo, Dauton Luiz; Garcia, João Luis

    2013-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a worldwide parasite recognized as one of the main parasites responsible for abortion in cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate vertical transmission of N. caninum in dairy cows (Bos taurus) that were slaughtered at an abattoir in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Blood samples (with and without EDTA) from 60 pregnant dairy cows and blood and tissue samples (brain, lung, heart and liver) from their fetuses were collected and used for PCR and serological evaluation. Blood samples from 60 non-pregnant cows were collected and used to detect antibodies. Anti-N. caninum antibodies were detected by indirect ELISA. Antibodies against N. caninum were observed in 41.6% (25∕60) of the pregnant cows and in 43.3% (26∕60) of the non-pregnant cows. Antibodies against the parasite were detected in sera from three fetuses (5.5%). PCR analysis revealed that 3.3% (2∕60) of the cows and 6.6% (4∕60) of the fetuses evaluated were positive for specific N. caninum primers. These positive fetuses were between 4-6 months of age. Therefore, considering PCR and serological tests to be indicative of vertical transmission in fetuses, 11.6% (7∕60) of the fetuses were infected by N. caninum during gestation.

  13. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Iswadi, M.I.; Ann, Z.F.; Hafiz, M.M.; Hafiz, M.D.; Fahrul, F.J.; Hajarian, H.; Wahid, H.; Zawawi, I.; Khairiah, M.S.; Mazni, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur. PMID:26623302

  14. Cloning of an endangered species (Bos gaurus) using interspecies nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Lanza, R P; Cibelli, J B; Diaz, F; Moraes, C T; Farin, P W; Farin, C E; Hammer, C J; West, M D; Damiani, P

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 100 species become extinct a day. Despite increasing interest in using cloning to rescue endangered species, successful interspecies nuclear transfer has not been previously described, and only a few reports of in vitro embryo formation exist. Here we show that interspecies nuclear transfer can be used to clone an endangered species with normal karyotypic and phenotypic development through implantation and the late stages of fetal growth. Somatic cells from a gaur bull (Bos gaurus), a large wild ox on the verge of extinction, (Species Survival Plan < 100 animals) were electrofused with enucleated oocytes from domestic cows. Twelve percent of the reconstructed oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage, and 18% of these embryos developed to the fetal stage when transferred to surrogate mothers. Three of the fetuses were electively removed at days 46 to 54 of gestation, and two continued gestation longer than 180 (ongoing) and 200 days, respectively. Microsatellite marker and cytogenetic analyses confirmed that the nuclear genome of the cloned animals was gaurus in origin. The gaur nuclei were shown to direct normal fetal development, with differentiation into complex tissue and organs, even though the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within all the tissue types evaluated was derived exclusively from the recipient bovine oocytes. These results suggest that somatic cell cloning methods could be used to restore endangered, or even extinct, species and populations.

  15. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    PubMed

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-04

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies.

  16. Human-animal interaction, stress, and embryo production in Bos indicus embryo donors under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Gustavo Guerino; Zúccari, Carmem Estefânia Serra Neto; de Abreu, Urbano Gomes Pinto; Negrão, João Alberto; da Costa e Silva, Eliane Vianna

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of human-animal interaction (HAI) and the stress response on the quality of embryo production in superovulated Nelore (Bos indicus) cattle, under tropical conditions. Thirty-two females underwent a superovulation protocol for 5 days. Cortisol concentrations were determined in blood plasma collected on days 0, 4, and 5. Artificial insemination was performed on days 4 and 5, and nonsurgical embryo flushing on day 11. Embryo production and viability were determined. Human stimulation, animal behaviors, accidents, and handling time were recorded to assess HAI. Cattle age was negatively correlated with accidents, frequency of aversive behaviors, and negative stimuli by stockperson during transit through corral compartments to receive superovulation treatments. The factor analysis revealed two distinct groups. The first group was called stressed and had higher cortisol concentration than the nonstressed group, 16.0 ± 2.1 and 12.5 ± 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Comparisons between these groups showed that the frequency of voice emissions by the stockperson and the number of accidents were higher in the stressed group, and also, the mean handling time was longer in the stressed group than for the nonstressed. As a result, viability rate of the embryos was 19% lower in the stressed group (P < 0.05). This indicates that intensive negative HAI is likely related to stress, which affects embryo production in a superovulation program.

  17. Bos indicus type of growth hormone receptor gene is retained in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, T; Yano, H; Takahashi, S; Takahashi, K; Kimura, N; Tanaka, M

    2006-12-01

    The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene is responsible for growth and carcass traits, and polymorphisms associated with the variation of meat production are thought to occur in the liver-specific promoter of the GHR gene in cattle. The aim of this study was to analyse the structure of the liver-specific promoter of GHR in Japanese Black cattle, as the relationship between GHR polymorphism and meat production is poorly understood in this breed. Typically in European cattle, the LINE-1 element, a family of retrotransposons, is inserted in the liver-specific promoter. However, a short GHR promoter without the LINE-1 sequence was found in the Japanese Black breed as in Bos indicus cattle. The frequency of the short allele was approximately 60%. In addition, 24 of 29 Holstein/Japanese Black crosses carried the short allele from their sire. The present result suggests that the short allele for GHR may be a candidate marker for improving meat production of Japanese Black cattle.

  18. Pregnancy rate following GnRH + PGF 2alpha treatment of low body condition, anestrous Bos taurus by Bos indicus crossbred cows during the summer months in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, C; Montiel, F; Canseco, R; Silva, E; Mapes, G

    2005-07-01

    Anestrous and lactating Bos taurus by Bos indicus crossbred cows with minimum body condition were studied to determine the efficacy of GnRH+PGF 2alpha combinations for induction of estrus and/or ovulation on pregnancy rate during the months of the year when temperatures are greater. On day 0 (start of treatment), cows were assigned randomly to either treatment or control groups. Treated cows (n = 74) received i.m. 200 microg of GnRH on day 0 and 150 microg of PGF 2alpha 7 days later (day 7). On day 7, treated cows were equally distributed to each of three protocols: (1) Select Synch (n = 25), artificial insemination (AI) 12 h after exhibiting estrus from day 7 (PGF 2alpha injection) until day 12; (2) Ovsynch (n = 24), 200 microg of GnRH at 48 h after PGF 2alpha (day 9) + timed-AI (TAI) 16-20 h later; (3) CO-Synch (n = 25), 200 microg of GnRH + TAI at 48 h after PGF 2alpha (day 9). Control cows (n = 25) received no treatment + AI 12 h after exhibiting estrus from days 0 to 12. Detection of estrus was performed daily during the early morning and evening hours from days 0 to 7 in all the cows, and from days 7 to 12 in the cows treated with Select Synch and in the control group, with the aid of a sterilized bull. Palpation per rectum and transrectal ultrasonography were used on days -30, -20, -10 and 0 to confirm anestrus (absence of CL and no signs of estrus at each evaluation) but with ovarian follicles > or = 10 mm on day 0. Pregnancy rate was 0% for Select Synch, 21% for Ovsynch and 28% for CO-Synch (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the Ovsynch and CO-Synch protocols resulted in greater pregnancy rates compared with the Select Synch protocol in Bos taurus/Bos indicus cows with minimum body condition that were anestrous and lactating during the summer months in a tropical environment.

  19. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, M R; Chen, W; Lenstra, J A; Goderie, C R J; MacHugh, D E; Park, S D E; Magee, D A; Matassino, D; Ciani, F; Megens, H-J; van Arendonk, J A M; Groenen, M A M; Marsan, P A; Balteanu, V; Dunner, S; Garcia, J F; Ginja, C; Kantanen, J

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is still debated, some of the extant primitive cattle populations are believed to possess the aurochs-like primitive features. In this study, we use genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess relationship, admixture patterns and demographic history of an ancient aurochs sample and European cattle populations, several of which have primitive features and are suitable for extensive management. The principal component analysis, the model-based clustering and a distance-based network analysis support previous works suggesting different histories for north-western and southern European cattle. Population admixture analysis indicates a zebu gene flow in the Balkan and Italian Podolic cattle populations. Our analysis supports the previous report of gene flow between British and Irish primitive cattle populations and local aurochs. In addition, we show evidence of aurochs gene flow in the Iberian cattle populations indicating wide geographical distribution of the aurochs. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) reveal that demographic processes like genetic isolation and breed formation have contributed to genomic variations of European cattle populations. The ROH also indicate recent inbreeding in southern European cattle populations. We conclude that in addition to factors such as ancient human migrations, isolation by distance and cross-breeding, gene flow between domestic and wild-cattle populations also has shaped genomic composition of European cattle populations. PMID:27677498

  20. Genome-wide characterization of perfect microsatellites in yak (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhijie

    2015-08-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) constitute a significant portion of genomes and play an important role in gene function and genome organization. The availability of a complete genome sequence for yak (Bos grunniens) has made it possible to carry out genome-wide analysis of microsatellites in this species. We analyzed the abundance and density of perfect SSRs in the yak genome. We found a total of 723,172 SSRs with 1-6 bp nucleotide motifs, indicating that about 0.47 % of the yak whole genome sequence (2.66 Gb) comprises perfect SSRs, the average length of which was 17.34 bp/Mb. The average frequency and density of perfect SSRs was 272.18 loci/Mb and 4719.25 bp/Mb, respectively. The proportion of the six classes of perfect SSRs was not evenly distributed in the yak genome. Mononucleotide repeats (44.04 %) with a total number of 318,435 and a average length of 14.71 bp appeared to be the most abundant SSRs class, while the percentages of dinucleotide, trinucleotide, pentanucleotide, tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats was 24.11 %, 15.80 %, 9.50 %, 6.40 % and 0.15 %, respectively. Different repeat classes of SSRs varied in their repeat number with the highest being 1206. Our results suggest that 15 motifs comprised the predominant categories with a frequency above 1 loci/Mb: A, AC, AT, AG, AGC, AAC, AAT, ACC, ATTT, GTTT, AATG, CTTT, ATGG, AACTG and ATCTG.

  1. Analysis of copy number variations in Mexican Holstein cattle using axiom genome-wide Bos 1 array

    PubMed Central

    Salomon-Torres, Ricardo; Villa-Angulo, Rafael; Villa-Angulo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recently, for copy number variation (CNV) analysis, bovine researchers have focused mainly on the use of genome-wide SNP genotyping arrays. One of the highest densities commercially available SNPchips for cattle is the Affymetrix axiom genome-wide Bos 1, which assays 648,315 informative SNPs across the whole bovine genome. Here, we describe the microarray data, quality controls and validation implemented in a study published in Genetics and Molecular Research Journal in 2015 [1]. The microarray raw data has been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus under accession #GSE54813. PMID:26981375

  2. Vaccine-induced rabies case in a cow (Bos taurus): Molecular characterisation of vaccine strain in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Vuta, Vlad; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Barboi, Gheorghe; Motiu, Razvan; Barbuceanu, Florica; Vlagioiu, Constantin; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-09-22

    Rabies is a fatal neuropathogenic zoonosis caused by the rabies virus of the Lyssavirus genus, Rhabdoviridae family. The oral vaccination of foxes - the main reservoir of rabies in Europe - using a live attenuated rabies virus vaccine was successfully conducted in many Western European countries. In July 2015, a rabies vaccine strain was isolated from the brain tissues of a clinically suspect cow (Bos taurus) in Romania. The nucleotide analysis of both N and G gene sequences showed 100% identity between the rabid animal, the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain and five rabies vaccine batches used for the national oral vaccination campaign targeting foxes.

  3. Analysis of the Plant bos1 Mutant Highlights Necrosis as an Efficient Defence Mechanism during D. dadantii/Arabidospis thaliana Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Patrit, Oriane; Simond-Côte, Elizabeth; Hermand, Victor; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii is a broad host range phytopathogenic bacterium provoking soft rot disease on many plants including Arabidopsis. We showed that, after D. dadantii infection, the expression of the Arabidopsis BOS1 gene was specifically induced by the production of the bacterial PelB/C pectinases able to degrade pectin. This prompted us to analyze the interaction between the bos1 mutant and D. dadantii. The phenotype of the infected bos1 mutant is complex. Indeed, maceration symptoms occurred more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type parent but at a later stage of infection, a necrosis developed around the inoculation site that provoked a halt in the progression of the maceration. This necrosis became systemic and spread throughout the whole plant, a phenotype reminiscent of that observed in some lesion mimic mutants. In accordance with the progression of maceration symptoms, bacterial population began to grow more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type plant but, when necrosis appeared in the bos1 mutant, a reduction in bacterial population was observed. From the plant side, this complex interaction between D. dadantii and its host includes an early plant defence response that comprises reactive oxygen species (ROS) production accompanied by the reinforcement of the plant cell wall by protein cross-linking. At later timepoints, another plant defence is raised by the death of the plant cells surrounding the inoculation site. This plant cell death appears to constitute an efficient defence mechanism induced by D. dadantii during Arabidopsis infection. PMID:21533045

  4. Molecular cloning, bioinformatics analysis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 from Tianzhu white yak, Bos grunniens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanwei; Gong, Jishang; Wang, Xueying; Wu, Xiaohu; Li, Yalan; Ma, Youji; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Xingxu

    2014-01-03

    The IGF family is essential for normal embryonic and postnatal development and plays important roles in the immune system, myogenesis, bone metabolism and other physiological functions, which makes the study of its structure and biological characteristics important. Tianzhu white yak (Bos grunniens) domesticated under alpine hypoxia environments, is well adapted to survive and grow against severe hypoxia and cold temperatures for extended periods. In this study, a full coding sequence of the IGF2 gene of Tianzhu white yak was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for the first time. The cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame of 450 nucleotides, encoding a protein with 179 amino acids. Its expression in different tissues was also studied by Real time PCR. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that yak IGF2 was similar to Bos taurus, and 3D structure showed high similarity with the human IGF2. The putative full CDS of yak IGF2 was amplified by PCR in five tissues, and cDNA sequence analysis showed high homology to bovine IGF2. Moreover the super secondary structure prediction showed a similar 3D structure with human IGF2. Its conservation in sequence and structure has facilitated research on IGF2 and its physiological function in yak.

  5. Scrotal Circumference and Its Relationship with Testicular Growth, Age, and Body Weight in Tho Tho (Bos indicus) Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, P.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the scrotal circumference and testicular parameters with body weight and age in Tho Tho bulls (Bos indicus), which were maintained at around the villages of National Research Centre on Mithun (ICAR), Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. A total of 32 Tho Tho bulls were selected and divided into four groups according to their age and each group consisted of 8 bulls, namely, Group I: 18–24 months (n = 8), Group II: 25–36 months (n = 8), Group III: 37–48 months (n = 8), and Group IV: 49 months and above (n = 8). The scrotal circumference and testicular parameters were measured with caliper and tape and age of animals was calculated with dental formula. The body weight of bulls was estimated with Shaeffer's formula. Result revealed that the scrotal circumference was highly correlated with testicular parameters and body weight compared to age. Compared to exotic cattle (Bos taurus), Tho Tho bull's testicular parameters and scrotal circumference were lower. The results of the present study in Tho Tho bulls revealed that scrotal circumference is a useful indicator and is an important selection criterion to determine the testicular development and breeding soundness in young bulls as it is highly correlated with tesicular parameters. PMID:27351012

  6. Heat shock and structural proteins associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus breed.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Gasparin, Gustavo; Poleti, Mirele Daiana; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar Carvalho; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Mourão, Gerson Barreto; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2014-03-01

    Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus (Zebu) breed, is well adapted to tropical conditions and has allowed Brazil to become one of the largest producers of red meat. Nevertheless, B. indicus breeds are reported to have less tender meat than Bos taurus. This study was designed to identify genes associated with meat tenderness and thus provides important information for breeding programs. A group of 138 animals was evaluated for longissimus thoracis muscle shear force (SF). Animals with the highest and lowest SF values (six animals each) were then selected for protein abundance studies. Samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by peptide sequencing through mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins associated with SF values. Seventeen differentially expressed spots were observed (p<0.05) between the two groups. The 13 proteins identified included structural proteins (alpha actin-1, MLC1, MLC3, MLC2F and tropomyosin), related to cell organization (HSPB1 and HSP70), metabolism (beta-LG, ACBD6 and Complex III subunit I) and some uncharacterized proteins. Results confirm the existence of differentially expressed proteins associated with SF, which can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in meat tenderness.

  7. Scrotal Circumference and Its Relationship with Testicular Growth, Age, and Body Weight in Tho Tho (Bos indicus) Bulls.

    PubMed

    Perumal, P

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the scrotal circumference and testicular parameters with body weight and age in Tho Tho bulls (Bos indicus), which were maintained at around the villages of National Research Centre on Mithun (ICAR), Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. A total of 32 Tho Tho bulls were selected and divided into four groups according to their age and each group consisted of 8 bulls, namely, Group I: 18-24 months (n = 8), Group II: 25-36 months (n = 8), Group III: 37-48 months (n = 8), and Group IV: 49 months and above (n = 8). The scrotal circumference and testicular parameters were measured with caliper and tape and age of animals was calculated with dental formula. The body weight of bulls was estimated with Shaeffer's formula. Result revealed that the scrotal circumference was highly correlated with testicular parameters and body weight compared to age. Compared to exotic cattle (Bos taurus), Tho Tho bull's testicular parameters and scrotal circumference were lower. The results of the present study in Tho Tho bulls revealed that scrotal circumference is a useful indicator and is an important selection criterion to determine the testicular development and breeding soundness in young bulls as it is highly correlated with tesicular parameters.

  8. A novel application of ecological analyses to assess transposable element distributions in the genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Brent; Elliott, Tyler A; Linquist, Stefan; Kremer, Stefan C; Gregory, T Ryan; Cottenie, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are among the most abundant components of many eukaryotic genomes. Efforts to explain TE abundance, as well as TE diversity among genomes, have led some researchers to draw an analogy between genomic and ecological processes. Adopting this perspective, we conducted an analysis of the cow (Bos taurus) genome using techniques developed by community ecologists to determine whether environmental factors influence community composition. Specifically, each chromosome within the Bos taurus genome was treated as a "linear transect", and a multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to identify large-scale spatial patterns in TE communities associated with 10 TE families. The position of each TE community on the chromosome accounted for ∼50% of the variation along the chromosome "transect". Multivariate analysis further revealed an effect of gene density on TE communities that is influenced by several other factors in the (genomic) environment, including chromosome length and TE density. The results of this analysis demonstrate that ecological methods can be applied successfully to help answer genomic questions.

  9. Satellite DNA methylation status and expression of selected genes in Bos indicus blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Urrego, R; Bernal-Ulloa, S M; Chavarría, N A; Herrera-Puerta, E; Lucas-Hahn, A; Herrmann, D; Winkler, S; Pache, D; Niemann, H; Rodriguez-Osorio, N

    2017-01-31

    Bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro differ with respect to molecular profiles, including epigenetic marks and gene expression profiles. This study investigated the CpG methylation status in bovine testis satellite I (BTS) and Bos taurus alpha satellite I (BTαS) DNA sequences, and concomitantly the relative abundance of transcripts, critically involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1 and DNMT3A), growth and development (IGF2R) and pluripotency (POU5F1) in Bos indicus embryos produced in vitro or in vivo. Results revealed that methylation of BTS were higher (P < 0.05) in embryos produced in vitro compared with their in vivo produced counterparts, while the methylation status of BTαS was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in transcript abundance for DNMT3A, IGF2R and POU5F1 between blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro. However, a significantly lower amount of DNMT1 transcripts was found in the in vitro cultured embryos (P < 0.05) compared with their in vivo derived counterparts. In conclusion, this study reported only minor changes in the expression of developmentally important genes and satellite DNA methylation related to the in vitro embryo production system.

  10. Reproductive characteristics of grass-fed, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-immunocastrated Bos indicus bulls.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, J A; Zanella, E L; Bogden, R; de Avila, D M; Gaskins, C T; Reeves, J J

    2005-12-01

    Two field trials were conducted in Brazil to evaluate LHRH immunocastration of Bos indicus bulls (d 0 = 2 yr of age). In Study I, 72 bulls were assigned randomly to one of three treatment groups: LHRH0-immunized, castrated, and intact. Immunized animals (n = 25) received a primary and two booster injections of ovalbumin-LHRH-7 and thioredoxin-LHRH-7 fusion proteins on d 0, 141, and 287. Twenty-three bulls were surgically castrated on d 141, and 24 served as intact controls. All animals were slaughtered on d 385, at approximately 3 yr of age. In Study II, 216 bulls were assigned randomly to the same three treatments as in Study I; however, because of a drought in the area, bulls were kept on pasture an additional year, and a fourth treatment was added, in which one-half the LHRH-immunized bulls received an additional booster on d 639 (fourth immunization). All animals in Study II were slaughtered on d 741 (4 yr of age). Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antibodies increased following each immunization for immunized bulls, but they were not detectable in castrate or intact animals in either study. Consequently, scrotal circumference was suppressed in immunized bulls compared with intact controls in both studies. By d 287, serum concentrations of testosterone in LHRH-immunized bulls were decreased compared with intact controls (P < 0.01). In both studies, testes and epididymal weights at slaughter were greater (P < 0.01) for intact (500 +/- 17 and 60 +/- 2 g, respectively) than for immunized bulls (173 +/- 22 and 26 +/- 2 g, respectively) and fourth immunization bulls (78 +/- 23 and 20 +/- 2 g, respectively; Study II). At the end of each study, BW was greater (P < 0.01) for intact bulls than for castrated and LHRH-immunized animals. In these two studies, the efficacy of the LHRH fusion proteins to induce an effect similar to that of surgical castration was considered 92 and 93%, respectively. These data support the concept that immunocastration of bulls at 2 yr of

  11. Development and Validation of a Sensitive Enzymeimmunoassay for Determination of Plasma Metastin in Mithun (Bos frontalis).

    PubMed

    Mondal, Mohan; Karunakaran, M; Baruah, Kishore Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Metastin, also known as kisspeptin-10, is a potent stimulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been emerged as a key player in the regulation of reproduction in mammals. Blood concentrations of metastin during different physiological stages in bovine species in general and mithun (Bos frontalis) in particular are not available. Lacking of such information may probably be due to non-availability of simple assay procedure to measure the peptide. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and validate a simple and sufficiently sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for metastin determination in mithun plasma using the biotin-streptavidin amplification system and second antibody coating technique. Biotin was coupled to metastin and used to bridge between streptavidin-peroxidase and the immobilized metastin antiserum in the competitive assay. The EIA was conducted directly in 150 μ L of unknown mithun plasma. Metastin standards ranging from 0.01-51.2 ng/150 μ L/well were prepared in hormone-free plasma. The lowest detection limit was 0.07 ng/mL plasma. Plasma volumes for the EIA, viz., 75, 150, and 200 μ L did not influence the shape of standard curve even though a drop in OD450 was seen with higher plasma volumes. A parallelism test was carried out to compare the endogenous mithun metastin with metastin standard used. It showed good parallelism with the metastin standard curve. For the biological validation of the assay, metastin was measured in (a) blood samples collected from 12 pregnant mithun cows during different stages of pregnancy, (b) in blood from seven early pregnant and 12 non-pregnant mithuns, and (c) in follicular fluid obtained from different types of follicle. It was found that the plasma metastin concentrations increased (P < 0.001) from first through last trimester of pregnancy. Plasma metastin levels were much higher (P < 0.001) in early pregnant than non-pregnant cows

  12. Les biofilms bactériens : leur importance en santé animale et en santé publique

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Yannick D.N.; Hathroubi, Skander; Jacques, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les biofilms bactériens sont des amas structurés de cellules bactériennes enrobés d’une matrice polymérique et attachés à une surface. Le biofilm protège les bactéries et leur permet de survivre dans des conditions environnementales hostiles. Les bactéries du biofilm peuvent résister à la réponse immunitaire de l’hôte et sont beaucoup plus résistantes aux antibiotiques et aux désinfectants que les cellules bactériennes planctoniques. La capacité de former un biofilm est maintenant reconnue comme une caractéristique propre à plusieurs microorganismes. La présence de biofilms lors d’infections demande donc de nouvelles méthodes de prévention, de diagnostic et de traitement. De même, la présence de biofilms sur des surfaces retrouvées à la ferme, à l’abattoir ou à l’usine de transformation affectera l’efficacité du protocole de désinfection. De façon surprenante, la formation de biofilms chez les bactéries pathogènes des animaux et les bactéries zoonotiques est un sujet relativement peu étudié. Ce bref compte rendu a pour objectif de sensibiliser les intervenants en santé animale à l’importance des biofilms. PMID:24688172

  13. Evaluation of physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to establish distinctive heat tolerance characteristics. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted, Criollo breed recognized for its heat tolerance. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ±...

  14. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  15. 76 FR 4411 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Application 10-06-C-00-BOS To Impose and Use the Revenue From a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Application 10-06-C-00-BOS To Impose and Use...). ACTION: Request for comments, notice of Intent to Rule on a PFC application. SUMMARY: This document... anticipated either approving or disapproving the application, in whole or in part, within 60 days of the...

  16. Strategies to improve fertility in post partum Bos indicus cows submitted to a fixed-time insemination protocol with GnRH and PGF2a

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Experiment 1, we evaluated the effects of two lengths of progesterone exposure (CIDR; 7 vs. 14 d) prior to a modified CO-Synch protocol, with or without temporary weaning (TW) before GnRH treatments, on fertility of suckled Bos indicus Nelore cows (n = 283) and on calf performance. Timed AI (TAI)...

  17. Evaluation of physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to evaluate heat tolerance. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted breed. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ± 7.5 Kg BW) steers from USDA-ARS, Brooksville, Florida, were transported...

  18. Evaluation of Physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to evaluate heat tolerance. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted breed. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ± 7.5 Kg BW) steers from USDA-ARS, Brooksville, Florida were transport...

  19. Evaluation of physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos Taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to evaluate heat tolerance. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted breed. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ± 7.5 Kg BW) steers from USDA-ARS, Brooksville, Florida were transport...

  20. Measuring Learning Styles with Questionnaires versus Direct Observation of Preferential Choice Behavior in Authentic Learning Situations: The Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale (VV-BOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutner, Detlev; Plass, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of the VV-BOS (Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale), a computer-based instrument for direct observation of students' preferences for visual or verbal learning material. Results of a study with second-language learners indicated a high degree of reliability as an alternative to conventional questionnaires.…

  1. Investigation of novel solid lipid microparticles based on homolipids from Bos indicus for the delivery of gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Kenechukwu, Franklin C.; Momoh, Mumuni A.; Umeyor, Emmanuel C.; Uronnachi, Emmanuel M.; Attama, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to formulate solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS)-based solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) using homolipids from tallow fat (Bos indicus) and evaluate its potential for enhanced delivery of gentamicin. Materials and Methods: SLMs were formulated by melt-emulsification using SRMS (15% w/w Phospholipon® 90G in 35% w/w Bos indicus), polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) and gentamicin (1.0, 2.0, 3.0% w/w), and characterized with respect to size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency % and pH-dependent stability. The in vitro release of gentamicin from the SLMs was performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) while bioevaluation was carried out using clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Results showed that the lipid matrix accommodated gentamicin in a concentration-dependent manner, and that stable and spherical SLMs with size range of 18.62 ± 1.24-20.59 ± 1.36 μm and 21.35 ± 1.57-50.62 ± 2.37 μm respectively for unloaded and drug-loaded formulations were obtained. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that SRMS-based SLMs could better be used to control the release of gentamicin than gentamicin injection. Results of sensitivity test revealed that the SLMs time-dependently and capacity-limitedly produced greater inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) than the standards, an indication of improved bioactivity against the test organisms, with greater IZDs against S. aureus than E. coli. Overall, SLMs containing 2% w/w SRMS, 3% w/w gentamicin and PEG 4000 entrapped the highest amount of drug, achieved complete drug release and gave highest IZD against the organisms within 420 min, while plain gentamicin gave the least. Conclusion: This research has shown that SLMs based on Bos indicus and P90G is a potential carrier system for dissolution and bioactivity enhancement of gentamicin. PMID:27014617

  2. Effect of supplementation with corn oil on postpartum ovarian activity, pregnancy rate, and serum concentration of progesterone and lipid metabolites in F1 (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) cows.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Avila, I; Herrera-Camacho, J; Aké-López, J R; Delgado-León, R A; Ku-Vera, J C

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of corn oil supplementation during postpartum anoestrus on ovarian activity, pregnancy rate, progesterone (P(4)), and lipid metabolites (cholesterol, CHO; low and high density lipoproteins; LDL and HDL, respectively) concentrations in blood of F(1) (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) grazing cows. Cows were randomly assigned to an experimental group, fed with a supplement containing 4% corn oil on dry matter basis (OG, n = 11), and a control group with the same supplement without corn oil (CG, n = 12). Both supplements contained equivalent amounts of crude protein and metabolizable energy and were fed for 34 days continuously. All cows were induced to estrous 12 days after beginning of supplementation by using a synthetic progestagen and artificially inseminated 56 h after retiring the implants. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal palpation 45 days after insemination, evaluating simultaneously ovarian activity. P(4) and lipid metabolites (CHO, HDL, LDL) concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at 3-day intervals, from the beginning of corn oil supplementation and up to 10 days after artificial insemination. Ovarian activity was affected by treatment (p < 0.05), finding ovarian structures in 72.7% of OG cows and in 50% of CG cows. Concentration of P(4) and CHO was higher for OG with respect to CG (2.52 +/- 0.65 vs 1.88 +/- 0.62 ng/ml and 117.79 +/- 11.57 vs 85.71 +/- 12.11 mg/dl, respectively), whereas pregnancy rate and blood concentrations of HDL and LDL were not affected by treatment (p > 0.05). Addition of corn oil to the supplement stimulated ovarian activity and increased serum concentrations of progesterone and cholesterol in grazing B. taurus x B. indicus cows with low body condition score showing postpartum anoestrus.

  3. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated.

  4. Characterizing emergence and divergence in the first follicular wave in a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed.

    PubMed

    Dorneles Tortorella, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Guilherme de Paula; Modesto, Mairon Rocha; Passoni Silva, Priscilla Cristine; da Silva, Joseane Padilha; Neves, Jairo Pereira; Ramos, Alexandre Floriani

    2017-01-15

    Tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds are descended from the cattle which were brought from the Iberian Peninsula to Latin America by the colonizers and which adapted over time to local conditions. These breeds have become a genetic treasure that must be preserved. The objective of this study was to characterize ovarian follicular emergence and divergence in tropically adapted B. taurus cows and heifers. Cyclic heifers (n = 11) and nonlactating, multiparous cows (n = 11) were examined at 8-hour intervals using ultrasonography starting on the day following the final application of PGF2α, which was used to synchronize the estrous cycle, and ending 5 days after ovulation. Blood samples were collected immediately following the ultrasonographic examinations in order to evaluate FSH and estradiol-17β (E2) concentrations. The interval between ovulation and follicular wave emergence (11.6 ± 3.3 hours vs. 20.3 ± 2.5 hours, P < 0.05) and ovulation and follicular wave divergence (52.4 ± 5.2 hours vs. 71.8 ± 4.1 hours, P < 0.05) was shorter in the cows than in the heifers, respectively. Plasma FSH concentrations increased (P < 0.05) and serum E2 concentrations decreased earlier in cows than in heifers before ovulation. Following follicular wave emergence, no difference in follicular development was found between the cows and the heifers. Consequently, following follicular wave emergence, the data from both the cows and the heifers were combined and categorized by dominant follicle (DF) and second largest follicle (SF). The DF and SF were identified at the same time (P > 0.05). The mean number of small (≤4 mm, 7.2 ± 5.1) and medium (4 to ≤ 8 mm, 6.8 ± 3.5) follicles was greater than that of large follicles (≥8 mm, 0.6 ± 0.5) from ovulation until 5 days after ovulation. The DF diameter (8.1 ± 1 mm) did not differ (P = 0.09) from SF diameter (7.6 ± 0.9 mm) at the time of follicular divergence (around 45 hours after

  5. A novel USP9Y polymorphism allowing a rapid and unambiguous classification of Bos taurus Y chromosomes into haplogroups.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, S; De Gaetano, A; Tesfaye, K; Grugni, V; Semino, O; Ferretti, L

    2012-10-01

    A new sequence-tagged site (STS) was identified within intron 26 of the bovine USP9Y gene, showing an 81-base pair insertion (g.76439_76440ins81 in sequence with GenBank accession FJ195366) able to distinguish Y2 and Y3 Bos Y haplogroups from Y1. Moreover, four Y3-specific sequence variants allow a distinction from haplogroup Y2. The typing of a Bison bison Y chromosome indicates that the ancestral allele for the USP9Y 81-bp insertion is the short Y1 version. The results from typing the new STS in 1230 cattle Y chromosomes are fully consistent with their classification through standard methods. Thanks to the newly identified STS, it is now possible to assign cattle Y chromosomes to the currently known haplogroups using a single marker.

  6. Genome assembly has a major impact on gene content: a comparison of annotation in two Bos taurus assemblies.

    PubMed

    Florea, Liliana; Souvorov, Alexander; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Salzberg, Steven L

    2011-01-01

    Gene and SNP annotation are among the first and most important steps in analyzing a genome. As the number of sequenced genomes continues to grow, a key question is: how does the quality of the assembled sequence affect the annotations? We compared the gene and SNP annotations for two different Bos taurus genome assemblies built from the same data but with significant improvements in the later assembly. The same annotation software was used for annotating both sequences. While some annotation differences are expected even between high-quality assemblies such as these, we found that a staggering 40% of the genes (>9,500) varied significantly between assemblies, due in part to the availability of new gene evidence but primarily to genome mis-assembly events and local sequence variations. For instance, although the later assembly is generally superior, 660 protein coding genes in the earlier assembly are entirely missing from the later genome's annotation, and approximately 3,600 (15%) of the genes have complex structural differences between the two assemblies. In addition, 12-20% of the predicted proteins in both assemblies have relatively large sequence differences when compared to their RefSeq models, and 6-15% of bovine dbSNP records are unrecoverable in the two assemblies. Our findings highlight the consequences of genome assembly quality on gene and SNP annotation and argue for continued improvements in any draft genome sequence. We also found that tracking a gene between different assemblies of the same genome is surprisingly difficult, due to the numerous changes, both small and large, that occur in some genes. As a side benefit, our analyses helped us identify many specific loci for improvement in the Bos taurus genome assembly.

  7. Gestation length, birth weight and offspring gender ratio of in vitro-produced Gyr (Bos indicus) cattle embryos.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Luiz Sergio Almeida; Freitas, Celio; de Sa, Wanderlei Ferreira; de Moraes Ferreira, Ademir; Serapiao, Raquel Varela; Viana, João Henrique Moreira

    2010-07-01

    In vitro embryo production (IVP) has been suggested to result in a greater proportion of male calves, longer gestation and heavier offspring than artificial insemination in Bos taurus cattle. Despite the increasing use of IVP in tropical countries, its effects upon these traits in Bos indicus have not been conclusively investigated. Gyr is a B. indicus dairy breed with known physiological differences from B. taurus, such as a longer gestation period and lighter offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of IVP on gestation length, birth weight and gender ratio in Gyr offspring. Oocytes were recovered from Gyr cows by ovum pick-up and were matured and fertilized with thawed Gyr semen in vitro. Embryos were cultured in CR2aa medium with cumulus cells and 10% fetal calf serum under 5% CO(2) at 38.5 degrees C in air. Seven- to eight-day blastocysts were transferred to synchronized recipients. Data on gestation length and birth weight of calves from in vitro-produced embryos were compared to data obtained from Gyr calves produced by artificial insemination (AI) and natural breeding (NB) during the same period using analysis of variance, and the gender ratio was compared to the expected 1:1 ratio using a chi-square test. IVP increased (P<0.01) the percentage of male offspring (76.9%) compared to the expected 1:1 ratio, while no difference (P>0.05) was observed in the AI and NB groups. Gestation length was similar (P>0.05) between the IVP and AI groups, but IVP-derived offspring were heavier (P<0.05) than AI- and NB-derived ones, mainly for male calves (P<0.05). These data show that in vitro production affects the subsequent development of Gyr embryos, resulting in a skewed sex ratio and increased birth weight.

  8. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present.

  9. The interval between the emergence of pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular waves and ovum pickup does not significantly affect in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Lindsay U; Ferraz, Márcio L; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Mesquita, Lígia G; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Meirelles, Flávio V; Trinca, Luzia A; Rennó, Francisco P; Watanabe, Yeda F; Baruselli, Pietro S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal phase of the follicular wave to perform ovum pickup (OPU) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in various genetic groups. For this purpose, 27 heifers-nine Bos taurus (Holstein), nine Bos indicus (Nelore), and nine Bubalus bubalis (Mediterranean)-were maintained under the same nutritional, management, and environmental conditions. Heifers within each genetic group were submitted to six consecutive OPU trials with 14-day intersession intervals, at three different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5 after follicular wave emergence), in a 3 × 3 crossover design. When OPU was performed at different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes recovered (70.5 ± 3.1%, 75.0 ± 3.1%, 76.0 ± 3.2%, respectively; P = 0.41) or blastocyst production rates (19.4 ± 2.9%, 16.6 ± 2.9%, 15.9 ± 2.6%, respectively; P = 0.36). Comparing genetic groups, B indicus showed a higher blastocyst rate (28.3(a) ± 2.8%; P < 0.01) than B taurus and B bubalis (14.1(b) ± 2.9% and 10.2(b) ± 2.0%, respectively). However, only B indicus heifers showed a variation in the number of visualized follicles and the total and viable oocytes along consecutive OPU sessions. In conclusion, different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular wave did not affect OPU-IVEP in B indicus, B taurus, and B bubalis heifers. Additionally, B indicus heifers showed greater OPU-IVEP efficiency than did the other genetic groups, under the same management conditions.

  10. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271

  11. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas.

  12. Morphological adaptations of yak (Bos grunniens) tongue to the foraging environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Shao, B; Long, R; Ding, Y; Wang, J; Ding, L; Wang, H

    2010-08-01

    Using light and scanning electron microscopy, the morphological adaptations of the yak (Bos grunniens) tongue to its foraging environment in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were studied. The tongue of the yak was compared with that of cattle (Bos taurus). Compared with cattle, yak tongues are on average 4 cm shorter (P < 0.001), and yak consume forages using the labia oris, rather than by extending the tongue into the harsh environment. The lingual prominence of yak is greater (P < 0.001) and more developed than in cattle. The conical papillae on the prominence surface of yak are slightly larger (diameter: P = 0.068 and height: P = 0.761) and more numerous (P < 0.001) than in cattle. The lenticular papillae on the prominence surface of yak are larger (diameter: P = 0.002 and height: P = 0.115) and more numerous (P = 0.007) than in cattle. Such characteristics may improve the digestibility of forage by the grinding of food between the tongue and the upper palate. Filiform, conical, lenticular, fungiform, and vallate papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongues studied; no foliate papillae were observed. The papillae were covered by keratinized epithelium, which was thicker (P < 0.001) in the yak than in cattle. It is suggested that the development of characteristic filiform papillae, and more numerous lingual gland ducts and mucus-secreting pores in the lenticular, fungiform and vallate papillae, fungiform papillae, probably having mechanical functions, are all morphological adaptations by yak to diets with greater fiber and DM content as provided by the plants within the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau environment. On average, yak has 26 vallate papillae and cattle have 28. In the vallate papillae of the yak, the taste buds are arranged in a monolayer within the epithelium, whereas they are multilayered (2 to 4) in those papillae in cattle. The number of taste buds in each vallate papillae was less (P < 0.001) in the yak than in cattle. Therefore, the gustatory

  13. Distribution of BoLA-DRB3 allelic frequencies and identification of a new allele in the iranian cattle breed sistani (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Nassiry, M R; Mosafer, J; Mohammadabadi, M R; Sulimova, G E

    2009-02-01

    The distribution of the frequencies of BoLA-DRB3 gene alleles in the Iranian cattle breed Sistani was studied by the PCR-RFLP ("hemi-nested") assay using restriction endonucleases RsaI, HaeIII and BstYI. In the examined cattle breed (65 animals) 32 alleles have been identified one of which being described for the first time (6.15% frequency). The nucleotide sequence of the polymorphic region of exon 2 of this allele has been determined and submitted in the GeneBank database under accession number DQ486519. The submitted sequence has maximum homology (92%) with the previously described sequence DRB3-mRNA from Bos indicus (AccN X79346) and differs from it by 24 nucleotide substitutions which result in 16 amino acid substitutions. The peptide (on the basis of the reconstructed amino acid sequence) has 89% identity to the sequence encoded by the BIDRBF 188 locus (Bos indicus). The results obtained permit the sequence described by us to be considered as a new allele of the BoLA-DRB3 gene (DRB3.2**X). The total frequency of the main six alleles (DRB3.2*X, *10, *11, *20, *34 and *X) occurring with a frequency of over 5% is about 60% in Iranian Sistani cattle. Fifteen alleles have <1% frequency. The highest frequency was observed for DRB3.2*8 allele (21.54%) like in other previously described breeds of Bos indicus (up to 23.07%). The Iranian breed Sistani has a high level of similarity by the spectrum of BoLA-DRB3 alleles and their frequencies to other Bos indicus breeds and significantly differs by these criteria from the Bos taurus breeds. The Iranian Sistani herd under study includes alleles associated with to resistance to leukemia (DRB3.2*ll and *23) and to different forms of mastitis (DRB3.2*2, *7, *11, *23 and *24) although their frequencies are low (from 0.77 to 5.37%). On the whole, a high level of diversity of BoLA-DRB3 gene alleles and the availability of alleles associated with resistance to different diseases makes this breed of interest for breeding practice.

  14. Fixed-time artificial insemination with estradiol and progesterone for Bos indicus cows I: basis for development of protocols.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, M; Sá Filho, O G; Peres, R F G; Lamb, G C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2009-07-15

    Five experiments were conducted on commercial farms in Brazil aiming to develop a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol that achieved pregnancy rates between 40% and 55% in Bos indicus cows. These studies resulted in the development of the following protocol: insertion of an intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone (CIDR) plus 2.0mg im estradiol benzoate on Day 0; 12.5mg im dinoprost tromethamine on Day 7 in cycling cows or on Day 9 in anestrous cows; CIDR withdrawal plus 0.5mg im estradiol cypionate plus temporary calf removal on Day 9; TAI (48h after CIDR withdrawal) plus reuniting of calves with their dams on Day 11. Reduced dose of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha); 12.5mg im dinoprost tromethamine) effectively caused luteolysis. In cycling cows, fertility was greater when the treatment with PGF(2alpha) was administered on Day 7 than on Day 9, but in anestrous cows, no effects of time of the PGF(2alpha) treatment were found. Estradiol cypionate effectively replaced estradiol benzoate or gonadotropin-releasing hormone as the ovulatory stimulus, reducing labor and cost. In this protocol, CIDR inserts were successfully used four times (9 d each use) with no detrimental effects on fertility.

  15. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of ‘production diseases’ in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment. PMID:25567936

  16. Spatial arrangement of the heart muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue in the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Garcia-Martinez, V; Rojo, M; Hurlé, J M

    1994-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of the muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue was examined in the ventricles of the heart of the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus). In both ventricles, the muscle fascicles of the myocardium are arranged in 3 main directions, forming 3 muscle layers within the ventricular wall. The preferentially vertical arrangement of the muscle fascicles in the superficial and deep layers at the level of the fibrous aortic rings and the base of the semilunar valve leaflets suggests that these fascicles are actively involved in valvular dynamics. After controlled digestion of myocytes and elastic fibres with NaOH, a 3-dimensional arrangement of the scaffolding of connective tissue that supports the muscle fascicles and myocytes was observed. The arrangement and structure of this scaffolding may influence the order of contraction of muscle fascicles in different layers of the ventricle. In addition, differences were observed between the connective tissue scaffolding surrounding the myocytes of the 2 ventricles; these variations were correlated with the different biomechanical properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8014119

  17. Rumen ciliates of domestic cattle (Bos taurus taurus) in Kastamonu, Turkey, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde

    2016-10-01

    Species composition and distribution of ciliates were investigated in the rumen contents of 25 domestic cattle (Bos taurus taurus L.) living in Kastamonu, Turkey. Forty-seven species and 37 morphotypes representing 15 genera were identified. Of them, a new species of Ostracodinium was recognized and described as Ostracodinium anatolicum n. sp. This new species has two caudal lobes. The dorsal lobe is small and rounded and the ventral lobe is triangular shaped and bent toward the dorsal side like a thick hook. Furthermore, the anterior end of the macronucleus (1/5 of the length) is bent toward the left like a hook. The density of rumen ciliates in cattle was 96.8±43.3×10(4)cellsmL(-1) and the mean number of ciliate species per host was 14.2±4.4. Entodinium longinucleatum, E. nanellum, E. simulans and Isotricha prostoma were the most abundant species, each with a prevalence of 88%. Entodinium chatterjeei, E. bifidum m. monospinosum, Hsiungia triciliata, Oligoisotricha bubali, Ostracodinium dogieli, O. mammosum and O. munham are new host records for cattle from Turkey.

  18. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Fascioliasis in Yaks, Bos grunniens, from Three Counties of Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Feng, Sheng-Yong; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Yin, Ming-Yang; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of fascioliasis in yaks, Bos grunniens, from 3 counties of Gansu Province in China. A total of 1,584 serum samples, including 974 samples from white yaks from Tianzhu, 464 from black yaks from Maqu, and 146 from black yaks from Luqu County, were collected and analyzed using ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica. The overall F. hepatica seroprevalence was 28.7% (454/1,584), with 29.2% in white yaks (284/974) and 27.9% in black yaks (170/610). The seroprevalence of F. hepatica in yaks from Tianzhu, Luqu, and Maqu was 29.2%, 22.6%, and 29.5%, respectively. Female yaks (30.9%) had higher F. hepatica seroprevalence than male yaks (23.4%). Also, F. hepatica seroprevalence varied by different age group from 24.1% to 33.8%. Further, the seroprevalence ranged from 21.8% to 39.1% over different seasons. Interestingly, the season and age of yaks were associated with F. hepatica infection in yaks in the investigated areas. These findings provided a basis for further studies on this disease in yaks from 3 counties of Gansu Province in northwestern China, which may ultimately support the development of effective control strategies of fascioliasis in these areas.

  19. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Fascioliasis in Yaks, Bos grunniens, from Three Counties of Gansu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Feng, Sheng-Yong; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Yin, Ming-Yang; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of fascioliasis in yaks, Bos grunniens, from 3 counties of Gansu Province in China. A total of 1,584 serum samples, including 974 samples from white yaks from Tianzhu, 464 from black yaks from Maqu, and 146 from black yaks from Luqu County, were collected and analyzed using ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica. The overall F. hepatica seroprevalence was 28.7% (454/1,584), with 29.2% in white yaks (284/974) and 27.9% in black yaks (170/610). The seroprevalence of F. hepatica in yaks from Tianzhu, Luqu, and Maqu was 29.2%, 22.6%, and 29.5%, respectively. Female yaks (30.9%) had higher F. hepatica seroprevalence than male yaks (23.4%). Also, F. hepatica seroprevalence varied by different age group from 24.1% to 33.8%. Further, the seroprevalence ranged from 21.8% to 39.1% over different seasons. Interestingly, the season and age of yaks were associated with F. hepatica infection in yaks in the investigated areas. These findings provided a basis for further studies on this disease in yaks from 3 counties of Gansu Province in northwestern China, which may ultimately support the development of effective control strategies of fascioliasis in these areas. PMID:28285513

  20. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and probiotic potential of Enterococcus hirae isolated from the rumen of Bos primigenius.

    PubMed

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Hairul Islam, Villianur Ibrahim; Bharanidharan, R; Raveendar, Sebastian; Lee, Jinwook; Kim, Do Hyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    In the present study bacterial strains were isolated from the rumen fluids of Bos primigenius and investigated their in vitro probiotic properties with potent antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory effects. 9 g positive bacterial isolates were obtained and three isolates could able to tolerate gastric conditions, high bile salt concentrations and exhibited significant bactericidal effect against the enteric pathogens Vibrio cholera, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Moreover it showed above 70% cell surface hydrophobicity, significant low-invasion ability and potential adherence capacity in Caco-2 cells when compared with the control. The proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) was greatly reduced in rumen bacteria treatment and ARBS-1 modulate the immune response by activating the IL-4 secretion in parallel to TNF-α suppression. The 16s rRNA gene sequence of the active isolates were identified as Enterococcus hirae (ARBS-1), Pediococcus acidilactici (ARBS-4) and Bacillus licheniformis (ARBS-7). This study revealed the probiotic bactericidal properties of E. hirae obtained from the rumen of B. primigenius with potential antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Future studies with the strains may yield some novel probiotic product for livestock's.

  1. Identification of Candidate Genes for Reactivity in Guzerat (Bos indicus) Cattle: A Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Pablo Augusto de Souza; Pires, Maria de Fátima Ávila; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Rosse, Izinara da Cruz.; Bruneli, Frank Angelo Tomita; Machado, Marco Antonio; Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos

    2017-01-01

    Temperament is fundamental to animal production due to its direct influence on the animal-herdsman relationship. When compared to calm animals, the aggressive, anxious or fearful ones exhibit less weight gain, lower reproductive efficiency, decreased milk production and higher herd maintenance costs, all of which contribute to reduced profits. However, temperament is a trait that is complex and difficult to assess. Recently, a new quantitative system, REATEST®, for assessing reactivity, a phenotype of temperament, was developed. Herein, we describe the results of a Genome-wide association study for reactivity, assessed using REATEST® with a sample of 754 females from five dual-purpose (milk and meat production) Guzerat (Bos indicus) herds. Genotyping was performed using a 50k SNP chip and a two-step mixed model approach (Grammar-Gamma) with a one-by-one marker regression was used to identify QTLs. QTLs for reactivity were identified on chromosomes BTA1, BTA5, BTA14, and BTA25. Five intronic and two intergenic markers were significantly associated with reactivity. POU1F1, DRD3, VWA3A, ZBTB20, EPHA6, SNRPF and NTN4 were identified as candidate genes. Previous QTL reports for temperament traits, covering areas surrounding the SNPs/genes identified here, further corroborate these associations. The seven genes identified in the present study explain 20.5% of reactivity variance and give a better understanding of temperament biology. PMID:28125592

  2. MspI allelic pattern of bovine growth hormone gene in Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Prakash, B; Mishra, B P; Sobti, R C; Singh, Karn P; Singh, Satbir; Ahlawat, S P S

    2007-02-01

    The MspI allelic variation in intron III of the bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene was explored using PCR-RFLP in 750 animals belonging to 17 well-recognized breeds of Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) reared in different geographic locations of the country. Restriction digestion analysis of a 329-bp PCR fragment of the bGH intron III region with MspI restriction enzyme revealed two alleles (MspI- and MspI+) and two genotypes (-/- and +/-) across the 17 cattle breeds studied. The allelic frequency varied from 0.67 to 0.94 for MspI (-) and from 0.06 to 0.33 for MspI (+) across the 17 breeds, with a combined average frequency of 0.87 and 0.13, respectively. No animal with +/+ genotype was detected across the samples analyzed. The chi-square test showed that the difference in MspI allelic frequency was not significant (p > 0.05), regardless of the geographic origin, coat color, or utility of the cattle breed. The high MspI (-) allele frequencies obtained for Indian zebu cattle in this study are in sharp contrast to those reported for taurine breeds from northern Europe, Mediterranean countries, and America. Findings of this study further substantiate the hypothesis that the MspI (-) allele has an Indian origin.

  3. Embryonic development of the bovine pineal gland (Bos taurus) during prenatal life (30 to 135 days of gestation).

    PubMed

    Regodón, S; Roncero, V

    2005-10-01

    The ontogenesis of the pineal gland of 30 bovine embryos (Bos taurus) has been analysed from 30 until 135 days of gestation by means of optical microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques. For this study, the specimens were grouped into three stages in accordance with the most relevant histological characteristics: Stage 1 (30 to 64 days of prenatal development); Stage 2 (70 to 90 days) and Stage 3 (106 to 135 days). In the cow, it is from 30 days of gestation that the first glandular outline becomes differentiated from the diencephalic ependyma of the third ventricle. This differentiation includes the phenomena of proliferation and multiplication of the ependymal cells that form the epithelium of the pineal outline in development. At 82 days of intrauterine life, in the interior of the pineal parenchyma, we witnessed some incipient pseudoglandular structures that at 135 days were well differentiated. The pineal parenchyma displays a cytology made up of two cellular types of structurally distinct characteristics: pinealoblasts and interstitial cells. Both cellular types begin differentiation at 70 days of embryonic development, the pinealoblasts being greater in number than the interstitial cells. The glandular stroma is formed from the capsular, trabecular and the perivascular connective tissue, filling the interparenchymal space. A dense network of capillaries, which drive across the trabecular connective tissue towards the central glandular zone where their density increases and their calibre is reduced, complete the glandular structure. GFAP positive cells were observed in the embryonic pineal parenchyma in stage 3. At 135 days of gestation, NPY positive fibers entered the pineal gland through the pineal capsule occupying a perivascular localization. Morphological studies of this nature are vital for future use as parameters, indicative of the functional activity of the bovine pineal gland during embryonic development.

  4. Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal (Bos frontalis) Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Uzzaman, Md. Rasel; Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam; Edea, Zewdu; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis) is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the FIS (within-population inbreeding) value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139) and expected (0.148±0.143) heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature. PMID:25178382

  5. Respiratory Complex I in Bos taurus and Paracoccus denitrificans Pumps Four Protons across the Membrane for Every NADH Oxidized.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew J Y; Blaza, James N; Varghese, Febin; Hirst, Judy

    2017-03-24

    Respiratory complex I couples electron transfer between NADH and ubiquinone to proton translocation across an energy-transducing membrane to support the proton-motive force that drives ATP synthesis. The proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I (i.e. the number of protons pumped for each two electrons transferred) underpins all mechanistic proposals. However, it remains controversial and has not been determined for any of the bacterial enzymes that are exploited as model systems for the mammalian enzyme. Here, we describe a simple method for determining the proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I in inverted membrane vesicles under steady-state ADP-phosphorylating conditions. Our method exploits the rate of ATP synthesis, driven by oxidation of NADH or succinate with different sections of the respiratory chain engaged in catalysis as a proxy for the rate of proton translocation and determines the stoichiometry of complex I by reference to the known stoichiometries of complexes III and IV. Using vesicles prepared from mammalian mitochondria (from Bos taurus) and from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, we show that four protons are pumped for every two electrons transferred in both cases. By confirming the four-proton stoichiometry for mammalian complex I and, for the first time, demonstrating the same value for a bacterial complex, we establish the utility of P. denitrificans complex I as a model system for the mammalian enzyme. P. denitrificans is the first system described in which mutagenesis in any complex I core subunit may be combined with quantitative proton-pumping measurements for mechanistic studies.

  6. Respiratory Complex I in Bos taurus and Paracoccus denitrificans Pumps Four Protons across the Membrane for Every NADH Oxidized*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew J. Y.; Blaza, James N.; Varghese, Febin; Hirst, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory complex I couples electron transfer between NADH and ubiquinone to proton translocation across an energy-transducing membrane to support the proton-motive force that drives ATP synthesis. The proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I (i.e. the number of protons pumped for each two electrons transferred) underpins all mechanistic proposals. However, it remains controversial and has not been determined for any of the bacterial enzymes that are exploited as model systems for the mammalian enzyme. Here, we describe a simple method for determining the proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I in inverted membrane vesicles under steady-state ADP-phosphorylating conditions. Our method exploits the rate of ATP synthesis, driven by oxidation of NADH or succinate with different sections of the respiratory chain engaged in catalysis as a proxy for the rate of proton translocation and determines the stoichiometry of complex I by reference to the known stoichiometries of complexes III and IV. Using vesicles prepared from mammalian mitochondria (from Bos taurus) and from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, we show that four protons are pumped for every two electrons transferred in both cases. By confirming the four-proton stoichiometry for mammalian complex I and, for the first time, demonstrating the same value for a bacterial complex, we establish the utility of P. denitrificans complex I as a model system for the mammalian enzyme. P. denitrificans is the first system described in which mutagenesis in any complex I core subunit may be combined with quantitative proton-pumping measurements for mechanistic studies. PMID:28174301

  7. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  8. Zeolite-Based Organic Synthesis (ZeoBOS) of Acortatarin A: First Total Synthesis Based on Native and Metal-Doped Zeolite-Catalyzed Steps.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Eric; Borghèse, Sophie; Blanc, Aurélien; Bénéteau, Valérie; Pale, Patrick

    2017-01-31

    Similarly to polymer-supported assisted synthesis (PSAS), organic synthesis could be envisaged being performed by using zeolites, native or metal-doped, as heterogeneous catalysts. To illustrate this unprecedented Zeolite-Based Organic Synthesis (ZeoBOS), the total synthesis of acortatarin A was achieved through a novel strategy and using five out of eleven synthetic steps catalyzed by H- or metal-doped zeolites as catalysts. Notably, the formation of an yne-pyrrole intermediate with a copper-doped zeolite and the spiroketalization of an alkyne diol with a silver-doped zeolite have been developed as key steps of the synthesis.

  9. Visualization of Flow Separation Around an Atmospheric Entry Capsule at Low-Subsonic Mach Number Using Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Borg, Stephen E.; Danehy, Paul M.; Murman, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of visualization of separated flow around a generic entry capsule that resembles the Apollo Command Module (CM) and the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The model was tested at flow speeds up to Mach 0.4 at a single angle of attack of 28 degrees. For manned spacecraft using capsule-shaped vehicles, certain flight operations such as emergency abort maneuvers soon after launch and flight just prior to parachute deployment during the final stages of entry, the command module may fly at low Mach number. Under these flow conditions, the separated flow generated from the heat-shield surface on both windward and leeward sides of the capsule dominates the wake flow downstream of the capsule. In this paper, flow visualization of the separated flow was conducted using the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method, which has the capability of visualizing significantly separated wake flows without the particle seeding required by other techniques. Experimental results herein show that BOS has detection capability of density changes on the order of 10(sup-5).

  10. Demographic consequences of increased winter births in a large aseasonally breeding mammal (Bos taurus) in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Burthe, Sarah; Butler, Adam; Searle, Kate R; Hall, Stephen J G; Thackeray, Stephen J; Wanless, Sarah

    2011-11-01

    1. Studies examining changes in the scheduling of breeding in response to climate change have focused on species with well-defined breeding seasons. Species exhibiting year-round breeding have received little attention and the magnitudes of any responses are unknown. 2. We investigated phenological data for an enclosed feral population of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in northern England exhibiting year-round breeding. This population is relatively free of human interference. 3. We assessed whether the timing of births had changed over the last 60 years, in response to increasing winter and spring temperatures, changes in herd density, and a regime of lime fertilisation. 4. Median birth date became earlier by 1·0 days per year. Analyses of the seasonal distribution of calving dates showed that significantly fewer calves were born in summer (decline from 44% of total births to 20%) and significantly more in winter (increase from 12% to 30%) over the study period. The most pronounced changes occurred in winter, with significant increases in both the proportion and number of births. Winter births arise from conceptions in the previous spring, and we considered models that investigated climate and weather variables associated with the winter preceding and the spring of conceptions. 5. The proportion of winter births was higher when the onset of the plant growing season was earlier during the spring of conceptions. This relationship was much weaker during years when the site had been fertilised with lime, suggesting that increased forage biomass was over-riding the impacts of changing plant phenology. When the onset of the growing season was late, winter births increased with female density. 6. Recruitment estimates from a stage-structured state-space population model were significantly negatively correlated with the proportion of births in the preceding winter, suggesting that calves born in winter are less likely to survive than those born in other seasons. 7.

  11. Luteolysis in Bos indicus cows on Days 5 and 7 of estrous cycle with varying doses of PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species.

  12. Genetic diversity and population genetic analysis of bovine MHC class II DRB3.2 locus in three Bos indicus cattle breeds of Southern India.

    PubMed

    Das, D N; Sri Hari, V G; Hatkar, D N; Rengarajan, K; Saravanan, R; Suryanarayana, V V S; Murthy, L K

    2012-12-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the genetic polymorphism of BoLA-DRB3.2 locus in Malnad Gidda, Hallikar and Ongole South Indian Bos indicus cattle breeds, employing the PCR-RFLP technique. In Malnad Gidda population, 37 BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles were detected, including one novel allele DRB3*2503 (GenBank: HM031389) that was observed in the frequency of 1.87%. In Hallikar and Ongole populations, 29 and 21 BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles were identified, respectively. The frequencies of the most common BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles (with allele frequency > 5%), in Malnad Gidda population, were DRB3.2*15 (10.30%), DRB3*5702 (9.35%), DRB3.2*16 (8.41%), DRB3.2*23 (7.01%) and DRB3.2*09 (5.61%). In Hallikar population, the most common alleles were DRB3.2*11 (13.00%), DRB3.2*44 (11.60%), DRB3.2*31 (10.30%), DRB3.2*28 (5.48%) and DRB3.2*51 (5.48%). The most common alleles in Ongole population were DRB3.2*15 (22.50%), DRB3.2*06 (20.00%), DRB3.2*13 (13.30%), DRB3.2*12 (9.17%) and DRB3.2*23 (7.50%). A high degree of heterozygosity observed in Malnad Gidda (H(O) = 0.934, H(E) = 0.955), Hallikar (H(O) = 0.931, H(E) = 0.943) and Ongole (H(O) = 0.800, H(E) = 0.878) populations, along with F(IS) values close to F(IS) zero (Malnad Gidda: F(IS) = 0.0221, Hallikar: F(IS) = 0.0127 and Ongole: F(IS) = 0.0903), yielded nonsignificant P-values with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium probabilities revealing, no perceptible inbreeding, greater genetic diversity and characteristic population structure being preserved in the three studied cattle populations. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the frequencies of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles observed in 10 Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle breeds revealed distinct clustering of specific Bos indicus cattle breeds, along with unique genetic differentiation observed among them. The results of this study demonstrated that the BoLA-DRB3.2 is a highly polymorphic locus, with significant breed-specific genetic diversities being present amongst the three studied

  13. Muon-spin relaxation study of the double perovskite insulators Sr2 BOsO6 (B  =  Fe, Y, ln).

    PubMed

    Williams, R C; Xiao, F; Thomas, I O; Clark, S J; Lancaster, T; Cornish, G A; Blundell, S J; Hayes, W; Paul, A K; Felser, C; Jansen, M

    2016-02-24

    We present the results of zero-field muon-spin relaxation measurements made on the double perovskite insulators Sr2 BOsO6 (B = Fe,Y, In). Spontaneous muon-spin precession indicative of quasistatic long range magnetic ordering is observed in Sr2FeOsO6 within the AF1 antiferromagnetic phase for temperatures below [Formula: see text] K. Upon cooling below T2≈67 K the oscillations cease to be resolvable owing to the coexistence of the AF1 and AF2 phases, which leads to a broader range of internal magnetic fields. Using density functional calculations we identify a candidate muon stopping site within the unit cell, which dipole field simulations show to be consistent with the proposed magnetic structure. The possibility of incommensurate magnetic ordering is discussed for temperatures below TN = 53 K and 25 K for Sr2YOsO6 and Sr2InOsO6, respectively.

  14. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (p<0.05). A multiple regression analyses of these SPPs, using three models; non-parametric Tree Model, Generalized Additive Model, and a step-wise selection method were conducted, and 6 SPPs could be used to predict PNS24; four SPPs had positive and two had negative association with PNS24. Together these spots explained 35% of the phenotypic variation in PNS24. Using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF and TripleToF-MS) the SPPs with positive relationship contained mainly apolipoprotein A-I (1310), protein DJ-1 and glutathione peroxidase 3 (2308), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (6402) and apolipoprotein A-I and secretoglobin family 1D member (8008). The SPPs inversely associated with PNS24 were clusterin/seminal plasma protein A3 (1411) and epididymal secretory protein E1 (8108). This is the first comprehensive report on the association between seminal plasma protein composition in Bos indicus Brahman bulls and sperm morphology.

  15. Effects on performance and carcass and meat quality attributes following immunocastration with the gonadotropin releasing factor vaccine Bopriva or surgical castration of Bos indicus bulls raised on pasture in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amatayakul-Chantler, S; Hoe, F; Jackson, J A; Roca, R O; Stegner, J E; King, V; Howard, R; Lopez, E; Walker, J

    2013-09-01

    Bos indicus bulls 20 months of age grazed on pasture in Minas Gerais, Brazil either received 2 doses of the GnRF vaccine Bopriva at d0 and d91 (group IC, n=144) or were surgically castrated on d91 (group SC, n=144). Slaughter on d280, was 27 weeks after castration. Adverse safety issues in 8% of group SC bulls following surgery contrasted with 0% in group IC bulls. At d105 testosterone levels were suppressed to similar levels in both groups. Importantly, group IC bulls had higher live weight, hot carcass weight, ADG (P<0.005) and dressing percentage (P<0.0001) compared to group SC animals. There were no negative effects on carcass or meat quality traits, thus immunocastration was concluded to offer a safe and effective method that provides production gains, and improves animal welfare in Bos indicus beef bulls without impacting meat and carcass quality.

  16. Immunocastration of Bos indicus x Brown Swiss bulls in feedlot with gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine Bopriva provides improved performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Amatayakul-Chantler, S; Jackson, J A; Stegner, J; King, V; Rubio, L M S; Howard, R; Lopez, E; Walker, J

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a GnRH vaccine on feedlot performance and meat quality in Bos indicus Zebu × Brown Swiss bulls. The study was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 1,600 bulls allocated by BW into 4 groups of ≈ 400 animals. The GnRH vaccine (Bopriva) was injected on d 0 and 42, and anabolic implants given on d 0 (Component E-S) and d 84 (Synovex Choice). Group designations were: Con = placebo control; Imp = implants alone; Vac = GnRH vaccine alone; and Vac+Imp = GnRH vaccine together with implants. The second GnRH vaccination at d 42 resulted in elevated titers of IgG antibody and suppressed concentrations of testosterone in vaccinated groups (Vac and Vac+Imp) at d 56 (P < 0.001), with titers and suppressed testosterone persisting to d 147 (P < 0.001). Groups Vac and Vac+Imp had reduced testes weights at slaughter on d 147 (P < 0.001). Bulls in group Vac were not different in final BW, HCW, or ADG (d 42 to 147) relative to bulls in group Con. Bulls in group Vac+Imp had greater final BW than bulls in group Imp (P = 0.008) and greater BW than bulls in group Vac and group Con (P < 0.001). The HCW of Vac+Imp bulls was greater than the Vac or Con bulls (P < 0.001) but was not different to the Imp bulls (P = 0.294). Improved ADG was obtained by vaccination with the GnRH vaccine, in the presence of implants (group Vac+Imp compared with group Imp, P < 0.001) or absence of implants (group Vac compared with group Con, P = 0.028). Meat quality of bulls receiving the GnRH vaccine was improved irrespective of implant status, with a 1.6- to 2.6-fold increase in the proportion of bulls in groups Vac and Vac+Imp, respectively, grading as USDA Choice (P < 0.002) and with greater fat depth at the 12th rib (P < 0.001). Meat tenderness was improved in the vaccine groups (Vac and Vac+Imp) compared with groups Con and Imp (P < 0.004). Use of the GnRH vaccine Bopriva in Bos indicus × Brown Swiss bulls finishing in a feedlot

  17. Nitrogen-removal with protease as a method to improve the selective delignification of hemp stemwood by the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Field, J A; Almendros, G; Sierra-Alvarez, R

    2001-10-01

    Certain white-rot fungi cause selective removal of lignin from woody substrates. Selective delignification can potentially be applied to biopulping and upgrading animal feeds. Nitrogen nutrient limitation is known to enhance the selectivity of lignin degradation. The relatively high N-content of annual fiber crops is an important drawback for utilizing white-rot fungi for their selective delignification. In this study, removal of N from hemp stemwood with protease was explored as a means of improving the selectivity of lignin degradation by the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55. Various protease treatments followed by hot-water extraction were found to be suitable in lowering the N-content of hemp stemwood by up to 70%. The removal was significantly higher than with hot-water extraction alone, which caused a 39% N-removal. The selectivity of lignin degradation was compared in protease-treated, hot-water treated, untreated and ammonium-spiked hemp stemwood, providing N levels that were, respectively, 0.32-, 0.61-, 1.0- and 5.0-fold relative to the natural N-content in the substrate. Removal of N by hot-water extraction alone or in combination with protease greatly protected the holocellulose fraction from excessive decay during 10 weeks of solid state fermentation. However, the selectivity of lignin decay was only greatly enhanced (three-fold) by the protease treatment, due mostly to a highly improved lignin degradation at the lowest N-level.

  18. Microsatellite DNA typing for assessment of genetic variability in Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, a major breed of Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Prakash, B; Ahlawat, S P S; Sobti, R C

    2006-12-01

    The present study estimates genetic variability with a set of 25 microsatellite markers in a random sample of 50 animals of Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Tharparkar is a dual-purpose breed, valued for its milk as well as draught utility, and is adapted to the inhospitable Thar desert conditions of Rajasthan typified by summer temperature hovering above 50 degrees C, sparse rainfall and vegetation, and scarcity of even drinking water. The observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH3, ILSTS030, INRA5, INRA63 and MM8) to 11 (HEL9 and ILSTS034), with allelic diversity (average number of observed alleles per locus) of 6.20. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 (INRA63) to 0.77 (ETH10), and from 0.51 (HEL5 and HAUT27) to 0.88 (HEL9) respectively. Wide range of genetic variability supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in measurement of genetic diversity indices in other Indian cattle breeds too. Various average genetic variability measures, namely allele diversity (6.20), observed heterozygosity (0.57), expected heterozygosity (0.67) and mean polymorphism information content (0.60) values showed substantial within-breed genetic variability in this major breed of Rajasthan, despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by high average inbreeding coefficient (F(IS) = 0.39). The Tharparkar population has not experienced a bottleneck in the recent past.

  19. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower (P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  20. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

    2014-09-15

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum.

  1. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  2. Responses of dairy heifers to the visual cliff formed by a herringbone milking pit: evidence of fear of heights in cows (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Arnold, Naomi Adele; Ng, Kim Tee; Jongman, Ellen Caroline; Hemsworth, Paul Hamilton

    2007-11-01

    The ability of cows (Bos taurus) to perceive depth has never been experimentally investigated. If cows can perceive depth, the milking pit in commercial milking facilities may be fear provoking for dairy cows, as past research has shown that most land-dwelling species possess an instinctive fear of heights. In the current study, 12 dairy heifers (1-year-old cows) were exposed to a milking pit (depth-exposed group) and 13 heifers (control group) were exposed to a standard change in the environment while they moved through a milking facility over a 5-day treatment period. Heifers in the depth-exposed group showed a higher heart rate (p < .05) and stopped more often (p < .05) than did those in the control group; persistence of heart rate but not of behavioral responses on repeated exposures indicated that some habituation to the depth stimulus had occurred. Depth exposure had no effect on cortisol concentrations or on ease of handling. These results indicate that heifers responded differently to a change in depth than they did to a standard change in the environment and provide evidence of both depth perception and acute fear of heights in cows.

  3. The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol on digestibility and zootechnical performance of zebu bulls (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Yisehak, K; De Boever, J L; Janssens, G P J

    2014-06-01

    The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) on nutrient intake and digestibility as well as on weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and N retention of zebu bulls (Bos indicus) was studied. Leaves of Albizia gummifera, Grewia ferruginea, Prunus africana and Syzygium guineense, containing, respectively, 85, 55, 76 and 172 g condensed tannins (CT) per kg dry matter (DM), were combined with natural pasture hay in a ratio of 40:60 on DM basis. The four diets were fed both without and with addition of PEG, at a dose of 40 g per kg DM, to eight zebu bulls during trials of 25 days in an 8 × 8 randomized crossover design. Supplementation with PEG increased nutrient intake, digestibility, FCR, N retention and average daily gain (p < 0.01). A diet × PEG interaction was observed for nutrient intake as well as for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibility (p < 0.05), but the effect size of PEG addition could not be attributed to the CT content as such, and also digestibility without PEG was not related to CT content of the diets. The reason why the efficacy of PEG addition did not relate to the CT content pointed the need to evaluate other factors that can help to predict the efficacy of PEG, for example, tannin type or interaction with other nutrients.

  4. Histo-morphology of the uterus and early placenta of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and comparative placentome morphology of the African buffalo and cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Gerber, D; Soley, J T; Aire, T A; Boos, A

    2006-08-01

    Differences exist in reproductive physiology between African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The aim of this study was to histo-morphologically compare the anatomy of non-pregnant and pregnant uteri of buffalo and cattle. Two non-pregnant uteri and placentae of six pregnant African buffalo were used. Early placentome formation (fetal crown rump length (CRL): 2-17.5 cm) in S. caffer and B. taurus was compared. The endometrium of buffalo uteri comprises round to ovoid, dome-shaped and gland-free caruncles. A predominantly simple columnar epithelium of non-ciliated cells covers caruncular tissue, while, additionally, ciliated cells occur in the epithelium of the intercaruncular areas and within the simple columnar or pseudostratified epithelium of the endometrial glands. During early gestation, multiple placentomes develop. Unlike the placentomes in cattle at similar CRL, buffalo placentomes do not develop a caruncular stalk. The sessile, dome-shaped buffalo placentome has simple, slightly conical villi branching less than in cattle, thus indicating different and less complex feto-maternal interdigitation than seen in the latter. A synepitheliochorial interhaemal barrier can be expected in the buffalo placenta, as the occurrence and ultrastructure of trophoblast giant cells resemble those described in cattle.

  5. Alginate encapsulation preserves the quality and fertilizing ability of Mediterranean Italian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus) spermatozoa after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Perteghella, Sara; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Cenadelli, Silvia; Bornaghi, Valeria; Galli, Andrea; Crivelli, Barbara; Vigani, Barbara; Vigo, Daniele; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Faustini, Massimo; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2017-03-30

    The use of artificial insemination (AI) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is limited by poor ovarian activity during the hot season, seasonal qualitative patterns in semen, low resistance of sperm cells in the female tract, difficulties in estrus detection, and variable estrus duration. Although AI procedures are commonly used in bovine, use of AI has been limited in buffalo. In the zootechnical field, different studies have been conducted to develop techniques for improvement of fertilizing ability of buffalo spermatozoa after AI. In this study, for the first time, the use of alginate encapsulation and cryopreservation of buffalo spermatozoa is described, and the same procedure was performed with Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus) semen. Results obtained from in vitro analyses indicate that the encapsulation process does not have detrimental effects (compared to controls) on quality parameters (membrane integrity, progressive motility, path average velocity) in either species. Similarly, there were no detrimental effects after cryopreservation in either species. The fertilizing potential of encapsulated and cryopreserved semen was evaluated after AI in 25 buffalo and 113 bovine females. Pregnancy rates were not affected in either species. The results of this study show proof of concept for the use of frozen semen controlled-release devices in buffalo.

  6. Alginate encapsulation preserves the quality and fertilizing ability of Mediterranean Italian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus) spermatozoa after cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Perteghella, Sara; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Cenadelli, Silvia; Bornaghi, Valeria; Galli, Andrea; Crivelli, Barbara; Vigani, Barbara; Vigo, Daniele; Faustini, Massimo; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    The use of artificial insemination (AI) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is limited by poor ovarian activity during the hot season, seasonal qualitative patterns in semen, low resistance of sperm cells in the female tract, difficulties in estrus detection, and variable estrus duration. Although AI procedures are commonly used in bovine, use of AI has been limited in buffalo. In the zootechnical field, different studies have been conducted to develop techniques for improvement of fertilizing ability of buffalo spermatozoa after AI. In this study, for the first time, the use of alginate encapsulation and cryopreservation of buffalo spermatozoa is described, and the same procedure was performed with Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus) semen. Results obtained from in vitro analyses indicate that the encapsulation process does not have detrimental effects (compared to controls) on quality parameters (membrane integrity, progressive motility, path average velocity) in either species. Similarly, there were no detrimental effects after cryopreservation in either species. The fertilizing potential of encapsulated and cryopreserved semen was evaluated after AI in 25 buffalo and 113 bovine females. Pregnancy rates were not affected in either species. The results of this study show proof of concept for the use of frozen semen controlled-release devices in buffalo. PMID:27456772

  7. Ultrasonographic and macroscopic anatomy of the enucleated eyes of the buffalo (Bos bubalis) and the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) of different ages.

    PubMed

    Kassab, A

    2012-02-01

    The ultrasonographic appearance and measurements of the normal buffalo and camel eye globes were described in 60 buffaloes (Bos bubalis) aged 1 year (28 eyes) and 10 years (32 eyes), and in 51 humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) aged 1 year (26 eyes) and 10 years (24 eyes). Ocular measurements were recorded by A- and B-scan ultrasonographic examination of 40 buffalo eyes (18 young and 22 adult eyes) and 34 camel eyes (14 young and 20 adult eyes) using a KANGH ultrasound scanner equipped with 10 MHz probe. For gross measurements, 20 buffalo and 16 camel eye globes were frozen and dissected and the same measurements were made using fine callipers macroscopically. The aqueous and vitreous humour of the buffalo and camel eyes appeared anechoic. The cornea, anterior and posterior lens capsule and iris appeared hyperechoic. The ocular measurements for the axial length, vitreous chamber depth (VCD), corneal thickness, lens thickness and scleroretinal rim thickness increase with the advance of age in both buffaloes and camels. Except for the anterior chamber depth, VCD and lens thickness, which were larger in adult camels than in adult buffaloes, no other differences between ocular dimensions were observed in both species. The results of this study are valuable for comparative ocular anatomy and will be useful for ultrasonographic evaluation of ocular diseases in buffaloes and camels.

  8. A comparison of flat-sheet and hollow-fiber membrane oxygenators: the Shiley M-2000 vs. the Bentley BOS-CM 40.

    PubMed

    Bergdahl, M E; Bergdahl, L A

    1989-01-01

    To compare new flat-sheet and hollow-fiber membrane oxygenators for use in cardiopulmonary bypass, we randomly divided 40 coronary artery surgery patients into 2 groups of 20 patients each. The Shiley M-2000 flat-sheet membrane oxygenator was used in 1 group, and the Bentley BOS-CM40 hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator was used in the other group. Both oxygenators allowed for adequate transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide. At the end of perfusion, the platelet counts were significantly lower and the arterial pH significantly higher in the Shiley group than in the Bentley group. The other hematologic parameters, as well as postoperative blood losses, were similar in the 2 groups, but were also similar to those reported earlier with respect to bubble oxygenators. On the basis of these results, we conclude that, for routine short-term perfusion, these new membrane oxygenator models, while marginally different from one another, offer no real advantage over bubble models.

  9. More efficient mastication allows increasing intake without compromising digestibility or necessitating a larger gut: comparative feeding trials in banteng (Bos javanicus) and pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    The digestion of plant material in mammalian herbivores basically depends on the chemical and structural composition of the diet, the mean particle size to which the forage is processed, and the ingesta retention time. These different factors can be influenced by the animal, and they can presumably compensate for each other. The pygmy hippopotamus, a non-ruminating foregut fermenter, has longer mean retention times than ruminants; however hippos do not achieve higher (fibre) digestibilities on comparable diets, which could be due to ineffective mastication. We performed feeding trials with six pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) and six banteng cattle (Bos javanicus) on a grass diet. As predicted, both species achieved similar dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibilities. However, neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility was lower in pygmy hippos. Apparently, in these species, fibre digestibility was more influenced by particle size, which was larger in pygmy hippos compared to banteng, than by retention time. In spite of their higher relative food intake, the banteng in this study did not have greater relative gut fills than the hippos. Ruminants traditionally appear intake-limited when compared to equids, because feed particles above a certain size cannot leave the rumen. But when compared to nonruminating foregut fermenters, rumination seems to free foregut fermenters from an intrinsic food intake limitation. The higher energy intakes and metabolic rates in wild cattle compared to hippos could have life-history consequences, such as a higher relative reproductive rate.

  10. Ovarian responses in Bos indicus heifers treated to synchronise ovulation with intravaginal progesterone releasing devices, oestradiol benzoate, prostaglandin F(2α) and equine chorionic gonadotrophin.

    PubMed

    Butler, S A A; Phillips, N J; Boe-Hansen, G B; Bo, G A; Burns, B M; Dawson, K; McGowan, M R

    2011-12-01

    The objectives were: (i) improve understanding of the ovarian responses of Bos indicus heifers treated with different ovulation synchronisation protocols, (ii) compare ovarian responses of B. indicus heifers treated with intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD)+oestradiol benzoate (ODB) versus a conventional prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) protocol and (iii) investigate whether reducing the amount of progesterone (P(4)) in the IPRD, and treatment with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) would increase the proportion of heifers with normal ovarian function during the synchronised and return cycles. Two-year-old Brahman (n=30) and Brahman-cross (n=34) heifers were randomly allocated to three IPRD-treatment groups: (i) standard-dose IPRD (Cue-Mate(®) 1.56g P(4); n=17); (ii) half-dose IPRD (Cue-Mate(®) 0.78g P(4); n=15); (iii) half-dose IPRD+300IU eCG at IPRD removal (n=14), and a non-IPRD control group (iv) 2×PGF(2α) (500μg cloprostenol) on Days -16 and -2 (n=18). IPRD-treated heifers received 250μg cloprostenol at IPRD insertion (Day -10) and IPRD removal (Day -2) and 1mg ODB on Days -10 and -1. Ovarian function was evaluated by ultrasonography and plasma P(4) throughout the synchronised and return cycles. The mean diameter of the dominant follicle observed at 54-56h after IPRD removal, was greater for heifers which ovulated than heifers which did not ovulate (P<0.001; 14.5±1.1 vs. 9.3±0.6mm, respectively). The prevalence of IPRD-treated heifers with ovarian dysfunction (persistent CL, failure to re-ovulate, shortened luteal phase) was 39%. This relatively high prevalence of ovarian dysfunction may explain the commonly reported, lower than expected pregnancy rates to FTAI in B. indicus heifers treated to synchronise ovulation.

  11. An interpretive review of selective sweep studies in Bos taurus cattle populations: identification of unique and shared selection signals across breeds

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan J.; Wiener, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles the results of 21 genomic studies of European Bos taurus breeds and thus provides a general picture of the selection signatures in taurine cattle identified by genome-wide selection-mapping scans. By performing a comprehensive summary of the results reported in the literature, we compiled a list of 1049 selection sweeps described across 37 cattle breeds (17 beef breeds, 14 dairy breeds, and 6 dual-purpose breeds), and four different beef-vs.-dairy comparisons, which we subsequently grouped into core selective sweep (CSS) regions, defined as consecutive signals within 1 Mb of each other. We defined a total of 409 CSSs across the 29 bovine autosomes, 232 (57%) of which were associated with a single-breed (Single-breed CSSs), 134 CSSs (33%) were associated with a limited number of breeds (Two-to-Four-breed CSSs) and 39 CSSs (9%) were associated with five or more breeds (Multi-breed CSSs). For each CSS, we performed a candidate gene survey that identified 291 genes within the CSS intervals (from the total list of 5183 BioMart-extracted genes) linked to dairy and meat production, stature, and coat color traits. A complementary functional enrichment analysis of the CSS positional candidates highlighted other genes related to pathways underlying behavior, immune response, and reproductive traits. The Single-breed CSSs revealed an over-representation of genes related to dairy and beef production, this was further supported by over-representation of production-related pathway terms in these regions based on a functional enrichment analysis. Overall, this review provides a comparative map of the selection sweeps reported in European cattle breeds and presents for the first time a characterization of the selection sweeps that are found in individual breeds. Based on their uniqueness, these breed-specific signals could be considered as “divergence signals,” which may be useful in characterizing and protecting livestock genetic diversity. PMID:26029239

  12. A pre-synchronization program at early postpartum might increase the chances of Bos indicus cows cycling prior to 50 days regardless of the length of calf separation

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-TORRES, Libia; RUBIO, Ivette; CORRO, Manuel; COHEN, Abraham; ORIHUELA, Agustín; GALINA, Carlos S.; PABLOS, J. Luis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if pre-synchronization would enhance the number of animals cycling prior to conventional breeding at 45 days irrespective of the length of calf separation. Multiparous Bos indicus cows were allotted in four groups (n = 10). Control group (C) dams remained with their calves; groups G24, G48 and G72, which were partially weaned for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, were estrus synchronized using a controlled internal drug. These procedures were performed at 25 days and again at 45 days postpartum. The number of follicles, presence of a corpus luteum and back fat thickness (BFT) were determined by ultrasound. The proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation at day 25 postpartum was statistically different between the control and treated groups, with the values being 20, 60, 50 and 70 for the control, G24, G48 and G72 groups respectively (P < 0.05). At days 45 postpartum, the proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation was different in group G48 compared with the other groups (P <0.05). The average BFT and body condition score for the four experimental groups in the two periods were similar (P >0.05). Animals with a higher proportion of follicles from 17 to 21 mm, BFT values above 3.5 mm and a regular body condition were significantly different regardless of whether the dams remained with their calves or were separated, regardless of the length of this event. It can be concluded that (1) a pre-synchronization program at day 25 could trigger the onset of ovarian activity and facilitate a breeding program at day 50 and (2) temporary weaning enhances the effect of a pre-synchronization program. PMID:25739397

  13. Genotyping BoLA-DRB3 alleles in Brazilian Dairy Gir cattle (Bos indicus) by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and direct sequencing.

    PubMed

    Da Mota, A F; Martinez, M L; Coutinho, L L

    2004-02-01

    BoLA-DRB3 is a gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in cattle. The product of the BoLA-DRB3 gene is a beta chain of an MHC class II molecule, a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Responses of CD4+ T lymphocytes to peptides are dependent on the presentation of peptide ligands bound to class II molecules on APCs. Genotyping of the BoLA-DRB3 gene is relatively complex due to the extensive polymorphism of this locus. Current techniques for assignment of genotypes are polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), direct sequencing of PCR products, cloning-sequencing, polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP), and denaturant-gradient gel electrophoresis. These techniques are time-consuming, do not discriminate all possible alleles, or are not readily reproducible. The objective of this study was to genotype BoLA-DRB3 using temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) to separate alleles before sequencing. PCRs using 28 DNA samples from Gir Dairy cattle (a Brazilian breed of Bos indicus) were submitted to TGGE. New PCR products were generated from separated alleles, purified, and sequenced. Allele separation was possible in 21 out of 26 heterozygote samples (81%). Results indicate that two sequence reads (forward and reverse) were sufficient for accurate genotyping of BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Separation of alleles by TGGE provides high-throughput, reliable typing of BoLA-DRB3, which is critical in disease association studies in cattle.

  14. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Anaplasma marginale in zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks (Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus microplus) from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Pothmann, Daniela; Poppert, Sven; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Hogan, Benedikt; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Thiel, Claudia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    Tick-borne bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), is a major constraint to cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions. From Madagascar, clinical cases were published but data based on molecular methods regarding the prevalence and genetic diversity of this pathogen on the island are lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the prevalence of A. marginale in Malagasy zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks with a species-specific real-time PCR, (2) the genetic diversity of A. marginale based on tandem repeats and microsatellites of the msp1α gene, and (3) the phylogenetic relationship between A. marginale isolates from Madagascar and strains found worldwide. Two hundred fourteen blood samples and 1822 ticks from 214 zebu cattle were collected. Rhipicephalus (R) microplus (40.2%) and Amblyomma (A) variegatum (59.8%) were identified on the cattle. A. marginale DNA was found in 89.7% of the examined zebu cattle and in 62.3% of the examined ticks. The tandem repeat and microsatellite analyses of the mspa1 gene showed high genetic diversity among the isolates between and within the different regions and high infection potential. Eighteen of the 25 tandem repeats identified have not been described before. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of A. marginale strains from Madagascar with South Africa, America and Israel. A common ancestor may originate from South Africa and may have evolved due to phylogeographic characteristics or by a history of cattle movement. Its high prevalence in cattle and ticks, together with a low number of clinical manifestations and a high genetic heterogeneity among the investigated strains, confirms endemic stability of A. marginale in cattle from Madagascar.

  15. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations.

  16. Expression profiling of major heat shock protein genes during different seasons in cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) under tropical climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ashraf, Syma; Goud, T Sridhar; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2015-07-01

    Heat shock proteins consist of highly conserved stress proteins, expressed in response to stress and play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and adaptation. The present study was conducted to identify major types of genes under the HSP70 family and other HSPs and to evaluate their expression pattern in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with respect to different seasons. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the transcript variants of three HSP70 family genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B, and HSPA8) and HSP10, HSP60, HSP90 and HSF1 in each breed. The major finding of this study was the higher abundance of all the studied HSP genes during summer and winter compared to spring season, but the magnitude of increase was higher during summer as compared to winter. HSPA1A and HSPA1B genes showed maximal induction (P<0.001) during summer and winter while HSP60 and HSP10 were found to be the second most abundantly expressed HSPs. The relative mRNA abundance of HSF1 significantly increased (P<0.001) in Murrah buffalo compared to Tharparkar and Sahiwal cattle during summer and winter. Expression pattern of heat shock protein genes indicated that amongst the breeds, the expression was higher in Murrah buffalo compared to Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle, thereby indicating the more adaptive capacity of later during periods of stress. Hence, this study suggests that heat shock protein genes may be conveniently used as biomarkers for assessing stress response in cattle and buffalo and the expression is species and breed-specific. Furthermore, the variation in expression is associated with heat tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions.

  17. Ovum pick up, in vitro embryo production, and pregnancy rates from a large-scale commercial program using Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) donors.

    PubMed

    Pontes, J H F; Melo Sterza, F A; Basso, A C; Ferreira, C R; Sanches, B V; Rubin, K C P; Seneda, M M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to clarify in vitro production of bovine embryos in Brazil. Data from 656 ovum pick-up/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) procedures, performed on 317 Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, without hormone stimulation or control of ovarian follicular waves, were analysed. Donors were subjected to OPU from one to nine times (no specific schedule), with < 15 d between consecutive procedures. There were 20,848 oocytes, of which 15,747 (75.53%) were considered viable, 5,446 embryos were obtained, 5,398 embryos were immediately transferred, resulting in 1,974 pregnancies (36.57%) at Day 30 and 1,788 (33.12%) pregnancies at Day 60. The average number of total and viable oocytes produced per OPU session was (mean ± SEM) 30.84 ± 0.88 and 23.35 ± 0.7 (average of 8.1 ± 0.3 embryos and 3.0 ± 0.1 pregnancies per OPU-IVP procedure). Since oocyte production varied widely among donor, they were designated as very high, high, intermediate, and low, with 58.94 ± 2.04, 32.61 ± 0.50, 22.13 ± 0.50, and 10.26 ± 0.57 oocytes, respectively, produced by 78, 80, 79, and 80 donors. The number of viable oocytes recovered ranged from 0 to 128; since donors with numerous viable oocytes produced many viable embryos and pregnancies, oocyte production was useful for donor selection. However, there was no significant effect of the number of OPU sessions per donor on mean numbers of oocytes produced. In conclusion, we confirmed field reports of high oocyte production by some Nelore donors and demonstrated individual variation in oocyte yield, which was associated with embryo production and pregnancy rates.

  18. Excretion patterns of fluid and different sized particle passage markers in banteng (Bos javanicus) and pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis): two functionally different foregut fermenters.

    PubMed

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-05-01

    Processing of ingesta particles plays a crucial role in the digestive physiology of herbivores. In the ruminant forestomach different sized particles are stratified into a small and a large particle fraction and only the latter is regurgitated and remasticated to smaller, easier-to-digest particles. In contrast, it has been suggested that in non-ruminating foregut fermenters, such as hippopotamuses, larger particles should be selectively excreted since they tend to be digested at a slower rate and hence can be considered intake-limiting bulk. In our study we determined the mean retention time (MRT) of fluids and different sized particles (2 mm and 10 mm) in six pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) and six banteng (Bos javanicus) on a diet of fresh grass at two intake levels. We used cobalt ethylendiamintetraacetate (Co-EDTA) as fluid and chromium (Cr)-mordanted fibre (2 mm) and cerium (Ce)-mordanted fibre (10 mm) as particle markers, mixed in the food. Average total tract MRT for fluid, small and large particles at the high intake level was 32, 76 and 73 h in pygmy hippos and 25, 56 and 60 h in banteng, and at the low intake level 39, 109, and 105 h in pygmy hippos and 22, 51 and 58 h in banteng, respectively. In accordance with the prediction, large particles moved faster than, or as fast as the small particles, through the gut of pygmy hippos. In contrast, large particles were excreted slower than the small particles in the ruminant of this study, the banteng. Pygmy hippos had longer retention times than the banteng, which probably compensate for the less efficient particle size reduction. Although the results were not as distinct as expected, most likely due to the fact that ingestive mastication of the larger particle marker could not be prevented, they confirm our hypothesis of a functional difference in selective particle retention between ruminating and non-ruminating foregut fermenters.

  19. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East. Methodology Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17) and Domiaty (N = 14), from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i) most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s); (ii) haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades. PMID:26513361

  20. The Enigmatic Origin of Bovine mtDNA Haplogroup R: Sporadic Interbreeding or an Independent Event of Bos primigenius Domestication in Italy?

    PubMed Central

    Bonfiglio, Silvia; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Negrini, Riccardo; Colli, Licia; Liotta, Luigi; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Torroni, Antonio; Ferretti, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Background When domestic taurine cattle diffused from the Fertile Crescent, local wild aurochsen (Bos primigenius) were still numerous. Moreover, aurochsen and introduced cattle often coexisted for millennia, thus providing potential conditions not only for spontaneous interbreeding, but also for pastoralists to create secondary domestication centers involving local aurochs populations. Recent mitochondrial genomes analyses revealed that not all modern taurine mtDNAs belong to the shallow macro-haplogroup T of Near Eastern origin, as demonstrated by the detection of three branches (P, Q and R) radiating prior to the T node in the bovine phylogeny. These uncommon haplogroups represent excellent tools to evaluate if sporadic interbreeding or even additional events of cattle domestication occurred. Methodology The survey of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region variation of 1,747 bovine samples (1,128 new and 619 from previous studies) belonging to 37 European breeds allowed the identification of 16 novel non-T mtDNAs, which after complete genome sequencing were confirmed as members of haplogroups Q and R. These mtDNAs were then integrated in a phylogenetic tree encompassing all available P, Q and R complete mtDNA sequences. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses of 28 mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups P (N = 2), Q (N = 16) and R (N = 10) together with an extensive survey of all previously published mtDNA datasets revealed major similarities between haplogroups Q and T. Therefore, Q most likely represents an additional minor lineage domesticated in the Near East together with the founders of the T subhaplogroups. Whereas, haplogroup R is found, at least for the moment, only in Italy and nowhere else, either in modern or ancient samples, thus supporting an origin from European aurochsen. Haplogroup R could have been acquired through sporadic interbreeding of wild and domestic animals, but our data do not rule out the possibility of a local

  1. A novel mutation in the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain results in a loss of MIMT1 expression and causes abortions and stillbirths in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Venhoranta, Heli; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; McKay, Stephanie D; Flyckt, Antti; Taponen, Juhani; Schnabel, Robert; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Szczerbal, Izabela; Lohi, Hannes; Fries, Ruedi; Taylor, Jeremy F; Switonski, Marek; Andersson, Magnus

    2010-11-30

    Congenital malformations resulting in late abortions and stillbirths affect the economic wellbeing of producers and the welfare of cattle in breeding programs. An extremely high incidence of stillbirths of "half-sized" calves of normal karyotype and uninflated lungs was diagnosed in the progeny of the Finnish Ayrshire (Bos taurus) bull--YN51. No other visible anatomical abnormalities were apparent in the stillborn calves. We herein describe the positional identification of a 110 kb microdeletion in the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain that results in a loss of paternal MIMT1 expression and causes late term abortion and stillbirth in cattle. Using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip we performed a genome-wide half-sib linkage analysis that identified a 13.3 Mb associated region on BTA18 containing the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain. Within this cluster we found a 110 kb microdeletion that removes a part of the non-protein coding MER1 repeat containing imprinted transcript 1 gene (MIMT1). To confirm the elimination of gene expression in calves inheriting this deletion, we examined the mRNA levels of the three maternally imprinted genes within the PEG3 domain, in brain and cotyledon tissue collected from eight fetuses sired by the proband. None of the fetuses that inherited the microdeletion expressed MIMT1 in either tissue. The mutation, when inherited from the sire, is semi-lethal for his progeny with an observed mortality rate of 85%. The survival of 15% is presumably due to the incomplete silencing of maternally inherited MIMT1 alleles. We designed a PCR-based assay to confirm the existence of the microdeletion in the MIMT1 region that can be used to assist cattle breeders in preventing the stillbirths.

  2. Comparison of 37 months global net radiation flux derived from PICARD-BOS over the same period observations of CERES and ARGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The absolute level of the global net radiation flux (NRF) is fixed at the level of [0.5-1.0] Wm-2 based on the ocean heat content measurements [1]. The space derived global NRF is at the same order of magnitude than the ocean [2]. Considering the atmosphere has a negligible effects on the global NRF determination, the surface global NRF is consistent with the values determined from space [3]. Instead of studying the absolute level of the global NRF, we focus on the interannual variation of global net radiation flux, which were derived from the PICARD-BOS experiment and its comparison with values over the same period but obtained from the NASA-CERES system and inferred from the ocean heat content survey by ARGO network. [1] Allan, Richard P., Chunlei Liu, Norman G. Loeb, Matthew D. Palmer, Malcolm Roberts, Doug Smith, and Pier-Luigi Vidale (2014), Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985-2012, Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (no.15), 5588-5597. [2] Loeb, Norman G., John M. Lyman, Gregory C. Johnson, Richard P. Allan, David R. Doelling, Takmeng Wong, Brian J. Soden, and Graeme L. Stephens (2012), Observed changes in top-of-the-atmosphere radiation and upper-ocean heating consistent within uncertainty, Nature Geoscience, 5 (no.2), 110-113. [3] Wild, Martin, Doris Folini, Maria Z. Hakuba, Christoph Schar, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Seiji Kato, David Rutan, Christof Ammann, Eric F. Wood, and Gert Konig-Langlo (2015), the energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models, Climate Dynamics, 44 (no.11-12), 3393-3429.

  3. Association of heat shock protein 90 with the developmental competence of immature oocytes following Cryotop and solid surface vitrification in yaks (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Pan, Yangyang; Cui, Yan; Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Fan, Jiangfeng; He, Junfeng; Zhang, Yifu; Zheng, Hongfei; Li, Guyue; Yu, Sijiu

    2015-08-01

    The correlation between the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP90) and the developmental competence of yak (Bos grunniens) oocytes following the process of vitrification has not been studied clearly. In the present study, we compare the efficacies of Cryotop (CT) and solid surface vitrification (SSV) methods for the cryopreservation of immature yak oocytes. Yak cumulus oocyte complexes were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) controls, (2) CT vitrification, and (3) SSV vitrification. Oocytes were vitrified and in vitro maturated and fertilized. The percentages of nuclear maturation and in vitro development were evaluated. The vitrified-warmed oocytes were evaluated for mRNA and protein expression levels of HSP90 using quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting at various stages: matured oocytes, 2-8 cells embryos and blastocysts. No difference was found in the percentages of nuclear maturation, cleavage or blastocyst in the two vitrified groups; however, the rates of maturation were significantly lower than those in the control group. Among the three groups, the maturation rates in CT: 51.14±0.86% and SSV: 50.82±1.34% were less than those of the controls: 69.65±1.13%; the cleavage rates in CT: 39.16±1.01% and SSV: 39.08±0.92%, were less than those of the controls: 58.14±0.76%; but the blastocysts rates and total cell number in the blastocysts were similar: CT: 32.20±0.73% and 104.6±3.72; SSV: 32.35±0.81% and 102.4±1.34; and controls: 34.38±1.32% and 103.8±4.13, respectively. The HSP90 expression level in the matured oocytes and 2-8 cell embryos of the control group was significantly higher than that in the two vitrified groups; there was not significant difference in the blastocysts in the three groups. We thus conclude that CT and SSV perform equally in the vitrification of immature yak oocytes during the process of cryopreservation, and their influence on oocytes mainly occured from the maturation to cleavage stages. The HSP90 levels in the

  4. Multispecific Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1) from Bos taurus Has High Affinity and Slow Binding Kinetics towards Prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao; Garza, Denisse; Nigam, Sanjay K.; Chang, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, SLC22A1), like many solute carrier 22 (SLC22) family members, is important for the disposition of clinically important drugs, metabolites and signaling molecules. Several studies suggest that SLC22 family (eg. organic anion transporters or OATs and OCTs) bind and possibly transport prostaglandins with relatively high affinity (submicromolar). The affinities of OCT1 and OATs toward PGE2 and PGF2a reported in these cell-based transport studies are considerably greater than for xenobiotics and natural metabolite substrates—in many cases over 100-fold higher. This raises the possibility that prostaglandins are key endogenous substrates and/or that they act on the transporter in a manner different from other substrates such as xenobiotics and lower affinity metabolites. To further investigate OCT1—prostaglandin interactions, we designed biophysical studies using purified bovine OCT1 (Bos taurus, btOCT1/SLC22A1) with PGE2 analogs, in fluorescently labeled and label-free formats. Using fluorescence polarization (FP), we detected a binding of btOCT1 to the PGE2-Rhodamine conjugate at submicromolar affinity, consistent with affinity data for PGE2 from cells over-expressing the related human OCT1. Using purified native btOCT1 as analyte and biotinylated PGE2 analog as ligand, our data from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that btOCT1 specifically interacts to PGE2 with KD values in the hundred nanomolar range. BtOCT1 also demonstrated a slow association (ka) in the range of 103 M-1s-1 and an even slower dissociation rate (kd) in the range of 10−4 s-1 for PGE2, suggesting the possibility of a different mode of binding compared to other structurally unrelated transported substrates of low-affinity (eg. drugs, metabolites). Our results complement in vitro transport studies and provide direct evidence that OCT1—which is normally expressed in liver and other tissues—interacts with prostaglandin analogs. While it is not

  5. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on feedlot performance of Bos taurus feeder cattle originated from a rangeland-based cow-calf system.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C L; Cooke, R F; Marques, R S; Mills, R R; Bohnert, D W

    2012-12-01

    = 0.03) and tended to have decreased DMI (P = 0.07) compared with controls. Acclimated steers had greater plasma haptoglobin on d 4 (P = 0.04) and greater ceruloplasmin from d 0 to 10 (P ≤ 0.04) and tended to have greater cortisol on d 1 (P = 0.08) than controls. In conclusion, temperament affects productivity of beef operations based on Bos taurus feeder cattle reared in extensive rangeland systems until weaning whereas acclimation to handling ameliorated cattle temperament but did not benefit feedlot receiving performance.

  6. Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, G A; Martini, A P; Carloto, G W; Rodrigues, M C C; Claro Júnior, I; Baruselli, P S; Brauner, C C; Rubin, M I B; Corrêa, M N; Leivas, F G; Sá Filho, M F

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of different doses of eCG (control, 300 or 400 IU) administered at progesterone (P4) device removal in suckled Bos taurus beef cows undergoing a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. A total of 966 cows received a P4 insert and 2.0 mg intramuscular estradiol benzoate at the onset of the synchronization. After 9 days, P4 insert was removed, and 12.5 mg of dinoprost tromethamine and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, followed by TAI 48 hours later. Then, the cows received one of three treatments as follows: control (n = 323), 300 (n = 326), or 400 IU of eCG (n = 317). A subset (n = 435) of cows in anestrus had their ovaries evaluated using ultrasound at the time of P4 removal and at TAI. Data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts (C): C1 (eCG effect) and C2 (eCG dose effect). Estrous occurrence (control = 53.7%, 300 IU = 70.6%, and 400 IU = 77.0%) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (control = 29.7%, 300 IU = 44.8%, and 400 IU = 47.6%) were improved by eCG treatment (C1; P = 0.0004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, the cows receiving eCG presented larger follicles at TAI (control = 13.5 ± 0.3 mm, 300 IU = 14.0 ± 0.2 mm, and 400 IU = 15.1 ± 0.3 mm; P < 0.0001; C1). However, there was no effect of eCG dose on any response variables studied (C2; P > 0.15). In conclusion, the eCG treatment administered at the time of P4 removal increased the occurrence of estrus, the larger follicles at TAI, and pregnancy per artificial insemination of suckled B taurus beef cows. Despite the greater occurrence of estrus in noncyclic cows receiving 400 IU of eCG, both eCG doses (300 and 400 IU) were equally efficient to improve pregnancy to artificial insemination.

  7. Multispecific Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1) from Bos taurus Has High Affinity and Slow Binding Kinetics towards Prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao; Garza, Denisse; Nigam, Sanjay K; Chang, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, SLC22A1), like many solute carrier 22 (SLC22) family members, is important for the disposition of clinically important drugs, metabolites and signaling molecules. Several studies suggest that SLC22 family (eg. organic anion transporters or OATs and OCTs) bind and possibly transport prostaglandins with relatively high affinity (submicromolar). The affinities of OCT1 and OATs toward PGE2 and PGF2a reported in these cell-based transport studies are considerably greater than for xenobiotics and natural metabolite substrates--in many cases over 100-fold higher. This raises the possibility that prostaglandins are key endogenous substrates and/or that they act on the transporter in a manner different from other substrates such as xenobiotics and lower affinity metabolites. To further investigate OCT1-prostaglandin interactions, we designed biophysical studies using purified bovine OCT1 (Bos taurus, btOCT1/SLC22A1) with PGE2 analogs, in fluorescently labeled and label-free formats. Using fluorescence polarization (FP), we detected a binding of btOCT1 to the PGE2-Rhodamine conjugate at submicromolar affinity, consistent with affinity data for PGE2 from cells over-expressing the related human OCT1. Using purified native btOCT1 as analyte and biotinylated PGE2 analog as ligand, our data from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that btOCT1 specifically interacts to PGE2 with KD values in the hundred nanomolar range. BtOCT1 also demonstrated a slow association (ka) in the range of 103 M(-1) s(-1) and an even slower dissociation rate (kd) in the range of 10-4 s(-1) for PGE2, suggesting the possibility of a different mode of binding compared to other structurally unrelated transported substrates of low-affinity (eg. drugs, metabolites). Our results complement in vitro transport studies and provide direct evidence that OCT1--which is normally expressed in liver and other tissues--interacts with prostaglandin analogs. While it is not

  8. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born.

  9. Tissue-specific and minor inter-individual variation in imprinting of IGF2R is a common feature of Bos taurus Concepti and not correlated with fetal weight.

    PubMed

    Bebbere, Daniela; Bauersachs, Stefan; Fürst, Rainer W; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Medugorac, Ivica; Ulbrich, Susanne E; Wolf, Eckhard; Ledda, Sergio; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) is essential for prenatal growth regulation and shows gene dosage effects on fetal weight that can be affected by in-vitro embryo culture. Imprinted maternal expression of murine Igf2r is well documented for all fetal tissues excluding brain, but polymorphic imprinting and biallelic expression were reported for IGF2R in human. These differences have been attributed to evolutionary changes correlated with specific reproductive strategies. However, data from species suitable for testing this hypothesis are lacking. The domestic cow (Bos taurus) carries a single conceptus with a similar gestation length as human. We identified 12 heterozygous concepti informative for imprinting studies among 68 Bos taurus fetuses at Day 80 of gestation (28% term) and found predominantly maternal IGF2R expression in all fetal tissues but brain, which escapes imprinting. Inter-individual variation in allelic expression bias, i.e. expression of the repressed paternal allele relative to the maternal allele, ranged from 4.6-8.9% in heart, 4.3-10.2% in kidney, 6.1-11.2% in liver, 4.6-15.8% in lung and 3.2-12.2% in skeletal muscle. Allelic bias for mesodermal tissues (heart, skeletal muscle) differed significantly (P<0.05) from endodermal tissues (liver, lung). The placenta showed partial imprinting with allelic bias of 22.9-34.7% and differed significantly (P<0.001) from all other tissues. Four informative fetuses were generated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with embryo culture and two individuals displayed fetal overgrowth. However, there was no evidence for changes in imprinting or DNA methylation after IVF, or correlations between allelic bias and fetal weight. In conclusion, imprinting of Bos taurus IGF2R is similar to mouse except in placenta, which could indicate an effect of reproductive strategy. Common minor inter-individual variation in allelic bias and absence of imprinting abnormalities in IVF fetuses suggest changes in IGF2R

  10. Identification and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci for growth traits on bovine chromosomes 2, 6, 14, 19, 21, and 23 within one commercial line of Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Kneeland, J; Li, C; Basarab, J; Snelling, W M; Benkel, B; Murdoch, B; Hansen, C; Moore, S S

    2004-12-01

    We report the identification and fine mapping of QTL for birth weight (BWT), preweaning ADG (PWADG), and postweaning ADG on feed (ADGF) in a commercial line of Bos taurus using an identical-by-descent haplotype sharing method. One hundred seventy-six calves of 12 bulls (9 to 30 male calves from each sire) of the Beefbooster, Inc., M1 line were typed using 71 genetic markers from bovine chromosomes (BTA) 2, 6, 14, 19, 21, and 23 (8 to 16 markers from each chromosome). Sixteen haplotypes were found to have significant (P <0.05) associations with BWT at the comparison-wise threshold. The 16 haplotypes span 13 chromosomal regions, two on BTA 2 (9.1 to 22.5 cM and 95.0 to 100.3 cM), three on BTA 6 (8.2 to 11.8 cM, 35.5 to 49.7 cM, and 83.0 to 86.2 cM), three on BTA 14 (26.0 to 26.7 cM, 36.2 to 46.2 cM, and 52.0 to 67.7 cM), one on BTA 19 (52.0 to 52.7 cM), two on BTA 21 (9.9 to 20.4 cM and 28.2 to 46.1 cM), and two on BTA 23 (23.9 to 36.0 cM and 45.1 to 50.9 cM). Thirteen haplotypes spanning seven chromosomal regions significantly affected (P <0.05) PWADG at the comparison-wise threshold. The seven chromosomal regions include two regions on BTA 6 (11.8 to 44.2 cM and 83.0 to 86.2 cM), one on BTA 14 (26.7 to 50.8 cM), one on BTA 19 (4.8 to 15.9 cM), one on BTA 21 (9.9 to 20.4 cM), and two on BTA 23 (17.3 to 36.0 cM and 45.1 to 50.9 cM). For ADGF, 11 haplotypes were identified to have significant associations (P <0.05) at the comparison-wise threshold. The 11 haplotypes represented eight chromosomal regions, one on BTA 2 (9.1 to 22.5 cM), two on BTA 6 (49.7 to 50.1 cM and 59.6 to 63.6 cM), two on BTA 14 (17.0 to 24.0 cM and 36.2 to 46.2 cM), two on BTA 19 (52.0 to 52.7 cM and 65.1 to 65.7 cM), and one on BTA 21 (46.1 to 53.1 cM). The QTL regions identified and fine mapped in this study will provide a reference for future positional candidate gene research and marker-assisted selection of various growth traits.

  11. [Study of genetic variation in Yakutian cattle (Bos taurus L.) using the prolactin bPRL, growth hormone bGH, and transcription factor bPit-1 genes].

    PubMed

    Lazebnaia, I V; Lazebnyĭ, O E; Sulimova, G E

    2010-03-01

    The genetic structure of the Yakutian cattle breed was studied using the following genes: bPRL (RsaI site in exon 3), bGH (AluI site in exon 5), and bPit-1 (HinfI site in exon 6). The values of observed heterozygosity were 0.36 for bPRL, 0.29 for bGH, and 0.16 for bPit-1. These values are within the range of values for this parameter established for a number of Bos taurus breeds. The results obtained show that genetic variation is preserved in this aboriginal Russian breed, despite a catastrophic reduction of the number of animals.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1(CCL2) genes: SNPs distribution analysis in Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra; Sharma, Anurodh; Kataria, R S; Verma, N K; Kimothi, Shiv Prasad; Bhatia, Avnish Kumar; Sodhi, Monika; Behl, Rahul; Joshi, B K

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4) that recognizes the Gram negative bacterial ligand LPS was sequenced in the Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed. Ninety four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected within 10.8 kb gene region. Seventeen of the SNPs were in the coding regions and the one at position 9589(A > G) in exon3 resulted in an amino acid change from Valine to Isoleucine. These SNPs led to generation of 27 TLR4 gene haplotypes. All the Sahiwal animals studied presently showed the occurrence of the genotype CC at gene position 9662, which codes for the amino acid threonine at position 674 of the TLR4 protein, and which had been reported to be associated with lower somatic cell score and, therefore, a lower susceptibility to mastitis, in Taurus cattle. This nucleotide configuration of the Toll-like receptor 4 gene of the Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed could possibly indicate toward a lower susceptibility to mastitis in the Sahiwal animals. Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (CCL2) gene encoding for small inducible cytokine A2 that belongs to the CC chemokine family was also sequence characterized in these Sahiwal animals. The CCL2 gene was observed to have 12 polymorphic sites in 3.3 kb region of which one SNP at position 2500 (A > G) in exon 3 resulted in amino acid change from Valine to Isoleucine at position 46 of the mature CCL2 peptide. Seventeen haplotypes of the CCL2 gene were predicted corresponding to 12 genotypes detected.

  13. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  14. Ambienti Circumstellari ed Interstellari di Supernovae di vario Tipo ed Applicazioni Astrofisiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffi, Francesca R.

    Nella presente tesi vengono studiati gli ambienti circumstellari ed interstellari di supernovae (anche SNe; singolare SN) di vario tipo. In particolare si descrivono alcune applicazioni astrofisiche, relative a questi ambienti, che permettono di desumere informazioni sui sistemi stellari progenitori delle supernovae o di determinare le distanze a tali oggetti. L' emissione radio da supernovae, prodotta nell' ambiente circumstellare ad opera dell'interazione idrodinamica del gas di SN con l' ambiente circostante, puo' essere impiegata come mezzo di indagine del sistema di pre-supernova. In particolare si e' introdotta l'idea che tale emissione possa essere impiegata nel caso delle SNe di tipo Ia come test dei sistemi progenitori di tipo simbiotico. Il test e' stato effettuato sulla SN 1986G, per la quale avevamo ottenuto limiti superiori a lunghezze d'onda radio. Nel caso che un sistema simbiotico sia responsabile di una SN Ia, l'interazione tra l' ejecta e una shell circumstellare origina, in un'epoca molto prossima al massimo di luce, un'emissione radio rivelabile con strumenti tipo Very Large Array. Inoltre l'emissione radio fornisce informazioni circa gli stadi di pre-supernova nel caso di altri tipi di supernova. In questo lavoro di tesi vengono presentati i risultati ottenuti nel caso delle SNe di tipo II 1984E e 1986E. Queste due SNe non mostrano emissione radio: la prima, in prossimita del massimo ottico, stava interagendo con una shell circumstellare prodotta da un episodio di perdita di massa di breve durata in fase di pre-supernova; la seconda, invece e' la prima SN ``vecchia'' ad essere rivelata nell' ottico ma non nel radio (l' oggetto non ha ancora iniziato la fase di supernova remnant ed emette radiazione ottica prodotta ancora per interazione circumstellare). In ambiente circum-interstellare, gli echi di luce, prodotti dallo scattering della luce della supernova ad opera della polvere presente, possono essere utilizzati per determinare le distanze

  15. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in a captive facility housing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), cattle (Bos taurus), and goats (Capra hircus) in Colorado, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Kato, Cecilia; Reeves, Will K; Rhyan, Jack; Spraker, Terry; Gidlewski, Thomas; VerCauteren, Kurt; Salman, Mo

    2010-09-01

    An ungulate research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) because of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection from 20 August 2007 through 26 September 2007. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from the spleen and lung tissues of two white-tailed deer. Virus neutralization tests were performed on pre- and postoutbreak sera from other species maintained in the same facility, including bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and domestic goats (Capra hircus), as well as postoutbreak sera from the surviving white-tailed deer. Serum samples that represented all species in the facility neutralized EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 either before or after the outbreak. The animals that neutralized EHDV-1 did not neutralize EHDV-2. No clinical signs attributable to EHDV infection were noted in any of the species other than the deer during the outbreak. Although experimental EHDV infections have been reported in bison and elk, natural exposures have not been previously documented in these species in North America. The roles that elk, bison, cattle, and goats might play in the epidemiology of EHDV in a close-contact multispecies situation remain unknown.

  16. Effect of species-specific differences in chromosome morphology on chromatin compaction and the frequency and distribution of RAD51 and MLH1 foci in two bovid species: cattle (Bos taurus) and the common eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Sebestova, Hana; Vozdova, Miluse; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Kotrba, Radim; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-03-01

    Meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes is crucial for their correct segregation into gametes and for generating diversity. We compared the frequency and distribution of MLH1 foci and RAD51 foci, synaptonemal complex (SC) length and DNA loop size in two related Bovidae species that share chromosome arm homology but show an extreme difference in their diploid chromosome number: cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60) and the common eland (Taurotragus oryx, 2nmale = 31). Compared to cattle, significantly fewer MLH1 foci per cell were observed in the common eland, which can be attributed to the lower number of initial double-strand breaks (DSBs) detected as RAD51 foci in leptonema. Despite the significantly shorter total autosomal SC length and longer DNA loop size of the common eland bi-armed chromosomes compared to those of bovine acrocentrics, the overall crossover density in the common eland was still lower than in cattle, probably due to the reduction in the number of MLH1 foci in the proximal regions of the bi-armed chromosomes. The formation of centric fusions during karyotype evolution of the common eland accompanied by meiotic chromatin compaction has greater implications in the reduction in the number of DSBs in leptonema than in the decrease of MLH1 foci number in pachynema.

  17. Perfiles de luminosidad en galaxias con núcleo tipo Seyfert 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N.; Rodriguez-Ardilla, A. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    Presentamos imágenes CCD en los filtros BVI y Hα de una muestra de 10 galaxias Seyfert 1 y Narrow Line Seyfert 1. Recientes observaciones muestran que hay una diferencia significante en el índice espectral óptico entre NLS1s y Sy1 normales, siendo para las primeras del orden de 2. Otra característica importante es que la mayor parte de las NLS1s muestran tasas de FeII/Hβ mayores que las observadas en otras Sy1s. Desde el punto de vista fotométrico, estas galaxias no tienenningún tipo de estudio previo. Presentamos magnitudes totales, perfiles de luminosidad y mapas de color junto con un detallado análisis de la formación estelar en estos objetos. Encontramos que la descomposición en bulbo + disco representa adecuadamente los perfiles de luminosidad de las galaxias de la muestra. Sin embargo, en todos los casos es necesario que el disco tenga un agujero en su centro. El radio de este agujero va desde los 3 a los 9 kpc. Si bien no tenemos aún una explicación para este hecho, los agujeros parecen estar asociados a anillos circumnucleares de alto oscurecimiento E(B-V) ~1. Los perfiles presentan también un fuerte gradiente de color, siendo notablemente más azules hacia la región nuclear. Los objetos de la muestra cubren todo el rango de tipos morfológicos, no obstante, no encontramos regiones de formación estelar en las regiones exteriores de las galaxias. La formación estelar está confinada a la región nuclear y se data en alrededor de 5 x 107 años.

  18. Novel polymorphisms in UTR and coding region of inducible heat shock protein 70.1 gene in tropically adapted Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Kishore, A; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S; Joshi, B K

    2013-09-25

    Due to evolutionary divergence, cattle (taurine, and indicine) and buffalo are speculated to have different responses to heat stress condition. Variation in candidate genes associated with a heat-shock response may provide an insight into the dissimilarity and suggest targets for intervention. The present work was undertaken to characterize one of the inducible heat shock protein genes promoter and coding regions in diverse breeds of Indian zebu cattle and buffaloes. The genomic DNA from a panel of 117 unrelated animals representing 14 diversified native cattle breeds and 6 buffalo breeds were utilized to determine the complete sequence and gene diversity of HSP70.1 gene. The coding region of HSP70.1 gene in Indian zebu cattle, Bos taurus and buffalo was similar in length (1,926 bp) encoding a HSP70 protein of 641 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight (Mw) of 70.26 kDa. However buffalo had a longer 5' and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of 204 and 293 nucleotides respectively, in comparison to Indian zebu cattle and Bos taurus wherein length of 5' and 3'-UTR was 172 and 286 nucleotides, respectively. The increased length of buffalo HSP70.1 gene compared to indicine and taurine gene was due to two insertions each in 5' and 3'-UTR. Comparative sequence analysis of cattle (taurine and indicine) and buffalo HSP70.1 gene revealed a total of 54 gene variations (50 SNPs and 4 INDELs) among the three species in the HSP70.1 gene. The minor allele frequencies of these nucleotide variations varied from 0.03 to 0.5 with an average of 0.26. Among the 14 B. indicus cattle breeds studied, a total of 19 polymorphic sites were identified: 4 in the 5'-UTR and 15 in the coding region (of these 2 were non-synonymous). Analysis among buffalo breeds revealed 15 SNPs throughout the gene: 6 at the 5' flanking region and 9 in the coding region. In bubaline 5'-UTR, 2 additional putative transcription factor binding sites (Elk-1 and C-Re1) were identified, other than three common sites

  19. Evidence for different nutrient partitioning in Boran (Bos indicus) and Boran x Holstein cows when re-allocated from low to high or from high to low feeding level.

    PubMed

    Jenet, A; Fernandez-Rivera, S; Tegegne, A; Wettstein, H-R; Senn, M; Saurer, M; Langhans, W; Kreuzer, M

    2006-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that purebred Boran (Bos indicus) cows and crossbreds of Boran and Holstein respond differently to long-term changes of feeding level in nutrient partitioning to milk and body fat stores. A total of 27 cows of these two genotypes were subjected either to a low or a high feeding level from their first oestrus as heifers until birth of their third calf. Half of the cows of each genotype were then switched to the other feeding level during the third reproduction cycle. If at all, Boran cows responded to a change in the feeding level almost exclusively by a corresponding change in body weight but not milk yield. Crossbred cows kept continuously on the low feeding level had a lower milk yield than those continuously fed the high level, but lost similar amounts of body weight. In crossbred cows, changing the feeding level from high to low was accompanied by a mobilization of body reserves, whereas a change from low to high level resulted mostly in an increase in milk yield. Certain other genotype differences in metabolic response were obvious from differences in body composition and from the metabolic profile either reflected in blood (particularly insulin-like growth factor I) or in adipose tissue (lipoprotein lipase). Reproductive performance differed between genotypes, with shorter lactations associated with earlier occurrences of the first oestrus in the Boran cows. Generally, feeding history appeared to have at least as much influence on energy partitioning as the actual feeding level. In conclusion, purebred Boran cows seem to react to long-term food fluctuations mainly by mobilizing and restoring body fat reserves, whereas cows crossbred with Holstein tend to spend extra energy preferentially for milk production.

  20. The effect of size and density on the mean retention time of particles in the reticulorumen of cattle ( Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen ( Ovibos moschatus) and moose ( Alces alces).

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Lechner, Isabel; Barboza, Perry; Collins, William; Tervoort, Theo A; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Particle passage from the reticulorumen (RR) depends on particle density and size. Forage particle density and size are related and change over time in the RR. Particle density mainly influences sorting in the reticulum, whereas particle size influences particle retention in the fibre mat of stratified rumen contents ('filter-bed' effect). We investigated these effects independently, by inserting plastic particles of different sizes (1, 10 and 20 mm) and densities (1·03, 1·20 and 1·44 mg/ml) in the RR of cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus) as a pilot study, and of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus; n 4) and moose (Alces alces; n 2) both fed two diets (browse and grass). Faeces were analysed for plastic residues for 13 d after dosing to calculate mean retention times (MRT). The results confirmed previous findings of differences in absolute MRT between species. Comparing muskoxen with moose, there was no difference in the effect of particle density on the MRT between species but particle size had a more pronounced effect on the MRT in muskoxen than in moose. This indicated a stronger 'filter-bed effect' in muskoxen, in accord with the reports of stratified RR contents in this species v. the absence of RR content stratification in moose. Low-density particles were retained longer in both species fed on grass diets, indicating a contribution of forage type to the 'filter-bed effect'. The results indicate that retention based on particle size may differ between ruminant species, depending on the presence of a fibre mat in the RR, whereas the density-dependent mechanism of sedimentation in the RR is rather constant across species.

  1. Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) with natural estrus or estrus induced with prostaglandin F2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, O L; Barros, C M; Figueiredo, R A; do Valle, E R; Encarnação, R O; Padovani, C R

    1998-02-01

    Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval are essential for estimating the best time to artificially inseminate cattle. Because these parameters are not well characterized in the Nelore breed (Bos indicus), the main purpose of the this study was to determine the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore heifers and cows with natural estrus or with estrus induced by treatments with PGF2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate (NEV). The cows and heifers were observed continuously (24 h a day) to determine the onset of estrus and to study estrous behavior in the cows. Ten hours after the start of estrus the ovaries were scanned every 2 h by ultrasonography to monitor the dominant follicle until ovulation. Blood samples were collected periodically to determine progesterone levels by RIA. Administration of PGF2 alpha (2 injections, 11 days apart) did not induce estrus in most Nelore females in spite of the presence of functional CL, indicated by progesterone concentrations above 6.0 ng/ml in 25 of 28 animals. Treatment with NEV induced high sexual receptivity in cows (10/11), but only 66% ovulated. Cows with natural or induced estrus exhibited behavioral estrus of 10.9 +/- 1.4 h, and ovulation occurred 26.6 +/- 0.44 h (n = 26) after the onset of estrus. In most of the cows (53.8%) estrus began at night (between 1801 and 600 h), and 34.6% it started and finished during the night. It is concluded that in Nelore females ovulation occurs approximately 26 h after the onset of estrus. Additionally, estrous behavior is shorter than in European breeds, and there is a high incidence of estrus at night, which makes it difficult to detect and, consequently, impairs Al in Nelore cattle. The observation that a high percentage of Nelore females with an active CL did not respond to usual dosages of PGF2 alpha warrants further investigation.

  2. Reproductive physiology and ovarian folliculogenesis examined via 1H-NMR metabolomics signatures: a comparative study of large and small follicles in three mammalian species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus and Equus ferus caballus).

    PubMed

    Gérard, Nadine; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Grupen, Christopher G; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of follicular fluid (FF) collected from the small and large follicles of three mammalian species, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus, and Equus ferus caballus, that display distinct ovulatory properties. For each species, five large FF samples and five small FF samples were analyzed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The FF metabolic profiles of the three species were very distinct. In cows and mares, the metabolic profiles of large FF and small FF were also very distinct. The concentrations of seventeen identified metabolites differed significantly between the sample groups. In mares, fourteen metabolites were found at much greater concentrations in large FF than in small FF (p<0.05). In cows, four metabolites differed in concentration between the large FF and small FF samples (p<0.05). A common feature of the monovulatory species was that the concentrations of α- and β-glucose were much greater in large FF compared with small FF (p<0.05). Sow FF was characterized by the apparent absence of citrate (detected in cow and mare FF), and the presence of succinate (not detected in cow and mare FF). Another obvious difference between species was the concentration of lactate, which was minimal in mare FF compared with cow and sow FF (p<0.05). The findings provide valuable insights into reproductive physiology broadly, and indicate that the activities of central metabolic enzymes differ enormously between these species. Future investigations into species-specific differences in follicle metabolism would increase our understanding of the processes critical to folliculogenesis and the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence.

  3. Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z são binárias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magnético intermediário (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa análise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), até cerca de 200keV, faixa ótima de operação do telescópio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos três telescópios de raios-X à bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivação para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emissão nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (também BXBM). Apresentam-se a análise/redução de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial atenção é direcionada a este item devido a localização das fontes do tipo Z e também ao problema de contaminação por fontes próximas. Com exceção de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de detecção dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satélite BeppoSAX. As interpretações deste resultado serão apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, nós deduzimos que a produção de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z é um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condição é satisfeita: o brilho da componente térmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~4´1036ergs-1.

  4. Oestrous cycles in Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Forde, N; Beltman, M E; Lonergan, P; Diskin, M; Roche, J F; Crowe, M A

    2011-04-01

    The oestrous cycle in cattle lasts for 18-24 days. It consists of a luteal phase (14-18 days) and a follicular phase (4-6 days). During the cycle there are generally two (dairy cows) or three (heifers and beef cows) waves of ovarian follicle growth. Each wave of follicle growth consists of a period of emergence of a cohort of follicles, selection of a dominant follicle and either atresia or ovulation of the dominant follicle. These waves of follicle growth, initially established during the early pre-pubertal period of development occur throughout the entire cycle, with only the dominant follicle (DF) of the final wave coinciding with the follicular phase that undergoes final maturation and ovulation. Ovarian functions (follicle growth, ovulation, luteinisation and luteolysis) are regulated by the endocrine hormones of the hypothalamus (gonadotrophin-releasing hormone), anterior pituitary (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone), ovaries (progesterone, oestradiol and inhibins) and the uterus (prostaglandin F2α). In postpartum cows resumption of regular oestrous cycles (in addition to uterine involution) is fundamental for re-establishment of pregnancy.

  5. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  6. Follicle stimulating hormone secretion and dominant follicle growth during treatment of Bos indicus heifers with intra-vaginal progesterone releasing devices, oestradiol benzoate, equine chorionic gonadotrophin and prostaglandin F(2α).

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A A; Phillips, N J; Boe-Hansen, G B; Bo, G A; Burns, B M; Dawson, K; McGowan, M R

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion and dominant follicle (DF) growth, of treatment of Bos indicus heifers with different combinations of intra-vaginal progesterone releasing devices (IPRD), oestradiol benzoate (ODB), PGF2α and eCG. Two-year-old Brahman (BN; n=30) and Brahman-cross (BNX; n=34) heifers were randomly allocated to three IPRD-treatments: (i) standard-dose IPRD [CM 1.56g; 1.56g progesterone (P4); n=17]; (ii) half-dose IPRD (CM 0.78g; 0.78g P4; n=15); (iii) half-dose IPRD+300IU eCG at IPRD removal (CM 0.78g+G; n=14); and, (iv) non-IPRD control (2×PGF2α; n=18) 500μg cloprostenol on Days -16 and -2. IPRD-treated heifers received 250μg PGF2α at IPRD insertion (Day -10) and IPRD removal (Day -2) and 1mg ODB on Day -10 and Day -1. Follicular dynamics were monitored daily by trans-rectal ultrasonography from Day -10 to Day 1. Blood samples for determination of P4 were collected daily and samples for FSH determination were collected at 12h intervals from Day -9 to Day -2. A significant surge in concentrations of FSH was observed in the 2×PGF2α treatment 12h prior and 48h after follicular wave emergence, but not in the IPRD-treated heifers. Estimated mean concentrations of total plasma P4 during the 8 days of IPRD insertion was greater (P<0.001) in the CM 1.56g P4 treated heifers compared to the CM 0.78g P4 treated heifers (18.38ng/ml compared with 11.09ng/ml, respectively). A treatment by genotype interaction (P=0.036) was observed in the mean plasma P4 concentration in heifers with no CL during IPRD insertion, whereby BN heifers in the CM 1.56g treatment had greater plasma P4 than the BNX heifers on Days-9, -7, -6, -5, and -4. However, there was no genotype effect in the CM 0.78g±G or the 2×PGF2α treatment. Treatment had no effect on the DF growth from either day of wave emergence (P=0.378) or day of IPRD removal (P=0.780) to ovulation. This study demonstrates that FSH secretion in B

  7. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M.; Vajrabukka, C.; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal ( B. indicus) ( n = 10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) ( B. taurus) ( n = 10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% ( n = 10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % ( n = 10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm2; 1.60 μ3 × 10-6) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm2; 0.51 μ3x10-6) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm2; 0.68 μ3 × 10-6) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm2; 0.61 μ3 × 10-6) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm2) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm2); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm2 for HF75% and HF87.5 %) ( P < 0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred ( P < 0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction ( P < 0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic fraction of HF. This may imply that capability for cutaneous evaporative heat loss and tolerance to heat in crossbred cattle could be related to skin morphology.

  8. Freezing, thawing and aging effects on beef tenderness from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina N; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Gomide, Lúcio Alberto M; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ladeira, Márcio M; Ramos, Eduardo M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of freezing prior to aging on the meat tenderness of young Nellore and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Samples of the longissimus thoracis muscle were submitted to two treatments: conventional aging and freezing (-20°C for 40 days) followed by thawing and aging periods. The meats were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 aging days (1°C). Freezing increased (P<0.05) purge, cooking loss and total exudate loss throughout aging. Nellore meats had greater total exudate loss and shorter sarcomere lengths (P<0.05). Freezing increased proteolysis during aging in the meats of both breeds, but reduced shear force was found (P<0.05) only in Aberdeen Angus meats and only at time zero. These results suggest that the meat tenderizing process by freezing prior to aging may contribute to meat tenderness in the first weeks of aging, but it is dependent on the animal breed.

  9. Profiling of sperm gene transcripts in crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) bulls.

    PubMed

    H M, Yathish; Kumar, Subodh; Dubey, Prem P; Modi, Rajendra P; Chaudhary, Rajni; A, Siva Kumar; Ghosh, Subrata K; Sarkar, Mihir; B, Sivamani

    2017-02-01

    Crossbred cattle in some sectors of the world have a significant role in enhancing milk production thereby enhancing the per capita milk availability as a human food source. However, there are certain constraints associated with crossbred animals, such as disease susceptibility, increased reproductive problems, repeat breeding and poor seminal quality. The semen of crossbred bulls has a poor freezing capacity, increased cryo-damage, poor mass cell motility, greater percentages of dead/abnormal sperm and poor initial and post-freeze cell motility. The rejection rate of crossbred bulls for cryostorage of semen has been reported to be as great as 50% as a result of unacceptable semen quality. The identification of superior bulls using molecular technologies is needed which necessitates identification of the genes having a role in sperm function. The present study was, therefore, conducted to gain information on identification and expression of genes having a role in sperm motility in crossbred bulls. The gene transcripts in bulls with sperm of superior and inferior quality were profiled in Vrindavani crossbred cattle by microarray analyses and the results were verified by real time-quantitative PCR. Microarray analyses revealed 19,454 genes which were differentially expressed. At a two-fold cut off, 305 genes were differentially (P<0.01) expressed with 160 genes upregulated and 145 genes down regulated. Some of the upregulated candidate genes were further validated by RT-qPCR. These genes had a four to 16 fold upregulation in sperm with inferior motility as compared to sperm of crossbred bulls with superior motility.

  10. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  11. Abundâncias de oxigênio e enxofre nas estrelas de tipo solar da vizinhança solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requeijo, F.; Porto de Mello, G. F.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns resultados sugerem que o Sol seja 58% mais abundante em oxigênio que o meio interestelar local. Esta anomalia parece estender-se para o carbono e o criptônio. Entre as possíveis explicações deste fenômeno estão: uma supernova de tipo II que tenha enriquecido a nebulosa protosolar, tornando-a superabundante em oxigênio; um episódio de infall de material pobre em metais sobre o disco Galático, diluindo o meio interestelar local ou uma migração dinâmica do Sol de uma órbita mais interna da Galáxia para sua posição atual. A escolha entre estes cenários exige o conhecimento preciso da abundância solar em relação às anãs G da vizinhança. Neste contexto, o oxigênio e enxofre, são elementos-chave por serem ambos produzidos pelas supernovas de tipo II, devendo portanto possuir o mesmo padrão de abundância. Este projeto visa esclarecer qual a posição do Sol na distribuição local de abundâncias de enxofre e oxigênio para uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar com idades e metalicidades bem conhecidas. Para tal, analisamos espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído nas regiões espectrais de ll 6300, 7774 (O) e l8695 (S). Para o enxofre encontramos que o Sol parece ser uma estrela típica dentre as da vizinhança, e que este elemento não mostra a sobreabundância para baixas metalicidades, já bem estabelecida para o oxigênio. Discutimos as abundâncias do enxofre no contexto da Evolução Química da Galáxia. Apresentamos resultados preliminares muito precisos para a linha proibida do oxigênio l6300 e comparamos estes com os obtidos para o tripleto em l7774. Quantificamos os efeitos não-ETL presentes no tripleto em função dos parâmetros atmosféricos estelares.

  12. Análise Temporal de Estruturas Morfológicas na Cauda do Tipo I do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1996-08-01

    Com base em (Brandt et al, 1992), centenas de imagens do cometa P/Halley foram visualmente analisadas, objetivando examinar possíveis perturbações magnetohidrodinâmicas ao longo da cauda do tipo I. Do total de 1439 imagens, abrangendo o período entre 16 de outubro de 1982 e 12 de fevereiro de 1991, foram escolhidas 531 do período entre 17 de setembro de 1985 e 06 de julho de 1986 por mostrarem cauda bem desenvolvida e rica de estruturas morfológicas. Nelas constatou-se a existência de 124 estruturas ondulatórias (trens de onda) ao longo da cauda principal, 27 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 109 ondas solitárias (sólitons) ao longo da cauda principal, 36 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 12 caudas do tipo Swan, 47 eventos de desconexão e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots"). Foi examinada a correlação temporal entre esses diferentes tipos de eventos. Os de desconexão foram analisados isoladamente. Seus movimentos próprios foram calculados, bem como os seus instantes iniciais, o que nos permitiu inferir a passagem do cometa pela fronteira entre setores magnéticos distintos. A velocidade do plasma cometário desconectado foi corrigida dos efeitos de projeção e correlacionada com a distância heliocêntrica do cometa. Também foi investigada a periodicidade de ocorrência das desconexães, e constatado que sua distribuição é bimodal. Por fim, a possibilidade dos modos de propagação de ondas MHD "sausage" e "kink" superficiais ou volumétricas, é discutida no contexto das descontinuidades magnéticas tangenciais. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner Jr., M.B., Rahe, J.: The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. Impresso por: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO. University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992.

  13. Blood and Oxidative Stress (BOS): Soyuz mission "Eneide"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Adorni, Laura; Montorfano, Gigliola; Negroni, Manuela; Zava, Stefania; Berra, Bruno

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to assay astronaut antioxidant status, to analyse red blood cell membrane composition of astronauts prior and after flight and to study the correlation with oxidative stress that erythrocytes have undergone due to space radiations. Results obtained from this single case study, indicate that during a short time flight, erythrocytes decrease their antioxidant defences, to counteract oxidative stress.

  14. Investigation of ovarian reserve parameters in Bos indicus cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef heifers that give birth within the first 21 d of their first calving season have greater lifetime productivity and longevity. A favorable relationship exists between number of antral follicles detectable by ultrasonography and calving date in beef heifers, indicating greater lifetime fertility ...

  15. The American Orthodontics BOS MOrth Cases Prize 2005.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Nadine

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases that were successfully entered for the 2005 American Orthodontics MOrth Cases Prize. The first case is that of a patient presenting with a Class II division 2 malocclusion treated with upper and lower fixed appliances plus headgear. The second case demonstrates the use of a twin-block appliance, followed by fixed appliances to correct a moderate Class II division 1 malocclusion.

  16. Composição química, evolução e cinemática de estrelas de tipo solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. O.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Milone, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    A composição química das estrelas de tipo solar é um diagnóstico extremamente valioso da evolução química do disco da Galáxia. Existe alguma evidência de que tal evolução tem sido heterogênea no espaço e ao longo do tempo e que a composição química do Sol pode não ser um padrão representativo de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, foram obtidas as abundâncias dos elementos químicos C, N, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd e Sm em uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar na vizinhança solar (distâncias £ 25 pc). A técnica empregada foi a análise espectroscópica diferencial em relação ao Sol, baseando-se em dados de alta resolução (R ~ 46.000) e alta razão sinal/ruído (S/R > 300), obtidos com o espectrógrafo échelle de bancada do telescópio de 1,5 m do CTIO. Adicionalmente, abundâncias de C e N foram obtidas através de síntese de bandas moleculares dos Sistemas Eletrônicos Swan do C2 e Vermelho do CN utilizando-se um programa de síntese espectral. Os parâmetros atmosféricos foram estabelecidos usando cores fotométricas, o equilíbrio de excitação e ionização de linhas do Fe e a análise da temperatura e da luminosidade estelares no diagrama HR. Os resultados de abundâncias químicas obtidos proporcionam uma melhor compreensão da relação das abundâncias conhecidas para o Sol com a das estrelas anãs de tipo G da população local, uma vez que as razões de abundâncias de diversos elementos (em relação ao ferro) obtidas para estrelas de metalicidade semelhante à solar diferem daquelas obtidas para o Sol. Tais resultados também contribuem para um melhor entendimento do processo de evolução química da vizinhança solar e do enriquecimento nucleossintético do disco galáctico.

  17. Microsatellite DNA Variation and the Evolution, Domestication and Phylogeography of Taurine and Zebu Cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus)

    PubMed Central

    MacHugh, D. E.; Shriver, M. D.; Loftus, R. T.; Cunningham, P.; Bradley, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic variation at 20 microsatellite loci was surveyed to determine the evolutionary relationships and molecular biogeography of 20 different cattle populations from Africa, Europe and Asia. Phylogenetic reconstruction and multivariate analysis highlighted a marked distinction between humpless (taurine) and humped (zebu) cattle, providing strong support for a separate origin for domesticated zebu cattle. A molecular clock calculation using bison (Bison sp.) as an outgroup gave an estimated divergence time between the two subspecies of 610,000-850,000 years. Substantial differences in the distribution of alleles at 10 of these loci were observed between zebu and taurine cattle. These markers subsequently proved very useful for investigations of gene flow and admixture in African populations. When these data were considered in conjunction with previous mitochondrial and Y chromosomal studies, a distinctive male-mediated pattern of zebu genetic introgression was revealed. The introgression of zebu-specific alleles in African cattle afforded a high resolution perspective on the hybrid nature of African cattle populations and also suggested that certain West African populations of valuable disease-tolerant taurine cattle are under threat of genetic absorption by migrating zebu herds. PMID:9215909

  18. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite markers (MS) have traditionally been used for parental verification and are still the international standard in spite of their higher cost, error rate, and turnaround time compared with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) -based assays. Despite domestic and international demands fr...

  19. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens) and cattle (Bos taurus) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak) and normal animal (cattle) in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones) and four cattle (205 clones) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP). Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences) were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC) were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110) was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle, this may also help to explain why yak produce less methane than cattle. PMID:23078429

  20. Investigação dos perfís temporais de alta resolução de explosões solares tipo-III decimétricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.

    2003-08-01

    Explosões solares tipo-III indicam a presença de feixes de elétrons acelerados durante "flares" solares. Sua investigação fornece informações tanto sobre os processos de aceleração de partículas quanto das características do agente causador e do local de aceleração. Explosões tipo-III decimétricas são geradas por feixes de elétrons viajando através de arcos magnéticos densos da baixa coroa solar. Os perfís temporais destes fenômenos, quando tomados com alta resolução, informam sobre os mecanismos de aceleração de partículas do feixe e o meio de transporte da energia liberada a partir da região de aceleração. Usando o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), em operação no INPE, foram registradas dezenas de explosões tipo-III decimétricas, dentro da faixa de 2050-2250 MHz com alta resolução temporal (20 ms), em 13 de setembro de 2001, entre 13:00 e 16:10 UT. Foram selecionadas 10 explosões isoladas para uma investigação estatística detalhada de seus perfís temporais, em todos os cerca de 50 canais de freqüência. Os resultados indicam que cerca de 70% dos perfís temporais são complexos tanto durante a subida quanto descida. Os 30% restantes indicam que os perfís da subida podem ser bem representados, na maioria dos casos, por um processo não-linear e uma parcela significativa por processos lineares. Os perfís temporais da descida são dominados por um decaimento não-linear. Neste trabalho, será efetuada uma análise dos perfís temporais, tanto durante a subida quanto descida do fluxo, para as explosões selecionadas, em termos dos prováveis mecanismos de aceleração e relaxamento. 2

  1. Effect of different levels and sources of zinc supplementation on quantitative and qualitative semen attributes and serum testosterone level in crossbred cattle (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nishant; Verma, Ramesh Prashad; Singh, Lallan Prasad; Varshney, Vijay Prakash; Dass, Ram Sharan

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on 16 crossbred bulls (about 2 years of age, 316.2+/-0.77 kg average body weight), divided into groups I, II, III and IV to study the effect of different levels of Zn supplementation from inorganic and organic sources on semen quality. The animals in the first 3 groups were supplemented with 0, 35 and 70 ppm Zn from Zn sulfate, respectively and the animals in-group IV were supplemented with 35 ppm Zn as Zn propionate. Semen collection and evaluation was done in the first month (to assess semen quality at the start of the experiment) and 7th, 8th and 9th month of experimental feeding to evaluate the effect of supplemental Zn on semen attributes. We gave 6 months for Zn feeding, so that 3 sperm cycles of spermatogenesis had passed and the collected semen reflected the complete effect of Zn supplementation. Six ejaculates from each bull were collected and evaluated for semen quantitative (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and sperm number per ejaculate) and qualitative characteristics (semen pH, mass motility, individual motility, sperm livability percent and abnormal sperm percent, percent intact acrosome, bovine cervical mucus penetration test, hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test) and activity of seminal plasma enzymes i.e., alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, GOT and GPT. Testosterone level in the blood serum of crossbred bulls was also estimated. Mean values of semen quantitative and qualitative characteristics at the start of the experiment were statistically non significant (P > 0.05) in all the crossbred cattle bulls, however, there were statistically significant differences among the bulls of different groups after 6 months of zinc supplementation. Mean ejaculate volume (mL) was 2.37, 4.70, 5.86 and 6.38, respectively in groups I to IV, indicating a statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher semen volume in Zn-supplemented groups as compared to the control group of bulls. Similarly, sperm concentration (million.mL(-1)), live sperm (%) and motility (%) were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in Zn-supplemented groups as compared to the control group. The results of BCMPT and HOSST revealed a significant improvement in sperm functional ability in all the groups supplemented with Zn as compared to the control group. The activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in seminal plasma was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the Zn-supplemented groups, whereas GOT and GPT activities in seminal plasma were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the Zn propionate supplemented group as compared to the control group. Testosterone concentration (ng.mL(-1)) in blood serum was significantly higher in animals of groups III and IV, as compared to control group. It may be concluded that Zn supplementation either in the inorganic or organic form in the diet of crossbred bulls improved the qualitative and quantitative attributes of semen; however, the number of sperm per ejaculate, mass motility and semen fertility test like bovine cervical mucus penetration was significantly higher in bulls given Zn in an organic form (Zn propionate) as compared to an inorganic form (Zn sulfate).

  2. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vacc...

  3. Linkage disequilibrium levels in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using medium and high density SNP chip data and different minor allele frequency distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the observed correlation between alleles at different loci in the genome, is a determinant parameter in many applications of molecular genetics. With the wider use of genomic technologies in animal breeding and animal genetics, it is worthwhile revising and improving the...

  4. Diseno de una matriz de soporte compuesta de colageno de piel de tiburon-aloe para ingenier a tisular (Design of Shark Skin Collagen-Aloe Composite Scaffold for Tissue Engineering)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    de otras fuentes. En el presente estudio , se utilizan animales acuáticos y, en concreto, especies de tiburón en las que el colágeno tipo I es una...función de la fuente de la que se obtiene. En el presente estudio , se utilizó la piel de tiburón como fuente rica en colágeno tipo I. La piel de...biocompatibilidad y propiedades biodegradables son únicas. El colágeno bovino y porcino tipo I constituyen una fuente fácilmente disponible de

  5. Medición de los parámetros cosmológicos q0, ΩM, y ΩΛ, usando supernovas de Tipo Ia distantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clocchiatti, A.; High-Z Sne Search Team

    Las supernovas de tipo Ia son una herramienta de gran precisión para la medición de distancias de interés cosmológico. Los métodos recientes de calibración de su luminosidad intrínseca, que hacen uso de la forma de las curvas de luz en varios colores y permiten diferenciar entre supernovas distantes, intrínsecamente débiles, u oscurecidas por extinción, reducen la dispersión del método que las asume de magnitud absoluta constante de 0.50 mag a 0.15 mag, e incrementa el valor de la constante de Hubble de ~55 km s-1 Mpc-1, a 65 km s-1 Mpc-1. A partir de la calibración de las supernovas cercanas, con redshifts menores que 0.1, se pueden obtener distancias precisas a supernovas que explotan a alto redshift. Hemos aplicado estos métodos a 16 supernovas con 0.16 < Z < 0.97, encontrando que sus distancias son, en promedio, entre 10% y 13% (dependiendo del método empleado) mayores que las que uno esperaría en un universo con poca masa (Ω = 0.2), sin una constante cosmológica. Todos los métodos de ajuste de curvas de luz, y selección de subgrupos de la muestra de supernovas observadas, favorecen consistentemente modelos del universo que se expanden eternamente y que tienen una constante cosmológica positiva (ΩΛ > 0), y una aceleración de la expansión al presente (q0 < 0). Hay distintas fuentes de posibles errores sistemáticos que merecen ser analizadas, entre ellas: evolución de la metalicidad y estrellas progenitoras, extinción, bias en la elección de la muestra, amplificación por gravitational lensing, y contaminación de la muestra. Ninguno de estos efectos alcanza para reconciliar los datos con ΩΛ = 0, o q0 > 0.

  6. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ANDERSONI N. SP. (APICOMPLEXA: CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE) FROM CATTLE, BOS TAURUS. (R825148)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Violative residues of flunixin in tissues from bob veal calves and cull dairy cows has been attributed to noncompliance with the FDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time, however, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue residue depleti...

  8. The effect of seasons on behaviour during milking in buffaloes ( Bos bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-06-01

    An investigation on behaviour during milking involving 200 buffaloes was carried out to study the effect of climate on milking behaviour for a period of four years. The results obtained were: (1) In extremely docile animals (temperament score I) the mean distribution was least (33.5) in hot-dry summer as compared to winter (39.2) and hot-humid summer. (2) The number of buffaloes milked after oxytocin injections was maximum (11.1%) during the hot-dry summer against other seasons for the temperament score I over temperament scores III and IV, where all buffaloes were milked with oxytocin injections. (3) The mean flow rate was least in hot-dry summer in each temperament score. (4) Milking time was higher in all the temperament scored buffaloes during the hot-dry summer than during the other seasons. It is concluded that as environmental temperature increases, there occurs an increase in thermal stress, the milking behaviour changes and animals become more hostile and excited which leads to a decrease in milk production.

  9. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org) has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC) in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence. PMID:21092105

  10. Ovariectomy by left flank approach in prepubertal Nelore (Bos indicus) heifers

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Juliana R.; Nogueira, Geison M.; Nogueira, Guilherme P.; Perri, Silvia H.V.; Cardoso, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate a recumbent left flank approach to bilateral ovariectomy in prepubertal heifers and to develop an optimal surgical technique for this procedure. Both ovaries were removed from 6 Nelore heifers by left flank approach without any complications, except in 1 heifer, which was believed to have had only 1 ovary based on ultrasound and exploration during surgery, but was later found to have a remaining functional ovary. Ovariectomy via left flank approach in recumbent prepubertal heifers is feasible and technically easy. This procedure does not involve special instrumentation and, despite the invasive approach, it allows optimal visualization of the ovaries and uterus. PMID:19794897

  11. Effect of season on the oestrous cycle of cows (Bos indicus) indigenous to northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Zakari, A Y; Molokwu, E C; Osori, D I

    1981-09-12

    A seasonal effect was demonstrated on the occurrence of oestrus and on the length of oestrous cycles in Bunaji and Bokoloji cows. There was a gradual lengthening of oestrous cycle which resulted in fewer cycles occurring in the dry and pre-rainy seasons. Oestrous cycle length was the same for Bunaji (22.89 +/-0.70 days) and Bokoloji (23.76 +/- 0.65 days) cows (P less than 0.05). Season had an equally depressing effect on the duration and intensity of oestrus in both breeds of cows. During the dry and pre-rainy seasons the behavioural signs of oestrus were poorly manifested and lasted for only a short period. During the rainy and pre-dry seasons, the duration of oestrus and behavioural signs were much more pronounced.

  12. Distribution and excretion of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a perfluoroalkyl surfactant used in many industrial products, is present in industrial wastes and in wastewater treatment plant biosolids. Biosolids are commonly applied to pastures and crops used for animal feed; consequently, PFOS may accumulate in the edible tis...

  13. Spatial movement of free-roaming cattle (Bos Taurus) when in proximity to wolves (Canis lupus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1995 and 1996, 31 wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park and 35 in central Idaho. These populations have grown to more than 1,500 with more than 835 in Idaho. As wolf populations have grown, so has predation on livestock, complicating cow and ranch management. Our study was de...

  14. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  15. Loss of miRNAs during processing and storage of cow's (Bos taurus) milk.

    PubMed

    Howard, Katherine M; Jati Kusuma, Rio; Baier, Scott R; Friemel, Taylor; Markham, Laura; Vanamala, Jairam; Zempleni, Janos

    2015-01-21

    MicroRNAs (miRs, miRNAs) play central roles in gene regulation. Previously, we reported that miRNAs from pasteurized, store-bought bovine milk have biological activity in humans. Here, we assessed the effects of milk processing, storage, somatic cell content, and handling by consumers on the degradation of miRNAs in milk; we also quantified miRNAs in dairy products. Pasteurization and homogenization caused a 63% loss of miR-200c, whereas a 67% loss observed for miR-29b was statistically significant only in skim milk. Effects of cold storage and somatic cell content were quantitatively minor (<2% loss). Heating in the microwave caused a 40% loss of miR-29b but no loss of miR-200c. The milk fat content had no effect on miRNA stability during storage and microwave heating. The concentrations of miRNAs in dairy products were considerably lower than in store-bought milk. We conclude that processing of milk by dairies and handling by consumers causes a significant loss of miRNAs.

  16. Effect of Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on tenderness of longissimus steaks of Bos Taurus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Three experiments were conducted to determine 1) the interaction of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) inclusion rate (0 or 300 mg·hd-1·d-1 for last 30 to 34 d before harvest) and dietary protein level (13.5 or 17.5% CP) on LM slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem (Exp. 1); 2) the inter...

  17. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Wiener, Dominique Judith; Wiedemar, Natalie; Welle, Monika Maria; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned) fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled) fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd) 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings.

  18. Base Operation and Support (BOS) Contracts: Their Value to the US Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    include a wide range of non-core, secondary or administrative support services, operation of public facilities and the like.4 NI, Mahon E., Moore , A...nstiute.org html cr 41.h1m 4𔃾 McMahon E., Moore , A., and Segal G. Private Competition for Public Services: Unfinished Agenda in New York State. August 9...contract for facility services through individual service contracts, or (3) a combination of the two previous examples. According to Fellow, Moore , and

  19. A novel hypothesis for histone-to-protamine transition in Bos taurus spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Sillaste, Gerly; Kaplinski, Lauris; Meier, Riho; Jaakma, Ülle; Eriste, Elo

    2016-01-01

    DNA compaction with protamines in sperm is essential for successful fertilization. However, a portion of sperm chromatin remains less tightly packed with histones, which genomic location and function remain unclear. We extracted and sequenced histone-associated DNA from sperm of nine ejaculates from three bulls. We found that the fraction of retained histones varied between samples, but the variance was similar between samples from the same and different individuals. The most conserved regions showed similar abundance across all samples, whereas in other regions, their presence correlated with the size of histone fraction. This may refer to gradual histone–protamine transition, where easily accessible genomic regions, followed by the less accessible regions are first substituted by protamines. Our results confirm those from previous studies that histones remain in repetitive genome elements, such as centromeres, and added new findings of histones in rRNA and SRP RNA gene clusters and indicated histone enrichment in some spermatogenesis-associated genes, but not in genes of early embryonic development. Our functional analysis revealed significant overrepresentation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (cGMP-PKG) pathway genes among histone-enriched genes. This pathway is known for its importance in pre-fertilization sperm events. In summary, a novel hypothesis for gradual histone-to-protamine transition in sperm maturation was proposed. We believe that histones may contribute structural information into early embryo by epigenetically modifying centromeric chromatin and other types of repetitive DNA. We also suggest that sperm histones are retained in genes needed for sperm development, maturation and fertilization, as these genes are transcriptionally active shortly prior to histone-to-protamine transition. PMID:27899719

  20. Candidate Gene Expression in Bos indicus Ovarian Tissues: Prepubertal and Postpubertal Heifers in Diestrus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral; Fortes, Marina Rufino S.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Kelly, Matthew; Venus, Bronwyn; Kidd, Lisa; do Rego, João Paulo Arcelino; Edwards, Sophia; Boe-Hansen, Gry B.; Piper, Emily; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Moore, Stephen Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15, and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1, and TGFB2), and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes, such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1), and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1) could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase). Six postpubertal (POST) heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six prepubertal (PRE) heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1, and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1, and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the downregulation of LHR and upregulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Upregulation of IGF1 expression prepuberty, compared to postpuberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0.07, r = 0.84). The role of these co-expressed genes in puberty and heifers luteal phase merits further research. PMID:27803898

  1. Microsatellite Imputation for parental verification from SNP across multiple Bos taurus and indicus breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite markers (MS) have traditionally been used for parental verification and are still the international standard in spite of their higher cost, error rate, and turnaround time compared with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)-based assays. Despite domestic and international demands fro...

  2. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Leavens, Teresa L; Tell, Lisa A; Kissell, Lindsey W; Smith, Geoffrey W; Smith, David J; Wagner, Sarah A; Shelver, Weilin L; Wu, Huali; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    Frequent violation of flunixin residues in tissues from cattle has been attributed to non-compliance with the USFDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time. However, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue depletion has not been determined. The objective of this work was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict plasma, liver and milk concentrations of flunixin in cattle following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration for use as a tool to determine factors that may affect the withdrawal time. The PBPK model included blood flow-limited distribution in all tissues and elimination in the liver, kidney and milk. Regeneration of parent flunixin due to enterohepatic recirculation and hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites was incorporated in the liver compartment. Values for physiological parameters were obtained from the literature, and partition coefficients for all tissues but liver and kidney were derived empirically. Liver and kidney partition coefficients and elimination parameters were estimated for 14 pharmacokinetic studies (including five crossover studies) from the literature or government sources in which flunixin was administered i.v., i.m. or s.c. Model simulations compared well with data for the matrices following all routes of administration. Influential model parameters included those that may be age or disease-dependent, such as clearance and rate of milk production. Based on the model, route of administration would not affect the estimated days to reach the tolerance concentration (0.125 mg kg(-1)) in the liver of treated cattle. The majority of USDA-reported violative residues in liver were below the upper uncertainty predictions based on estimated parameters, which suggests the need to consider variability due to disease and age in establishing withdrawal intervals for drugs used in food animals. The model predicted that extravascular routes of administration prolonged flunixin concentrations in milk, which could result in violative milk residues in treated cattle.

  3. Transuterine embryo migration, distribution of sexes within uterine horns, and fetometry in Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gabriel B O; Oliveira, Rodrigo A; Pivato, Ivo

    2017-03-01

    There is no consensus about the occurrence of transuterine embryo migration under natural breeding circumstances, neither data related to this phenomenon for zebu cattle. In this study, 5431 reproductive tracts of Nellore cows and heifers were evaluated in an abattoir in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 1030 animals (19.0%) were pregnant at the time of slaughter (including 2 twin pregnancies). Regarding singleton pregnancies (n = 1028), 39.5% of them, the fetus was located in the left uterine horn and the remaining 60.5% in the right. These frequencies differed statistically from parity. In all 1028 (100.0%) cases, the presence of a single CL was perceived in the ovary ipsilateral (whether right or left) to the pregnant uterine horn, indicating the absence of transuterine embryo migration of the conceptus. The overall sex ratio found was 51.5%, considering only pregnancies with sex identified, not differing significantly between the number of males and the number of females. The sex frequencies obtained from the total number of singleton pregnancies were 46.5% males, 43.9% females, and the remaining 9.6% corresponding to unknown sex fetuses. The supposed sex predilection for uterine horns was not observed because the difference between the numbers of males and females for the same uterine horn was not statistically significant. The crown-rump (CR) and crown-nose (CN) measures, for the conceptus with CR length 2.00 cm to 15.00 cm, showed a high linear correlation coefficient (r = 0.990865), being CN = (0.3027 × CR) + 0.4491, r(2) = 0.9818, the equation that describes the behavior between the variables for this length interval. In conclusion, in Nellore cattle, the transuterine migration of conceptus may not exist, or consists of a rare event. In addition, the sex ratio and predilection are not distinguished from the symmetrical distribution, and regarding fetometry, an equation that involves CR and CN, could be useful for the veterinary field routine, especially in reproductive evaluation.

  4. Cardioprotective and antioxidant effects of oleogum resin "Olibanum" from Bos Boswellia carteri Birdw. (Bursearceae).

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed A; Hashish, Nadia E; Amer, Mohamed A; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

    2014-05-01

    One of the leading causes of death worldwide is cardiovascular disease, hence searching for a cure is an important endeavor. The totally safe, edible, and inexpensive Boswellia plant exudate, known as olibanum or frankincense, is considered to possess diverse medicinal values in traditional medicine and from recent biological studies. Investigating the cardioprotective and antioxidant activities of olibanum from a Boswellia species, family Bursearaceae, namely Boswellia carteri Birdw. was the aim of this study. Cardioprotective activity was evaluated using a model of myocardial infarction induced by isoprenaline (ISO), while antioxidant activity was tested adopting nitric oxide scavenging (NOS) and azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays. The results revealed a mild cardioprotective effect and weak antioxidant activity.

  5. Nucleotide diversity of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) in the gayal (Bos frontalis).

    PubMed

    Xi, Dongmei; Liu, Qing; Huo, Yinqiang; Sun, Yongke; Leng, Jing; Gou, Xiao; Mao, Huaming; Deng, Weidong

    2012-07-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) plays a crucial role in determining coat colour of mammals. To investigate the relationship of polymorphism of the MC1R with coat colour in gayal, the coding sequence (CDS), and the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) of the MC1R were sequenced from 63 samples from the gayal and compared with the sequences of the MC1R from other ruminant species. A sequence of 1,136 bp including the whole CDS (954 bp) and parts of the 5'- and 3'-UTR (164 and 18 bp, respectively) of the gayal MC1R was obtained. A total of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including four SNPs (c.-129T>C, c.-127A>C, c.-106C>T, c.-1G>A) in the 5'-UTR and five SNPs (c.201C>T, c.583C>T, c.663T>C, c.871A>G and c.876T>C) in the CDS were detected, revealing high genetic diversity. Three novel coding SNPs including c.201C>T, c.583C>T and c.876T>C, which have not been reported previously in bovid species, were retrieved. Within five coding SNPs, c.201C>T, c.663T>C and c.876T>C were silent mutations, while c.583C>T and c.871A>G were mis-sense mutations, resulting in changes in the amino acids located in the fifth (p.L195F) and seventh (p.T291A) transmembrane regions, respectively. The alignment of amino acid sequences was found to be very similar to those for other bovid species. It was demonstrated, using the functional effect prediction, that the p.T291A amino acid replacement could have an effect on MC1R protein function but not for the p.L195F substitution. Using phylogenetic analyses it was revealed that the gayal has a close genetic relationship with the yak. However, three classical bovine MC1R loci the E (D), E (+) and e were not retrieved in the gayal, indicating other genes or factors could affect coat colour in this species.

  6. Occurrence and functional significance of the transcriptome in bovine (Bos taurus) spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraju, Sellappan; Parthipan, Sivashanmugam; Somashekar, Lakshminarayana; Kolte, Atul P; Krishnan Binsila, B.; Arangasamy, Arunachalam; Ravindra, Janivara Parameshwaraiah

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa deliver various classes of RNAs to the oocyte during fertilization, and many of them may regulate fertility. The objective of the present study was to determine the composition and abundance of spermatozoal transcripts in fresh bull semen. The entire transcriptome of the spermatozoa from bulls (n = 3) was sequenced using two different platforms (Ion Proton and Illumina) to identify the maximum number of genes present in the spermatozoa. The bovine spermatozoa contained transcripts for 13,833 genes (transcripts per million, TPM > 10). Both intact and fragmented transcripts were found. These spermatozoal transcripts were associated with various stages of spermatogenesis, spermatozoal function, fertilization, and embryo development. The presence of intact transcripts of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in the spermatozoa suggest a possible influence of sperm transcripts beyond early embryonic development. The specific regions (exon, intron, and exon-intron) of the particular spermatozoal transcripts might help regulate fertilization. This study demonstrates that the use of two different RNA-seq platforms provides a comprehensive profile of bovine spermatozoal RNA. Spermatozoal RNA profiling may be useful as a non-invasive method to delineate possible causes of male infertility and to predict fertility in a manner that is more effective than the conventional methods. PMID:28276431

  7. Seroprevalence of Brucella infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Xulong, Lang; Hailong, Qu; Zhaoyang, Bu; Yanling, Yang; Chunhui, Sun; Xiaoyan, Li; Jinglong, Wang; Jinshan, Cai; Ruilin, Ma; Yijuan, Fu; Xinglong, Wang

    2011-02-01

    The seroprevalence of Brucella infection in yaks was surveyed on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China in 2010. A total of 621 serum samples was collected from six counties and were tested by serum agglutination test. The results showed that 56 (9%) of the samples were positive for Brucella. The results of the present investigation indicate that brucellosis is common in yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China.

  8. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Jamwal, Manu; Singh, Surender; Kumar, Saravanan; Panigrahi, Aswini K; Hariprasad, Gururao; Jena, Manoj K; Anand, Vijay; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K; Dang, Ajay K; Mukesh, Manishi; Mishra, Bishnu P; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Reddy, Vanga S; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2013-11-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation.

  9. Origin and Spread of Bos taurus: New Clues from Mitochondrial Genomes Belonging to Haplogroup T1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfiglio, Silvia; Ginja, Catarina; De Gaetano, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Colli, Licia; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Agha, Saif Hassan; Gama, Luis T.; Cattonaro, Federica; Penedo, M. Cecilia T; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Torroni, Antonio; Ferretti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Background Most genetic studies on modern cattle have established a common origin for all taurine breeds in the Near East, during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ka) ago. Yet, the possibility of independent and/or secondary domestication events is still debated and is fostered by the finding of rare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups like P, Q and R. Haplogroup T1, because of its geographic distribution, has been the subject of several investigations pointing to a possible independent domestication event in Africa and suggesting a genetic contribution of African cattle to the formation of Iberian and Creole cattle. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence analysis, with its proven effectiveness in improving the resolution of phylogeographic studies, is the most appropriate tool to investigate the origin and structure of haplogroup T1. Methodology A survey of >2200 bovine mtDNA control regions representing 28 breeds (15 European, 10 African, 3 American) identified 281 subjects belonging to haplogroup T1. Fifty-four were selected for whole mtDNA genome sequencing, and combined with ten T1 complete sequences from previous studies into the most detailed T1 phylogenetic tree available to date. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of the 64 T1 mitochondrial complete genomes revealed six distinct sub-haplogroups (T1a–T1f). Our data support the overall scenario of a Near Eastern origin of the T1 sub-haplogroups from as much as eight founding T1 haplotypes. However, the possibility that one sub-haplogroup (T1d) arose in North Africa, in domesticated stocks, shortly after their arrival from the Near East, can not be ruled out. Finally, the previously identified “African-derived American" (AA) haplotype turned out to be a sub-clade of T1c (T1c1a1). This haplotype was found here for the first time in Africa (Egypt), indicating that it probably originated in North Africa, reached the Iberian Peninsula and sailed to America, with the first European settlers. PMID:22685589

  10. Assessment of inbreeding depression in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inbreeding has been incriminated as a cause of decrease in reproductive performance in cattle. This negative correlation is known as ‘inbreeding depression’, and evidence supporting this hypothesis was generated from association studies between reproductive traits and estimates of inbreeding coeffic...

  11. Serological Patterns of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis and Q Fever in Bos indicus Cattle in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Scolamacchia, Francesca; Handel, Ian G.; Fèvre, Eric M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever are important infections of livestock causing a range of clinical conditions including abortions and reduced fertility. In addition, they are all important zoonotic infections infecting those who work with livestock and those who consume livestock related products such as milk, producing non-specific symptoms including fever, that are often misdiagnosed and that can lead to severe chronic disease. This study used banked sera from the Adamawa Region of Cameroon to investigate the seroprevalences and distributions of seropositive animals and herds. A classical statistical and a multi-level prevalence modelling approach were compared. The unbiased estimates were 20% of herds were seropositive for Brucella spp. compared to 95% for Leptospira spp. and 68% for Q fever. The within-herd seroprevalences were 16%, 35% and 39% respectively. There was statistical evidence of clustering of seropositive brucellosis and Q fever herds. The modelling approach has the major advantage that estimates of seroprevalence can be adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test used and the multi-level structure of the sampling. The study found a low seroprevalence of brucellosis in the Adamawa Region compared to a high proportion of leptospirosis and Q fever seropositive herds. This represents a high risk to the human population as well as potentially having a major impact on animal health and productivity in the region. PMID:20098670

  12. Evidence of a major gene influencing hair length and heat tolerance in Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Olson, T A; Lucena, C; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C

    2003-01-01

    Evidence was found that supports the existence of a major gene (designated as the slick hair gene), dominant in mode of inheritance, that is responsible for producing a very short, sleek hair coat. Cattle with slick hair were observed to maintain lower rectal temperatures (RT). The gene is found in Senepol cattle and criollo (Spanish origin) breeds in Central and South America. This gene is also found in a Venezuelan composite breed, the Carora, formed from the Brown Swiss and a Venezuelan criollo breed. Two sets of backcross matings of normal-haired sire breeds to Senepol crossbred dams assumed to be heterozygous for the slick hair gene resulted in ratios of slick to normal-haired progeny that did not significantly differ from 1:1. Data from Carora x Holstein crossbred cows in Venezuela also support the concept of a major gene that is responsible for the slick hair coat of the Carora breed. Cows that were 75% Holstein: 25% Carora in breed composition segregated with a ratio that did not differ from 1:1, as would be expected from a backcross matinginvolving a dominant gene. The effect of the slick hair gene on RT depended on the degree of heat stress and appeared to be affected by age and/or lactation status. The decreased RT observed for slick-haired crossbred calves compared to normal-haired contemporaries ranged from 0.18 to 0.4 degrees C. An even larger decrease in RT (0.61 degrees C; P < 0.01) was observed in lactating Carora x Holstein F1 crossbred cows, even though it did not appear that these cows were under severe heat stress. The improved thermotolerance of crossbred calves due to their slick hair coats did not result in increased weaning weights, possibly because both the slick and normal-haired calves were being nursed by slick-haired dams. There were indications that the slick-haired calves grew faster immediately following weaning and that their growth during the cooler months of the year was not compromised significantly by their reduced quantity of hair. In the Carora x Holstein crossbred cows there was a positive effect of slick hair on milk yield under dry, tropical conditions.

  13. Genome-wide CNV analysis reveals variants associated with growth traits in Bos indicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Apart from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), copy number variation (CNV) is another important type of genetic variation, which may affect growth traits and play key roles for the production of beef cattle. To date, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CNV and body traits in be...

  14. The geomorphic signature of bare-nosed wombats ( Vombatus ursinus) and cattle ( Bos taurus) in an agricultural riparian ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchard, Philip; Eldridge, David J.

    2011-07-01

    Riparian agricultural environments in eastern Australia are widely used for cattle grazing, but are also preferred habitat for native, soil-disturbing mammals such as the bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus). We examined the effects of mound construction by wombats, and track development by cattle and wombats, on soil displacement in a riparian landscape at high and low levels of cattle usage. Splash erosion was measured on mounds and inter-mounds with splashboards, and changes in the profiles of cattle-wombat tracks were assessed using a profilemeter. Twice as much soil was detached by splash erosion from mounds than inter-mounds, irrespective of cattle usage, and about three-times more coarse sand and 40% more fine sand was detached from mounds and inter-mounds at the high cattle sites. Increasing amount of rainfall corresponded with increasing splash erosion, but only on the mounds. The volume of soil displaced from wombat and cattle tracks ranged from 7.9 to 88.8 m3 ha-1 (4.7 to 118.7 t ha-1), but there were no differences in relation to cattle usage. Our results indicate that track development by cattle and wombats and mound construction by wombats may be substantial geomorphic processes given the large mass of soil displaced. Our results suggest that mounding by wombats may be an important process in riparian environments by providing a range of microsites that favour different plant cover densities.

  15. Developmental Block and Programmed Cell Death in Bos indicus Embryos: Effects of Protein Supplementation Source and Developmental Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sheila Merlo; Marinho, Luciana Simões Rafagnin; Lunardelli, Paula Alvares; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if the protein source of the medium influences zebu embryo development and if developmental kinetics, developmental block and programmed cell death are related. The culture medium was supplemented with either fetal calf serum or bovine serum albumin. The embryos were classified as Fast (n = 1,235) or Slow (n = 485) based on the time required to reach the fourth cell cycle (48 h and 90 h post insemination - hpi -, respectively). The Slow group was further separated into two groups: those presenting exactly 4 cells at 48 hpi (Slow/4 cells) and those that reached the fourth cell cycle at 90 hpi (Slow). Blastocyst quality, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential and signs of apoptosis or necrosis were evaluated. The Slow group had higher incidence of developmental block than the Fast group. The embryos supplemented with fetal calf serum had lower quality. DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential were absent in embryos at 48 hpi but present at 90 hpi. Early signs of apoptosis were more frequent in the Slow and Slow/4 cell groups than in the Fast group. We concluded that fetal calf serum reduces blastocyst development and quality, but the mechanism appears to be independent of DNA fragmentation. The apoptotic cells detected at 48 hpi reveal a possible mechanism of programmed cell death activation prior to genome activation. The apoptotic cells observed in the slow-developing embryos suggested a relationship between programmed cell death and embryonic developmental kinetics in zebu in vitro-produced embryos. PMID:25760989

  16. Haplotype distribution in the class I sirtuin genes and their associations with ultrasound carcass traits in Qinchuan cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Gui, Linsheng; Hao, Ruijie; Zhang, Yaran; Zhao, Xianlin; Zan, Linsen

    2015-06-01

    Class I sirtuin genes including SIRT1, SIRT2 and SIRT3, are members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent family of histone deacetylases, and play essential roles in senescence, metabolism, and apoptosis. This study was conducted to detect potential polymorphisms of the bovine class I sirtuin genes and explore their relationships with ultrasound carcass traits in Qinchuan cattle. Four non-coding mutations in the 3'UTR (SIRT1: g.25751A > C, SIRT1: g.25846A > G, SIRT2: g.19676G > A and SIRT3: g. 25702C > T) and three mutations in exons (SIRT2: g.4062C > T; SIRT2: g.4406C > T and SIRT3: g.25557A > G) were identified in 468 individuals of Qinchuan cattle. Chi-square tests showed that g.25751A > C, g.19676G > A, and g.25702C > T were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (χ(2) < χ0.05(2)). The statistical analyses indicated that six SNPs were significantly associated with the ultrasound carcass traits (P < 0.05) except g.4062C > T (SIRT2) (P > 0.05). These results indicate that the variations in the class I sirtuin genes and their corresponding genotypes may be considered as molecular markers for economic traits in cattle breeding.

  17. Effect of Addition of Taurine on the Liquid Storage (5°C) of Mithun (Bos frontalis) Semen

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, P.; Vupru, Kezhavituo; Rajkhowa, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of taurine on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormalities, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, enzymatic profiles such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and biochemical profiles such as cholesterol efflux and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. A total of 50 ejaculates were collected twice a week from 8 mithun bulls, and semen was split into 4 equal aliquots and diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1: semen was without additives (control); groups 2 to 4: semen was diluted with 25 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM of taurine, respectively. Seminal parameters and enzymatic and biochemical profiles were assessed at 5°C. Inclusion of taurine into diluent resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decreases in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa, and acrosomal abnormalities after liquid storage compared with the control group. Additionally, taurine at 50 mM has significant improvement in quality of mithun semen than taurine at 25 or 100 mM stored in in vitro at 5°C. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of taurine on sperm parameters are from enhancing the function of antioxidant enzymes, preventing efflux of cholesterol from cell membranes and decreased MDA production. PMID:23853737

  18. Perfluorooctane sulfonate plasma half-life determination and long term tissue distribution in beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of bi...

  19. Predicting wolf (Canis lupus)-cattle (Bos Taurus) encounters and consequential effects on cattle resource selection patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gray wolf population in Idaho has grown dramatically from the original 35 reintroduced individuals in 1995-1996 to 94 documented packs and a minimum population of 835 individuals in 2009. Wolf depredation on livestock has also increased dramatically with this population growth. Substantial spa...

  20. Effects of lowered temperatures and media on short-term preservation of zebu (Bos indicus) preantral ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Lucci, Carolina M; Kacinskis, Mirella A; Rumpf, Rodolfo; Báo, Sônia N

    2004-01-15

    The maintenance of follicle quality during the transportation of ovaries is essential for the successful cryopreservation and in vitro development of preantral follicles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooling ovarian tissue on the conservation of zebu cow preantral follicles. Ovarian pieces were immersed in saline or coconut water (CW) solutions and maintained at 4 or 20 degrees C for 6, 12, or 18 h. Preantral follicles were evaluated by histology and transmission electron microscopy. Storage of ovarian pieces at 20 degrees C for 12 or 18 h significantly reduced the percentage of morphologically normal follicles compared to controls. In contrast, conservation at 4 degrees C for up to 18 h and at 20 degrees C for up to 6 h kept the percentage of normal follicles similar to controls. However, the type of solution that the ovaries were immersed in had little effect on the results. Decreased cellular metabolism probably accounted for better preservation of preantral follicles at 4 degrees C. In conclusion, zebu cow ovaries were successfully stored at 4 degrees C for up to 18 h with no morphological damage to preantral follicles. However, at 20 degrees C, ovaries could only be stored for 6 h.

  1. Characterization of genetic polymorphism of the bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 locus in Kankrej cattle (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Behl, J D; Verma, N K; Behl, R; Mukesh, M; Ahlawat, S P S

    2007-06-01

    Bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB 3.2 (BoLA-DRB3.2) gene encodes for the beta chain of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule in cattle, which is a glycoprotein present on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. This locus shows extensive polymorphism in it. The objective of the present study was to genotype the BoLA-DRB3.2 locus in Kankrej cattle (n = 50) by PCR-RFLP. Bovine DNA was isolated from aliquots of whole blood. Primers specific for exon 2 of the bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA)-DRB3 gene were used to amplify the region. The 304-bp amplified product of the DRB3 gene was separately digested with restriction endonucleases RsaI, BstYI, and Hae III. Twenty-four BoLA-DRB 3.2 alleles were identified with frequencies ranging from 1 to 22.0%. Twenty-one alleles of the total 24 alleles were similar to those reported earlier; 3 alleles were new and had not been reported previously. The allele BoLA-DRB3.2*34 occurred at the highest frequency of 22% (approx.) in the Kankrej animals studied. Six alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2 *34, *15, *06, *20, *37, and *20) accounted for almost 71% of the total alleles observed to be present in the Kankrej animals. All the new alleles observed were present at frequencies of 1%. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that the BoLA DRB3.2 locus is highly polymorphic in the Kankrej cattle.

  2. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences ( P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference ( P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  3. Who’s the BOS-I? Base Operating Support Integrator and Senior Airfield Authority at Deployed Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    The GC is typically an O-6 and therefore likely not the most senior officer on the post. However, the GC does not fall under the chain of command...ICO) * SELECTED INSTALLATIONS ** COMMAND & CONTROL TO Core model - sized to mission AG1CP- FOD ; OPNL CONTROL TO GC Shannon Reilly/IMAH-PA/(703)602

  4. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Tharparkar of semi-arid region (4.72 ± 1.55) compared to arid region (2.83 ± 1.01). Similarly, the frequency of SCEs was found to be 4.0 ± 1.41 in the Sahiwal of semi-arid region and 2.69 ± 1.12 in Kankrej of arid zone. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) amongst the different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  5. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon)

    PubMed Central

    Kouamo, J.; Dawaye, S.M.; Zoli, A.P.; Bah, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ < 3 mm), medium (3 ≥ Φ ≤ 8 mm) and large (Φ > 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10) and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI): oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII): oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII): oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV): denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary) and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS) and pregnancy status of cow) on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%). Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%), 2.72±0.15 (24.82%), 2.24±0.15 (20.43%) and 2.47±0.20 (22.54%) respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P < 0.05) compared with other animals. Oocytes with quality (grade I and II) acceptable for IVEP constituted 57.15% of the harvest. This study indicated that factors such as age, pregnancy status, BCS and ovarian size must be taken into account to increase the potential of the ovary for IVEP. PMID:26623353

  6. Individual Recognition in Domestic Cattle (Bos taurus): Evidence from 2D-Images of Heads from Different Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Marjorie; Deputte, Bertrand L.; Heyman, Yvan; Baudoin, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to maintain cohesion of groups, social animals need to process social information efficiently. Visual individual recognition, which is distinguished from mere visual discrimination, has been studied in only few mammalian species. In addition, most previous studies used either a small number of subjects or a few various views as test stimuli. Dairy cattle, as a domestic species allow the testing of a good sample size and provide a large variety of test stimuli due to the morphological diversity of breeds. Hence cattle are a suitable model for studying individual visual recognition. This study demonstrates that cattle display visual individual recognition and shows the effect of both familiarity and coat diversity in discrimination. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether 8 Prim'Holstein heifers could recognize 2D-images of heads of one cow (face, profiles, ¾ views) from those of other cows. Experiments were based on a simultaneous discrimination paradigm through instrumental conditioning using food rewards. In Experiment 1, all images represented familiar cows (belonging to the same social group) from the Prim'Holstein breed. In Experiments 2, 3 and 4, images were from unfamiliar (unknown) individuals either from the same breed or other breeds. All heifers displayed individual recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individuals from their own breed. Subjects reached criterion sooner when recognizing a familiar individual than when recognizing an unfamiliar one (Exp 1: 3.1±0.7 vs. Exp 2: 5.2±1.2 sessions; Z = 1.99, N = 8, P = 0.046). In addition almost all subjects recognized unknown individuals from different breeds, however with greater difficulty. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that cattle have efficient individual recognition based on categorization capacities. Social familiarity improved their performance. The recognition of individuals with very different coat characteristics from the subjects was the most difficult task. These results call for studies exploring the mechanisms involved in face recognition allowing interspecies comparisons, including humans. PMID:19212439

  7. Three-dimensional reconstruction of helicopter blade-tip vortices using a multi-camera BOS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauknecht, André; Ewers, Benjamin; Wolf, Christian; Leopold, Friedrich; Yin, Jianping; Raffel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Noise and structural vibrations in rotorcraft are strongly influenced by interactions between blade-tip vortices and the structural components of a helicopter. As a result, knowing the three-dimensional location of vortices is highly desirable, especially for the case of full-scale helicopters under realistic flight conditions. In the current study, we present results from a flight test with a full-scale BO 105 in an open-pit mine. A background-oriented schlieren measurement system consisting of ten cameras with a natural background was used to visualize the vortices of the helicopter during maneuvering flight. Vortex filaments could be visualized and extracted up to a vortex age of 360°. Vortex instability effects were found for several flight conditions. For the camera calibration, an iterative approach using points on the helicopter fuselage was applied. Point correspondence between vortex curves in the evaluated images was established by means of epipolar geometry. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the main part of the vortex system was carried out for the first time using stereophotogrammetry. The reconstructed vortex system had good qualitative agreement with the result of an unsteady free-wake panel method simulation. A quantitative evaluation of the 3D vortex system was carried out, demonstrating the potential of the multi-camera background-oriented schlieren measurement technique for the analysis of blade-vortex interaction effects on rotorcraft.

  8. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries) Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Ha, Minh; Sabherwal, Manya; Duncan, Elizabeth; Stevens, Stewart; Stockwell, Peter; McConnell, Michelle; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner) was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes) was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes). This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth.

  9. Genomic characterisation of the feline sarcoid-associated papillomavirus and proposed classification as Bos taurus papillomavirus type 14.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Thomson, Neroli; Dunowska, Magda; Knight, Cameron G; Laurie, Rebecca E; Hills, Simon

    2015-06-12

    Feline sarcoids are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of domestic and exotic cats. Previous studies have consistently detected short DNA sequences from a papillomavirus (PV), designated feline sarcoid-associated papillomavirus (FeSarPV), in these neoplasms. The FeSarPV sequence has never been detected in any non-sarcoid sample from cats but has been amplified from the skin of cattle suggesting that feline sarcoids are caused by cross-species infection by a bovine papillomavirus (BPV). The aim of the present study was to determine the genome of the PV that contains the FeSarPV sequence. Using the circular nature of PV DNA, four specifically designed 'outward facing' primers were used to amplify two approximately 4,000 bp DNA segments from a feline sarcoid. The two PCR products were sequenced using next generation sequencing and the full genome of the PV, consisting 7,966 bp, was assembled and analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the PV was closely related to the species 4 delta BPVs-1, -2, and -13, but distantly related to any carnivoran PV genus. These results are consistent with feline sarcoids being caused by a BPV type and we propose a classification of BPV-14 for this novel PV. Initial analysis suggests that, like other delta BPVs, the BPV-14 E5 protein could cause mesenchymal proliferation by binding to the platelet derived growth factor beta receptor. Interestingly BPV-14 has not been detected in any equine sarcoid suggesting that BPV-14 has a host range that is limited to bovids and felids.

  10. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries) Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Minh; Sabherwal, Manya; Duncan, Elizabeth; Stevens, Stewart; Stockwell, Peter; McConnell, Michelle; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner) was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes) was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes). This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth. PMID:26447763

  11. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in milk somatic cells of lactating cows (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Varshney, N; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, S; Kaushik, J K; Dang, A K; Mukesh, M; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R; Kimothi, S P; Mukhopadhyay, T K; Malakar, D; Prakash, B S; Grover, S; Batish, V K

    2012-06-01

    We assessed the suitability of 9 internal control genes (ICG) in milk somatic cells of lactating cows to find suitable reference genes for use in quantitative PCR (qPCR). Eighteen multiparous lactating Sahiwal cows were used, 6 in each of 3 lactation stages: early (25 ± 5 d in milk), mid (160 ± 15 d in milk), and late (275 ± 25 d in milk) lactation. Nine candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 (PPP1R11), β-actin (ACTB), β-2 microglobulin (B2M), 40S ribosomal protein S15a (RPS15A), ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), mitochondrial GTPase 1 (MTG1), 18S rRNA (RN18S1), and ubiquitin (UBC)] were evaluated. Three genes, β-casein (CSN2), lactoferrin (LTF), and cathelicidin (CAMP) were chosen as target genes. Very high amplification was observed in 7 ICG and very low level amplification was observed in 2 ICG (UXT and MTG1). Thus, UXT and MTG1 were excluded from further analysis. The qPCR data were analyzed by 2 software packages, geNorm and NormFinder, to determine suitable reference genes, based on their stability and expression. Overall, PPP1R11, ACTB, UBC, and GAPDH were stably expressed among all candidate reference genes. Therefore, these genes could be used as ICG for normalization of qPCR data in milk somatic cells through lactation.

  12. The Genetic Diversity of the Nguni Breed of African Cattle (Bos spp.): Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Haplogroup T1

    PubMed Central

    Horsburgh, K. Ann; Prost, Stefan; Gosling, Anna; Stanton, Jo-Ann; Rand, Christy; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Domesticated cattle were commonplace in northern Africa by about 7,000 years ago. Archaeological evidence, however, suggests they were not established in southern Africa until much later, no earlier than 2,000 years ago. Genetic reconstructions have started to shed light on the movement of African cattle, but efforts have been frustrated by a lack of data south of Ethiopia and the nature of the mitochondrial haplogroup T1 which is almost fixed across the continent. We sequenced 35 complete mitochondrial genomes from a South African herd of Nguni cattle, a breed historically associated with Bantu speaking farmers who were among the first to bring cattle to southern Africa. As expected, all individuals in the study were found to be members of haplogroup T1. Only half of the sub-haplogroups of T1 (T1a-T1f) are represented in our sample and the overwhelming majority (94%) in this study belong to subhaplogroup T1b. A previous study of African cattle found frequencies of T1b of 27% in Egypt and 69% in Ethiopia. These results are consistent with serial multiple founder effects significantly shaping the gene pool as cattle were moved from north to south across the continent. Interestingly, these mitochondrial data give no indication that the impacts of the founder effects were ameliorated by gene flow from recently introduced Indian cattle breeds. PMID:23977187

  13. Immunization of Bos taurus steers with Babesia bovis recombinant antigens MSA-1, MSA-2c and 12D3.

    PubMed

    Antonio Alvarez, J; Lopez, U; Rojas, C; Borgonio, V M; Sanchez, V; Castañeda, R; Vargas, P; Figueroa, J V

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the recombinant proteins MSA-1, MSA-2c and 12D3 as a combined immunogen for cattle. Fifteen steers were randomly assigned into three groups of five animals each (I, II and III). On day 0, cattle in group I were injected with 50 microg each of rMSA-1, rMSA-2c and r12D3 with the adjuvant Montanide 75; cattle in Group II received adjuvant-PBS, and Group III were untreated controls. On day 14, cattle in Group I received a second injection of the three recombinant proteins in adjuvant and cattle in Group II again received adjuvant alone. On day 28, all groups of cattle were challenged with a field strain of Babesia bovis. After challenge, the experimental cattle were clinically and serologically monitored. Three of the five steers immunized with the combined recombinant B. bovis proteins seroconverted on day 14 post-immunization (P.I.) and the maximum titre was 1 : 1600. All five immunized steers presented strong seropositivity to B. bovis antigens at day 21 P.I. The prepatent periods of vaccinated cattle were delayed until day 10 post-challenge exposure versus 8 and 7 days in Groups II and III, respectively. Cattle in all groups had fever above 41 degrees C; the reduction in packed cell volume was not significantly different (P > 0.05) in vaccinated group I compared with Groups II and III (29% versus 26% and 31%, respectively). Treatment was required for one steer in the control group. During the period of the study, the weight of cattle in Groups I and II increased an average of 9 and 7 kg, whereas the weight of the control cattle was reduced on average 4 kg. Immunization with rMSA-1-rMSA-2c-r12D3 proteins was not sufficient to prevent clinical symptoms against challenge, but the immunologic response was sufficient to protect steers against a mild virulent strain of B. bovis.

  14. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P < 0.05) between FSF and daily milk yield; pregnancy rates were 42.20% and 41.67% for the SC-FTAI and NSE-IA groups, respectively (P > 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  15. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P < 0.01); however, heifers receiving MGA had lower conception results following AI (51.6 vs. 71.4%; P = 0.01). In addition, MGA-treated heifers were more likely to have a corpus luteum in the middle of the breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P < 0.01), although the Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate was similar (P = 0.29) at the end of the breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers.

  16. Comparison of ovine herpesvirus 2 genomes isolated from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and a clinically affected cow (Bos bovis).

    PubMed

    Taus, Naomi S; Herndon, David R; Traul, Donald L; Stewart, James P; Ackermann, Mathias; Li, Hong; Knowles, Donald P; Lewis, Gregory S; Brayton, Kelly A

    2007-01-01

    The rhadinovirus Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever. OvHV-2 primarily affects ruminants and has a worldwide distribution. In this study, a composite sequence of OvHV-2 genomic DNA isolated from nasal secretions of sheep experiencing virus-shedding episodes was determined and compared with the sequence of OvHV-2 DNA isolated from a lymphoblastoid cell line derived from a clinically affected cow. The study confirmed the OvHV-2 sequence information determined for the cell line-isolated DNA and showed no apparently significant changes in the OvHV-2 genome during passage through a clinically susceptible species with subsequent maintenance in vitro. Amino acid identity between the predicted open reading frames (ORFs) of the two genomes was 94-100%, except for ORF73, which had an identity of 83%. Polymorphism in ORF73 was due primarily to variability in the G/E-rich repetitive central region of the ORF.

  17. A novel analytical method detects response of the Angus (Bos taurus) genome to artificial selection on complex traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods have recently been developed to identify selective sweeps within genomes. However, recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that polygenic models are required to identify the genomic regions that have responded to selection on complex traits. Using DNA samples from US registe...

  18. Expression of the SIRT2 Gene and Its Relationship with Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Lin-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ran; Liu, Gui-Yao; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Silent information regulator 2 (SIRT2) is a member of the sirtuin family of class III NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)-dependent protein deacetylases and may regulate senescence, metabolism and apoptosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the SIRT2 gene could be used as a candidate gene in the breeding of Qinchuan cattle. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that among all types of tissue that were analyzed, the highest mRNA expression levels of the gene were found in subcutaneous fat. DNA sequencing of 468 individual Qinchuan cattle identified two novel, single nucleotide polymorphisms (g.19501 C > T and g.19518 C > T) in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the SIRT2 gene. The frequencies of SNP g.19501 C > T and g.19518 C > T were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in all the samples (chi-square test, χ2 < χ0.052). An association analysis showed that the two loci were significantly correlated with some body size traits and the H2H2 (-CT-CT-) diplotypes performed better than other combinations. These results indicated that the variations in the SIRT2 gene and their corresponding genotypes may be considered as molecular markers for economic traits in cattle breeding. PMID:25622258

  19. Developmental competence of frozen-thawed yak (Bos grunniens) oocytes followed by in vitro maturation and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hui-Ran; Zi, Xiang-Dong; Xiao, Xiao; Xiong, Xian-Rong; Zhong, Jin-Cheng; Li, Jian; Wang, Li; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we examined the ability of immature germinal vesicle (GV) and subjected to in vitro matured (MII) yak oocytes to survive after cryopreservation as well as their subsequent development following in vitro maturation and fertilization. Both GV and MII oocytes were cryopreserved by using two different vitrification solutions (VS); VS-I contained 10% ethylene glycol (EG) and 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in TCM-199 + 20% (v/v) fetal calf serum (FCS) whereas VS-II contained 40% EG + 18% Ficoll + 0.5 M sucrose in TCM-199 + 20% FCS. The percentage of oocytes found to be morphologically normal was greater (P < 0.01) in VS-I group than in VS-II group. Rates of cleavage (30.6-42.2%) and blastocyst formation (2.9-8.9%) did not differ among groups, but were lower than in unfrozen control (55.7% and 25.4%, P < 0.01). These results show that a combination of EG and DMSO or EG, Ficoll and sucrose can be used to cryopreserve yak oocytes in French straws.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and other food animals [Spanish][Epidemiología molecular de cryptosporidiosis en el ganado vacuno y en otros animales de abasto

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and other food animals Cryptosporidium is an enteric protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Cryptosporidial infection is known now as one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans and livestock. Worldwide prevale...

  1. [Immunomodulatory role of dietary lipids in an immunosuppressed mouse model and infected with listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Cerón Rodríguez, José María; Puertollano Vacas, M Ángeles; Puertollano Vacas, M Elena; Alvarez de Cienfuegos López, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: La capacidad inmunomoduladora de los ácidos grasos de la dieta en situaciones de inmunosupresión puede diferir de acuerdo con el tipo de ácido graso presente. Objetivo: Analizar el efecto de diferentes tipos de dietas lipídicas, en la resistencia de animales inmunosuprimidos o no, frente a una infección experimental con Listeria monocytogenes. Métodos: Ratones Balb/c fueron divididos en cuatro grupos experimentales, según su tratamiento inmunosupresor: control (PBS), Ciclofosfamida (CPA), GK 1.5 y RB6-8C5. Cada grupo fue subdividido en cuatro subgrupos según la dieta lipídica utilizada: control con aceite de maíz 5% (BG); aceite de oliva 20% (AO); aceite de pescado 20% (AP) y aceite de girasol 20% (AG). Los animales se alimentaron durante un mes antes del tratamiento y posteriormente infectados con L. monocytogenes. Resultados: Mostramos incrementos en el número de bacterias viables en bazo e hígado, y bajos porcentajes de supervivencia en todos los grupos de ratones inmunosuprimidos y también en el grupo PBS alimentado con AP. Además, se observaron incrementos en la linfoproliferación, de bazos de ratones alimentados con AO y tratados con CPA. Discusión: La dieta AP, produce una disminución en la resistencia del hospedador en situaciones de inmunosupresión. Por el contrario, las dietas AO y AG muestran mayor eficacia en la eliminación de L. monocytogenes y mayores ventajas en animales inmunosuprimidos. El tratamiento con RB6-8C5, produce una reducción en la supervivencia de los ratones de los grupos estudiados, lo que induce a establecer que los granulocitos juegan un papel fundamental en el control de la infección.

  2. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  3. Serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs (Bos gaurus), concurrently infected with foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Chandranaik, Basavegowdanadoddi Marinaik; Hegde, Raveendra; Shivashankar, Beechagondahalli Papanna; Giridhar, Papanna; Muniyellappa, Handenahally Kaverappa; Kalge, Rajeshwar; Sumathi, Benamanahalli Raju; Nithinprabhu, Kumble; Chandrashekara, Narasimhaiah; Manjunatha, Venkataramanappa; Jaisingh, Nirupama; Mayanna, Asha; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli; Kanaka, Sermaraja; Venkatesha, Mudalagiri Dasappagupta

    2015-06-01

    We report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. Bannerghatta biological park (BBP), a national park located in the outskirts of Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India, is bordered by several villages. These villages witnessed massive outbreaks of FMD which spread rapidly to the herbivores at BBP. Post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two Indian gaurs that died with symptoms of FMD. The salient gross findings included extensive vesicular lesions on the tongue, gums, cheeks, upper palate and hooves. Haemorrhagic tracheitis and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the heart were characteristic. The vesicular lesions of oral cavity were positive for 'O' type of FMD virus by sandwich enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The heart blood and spleen samples yielded growth of pure cultures of P. multocida. The isolates were typed as P. multocida type B using KTSP61 and KTT72 primers yielding specific amplicons of 620 bp. The phylogenetic analysis of the isolates was carried by sequencing of 1.4-Kbp nucleotides on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the isolates.

  4. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P<0.006 and P<0.01, respectively) associated with Brucella abortus seropositivity. Herd composition, abortion in herd, exchange of bulls for mating, introduction of new cattle, and socio-cultural practices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial.

  5. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles and their relationships with mRNA and the microRNA transcriptome in bovine muscle tissue (Bos taurine).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Sun, Jia-Jie; Zhang, Liang-Zhi; Li, Cong-Jun; Womack, James E; Li, Zhuan-Jian; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2014-10-13

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals and plays important roles in muscle development. We sampled longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) from a well-known elite native breed of Chinese Qinchuan cattle living within the same environment but displaying distinct skeletal muscle at the fetal and adult stages. We generated and provided a genome-wide landscape of DNA methylomes and their relationship with mRNA and miRNA for fetal and adult muscle studies. Integration analysis revealed a total of 77 and 1,054 negatively correlated genes with methylation in the promoter and gene body regions, respectively, in both the fetal and adult bovine libraries. Furthermore, we identified expression patterns of high-read genes that exhibit a negative correlation between methylation and expression from nine different tissues at multiple developmental stages of bovine muscle-related tissue or organs. In addition, we validated the MeDIP-Seq results by bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) in some of the differentially methylated promoters. Together, these results provide valuable data for future biomedical research and genomic and epigenomic studies of bovine skeletal muscle that may help uncover the molecular basis underlying economically valuable traits in cattle. This comprehensive map also provides a solid basis for exploring the epigenetic mechanisms of muscle growth and development.

  6. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benign trypanosomes of cattle and wild ungulates in the United States are designated Trypanosoma theileri and Trypanosoma cervi, respectively. Historically these parasites have been identified based on morphology, host, and vector, if known. No molecular characterization has been reported for T....

  7. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  8. Molecular Characterization of Bovine SMO Gene and Effects of Its Genetic Variations on Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Ran; Gui, Lin-Sheng; Li, Yao-Kun; Jiang, Bi-Jie; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-07-27

    Smoothened (Smo)-mediated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs the patterning, morphogenesis and growth of many different regions within animal body plans. This study evaluated the effects of genetic variations of the bovine SMO gene on economically important body size traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Altogether, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-8) were identified and genotyped via direct sequencing covering most of the coding region and 3'UTR of the bovine SMO gene. Both the p.698Ser.>Ser. synonymous mutation resulted from SNP1 and the p.700Ser.>Pro. non-synonymous mutation caused by SNP2 mapped to the intracellular C-terminal tail of bovine Smo protein; the other six SNPs were non-coding variants located in the 3'UTR. The linkage disequilibrium was analyzed, and five haplotypes were discovered in 520 Qinchuan cattle. Association analyses showed that SNP2, SNP3/5, SNP4 and SNP6/7 were significantly associated with some body size traits (p < 0.05) except SNP1/8 (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, cattle with wild-type combined haplotype Hap1/Hap1 had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body length than those with Hap2/Hap2. Our results indicate that variations in the SMO gene could affect body size traits of Qinchuan cattle, and the wild-type haplotype Hap1 together with the wild-type alleles of these detected SNPs in the SMO gene could be used to breed cattle with superior body size traits. Therefore, our results could be helpful for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs.

  9. Bos indicus cattle possess greater basal concentrations of HSP27, alpha B-crystallin, and HSP70 in skeletal muscle in vivo compared with cattle.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Zerby, H N; Fitzpatrick, L A; Parker, A J

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the basal concentrations of heat shock proteins (HSP) between and cattle and to determine if HSP basal concentrations change as an animal matures. A total of 40 cattle were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the effects of genotype and age (heifers and mature cows) on basal concentrations of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), α B-crystallin (Cryab), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Each experimental group of 10 animals was sampled on a separate day over a period of 4 wk during July 2014. A muscle sample was collected from the longissimus thoracis (LT) and concentrations of HSP were quantified using ELISA. There were no significant differences in HSP concentration for the interaction between age and genotype or for age alone. cattle had greater ( < 0.05) basal concentrations of HSP27, Cryab, and HSP70 in the LT than cattle. The results of this study show that basal in vivo HSP concentrations differ between and cattle. However, further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between HSP concentrations and meat tenderness with respect to genotypes to see if HSP concentrations account for at least some variability in tenderness differences.

  10. Temporal relationships between minor, preovulatory, or periovulatory FSH surges and the emergence and development of 2-mm follicles of wave 1 in Bos taurus heifers.

    PubMed

    Baldrighi, J M; Siddiqui, M A R; Ginther, O J

    2016-10-01

    The number and day of emergence (first detection) of 2-mm follicles and the number and day when the 2-mm follicles reached 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-mm during wave 1 were determined every 0.5 d (n = 9 heifers). Emergence of the follicles at each of the indicated diameters was normalized to the beginning and ending nadir and the peak of each of a minor FSH surge, the preovulatory surge, and the periovulatory surge. Relative to the day of ovulation (day 0), the minor FSH surge, preovulatory surge, and periovulatory surge encompassed (nadir to nadir) days -7.0 to -2.5 (peak, day -4.0), days -2.5 to -0.5 (peak, day -1.0), and days -0.5 to 4 (peak, day 0), respectively. Distinct mean nadirs occurred between the minor and preovulatory surges and between the preovulatory and periovulatory surges. A small percentage of 2-mm follicles (12%) and 3-mm follicles (2%) emerged during the minor FSH surge. The 4-mm follicles emerged during the preovulatory surge (24% of follicles) and periovulatory surge (76%). The 5-mm and 6-mm follicles emerged only during the periovulatory surge. The first increase (P < 0.05) in number of 2-, 3-, and 4-mm follicles began at 1.5, 1.0, and 0 d, respectively, before the nadir at the beginning of the preovulatory surge. The first increase (P < 0.05) in number of 5- and 6-mm follicles began at 0.5 and 0 d, respectively, before the intervening nadir between the preovulatory and periovulatory surges. Results demonstrated that each of the 3 surges including the minor surge contributed to the emergence of follicles at various diameters during wave 1. The emergence of 2-mm follicles during the descending portion of the minor surge indicated that smaller follicles (eg, 1 mm) apparently emerged during the major portion of the minor surge. The increasing diameter of the 2 largest follicles was not interrupted during the distinct intervening nadir between the preovulatory and periovulatory FSH surges.

  11. Effects of biostimulation and nutritional supplementation on pubertal age and pregnancy rates of Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C M G; Oliveira Filho, B D; Gambarini, M L; Viu, M A O; Lopes, D T; Sousa, A P F

    2009-07-01

    To determine effects of biostimulation (BIO) and dietary supplementation (BIO+S) on pubertal age and pregnancy rates, Nelore heifers (n=392) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups (n=98/group). All animals were in tropical environmental conditions, in the middle-west region of Brazil, grazing in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu; Panicum Maximum, cv. Tanzânia and Brachiaria humidícula. The heifers of the BIO group were kept in the presence of bulls while being maintained on pasture; the animals in the BIO+S group were kept in the presence of bulls while being managed on pasture and were fed a diet with greater energy and protein content to produce 0.49 kg of BW gain/day; the animals in control group (the NBIO) were kept away from bulls and under pasture conditions; and the animals in the NBIO+S group were kept away from bulls, were maintained on pasture, and were fed the same diet as the BIO+S group. Heifers were bred at 22-23 months of age, and pregnancy diagnosis was made 45 days after the end of the breeding season. There were differences (P<0.05) between groups regarding pubertal heifers up to 19 months (NPH), final body weight (FBW) and pregnancy rates (P<0.01), with an advantage for the animals in the BIO and BIO+S groups. Although the effect of a diet with greater protein and energy content was not clear in this experiment, the exposure of heifers to a male during the prepubertal period decreased age at the first breeding season, resulting in a significant reduction in age of first pregnancy in Nelore heifers kept under extensive management systems in a tropical environment.

  12. Comparison of the diurnal pattern and magnitude of velocities of goats (Capra Hircus), sheep (Ovis Aries), horses (Equus Caballus) and cattle (Bos Taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ungulates were bred over the last four thousand years to provide man with food, fiber and motive power. Cattle, horses, sheep and goats arose from different animal ancestors and serve different purposes based upon their unique characteristics. We hypothesized that each species would have ...

  13. Development of a biotin-streptavidin amplified enzyme immunoassay for oxytocin and its application during milk ejection and the reproductive cycle in the mithun (Bos frontalis).

    PubMed

    Mondal, Mohan; Rajkhowa, Chandan; Prakash, Bukkaraya Samudram

    2006-07-01

    Oxytocin is a key hormone involved in milk ejection. It plays a key role in regulation of reproductive cyclicity in female mammals by taking part in the process of luteolysis. Determination of oxytocin is, therefore, important for studying the control of its secretion and its role in reproduction of the mithun. A simple and sufficiently sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for oxytocin determination in mithun plasma using the biotin-streptavidin amplification system and second antibody coating technique was therefore developed. Biotin was coupled to oxytocin and used to bridge between streptavidin-peroxidase and the immobilized oxytocin antiserum in a competitive assay. The EIA was conducted directly in 200 microl of unknown mithun plasma. Standards prepared in hormone-free plasma were used. The lowest detection limit was 0.5 pg/ml plasma. Plasma volumes for the EIA (50, 100, and 200 microl) did not influence the shape of standard curve, even though a drop in OD450 was seen with higher plasma volumes. A parallelism test was carried out to compare endogenous mithun oxytocin with a bovine oxytocin standard. The former showed good parallelism with the bovine standard curve. For biological validation of the assay, plasma oxytocin was measured in the blood samples collected before, during, and after milking in three mithun cows and in six non-lactating cyclic mithuns during the entire estrous cycle. A sharp release of oxytocin shortly after udder stimulation was observed. A high level of oxytocin was maintained during milking, falling sharply thereafter. The mean plasma oxytocin concentration was different on different days of the estrous cycle (P < 0.001). Two peaks of oxytocin were recorded, one at day 6 and another at day 18 of the estrous cycle. In conclusion, a simple, sufficiently sensitive and direct EIA procedure has been developed for the first time to determine plasma oxytocin levels in mithuns. Apart from being non-radioactive, the EIA procedure described here also utilizes a highly stable biotinalyted hormone which has a shelf life of several years, unlike the short shelf life of iodinated tracer used in RIA procedures.

  14. Use of a novel microtitration protocol to obtain diffraction-quality crystals of 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase from Bos taurus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Amadeus; Baker, Edward; Loomes, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase (HOGA) catalyses the retro-aldol degradation of 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and glyoxylate as part of the hydroxyproline catabolic pathway in mammals. Mutations in the coding region of the human HOGA gene are associated with primary hyperoxaluria type 3, a disease characterized by excessive oxalate production and ultimately stone deposition. Native HOGA was purified from bovine kidney using an improved and streamlined purification protocol from which two crystal forms were obtained using two different approaches. Vapour diffusion using PEG 3350 as a precipitant produced monoclinic crystals that belonged to space group C2 and diffracted to 3.5 Å resolution. By comparison, orthorhombic crystals belonging to space group I222 or I212121 and diffracting to beyond 2.25 Å resolution were obtained using a novel microtitration protocol with ammonium sulfate. The latter crystal form displayed superior diffraction quality and was suitable for structural determination by X-ray crystallography. PMID:25372828

  15. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles and their replationship with mRNA and the microRNA transcriptome in bovine muscle tissue (Bos Taurine)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals, having essential and important roles in muscle development. We sample longissimus thoracis tissues from a well-known elite native breed of Chinese Qinchuan cattle living within comparable environments at fetal and adult stages, using methy...

  16. Postweaning substitution of grazed forage with a high-energy concentrate has variable long-term effects on subcutaneous fat and marbling in Bos taurus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, P L; Siddell, J P; Walmsley, B J; Geesink, G H; Pethick, D W; McPhee, M J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects and interactions of stage of growth and genotype on commercial carcass traits and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in 5 muscles of steers ( = 165) and to test the hypothesis that substituting pasture with a high-energy concentrate during the immediate postweaning period increases IMF. Cattle of 3 genotypes (Angus, Hereford, and Wagyu × Angus; = 55/genotype) were selected at weaning from commercial herds, targeting genotypic differences in marbling and subcutaneous fatness. Following weaning, steers were fed for 168 d within 2 different improved, temperate pasture-based nutritional systems: a forage-only system (FS) and forage with high-energy supplemented system (SS), with 2 replicates per system. The supplement was fed at a level of 1% of average BW adjusted every 2 wk to provide an estimated 50% of energy requirements for 168 d from weaning. Pasture on offer in both systems was managed to match the BW of the FS and SS steers during the postweaning treatment period to avoid confounding due to differences in growth rate during this period. Steers were then regrouped into 2 replicates and backgrounded on improved, temperate pasture for 158 d and then grain fed within 1 group for 105 d (short fed) or 259 d (long fed). Groups were slaughtered at commencement (d 0) and end of postweaning nutritional treatments (d 168), end of backgrounding (d 326), and after short (d 431) or long feedlotting (d 585). Serial slaughter stage had an effect on all traits assessed ( < 0.01). The FS steers had more rib fat ( < 0.01) and higher Meat Standards Australia marbling score ( < 0.05) and a tendency ( < 0.10) to have greater eye muscle area than the SS steers throughout the study. Genotypic differences were evident ( < 0.05) for all traits assessed except HCW, dressing percentage, rib fat depth, ossification score, ultimate pH, and IMF in the semitendinosus muscle. The results for marbling and IMF do not support the use of a high-energy feed as a substitute for an equivalent amount of energy from pasture during the immediate postweaning period to enhance development of marbling.

  17. Bovine tuberculosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and cattle (Bos taurus) in a Mediterranean ecosystem (1992-2004).

    PubMed

    Hermoso de Mendoza, J; Parra, A; Tato, A; Alonso, J M; Rey, J M; Peña, J; García-Sánchez, A; Larrasa, J; Teixidó, J; Manzano, G; Cerrato, R; Pereira, G; Fernández-Llario, P; Hermoso de Mendoza, M

    2006-05-17

    During the last 12 years, an increasing frequency in condemnation of hunted red deer and wild boar carcasses due to the presence of tubercle-like lesions has been observed in Extremadura (Western Spain). Before 1993, tuberculosis was a very rare finding in hunted animals. The current tuberculosis regional prevalence in cattle approaches 0.4% after years of expensive test and slaughter campaigns. It is imperative to investigate the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in red deer and wild boar in order to keep a good health status and to maintain the effectiveness of domestic species TB eradication programs. The present paper evaluates the problem in Sierra de San Pedro, estimating the prevalence of TB in wild boar and red deer, the main wild artiodactyls in the area, and domestic cattle since 1992-2004, by the use of a low-cost surveillance method based on detailed pathological inspection of hunted animal carcasses. Microbiology and molecular epidemiology studies on several M. bovis isolates from domestic and wild animals helped to define the interspecies contacts. These findings, as well as recent history of game estates management and descriptive epidemiology field work, throw light on the rise and maintenance of these epizootics.

  18. Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi from cattle (Bos taurus) and Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    About 200 individual sarcocysts were excised from 12 samples of cattle beef from five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, New Zealand, Uruguay) and tentatively identified to species or cyst type on the basis of their size and shape and cyst wall morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from 147 of these sarcocysts and used initially for PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) in order to identify the sarcocysts to species and/or sequence type. In addition, seven Sarcocystis sinensis-like sarcocysts collected from the oesophagus of water buffaloes in Egypt were examined at cox1 for comparative purposes. Based on the results from the cox1 marker, selected sarcocyst isolates from both hosts were further characterised at one to three regions of the nuclear ribosomal (r) DNA unit, i.e. the complete 18S rRNA gene, the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and the partial 28S rRNA gene. This was done in order to compare the results with previous molecular identifications based on 18S rRNA gene sequences and to evaluate the utility of these regions for species delimitations and phylogenetic inferences. On the basis of sarcocyst morphology and molecular data, primarily the cox1 sequences, four Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the samples of cattle beef. Twenty-two microscopic sarcocysts (1 × 0.1 mm) with hair-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis cruzi, 56 macroscopic sarcocysts (3-8 × 0.5 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis hirsuta and 45 and 24 microscopic sarcocysts (1-3 × 0.1-0.2 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis bovifelis and Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., respectively. Sarcocysts of S. cruzi were identified in samples of beef from Argentina and Uruguay; sarcocysts of S. hirsuta in samples from Argentina, Brazil, Germany and New Zealand; sarcocysts of S. bovifelis in samples from Argentina and Germany; and sarcocysts of S. bovini in samples from Argentina and New Zealand. The microscopic sarcocysts from water buffaloes were confirmed to belong to S. sinensis. The cox1 sequences of S. bovifelis and S. bovini, respectively, shared an identity of 93-94 % with each other, and these sequences shared an identity of 89-90 % with cox1 of S. sinensis. In contrast, the intraspecific sequence identity was 98.4-100 % (n = 45), 99.3-100 % (n = 24) and 99.5-100 % (n = 7) for sequences of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis, respectively. In each of the latter three species, an aberrant type of cox1 sequences was also identified, which was only 91-92 % identical with the predominant cox1 type of the same species and about 98 % identical with the aberrant types of the two other species. These aberrant cox1 sequences are believed to represent non-functional nuclear copies of the mitochondrial genes (numts or pseudogenes). They might be used as additional markers to separate the three species from each other. Sequencing of a considerable number of clones of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis from each of the three regions of the rDNA unit revealed intraspecific sequence variation in all loci in all species and particularly in the ITS1 locus (78-100 % identity). As regards the 18S rRNA gene, it was possible to separate the three species from each other on the basis of a few consistent nucleotide differences in the less variable 3' end half of the gene. A comparison of the new sequences with GenBank sequences obtained from S. sinensis-like sarcocysts in cattle in other studies indicated that previous sequences derived from cattle in Germany and Austria belonged to S. bovifelis, whereas those derived from cattle in China belonged to S. bovini. On the basis of the new 28S rRNA sequences, it was possible to separate S. sinensis from S. bovifelis and S. bovini, whereas the latter two species could not be separated from each other. Based on ITS1 sequences, the three species were indistinguishable. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony placed with fairly high support cox1 sequences of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis, respectively, into three monophyletic clusters, with S. bovifelis and S. bovini being a sister group to S. sinensis. In contrast, phylogenies based on each of the three regions of the rDNA unit did not separate sequences of the three species completely from each other. Characterisation of cox1 of 56 isolates of S. hirsuta from four countries revealed only 13 haplotypes and an intraspecific sequence identity of 99.3-100 %. In the three regions of the rDNA unit, there was more extensive sequence variation, particularly in the ITS1 region. The 22 cox1 sequences of S. cruzi displayed a moderate intraspecific variation (98.6-100 %), whereas there was no variation at the 18S rRNA gene among 10 sequenced isolates. Sequencing of 16 clones of the partial 28S rRNA gene of S. cruzi yielded two markedly different sequence types, having an overall sequence identity of 95-100 %.

  19. Computed tomography and cross-sectional anatomy of the metatarsus and digits of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and buffalo ( Bos bubalis).

    PubMed

    El-Shafey, A; Kassab, A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a detailed computed tomography (CT) and cross-sectional anatomic reference of the normal metatarsus and digits for the camel and buffalo, as well as to compare between metatarsus and digits in these animals to outstand a basis for diagnosis of their diseases. Advantages, including depiction of detailed cross-sectional anatomy, improved contrast resolution and computer reformatting, make it a potentially valuable diagnostic technique. The hind limbs of 12 healthy adult camel and buffalo were used. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labelled at each level in the corresponding images (CT and anatomic slices). CT images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the metatarsus and digits. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the camel and buffalo metatarsus and digits would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of CT images in these species.

  20. MALDI-MS lipid profiles of oocytes recovered by ovum pickup from Bos indicus and 1/2 indicus × taurus with high vs low oocyte yields.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santos, K C; Ferreira, C R; Santos, G M G; Eberlin, M N; Siloto, L S; Rosa, C O; Marcantonio, T N; Seneda, M M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the lipid profile in oocytes of indicus and 1/2 indicus × taurus cows with high and low antral follicle count (AFC)/oocyte yields. After an OPU procedure (D0), antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted by ultrasonography (D4, 19, 34, 49, 64), and cows were assigned to groups with either high AFC (≥30 follicles; indicus, NH group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AH group) or low AFC (≤15 antral follicles; indicus, NL group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AL group). The lipid profiles of the oocytes were determined by MALDI-MS. For GI, GII and GIII oocytes, the indicus samples tend to cluster separately from the 1/2 indicus × taurus samples. The lipid species [PC (P-38:5) + H](+) and/or [PC (P-36:2) + Na](+) , [PC (38:2) + H](+) , [PC (38:5) + Na](+) and [TAG (60:8) + NH(4) ](+) were more abundant in indicus (NH and NL groups) than 1/2 indicus × taurus. The higher lipid content in the indicus oocytes likely reflects differences in the rate of lipid metabolism and may contribute to oocyte competence and embryo development.

  1. The mechanism of body temperature changes induced by intraventricular injections of adrenaline, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the ox (bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, J. D.; Robertshaw, D.

    1967-01-01

    1. Adrenaline, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were injected into the lateral ventricle of the ox. The effect of these drugs was measured on the respiratory rate, tidal volume, heat production, skin temperature of the ear, evaporative loss from the skin and the rectal temperature at 20 and 10° C ambient temperature. 2. Neither adrenaline (3 mg) nor noradrenaline (3 mg) had any effect on the temperature regulating mechanisms of the ox, except to produce vasoconstriction if vasodilatation was already present due to high ambient temperature or previous injection of 5-HT. 3. Injection of 5-HT (5 mg) caused a rise in respiratory rate, a fall in tidal volume and heat production, elevation of ear skin temperature and skin evaporative loss and a decrease in rectal temperature. Sedation of the animals occurred. 4. In its reaction to these monoamines the ox is similar to the goat, sheep and rabbit, but is unlike the cat and dog. 5. It was concluded that neither adrenaline nor noradrenaline has a role in the central control of temperature regulation in the ox, but that 5-HT may be involved in the control of heat dissipation mechanisms. PMID:6034117

  2. Development of early tissue cysts and associated pathology of Besnoitia Besnoiti in a naturally infected bull (Bos Taurus) from South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Besnoiti besnoiti is an apicomplexan that causes serious economic loss in cattle in many countries and the disease is now spreading in Europe. Two phases of bovine besnoitiosis are recognized clinically. An acute febrile phase characterized by anasarca and necrosis of skin is associated with multipl...

  3. Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiles and Their Relationships with mRNA and the microRNA Transcriptome in Bovine Muscle Tissue (Bos taurine)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Sun, Jia-Jie; Zhang, Liang-Zhi; Li, Cong-Jun; Womack, James E.; Li, Zhuan-Jian; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals and plays important roles in muscle development. We sampled longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) from a well-known elite native breed of Chinese Qinchuan cattle living within the same environment but displaying distinct skeletal muscle at the fetal and adult stages. We generated and provided a genome-wide landscape of DNA methylomes and their relationship with mRNA and miRNA for fetal and adult muscle studies. Integration analysis revealed a total of 77 and 1,054 negatively correlated genes with methylation in the promoter and gene body regions, respectively, in both the fetal and adult bovine libraries. Furthermore, we identified expression patterns of high-read genes that exhibit a negative correlation between methylation and expression from nine different tissues at multiple developmental stages of bovine muscle-related tissue or organs. In addition, we validated the MeDIP-Seq results by bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) in some of the differentially methylated promoters. Together, these results provide valuable data for future biomedical research and genomic and epigenomic studies of bovine skeletal muscle that may help uncover the molecular basis underlying economically valuable traits in cattle. This comprehensive map also provides a solid basis for exploring the epigenetic mechanisms of muscle growth and development. PMID:25306978

  4. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38–83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P < 0.05, R = 0.45), GH (P < 0.05, R = 0.47), IGF-1 (P < 0.05, R = 0.62) was significantly correlated in yaks colonies with lighter body weights. Trial 2, fifteen 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P < 0.05). Both GHRP-2 and CS administration significantly enhanced the myofiber diameter and area of skeletal muscle (P<0.05). GHRP-2 significantly enhanced the serum GH and IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05), and up-regulated GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA expression in the liver and skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), enhanced the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKt and mTOR in the skeletal muscle (P<0.05). CS significantly reduced the serum SS levels and the hypothalamus SS mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and enhanced GHR and IGF-1 mRNA expression in the liver (P < 0.05), decreased the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1 secretion in yaks with growth retardation. GHRP-2 enhanced muscle protein deposition mainly by up-regulated the protein synthesis pathways, whereas CS worked mainly by down-regulated the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:26894743

  5. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible.

  6. The insertion of a full-length Bos taurus LINE element is responsible for a transcriptional deregulation of the Normande Agouti gene.

    PubMed

    Girardot, Michael; Guibert, Sylvain; Laforet, Marie-Pierre; Gallard, Yves; Larroque, Hélène; Oulmouden, Ahmad

    2006-08-01

    Mammalian pigmentation is controlled by the concerted action of Tyr, Tyrp1 and Dct producing eumelanin and/or pheomelanin in melanocytes. The ratio of these two pigments is determined by the agonist alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and the antagonist Agouti protein acting on the Mc1r. Here we show that the Agouti gene is over-expressed in Normande breed compared with Prim'Holstein breed. The Normande cattle have a characteristic coat color phenotype with a variable presence of black (eumelanin) hair over a red/brown background. We have found a previously undescribed full-length L1-BT element inserted in the 5'-genomic sequence of the Agouti gene in Normande cattle which promotes the over-expression of alternative transcripts. The variable expression of the alternative transcript directed by the long interspersed nuclear element promoter may be the origin of the brindle coat color pattern of the Normande breed. This new bovine Agouti allele isolated in Normande breed has been named Abr. Finally, as ectopic over-expression of Agouti in Ay mice is responsible for the obesity syndrome, we discuss the possible consequences of Abr for meat and milk production in cattle.

  7. Associations between newly discovered polymorphisms in the Bos taurus growth hormone receptor gene and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Waters, S M; McCabe, M S; Howard, D J; Giblin, L; Magee, D A; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P

    2011-02-01

    Variations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene sequence are associated with performance traits in cattle. For example, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) F279Y in transmembrane exon 8 has a strong association with milk yield. In this study, 32 previously unreported, putative novel SNPs (31 in the 5' non-coding region) were identified by resequencing ∼19 kb of the GHR gene in genomic DNA from 22 cattle of multiple breeds. A population of 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires was subsequently genotyped for the 32 putative novel SNPs and seven published SNPs (including F279Y, one in exon 1A promoter and five in exon 10). Associations between each segregating SNP and genetic merit for performance were quantified in the 848 Holstein-Friesians using weighted animal linear mixed models. Six of the published SNPs and seven of the novel SNPs were associated with at least one of the traits--milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, somatic cell score, calving interval, survival and growth and size traits. Even when the allelic substitution effect (P < 0.001) of F279Y was accounted for, the allelic substitution effect of one of the novel SNPs (GHR4.2) in the 5' non-coding region of GHR was associated with a lactation milk yield of 37.46 kg (P < 0.001). GHR4.2 and F279Y were not in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.00, D' = 0.04) in the 848 Holstein-Friesians, indicating that their association with milk yield was independent.

  8. Associations between novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Bos taurus growth hormone gene and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mullen, M P; Berry, D P; Howard, D J; Diskin, M G; Lynch, C O; Berkowicz, E W; Magee, D A; MacHugh, D E; Waters, S M

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone, produced in the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the release of insulin-like growth factor-I from the liver and is of critical importance in the control of nutrient utilization and partitioning for lactogenesis, fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to discover novel polymorphisms in the bovine growth hormone gene (GH1) and to quantify their association with performance using estimates of genetic merit on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI (artificial insemination) dairy sires. Associations with previously reported polymorphisms in the bovine GH1 gene were also undertaken. A total of 38 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5' promoter, intronic, exonic, and 3' regulatory regions, encompassing approximately 7 kb of the GH1 gene. Following multiple regression analysis on all SNP, associations were identified between 11 SNP (2 novel and 9 previously identified) and milk fat and protein yield, milk composition, somatic cell score, survival, body condition score, and body size. The G allele of a previously identified SNP in exon 5 at position 2141 of the GH1 sequence, resulting in a nonsynonymous substitution, was associated with decreased milk protein yield. The C allele of a novel SNP, GH32, was associated with inferior carcass conformation. In addition, the T allele of a previously characterized SNP, GH35, was associated with decreased survival. Both GH24 (novel) and GH35 were independently associated with somatic cell count, and 3 SNP, GH21, 2291, and GH35, were independently associated with body depth. Furthermore, 2 SNP, GH24 and GH63, were independently associated with carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of GH1 on milk production, fertility, and growth-related traits in cattle.

  9. Assessment of DGAT1 and LEP gene polymorphisms in three Nelore (Bos indicus) lines selected for growth and their relationship with growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Souza, F R P; Mercadante, M E Z; Fonseca, L F S; Ferreira, L M S; Regatieri, I C; Ayres, D R; Tonhati, H; Silva, S L; Razook, A G; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze LEP and DGAT1 gene polymorphisms in 3 Nelore lines selected for growth and to evaluate their effects on growth and carcass traits. Traits analyzed were birth, weaning, and yearling weight, rump height, LM area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness obtained by ultrasound. Two SNP in the LEP gene [LEP 1620(A/G) and LEP 305(T/C)] and the K232A mutation in the DGAT1 gene were analyzed. The sample consisted of 357 Nelore heifers from 2 lines selected for yearling weight and a control line, established in 1980, at the Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho (Sertãozinho, Brazil). Three genotypes were obtained for each marker. Differences in allele frequencies among the 3 lines were only observed for the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, with the frequency of the A allele being greater in the control line than in the selected lines. The DGAT1 K232A mutation was associated only with rump height, whereas LEP 1620(A/G) was associated with weaning weight and LEP 305(T/C) with birth weight and backfat thickness. However, more studies, with larger data sets, are necessary before these makers can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  10. [Semantic verbal fluency of animals in amnesia-type mild cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Higes, Ramón; Prados, José M; del Rio, David; Galindo-Fuentes, Marta; Reinoso, Ana Isabel; Lozano-Ibanez, Montserrat

    2014-06-01

    Introduccion y objetivo. El analisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de la tarea de fluidez verbal semantica ha permitido observar que las personas con demencia producen menos palabras y en grupos mas pequeños que las personas sin demencia. Sin embargo, en personas con deterioro cognitivo leve de tipo amnesico (DCLa) la investigacion ha mostrado resultados contradictorios respecto a la cantidad y el numero de los agrupamientos semanticos que se realizan. El objetivo de este estudio consistio en aportar nuevos datos para intentar solventar dicha controversia. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron en el estudio 22 personas mayores con diagnostico de DCLa (8 varones y 14 mujeres) y 43 adultos mayores (7 varones y 36 mujeres) con funcionamiento cognitivo normal que sirvieron de grupo control. Todos fueron evaluados en el Centro de Prevencion del Deterioro Cognitivo del Ayuntamiento de Madrid, tras completar la prueba de fluidez verbal de animales ademas de otras pruebas neuropsicologicas. Resultados. Como se esperaba, la produccion de animales fue menor en el grupo DCLa que en el grupo control, pero no se observaron diferencias ni en el tamaño medio de las agrupaciones semanticas ni en el numero de cambios entre dichas agrupaciones. Conclusiones. Los resultados son coherentes con investigaciones previas que sugieren que en el DCLa no solo concurren deficits en la memoria episodica y la memoria operativa, sino tambien en la memoria semantica. Sin embargo, los datos no aclaran el papel de los procesos ejecutivos estrategicos, como parece suceder en la enfermedad de Alzheimer.

  11. Materials Data on Li2TiPO4F (SG:1) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Materials Data on TiPO4 (SG:62) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Autofrecuencias de las ecuaciones de Helmholtz y Liouville para un modelo de tierra tipo Jeffreys simplificado.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, M. J.; González-Camacho, A.

    The authors obtain expressions for the free frequencies of polar motion for an ellipsoidal, rotating and perturbed earth model constituted by an elastic mantle with an homogeneous liquid core of additional simple motion.

  14. Fotometría uvby y Hβ para estrellas de los últimos tipos.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reglero, V.; Giménez, A.; Fabregat, J.; Suso, J.

    In the last ten years important progresses have been done towards the calibration of the uvby and Hβ photometric systems for late type stars. The authors present a brief summary of the most relevant results obtained by their group. In particular they present a detailed discussion on the effects induced by the stellar activity and their influence on the [Fe/H] abundance determinations.

  15. La interacción planeta-estrella en estrellas con planetas de tipo ``Hot Jupiter''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, C. F.; Jofré, E.; Petrucci, R.; Chavero, C.; Gómez, M.

    In this contribution we investigate the planet-star interaction for a group of southern stars harboring ``Hot Jupiter'' planets. To this aim we obtained EBASIM (CASLEO) spectra of 12 stars with ``Hot Jupiter'' planets and for other two stars with no exoplanet detected by the Doppler technique. We determine the stellar parameters for these objects to compute synthetic spectra and to compare with the observed spectra. The matches for the stars with no detected planets are slightly better than for those with ``Hot Jupiter'' planets. The differences between the observed and theoretical spectra might be due to the influence of the planet on the host-star spectrum. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  16. Optical-flow-based background-oriented schlieren technique for measuring a laser-induced underwater shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaka, Keisuke; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Tianshu; Kameda, Masaharu

    2016-12-01

    The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique with the physics-based optical flow method (OF-BOS) is developed for measuring the pressure field of a laser-induced underwater shock wave. Compared to BOS with the conventional cross-correlation method that is also applied for particle image velocimetry (here called PIV-BOS), by using the OF-BOS, the displacement field generated by a small density gradient in water can be obtained at the spatial resolution of one vector per pixel. The corresponding density and pressure fields can be further extracted. It is demonstrated in particular that the sufficiently high spatial resolution of the extracted displacement vector field is required in the tomographic reconstruction to correctly infer the pressure field of the spherical underwater shock wave. The capability of the OF-BOS method is critically evaluated based on synchronized hydrophone measurements. Special emphasis is placed on direct comparison between the OF-BOS and PIV-BOS methods.

  17. The influence of tropical adaptation on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in purebred and crossbred beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine whether tropical adaptation influences circulating concentrations of the growth-related hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), 3-breed diallel matings were conducted using temperate Bos taurus (A; Angus), tropical Bos indicus (B; Brahman), and tropical Bos taurus (R...

  18. [The essence of essential tremor: neurochemical bases].

    PubMed

    Gironell, A; Marin-Lahoz, J

    2016-06-01

    Introduccion. El temblor esencial es el trastorno del movimiento mas frecuente en el adulto. Se ha considerado una enfermedad benigna, pero puede ocasionar una importante discapacidad fisica y psicosocial. El tratamiento farmacologico sigue siendo poco satisfactorio. Su etiologia, fisiopatologia y anatomia siguen sin conocerse del todo. Objetivo. El conocimiento de las bases neuroquimicas es fundamental para el desarrollo de terapias mas eficaces. Se revisan los conocimientos actuales en este campo a fin de incentivar nuevas investigaciones e ideas que permitan mejorar la comprension de la enfermedad y que fomenten el desarrollo de nuevas terapias farmacologicas. Desarrollo. Se revisan los trabajos realizados hasta la fecha en humanos y en modelos animales de neurotransmisores (acido gamma-aminobutirico, glutamato, noradrenalina, serotonina, adenosina), proteinas y otros fenomenos neuroquimicos, como los canales de calcio de tipo T en el temblor esencial. Conclusiones. Se han descrito cuatro disfunciones neuroquimicas que acontecerian basicamente en el cerebelo y el nucleo olivar inferior: alteracion del sistema gabergico, aumento del rebote postinhibitorio mediante corrientes de calcio de tipo T, disminucion de los mecanismos de inhibicion neuronal y aumento de la actividad de los neurotransmisores excitatorios. Estas disfunciones neuroquimicas comportarian un aumento de la actividad de las neuronas profundas cerebelosas con actividad oscilatoria, que se trasladaria al nucleo del talamo y a la corteza motora, y comportarian la aparicion del temblor. Son necesarios nuevos estudios para poder confirmar estas hipotesis y seguir avanzando para conseguir tratamientos farmacologicos mas eficaces para los pacientes con temblor esencial.

  19. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  20. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

  1. Methanogenic archaea diversity in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) rumen fluid, rectal dung, and barn floor manure using a culture-independent method based on mcrA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Daquiado, Aileen Rose; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Tae Young; Kim, Sam Churl; Chang, Hong-Hee; Lee, Yong Bok

    2014-06-01

    The diversity of methanogenic archaea associated with Korean Hanwoo cattle was analyzed using mcrA gene sequences from samples of rumen fluid (RF), rectal dung (RD), and barn floor manure (BFM). The predominant species were Methanobrevibacter ruminantium in RF and BFM(63.6% and 62.4%, respectively) and Methanocorpusculum labreanum in RD (53.2%).

  2. Home-Type Activities at the Day Care Center. (Tipos De Actividades Del Hogar En El Centro De Cuidado Diario.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, May; Moberg, Patricia E.

    This paper argues that home activities comprise a valuable unplanned curriculum and that many of these activities can be transferred to the day care center. It is suggested that these activities foster a closer relationship between child and caregiver and bridge the gap between familiar home environment and novel day care setting. Home activities…

  3. Relaciones fundamentales de la población de galaxias de tipo temprano del cúmulo de Antlia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Caso, J. P.

    We present the results of a study of more than 100 early-type galaxies in Antlia Cluster, that span from giant ellipticals to dwarf ellipticals, covering a magnitude range of 11 magnitudes (M_{V_T} = -22 to -11). We perform surface photometry of these galaxies, and their total magnitudes, surface brightnesses and radii are determined on the basis of the Sérsic law fits. Finally, the fundamental relations between them are analyzed. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  4. iPTF 13bvn: La primera evidencia de un progenitor binario para una supernova de tipo Ib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersten, M. C.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Folatelli, G.; Nomoto, K.

    2015-08-01

    The detection of an object in archival images of the Hubble space telescope at the position of supernova (SN) iPTF 13bvn may be the first direct evidence of a type Ib progenitor. The photometry of this object is compatible with a Wolf-Rayet star with a mass of M. However, hydrodynamical models show that the progenitor would most probably have a mass of M, while masses of the order of 8 M are not possible in the context of those models. We propose an interacting binary system as a progenitor of this SN and perform evolutionary calculations giving rise to a self consistent explanation of the shape of the light curve, the absence of hydrogen, as well as the photometry of the pre-SN. Finally, we present color-magnitude and color-color diagrams that will be useful to discern among the different proposed scenarios when a future detection of this object occurs.

  5. Cinemática y masas de agujeros negros en galaxias activas del tipo "Narrow Line Seyfert 1"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oío, G.; Schmidt, E.; Vega Neme, L. R.

    We apply a spectral synthesis method to Narrow Line Seyfert 1 active galax- ies with public spectra available. Our goal will be to obtain the stellar ve- locity dispersions, and then the central black hole masses via the Tremaine relation. We comment several problems we found in fitting this type of objects and the possibility of obtaining masses through the emission lines. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. Cinemática de sistemas interactuantes de tipo M51: Relación de Tully-Fisher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gúnthardt, G.; Díaz, R. J.

    We present heliocentric radial velocity distributions of six M51-type galaxies. Additionally we present Tully-Fisher relations for M51-type systems from our kinematic catalog (Gunthardt et al. 2006) with the velocities determined from H-alpha and using B-band absolute magnitudes; we also considered systems with maximum velocities from HI lambda-21 cm line. In both cases, we found shallower relations compared with nearby spiral galaxies, in agreement with the results found by Reshetnikov & Klimanov (2003). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. Perfiles de densidad de galaxias 3-D y segregación por tipo espectral en grupos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Muriel, H.

    We have analysed the distribution of galaxies in groups identified in the largest redshift surveys available: the final release of the 2dF Galaxy Our work comprises the study of the galaxy density profiles and the fraction of galaxies per spectral type as a function of the group-centric distance. We have calculated the projected galaxy density profiles of groups using composite samples in order to increase the statistical significance of the results and we infer the 3-D galaxy density profiles using a deprojection method similar to the developed by Allen & Fabian. Special cares have been taken in order to avoid possible biases in the group identification and the construction of the projected galaxy density profile estimator due to the irregular sky coverage of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We have adopted a generalized King profile to fit the obtained projected density profiles and use them to construct mock clusters and obtain the 3-D density profiles per spectral type. From the 3-D galaxy density profile we have estimated the 3-D fraction of galaxies per spectral type. Comparing with the fraction of galaxies computed using the projected profiles we observe a similar behavior of the galaxy spectral type segregation as the obtained by Domínguez et al. for groups in the early data release of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. As expected, the trends obtained for the 3-D galaxy fractions show steeper slopes.

  8. An Official Critical Care Societies Collaborative Statement-Burnout Syndrome in Critical Care Health-care Professionals: A Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Moss, Marc; Good, Vicki S; Gozal, David; Kleinpell, Ruth; Sessler, Curtis N

    2016-07-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of health-care professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover, reduced patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. BOS also directly affects the mental health and physical well-being of the many critical care physicians, nurses, and other health-care professionals who practice worldwide. Until recently, BOS and other psychological disorders in critical care health-care professionals remained relatively unrecognized. To raise awareness of BOS, the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) developed this call to action. The present article reviews the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, causative factors, and consequences of BOS. It also discusses potential interventions that may be used to prevent and treat BOS. Finally, we urge multiple stakeholders to help mitigate the development of BOS in critical care health-care professionals and diminish the harmful consequences of BOS, both for critical care health-care professionals and for patients.

  9. A Critical Care Societies Collaborative Statement: Burnout Syndrome in Critical Care Health-care Professionals. A Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Moss, Marc; Good, Vicki S; Gozal, David; Kleinpell, Ruth; Sessler, Curtis N

    2016-07-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of health-care professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover, reduced patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. BOS also directly affects the mental health and physical well-being of the many critical care physicians, nurses, and other health-care professionals who practice worldwide. Until recently, BOS and other psychological disorders in critical care health-care professionals remained relatively unrecognized. To raise awareness of BOS, the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) developed this call to action. The present article reviews the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, causative factors, and consequences of BOS. It also discusses potential interventions that may be used to prevent and treat BOS. Finally, we urge multiple stakeholders to help mitigate the development of BOS in critical care health-care professionals and diminish the harmful consequences of BOS, both for critical care health-care professionals and for patients.

  10. An Official Critical Care Societies Collaborative Statement: Burnout Syndrome in Critical Care Health Care Professionals: A Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Moss, Marc; Good, Vicki S; Gozal, David; Kleinpell, Ruth; Sessler, Curtis N

    2016-07-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of health care professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover, reduced patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. BOS also directly affects the mental health and physical well-being of the many critical care physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals who practice worldwide. Until recently, BOS and other psychological disorders in critical care health care professionals remained relatively unrecognized. To raise awareness of BOS, the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) developed this call to action. The present article reviews the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, causative factors, and consequences of BOS. It also discusses potential interventions that may be used to prevent and treat BOS. Finally, we urge multiple stakeholders to help mitigate the development of BOS in critical care health care professionals and diminish the harmful consequences of BOS, both for critical care health care professionals and for patients.

  11. An Official Critical Care Societies Collaborative Statement: Burnout Syndrome in Critical Care Healthcare Professionals: A Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Moss, Marc; Good, Vicki S; Gozal, David; Kleinpell, Ruth; Sessler, Curtis N

    2016-07-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of healthcare professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover, reduced patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. BOS also directly affects the mental health and physical well-being of the many critical care physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who practice worldwide. Until recently, BOS and other psychological disorders in critical care healthcare professionals remained relatively unrecognized. To raise awareness of BOS, the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) developed this call to action. The present article reviews the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, causative factors, and consequences of BOS. It also discusses potential interventions that may be used to prevent and treat BOS. Finally, we urge multiple stakeholders to help mitigate the development of BOS in critical care healthcare professionals and diminish the harmful consequences of BOS, both for critical care healthcare professionals and for patients.

  12. An international ISHLT/ATS/ERS clinical practice guideline: diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C; Raghu, Ganesh; Verleden, Geert M; Corris, Paul A; Aurora, Paul; Wilson, Kevin C; Brozek, Jan; Glanville, Allan R

    2014-12-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a major complication of lung transplantation that is associated with poor survival. The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society convened a committee of international experts to describe and/or provide recommendations for 1) the definition of BOS, 2) the risk factors for developing BOS, 3) the diagnosis of BOS, and 4) the management and prevention of BOS. A pragmatic evidence synthesis was performed to identify all unique citations related to BOS published from 1980 through to March, 2013. The expert committee discussed the available research evidence upon which the updated definition of BOS, identified risk factors and recommendations are based. The committee followed the GRADE (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach to develop specific clinical recommendations. The term BOS should be used to describe a delayed allograft dysfunction with persistent decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s that is not caused by other known and potentially reversible causes of post-transplant loss of lung function. The committee formulated specific recommendations about the use of systemic corticosteroids, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, azithromycin and about re-transplantation in patients with suspected and confirmed BOS. The diagnosis of BOS requires the careful exclusion of other post-transplant complications that can cause delayed lung allograft dysfunction, and several risk factors have been identified that have a significant association with the onset of BOS. Currently available therapies have not been proven to result in significant benefit in the prevention or treatment of BOS. Adequately designed and executed randomised controlled trials that properly measure and report all patient-important outcomes are needed to identify optimal therapies for established BOS and effective strategies for its prevention.

  13. Factors associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gazourian, Lee; Rogers, Angela J.; Ibanga, Ruby; Weinhouse, Gerald L.; Pinto-Plata, Victor; Ritz, Jerome; Soiffer, Robert J.; Antin, Joseph H.; Washko, George R.; Baron, Rebecca M.; Ho, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a form of chronic graft vs. host disease (cGVHD) and a highly morbid pulmonary complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for BOS and cGVHD in a cohort of HSCT recipients, including those who received reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) HSCT. Between January 1, 2000 and June 30, 2010, all patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT at our institution (n = 1854) were retrospectively screened for the development of BOS by PFT criteria. We matched the BOS cases with two groups of control patients: (1) patients who had concurrent cGVHD without BOS and (2) those who developed neither cGVHD nor BOS. Comparisons between BOS patients and controls were conducted using t-test or Fisher’s exact tests. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine factors associated with BOS diagnosis. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.2. We identified 89 patients (4.8%) meeting diagnostic criteria for BOS at a median time of 491 days (range: 48–2067) after HSCT. Eighty-six (97%) of our BOS cohort had extra-pulmonary cGVHD. In multivariate analysis compared to patients without cGVHD, patients who received busulfan-based conditioning, had unrelated donors, and had female donors were significantly more likely to develop BOS, while ATG administration was associated with a lower risk of BOS. Our novel results suggest that busulfan conditioning, even in RIC transplantation, could be an important risk factor for BOS and cGVHD. PMID:24375545

  14. Structure analysis and laxative effects of oligosaccharides isolated from bananas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Hui Hua; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming

    2012-10-01

    Banana oligosaccharides (BOS) were extracted with water, and then separated and purified using column chromatography. Gel penetration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weights. Thin layer chromatogram and capillary electrophoresis were employed to analyze the monosaccharide composition. The indican bond and structure of the BOS molecule were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Results showed that BOS were probably composed of eight β-D-pyran glucose units linked with 1→6 indican bonds. The laxative effects of BOS were investigated in mice using the method described in "Handbook of Technical Standards for Testing and Assessment of Health Food in China." The length of the small intestine over which a carbon suspension solution advanced in mice treated with low-, middle-, and high-dose BOS was significantly greater than that in the model group, suggesting that BOS are effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine.

  15. Exposing Compassion Fatigue and Burnout Syndrome in a Trauma Team: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gina M; Harshbarger, Jenni L; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Lippoldt, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout syndrome (BOS) are identified in trauma, emergency, and critical care nursing practices. The purpose of this qualitative study was to measure CF and BOS in a trauma team and allow them to share perceptions of related stress triggers and coping strategies. Surveys to measure CF and BOS and a focus group allowed a trauma team (12 practitioners) to share perceptions of related stress triggers and coping strategies. More than half scored at risk for CF and BOS. Stress triggers were described as situation (abuse, age of patient) versus injury-related. Personal coping mechanisms were most often reported. Both CF and BOS can be assessed with a simple survey tool. Strategies for developing a program culturally sensitive to CF and BOS are provided.

  16. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    dispute over the construction of the Bos- Nagymaros power plant did not affect Hungarian-Czechoslovak trade and economic relations. The truth of this...suspended on the Bos- Nagymaros barrage). Thirteen percent of the funds financed the construction of the subway system. The remaining 7 percent was...Gyor, Komarom, Tatabanya, Oroszlany) are related to the Bos- Nagymaros Barrage System. The ministry deems completion of these invest- ment projects

  17. Differential acute phase immune responses by Angus and Romosinuano steers following an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our primary objective was to evaluate potential genetic differences between two diverse Bos taurus breeds (Angus (AG) and Romosinuano (RO)) in response to an endotoxin. The RO is a tropically adaptive Bos taurus breed developed in the Sinú valley of northern Colombia. Eighteen steers (n = 9 steers/b...

  18. Information on State versus Local Administration of CETA Prime Sponsors in Michigan. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    State administration of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) Balance of State (BOS) programs was compared with administration of CETA programs by local (regular) prime sponsors in Michigan to gain insight on the potential impact of increased state control. BOS prime sponsors spent less than regular prime sponsors for administration…

  19. U.S. Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Maples, B.

    2012-10-01

    With balance-of-system (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine costs has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from U.S. offshore wind plants.

  20. Genetic structure and relationships of 16 Asian and European cattle populations using DigiTag2 assay.

    PubMed

    Yonesaka, Riku; Sasazaki, Shinji; Yasue, Hiroshi; Niwata, Satoru; Inayoshi, Yousuke; Mukai, Fumio; Mannen, Hideyuki

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we genotyped 117 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms using a DigiTag2 assay to assess the genetic diversity, structure and relationships of 16 Eurasian cattle populations, including nine cattle breeds and seven native cattle. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses showed that Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations were clearly distinguished, whereas Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Polled clustered with European populations. Furthermore, STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated the distinct separation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus (K=2), and between European and Asian populations (K=3). In addition, Japanese Holstein exhibited an admixture pattern with Asian and European cattle (K=3-5). Mongolian (K=13-16) and Japanese Black (K=14-16) populations exhibited admixture patterns with different ancestries. Bos indicus populations exhibited a uniform genetic structure at K=2-11, thereby suggesting that there are close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations. However, the Bhutan and Bangladesh populations formed a cluster distinct from the other Bos indicus populations at K=12-16. In conclusion, our study could sufficiently explain the genetic construction of Asian cattle populations, including: (i) the close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations; (ii) the genetic influences of European breeds on Japanese breeds; (iii) the genetic admixture in Japanese Holstein, Mongolian and Japanese Black cattle; and (iv) the genetic subpopulations in Southeast Asia.

  1. Influence of aging days and age at harvest on the meat quality characteristics of Gannan black yak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat from yak (Bos grunniens) is a primary staple in diets of people in western China. Yak meat has low-fat content, high protein and good amino acid and fatty acid profiles. However, there is evidence that meat from yak is less tender than meat from Bos taurus cattle. Gannan Black yaks (n=181) were...

  2. Characterizing foraging patterns among cattle and bonded and non-bonded small ruminants using spatial point process techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...

  3. Characterizing foraging patterns among cattle and bonded and non- bonded small ruminants using spatial point process techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...

  4. Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2014-04-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

  5. Influence of gender and breed type on basal and induced secretion of cortisol in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis that gender and breed type affect cortisol secretion, Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls (intact males), steers (castrate males), and heifers (intact females) were studied. Jugular venipuncture samples were taken from 900 cattle at: 28 days before weaning; wean...

  6. Acaricide and Ivermectin resistance in a field population of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Mexican Tropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebuine (Bos indicus) breeds of cattle and their crosses, and the southern cattle fever tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) are non-native species that were introduced to Mexico through the livestock trade. Red deer raised in the Neotropics can die from...

  7. Fatty Acid Profile and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in the Milk Fate from Qingphai Yak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The milk and the milk products of yak (Bos grunniens) are major ingredients in the daily diets of Tibetan herders while dairy products from Bos taurus breeds are important dietary components in the U.S. Also, genetic advantages in yak milk fatty acid profiles might benefit to dairy production in the...

  8. Genome-wide association study for intramuscular fat deposition and composition in Nellore cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red meat from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds are an important source of nutrients for humans and intramuscular fat (IMF) influences its flavor, nutritional value and impacts human health. Human consumption of fat that contains high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) can reduce the conce...

  9. Parametric response mapping as an indicator of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Galbán, Craig J; Boes, Jennifer L; Bule, Maria; Kitko, Carrie L; Couriel, Daniel R; Johnson, Timothy D; Lama, Vihba; Telenga, Eef D; van den Berge, Maarten; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Kazerooni, Ella A; Ponkowski, Michael J; Ross, Brian D; Yanik, Gregory A

    2014-10-01

    The management of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after hematopoietic cell transplantation presents many challenges, both diagnostically and therapeutically. We developed a computed tomography (CT) voxel-wise methodology termed parametric response mapping (PRM) that quantifies normal parenchyma, functional small airway disease (PRM(fSAD)), emphysema, and parenchymal disease as relative lung volumes. We now investigate the use of PRM as an imaging biomarker in the diagnosis of BOS. PRM was applied to CT data from 4 patient cohorts: acute infection (n = 11), BOS at onset (n = 34), BOS plus infection (n = 9), and age-matched, nontransplant control subjects (n = 23). Pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage were used for group classification. Mean values for PRM(fSAD) were significantly greater in patients with BOS (38% ± 2%) when compared with those with infection alone (17% ± 4%, P < .0001) and age-matched control subjects (8.4% ± 1%, P < .0001). Patients with BOS had similar PRM(fSAD) profiles, whether a concurrent infection was present or not. An optimal cut-point for PRM(fSAD) of 28% of the total lung volume was identified, with values >28% highly indicative of BOS occurrence. PRM may provide a major advance in our ability to identify the small airway obstruction that characterizes BOS, even in the presence of concurrent infection.

  10. Genetic structure and relationships of 16 Asian and European cattle populations using DigiTag2 assay

    PubMed Central

    Yonesaka, Riku; Sasazaki, Shinji; Yasue, Hiroshi; Niwata, Satoru; Inayoshi, Yousuke; Mukai, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we genotyped 117 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms using a DigiTag2 assay to assess the genetic diversity, structure and relationships of 16 Eurasian cattle populations, including nine cattle breeds and seven native cattle. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses showed that Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations were clearly distinguished, whereas Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Polled clustered with European populations. Furthermore, STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated the distinct separation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus (K=2), and between European and Asian populations (K=3). In addition, Japanese Holstein exhibited an admixture pattern with Asian and European cattle (K=3‐5). Mongolian (K=13‐16) and Japanese Black (K=14‐16) populations exhibited admixture patterns with different ancestries. Bos indicus populations exhibited a uniform genetic structure at K=2‐11, thereby suggesting that there are close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations. However, the Bhutan and Bangladesh populations formed a cluster distinct from the other Bos indicus populations at K=12‐16. In conclusion, our study could sufficiently explain the genetic construction of Asian cattle populations, including: (i) the close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations; (ii) the genetic influences of European breeds on Japanese breeds; (iii) the genetic admixture in Japanese Holstein, Mongolian and Japanese Black cattle; and (iv) the genetic subpopulations in Southeast Asia. PMID:26260416

  11. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation: medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Verleden, G M

    2000-04-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) or the clinical correlate bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the main cause of late morbidity and mortality after heart-lung and lung transplantation. Although several risk factors for the development of OB/BOS have already been identified, very effective preventive therapy remains Utopian, although there has been much improvement in recent years. This paper attempts to summarize current experience in the medical treatment of OB/BOS, either by tackling the known risk factors for the development of OB/BOS or by changing the immunosuppressive drug regimen for treating established OB/BOS. The current treatment options, however, are rather anecdotal and mostly single-centre experiences. Therefore, multicentre studies are definitely needed to try to identify the most appropriate drug regimen either to prevent and to treat obliterative bronchiolitis/bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

  12. [Alpha lipoic acid and its antioxidant against cancer and diseases of central sensitization].

    PubMed

    Durand, Marisa; Mach, Núria

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El ácido alfa lipoico (ALA) puede controlar y limitar la cantidad de radicales libres, influyendo el desarrollo de patologías como el cáncer o las enfermedades de sensibilización central, aunque los mecanismos moleculares implicados en este proceso aún están dilucidándose. Objetivo: Reunir y contrastar información sobre las propiedades antioxidantes del ALA en la prevención y desarrollo de las patologías relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo. Material y métodos: En este trabajo, se analizan más de 100 artículos publicados en los últimos 20 años que relacionan el consumo de ALA y la prevalencia y desarrollo de patologías relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo. Los artículos han sido obtenidos en diferentes bases de datos (PubMed central, Web of Science, Elsevier Journal, Science Direct), e incluyen experimentos en células, animales y humanos. Las palabras clave utilizadas fueron: cáncer, enfermedades de sensibilización central, radicales libres, y ALA. Resultados y discusión: Se han reunido resultados de trabajos realizados in vitro y en animales de laboratorio en los que se pone de manifiesto el efecto del ALA en el control de la apoptosis celular de diferentes tipos de cánceres mediante un aumento de las especies reactivas de oxígeno, así como también el retardo en el crecimiento de las mismas. Aparte, se ha demostrado que la capacidad antioxidante del ALA y su potencial para regenerar otros antioxidantes es de gran importancia para tratar las patologías de sensibilización central. Conclusiones: El ALA ha demostrado un papel significativo como antioxidante y prooxidante en el cáncer y las patologías de sensibilización central, aunque son necesarias más investigaciones en humanos.

  13. Stay at a Healthy Weight. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes = Mantente en un Peso Saludable. Consejos Para Muchachos con Diabetes Tipo 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A healthy weight means you are not too fat or too thin. Your doctor may have said that you should not gain more weight or that you need to lose a few pounds. If you have diabetes and are overweight, you are not alone. The steps you take to manage your weight will help you feel better and may improve your blood sugar or glucose (GLOO-kos) levels.…

  14. Modelado de las Distribuciones Espectrales de Energía de tres nuevas estrellas jóvenes de tipo FU Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, L. V.; Rodón, J.; Gómez, M.; Whitney, B.

    In this work we present the modeling of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three protostellar objects of the FU Orionis type, for which an outburst was observed in the last two years. We applied the code developed by Whitney et al. (ApJ 591, 1049, 2003) to model the SEDs. We derived physical and geometric parameters for each object, which agree with those previously obtained for other FU Orionis type stars. Furthermore, the three objects were studied in their stages of high and low activity. Our results suggest that the disk plays a key role in the outburst event, which is reflected in an increase of at least one order of magnitude of the mass accretion rate from the disk to the central object, with respect to the low activity period. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. NHANES III equations enhance early detection and mortality prediction of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after hematopoietic SCT.

    PubMed

    Williams, K M; Hnatiuk, O; Mitchell, S A; Baird, K; Gadalla, S M; Steinberg, S M; Shelhamer, J; Carpenter, A; Avila, D; Taylor, T; Grkovic, L; Pulanic, D; Comis, L E; Blacklock-Schuver, B; Gress, R E; Pavletic, S Z

    2014-04-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a serious complication of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) following HSCT (hematopoietic SCT). The clinical diagnosis of BOS is based on pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities including: FEV1<75% predicted and obstructive FEV1/VC ratio, calculated using reference equations. We sought to determine if the frequency of clinical diagnoses and severity of BOS would be altered by using the recommended NHANES III vs older equations (Morris/Goldman/Bates, MGB) in 166 cGVHD patients, median age 48 (range: 12-67). We found that NHANES III equations significantly increased the prevalence of BOS, with an additional 11% (18/166) meeting diagnostic criteria by revealing low FEV1 (<75%) (P<0.0001), and six additional patients by obstructive ratio (vs MBG). Collectively, this led to an increase of BOS incidence from 17 (29/166) to 29% (41/166). For patients with severe BOS, (FEV1<35%), NHANES III equations correctly predicted death 71.4% vs 50% using MGB. In conclusion, the use of NHANES III equations markedly increases the proportion of cases meeting diagnostic criteria for BOS and improves prediction of survival.

  16. MSC from fetal and adult lungs possess lung-specific properties compared to bone marrow-derived MSC

    PubMed Central

    Rolandsson Enes, Sara; Andersson Sjöland, Annika; Skog, Ingrid; Hansson, Lennart; Larsson, Hillevi; Le Blanc, Katarina; Eriksson, Leif; Bjermer, Leif; Scheding, Stefan; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells with regenerative and immune-modulatory properties. Therefore, MSC have been proposed as a potential cell-therapy for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). On the other hand, there are publications demonstrating that MSC might be involved in the development of BOS. Despite limited knowledge regarding the functional role of tissue-resident lung-MSC, several clinical trials have been performed using MSC, particularly bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC, for various lung diseases. We aimed to compare lung-MSC with the well-characterized BM-MSC. Furthermore, MSC isolated from lung-transplanted patients with BOS were compared to patients without BOS. Our study show that lung-MSCs are smaller, possess a higher colony-forming capacity and have a different cytokine profile compared to BM-MSC. Utilizing gene expression profiling, 89 genes including lung-specific FOXF1 and HOXB5 were found to be significantly different between BM-MSC and lung-MSC. No significant differences in cytokine secretion or gene expression were found between MSC isolated from BOS patients compared recipients without BOS. These data demonstrate that lung-resident MSC possess lung-specific properties. Furthermore, these results show that MSC isolated from lung-transplanted patients with BOS do not have an altered phenotype compared to MSC isolated from good outcome recipients. PMID:27381039

  17. Ixodid ticks on domestic animals in Samut Prakan Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nithikathkul, C; Polseela, P; Changsap, B; Leemingsawat, S

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of tick-harboring domestic animals, tick density, and the species of ticks were studied throughout the year 2000, in Muang Samut Prakan, Bang Phli and Phra Pradaeng districts of Samut Prakan Province. The animals examined were Canis lupus familiaris (450), Bos indicus (cross-bred) (189), Bos taurus (30), Bubalus bubalis (171) and Sus scrofa domestica (450). The total number of collected ticks was 1,491. The pigs did not harbor ticks. The stages of ticks collected were larvae, nymphs and adults. The prevalence rates of tick-harboring were 46% (Canis lupus familiaris), 42.86% (Bos indicus, cross-bred), 33.33% (Bos taurus) and 9.35% (Bubalus bubalis). The tick densities were 2.22 (Bos indicus, cross-bred), 2.16 (Canis lupus familiaris), 1.16 (Bos taurus) and 0.36 (Bubalus bubalis). Only 2 species of ixodid ticks, Boophilus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were found. R. sanguineus was the dominant species of tick. The percentage of R. sanguineus was 65.2% and B. microplus was 34.8%. In Muang district, R. sanguineus was the dominant species in C. lupus familiaris; in Bang Phli district, B. microplus was the dominant species in Bos indicus (cross-bred). The density of B. microplus was high in the summer season; the density of R. sanguineus was high in the winter season. The number of ticks depended on the geographic location, animal host and season.

  18. MSC from fetal and adult lungs possess lung-specific properties compared to bone marrow-derived MSC.

    PubMed

    Rolandsson Enes, Sara; Andersson Sjöland, Annika; Skog, Ingrid; Hansson, Lennart; Larsson, Hillevi; Le Blanc, Katarina; Eriksson, Leif; Bjermer, Leif; Scheding, Stefan; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2016-07-06

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells with regenerative and immune-modulatory properties. Therefore, MSC have been proposed as a potential cell-therapy for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). On the other hand, there are publications demonstrating that MSC might be involved in the development of BOS. Despite limited knowledge regarding the functional role of tissue-resident lung-MSC, several clinical trials have been performed using MSC, particularly bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC, for various lung diseases. We aimed to compare lung-MSC with the well-characterized BM-MSC. Furthermore, MSC isolated from lung-transplanted patients with BOS were compared to patients without BOS. Our study show that lung-MSCs are smaller, possess a higher colony-forming capacity and have a different cytokine profile compared to BM-MSC. Utilizing gene expression profiling, 89 genes including lung-specific FOXF1 and HOXB5 were found to be significantly different between BM-MSC and lung-MSC. No significant differences in cytokine secretion or gene expression were found between MSC isolated from BOS patients compared recipients without BOS. These data demonstrate that lung-resident MSC possess lung-specific properties. Furthermore, these results show that MSC isolated from lung-transplanted patients with BOS do not have an altered phenotype compared to MSC isolated from good outcome recipients.

  19. Role of endothelin-1 antagonist; bosentan, against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Jokar, Zahra; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Moeini, Maryam; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapy drug, with the major side effect of nephrotoxicity. The level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) increases during nephrotoxicity, which is accompanied with vasoconstrictive properties. Bosentan (BOS) is a nonselective ET-1 receptor antagonist, having vasodilatory and anti-hypertension effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effect of BOS against CP-induced nephrotoxicity in male and female rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female rats were divided into six groups; groups 1–3 and 4–6 were male and female rats, respectively. Animals in groups 1 and 4 were considered as negative control and groups 2 and 5 considered as positive control groups received BOS (30 mg/kg/day) alone and CP (2.5 mg/kg/day) alone, respectively, for 1-week. The animals in groups 3 and 6 were treated with both CP and BOS. Finally, serum parameters were measured, and the kidney tissue was subjected to staining to evaluate tissue damage. Results: The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, kidney tissue damage score and kidney weight elevated, and body weight significantly decreased in both CP alone and in CP plus BOS-treated groups when compared with the control groups (P < 0.05), while BOS did not ameliorate these parameters neither in males nor in females. No significant differences were observed in serum levels of nitrite and malondialdehyde between the groups, but kidney tissue level of nitrite decreased significantly in CP alone and CP plus BOS-treated groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Renoprotective effect of BOS, as ET-1 blocker, was not observed against CP-induced nephrotoxicity neither in male nor in female rats. This is while BOS promoted the severity of injuries in females. PMID:26015909

  20. Background-Oriented Schlieren for Large-Scale and High-Speed Aerodynamic Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Borg, Stephen; Danehy, Paul M.; Murman, Scott M.; Matsumura, Tomoharu; Wakabayashi, Kunihiko; Nakayama, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of the flow field around a generic re-entry capsule in subsonic flow and shock wave visualization with cylindrical explosives have been conducted to demonstrate sensitivity and applicability of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) for field experiments. The wind tunnel experiment suggests that BOS with a fine-pixel imaging device has a density change detection sensitivity on the order of 10(sup -5) in subsonic flow. In a laboratory setup, the structure of the shock waves generated by explosives have been successfully reconstructed by a computed tomography method combined with BOS.

  1. [Learning disorders in neurofibromatosis type 1].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Penas, J J

    2017-02-24

    Introduccion. Los deficits neurocognitivos y las dificultades de aprendizaje representan las complicaciones neurologicas mas frecuentes de la neurofibromatosis tipo 1 (NF1) en la edad pediatrica y son responsables de una importante morbilidad evolutiva. Los niños con NF1 muestran alteraciones en atencion, percepcion visual, lenguaje, funciones ejecutivas, logros academicos y conducta. Los estudios en modelos animales sugieren que las alteraciones de aprendizaje en la NF1 se relacionan con una potenciacion de la actividad Ras que conduce a un incremento de la inhibicion mediada por el acido gamma-aminobutirico (GABA) y a una disminucion de la potenciacion sinaptica a largo plazo. Objetivo. Describir la frecuencia, gravedad, tipologia y evolucion natural de los deficits neurocognitivos especificos de la NF1. Desarrollo. Los trastornos neurocognitivos y conductuales afectan al 50-80% de los niños con NF1. Se pueden definir tres subtipos de perfiles cognitivos en la NF1, incluyendo trastorno de aprendizaje global, trastorno especifico de aprendizaje y trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad aislado. Los deficits cognitivos mas frecuentes se relacionan con la alteracion visuoespacial, aunque tambien son importantes las alteraciones de la memoria de trabajo y de la funcion ejecutiva asociadas con la disfuncion de la corteza prefrontal. Conclusiones. Existe una gran frecuencia global de problemas cognitivos en la NF1, lo cual implica que la disfuncion neurocognitiva sea la mayor complicacion medica que afecta la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. El diagnostico y el tratamiento precoces de los trastornos de aprendizaje en estos niños son basicos para conseguir un mejor desempeño academico.

  2. Anti-proliferative action of silibinin on human colon adenomatous cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Reyhan; Ali, Mohd; Mahmood, Safrunnisa; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2014-02-01

    Antecedentes: Silibinina un flavonoide a partir de la leche de cardo mariano (Silybum marianum) exhiben una variedad de acciones farmacológicas, incluyendo actividades anti-proliferativos y apoptóticos contra varios tipos de cánceres en animales intactos y líneas celulares de cáncer. En el presente estudio, se estudió el efecto de silibinina en células humanas de cáncer de colon HT-29. Método: Las incubaciones de las células con diferentes concentraciones silibinin (0,783-1.600 ug/ml) para 24, 48 o 72 horas mostró un descenso progresivo de la viabilidad celular. Resultados: La pérdida de la viabilidad celular fue de tiempo de inhibición dependiente y óptima de crecimiento de las células (78%) se observó a las 72 horas. Bajo microscopio invertido, las células muertas fueron vistos como los agregados de células. IC50 (concentración de silibinina matar a las células 50%) los valores fueron 180, 110 y 40 ug/ml a las 24, 48 y 72 horas, respectivamente. Conclusión: Estos resultados volver a hacer cumplir la potenciales contra el cáncer de silibinina, como se informó anteriormente para varias otras líneas celulares de cáncer (Ramasamy y Agarwal (2008), Cancer Letters, 269: 352-62).

  3. Budgeting Facilities Operation Costs Using the Facilities Operation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS BOS - Base Operating Support CNIC - Commander, Navy Installations Command COLS - Common Output Level Standard DECA ...of several different funding sources. Naval Support Activity Washington has five organizations (Navy Active, DECA , DODEA, DLA, and Other) forecasted

  4. Mutation in LEMD3 (Man1) Associated with Osteopoikilosis and Late-Onset Generalized Morphea: A New Buschke-Ollendorf Syndrome Variant

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Benjamin; Wei, Jun; Laumann, Anne; Ferguson, Polly; Varga, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome (BOS) is an uncommon syndrome characterized by osteopoikilosis and other bone abnormalities, accompanied by skin lesions, most frequently connective tissue nevi. BOS is caused by mutations in the LEMD3 gene, which encodes the inner nuclear membrane protein Man1. We describe a unique case of osteopoikilosis associated with late-onset localized scleroderma and familial LEMD3 mutations. Case Report. A 72-year-old woman presented with adult-onset diffuse morphea and bullous skin lesions. Evaluation revealed multiple hyperostotic lesions (osteopoikilosis) suggestive of BOS. DNA sequencing identified a previously undescribed nonsense mutation (Trp621X) in the LEMD3 gene encoding Man1. Two additional family members were found to have osteopoikilosis and carry the same LEMD3 mutation. Conclusions and Relevance. We report a unique familial LEMD3 mutation in an individual with osteopoikilosis and late-onset morphea. We propose that this constellation represents a novel syndromic variant of BOS. PMID:27382493

  5. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CAPN1, CAST and MB genes with meat color of Brahman and crossbreed cattle.

    PubMed

    Castro, Susan; Ríos, Marcela; Ortiz, Yurany; Manrique, Carlos; Jiménez, Ariel; Ariza, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the association of SNPs in the candidate genes Calpain (CAPN1), Calpastatin (CAST) and Myoglobin (MB) with colorimetric parameters (L *, a *, b *, C *, hue) in a F1 population (n = 164) obtained from crossing Bos taurus × Bos indicus and Bos indicus × Bos indicus. SNPs were analyzed using PCR-RFLP and SSCP. Colorimetric measurements were performed in the muscles Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and Semitendinosus (ST) at 7, 14 and 21 days postmortem applying the methodology CIE L* a* b*. The CAST gene showed a significant effect on the b* and hue* parameters in both muscles. MB gene showed significant association with all colorimetric parameters in both LTL and ST muscles, except with b* parameter. The CAPN1 gene did not show any significant association. These results suggest an important role of genetics in meat color variation for cattle raised under the tropic conditions.

  6. [Effects of wine polyphenols on cancer prevention].

    PubMed

    Sancho, Marta; Mach, Núria

    2014-10-03

    Introducción: El cáncer se ha convertido en las últimas décadas en una de las principales causas de muerte en todo el mundo. La búsqueda para la prevención efectiva, se ha convertido en una prioridad para la ciencia básica y clínica. Los polifenoles del vino se han propuesto como terapia alternativa para inducir o mantener la remisión del cáncer. Objetivo: Revisar las evidencias científicas publicadas sobre el cáncer y la eficacia de la terapia con suplementos dietarios (especialmente polifenoles del vino). Material y métodos: Se ha realizado una extensa búsqueda de publicaciones científicas en las principales bases de datos electrónicas especializadas: NBCI, Elsevier, Scielo, Scirus y Science Direct. Resultados y Discusión: Se han reunido resultados de trabajos realizados in vitro y en animales de laboratorio en los que se pone de manifiesto el efecto de los polifenoles del vino (especialmente, el resveratrol) en el control de la apoptosis celular de diferentes tipos de cánceres mediante un aumento de las especies reactivas de oxígeno, así como también el retardo en el crecimiento de las mismas. El consumo de vino regular y moderado (uno o dos vasos al día) se asocia con la disminución de la incidencia de enfermedad cardiovascular, la hipertensión, la diabetes, y ciertos tipos de cáncer, como el de colon, el de mama, el de pulmón, o de próstata. Sin embargo, las evidencias científicas a cerca de los efectos protectores del resveratrol son insuficientes. Conclusiones:Los resultados publicados hasta la fecha referentes al rol de los polifenoles del vino en la prevención del cáncer contribuyen al mejor conocimiento y entendimiento de las modificaciones moleculares del cáncer. Los polifenoles del vino ha demostrado un papel significativo como antioxidante y prooxidante en el cáncer, aunque son necesarias más investigaciones en humanos.

  7. A method to measure nanomechanical properties of biological objects

    SciTech Connect

    Ploscariu, Nicoleta; Szoszkiewicz, Robert

    2013-12-23

    We postulate that one will be able to quantitatively infer changes in the mechanical properties of proteins, cells, and other biological objects (BO) by measuring the shifts of several thermally excited resonance frequencies of atomic force microscopy cantilevers in contact with BOs. Here, we provide a method to extract spring constants and molecular damping factors of BOs in biologically relevant phosphate buffered saline medium and using compliant AFM cantilevers with a small aspect ratio (a ratio of length to width)

  8. Inverter testing at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, J.W.; Bonn, R.H.; Sittler, G.

    1997-04-01

    Inverters are key building blocks of photovoltaic (PV) systems that produce ac power. The balance of systems (BOS) portion of a PV system can account for up to 50% of the system cost, and its reliable operation is essential for a successful PV system. As part of its BOS program, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) maintains a laboratory wherein accurate electrical measurements of power systems can be made under a variety of conditions. This paper outlines the work that is done in that laboratory.

  9. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, Michael; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Mone, Christopher

    2015-09-29

    Offshore wind balance-of-system (BOS) costs contribute up to 70% of installed capital costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand the impact of these costs on project economics as well as potential cost trends for new offshore wind technology developments. As a result, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and recently updated a BOS techno-economic model using project cost estimates created from wind energy industry sources.

  10. Soluble CD59 is a Novel Biomarker for the Prediction of Obstructive Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction After Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Budding, Kevin; van de Graaf, Eduard. A.; Kardol-Hoefnagel, Tineke; Kwakkel-van Erp, Johanna M.; Luijk, Bart D.; Oudijk, Erik-Jan D.; van Kessel, Diana A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Hack, C. Erik; Otten, Henderikus G.

    2016-01-01

    CD59 is a complement regulatory protein that inhibits membrane attack complex formation. A soluble form of CD59 (sCD59) is present in various body fluids and is associated with cellular damage after acute myocardial infarction. Lung transplantation (LTx) is the final treatment for end-stage lung diseases, however overall survival is hampered by chronic lung allograft dysfunction development, which presents itself obstructively as the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). We hypothesized that, due to cellular damage and activation during chronic inflammation, sCD59 serum levels can be used as biomarker preceding BOS development. We analyzed sCD59 serum concentrations in 90 LTx patients, of whom 20 developed BOS. We observed that BOS patients exhibited higher sCD59 serum concentrations at the time of diagnosis compared to clinically matched non-BOS patients (p = 0.018). Furthermore, sCD59 titers were elevated at 6 months post-LTx (p = 0.0020), when patients had no BOS-related symptoms. Survival-analysis showed that LTx patients with sCD59 titers ≥400 pg/ml 6 months post-LTx have a significant (p < 0.0001) lower chance of BOS-free survival than patients with titers ≤400 pg/ml, 32% vs. 80% respectively, which was confirmed by multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 6.2, p < 0.0001). We propose that circulating sCD59 levels constitute a novel biomarker to identify patients at risk for BOS following LTx. PMID:27215188

  11. BALF cytokines in different phenotypes of chronic lung allograft dysfunction in lung transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Berastegui, Cristina; Gómez-Ollés, Susana; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Culebras, Mario; Monforte, Victor; López-Meseguer, Manuel; Bravo, Carlos; Ramon, Maria-Antonia; Romero, Laura; Sole, Joan; Cruz, Maria-Jesus; Román, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The long-term success of lung transplantation (LT) is limited by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Different phenotypes of CLAD have been described, such as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as markers of these CLAD phenotypes. BALF was collected from 51 recipients who underwent (bilateral and unilateral) LT. The study population was divided into three groups: stable (ST), BOS, and RAS. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were measured using the multiplex technology. BALF neutrophilia medians were higher in BOS (38%) and RAS (30%) than in ST (8%) (P=.008; P=.012). Regarding BALF cytokines, BOS and RAS patients showed higher levels of INF-γ than ST (P=.02; P=.008). Only IL-5 presented significant differences between BOS and RAS (P=.001). BALF neutrophilia is as a marker for both CLAD phenotypes, BOS and RAS, and IL-5 seems to be a potential biomarker for the RAS phenotype.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Processing Time for the Synchronization of XML-Based Business Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameling, Michael; Wolf, Bernhard; Springer, Thomas; Schill, Alexander

    Business objects (BOs) are data containers for complex data structures used in business applications such as Supply Chain Management and Customer Relationship Management. Due to the replication of application logic, multiple copies of BOs are created which have to be synchronized and updated. This is a complex and time consuming task because BOs rigorously vary in their structure according to the distribution, number and size of elements. Since BOs are internally represented as XML documents, the parsing of XML is one major cost factor which has to be considered for minimizing the processing time during synchronization. The prediction of the parsing time for BOs is an significant property for the selection of an efficient synchronization mechanism. In this paper, we present a method to evaluate the influence of the structure of BOs on their parsing time. The results of our experimental evaluation incorporating four different XML parsers examine the dependencies between the distribution of elements and the parsing time. Finally, a general cost model will be validated and simplified according to the results of the experimental setup.

  13. Dynamic stability margin using a marker based system and Tekscan: a comparison of four gait conditions.

    PubMed

    Lugade, Vipul; Kaufman, Kenton

    2014-01-01

    Stability during gait is maintained through control of the center of mass (CoM) position and velocity in relation to the base of support (BoS). The dynamic stability margin, or the interaction of the extrapolated center of mass with the closest boundary of the BoS, can reveal possible control errors during gait. The purpose of this study was to investigate a marker based method for defining the BoS, and compare the dynamic stability margin throughout gait in comparison to a BoS defined from foot pressure sensors. The root mean squared difference between these two methodologies ranged from 0.9 cm to 3.5 cm, when walking under four conditions: plantigrade, equinus, everted, and inverted. As the stability margin approaches -35 cm prior to contralateral heel strike, there was approximately 90% agreement between the two systems at this time point. Underestimation of the marker based dynamic stability margin or overestimation of the pressure based dynamic stability margin was due to inaccuracies in defining the medial boundary of the BoS. Overall, care must be taken to ensure similar definitions of the BoS are utilized when comparing the dynamic stability margin between participants and gait conditions.

  14. Background Oriented Schlieren Applied to Study Shock Spacing in a Screeching Circular Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q.; Fagan, Amy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) is a recent development of the schlieren and shadowgraph methods. The BOS technique has the ability to provide visualizations of the density gradient in both the axial and radial directions. The resultant magnitude of the density gradients allows for comparison with shadowgraph images. This paper first compares data obtained by the BOS and shadowgraph techniques at identical conditions in a free jet. The patterns and spacing of the shock trains obtained by the two techniques are found to be consistent with one another. This provides confidence in the shock spacing measurement by the BOS technique. Due to its simpler setup, BOS is then applied to investigate the shock spacing associated with the screech phenomenon, especially during stage jumps. Screech frequencies from a 37.6 mm convergent nozzle, as a function of jet Mach number (M(sub j)), are shown to exhibit various stages. As many as eight stages are identified with the present nozzle over the range 1.0 < M(sub j) <1.7. BOS images are acquired at various screech conditions and the shock spacing is examined as a function of M(sub j).

  15. 76 FR 76944 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Zhongyou Tipo Steel (``Shanghai Zhongyou Tipo''), Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO Steel Pipe Co., Ltd. (``Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO''), Sichuan YNJ Industries Co., Ltd. (``Sichuan YNJ''), SteelFORCE Far East Ltd. (``Steel..., Shanghai Zhongyou Tipo, Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO, Sichuan YNJ, SteelFORCE, Tianjin Baolai, Tianjin...

  16. Technical note: Digital quantification of eye pigmentation of cattle with white faces.

    PubMed

    Davis, K M; Smith, T; Bolt, B; Meadows, S; Powell, J G; Vann, R C; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lalman, D L; Rouquette, F M; Hansen, G R; Cooper, A J; Cloud, J E; Garcia, M D; Herring, A D; Hale, D S; Sanders, J O; Hairgrove, T B; DeWitt, T J; Riley, D G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the eye in cattle with white faces occurs less frequently in cattle with pigmented eyelids. Corneoscleral pigmentation is related to eyelid pigmentation and occurrence of lesions that may precede cancer. Objectives of this study were to assess 1) variation in the proportion of eyelid and corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford, Bos taurus, and Bos indicus crossbreds and 2) the occurrence of lesions with the presence of pigmentation in those areas. Hereford and Bos indicus crosses (Brahman or Nellore with Angus and Hereford and straightbred Brafords) and Bos taurus crosses (Angus-Hereford) were included in the study (n = 1,083). Eyelid pigmentation proportions were estimated by pixel quantification and were evaluated as total proportions and for upper and lower eyelids distinctly for each eye. Fixed effects included breed type, age categories, and sex of the animal. Lesion presence (1) or absence (0) was obtained by visual appraisal of image and was assumed to be binomially distributed. Eyelid pigmentation proportions (overall, upper, and lower eyelids) for Hereford ranged from 0.65 ± 0.03 to 0.68 ± 0.03 and were significantly lower than Bos indicus (range from 0.93 ± 0.02 to 0.95 ± 0.02) or Bos taurus (ranged from 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.92 ± 0.02) crosses. Corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) did not differ (P = 0.91) from Hereford calves and yearlings (0.16 ± 0.07). Bos indicus and Bos taurus crossbred cows had larger corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04 for left eyes and 0.37 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.04 for right eyes, respectively) than all calves (P < 0.001), and their corneoscleral pigmentations were greater than that of Hereford cows (P < 0.003). Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows had greater proportions of left eye corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04, respectively) than Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) and all young animal breed types (P < 0.05). Right eye proportions differed for all cow

  17. Effect of probiotic strains of lacto- and bifidobacteria on the activity of macrophages and other parameters of immunity in cases of staphylococcosis.

    PubMed

    Mokrozub, V V; Lazarenko, L M; Babenko, L P; Shynkarenko-Sichel, L M; Olevinska, Z M; Timoshok, N O; Pidgorskyi, V S; Spivak, M Y

    2012-01-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMVB-7281, Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280, Lactobacillus acidophilus IMV B-7279, Bifidobacterium animales VKL and B. animales VKB strains on the models of experimental staphylococcosis infection in mice were determined. It was found that after the mice, infected with staphylococcus, were treated by some probiotic strains of lacto- and bifidobacteria, a normalization of functional activity of phagoctic cells system and increase of the endogenous interferon production were observed. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMVB-7281, L. casei IMVB-7280, L. acidophilus IMV B-7279, B. animales VKB and B. animales VKL are promising for the development of probiotics, effective against staphylococci and for the immunity correction.

  18. Hyaluronan Contributes to Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome and Stimulates Lung Allograft Rejection through Activation of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingan; Sugimoto, Seichiro; Kennedy, Vanessa E.; Zhang, Helen L.; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N.; Kelly, Fran L.; Huang, Howard; Kreisel, Daniel; Palmer, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Although innate immunity is increasingly recognized to contribute to lung allograft rejection, the significance of endogenous innate ligands, such as hyaluronan (HA) fragments, in clinical or experimental lung transplantation is uncertain. Objectives: To determine if HA is associated with clinical bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in lung transplant recipients, and evaluate the effect of low- or high-molecular-weight HA on experimental lung allograft rejection, including dependence on innate signaling pathways or effector cells. Methods: HA concentrations were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage and plasma samples from lung recipients with or without established BOS. BOS and normal lung tissues were assessed for HA localization and expression of HA synthases. Murine orthotopic lung recipients with established tolerance were treated with low- or high-molecular-weight HA under varied experimental conditions, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/4 and myeloid differentiation protein 88 deficiency and neutrophil depletion. Measurements and Main Results: HA localized within areas of intraluminal small airways fibrosis in BOS lung tissue. Moreover, transcripts for HA synthase enzymes were significantly elevated in BOS versus normal lung tissues and both lavage fluid and plasma HA concentrations were increased in recipients with BOS. Treatment with low-molecular-weight HA abrogated tolerance in murine orthotopic lung recipients in a TLR2/4- and myeloid differentiation protein 88–dependent fashion and drove expansion of alloantigen-specific T lymphocytes. Additionally, TLR-dependent signals stimulated neutrophilia that promoted rejection. In contrast, high-molecular-weight HA attenuated basal allograft inflammation. Conclusions: These data suggest that accumulation of HA could contribute to BOS by directly activating innate immune signaling pathways that promote allograft rejection and neutrophilia. PMID:24471427

  19. The Preschool Classroom as a Context for Cognitive Development: Type of Teacher Feedback and Children's Metacognitive Control (El aula Preescolar como espacio de desarrollo cognitivo: tipo de feedback docente y control metacognitivo en los niños)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Liz; Cruz, Josefina Santa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this work was to determine whether the type of feedback given by the preschool teacher during class impacts the children's metacognitive control. For this purpose, the children's behavior was analyzed while teachers provided feedback during collaborative learning sessions. Method: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional…

  20. The Impact of Different Types of Journaling Techniques on EFL Learners' Self-Efficacy (El impacto de diferentes tipos de diario en la autosuficiencia de estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Mortazavi, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the impact of different methods of journaling on self-efficacy of learners of English as a foreign language. Sixty upper-intermediate Iranian English language learners were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions, namely no-feedback, teacher-feedback, and peer-feedback, and one control…

  1. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  2. Exploración del catálogo de objetos en emisión H de Henize y All Sky Automated Survey: nuevas variables y tipos espectrales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaque Arancibia, M.; Barbá, R. H.; Collado, A.; Gamen, R.; Arias, J. I.

    2016-08-01

    Large astronomical surveys allow us to do systematic studies of stellar populations with significant statistical weight. In this study, we have cross-correlated the Henize's (1976) catalog of stellar sources with H emission-line with “The All Sky Automated Survey'' database. After the positional cross-matching we have found that 1402 of 1926 H sources have ASAS light-curves. From that number, more than 50 (723 sources) are periodic variables with amplitude larger than 0.05 magnitudes, while 276 sources show photometric variations without a clear periodicity. Variable stars that we have found are of many different types, among them Miras, eclipsing binaries, bursting stars, etc. Also, only 133 stars are known previously as variable sources in ASAS catalogue, and 93 of them were studied previously in detail. In order to characterize the nature of the sources, we have started a medium-resolution spectroscopic survey of the unstudied variable emission-line objects using the 2.15-m Jorge Sahade Telescope at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Argentina). At the moment, we have observed a set of 67 blue stars selected using 2MASS colors, being almost all of them Be-type stars. This set of bright new variable Be-type stars is ideal for follow-up monitoring for the study of the Be-phenomenon.

  3. Modelado del efecto de manchas frías en el perfil del tránsito de proto-planetas en estrellas jóvenes de tipo WTTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovos, F. V.; Gómez, M.; Ahumada, J. A.; Petrucci, R.; Jofré, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    Weak Emission T Tauri stars (WTTS) are pre-main sequence stars with ages of 10 10 yr, stage at which circumstellar disk material is being used to form planets. This class of young stars shows photometric variations that correlate with the rotational period and are attributed to magnetic cold spots. To model the planet-spot-star system we use the soap-t code, that allows the construction of light curves including planetary transits and spots at the same time. We focus on the deformations that the spot introduces to the transit profile for the case of a proto-planet with 2 Jupiter radii. We consider spotted areas typical for WTTS covering from to of the visible stellar disk, with temperatures of 500 and 1400 K less than that of the stellar surface. The results show the modulation of the stellar brightness caused by the spot. In particular, this modulation increases the depth of the transit. Furthermore, when the spot is eclipsed by the proto-planet, a rebrightening is observed as the planet blocks a zone cooler than the rest of the stellar surface.

  4. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic kidney disease. Grupo de Trabajo para el Documento de Consenso sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 en el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Artola, Sara; Górriz, José Luis; Menéndez, Edelmiro

    2014-01-21

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly prevalent chronic diseases, which represent an important public health problem and require a multidisciplinary management. T2DM is the main cause of CKD and it also causes a significant comorbidity with regard to non-diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetes and kidney disease represent a special risk group as they have higher morbi-mortality as well as higher risk of hypoglycemia than diabetic individuals with a normal kidney function. Treatment of T2DM in patients with CKD is controversial because of the scarcity of available evidence. The current consensus report aims to ease the appropriate selection and dosage of antidiabetic treatments as well as the establishment of safety objectives of glycemic control in patients with CKD.

  5. Identification of miRNAs Potentially Involved in Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Politano, Gianfranco; Inghilleri, Simona; Morbini, Patrizia; Calabrese, Fiorella; Benso, Alfredo; Savino, Alessandro; Cova, Emanuela; Zampieri, Davide; Meloni, Federica

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS), the main clinical phenotype of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic regulation of microRNAs might play a role in its development. In this paper we present the application of a complex computational pipeline to perform enrichment analysis of miRNAs in pathways applied to the study of BOS. The analysis considered the full set of miRNAs annotated in miRBase (version 21), and applied a sequence of filtering approaches and statistical analyses to reduce this set and to score the candidate miRNAs according to their potential involvement in BOS development. Dysregulation of two of the selected candidate miRNAs–miR-34a and miR-21 –was clearly shown in in-situ hybridization (ISH) on five explanted human BOS lungs and on a rat model of acute and chronic lung rejection, thus definitely identifying miR-34a and miR-21 as pathogenic factors in BOS and confirming the effectiveness of the computational pipeline. PMID:27564214

  6. Influence of L-arginine during bovine in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thiago Velasco Guimarães; da Silva, Bruno Baraúna; de Sá, André Luiz Alves; da Costa, Nathalia Nogueira; Sampaio, Rafael Vilar; Cordeiro, Marcela da Silva; Santana, Priscila Di Paula Bessa; Adona, Paulo Roberto; Santos, Simone do Socorro Damasceno; Miranda, Moysés dos Santos; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of using L-arginine during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on in vitro embryonic development using Bos taurus and Bos indicus semen. Effect of different concentrations (0, 1, 10 and 50 mM) of L-arginine, added to the IVF medium, was evaluated on the fertilization rate at 18 h post-fertilization (hpf), NO3(-)/NO2(-) production during IVF by the Griess colorimetric method (30 hpf), cleavage and blastocyst rates (on Day 2 and Day 7 of culture, respectively) and total blastocyst cell number (Day 7 of culture). The results reveal that the addition of 50 mM L-arginine to IVF medium, with either Bos taurus or Bos indicus spermatozoa, decreased the cleavage rate and blastocyst rate compared to the control group. Other concentrations did not affect embryo production. However, 1 mM L-arginine with Bos indicus semen increased the proportion of hatched blastocysts. These results indicate that high L-arginine concentrations may exhibit toxic effects on bovine gametes during in vitro fertilization.

  7. Clinical and molecular evidence of the consumption of broccoli, glucoraphanin and sulforaphane in humans.

    PubMed

    Conzatti, Adriana; Fróes, Fernanda Carolina Telles da Silva; Schweigert Perry, Ingrid Dalira; Souza, Carolina Guerini de

    2014-11-30

    Introducción: El sulforafano (SFN) es un isotiocianato derivado de la glucorafanina (GRA), encontrada en gran cantidad especialmente en el brócolis. Su consumo está asociado a un menor riesgo de infarto del miocardio y de cáncer. Además, sus efectos están siendo estudiados en enfermedades neurodegenerativas, diabetes y aterosclerosis, casi siempre utilizando modelos animales y cultivos celulares. Objetivos: Debido a los resultados prometedores del compuesto SFN, esta revisión buscó investigar evidencias ya documentadas en intervenciones con brócoli, GRA y SFN en humanos. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, por dos investigadores independientes, utilizando los descriptores “broccoli” o “glucoraphanin” o “sulforaphane”, que debían constar en el título o resumen del trabajo. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos randomizados realizados en humanos, publicados en inglés y portugués entre 2003 y 2013, y que consideraron como desenlaces de interés parámetros clínicos y moleculares de daño celular. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 17 estudios y el tipo de intervención predominante fueron brotes de brócoli. Los resultados más consistentes fueron obtenidos con los parámetros clínicos glicemia y perfil lipídico y los parámetros moleculares de estrés oxidativo, que presentaron mejora después de la intervención. Se encontraron evidencias menos sólidas respeto a la disminución de la inflamación, de la colonización por Helicobacter pylori y protección contra cáncer. Conclusión: Aunque relevantes, las evidencias del uso de brócoli, GRA y SFN en humanos son limitadas, siendo necesarios más estudios de intervención para avaluar los desenlaces de forma más consistente y producir conclusiones mejor fundamentadas.

  8. [Antineoplastic treatment impact on nutritional status in patients with breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Monroy Cisneros, Karina; Astiazarán García, Humberto; Esparza Romero, Julián; Guevara Torres, Alfonso Genaro; Valencia Juillerat, Mauro E; Méndez Estrada, Rosa Olivia; Tortoledo Ortiz, Orlando; Pacheco Moreno, Bertha Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Presentación: El cáncer de mama es el tipo de tumor más frecuentemente diagnosticado entre las mujeres de México y también el de más alta mortalidad. Aunque el tratamiento ha mejorado significativamente, puede afectar al estado nutricional del paciente. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio era evaluar el impacto de la fase inicial de la terapia antineoplásica sobre el estado nutricional en pacientes con cáncer de mama. Métodos: Cuarenta sujetos con diagnóstico primario de cáncer de mama invasivo fueron estudiados antes y después de la intervención (con seis meses de desfase) usando un diseño quasi-experimental. Las mediciones al inicio y seis meses después de la intervención incluyeron antropometría, composición corporal mediante absorciometría dual de rayos X (DEXA), cuestionario de recopilación de dieta en 24 horas y frecuencia de comidas, y suero beta-caroteno y retinol. El efecto de la terapia fue analizado empleando mediciones repetidas y regresión lineal mixta. Resultados: El tejido magro disminuyó tras el periodo de estudio (p=0.032). Además, se dio una interacción entre los parámetros de peso, IMC y grasa corporal con el estado de menopausia, aumentando en estas variables debido a la terapia solo en pacientes premenopáusicas (p=0.005, 0.006 y 0.001, respectivamente). Descenso de retinol sérico (p=0.049) a pesar de la mejoría en el estado de beta-caroteno (p=0.03). En general hubo un aumento en el consumo de verdura y un descenso de productos animales. Conclusión: El tratamiento antineoplásico del cáncer de mama tuvo un efecto negativo sobre el peso y la grasa corporal, especialmente en mujeres jóvenes. Aunque se observaron algunos cambios positivos en la dieta, el consumo de verdura siguió siendo insuficiente, lo que también se reflejó en los biomarcadores séricos.

  9. Development of a background-oriented schlieren technique with telecentric lenses for supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzi, F.; Göttlich, E.; Angelucci, L.; Dossena, V.; Guardone, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) is a quantitative optical technique which exploits light deflection occurring in non-homogeneous transparent media. It allows to indirectly measure the density gradients by analysing the apparent displacement of features of a background pattern when imaged through the investigated flow. Thanks to its simple set-up and to the consolidated data reduction technique based on cross-correlation algorithms the BOS technique has progressively attracted the interest of the researchers. In this work a BOS system using a telecentric lens system has been set up in order to improve measurement accuracy and to avoid 3D effects arising from using conventional entocentric lenses. The design of the telecentric lens system is reported along with an analysis of its performance in term of spatial resolution. Some preliminary tests on a supersonic flows are also reported.

  10. Market Barriers to Solar in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.; Nobler, E.; Wolf, C.; Doris, E.

    2012-08-01

    The solar industry in the United States is at a turning point; the cost of PV hardware has declined substantially in recent years, placing new attention on reducing the balance of system (BOS) costs of solar that now contribute to a growing percentage of installation expenses. How states address these costs through the creation of a favorable policy and regulatory environment is proving to be a critical determinant of a thriving statewide solar market. This report addresses the permitting and tax issues that may stimulate the solar market growth in Michigan. By making PV installations easier to complete through reduced BOS costs, Michigan would become a more attractive location for manufacturers and installers. As PV module costs decline and BOS costs make up a greater share of the cost of solar, action taken today on these issues will prove beneficial in the long term, providing Michigan an opportunity to establish a leadership position in the solar industry.

  11. Background-Oriented Schlieren used in a hypersonic inlet test at NASA GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark; Saunders, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is a derivative of the classical schlieren technology, which is used to visualize density gradients, such as shock wave structures in a wind tunnel. Changes in refractive index resulting from density gradients cause light rays to bend, resulting in apparent motion of a random background pattern. The apparent motion of the pattern is determined using cross-correlation algorithms (between no-flow and with-flow image pairs) producing a schlieren-like image. One advantage of BOS is its simplified setup which enables a larger field-of-view (FOV) than traditional schlieren systems. In the present study, BOS was implemented into the Combined Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LIMX) in the 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. The model hardware for the CCE LIMX accommodates a fully integrated turbine based combined cycle propulsion system. To date, inlet mode transition between turbine and ramjet operation has been successfully demonstrated. High-speed BOS was used to visualize the behavior of the flow structures shock waves during unsteady inlet unstarts, a phenomenon known as buzz. Transient video images of inlet buzz were recorded for both the ramjet flow path (high speed inlet) and turbine flow path (low speed inlet). To understand the stability limits of the inlet, operation was pushed to the point of unstart and buzz. BOS was implemented in order to view both inlets simultaneously, since the required FOV was beyond the capability of the current traditional schlieren system. An example of BOS data (Images 1-6) capturing inlet buzz are presented.

  12. Re-purposing clinical kinase inhibitors to enhance chemosensitivity by overriding checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Beeharry, Neil; Banina, Eugenia; Hittle, James; Skobeleva, Natalia; Khazak, Vladimir; Deacon, Sean; Andrake, Mark; Egleston, Brian L; Peterson, Jeffrey R; Astsaturov, Igor; Yen, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase, Chk1, are highly effective as chemo- and radio-sensitizers in preclinical studies but are not well-tolerated by patients. We exploited the promiscuous nature of kinase inhibitors to screen 9 clinically relevant kinase inhibitors for their ability to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to a sub-lethal concentration of gemcitabine. Bosutinib, dovitinib, and BEZ-235 were identified as sensitizers that abrogated the DNA damage checkpoint. We further characterized bosutinib, an FDA-approved Src/Abl inhibitor approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Unbeknownst to us, we used an isomer (Bos-I) that was unknowingly synthesized and sold to the research community as “authentic” bosutinib. In vitro and cell-based assays showed that both the authentic bosutinib and Bos-I inhibited DNA damage checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Wee1, with Bos-I showing greater potency. Imaging data showed that Bos-I forced cells to override gemcitabine-induced DNA damage checkpoint arrest and destabilized stalled replication forks. These inhibitors enhanced sensitivity to the DNA damaging agents’ gemcitabine, cisplatin, and doxorubicin in pancreatic cancer cell lines. The in vivo efficacy of Bos-I was validated using cells derived directly from a pancreatic cancer patient’s tumor. Notably, the xenograft studies showed that the combination of gemcitabine and Bos-I was significantly more effective in suppressing tumor growth than either agent alone. Finally, we show that the gatekeeper residue in Wee1 dictates its sensitivity to the 2 compounds. Our strategy to screen clinically relevant kinase inhibitors for off-target effects on cell cycle checkpoints is a promising approach to re-purpose drugs as chemosensitizers. PMID:24955955

  13. Re-purposing clinical kinase inhibitors to enhance chemosensitivity by overriding checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Beeharry, Neil; Banina, Eugenia; Hittle, James; Skobeleva, Natalia; Khazak, Vladimir; Deacon, Sean; Andrake, Mark; Egleston, Brian L; Peterson, Jeffrey R; Astsaturov, Igor; Yen, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase, Chk1, are highly effective as chemo- and radio-sensitizers in preclinical studies but are not well-tolerated by patients. We exploited the promiscuous nature of kinase inhibitors to screen 9 clinically relevant kinase inhibitors for their ability to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to a sub-lethal concentration of gemcitabine. Bosutinib, dovitinib, and BEZ-235 were identified as sensitizers that abrogated the DNA damage checkpoint. We further characterized bosutinib, an FDA-approved Src/Abl inhibitor approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Unbeknownst to us, we used an isomer (Bos-I) that was unknowingly synthesized and sold to the research community as "authentic" bosutinib. In vitro and cell-based assays showed that both the authentic bosutinib and Bos-I inhibited DNA damage checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Wee1, with Bos-I showing greater potency. Imaging data showed that Bos-I forced cells to override gemcitabine-induced DNA damage checkpoint arrest and destabilized stalled replication forks. These inhibitors enhanced sensitivity to the DNA damaging agents' gemcitabine, cisplatin, and doxorubicin in pancreatic cancer cell lines. The in vivo efficacy of Bos-I was validated using cells derived directly from a pancreatic cancer patient's tumor. Notably, the xenograft studies showed that the combination of gemcitabine and Bos-I was significantly more effective in suppressing tumor growth than either agent alone. Finally, we show that the gatekeeper residue in Wee1 dictates its sensitivity to the 2 compounds. Our strategy to screen clinically relevant kinase inhibitors for off-target effects on cell cycle checkpoints is a promising approach to re-purpose drugs as chemosensitizers.

  14. Linear and nonlinear auditory response properties of interneurons in a high-order avian vocal motor nucleus during wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Raksin, Jonathan N; Glaze, Christopher M; Smith, Sarah; Schmidt, Marc F

    2012-04-01

    Motor-related forebrain areas in higher vertebrates also show responses to passively presented sensory stimuli. However, sensory tuning properties in these areas, especially during wakefulness, and their relation to perception, are poorly understood. In the avian song system, HVC (proper name) is a vocal-motor structure with auditory responses well defined under anesthesia but poorly characterized during wakefulness. We used a large set of stimuli including the bird's own song (BOS) and many conspecific songs (CON) to characterize auditory tuning properties in putative interneurons (HVC(IN)) during wakefulness. Our findings suggest that HVC contains a diversity of responses that vary in overall excitability to auditory stimuli, as well as bias in spike rate increases to BOS over CON. We used statistical tests to classify cells in order to further probe auditory responses, yielding one-third of neurons that were either unresponsive or suppressed and two-thirds with excitatory responses to one or more stimuli. A subset of excitatory neurons were tuned exclusively to BOS and showed very low linearity as measured by spectrotemporal receptive field analysis (STRF). The remaining excitatory neurons responded well to CON stimuli, although many cells still expressed a bias toward BOS. These findings suggest the concurrent presence of a nonlinear and a linear component to responses in HVC, even within the same neuron. These characteristics are consistent with perceptual deficits in distinguishing BOS from CON stimuli following lesions of HVC and other song nuclei and suggest mirror neuronlike qualities in which "self" (here BOS) is used as a referent to judge "other" (here CON).

  15. How I treat bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In past years, a diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) conferred nearly universal mortality secondary to lack of consensus for diagnostic criteria, poorly understood disease pathogenesis, and very few studies of therapeutic or supportive care interventions. Recently, however, progress has been made in these areas: revised consensus diagnostic guidelines are now available, supportive care has improved, there is greater understanding of potential mechanisms of disease, and prospective trials are being conducted. This article describes these advances and provides suggestions to optimize therapy for patients with BOS after HCT. PMID:27856461

  16. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  17. [Morphology of the teguments of Schistosoma bovis; variations linked to the vertebrate host; comparison with S. curassoni].

    PubMed

    Ngendahayo, L D; Bayssade-Dufour, C; Albaret, J L; Diaw, O T; Deiana, S; Southgate, V R; Ross, G C; Luffau, G; Chabaud, A G

    1987-01-01

    S. E. M. study of the dorsal anterior one third of male Schistosoma bovis and of the anterior ventral border of the gynaecophoric duct. S. bovis was previously described as possessing spineless tubercles. This is so in specimens obtained from experimentally infected rodents, but in cattle, on the contrary, when conditions are favourable, teguments have spiny tubercles. Two morphological types have been observed: the first in Bos taurus from Sardinia, the second in domestic (Bos indicus) and wild (Hippotragus equinus and Damaliscus korrigum) bovids from Senegal, Tchad and Centrafrican Republic.

  18. Development of Background-Oriented Schlieren for NASA Langley Research Center Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Borg, Stephen; Jones, Stephen; Overmeyer, Austin; Walker, Eric; Goad, William; Clem, Michelle; Schairer, Edward T.; Mizukaki, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent wind tunnel tests performed at the NASA Langley Research Center where the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique was used to provide information pertaining to flow-field density disturbances. The facilities in which the BOS technique was applied included the National Transonic Facility (NTF), Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel, 15-Inch Mach 6 High-Temperature Air Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell at the 14 by 22 Subsonic Tunnel, and a 13-Inch Low-Speed Tunnel.

  19. [Responses, Rejoinder, and Editorial Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Responses discuss the following: unanswered questions (Gerald Greenberg); thinking critically about justice judgments (E. Allan Lind); just and virtuous leaders (Naomi M. Meara); voices of injustice victims (Debra L. Shapiro); justice research and practice (M. Susan Taylor); and the need for experimental research (Kees van der Bos); with rejoinder…

  20. Using the Behavioral Objective Sequence in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhite, Kathi; Braaten, Sheldon; Frey, Laura; Wilder, Lynn K.

    2007-01-01

    Teachers working with students who exhibit problem behaviors need new tools to assist their efforts to effectively address challenging behavior. The "Behavioral Objective Sequence" (BOS; Braaten, 1998) is a user-friendly instrument that provides a developmental perspective for responding to these behaviors within an instructional model. The BOS…

  1. [Quantitative evaluation of the burden of those giving home care for senile dementia of Alzheimer type subjects using the burnout scale of pines].

    PubMed

    Kameda, N; Hattori, A; Nishinaga, M; Tuchimochi, H; Nakahara, K; Oouchi, A; Matsushita, T; Kanemaru, K; Yamanouchi, H; Orimo, H

    2001-05-01

    We quantitatively measured the physical and psychological burden of caregivers of 25 patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT). The Barthel Index (BADL, full score: 20 points) and the caregiver burden in terms of physical symptoms correlated well (r = -0.964, p < 0.001), as did the degree of abnormal behavior and caregiver burden in terms of psychological symptoms (r = 0.946, p < 0.001). The correlation with the burnout scale (BOS) of Pines was best when both factors of psychological and physical symptoms were included. The correlation between BOS and the caregiver burden in terms of both physical and psychological symptoms was r = 0.874, p < 0.001, and the correlation between BOS and "the degree of abnormal behavior" +(20- "BADL") was r = 0.853, p < 0.001. The burden in terms of physical symptoms increased as the BADL score decreased, but the burden in terms of psychological symptoms increased initially and decreased in the last phase of the disease. We conclude that the BOS score of SDAT caregivers was stable in the initial phase, then increased rapidly, thereafter preserved high, and dropped rapidly as the BADL score decreased.

  2. Influence of temperament and transportation on physiological and endocrinological parameters in bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study measured physiological, immunological, and endocrinological responses of Bos indicus cattle of differing temperaments to transportation. Based on temperament score (TS) the 7 most Calm (TS = 0.84 ± 0.03) and 8 most Temperamental (TS = 3.37 ± 0.18) Brahman bulls were selected from our rese...

  3. Post-weaning growth of tropically adapted purebred and crossbred calves when finished in a temperate climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Typically the adaptation of beef cows that is required for the subtropics has been accomplished by using percentage Brahman breeding. Compromised fertility and carcass quality have increased interest in tropically adapted Bos taurus breed types. Tropically adapted cattle have a reputation for poor...

  4. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes, Soil Oxygen, and Dentrification Potential from Urine and Non-urine Treated Soil Under Different Irrigation Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite increased use of irrigation to improve forage quality and quantity for grazing cattle (Bos taurus), few studies have assessed how irrigation practices influence nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from urine-impacted soils. In particular, irrigation effects on soil oxygen (O2) availability, one of...

  5. Treatments to Optimize the Use of Artificial Insemination and Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle under Tropical Environments

    PubMed Central

    de Sá Filho, Ocilon Gomes; Vasconcelos, José Luiz Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Bos indicus cattle, the preferred genetic group in tropical climates, are characterized by having a lower reproductive efficiency than Bos taurus. The reasons for the poorer reproductive efficiency of the Bos indicus cows include longer lengths of gestation and postpartum anestrus, a short length of estrous behavior with a high incidence of estrus occurring during the dark hours, and puberty at older age and at a higher percentage of body weight relative to mature body weight. Moreover, geography, environment, economics, and social traditions are factors contributing for a lower use of reproductive biotechnologies in tropical environments. Hormonal protocols have been developed to resolve some of the reproductive challenges of the Bos indicus cattle and allow artificial insemination, which is the main strategy to hasten genetic improvement in commercial beef ranches. Most of these treatments use exogenous sources of progesterone associated with strategies to improve the final maturation of the dominant follicle, such as temporary weaning and exogenous gonadotropins. These treatments have caused large impacts on reproductive performance of beef cattle reared under tropical areas. PMID:21076547

  6. Flaccidgrass forage mass and canopy characteristics related to steer digesta kinetics and intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Carostan’ flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum Griseb.) has potential as a perennial, warm-season grass for pastures. This 2-yr study examined digesta kinetics, dry matter intake (DMI), and diet of steers as related to canopy characteristics. Steers (Bos Taurus L.) were continuously and variably stoc...

  7. C. M. Louttit and "Psychological Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    R. A. Littman indicates that L. T. Benjamin and G. R. VandenBos's history of Psychological Abstracts is a fine account of how the American Psychological Association has carried out its responsibility to provide access to psychological research and writing. Littman was pleased to see Mac Louttit's work as editor brought out, and he takes this…

  8. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  9. Treatments to Optimize the Use of Artificial Insemination and Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle under Tropical Environments.

    PubMed

    de Sá Filho, Ocilon Gomes; Vasconcelos, José Luiz Moraes

    2010-11-08

    Bos indicus cattle, the preferred genetic group in tropical climates, are characterized by having a lower reproductive efficiency than Bos taurus. The reasons for the poorer reproductive efficiency of the Bos indicus cows include longer lengths of gestation and postpartum anestrus, a short length of estrous behavior with a high incidence of estrus occurring during the dark hours, and puberty at older age and at a higher percentage of body weight relative to mature body weight. Moreover, geography, environment, economics, and social traditions are factors contributing for a lower use of reproductive biotechnologies in tropical environments. Hormonal protocols have been developed to resolve some of the reproductive challenges of the Bos indicus cattle and allow artificial insemination, which is the main strategy to hasten genetic improvement in commercial beef ranches. Most of these treatments use exogenous sources of progesterone associated with strategies to improve the final maturation of the dominant follicle, such as temporary weaning and exogenous gonadotropins. These treatments have caused large impacts on reproductive performance of beef cattle reared under tropical areas.

  10. A genome-wide association study of calf birth weight in Holstein cattle using single nucleotide polymorphisms and phenotypes predicted from auxiliary traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has found that there is a QTL affecting calving and conformation traits on Bos taurus (BTA) autosome 18 that may be related to increased calf birth weights, which are not routinely recorded in the US. Birth weight (BW) data from large, intensively managed dairies in eastern German...

  11. Breed x sex effects on birth weight in Brahman-Simmental embryo transfer calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objective of this work was to compare birth weight in various crosses of Brahman, Simmenta...

  12. Microarray identification of novel genes downstream of Six1, a critical factor in cranial placode, somite and kidney development

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Bo; Neilson, Karen M.; Ranganathan, Ramya; Maynard, Thomas; Streit, Andrea; Moody, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Six1 plays an important role in the development of several vertebrate organs, including cranial sensory placodes, somites and kidney. Although Six1 mutations cause one form of Branchio-Otic Syndrome (BOS), the responsible gene in many patients has not been identified; genes that act downstream of Six1 are potential BOS candidates. Results We sought to identify novel genes expressed during placode, somite and kidney development by comparing gene expression between control and Six1-expressing ectodermal explants. The expression patterns of 19 of the significantly up-regulated and 11 of the significantly down-regulated genes were assayed from cleavage to larval stages. 28/30 genes are expressed in the otocyst, a structure that is functionally disrupted in BOS, and 26/30 genes are expressed in the nephric mesoderm, a structure that is functionally disrupted in the related Branchio-Otic-Renal (BOR) syndrome. We also identified the chick homologues of 5 genes and show that they have conserved expression patterns. Conclusions Of the 30 genes selected for expression analyses, all are expressed at many of the developmental times and appropriate tissues to be regulated by Six1. Many have the potential to play a role in the disruption of hearing and kidney function seen in BOS/BOR patients. PMID:25403746

  13. 13 CFR 124.403 - How is a business plan updated and modified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How is a business plan updated and... Development § 124.403 How is a business plan updated and modified? (a) Annual review. Each Participant must annually review its business plan with its assigned Business Opportunity Specialist (BOS), and modify...

  14. Effect of Bovine Respiratory Disease and Overall Pathogenic Disease Incidence on Carcass Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used; the first population comprised crossbred steers (GPE7; n=642) derived from sires of seven Bos tauru...

  15. Isolongifolenone: A Novel Sesquiterpene Repellent of Ticks and Mosquitoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    forWindows step by step: a simple guide and reference. Allyn & Bacon, Bos- ton, MA. Gerberg, E. J., D. P. Barnard, and R. A.Ward. 1994. Manual for mosquito... Planta Med. 63: 158Ð 160. He, K., L. Zeng, G. Shi, G.-X. Zhao, J. F. Kozlowski, and J. L. McLaughlin. 1997b. Bioactive compounds from Taiwa- nia

  16. Ghosts of Empire: Reducing the Specter of Imperialism in Modern Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-25

    the Bos- nian operation. As stipulated in the Dayton Accords, the Office of the High Representative is often labeled as a “ neocolonial ” institution...The Limits of Neocolonial Rule,” Foreign Policy in Focus, August 5, 2004, accessed October 16, 2010. http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publica

  17. Limitations in the use of /sup 14/C-glycocholate breath and stool bile acid determinations in patients with chronic diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.; Walker, K.; Thomson, A.B.

    1986-06-01

    Analysis of a modified /sup 14/C-glycocholate breath test on 165 consecutive in-patients being investigated for chronic diarrhea showed that the measurement of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ between 3 and 6 h after oral dosing of 5 microCi of /sup 14/C-glycocholic acid was of only limited use to distinguish between patients with Crohn's disease (CD), idiopathic bile salt wastage (IBW), or ileal resection (IR) from those with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Continuing /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collections for up to 24 h was of little more help in establishing the presence of bacterial overgrowth syndrome (BOS) and in distinguishing between BOS and CD. Stool bile acid measurements were of use in differentiating between IBW and IBS, but did not distinguish between CD and BOS or between CD and IR. Since the range of normal values was defined by measurements in the IBS group, a positive test was specific for an organic cause of chronic diarrhea. Even so, the sensitivity of the test was relatively low: CD, 53%; IR, 23%; IBW, /sup 14/%; and BOS, 10%. We believe that the 24-h /sup 14/C-glycocholic breath test combined with the measurement of stool bile acids represents a screening test of only limited use for the identification of organic causes of chronic diarrhea.

  18. Butter as a Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acylglycerides in 348 L of cow’s milk (Bos taurus) butter were converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) via acid-catalyzed esterification/transesterification in the presence of methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. The FAME recovery was 67% of maximum theoretical yield. This produ...

  19. Genomic divergence of zebu and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural selection has molded the evolution across all taxa. At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically ad...

  20. Fibroblasts express OvHV-2 capsid protein in vasculitis lesions of American bison (Bison bison) with experimental sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2), a '-herpesvirus, is an often fatal disease characterized by lymphoproliferation, vasculitis, and mucosal ulceration in American bison (Bison bison), cattle (Bos taurus), and other clinically susceptible speci...

  1. HIGH-THROUGHPUT PHYLOGENOMICS: FROM ANCIENT DNA TO SIGNATURES OF HUMAN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We utilized the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip with 54,693 single nucleotide polymorphism loci developed for Bos taurus taurus to rapidly genotype 677 individuals representing 61 Pecoran (horned ruminant) species diverged by up to 29 million years. We produced a completely bifurcating tree, the first...

  2. Photonic Characteristics and Ex Vivo Imaging of Escherichia coli-Xen14 Within the Bovine Reproductive Tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the photonic properties of Escherichia coli-Xen14 and (2) conduct photonic imaging of E. coli-Xen14 within bovine reproductive tract segments (RTS) ex vivo (Bos indicus). E. coli-Xen14 was grown for 24 h in Luria Bertani medium (LB), with or with...

  3. PRNP haplotype associated with classical BSE incidence in European Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease of cattle. The bovine prion gene (PRNP) contains regions of both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) that appear to be conserved across Bos taurus populations. The region of high LD, which spans the pro...

  4. International Book Review and Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieker, Lisa; McTigue, Anna

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the book "Helping Individuals with Disabilities and Their Families: Mexican and U.S. Perspectives," edited by Todd V. Fletcher and Candace S. Bos (1999). An interview with Todd V. Fletcher is presented in which he discusses the importance of U.S. understanding and collaboration with Mexico. (CR)

  5. n-person Battle of sexes games—a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jijun; Szilagyi, Miklos N.; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2008-06-01

    n-person Battle of Sexes (BOS) games are examined by a special simulation study. Two types of agents are considered and there are three possible ways of making the agents’ initial decisions. The simulation study confirms the theoretical results on the existence and number of equilibria. We also investigate the effect of the model parameters on the limiting states of the system.

  6. Proust: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Rene, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Rene Girard, Robert Vigneron, Henri Peyre, Jacques Riviere, Albert Thibaudet, Walter A. Strauss, Germaine Bree, Georges Cattaui, Elliott Coleman, Leo Spitzer, Richard Macksey, Robert Champigny, Charles Du Bos, Ramon…

  7. Baudelaire: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyre, Henri, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Paul Valery, Henri Peyre, Fracois Mauriac, Charles du Bos, Etienne Gilson, P.M. Pasinetti, John Middleton Murry, Marcel Proust, Georges Poulet, Erich Auerbach, and Jean Prevost--all dealing with the biography and literary…

  8. Selectivity of thiobencarb between two lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. ) cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, S.

    1987-01-01

    Thiobencarb (S-(4-chlorobenzyl)N,N-diethylthiocarbamate) was examined for weed control on muck grown lettuce. Weed control results were erratic though differential lettuce tolerance was observed in the field. This led to the testing of five lettuce cultivars for tolerance to the herbicide. Of the five lettuce cultivars evaluated, two were selected with the widest tolerance differences: Great Lakes 366 (GLA) (tolerant) and Dark Green Boston (BOS) (susceptible). Studies examining the mechanism of thiobencarb tolerance were conducted with these two cultivars. Within four days after the addition of thiobencarb to the nutrient solution, BOS had significant reductions in the foliar dry weight. In addition, growth abnormalities including fused leaves were observed, indicating inhibition early in leaf development. Greater amounts of /sup 14/C-thiobencarb were absorbed from nutrient solution by BOS, likely due to a significantly greater root system at the time of treatment. The greater uptake and accumulation of /sup 14/C-label in the leaves, as well as significantly greater amounts of unmetabolized /sup 14/C-thiobencarb in the foliage of BOS may account for the selectivity observed. A thiobencarb sulfoxide was not identified in these studies. This indicates that the metabolism of thiobencarb in lettuce differs from other members of the thiocarbamate family of herbicides.

  9. Ammonium sorption and ammonia inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria explain contrasting soil N2O production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Better understanding of process controls over nitrous oxide (N2O) production in urine-impacted ‘hot spots’ and fertilizer bands is needed to improve mitigation strategies and emission models. Following amendment with bovine (Bos taurus) urine (Bu) or urea (Ur), we measured inorganic N, pH, N2O, and...

  10. Youth in Force in the Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Dottie L.; Walsh, Gene

    Five Alaskan communities, Ketchikan, Palmer, McGrath, Dillingham, and Kotzebue, were selected as demonstration sites for the Balance of State (BOS) Youth Employment Training Program (YETP), which addressed in-school and out-of-school youth through assessment, career guidance, work-study, and out-of-school programs. An analysis of need showed that…

  11. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern G...

  12. Visualization of the transmission of direct genomic values for paternal and maternal chromosomes for 15 traits in U.S. Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable haplotypes are available for 171,420 Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey bulls and cows that received genomic evaluations in April 2012. Differences in least-squares means of direct genomic values (DGV) for paternal and maternal haplotypes of Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 1, 6, 14, and 18 for lif...

  13. Distribution and Location of Genetic Effects for Dairy Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic effects for many dairy traits and for total economic merit are fairly evenly distributed across all chromosomes. A high-density scan using 38,416 SNP markers for 5,285 bulls confirmed two previously-known major genes on Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) 6 and 14 but revealed few other large effects...

  14. How Authors and Readers of ePortfolios Make Collaborative Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benander, Ruth; Refaei, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a case study, using a think-aloud approach (Boren & Ramey, 2000; Jaspers, Steen, van den Bos & Geenen, 2004; Kilsdonk et al., 2016), to investigate how different types of audiences interpret ePortfolios. During recorded viewing, students, instructors, and business professionals narrated their experience of reading…

  15. The Interim Years of Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    sources have indicated that the technology is already avail- able.47 During testimony to the Senate Armed Services Committee, Lt Gen Herbert Carlisle...Bos- ton: W. V. Spencer , 1868), 26. 23. David R. Mets, The Air Campaign: John Warden and the Classical Airpower Theorists, rev. ed. (Maxwell AFB, AL

  16. Taurine in neonatal nutrition - revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) was isolated from ox (Bos Taurus) bile in 1827 but, until the mid to late 1970, it was thought to be merely a by-product of sulfur amino and metabolism. In 1975, it was noted that taurine deficiency in cats was associated with retinal degeneration which was reve...

  17. Marketing Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies.

  18. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  19. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  20. Corn response to long-term applications of cattle manure, swine effluent, and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) manure and swine (Sus scrofa) effluent are applied to cropland to recycle nutrients, build soil quality, and increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of land application of cattle manure and swine effluent using the Kansas Nut...

  1. Hair shedding score may affect body temperature more than hair coat color during heat stress in weaned beef heifers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hair shedding score and hair coat color on the vaginal temperature (VT) of calves during heat stress. Weaned Bos taurus beef heifers (n = 32; BW = 282 ± 6.4 kg) were assigned to a hair coat color class (BLACK; RED; or LIGHT, where LIGHT = yel...

  2. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism of calpain 1 gene with meat tenderness of the yak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with shear force of 2.54 cm steaks from M. longissimus dorsi from Gannan yaks (Bos grunniens, n = 181) was studied. The experimental design was a repeated measures with the main unit in a completely randomized design...

  3. Solar Cogeneration of Electricity and Hot Water at DoD Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    33 Figure 18: System electrical configuration, including inverters and iBOS ( pink ...incentives); military sites do not benefit from tax breaks and impose stricter design requirements, which raises all these numbers, but we believe solar...investors through an HPPA arrangement able to capture tax credits and other incentives not available to a system acquired directly by The DoD.1

  4. Development of a building block design of modular photovoltaic concentrator array fields

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, D.C.; Alexander, G.; Noel, G.T.; Scurlock, L.D.; Huss, W.R.; Stickford, G.H.

    1983-08-01

    To reduce the balance-of-system (BOS) costs and site-specific design costs for photovoltaic concentrator array fields, a modular Building Block design has been developed for installing array fields of each of two available concentrator collectors. The array-field subsystems and requirements incorporated in the design analyses include site preparation, foundations, electrical wiring, grounding, lightning protection, electromagnetic interference provisions, and tracking and controls. The Building Block designs developed minimize these array-field BOS costs and serve as standardized units to be used in multiples to construct array fields of various sizes. The detailed drawings and construction specifications prepared for the designs require only minimal design modification and cost for adaption to a specific site and application. The two concentrator collectors for which the modular array-field designs were developed are the linear-focus Fresnel-lens array manufactured by E-Systems, Inc., and the point-focus Fresnel-lens array manufactured by Martin Marietta Aerospace Corporation. Both designs are two-axis tracking and passively cooled. The developed Building Block designs are immediately applicable and reduce the array-field BOS costs and site-specific design costs to a fraction of those experienced in previous installations. The estimated array-field BOS costs (in 1982 dollars) using these modular designs are $0.78/W for the modular field based on the E-Systems array and $1.18/W for the modular field based on the Martin-Marietta array.

  5. Markers on bovine chromosome 20 associated with carcass quality and composition traits and incidence of contracting infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on bovine chromosome 20 to fine map a previously identified QTL associated with the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 539) derived from sires of 7 Bos Taurus breeds and h...

  6. Markers on Bovine Chromosome 20 Associated with Carcass Quality and Composition Traits and Incidence of Contracting Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on bovine chromosome 20 to fine map a previously identified QTL associated with the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 539) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds...

  7. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  8. The Impact of Deployment Experience and Prior Healthcare Utilization on Enrollment in a Large Military Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-11

    Jacobi CE, Dinant HJ, van den Bos GAM: Selection bias due to non-response in a health survey among patients with rheumatoid arthritis . Eur J Public...diseases of complex etiology . Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser 1984, 20(6):96–119. 4. White E, Hunt JR, Casso D: Exposure measurement in cohort studies: the

  9. Development of a low-cost integrated 20-kW ac solar tracking sub- array for grid-connected PV power system applications. Phase 1, Annual technical report, 11 July 1995--31 July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G.

    1997-06-01

    The overall goal of this effort is to reduce the installed cost of utility scale grid connected photovoltaic power systems. The focus of the effort is on ``BOS`` (Balance-Of-System) component manufacturing technology, which essentially involves all PV power system engineering, manufacturing, assembly and construction tasks from the receipt of a PV module to the deliver of grid connected electricity.

  10. Grazing management effects on stream bank erosion and phosphorus delivery to a pasture stream

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture lands may deliver significant sediment and phosphorus (P) to surface waters. To determine the effects of beef (Bos taurus) grazing practices on stream bank erosion and P losses, three treatments [rotational stocking (RS), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and continuou...

  11. Evaluate the Mechanism of Enhanced Metastasis Induced by Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    remain healthy under the specific pathogen free ( SPF ) condition and therefore are designated as pro-arthritic. They develop severe arthritis when...diagnosis of cancer. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2011. 5. Minn AJ, Gupta GP, Siegel PM, Bos PD, Shu W, Giri DD , Viale A, Olshen AB, Gerald WL, Massague J

  12. Contrasting daily and seasonal activity and movement of sympatric elk and cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elk (Cervus elaphus L.) and cattle (Bos taurus L.) co-occur on range and forest lands throughout much of western North America. The literature regarding range relations between elk and cattle is, however, highly contradictory describing strong evidence of interspecific competition in some cases and...

  13. Genome sequencing of the extinct Eurasian wild aurochs illuminates the phylogeography and evolution of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interrogation of modern and ancient bovine genome sequences provides a valuable model to study the evolution of cattle. Here, we analyse the first complete wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) genome sequence using DNA extracted from a ~ 6,750 year-old humerus bone retrieved from a cave site in Derbyshire...

  14. Links among nitrification, nitrifier communities and edaphic properties in contrasting soils receiving dairy slurry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil biotic and abiotic factors strongly influence nitrogen (N) availability and increases in nitrification rates associated with the application of manure. In this study, we examine the effects of edaphic properties and a dairy (Bos taurus) slurry amendment on N availability, nitrification rates an...

  15. Strength-Based Assessment of Behavior Competencies to Distinguish Students Referred for Disciplinary Intervention from Nonreferred Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Susan Fread; Braaten, Sheldon

    2008-01-01

    Early identification of the lack of behavioral competencies followed by subsequent intervention is critical to reducing the number of students at risk for increasing disciplinary responses and school failure. This study examined scores on the Behavior Objective Sequence (BOS) of elementary school students referred for out-of-classroom disciplinary…

  16. The bovine lactation genome: Insights into the evolution of mammalian milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly assembled Bos Taurus genome sequence enables the linkage of bovine milk and lactation data with other mammalian genomes. Using publicly available milk proteome data and mammary expressed sequence tags, 197 milk protein genes and over 6,000 mammary genes were identified in the bovine genome...

  17. Environmental and economic comparisons of manure application methods in farming systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative methods for applying livestock manure to no-till soils involve environmental and economic trade-offs. A process-level farm simulation model (Integrated Farm System Model) was used to evaluate methods for applying liquid dairy (Bos taurus L.) and swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure including no...

  18. Teaching Reading: The Contribution of Multisensory Training to the Knowledge and Thinking of First-Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petropoulos, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Studies by Moats (1995), Mather, Bos, and Babur (2001), and McCutchen, et al (2002) have begun to identify the relationship between teachers' linguistic knowledge and what is known, scientifically, about how literacy is acquired by learners. Findings from these studies support the idea that linguistic knowledge--particularly knowledge of…

  19. Characterization of "cis"-regulatory elements ("c"RE) associated with mammary gland function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bos taurus genome assembly has propelled dairy science into a new era; still, most of the information encoded in the genome has not yet been decoded. The human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has spearheaded the identification and annotation of functional genomic elements in the hu...

  20. Background-Oriented Schlieren Pattern Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Wind Tunnel Model using Background-Oriented Schlieren”. volume AIAA 2010-1736. US Air Force Test and Evaluation Days, Nashville...1 1.2 System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Existing Work...extensively been through trial and error and PIV particle size recommendations. 3 1.2 System Description The BOS technique is based on analyzing the

  1. Afloat Forward Operating Bases for Joint Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    BOS (to include dining facility, medical/ dental , living areas, showers, latrines, etc). Thus, using an Afloat Forward Operating Base for a JSOTF 5 can...including triage reception sites, Intensive Care/Critical Care surgery suites, X-ray/Computed Radiography 12 capabilities, and burn treatment rooms. The

  2. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mend...

  3. Beyond Stimulus Deprivation: Iron Deficiency and Cognitive Deficits in Postinstitutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Kroupina, Maria G.; Frenn, Kristin; Fuglestad, Anita J.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Children adopted from institutions have been studied as models of the impact of stimulus deprivation on cognitive development (Nelson, Bos, Gunnar, & Sonuga-Barke, 2011), but these children may also suffer from micronutrient deficiencies (Fuglestad et al., 2008). The contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation on…

  4. A ten year review of performance of photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.L.; Durand, S.J.; Thomas, M.G.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents data compiled by the Photovoltaic Design Assistance Center at Sandia National Laboratories from more than eighty field tests performed at over thirty-five photovoltaic systems in the United States during the last ten years. The recorded performance histories, failure rates, and degradation of post-Block IV modules and balance-of-system (BOS) components are described in detail.

  5. A Relational/Object-Oriented Database Management System: R/OODBMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Corporation produces GemStone17 [BM089][HW911, a disk-based storage manager designed for commercial and engineering markets [BOS911. The designers of...key’,reiatic~n_key); idi -bind("relation~print*,reiation~print); idi_bind(*create~tuple*~,create_tuole); idi-bind) *ck-union- comnatability ",ck

  6. Analysis of recent segmental duplications in the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Duplicated sequences are an important source of gene innovation and structural variation within mammalian genomes. We describe the first systematic and genome-wide analysis of segmental duplications in the modern domesticated cattle (Bos taurus). Using two distinct computational analyses, we estimat...

  7. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Ungulata Bovidae Bos taurus. Cat, Caracal Carnivora Felidae Caracal caracal. Cat, Domestic ......do ......do Felis catus. Cat, Lynx ......do ......do Lynx refus. Cat, Manul ......do ......do Felis manul. Cat, Margay ......do ......do Felis wiedii. Cat, Spotted ......do ......do Felis sp. (South America)....

  8. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  9. The Impact of Alemtuzumab and Basiliximab Induction on Patient Survival and Time to Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome in Double Lung Transplantation Recipients.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Y; Jayarajan, S N; Taghavi, S; Cordova, F C; Patel, N; Shiose, A; Leotta, E; Criner, G J; Guy, T S; Wheatley, G H; Kaiser, L R; Toyoda, Y

    2016-08-01

    We examined the effect of alemtuzumab and basiliximab induction therapy on patient survival and freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in double lung transplantation. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was reviewed for adult double lung transplant recipients from 2006 to 2013. The primary outcome was risk-adjusted all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included time to BOS. There were 6117 patients were identified, of whom 738 received alemtuzumab, 2804 received basiliximab, and 2575 received no induction. Alemtuzumab recipients had higher lung allocation scores compared with basiliximab and no-induction recipients (41.4 versus 37.9 versus 40.7, p < 0.001) and were more likely to require mechanical ventilation before to transplantation (21.7% versus 6.5% versus 6.2%, p < 0.001). Median survival was longer for alemtuzumab and basiliximab recipients compared with patients who received no induction (2321 versus 2352 versus 1967 days, p = 0.001). Alemtuzumab (hazard ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.67-0.95, p = 0.009) and basiliximab induction (0.88, 0.80-0.98, p = 0.015) were independently associated with survival on multivariate analysis. At 5 years, alemtuzumab recipients had a lower incidence of BOS (22.7% versus 55.4 versus 55.9%), and its use was independently associated with lower risk of developing BOS on multivariate analysis. While both induction therapies were associated with improved survival, patients who received alemtuzumab had greater median freedom from BOS.

  10. Evolutionary history of bovine endogenous retroviruses in the Bovidae family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements of retroviral origin that are present in the genomes of almost all vertebrates. In cattle, more than 13,000 elements related to ERVs have been detected, and based on the pol gene, 24 families or groups of bovine ERVs have been described. However, information about ERVs in other bovids and the presence of families of related bovine ERVs in different species of the Bovidae family is scarce. Results The 24 families of bovine ERVs previously detected in cattle (Bos taurus) were also detected in zebus (Bos indicus) and yaks (Bos grunniens). In addition, six new families, named BoERV25 to BoERV30, were detected in the three Bos species. Five more ruminant species were screened for related ERVs: 26 families were detected in these species, but four families (BoERV24, BoERV26, BoERV28 and BoERV29) were specific to cattle, zebus, yaks and buffalo. An analysis of the homology of the ERVs of cattle, zebus and yaks revealed that the level of LTR divergence was similar between ERVs from cattle and zebus but was less similar between with ERVs from cattle and yaks. In addition, purifying selection was detected in the genes and retroviral regions of clusters of ERVs of cattle, zebus and yaks. Conclusions In this work, the 24 ERV families previously identified in cattle were also found in two other species in the Bos genus. In addition, six new bovine ERV families were detected. Based on LTR divergence, the most recently inserted families are from Class II. The divergence of the LTR, used as an indirect estimate of the ERV insertion time, seemed to be influenced by the differences in genome evolution since the divergence of the species. In addition, purifying selection could be acting on clusters of ERVs from different species. PMID:24256121

  11. 78 FR 57057 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium; Meloxicam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium....100 Yes....... CE \\1\\. Health Corp., (amprolium) 9.6% as a generic GlenPointe Oral Solution. copy of........... Ceva Sante MELOXIDYL Original approval 520.1350 Yes....... CE \\1\\. Animale, 10 (meloxicam) Oral as...

  12. [Literatura y Laminas Educativas para Ninos.] [Selected Children's Literature and Learning Charts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1968

    Folk stories have been published in Spanish to provide the Spanish-speaking child with reading materials in his native language. Series of materials are available for instruction in numbers and letters and beginning and intermediate vocabulary development. Series are Abecedarios (13 vols.), Mis Animalitos (6 vols.), Coleccion Oficios y Animales (6…

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Bosentan, Glimepiride, HYBOS and M1 in Rat Plasma by UPLC-MS-MS and its Application to Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengchun; Song, Wenjie; Wang, Shuanghu; Chen, Qiulei; Pan, Peipei; Xu, Tao; Hu, Guoxin; Zheng, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of bosentan (BOS), glimepiride (GLP), hydroxyl bosentan (HYBOS) and hydroxyl glimepiride (M1) in rat plasma using one-step protein precipitation was developed and validated. After addition of ambrisentan as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used in sample preparation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm particle size, Waters Corp., Milford, MA, USA) and inline 0.2 μm stainless steel frit filter (Waters Corp.) with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min with gradient elution. The column temperature was maintained at 40°C. Only 4 min was needed for an analytical run. The retention times were ∼3.29 min for BOS, 3.56 min for GLP, 1.42 min for HYBOS, 1.53 min for M1 and 3.22 min for IS. Electrospray ionization source was employed and operated in positive-ion mode; multiple reaction monitoring mode was applied to target fragment ions m/z 552 → 202, m/z 568 → 202, m/z 491 → 352, m/z 507 → 352 and m/z 379 → 347 for BOS, HYBOS, GLP, M1 and IS, respectively. The assay was validated over concentration ranges of 25-5,000 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9984) for BOS, 1-200 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9999) for GLP, 0.5-100 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9999) for HYBOS and 0.1-20 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9984) for M1. Intra- and interday precision values for replicate quality control samples were within 14.2% for all analytes during the assay validation. Mean quality control accuracy values were within -3.3 to 14.4% of nominal values for all analytes. The mean recoveries of BOS, GLP, HYBOS, M1 and ambrisentan from the plasma exceeded 90.4%. The analytes were stable in rat plasma for at least 2 h at room temperature, 30 days at -40°C and following at least three freeze-thaw cycles (-40°C to room temperature). This method was

  14. Cr(VI)/Cr(III) and As(V)/As(III) ratio assessments in Jordanian spent oil shale produced by aerobic combustion and Anaerobic Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    El-Hasan, Tayel; Szczerba, Wojciech; Buzanich, Günter; Radtke, Martin; Riesemeier, Heinrich; Kersten, Michael

    2011-11-15

    With the increase in the awareness of the public in the environmental impact of oil shale utilization, it is of interest to reveal the mobility of potentially toxic trace elements in spent oil shale. Therefore, the Cr and As oxidation state in a representative Jordanian oil shale sample from the El-Lajjoun area were investigated upon different lab-scale furnace treatments. The anaerobic pyrolysis was performed in a retort flushed by nitrogen gas at temperatures in between 600 and 800 °C (pyrolytic oil shale, POS). The aerobic combustion was simply performed in porcelain cups heated in a muffle furnace for 4 h at temperatures in between 700 and 1000 °C (burned oil shale, BOS). The high loss-on-ignition in the BOS samples of up to 370 g kg(-1) results from both calcium carbonate and organic carbon degradation. The LOI leads to enrichment in the Cr concentrations from 480 mg kg(-1) in the original oil shale up to 675 mg kg(-1) in the ≥ 850 °C BOS samples. Arsenic concentrations were not much elevated beyond that in the average shale standard (13 mg kg(-1)). Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed that within the original oil shale the oxidation states of Cr and As were lower than after its aerobic combustion. Cr(VI) increased from 0% in the untreated or pyrolyzed oil shale up to 60% in the BOS ash combusted at 850 °C, while As(V) increased from 64% in the original oil shale up to 100% in the BOS ash at 700 °C. No Cr was released from original oil shale and POS products by the European compliance leaching test CEN/TC 292 EN 12457-1 (1:2 solid/water ratio, 24 h shaking), whereas leachates from BOS samples showed Cr release in the order of one mmol L(-1). The leachable Cr content is dominated by chromate as revealed by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry (CAdSV) which could cause harmful contamination of surface and groundwater in the semiarid environment of Jordan.

  15. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  16. [EFFICIENCY OF HAEMOGLOBIN REGENERATION IN THE NUTRITIONAL FERROPENIC ANAEMIA RECOVERY WITH GOAT MILK-BASED DIETS].

    PubMed

    Serrano Reina, José Antonio; Nestares Pleguezuelo, Teresa; Muñoz Alférez, Ma José; Díaz Castro, Javier; López Aliaga, Ma Inmaculada

    2015-10-01

    en ratas controles y anémicas alimentadas con la dieta basada en leche de cabra respecto a las alimentadas a base de leche de vaca (p < 0,001) debido, en parte, a los mayores niveles de hierro sérico y hemoglobina, así como a la mejor utilización nutritiva del hierro en los animales que consumen una dieta basada en leche de cabra gracias a las excelentes características nutricionales de este tipo de leche. Conclusión: el consumo durante 30 días de dietas elaboradas a base de leche de cabra o vaca favorece la recuperación de la anemia ferropénica, especialmente con la dieta basada en leche de cabra, debido a la mayor eficacia de regeneración de la hemoglobina, índice que muestra la cantidad de hierro de la dieta destinada a la formación de hemoglobina. Por tanto, sería recomendable introducir en una dieta equilibrada la leche de cabra o sus derivados lácteos tanto en la población sana como con anemia.

  17. Comparing Teaching Styles and Personality Types of EFL Instructors in the Public and Private Sectors (Una comparación de los estilos de enseñanza y los tipos de personalidad de profesores de inglés de los sistemas educativos estatal y privado)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio H.; Rodriguez Moran, Andrea Victoria; Poblete Rivera, Karen Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory non-experimental research study whose main objective is to compare the teaching styles of a group of thirty teachers of English working in either public or private secondary education in Chile. In order to collect the required data, two instruments were administered to the participants: a teaching style inventory and a…

  18. A spirometric journey following lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Jeremy; Paraskeva, Miranda; Thompson, Bruce; Snell, Greg; Westall, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Spirometry is regarded as the primary tool for the evaluation of lung function in lung transplant (LTx) recipients. Spirometry is crucial in detecting the various phenotypes of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), including restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) – note that these phenotypes potentially have different etiologies and therapies. Following LTx for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a 60-year-old male recipient’s lung function began to gradually improve, peaking at 5 months post-LTx. Subsequently, with increasing impairment of graft function, the diagnosis of BOS was made. A second LTx was performed and lung function subsequently began to increase again. Unfortunately, another year on, lung function deteriorated again – this time due to the development of RAS, antibody-mediated rejection was implicated as the possible underlying cause. This case report highlights the importance of spirometry in assessing the patterns of CLAD following LTx. PMID:25473588

  19. Study of shock shape and strength as a function of plasma energy using background oriented schlieren and shadowgraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhavini; Rajendran, Lalit; Giarra, Matthew; Bane, Sally; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-11-01

    The formation of a spark is a random, chaotic process. The flow field generated by this spark can be used in flow control and plasma assisted combustion applications. In order to understand the flow field some time after spark discharge (approximately 1 microsecond), it is important to observe the shape and strength of the shockwave immediately following the plasma discharge. It is also important to understand the effect that the energy deposited in the spark gap has on the shock strength and shock shape. We therefore propose a background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to measure density gradients associated with the spark discharge and hence quantify shock strength. Simultaneous shadowgraph measurements will be used to observe the shape of the shock and compare it with the reconstructed density gradients obtained from BOS measurements.

  20. The origin of Indonesian cattle and conservation genetics of the Bali cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, K; Olsson, M; Andersson, G; Purwantara, B; van Tol, H T A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Colenbrander, B; Lenstra, J A

    2012-01-01

    Both Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos javanicus (banteng) contribute to the Indonesian indigenous livestock, which is supposedly of a mixed species origin, not by direct breeding but by secondary cross-breeding. Here, the analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds with East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle having higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. There was no evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng.

  1. Ground-to-air flow visualization using Solar Calcium-K line Background-Oriented Schlieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    The Calcium-K Eclipse Background-Oriented Schlieren experiment was performed as a proof of concept test to evaluate the effectiveness of using the solar disk as a background to perform the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) method of flow visualization. A ground-based imaging system was equipped with a Calcium-K line optical etalon filter to enable the use of the chromosphere of the sun as the irregular background to be used for BOS. A US Air Force T-38 aircraft performed three supersonic runs which eclipsed the sun as viewed from the imaging system. The images were successfully post-processed using optical flow methods to qualitatively reveal the density gradients in the flow around the aircraft.

  2. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: Cost/Benefit Analysis and Opportunities for Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Hillman, T.; Salasovich, J.

    2005-01-01

    To determine potential for reduction in the cost of saved energy (COSE) for cold-climate solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems, COSE was computed for three types of cold climate water heating systems. For each system, a series of cost-saving measures was considered: (1) balance of systems (BOS): tank, heat exchanger, and piping-valving measures; and (2) four alternative lower-cost collectors. Given all beneficial BOS measures in place, >50% reduction of COSE was achievable only with selective polymer collectors at half today's selective collector cost. In all three system types, today's metal-glass selective collector achieved the same COSE as the hypothesized non-selective polymer collector.

  3. Immunization of cattle with nymphal Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum extracts: effects on tick biology.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, A K; Banerjee, D P; Sangwan, N

    1998-04-01

    Antigens derived from partially engorged nymphs of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum were used in immunizing crossbred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle against larval, nymphal and adult H. a. anatolicum and H. dromedarii. The cattle were either infected with Theileria annulata at low parasitaemia or were uninfected. Whole nymphal extract (WNE), nymphal membrane antigens (NMA) and nymphal soluble antigens (NSA) were used for immunization. The group immunized with WNE showed significant and better rejection of H. a. anatolicum ticks as compared to calves immunized with either NMA or NSA. The moulting rates of both engorged larvae and nymphs remained unaffected. Nymphs which engorged on the immunized calves were fully susceptible to infection by T. annulata as indicated by the intensity and abundance of Theileria infections in the resulting adult ticks from immunized and unimmunized Theileria infected cattle. These ticks also transmitted fatal theileriosis to susceptible calves.

  4. The yak genome and adaptation to life at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qiang; Zhang, Guojie; Ma, Tao; Qian, Wubin; Wang, Junyi; Ye, Zhiqiang; Cao, Changchang; Hu, Quanjun; Kim, Jaebum; Larkin, Denis M; Auvil, Loretta; Capitanu, Boris; Ma, Jian; Lewin, Harris A; Qian, Xiaoju; Lang, Yongshan; Zhou, Ran; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Kun; Xia, Jinquan; Liao, Shengguang; Pan, Shengkai; Lu, Xu; Hou, Haolong; Wang, Yan; Zang, Xuetao; Yin, Ye; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yingmei; Zhang, Dawei; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Masami; Zhong, Yang; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Shengxiang; Long, Ruijun; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Lenstra, Johannes A; Cooper, David N; Wu, Yi; Wang, Jun; Shi, Peng; Wang, Jian; Liu, Jianquan

    2012-07-01

    Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) provide meat and other necessities for Tibetans living at high altitude on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and in adjacent regions. Comparison between yak and the closely related low-altitude cattle (Bos taurus) is informative in studying animal adaptation to high altitude. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of a female domestic yak generated using Illumina-based technology at 65-fold coverage. Genomic comparisons between yak and cattle identify an expansion in yak of gene families related to sensory perception and energy metabolism, as well as an enrichment of protein domains involved in sensing the extracellular environment and hypoxic stress. Positively selected and rapidly evolving genes in the yak lineage are also found to be significantly enriched in functional categories and pathways related to hypoxia and nutrition metabolism. These findings may have important implications for understanding adaptation to high altitude in other animal species and for hypoxia-related diseases in humans.

  5. Modular photovoltaic stand-alone systems: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    A family of modular stand-alone power systems that covered the range in power level from 1 kw to 14 kw was developed. Products within this family were required to be easily adaptable to different environments and applications, and were to be both reliable and cost effective. Additionally, true commonality in hardware was to be exploited, and unnecessary recurrence of design and development costs were to be minimized; thus improving hardware availability. Assurance of compatibility with large production runs, was also an underlying program goal. A secondary objective was to compile, evaluate, and determine the economic and technical status of available, and potentially available, technology options associated with the balance of systems (BOS) for stand-along photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The secondary objective not only directly supported the primary but additionally contributed to the definition and implementation of the BOS cost reduction plan.

  6. Measurement of the ratios of branching fractions and.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cruz, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; Daronco, S; D'Auria, S; D'onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Sciverez, M Garcia; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Papikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Denis, R St; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-05-19

    We report an observation of the decay B(O)(S) --> D(-)(s)pi(+) in pp collisions at radical S = 1.96 TeV using 115 pb(-1) of data collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. We observe 83 +/- 11(stat) B(O)(s) --> D(-)(s)pi(+) candidates, representing a large increase in statistics over previous measurements and the first observation of this decay at a pp collider. We present the first measurement of the relative branching fraction Beta(B(O)(s) --> D(-)(s)pi(+))/Beta(B(0) --> D(-)(pi)(+)) = 1.32 +/- 0.18(stat) +/- 0.38(syst). We also measure Beta(B(+) --> D(0)pi(+))/Beta(B(0) -->D(-)pi(+)) = 1.97 +/- 0.10(stat) +/- 0.21(syst), which is consistent with previous measurements.

  7. Effectiveness of a 95 SNP panel for the screening of breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market.

    PubMed

    Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Lirón, J P; Prando, A J; Vaca, R J A; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G

    2016-01-01

    Breed assignment has proved to be useful to control meat trade and protect the value of special productions. Meat-related frauds have been detected in China; therefore, 95 SNPs selected from the ISAG core panel were evaluated to develop an automated and technologically updated tool to screen breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market. A total of 271 animals from four Chinese yellow cattle (CYC) populations, six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus and one composite were used. The allocation test distinguished European, Japanese and Zebu breeds, and two Chinese genetic components. It correctly allocated Japanese Black, Zebu and British breeds in 100, 90 and 89% of samples, respectively. CYC evidenced the Zebu, Holstein and Limousin introgression. The test did not detect CYC components in any of the 25 samples from Argentinean butchers. The method could be useful to certify Angus, Hereford and Japanese Black meat, but a modification in the panel would be needed to differentiate other breeds.

  8. Rainfall and surface kinematic conditions over central amazonia during ABLE 2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greco, Steven; Swap, Robert; Garstang, Michael; Ulanski, Stanley; Shipham, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall, rainfall systems, and surface kinematics of the central Amazon basin wet season are investigated using meteorological and chemical data collected during the wet season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE) near Manaus, Brazil. Through analysis of (GOES-West) imagery, it is determined that, based on location of the initial development, there are three main types of convective systems which influence a mesoscale network near Manaus, namely the Coastal Occurring Systems (COS), the Basin Occurring Systems (BOS), and the Locally Occurring Systems (LOS). Chemical analysis of rainwater delivered by these systems shows significant differences in concentrations of formate, acetate, pyruvate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and measurements of aerosol concentrations near Manaus show large influxes of aerosols into central Amazonia after passage of BOS and COS. Results of satellite based classification of the rain-producing systems are discussed.

  9. Trends in burnout syndrome and emotional factors: an assessment of anesthesiologists in Southern Brazil, 2012.

    PubMed

    Freire, Patrícia Larrosa; Trentin, Jessica Puchalski; de Avila Quevedo, Luciana

    2016-01-28

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) is the result of chronic stress at work, and is characterized by emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and low professional accomplishment. Anesthesiologyis a stressful profession. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of burnout as well as the sociodemographic and working characteristics associated with this syndrome's emotional factors, in anesthesiologists from Southern Brazil. We assessed burnout severity, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem using the Maslach burnout inventory, the Beck depression inventory, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, respectively. Of the 198 anesthesiologists included in this study, 48.7% were positive for burnout, 26.9% for EE, 41.3% for DP and 32.7% for low personal accomplishment. Trends in BOS was associated with a younger age, difficulty to conciliate family and work demands, low self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.

  10. Demonstration of skull bones mobility using optical methods: practical importance in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Alexander V.; Okushko, Vladimir R.; Vturin, Sergey A.; Moseychuk, Vladimir V.; Petrov, Aleksey A.; Suetenkov, Dmitry E.

    2014-01-01

    Unprompted skull bones mobility not related to breathing, heart beating and other physiological reactions, using installation of original construction with control of physiological parameters by biofeedback hardware-software complex BOS-lab and BOS-pulse appliance (COMSIB, Novosibirsk, Russia) has been confirmed. Teeth eruption occurs through odontiasis canals, emerging from the funiculus. The main driving force for promoting a tooth into odontiasis canal during eruption is the unprompted skull bones mobility. A simple optical installation was made for the visualization of skull bones mobility during the investigation of the median palatine and incisors sutures. Early detection of failures of unprompted skull bones mobility and its normalization can lead to prevention of impact teeth, malocclusion, extrudocclusion and other anomalies and deformations of teeth, teeth rows, TMJ and skull. The skull bones mobility should be considered during the early preventive treatment and therapy of the consequences of injuries and malfunction of the maxillofacial area.

  11. Bladder Control: What Men Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... control de la vejiga se pueden tratar. ¿Qué tipo de problemas de control de la vejiga tienen los hombres? Los hombres pueden tener distintos tipos de problemas de control de la vejiga. • La ...

  12. The Cut of the Scythe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    Yon Brauchltsch and Helder departed the chancellery for Zossen to digest their bos’ new instructions, no doubt reflecting 10 x ,.. tr r -. -rrr ,r . r r...the West. General Yon Brauchitsch wanted his regular units to digest tho lessons from the recent campaign, but more importantly, hastily organized...weapon systems and training. Initial impressions indicated problems with the MO 34 5, became easily dirtied by dust and mud because of delicate

  13. Characterization of Steroid Receptor RNA Activator Protein Function in Modulating the Estrogen Signaling Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    rubripes, Silurana tropicalis, Xenopus laevis, Danio rerio, Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi were obtained as described 15. Additional sequences... INTESTINALIS CIONA -SAVIGNYI consensus HOMO PONGO MACACA OVIS BOS SUS EQUUS CANIS MUS RATTUS GALLUS SILURIANA XENOPUS ORYZIAS OCCONRHYNCUS SALMO FUGU...DANIO CIONA - INTESTINALIS CIONA -SAVIGNYI consensus 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 4 0 1 5 0 1 6 0 1 7 0 1 8 0 1 9 0

  14. Genome-wide association study for birth weight in Nellore cattle points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. One region of the cattle genome, located on Bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (BTA14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BW in Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus) was performed using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 654 progeny-tested bulls genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results The most significant SNP (rs133012258, PGC = 1.34 × 10-9), located at BTA14:25376827, explained 4.62% of the variance in BW EBVs. The surrounding 1 Mb region presented high identity with human, pig and mouse autosomes 8, 4 and 4, respectively, and contains the orthologous height genes PLAG1, CHCHD7, MOS, RPS20, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5) and PENK. The region also overlapped 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported in literature by linkage mapping studies in cattle, including QTLs for birth weight, mature height, carcass weight, stature, pre-weaning average daily gain, calving ease, and gestation length. Conclusions This study presents the first GWAS applying a high-density SNP panel to identify putative chromosome regions affecting birth weight in Nellore cattle. These results suggest that the QTLs on BTA14 associated with body size in taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) also affect birth weight and size in zebu cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). PMID:23758625

  15. Global assessment of imprinted gene expression in the bovine conceptus by next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Hagen, Darren E; Wang, Juanbin; Elsik, Christine G; Ji, Tieming; Siqueira, Luiz G; Hansen, Peter J; Rivera, Rocío M

    2016-07-02

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parental-allele-specific gene expression. Approximately 150 imprinted genes have been identified in humans and mice but less than 30 have been described as imprinted in cattle. For the purpose of de novo identification of imprinted genes in bovine, we determined global monoallelic gene expression in brain, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and placenta of day ∼105 Bos taurus indicus × Bos taurus taurus F1 conceptuses using RNA sequencing. To accomplish this, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify parent-specific single nucleotide polymorphism alleles after filtering adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing sites. We identified 53 genes subject to monoallelic expression. Twenty three are genes known to be imprinted in the cow and an additional 7 have previously been characterized as imprinted in human and/or mouse that have not been reported as imprinted in cattle. Of the remaining 23 genes, we found that 10 are uncharacterized or unannotated transcripts located in known imprinted clusters, whereas the other 13 genes are distributed throughout the bovine genome and are not close to any known imprinted clusters. To exclude potential cis-eQTL effects on allele expression, we corroborated the parental specificity of monoallelic expression in day 86 Bos taurus taurus × Bos taurus taurus conceptuses and identified 8 novel bovine imprinted genes. Further, we identified 671 candidate A-to-I RNA editing sites and describe random X-inactivation in day 15 bovine extraembryonic membranes. Our results expand the imprinted gene list in bovine and demonstrate that monoallelic gene expression can be the result of cis-eQTL effects.

  16. An attempt to correlate cattle breed origins and diseases associated with or transmitted by the tick Amblyomma variegatum in the French West Indies.

    PubMed

    Maillard, J C; Kemp, S J; Naves, M; Palin, C; Demangel, C; Accipe, A; Maillard, N; Bensaid, A

    1993-01-01

    By using biological data and historical research, we have tried to explain the difference between resistance and susceptibility to the diseases transmitted (cowdriosis) or associated (dermatophilosis) with the tick Amblyomma variegatum, in two cattle breeds of the French West Indies: the Creole crossbred cattle of Guadeloupe and the Brahman zebu cattle of Martinique. Have been studied the polymorphisms of 5 independent genetic systems (erythrocytic haemoglobin, serum albumin and transferrin, the class I region of the BoLA complex and the gamma S crystallin gene) in different breeds comprising Bos taurus cattle of Europe and Africa, Bos indicus of West and East Africa, as well as the Brahman of Martinique and the Creole crossbred of Guadeloupe. By comparing the different allele frequencies of these 5 non related polymorphic loci and by using the two different mathematical matrices of NEI and of CAVALLI-SFORZA, have been established the genetic distances between these breeds. It appears clearly that the Creole cattle of Guadeloupe are in an intermediate position between the Bos taurus N'Dama breed of West Africa and two Bos indicus zebu breeds, namely the West African Sudan zebu and the Brahman. Thanks to studies of different archieves in the Caribbean and in Europe, historical evidence have been accumulated on the geographical origins and on the chronology of the establishment of Creole and Brahman cattle in the French West Indies. The high resistance of the Creole cattle of Guadeloupe to diseases associated with or transmitted by the "Senegalese" tick Amblyomma variegatum seems to be due to the inheritance of a pool of genes from West African cattle and more particularly from the N'Dama breed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Daylight Imaging of SSA Targets Through Distributed Volume Non-Kolmogorov and Anisotropic Deep Turbulence at Low Elevation Angles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Bos NRC Research Associate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Kihei, HI Abstract Monte-Carlo simulations featuring Kolmogorov phase screens have...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory,Kihei, HI ,96753 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...Conference, 9-12 Sep 2014, Maui, HI . 14. ABSTRACT Monte-Carlo simulations featuring Kolmogorov phase screens have long been used in understanding both the

  18. Deployed Base Solar Power (BRIEFING SLIDES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    have come as a result of this program. solar power, photovoltaics, Renewable Energy Tent City, deployed shelter U U U UU 13 Robert Diltz Reset 1...Value: >$5M - World Class Capability One-of-a-Kind 50,000 sq. ft. Renewable Energy Tent City • Ability to Study Grid Parallel and Autonomous...BOS) 9 Renewable Energy Tent City Real World Energy Dynamics Study Reliability & Durability  Visual Inspections  I-V Characteristics Performance

  19. On the Path to SunShot. The Role of Advancements in Solar Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, Michael; Jones-Albertus, Rebecca; Feldman, David; Fu, Ran; Horowitz, Kelsey; Chung, Donald; Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    This report examines the remaining challenges to achieving the competitive photovoltaic (PV) costs and large-scale deployment envisioned under the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative. Solar-energy cost reductions can be realized through lower PV module and balance-of-system (BOS) costs as well as improved system efficiency and reliability. Numerous combinations of PV improvements could help achieve the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) goals because of the tradeoffs among key metrics like module price, efficiency, and degradation rate as well as system price and lifetime. Using LCOE modeling based on bottom-up cost analysis, two specific pathways are mapped to exemplify the many possible approaches to module cost reductions of 29%-38% between 2015 and 2020. BOS hardware and soft cost reductions, ranging from 54%-77% of total cost reductions, are also modeled. The residential sector's high supply-chain costs, labor requirements, and customer-acquisition costs give it the greatest BOS cost-reduction opportunities, followed by the commercial sector, although opportunities are available to the utility-scale sector as well. Finally, a future scenario is considered in which very high PV penetration requires additional costs to facilitate grid integration and increased power-system flexibility--which might necessitate even lower solar LCOEs. The analysis of a pathway to 3-5 cents/kWh PV systems underscores the importance of combining robust improvements in PV module and BOS costs as well as PV system efficiency and reliability if such aggressive long-term targets are to be achieved.

  20. NCPV preprints for the 2. world conference on photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The proceedings contain 26 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Silicon (3 papers); Thin-film PV technologies (11 papers): amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and high efficiency devices; Module and BOS manufacturing (2 papers); Cell, module, and system testing (7 papers); and Market development (3 papers). Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. The solar irradiance registered at a flat- hemispherical field of view- bolometric oscillation sensor on board PICARD satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Karatekin, Ozgur; van Ruymbeke, Michel; Dewitte, Steven; Thuillier, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    The value of the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) is varying over the 11-year sunspot cycle. The cycle amplitude is about 0.1% solar constant, which could be traced with the absolute radiometers onboard dedicated space missions. The operating principle of the absolute radiometer is measuring the electrical heating power of the heat sensing unit during the closed and opened phase of each measurement cycle. The difference between the power integrated cross the closed phase and the power integrated cross the open phase gives the value of the solar irradiance. The cadence of the measurement is usually from one to several minutes. The final TSI value in physics unit is obtained after taking into account the electronic calibration, correction of the instruments effects, and normalizing to 1 AU. The Bolometric Oscillation Sensor on board PICARD microsatellite is a new designed remote sensing instrument. The BOS is operated continually with a 10 seconds cadence to fill the time gaps between open and close phases of the SOVAP absolute radiometer. The BOS has two sensing surfaces, the main one with a light mass is black coated, the second surface is white painted with a heavier mass. The sensor has a hemispherical field of view. The heat flux absorbed by the main detector is thermally conducted by a thin shunt to the heat sink. The principle of the measurements is that the sum of the power of the blacked coated surface and the power along the shunt is equal to the incoming electromagnetic radiation. However as the BOS has a HFOV, the incoming radiation caught by it, has three kinds of origin: the solar irradiance, the reflected solar visible light form the Earth and the terrestrial infrared radiation. In this work, we are going to discuss the solar irradiance isolated from the measurements of the BOS instrument as well as the comparison with the sunspot number and the TSI composite from the VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE experiments.

  2. Continuous Security Metrics for Prevalent Network Threats: Introduction and First Four Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-22

    like to thank George Moore from the Department of State for his consistently insightful and cogent remarks. v This page...Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2007. ISBN 0321349989. [18] Gene Kim, Paul Love, and George Spaord. Visible OPS Security...Robin Sommer, and Matthias Vallentin. An As- sessment of Overt Malicious Activity Manifest in Residential Networks. In Thorsten Holz and Herbert Bos

  3. Industrial Technology Modernization Program. Project 20. Consolidation and Automation of Material and Tool Storage. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-15

    back into storage, out of storage to a picking area. All items will be handled by conveyor and stored in carousels, except pallet loads, with a...of parts too large to store on shelving are stored on pallets on the floor in several remote areas. Inspectors pull samples from these lots and bring...on pallets in rack storage adjacent to the AS/RS. Parts will be identified in the HMS/BOS computerized system by part number, inship number, work

  4. The Role of Crk Adaptor Proteins in Breast Tumorigenesis and Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    signature and the basal molecular subtypes found within breast cancer cell lines. Heatmap of the Crk signature in the Neve breast cancer cell line...metastasis to bone. Cancer Cell 2003, 3:537-549. 16. Minn AJ, Gupta GP, Siegel PM, Bos PD , Shu W, Giri DD, Viale A, Olshen AB, Gerald WL, Massague J...prognosis using molecular profiling in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. BMC Genomics 2008, 9:239. 27. Neve RM, Chin K

  5. Transforming the Core Function of Military Intelligence to Knowledge Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-22

    functions migrate to substantially to the Army’s other BOS. MI must overcome its current culture wrought with the obstacles of compartmentalization and...core function while many of its historic collection functions migrate to weapons platform sensors. Transforming MI’s core function to KM does not imply...functions as Human Intelligence (HUMINT) and counter intelligence since these are ill suited for migration to weapon platforms. MI must develop its

  6. Global assessment of imprinted gene expression in the bovine conceptus by next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Hagen, Darren E.; Wang, Juanbin; Elsik, Christine G.; Ji, Tieming; Siqueira, Luiz G.; Hansen, Peter J.; Rivera, Rocío M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parental-allele-specific gene expression. Approximately 150 imprinted genes have been identified in humans and mice but less than 30 have been described as imprinted in cattle. For the purpose of de novo identification of imprinted genes in bovine, we determined global monoallelic gene expression in brain, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and placenta of day ∼105 Bos taurus indicus × Bos taurus taurus F1 conceptuses using RNA sequencing. To accomplish this, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify parent-specific single nucleotide polymorphism alleles after filtering adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing sites. We identified 53 genes subject to monoallelic expression. Twenty three are genes known to be imprinted in the cow and an additional 7 have previously been characterized as imprinted in human and/or mouse that have not been reported as imprinted in cattle. Of the remaining 23 genes, we found that 10 are uncharacterized or unannotated transcripts located in known imprinted clusters, whereas the other 13 genes are distributed throughout the bovine genome and are not close to any known imprinted clusters. To exclude potential cis-eQTL effects on allele expression, we corroborated the parental specificity of monoallelic expression in day 86 Bos taurus taurus × Bos taurus taurus conceptuses and identified 8 novel bovine imprinted genes. Further, we identified 671 candidate A-to-I RNA editing sites and describe random X-inactivation in day 15 bovine extraembryonic membranes. Our results expand the imprinted gene list in bovine and demonstrate that monoallelic gene expression can be the result of cis-eQTL effects. PMID:27245094

  7. [Burnout syndrome. Legal medicine: analysis and evaluation INAIL protection in cases of suicide induced by burnout within the helping professions].

    PubMed

    Carlini, Luigi; Fidenzi, Luca; Gualtieri, Giacomo; Nucci, Giulia; Fagiolini, Andrea; Coluccia, Anna; Gabbrielli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    After a survey of the definition and etiopathogenesis of burnout syndrome (BOS) carried out with the support of the most reliable available literature on the subject, the essay focuses on clinical evaluation (psychometric identification and quantification) of burn-out. In accordance with Circular 71/2003 of INAIL, it is assumed to be essential both legally and scientifically knowledge that the syndrome of burnout, knowledge, which involves an analysis of the case conducted with objective strictness and critical sensibility. It is carried out by collecting data on work history, physiological history, remote and proximal pathological history and performing a physical examination including neuro-psychiatric and psycho-diagnostic tests surveys. Only after the ascertainment of an effective existence of a psychiatric syndrome related to burnout phenomenon indeed, it will be possible (and necessary) to quantify the period of illness and the potential temporary biological damage or, more rarely, a permanent one. Given the difficulty of applying the forensic methodology to BOS (among which: the evaluation of the previous state of the person, the assessment of the causal link, the difficulties of nosographic of mental illness, the near impossibility of adequate prognostic evaluation, the difficulty to identify suitable criteria for establishing the importance and nature of limitations of daily living), in order to quantify the damage as objective as possible, it will be necessary to: 1) reconstruct the previous mental state of the subject; 2) assess the psychopathological condition following the event which the action of recognition focuses on; 3) express the clinical severity graduation judgment of the framework as well as a prognosis regarding the mental disorder found. The second part of the analysis focuses on the relationship between BOS and "helping profession"; specific attention is paid, in this section of work, to the analysis of the relationship between a typical

  8. Cranial location of level II lymph nodes in laryngeal cancer: Implications for elective nodal target volume delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Braam, Petra M. . E-mail: P.M.Braam@umcutrecht.nl; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the cranial distribution of level II lymph nodes in patients with laryngeal cancer to optimize the elective radiation nodal target volume delineation. Methods and Materials: The most cranially located metastatic lymph node was delineated in 67 diagnostic CT data sets. The minimum distance from the base of the skull (BOS) to the lymph node was determined. Results: A total of 98 lymph nodes were delineated including 62 ipsilateral and 36 contralateral lymph nodes. The mean ipsilateral and contralateral distance from the top of the most cranial metastatic lymph node to the BOS was 36 mm (range, -9-120; standard deviation [SD], 17.9) and 35 mm (range, 14-78; SD 15.0), respectively. Only 5% and 12% of the ipsilateral and 3% and 9% of the contralateral metastatic lymph nodes were located within 15 mm and 20 mm below the BOS, respectively. No significant differences were found between patients with only ipsilateral metastatic lymph nodes and patients with bilateral metastatic lymph nodes. Between tumors that do cross the midline and those that do not, no significant difference was found in the distance of the most cranial lymph node to the BOS and the occurrence ipsilateral or contralateral. Conclusions: Setting the cranial border of the nodal target volume 1.5 cm below the base of the skull covers 95% of the lymph nodes and should be considered in elective nodal irradiation for laryngeal cancer. Bilateral neck irradiation is mandatory, including patients with unilateral laryngeal cancer, when elective irradiation is advised.

  9. The soil physics contributions of Edgar Buckingham

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Landa, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    During 1902 to 1906 as a soil physicist at the USDA Bureau of Soils (BOS), Edgar Buckingham originated the concepts of matric potential, soil-water retention curves, specific water capacity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a distinct property of a soil. He applied a formula equivalent to Darcy's law (though without specific mention of Darcy's work) to unsaturated flow. He also contributed significant research on quasi-empirical formulas for K as a function of water content, water flow in capillary crevices and in thin films, and scaling. Buckingham's work on gas flow in soils produced paradigms that are consistent with our current understanding. His work on evaporation elucidated the concept of self-mulching and produced sound and sometimes paradoxical generalizations concerning conditions that favor or retard evaporation. Largely overshadowing those achievements, however, is that he launched a theory, still accepted today, that could predict transient water content as a function of time and space. Recently discovered documents reveal some of the arguments Buckingham had with BOS officials, including the text of a two-paragraph conclusion of his famous 1907 report on soil water, and the official letter documenting rejection of that text. Strained interpersonal relations motivated the departure of Buckingham and other brilliant physicists (N.E. Dorsey, F.H. King, and Lyman Briggs) from the BOS during 1903 to 1906. Given that Buckingham and his BOS colleagues had been rapidly developing the means of quantifying unsaturated flow, these strained relations probably slowed the advancement of unsaturated flow theory. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  10. Asymmetric Requirements for a Rab Gtpase and Snare Proteins in Fusion of Copii Vesicles with Acceptor Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaochun; Barlowe, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins are essential for membrane fusion in transport between the yeast ER and Golgi compartments. Subcellular fractionation experiments demonstrate that the ER/Golgi SNAREs Bos1p, Sec22p, Bet1p, Sed5p, and the Rab protein, Ypt1p, are distributed similarly but localize primarily with Golgi membranes. All of these SNARE proteins are efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and suggest a dynamic cycling of SNARE machinery between ER and Golgi compartments. Ypt1p is not efficiently packaged into vesicles under these conditions. To determine in which membranes protein function is required, temperature-sensitive alleles of BOS1, BET1, SED5, SLY1, and YPT1 that prevent ER/Golgi transport in vitro at restrictive temperatures were used to selectively inactivate these gene products on vesicles or on Golgi membranes. Vesicles bearing mutations in Bet1p or Bos1p inhibit fusion with wild-type acceptor membranes, but acceptor membranes containing these mutations are fully functional. In contrast, vesicles bearing mutations in Sed5p, Sly1p, or Ypt1p are functional, whereas acceptor membranes containing these mutations block fusion. Thus, this set of SNARE proteins is symmetrically distributed between vesicle and acceptor compartments, but they function asymmetrically such that Bet1p and Bos1p are required on vesicles and Sed5p activity is required on acceptor membranes. We propose the asymmetry in SNARE protein function is maintained by an asymmetric distribution and requirement for the Ypt1p GTPase in this fusion event. When a transmembrane-anchored form of Ypt1p is used to restrict this GTPase to the acceptor compartment, vesicles depleted of Ypt1p remain competent for fusion. PMID:10747087

  11. Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Coles, J.F.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to

  12. Binary Star Orbits. III. In which we Revisit the Remarkable Case of Tweedledum and Tweedledee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-14

    from NOAO 4m telescopes, the Mt. Wilson 100in 1Visiting Astronomer , Kitt Peak National Observatory and Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatories...a double by F.G.W. Struve in 1825 (Struve 1837). Since that time the system has been well observed by many double star astronomers , and has probably...give first and absolute priority to a programme of planetary photography , to the distress of van den Bos and myself . . . and this seems likely to ring

  13. Glyphosate Vedotin for Treatment of Bone Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    74:869–879, 2014. # 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. KEY WORDS: prostate cancer; castration-resistant; interleukin-17; tumor immunology ; tumor...disease. Immunology 2010;129(3):311–321. 21. Toy D, Kugler D, Wolfson M, Vanden Bos T, Gurgel J, Derry J, Tocker J, Peschon J. Cutting edge: Interleukin 17...Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(8):711–723. 4. Harvey RD. Immunologic and clinical

  14. Safely splicing glass optical fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korbelak, K.

    1980-01-01

    Field-repair technique fuses glass fibers in flammable environment. Apparatus consists of v-groove vacuum chucks on manipulators, high-voltage dc power supply and tungsten electrodes, microscope to observe joint alignment and fusion, means of test transmission through joint. Apparatus is enclosed in gas tight bos filled with inert gas during fusion. About 2 feet of fiber end are necessary for splicing.

  15. Roles of Tunneling, Multiphoton Ionization, and Cascade Ionization for Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Aqueous Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    aqueous media AFOSR International Research Initiative Project SPC 053010 / EOARD Grant FA 8655-05-1-3010 Final Report September 2009 Norbert Linz...performing additional calculations complementing the data base on the dependence of temperature and pressure on internal energy. While Norbert Linz...breakdown in solids. IEEE J Quantum Electron 10:375-386 [Bor70] Born M, Wolf E (1970) Principles of Optics. Pergamon Press: Oxford [Bos93

  16. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army. March-April 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    s richest areas, where they could extort money from the leading producers of cattle, coffee, coal , emeralds, oil and bananas. International support...L. Scruggs, The Colombian and Venezuelan Republics (Bos- ton: Little, Brown and Co., 1910). This century-old volume reflects the close rela...of the plan that would reduce the war�s impact on them. 16. John Otis, ��Political Cleansing� in Colombia Rising, Number of Civilians Dis- placed by 35

  17. [Prevalence of burnout syndrome in peruvian physicians and nurses, ENSUSALUD 2014].

    PubMed

    Maticorena-Quevedo, Jesús; Beas, Renato; Anduaga-Beramendi, Alexander; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of burnout syndrome (BOS) in Peruvian physicians and nurses in 2014 according to different cutoff points established in the literature. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study based on the National Survey on User Satisfaction of Health Services for 2014 (ENSUSALUD-2014), which features two-stage probability sampling. BOS was identified by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) using different cutoff points to establish prevalence, including default values, terciles, and quartiles. Results Of the 5062 health professionals, 62.3% were women, 44.0% were physicians, 46.0% belonged to the MINSA, and 23.1% worked in Lima. The overall BOS prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI, 2.4-3.2), when default values were used; the prevalence was 7.9% (95% CI, 7.3-8.6) when quartiles were used as cutoff points and 12.5% (95% CI, 11.4-13.6) when terciles were used as cutoff points. The prevalence was higher in doctors than in nurses, regardless of the cutoff point used (3.7% vs. 2.1% using default values, 10.2 vs. 6.1% using quartiles, and 16.2 vs. 9.5% using terciles). Conclusions The prevalence of BOS in health workers differs within the same population when different cutoff points are used. The use of default values is recommended by the instrument author until specific cut-points for our country are obtained.

  18. Promoter region of the bovine growth hormone receptor gene: single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in cattle and association with performance in Brangus bulls.

    PubMed

    Garrett, A J; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Elzo, M A; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2008-12-01

    Expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene and its binding with GH is essential for growth and fat metabolism. A GT microsatellite exists in the promoter of bovine GHR segregating short (11 bp) and long (16 to 20 bp) allele sequences. To detect SNP and complete an association study of genotype to phenotype, we resequenced a 1,195-bp fragment of DNA including the GT microsatellite and exon 1A. Resequencing was completed in 48 familialy unrelated Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Simmental, Angus, Brahman, and Brangus cattle. Nine SNP were identified. Phylogeny analyses revealed minor distance (i.e., <5%) in DNA sequence among the 5 Bos taurus breeds; however, sequence from Brahman cattle averaged 27.4 +/- 0.07% divergence from the Bos taurus breeds, whereas divergence of Brangus was intermediate. An association study of genotype to phenotype was completed with data from growing Brangus bulls (n = 553 from 96 sires) and data from 4 of the SNP flanking the GT microsatellite. These SNP were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and in phase based on linkage disequilibrium analyses (r(2) = 0.84 and D'= 0.92). An A/G tag SNP was identified (ss86273136) and was located in exon 1A, which began 88 bp downstream from the GT microsatellite. Minor allele frequency of the tag SNP was greater than 10%, and Mendelian segregation was verified in 3 generation pedigrees. The A allele was derived from Brahman, and the G allele was derived from Angus. This tag SNP genotype was a significant effect in analyses of rib fat data collected with ultrasound when bulls were ~365 d of age. Specifically, bulls of the GG genotype had 6.1% more (P = 0.0204) rib fat than bulls of the AA and AG genotypes, respectively. Tag SNP (ss86273136), located in the promoter of GHR, appears to be associated with a measure of corporal fat in Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle.

  19. Activity in a Premotor Cortical Nucleus of Zebra Finches Is Locally Organized and Exhibits Auditory Selectivity in Neurons but Not in Glia

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Michael H.; Helmchen, Fritjof; Hahnloser, Richard H. R.

    2013-01-01

    Motor functions are often guided by sensory experience, most convincingly illustrated by complex learned behaviors. Key to sensory guidance in motor areas may be the structural and functional organization of sensory inputs and their evoked responses. We study sensory responses in large populations of neurons and neuron-assistive cells in the songbird motor area HVC, an auditory-vocal brain area involved in sensory learning and in adult song production. HVC spike responses to auditory stimulation display remarkable preference for the bird's own song (BOS) compared to other stimuli. Using two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized zebra finches we measure the spatio-temporal structure of baseline activity and of auditory evoked responses in identified populations of HVC cells. We find strong correlations between calcium signal fluctuations in nearby cells of a given type, both in identified neurons and in astroglia. In identified HVC neurons only, auditory stimulation decorrelates ongoing calcium signals, less for BOS than for other sound stimuli. Overall, calcium transients show strong preference for BOS in identified HVC neurons but not in astroglia, showing diversity in local functional organization among identified neuron and astroglia populations. PMID:24312533

  20. Highlights of recent balance of system research and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.G.; Stevens, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    The cost of most photovoltaic (PV) systems is more a function of the balance of system (BOS) components than the collectors. The exception to this rule is the grid-tied system whose cost is related more directly to the collectors, and secondarily to the inverter/controls. In fact, recent procurements throughout the country document that collector costs for roof-mounted, utility-tied systems (Russell, PV Systems Workshop, 7/94) represent 60% to 70% of the system cost. This contrasts with the current market for packaged stand-alone all PV or PV-hybrid systems where collectors represent only 25% to 35% of the total. Not only are the BOS components the cost drivers in the current cost-effective PV system market place, they are also the least reliable components. This paper discusses the impact that BOS issues have on component performance, system performance, and system cost and reliability. We will also look at recent recommended changes in system design based upon performance evaluations of fielded PV systems.